Sample records for volume flaws high

  1. Eddy Current Flaw Testing Probe with High Performance in Detecting Flaws during In-Service Inspection of Tubing (United States)

    Koyama, Kiyoshi; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi

    Eddy current flaw testing that uses changes in the impedance of the test coil as the electromagnetic field interacts with the test material is a non-destructive testing method. It can be used to inspect test material at high speed without bringing the test coil into contact with the test material. Therefore, it is widely used for product inspection. In the inspection of heat exchanger tubing in power plants and chemical plants, eddy current flaw testing is performed by using an inner probe, because of the structural restrictions of such plants. However, high levels of wobble noise and support plate noise occur in the conventional method using a rotating pancake coil. The authors therefore propose new minimal-noise eddy current inner probes. Two new types of probes have been developed: one for detecting axial flaws, and the other for detecting circumference flaws. These probes can detect flaws with a low level of noise. The phase of the flaw signal by the new probes changes according to the flaw depth. As a result, the signal phase by the new probes can be used for evaluating the depth of surface flaws.

  2. Visualization of flaws within heavy section ultrasonic test blocks using high energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, M.B.; Ross, D.M.; Janucik, F.X.; Friedman, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Yancey, R.N. [Advanced Research and Applications Corp., Dayton, OH (United States)


    The feasibility of high energy computed tomography (9 MeV) to detect volumetric and planar discontinuities in large pressure vessel mock-up blocks was studied. The data supplied by the manufacturer of the test blocks on the intended flaw geometry were compared to manual, contact ultrasonic test and computed tomography test data. Subsequently, a visualization program was used to construct fully three-dimensional morphological information enabling interactive data analysis on the detected flaws. Density isosurfaces show the relative shape and location of the volumetric defects within the mock-up blocks. Such a technique may be used to qualify personnel or newly developed ultrasonic test methods without the associated high cost of destructive evaluation. Data is presented showing the capability of the volumetric data analysis program to overlay the computed tomography and destructive evaluation (serial metallography) data for a direct, three-dimensional comparison.

  3. Least Squares Best Fit Method for the Three Parameter Weibull Distribution: Analysis of Tensile and Bend Specimens with Volume or Surface Flaw Failure (United States)

    Gross, Bernard


    Material characterization parameters obtained from naturally flawed specimens are necessary for reliability evaluation of non-deterministic advanced ceramic structural components. The least squares best fit method is applied to the three parameter uniaxial Weibull model to obtain the material parameters from experimental tests on volume or surface flawed specimens subjected to pure tension, pure bending, four point or three point loading. Several illustrative example problems are provided.

  4. Comparison of systems for high speed surface flaw measurements of cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinth, K. L.; Kirihara, L. J.; Coleman, W. J.


    Instrumentation to detect surface flaws in cartridge cases has been developed for high speed on-line inspection. Scattering of light from a line focused on the case surface indicates the presence of surface flaws and the instrumentation permits rough categorization of flaws into dents and scratches. Two methods of light detection have been implemented, and the purpose of this paper is to compare these techniques. The first technique uses fiber optics to collect the scattered light and carry it to a photomultiplier tube to generate a signal, which the second technique uses solid-state diodes to produce the signal. Angled surfaces such as the shoulder on the cartridge case influence the response of the fiber-optics due to the acceptance cone of the fibers. To circumvent this problem, the fibers must be judiciously positioned during manufacture of the fiber-optic bundles. The solid-state diodes do not have the limited acceptance angle and thus provide more uniform response. However, the diodes require placement of electronics on the rotating exam wheel near the detectors. The processing electronics for both systems are identical.

  5. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure: A state-of-the-art survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.


    High-temperature crack growth under cyclic, static, and combined loading is received with an emphasis on fracture mechanics aspects. Experimental studies of the effects of loading history, microstructure, temperature, and environment on crack growth behavior are described and interpreted. The experimental evidence is used to examine crack growth parameters and theoretical models for fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue crack propagation at elevated temperatures. The limitations of both elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for high-temperature subcritical crack growth are assessed. Existing techniques for modeling critical crack growth/ligament instability failure are also presented. Related topics of defect modeling and engineering flaw assessment procedures, nondestructive evaluation methods, and probabilistic failure analysis are briefly discussed. 142 refs., 33 figs.

  6. Flaw assessment guide for high-temperature reactor components subject to creep-fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R.A. (Nuclear Electric PLC, Berkeley (UK). Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Ruggles, M.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Takahashi, Y. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)


    A high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This procedure is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack-growth laws can be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Development of a method to characterize high-protein dairy powders using an ultrasonic flaw detector. (United States)

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K


    Dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders plays a critical role for achieving functional and nutritional characteristics of a finished food product. Current methods for evaluating powder dissolution properties are time consuming, difficult to reproduce, and subjective. Ultrasound spectroscopy is a rapid and precise method, but requires expensive equipment and skilled technicians to carry out the tests. In the present study, an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) was used as an economical alternative to characterize the powder dissolution properties. The objective of study was to develop a method to characterize the dissolution behavior of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using a UFD. The experimental setup included a UFD connected to a 1-MHz immersion transducer that was kept a constant distance from a reflector plate. To validate the method, 2 batches of MPC80 from a commercial manufacturer were procured and stored at 25 and 40°C for 4 wk. Focus beam reflectance measurement and solubility index were used as reference methods. Relative ultrasound velocity and ultrasound attenuation were acquired during the dissolution of MPC samples. To characterize the MPC dissolution, 4 parameters including standard deviation of relative velocity, area under the attenuation curve, and peak attenuation were extracted from ultrasound data. As the storage temperature and time increased, the area under the attenuation curve and peak height decreased, indicating a loss of solubility. The proposed UFD-based method was able to capture the changes in dissolution of MPC during storage at 25 and 40°C. It was observed that a high-quality MPC had a low standard deviation and a larger area under the attenuation curve. As the MPC aged at 40°C, the particle dispersion rate decreased and, consequently, an increase in standard deviation and reduction in area were observed. Overall, the UFD can be a low-cost method to characterize the dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders

  8. Flawed reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, M.W.; Owen, B.M.


    The FERC's failure to investigate the Entergy/GSU merger's effects on market power may force other agencies to examine electric utility mergers on their own. The competitive effects of the proposed merger Entergy and Gulf States Utilities (GSU) will not be further investigated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), according to a January 1993 order. The FERC's primary justification is that the [open quotes]open access[close quotes] transmission conditions offered by the merging parties eliminated concern over market power in transmission and bulk power. The FERC's reasoning is flawed. If the merger were to lead to an increase in market power, the proposed transmission conditions would not prevent the merged firm from exercising that power. The FERC also justifies its decision not to investigate the competitive effects of the merger on the grounds that no intervenor had demonstrated that present competition between the two systems is more than de minimis. This is not an appropriate standard. Intervenors demonstrated that Entergy's and GSU's transmission system offer alternative contract routes for bulk power between generators and customers. Even if Entergy and GSU both do not actually sell significant amounts of the same transmission-service, an antitrust evaluation should consider whether the availability of a second, independent route constrains the pricing of the first. The FERC's reasoning indicates that it has lost its way in carrying out its responsibilities to protect consumers. Open access to transmission systems may play an important role in increasing competition in bulk power markets. However, the FERC's goal should be to promote competition, not merely to open access for its own sake. In its enthusiasm to secure [open quotes]open access[close quotes], the FERC appears willing to ignore possible reductions in competition.

  9. Evidence of a green luminescence band related to surface flaws in high purity silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, J.; Neauport, J.; Grua, P. [CEA, CESTA, F-33114 Le Barp (France); Fournier, J.; Fargin, E.; Jubera, V. [Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, ICMCB, F-33608 Pessac (France); Talaga, D. [Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, ISM, F-33405 Talence (France); Jouannigot, S. [Univ Bordeaux 1, LCTS, SAFRAN, CNRS, CEA, UMR 5801, Pessac (France)


    Using luminescence con-focal microscopy under 325 nm laser excitation, we explore the populations of defects existing in or at the vicinity of macroscopic surface flaws in fused silica. We report our luminescence results on two types of surface flaws: laser damage and indentation on fused silica polished surfaces. Luminescence cartographies are made to show the spatial distribution of each kind of defect. Three bands, centered at 1.89 eV, 2.75 eV and 2.25 eV are evidenced on laser damage and indentations. The band centered at 2.25 eV was not previously reported in photo luminescence experiments on indentations and pristine silica, for excitation wavelengths of 325 nm or larger. The luminescent objects, expected to be trapped in sub-surface micro-cracks, are possibly involved in the first step of the laser damage mechanism when fused silica is enlightened at 351 nm laser in nanosecond regime. (authors)

  10. Analysis and Test of Deep Flaws in Thin Sheets of Aluminum and Titanium. Volume 2: Crack Opening Displacement and Stress-Strain Data (United States)

    Finger, R. W.


    Static fracture tests were performed on surface flawed specimens of aluminum and titanium alloys. A simulated proof overload cycle was applied prior to all of the cyclic tests. Variables included in each test series were flaw shapes and thickness. Additionally, test temperature was a variable for the aluminum test series. The crack opening displacement and stress-strain data obtained are presented.

  11. The frequency of item writing flaws in multiple-choice questions used in high stakes nursing assessments. (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Knierim, Aimee; Hayes, Sasha K; Ware, James


    Multiple-choice questions are a common assessment method in nursing examinations. Few nurse educators, however, have formal preparation in constructing multiple-choice questions. Consequently, questions used in baccalaureate nursing assessments often contain item-writing flaws, or violations to accepted item-writing guidelines. In one nursing department, 2770 MCQs were collected from tests and examinations administered over a five-year period from 2001 to 2005. Questions were evaluated for 19 frequently occurring item-writing flaws, for cognitive level, for question source, and for the distribution of correct answers. Results show that almost half (46.2%) of the questions contained violations of item-writing guidelines and over 90% were written at low cognitive levels. Only a small proportion of questions were teacher generated (14.1%), while 36.2% were taken from testbanks and almost half (49.4%) had no source identified. MCQs written at a lower cognitive level were significantly more likely to contain item-writing flaws. While there was no relationship between the source of the question and item-writing flaws, teacher-generated questions were more likely to be written at higher cognitive levels (pwriting is recommended for all faculty members who are responsible for developing tests. Pre-test review and quality assessment is also recommended to reduce the occurrence of item-writing flaws and to improve the quality of test questions.

  12. Structural integrity assessments of high pressure pipelines with axial flaws using a micromechanics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotta, Fernando; Ruggieri, Claudio


    This study extends a micromechanics approach based upon the computational cell methodology to model ductile crack extension of longitudinal crack-like defects in a high strength pipeline steel. Laboratory testing of an API 5L X60 steel at room temperature using standard, deep crack C(T) specimens provides the data needed to measure the crack growth resistance curve for the material. A simple scheme to calibrate material-specific parameters for the cells employs this measured R-curve. A central focus of the paper is the application of the cell methodology to predict experimentally measured burst pressures for longitudinally pre-cracked pipe specimens. The experimental program includes large-diameter pipe specimens with different crack depth (a) and crack size (2c). Plane-strain computations are conducted on detailed finite element models for the pipe specimens to describe crack extension with increased pressure. The cell model predictions of crack growth response and burst pressure predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements for the tested pipes. The present methodology holds significant promise as an engineering tool to simulate ductile crack growth and to predict the burst pressure of high pressure pipelines containing crack-like defects.

  13. Effect of Flaw Removal on Billets in Rolling (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Shinohara, Tetsuo


    High-quality wires, which are used for components such as valve springs of automobiles, are fabricated by rolling and drawing. Even a minute flaw on the surface of the wire leads to a significant decrease in fatigue strength. It is possible to decrease the number of surface flaws during some of the rolling processes; however in most cases, it is difficult to remove flaws. Under such circumstances, high-quality wires are fabricated, at many wire manufacturing factories, by rolling and drawing after removing surface flaws on the raw material. However, the flaw removal process is carried out relying on the experience of onsite workers; many of the mechanisms underlying flaw removal have not been clarified. In this study, billet and wire that have traces formed during flaw removal were subjected to rolling to investigate the behavior of deformation and the recovery of the flaw-removal traces. When flaw-removal traces exist on a billet surface that comes into contact with the roll used in rolling, the traces are removed without difficulty. However, when the flaw-removal traces exist on a surface that does not come into contact with the roll, the traces tend to become wrinkles due to compression from the upper and lower directions. Therefore, when removing the surface flaw on billet before rolling, it is important to remove flaw part thinly.

  14. High volume data storage architecture analysis (United States)

    Malik, James M.


    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  15. Grounding Moralism: Moral Flaws and Aesthetic Properties (United States)

    Smuts, Aaron


    Can moral flaws lessen an artwork's aesthetic value? Answering yes to this question requires both that artworks can be morally flawed and that moral flaws within a work of art can have an aesthetic impact. For present purposes, the author will assume that artworks can be morally flawed by such means as endorsing immoral perspectives, culpably…

  16. Magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current flaw detection (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)


    A giant magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current device effectively detects deep flaws in thick multilayer conductive materials. The probe uses an excitation coil to induce eddy currents in conducting material perpendicularly oriented to the coil's longitudinal axis. A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, surrounded by the excitation coil, is used to detect generated fields. Between the excitation coil and GMR sensor is a highly permeable flux focusing lens which magnetically separates the GMR sensor and excitation coil and produces high flux density at the outer edge of the GMR sensor. The use of feedback inside the flux focusing lens enables complete cancellation of the leakage fields at the GMR sensor location and biasing of the GMR sensor to a location of high magnetic field sensitivity. In an alternate embodiment, a permanent magnet is positioned adjacent to the GMR sensor to accomplish the biasing. Experimental results have demonstrated identification of flaws up to 1 cm deep in aluminum alloy structures. To detect deep flaws about circular fasteners or inhomogeneities in thick multilayer conductive materials, the device is mounted in a hand-held rotating probe assembly that is connected to a computer for system control, data acquisition, processing and storage.

  17. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution In Repairs to Reactor Pressure Vessel and Piping Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Schuster, FA Simonen, SR Doctor


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a generalized fabrication flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in U.S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This report describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs. These results show that repair flaws are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. The relevance of construction records is established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. An analysis of these records shows there was a significant change in repair frequency over the years when these components were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance. Fabrication flaws in repairs are characterized using optimized-access, high-sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing. Flaw characterizations are then validated by other nondestructive evaluation techniques and complemented by destructive testing.

  18. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  19. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian


    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged manget and retrofil others to correct the underlying design flaw.."(1 page)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro


    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  1. Improved Flaw Detection and Characterization with Difference Thermography (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.


    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites is often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, variations in fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These variations result in a noise floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. The paper investigates comparing thermographic responses taken before and after a change in state in a composite to improve the detection of subsurface flaws. A method is presented for registration of the responses before finding the difference. A significant improvement in the detectability is achieved by comparing the differences in response. Examples of changes in state due to application of a load and impact are presented.

  2. Flaw shape reconstruction – an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena STANCULESCU


    Full Text Available Flaws can be classified as acceptable and unacceptable flaws. As a result of nondestructive testing, one takes de decision Admit/Reject regarding the tested product related to some acceptability criteria. In order to take the right decision, one should know the shape and the dimension of the flaw. On the other hand, the flaws considered to be acceptable, develop in time, such that they can become unacceptable. In this case, the knowledge of the shape and dimension of the flaw allows determining the product time life. For interior flaw shape reconstruction the best procedure is the use of difference static magnetic field. We have a stationary magnetic field problem, but we face the problem given by the nonlinear media. This paper presents the results of the experimental work for control specimen with and without flaw.

  3. Critical flaw size in silicon nitride ball bearings (United States)

    Levesque, George Arthur

    Aircraft engine and bearing manufacturers have been aggressively pursuing advanced materials technology systems solutions to meet main shaft-bearing needs of advanced military aircraft engines. Ceramic silicon nitride hybrid bearings are being developed for such high performance applications. Though silicon nitride exhibits many favorable properties such as high compressive strength, high hardness, a third of the density of steel, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high corrosion and temperature resistance, they also have low fracture toughness and are susceptible to failure from fatigue spalls emanating from pre-existing surface flaws that can grow under rolling contact fatigue (RCF). Rolling elements and raceways are among the most demanding components in aircraft engines due to a combination of high cyclic contact stresses, long expected component lifetimes, corrosive environment, and the high consequence of fatigue failure. The cost of these rolling elements increases exponentially with the decrease in allowable flaw size for service applications. Hence the range of 3D non-planar surface flaw geometries subject to RCF is simulated to determine the critical flaw size (CFS) or the largest allowable flaw that does not grow under service conditions. This dissertation is a numerical and experimental investigation of surface flaws in ceramic balls subjected to RCF and has resulted in the following analyses: Crack Shape Determination: the nucleation of surface flaws from ball impact that occurs during the manufacturing process is simulated. By examining the subsurface Hertzian stresses between contacting spheres, their applicability to predicting and characterizing crack size and shape is established. It is demonstrated that a wide range of cone and partial cone cracks, observed in practice, can be generated using the proposed approaches. RCF Simulation: the procedure and concerns in modeling nonplanar 3D cracks subject to RCF using FEA for stress intensity

  4. Ultrasonic Transducer Design for the Axial Flaw Detection of Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Kim, Yong Sik; Yang, Seung Han [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Dissimilar metal welds in nuclear power plant are known as very susceptible to PWSCC flaws, and periodically inspected by the qualified inspector and qualified procedure during in-service inspection period. According to field survey data, the majority of their DMWs are located on tapered nozzle or adjacent to a tapered component. These types of configurations restrict examination access and also limit examination volume coverage. Additionally, circumferential scan for axially oriented flaw is very difficult to detect located on tapered surface because the transducer can't receive flaw response from reflector for miss-orientation. To overcome this miss-orientation, it is necessary adapt skewed ultrasonic transducer accommodate tapered surface. The skewed refracted longitudinal ultrasonic transducer designed by modeling and manufactured from the modelling result for axial flaw detection. Experimental results showed that the skewed refracted longitudinal ultrasonic transducer get higher flaw response than non-skewed refracted longitudinal ultrasonic transducer.

  5. Flaws Comparison Analyses of Macroscopic Inclusion and Microscopic Inclusion for High Quality Bearing Steel%高档轴承钢高低倍夹杂缺陷对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守文; 王强


    Regarding to macroscopic inclusion flaw and microscopic inclusion flaw of high quality bearing steel in production, comparison analyses of binary furnace slag basicity, furnace slag fluidity and adsorbability as well as Al usage in the deoxidization process with macroscopic result and microscopic result of the steel have been conducted, which determined the influence rule of furnace slag characteristics and Al usage in deoxidization process on macro result and micro result of the steel.%在生产时高档轴承钢出现高倍夹杂、低倍夹杂缺陷,通过将二元炉渣碱度、炉渣流动性、炉渣吸附性以及脱氧过程的铝用量与钢材高倍、低倍结果的对比分析,得到炉渣特征和脱氧过程铝用量对钢材高倍、低倍结果的影响规律。

  6. Flaw distribution development from vessel ISI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L. [Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Basin, S.L. [Joyce and Associates, Los Altos, CA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for use in the structural integrity evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ``generic`` distribution applicable to all vessels. In contrast, this paper describes the analysis of vessel-specific in-service inspection (ISI) data for the development of a flaw distribution reliably representative of the condition of the particular vessel inspected. The application of the methodology may be extended to other vessels, but has been primarily developed for PWR reactor vessels. For this study, the flaw data analyzed included data obtained from three recently performed PWR vessel ISIs and from laboratory inspection of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor vessel. The variability in both the character of the reviewed data (size range of flaws, number of flaws) and the UT (ultrasonic test) inspection system performance identified a need for analyzing the inspection results on a vessel-, or data set-specific basis. For this purpose, traditional histogram-based methods were inadequate, and a new methodology that can accept a very small number of flaws (typical of vessel-specific ISI results) and that includes consideration of inspection system flaw detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy and flaw detection threshold, was developed. Results of the application of the methodology to each of the four PWR reactor vessel cases studied are presented and discussed.

  7. Flaw distribution development from vessel ISI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L. (Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Basin, S.L. (Joyce and Associates, Los Altos, CA (United States)); Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))


    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for use in the structural integrity evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a generic'' distribution applicable to all vessels. In contrast, this paper describes the analysis of vessel-specific in-service inspection (ISI) data for the development of a flaw distribution reliably representative of the condition of the particular vessel inspected. The application of the methodology may be extended to other vessels, but has been primarily developed for PWR reactor vessels. For this study, the flaw data analyzed included data obtained from three recently performed PWR vessel ISIs and from laboratory inspection of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor vessel. The variability in both the character of the reviewed data (size range of flaws, number of flaws) and the UT (ultrasonic test) inspection system performance identified a need for analyzing the inspection results on a vessel-, or data set-specific basis. For this purpose, traditional histogram-based methods were inadequate, and a new methodology that can accept a very small number of flaws (typical of vessel-specific ISI results) and that includes consideration of inspection system flaw detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy and flaw detection threshold, was developed. Results of the application of the methodology to each of the four PWR reactor vessel cases studied are presented and discussed.

  8. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.


    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  9. High volume production of nanostructured materials (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.


    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  10. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator (United States)

    Carlson, Duane C.


    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  11. Bayesian flaw characterization from eddy current measurements with grain noise (United States)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Aldrin, John C.; Shell, Eric; Oneida, Erin


    The Bayesian approach to inference from measurement data has the potential to provide highly reliable characterizations of flaw geometry by quantifying the confidence in the estimate results. The accuracy of these confidence estimates depends on the accuracy of the model for the measurement error. Eddy current measurements of electrically anisotropic metals, such as titanium, exhibit a phenomenon called grain noise in which the measurement error is spatially correlated even with no flaw present. We show that the most commonly used statistical model for the measurement error, which fails to account for this correlation, results in overconfidence in the flaw geometry estimates from eddy current data, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the Bayesian approach. We then describe a method of modeling the grain noise as a Gaussian process (GP) using spectral mixture kernels, a type of non-parametric model for the covariance kernel of a GP This provides a broadly applicable, data-driven way of modeling correlation in measurement error. Our results show that incorporation of this noise model results in a more reliable estimate of the flaw and better agreement with the available validation data.

  12. Quantitative flaw characterization with ultrasonic phased arrays (United States)

    Engle, Brady John

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a critical diagnostic tool in many industries. It is used to characterize potentially dangerous flaws in critical components for aerospace, automotive, and energy applications. The use of phased array transducers allows for the extension of traditional techniques and the introduction of new methods for quantitative flaw characterization. An equivalent flaw sizing technique for use in time-of-flight diffraction setups is presented that provides an estimate of the size and orientation of isolated cracks, surface-breaking cracks, and volumetric flaws such as voids and inclusions. Experimental validation is provided for the isolated crack case. A quantitative imaging algorithm is developed that corrects for system effects and wave propagation, making the images formed directly related to the properties of the scatterer present. Simulated data is used to form images of cylindrical and spherical inclusions. The contributions of different signals to the image formation process are discussed and examples of the quantitative nature of the images are shown.

  13. Inspection of surface flaws by comparator microscopy. (United States)

    Baker, L R


    The increasing attention paid in recent years to control of surface quality has exposed the lack of objectivity of existing standards relating to flaws such as digs and scratches. The present requirements of the customer and supplier of optical components for improved standards are discussed, and recent attempts to satisfy these requirements are reviewed. It is concluded that a technique, described as comparator microscopy, in which a width of line or slit is identified which removes from a transmitted or reflected beam the same amount of light as the flaw under examination, has much in its favor in terms of user needs. The method, which is under consideration as the basis of an ISO standard, is described, and results are presented indicating how this concept of line-equivalent width can be used to compare different national standard flaws. Extending this technique to measure flaws and polish on-machine is suggested as a future possibility.

  14. Full waveform inversion for ultrasonic flaw identification (United States)

    Seidl, Robert; Rank, Ernst


    Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing is concerned with detecting flaws inside components without causing physical damage. It is possible to detect flaws using ultrasound measurements but usually no additional details about the flaw like position, dimension or orientation are available. The information about these details is hidden in the recorded experimental signals. The idea of full waveform inversion is to adapt the parameters of an initial simulation model of the undamaged specimen by minimizing the discrepancy between these simulated signals and experimentally measured signals of the flawed specimen. Flaws in the structure are characterized by a change or deterioration in the material properties. Commonly, full waveform inversion is mostly applied in seismology on a larger scale to infer mechanical properties of the earth. We propose to use acoustic full waveform inversion for structural parameters to visualize the interior of the component. The method is adapted to US NDT by combining multiple similar experiments on the test component as the typical small amount of sensors is not sufficient for a successful imaging. It is shown that the combination of simulations and multiple experiments can be used to detect flaws and their position, dimension and orientation in emulated simulation cases.

  15. Multi-Volume High Resolution RGB-D Mapping with Dynamic Volume Placement


    Salvato, Michael; Finman, Ross; Leonard, John


    We present a novel RGB-D mapping system for generating 3D maps over spatially extended regions with higher resolution than current methods using multiple, dynamically placed mapping volumes. Our method takes in RGB-D frames and dynamically assigns multiple mapping volumes to the environment, exchanging mapping volumes between the CPU and GPU. Mapping volumes are added or removed as needed to allow for spatially extended, high resolution mapping. Our system is designed to maximize the resoluti...

  16. Device overlay method for high volume manufacturing (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Youngsik; Kim, Myoungsoo; Heo, Hoyoung; Jeon, Sanghuck; Choi, DongSub; Nabeth, Jeremy; Brinster, Irina; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.


    Advancing technology nodes with smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Overlay control at develop inspection (DI) based on optical metrology targets is well established in semiconductor manufacturing. Advances in target design and metrology technology have enabled significant improvements in overlay precision and accuracy. One approach to represent in-die on-device as-etched overlay is to measure at final inspection (FI) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Disadvantages to this approach include inability to rework, limited layer coverage due to lack of transparency, and higher cost of ownership (CoO). A hybrid approach is investigated in this report whereby infrequent DI/FI bias is characterized and the results are used to compensate the frequent DI overlay results. The bias characterization is done on an infrequent basis, either based on time or triggered from change points. On a per-device and per-layer basis, the optical target overlay at DI is compared with SEM on-device overlay at FI. The bias characterization results are validated and tracked for use in compensating the DI APC controller. Results of the DI/FI bias characterization and sources of variation are presented, as well as the impact on the DI correctables feeding the APC system. Implementation details in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) wafer fab will be reviewed. Finally future directions of the investigation will be discussed.

  17. Fracture mechanics analysis on Smart-Cut technology. Part 2: Effect of bonding flaws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Gu; Hongyuan Liu; Yiu-Wing Mai; Xi Qiao Feng; Shou Wen Yu


    In Part 2 of the paper on the Smart-Cut process,the effects of bonding flaws characterized by the size and internal pressure before and after splitting are studied by using fracture mechanics models. It is found that the bonding flaws with large size are prone to cause severe deviation of defect growth, leading to a non-transferred area of thin layer when splitting. In a practical Smart-Cut process where the internal pressure of bonding flaws is very small,large interfacial defects always promote defect growth in the splitting process. Meanwhile, increasing the internal pressure of the bonding flaws decreases the defect growth and its deviation before splitting. The mechanism of relaxation of stiffener constraint is proposed to clarify the effect of bonding flaws. Moreover, the progress of the splitting process is analyzed when bonding flaws are present. After splitting,those bonding flaws with large size and high internal pressure are vulnerable for the blistering of the thin film during high-temperature annealing.

  18. Midland reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L. [Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The results of laboratory nondestructive examination (NDE), and destructive cross-sectioning of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor pressure vessel were analyzed per a previously developed methodology in order to develop a flaw distribution. The flaw distributions developed from the NDE results obtained by two different ultrasonic test (UT) inspections (Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center and Pacific Northwest Laboratories) were not statistically significantly different. However, the distribution developed from the NDE Center`s (destructive) cross-sectioning-based data was found to be significantly different than those obtained through the UT inspections. A fracture mechanics-based comparison of the flaw distributions showed that the cross-sectioning-based data, conservatively interpreted (all defects considered as flaws), gave a significantly lower vessel failure probability when compared with the failure probability values obtained using the UT-based distributions. Given that the cross-sectioning data were reportedly biased toward larger, more significant-appearing (by UT) indications, it is concluded that the nondestructive examinations produced definitively conservative results. In addition to the Midland vessel inspection-related analyses, a set of twenty-seven numerical simulations, designed to provide a preliminary quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the flaw distribution method used here, were conducted. The calculations showed that, in more than half the cases, the analysis produced reasonably accurate predictions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowant, Matthew S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.; Jacob, Rick E.; Hartman, Trenton S.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Neill, Kevin J.; Cinson, Anthony D.


    The desire to use high-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping in buried Class 3 service and cooling water systems in nuclear power plants is primarily motivated by the material’s high resistance to corrosion relative to that of steel and metal alloys. The rules for construction of Class 3 HDPE pressure piping systems were originally published in Code Case N-755 and were recently incorporated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) Section III as Mandatory Appendix XXVI (2015 Edition). The requirements for HDPE examination are guided by criteria developed for metal pipe and are based on industry-led HDPE research or conservative calculations.

  20. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.


    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  1. Current sample size conventions: Flaws, harms, and alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacchetti Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The belief remains widespread that medical research studies must have statistical power of at least 80% in order to be scientifically sound, and peer reviewers often question whether power is high enough. Discussion This requirement and the methods for meeting it have severe flaws. Notably, the true nature of how sample size influences a study's projected scientific or practical value precludes any meaningful blanket designation of value of information methods, simple choices based on cost or feasibility that have recently been justified, sensitivity analyses that examine a meaningful array of possible findings, and following previous analogous studies. To promote more rational approaches, research training should cover the issues presented here, peer reviewers should be extremely careful before raising issues of "inadequate" sample size, and reports of completed studies should not discuss power. Summary Common conventions and expectations concerning sample size are deeply flawed, cause serious harm to the research process, and should be replaced by more rational alternatives.

  2. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)


    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  3. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, B. [FRAMATOME, Paris la Defense (France)


    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  4. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang


    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  5. Automatic Detection of Steel Ball's Surface Flaws Based on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zheng-lin; TAN Wei; YANG Dong-lin; CAO Guo-hua


    A new method to detect steel ball's surface flaws is presented based on computer techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. The steel ball's surface flaws is the primary factor causing bearing failure. The high efficient and precision detections for the surface flaws of steel ball can be conducted by the presented method, including spot, abrasion, burn, scratch and crack, etc. The design of main components of the detecting system is described in detail including automatic feeding mechanism, automatic spreading mechanism of steel ball's surface, optical system of microscope, image acquisition system, image processing system. The whole automatic system is controlled by an industrial control computer, which can carry out the recognition of flaws of steel ball's surface effectively.

  6. Low head, high volume pump apparatus (United States)

    Avery, Don E.; Young, Bryan F.


    An inner cylinder and a substantially larger outer cylinder are joined as two verticle concentric cylinders. Verticle partitions between the cylinders divide the space between the cylinders into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber which is substantially larger in volume than the inner chamber. The inner cylinder has a central pumping section positioned between upper and lower valve sections. In the valve section ports extend through the inner cylinder wall to the inlet and outlet chambers. Spring loaded valves close the ports. Tension springs extend across the inlet chamber and compression springs extend across the inner cylinder to close the inlet valves. Tension springs extend across the inner cylinder the close the outlet valves. The elastomeric valve flaps have rigid curved backing members. A piston rod extends through one end cover to move a piston in the central section. An inlet is connected to the inlet chamber and an outlet is connected to the outlet chamber.

  7. Reliably Detectable Flaw Size for NDE Methods that Use Calibration (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.


    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh1823 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  8. Identify Structural Flaw Location and Type with an Inverse Algorithm of Resonance Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Lai, Canhai; Sun, Xin


    To evaluate the fitness-for-service of a structural component and to quantify its remaining useful life, aging and service-induced structural flaws must be quantitatively determined in service or during scheduled maintenance shutdowns. Resonance inspection (RI), a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique, distinguishes the anomalous parts from the good parts based on changes in the natural frequency spectra. Known for its numerous advantages, i.e., low inspection cost, high testing speed, and broad applicability to complex structures, RI has been widely used in the automobile industry for quality inspection. However, compared to other contemporary direct visualization-based NDE methods, a more widespread application of RI faces a fundamental challenge because such technology is unable to quantify the flaw details, e.g. location, dimensions, and types. In this study, the applicability of a maximum correlation-based inverse RI algorithm developed by the authors is further studied for various flaw cases. It is demonstrated that a variety of common structural flaws, i.e. stiffness degradation, voids, and cracks, can be accurately retrieved by this algorithm even when multiple different types of flaws coexist. The quantitative relations between the damage identification results and the flaw characteristics are also developed to assist the evaluation of the actual state of health of the engineering structures.

  9. High Volume Colour Image Processing with Massively Parallel Embedded Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jan W.M.; Bond, W.; Pouls, R.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Joubert, G.R.; Peters, F.J.; Tirado, P.; Nagel, W.E.; Plata, O.; Zapata, E.


    Currently Oce uses FPGA technology for implementing colour image processing for their high volume colour printers. Although FPGA technology provides enough performance it, however, has a rather tedious development process. This paper describes the research conducted on an alternative implementation

  10. High Voltage Design Guide. Volume V. Spacecraft (United States)


    connector are soldered, with the possible exception of very high voltage points. Even then rudimentary connectors such as that shown In figura 13 ar used...addition, large stresses will be imposed on the struc- tural (high resistance) member. This conductor movement will flex and stretch the conductors, placing...materials used for airplane systems provided they meet the electrical, chemical, and mechanical characteristic requirements imposed by the design

  11. Evaluation of flawed piping under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. (Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Poway, CA (United States)); Quinones, D.F. (Cloud (Robert L.) and Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Gilman, J.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))


    This report describes analytical and interpretative research on results of large-scale dynamic tests of flawed pipe which were conducted for the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG). Here, the adequacy of dynamic analysis methods is examined, as well as margins against failure associated with flaw evaluation criteria. Experimental and analytical results are related to requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Code limits of operability bound all test results. Guidance is offered on selection of Z-factors'' for austenitic materials to retain code safety margins. In the IPIRG tests, efforts to produce a nearly instantaneous full severance pipe break were unsuccessful, indicating that this hypothetical basis for plant accident evaluations is conservative.

  12. Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Wei, Kejin; Sajeed, Shihan; Kaiser, Sarah; Sun, Shihai; Tang, Zhiyuan; Qian, Li; Makarov, Vadim; Lo, Hoi-Kwong


    Decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) is a standard technique in current quantum cryptographic implementations. Unfortunately, existing experiments have two important drawbacks: the state preparation is assumed to be perfect without errors and the employed security proofs do not fully consider the finite-key effects for general attacks. These two drawbacks mean that existing experiments are not guaranteed to be proven to be secure in practice. Here, we perform an experiment that shows secure QKD with imperfect state preparations over long distances and achieves rigorous finite-key security bounds for decoy-state QKD against coherent attacks in the universally composable framework. We quantify the source flaws experimentally and demonstrate a QKD implementation that is tolerant to channel loss despite the source flaws. Our implementation considers more real-world problems than most previous experiments, and our theory can be applied to general discrete-variable QKD systems. These features constitute a step towards secure QKD with imperfect devices.

  13. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise. (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M


    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  14. Dynamic Strength and Fracturing Behavior of Single-Flawed Prismatic Marble Specimens Under Impact Loading with a Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Zhou, Tao; Li, Diyuan


    Dynamic impact tests are performed on prismatic marble specimens containing a single flaw using a modified split-Hopkinson pressure bar device. The effects of pre-existing flaws with different flaw angles and lengths on the dynamic mechanical properties are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the dynamic strength of marble is influenced by the flaw geometry. The dynamic fracturing process of flawed specimens is monitored and characterized with the aid of a high-speed camera. Cracking of marble specimens with a single pre-existing flaw under impact loading is analyzed based on experimental investigations. Cracking involves two major stages: formation of white patches and development of macrocracks. Six typical crack types are identified on the basis of their trajectories and initiation mechanisms. The presence of an artificial flaw may change the failure mode of marble from splitting-dominated for an intact specimen to shear-dominated for a flawed specimen under dynamic loading. Nevertheless, the geometry of the flaws appears to have a slight influence on the failure modes of flawed specimens under impact loading.

  15. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro


    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  16. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang


    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  17. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.


    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  18. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  19. Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws (United States)

    McCabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.

  20. The detection of flaws in austenitic welds using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (United States)

    Cunningham, Laura J.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Tant, Katherine M. M.; Gachagan, Anthony; Harvey, Gerry; Bird, Colin


    The non-destructive testing of austenitic welds using ultrasound plays an important role in the assessment of the structural integrity of safety critical structures. The internal microstructure of these welds is highly scattering and can lead to the obscuration of defects when investigated by traditional imaging algorithms. This paper proposes an alternative objective method for the detection of flaws embedded in austenitic welds based on the singular value decomposition of the time-frequency domain response matrices. The distribution of the singular values is examined in the cases where a flaw exists and where there is no flaw present. A lower threshold on the singular values, specific to austenitic welds, is derived which, when exceeded, indicates the presence of a flaw. The detection criterion is successfully implemented on both synthetic and experimental data. The datasets arising from welds containing a flaw are further interrogated using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT) method and the total focusing method (TFM), and it is shown that images constructed via the DORT algorithm typically exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio than those constructed by the TFM algorithm.

  1. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhongYing; HE ChongNan; WU Bin


    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems. In conjunction with the optimal meshes, the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order. Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.


    This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

  3. Fracture behaviour of finite length flaws in pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, D.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Shek, G.; Ho, E. [Kinectrics, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Flaws encountered in nuclear pressure tubes must be evaluated to ensure that a hydride induced cracking mechanism, called delayed hydride cracking (DHC), is not initiated. The stress concentration at a flaw tip causes diffusion of hydrogen and precipitation of zirconium hydride at the flaw tip. Typically, assessment is done based on experimental data obtained from two-dimensional flaws. However, realistic lengths of flaws make the two-dimensional approach overly conservative in many cases, and costly remedial action may be prescribed unnecessarily. A fracture initiation model for DHC involves a type of process zone description to account for the interaction of hydride precipitation with the flaw tip stress distribution. Analytical techniques for this model based on weight functions are practical and accurate for two-dimensional geometry, but cannot be easily applied to the three-dimensional features of finite length flaws. Recently, a numerical rendition of the model has been incorporated into a finite element program so that arbitrary geometry and material properties can be managed. The process zone is automatically generated as hydride formation progresses, and a displacement parameter derived from the finite element distributions quantifies the response relative to an experimentally established fracture initiation threshold. The three-dimensional finite length model is applied to specific flaw geometries used in an experimental program. Comparison with corresponding two-dimensional tests demonstrates that the finite length flaw has a significantly higher threshold load than that predicted on the basis of a two-dimensional model. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic flaw detection using EMD-based signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The precise detection of flaw echoes buried in backscattering noise caused by material microstructure is a problem of great importance in ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT). In this work, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed to deal with ultrasonic signal. A time-frequency filtering method based on EMD is designed to suppress noise and enhance flaw signals. Simulated results are presented,showing that the proposed method has an excellent performance even for a very low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR). The improvement in flaw detection was experimentally verified using stainless steel pipe sample with artificial flaws.

  5. F-Law collision and system state recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Kaiquan; Xu Xiaojing


    Using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), f-law and F-law and the concept of law distance and the concept of system law collided by F-law are given.Using these concepts, state characteristic presented by system law collided by .F-law and recognition of these states characteristic and recognition criterion and applications are given.Function one direction S-rough sets is one of basic forms of function S-rough sets (function singular rough sets).Function one direction S-rough sets is importance theory and is a method in studying system law collision.

  6. The Flaws of Fragmented Financial Standard Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mügge, Daniel; Perry, James


    In the half decade following the 2007 financial crisis, the reform of global financial governance was driven by two separate policy debates: one on the substantive content of regulations, the other on the organizational architecture of their governance. The separation of the two debates among...... policymakers has been mirrored in academia, where postcrisis analyses of financial governance have remained detached from reinvigorated discussions about the nature of financial markets. We argue that this separation is deeply flawed. Presenting an analysis of interactions between standards for banking, credit...... rating, accounting, and derivatives trading, this article demonstrates why the appropriateness of the organizational architecture of global financial governance is necessarily contingent upon one’s understanding of how financial markets work. In particular, if financial markets are not anchored...

  7. Research Note Difference between low-volume and high-volume Andersen samplers in measuring atmospheric aerosols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengfu Fu; Nobuo Shinohaya; Mitsuo Ito; Xueqin Xu; Mincong Shen; Liangjun Xu


    The mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols in Tokaimura were investigated using a high-volume and a low-volume Andersen sampler. A difference was found using the two samplers: the concentration of total aerosols determined with the high-volume sampler is smaller than that of the low-volume sampler by 70-90% throughout the year. Compared to the high-volume sampler, low-volume sampler gave lower concentration for aerosols7μm, higher concentration for aerosols of 3.3-7.0μm and<1.1μm, though similar results for aerosols of 1.1-3.3μm. The low-volume sampler was found to have better separation efficiency and higher accuracy.

  8. Quantifying Volume of Groundwater in High Elevation Meadows (United States)

    Ciruzzi, D.; Lowry, C.


    Assessing the current and future water needs of high elevation meadows is dependent on quantifying the volume of groundwater stored within the meadow sediment. As groundwater dependent ecosystems, these meadows rely on their ability to capture and store water in order to support ecologic function and base flow to streams. Previous research of these meadows simplified storage by assuming a homogenous reservoir of constant thickness. These previous storage models were able to close the water mass balance, but it is unclear if these assumptions will be successful under future anthropogenic impacts, such as increased air temperature resulting in dryer and longer growing seasons. Applying a geophysical approach, ground-penetrating radar was used at Tuolumne Meadows, CA to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the controls on volume of groundwater storage. From the geophysical results, a three-dimensional model of Tuolumne Meadows was created, which identified meadow thickness and bedrock geometry. This physical model was used in a suite of numerical models simulating high elevation meadows in order to quantify volume of groundwater stored with temporal and spatial variability. Modeling efforts tested both wet and dry water years in order to quantify the variability in the volume of groundwater storage for a range of aquifer properties. Each model was evaluated based on the seasonal depth to water in order to evaluate a particular scenario's ability to support ecological function and base flow. Depending on the simulated meadows ability or inability to support its ecosystem, each representative meadow was categorized as successful or unsuccessful. Restoration techniques to increase active storage volume were suggested at unsuccessful meadows.

  9. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  10. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan


    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  11. Comparison of evaluation method for planar flaw in pressure tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Joo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Gul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    CSA N285.4-94 requires the periodic inservice inspection and surveillance of pressure tubes in operating CANDU nuclear power reactors. If the inspection results reveal a flaw exceeding the acceptance criteria of the Code, the flaw must be evaluated to determine if the pressure is acceptable for continued service. Currently, the flaw evaluation methodology and acceptance criteria specified in CSA N285.8-05, 'Technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors'. The Code is applicable to zirconium alloy pressure tubes. The evaluation methodology for a crack-like flaw is similar to that of FFSG(Fitness For Service Guideline for Zirconium alloy pressure in operation CANDU) used now. The object of this paper is to address the fracture initiation and plastic collapse evaluation for the planar flaw as it applies to the pressure tube on Wolsong NPP.

  12. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Sokolov, D. A.; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)


    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements typically require two orders of magnitude longer data collection times and larger sample sizes than neutron diffraction studies. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on pressurised samples are particularly challenging since standard high-pressure apparatus restricts sample volume, attenuates the incident and scattered beams, and contributes background scattering. Here, we present the design of a large volume two-layered piston-cylinder pressure cell with optimised transmission for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The design and the materials selected for the construction of the cell enable its safe use to a pressure of 1.8 GPa with a sample volume in excess of 400 mm{sup 3}. The design of the piston seal eliminates the need for a sample container, thus providing a larger sample volume and reduced absorption. The integrated electrical plug with a manganin pressure gauge offers an accurate measurement of pressure over the whole range of operational temperatures. The performance of the cell is demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering study of UGe{sub 2}.

  13. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering (United States)

    Wang, W.; Sokolov, D. A.; Huxley, A. D.; Kamenev, K. V.


    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements typically require two orders of magnitude longer data collection times and larger sample sizes than neutron diffraction studies. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on pressurised samples are particularly challenging since standard high-pressure apparatus restricts sample volume, attenuates the incident and scattered beams, and contributes background scattering. Here, we present the design of a large volume two-layered piston-cylinder pressure cell with optimised transmission for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The design and the materials selected for the construction of the cell enable its safe use to a pressure of 1.8 GPa with a sample volume in excess of 400 mm3. The design of the piston seal eliminates the need for a sample container, thus providing a larger sample volume and reduced absorption. The integrated electrical plug with a manganin pressure gauge offers an accurate measurement of pressure over the whole range of operational temperatures. The performance of the cell is demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering study of UGe2.

  14. Volume analysis of supercooled water under high pressure


    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin


    Motivated by recent experimental findings on the volume of supercooled water at high pressure [O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010)] we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations study of bulk water in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Cooling and heating cycles at different isobars and isothermal compression at different temperatures are performed on the water sample with pressures that range from 0 to 1.0 GPa. The cooling simulations are done at temperatures that range from...

  15. China’s Flawed Banking Market Structure Must be Rectified

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There is great disparity between China’s banking management efficiency and the top international standard,with relatively low efficiency in credit monetary allocation.In this paper,Yu Yongzhen sets out the hypothesis that"medium-sized banks promote competition".He believes that an important reason for the low efficiency of Chinese banking is the seriously flawed banking market structure.Namely,credit market shares are highly concentrated in the hands of the four major state-owned banks,with very few shares held by medium-sized banks or the badly undeveloped small banks.Full development of medium-sized banks plays a key role in the promotion of competition and efficiency in banking.

  16. Computational Reduction of Specimen Noise to Enable Improved Thermography Characterization of Flaws in Graphite Polymer Composites (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.


    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites are often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These result in a "noise" floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. A method is presented for computationally removing a significant amount of the "noise" from near surface porosity by diffusing the early time response, then subtracting it from subsequent responses. Simulations of the thermal response of a composite are utilized in defining the limitations of the technique. This method for reducing the data is shown to give considerable improvement characterizing both the size and depth of damage. Examples are shown for data acquired on specimens with fabricated delaminations and impact damage.

  17. Efficient high-volume cataract services: the Aravind model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj Ravilla


    Full Text Available Aravind Eye Care System began as an 11-bed eye clinic in 1976. Over the last 36 years, over 40 million outpatient examinations have been performed and over 5 million patients have undergone eye surgery or laser procedures. Aravind, with its mission to ‘eliminate needless blindness’, has been able to achieve this by adhering to the principle of providing large volume, high quality and affordable services in a financially sustainable manner both for the patients and for Aravind. Much importance is given to equity – ensuring that all patients are accorded the same high quality care and service, regardless of their economic status.

  18. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)


    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  19. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)


    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  20. Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery


    Full Text Available The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a small nuclear war would be an ecological catastrophe, not only killing civilian populations indiscriminately in both belligerent and neutral countries, but also severely damaging global agriculture and making large areas of the earth permanently uninhabitable through radioactive contamination. The danger of accidental nuclear war continues to be very great today, and the danger of nuclear terrorism is increasing. In this perilous situation, it is necessary for the nuclear nations to acknowledge that the concept of deterrence has been a mistake, which is threatening the lives of all human beings as well as threatening devastation of the biosphere. Acknowledging that the policy of nuclear deterrence has been a grave error can reduce risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  1. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T.


    Vessel integrity predictions performed through fracture mechanics analysis of a pressurized thermal shock event have been shown to be significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modem vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. Throughout the program, new insight was obtained into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. For example, the potential application of a vessel-specific flaw distribution now provides at least one method by which a vessel-specific reference flaw size applicable to pressure-temperature limit curves determination can be estimated. This paper will discuss the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses.

  2. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T.


    Vessel integrity predictions performed through fracture mechanics analysis of a pressurized thermal shock event have been shown to be significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modem vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. Throughout the program, new insight was obtained into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. For example, the potential application of a vessel-specific flaw distribution now provides at least one method by which a vessel-specific reference flaw size applicable to pressure-temperature limit curves determination can be estimated. This paper will discuss the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses.

  3. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of local free volumes in highly supercooled liquid (United States)

    Shiba, Hayato; Kawasaki, Takeshi


    We discuss the spatiotemporal behavior of local density and its relation to dynamical heterogeneity in a highly supercooled liquid by using molecular dynamics simulations of a binary mixture with different particle sizes in two dimensions. To trace voids heterogeneously existing with lower local densities, which move along with the structural relaxation, we employ the minimum local density for each particle in a time window whose width is set along with the structural relaxation time. Particles subject to free volumes correspond well to the configuration rearranging region of dynamical heterogeneity. While the correlation length for dynamical heterogeneity grows with temperature decrease, no growth in the correlation length of heterogeneity in the minimum local density distribution takes place. A comparison of these results with those of normal mode analysis reveals that superpositions of lower-frequency soft modes extending over the free volumes exhibit spatial correlation with the broken bonds. This observation suggests a possibility that long-ranged vibration modes facilitate the interactions between fragile regions represented by free volumes, to induce dynamical correlations at a large scale.

  4. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering. (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr


    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its (N (2)log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are (N (3)) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  5. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Abdellah


    Full Text Available Fourier volume rendering (FVR is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its O(N2log⁡N time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are O(N3 computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  6. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L. [Dominion Engineering, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)


    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regarding uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses.

  7. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik;


    was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  8. Tragic Flaws of the Protagonists-Hamlet and Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hamlet is the most discussed of Shakespeare’s tragedies, while The Great Gatsby is the masterpiece of Fitzgerald. It is true that the tragic flaws of the protagonists would be a key factor driving the development of the plots. In these two dramas, the flaws of the protagonists leaded to their tragic endings which are related to their own characteristics of the protagonists. And the ends of the stories are with the tragedies.

  9. Modified algorithm for generating high volume fraction sphere packings (United States)

    Valera, Roberto Roselló; Morales, Irvin Pérez; Vanmaercke, Simon; Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán


    Advancing front packing algorithms have proven to be very efficient in 2D for obtaining high density sets of particles, especially disks. However, the extension of these algorithms to 3D is not a trivial task. In the present paper, an advancing front algorithm for obtaining highly dense sphere packings is presented. It is simpler than other advancing front packing methods in 3D and can also be used with other types of particles. Comparison with respect to other packing methods have been carried out and a significant improvement in the volume fraction (VF) has been observed. Moreover, the quality of packings was evaluated with indicators other than VF. As additional advantage, the number of generated particles with the algorithm is linear with respect to time.

  10. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal


    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a high-volume air sampler for nanoparticles. (United States)

    Hata, M; Thongyen, T; Bao, L; Hoshino, A; Otani, Y; Ikeda, T; Furuuchi, M


    As a tool to evaluate the characteristics of aerosol nano-particles, a high-volume air sampler for the collection of nano-particles was developed based on the inertial filter technology. Instead of the webbed fiber geometry of the existing inertial filter, wire mesh screens alternately layered using spacing sheets with circular holes aligned to provide multi-circular nozzles were newly devised and the separation performance of the filter was investigated experimentally. The separation performance was evaluated for a single-nozzle inertial filter at different filtration velocities. A webbed stainless steel fiber mat attached on the inlet surface of the developed inertial filter was discussed as a pre-separator suppressing the bouncing of particles on meshes. The separation performance of a triple-nozzle inertial filter was also discussed to investigate the influence of scale-up on the separation performance of a multi-nozzle inertial filter. The influence of particle loading on the pressure drop and separation performance was discussed. A supplemental inlet for the nano-particle collection applied to an existing portable high-volume air sampler was devised and the consistency with other types of existing samplers was discussed based on the sampling of ambient particles. The layered-mesh inertial filter with a webbed stainless steel fiber mat as a pre-separator showed good performance in the separation of particles with a d p50 ranging from 150 to 190 nm keeping the influence of loaded particles small. The developed layered-mesh inertial filter was successfully applied to the collection of particles at a d p50∼ 190 nm that was consistent with the results from existing samplers.

  12. Estimation of Corrosion Induced Flaw Sizes on Buried Gas Pipeline in the Nigerian Sector of Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.F. Evans


    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was conducted to investigate pipeline corrosion in the coastal plain sands of the Nigerian sector of the Niger Delta. The objective is to estimate corrosion flaw sizes on the pipeline quantitatively instead of direct excavation of the pipeline and eventual use of measuring tape to measure the flaws on the pipeline. The pipelines buried in the Benin sands at Ikot Abasi, South of the Niger Delta Basin became instructive for this study. The survey consisted of electrical potential profiling using Close Interval Pipe-Soil potential survey (CIPS and Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP according to Wenner electrodes arrangement. Two permanent test points (PS were used for the study and the flaw sizes were estimated at points delineated to be of high corrosion risk in the study area. The data for close interval potential and HEP were analyzed and interpreted in line with the threshold protective potential (-850 mV as well as the American Water Works Association (AWWA soil corrosivity rating. Results indicate high risk zones due to external corrosion at pipeline length 25-30 m from PS1 and 80 m from PS2. These locations contain significant saline groundwater that facilitates corrosion of metal pipes buried within the area. The results also suggest that the corrosion protection systems for the pipeline need to be reinforced to mitigate further growth of the flaws on the pipeline segment. The impact of the flaws could be severe if allowed to continue.

  13. Nanoimprint Lithography -A Next Generation High Volume Lithography Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Pelzer; P.Lindner; T.Glinsner; B.Vratzov; C.Gourgon; S.Landis; P.Kettner; C.Schaefer


    Nanoimprint Lithography has been demonstrated to be one of the most promising next generation techniques for large-area structure replication in the nanometer scale.This fast and low cost method becomes an increasingly important instrument for fabrication of biochemistry,μ-fluidic,μ-TAS and telecommunication devices,as well as for a wide variety of fields in the nm range,like biomedical,nano-fluidics,nano-optical applications,data storage,etc.Due to the restrictions on wavelength and the enormous development works,linked to high process and equipment costs on standard lithography systems,nanoimprint lithography might become a real competitive method in mainstream IC industry.There are no physical limitations encountered with imprinting techniques for much smaller replicated structures,down to the sub-10nm range [1].Among several Nanoimprint lithography techniques results of two promising methods,hot embossing lithography(HEL)and UV-nanoimprinting(UV-NIL)will be presented.Both techniques allow rapid prototyping as well as high volume production of fully patterned substrates for a wide range of materials.This paper will present results on HE and UVNIL,among them full wafer imprints up to 200mm with high-resolution patterns down to nm range.

  14. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik


    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  15. Low-volume plus ascorbic acid vs high-volume plus simethicone bowel preparation before colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Pontone; Rita Angelini; Monica Standoli; Gregorio Patrizi; Franco Culasso; Paolo Pontone; Adriano Redler


    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of low-volume plus ascorbic acid [polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc)] and high-volume plus simethicone [polyethylene glycol plus simethicone (PEG + Sim)] bowel preparations.METHODS: A total of one hundred and forty-four outpatients (76 males), aged from 20 to 84 years (me dian age 59.5 years), who attended our Department, were divided into two groups, age and sex matched, and underwent colonoscopy. Two questionnaires, one for patients reporting acceptability and the other for endoscopists evaluating bowel cleansing effectiveness according to validated scales, were completed. Indica tions, timing of examination and endoscopical findings were recorded. Biopsy forceps were used as a measur ing tool in order to determine polyp endoscopic sizeestimation. Difficulty in completing the preparation was rated in a 5-point Likert scale (1 = easy to 5 = un able). Adverse experiences (fullness, cramps, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and insomnia), number of evacuations and types of activities per formed during preparation (walking or resting in bed) were also investigated.RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were selected for each group. The two groups were age and sex matched as well as being comparable in terms of medical history and drug therapies taken. Fourteen patients dropped out from the trial because they did not complete the preparation procedure. Ratings of global bowel cleans ing examinations were considered to be adequate in 91% of PEG + Asc and 88% of PEG + Sim patients. Residual Stool Score indicated similar levels of amount and consistency of residual stool; there was a signifi cant difference in the percentage of bowel wall visuali zation in favour of PEG + Sim patients. In the PEG + Sim group, 12 adenomas < 10 mm diameter (5/left co lon + 7/right colon) vs 9 (8/left colon + 1/right colon) in the PEG + Asc group were diagnosed. Visualization of small lesions seems to be one of the primary advan tages of

  16. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain. (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Rose, Annika H; Gibson, Gregory A; Gardner, Christina L; Sun, Chengqun; Reed, Douglas S; Lam, L K Metthew; St Croix, Claudette M; Strick, Peter L; Klimstra, William B; Watkins, Simon C


    Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  17. Design of Friction Stir Welding Tool for Avoiding Root Flaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shude Ji


    Full Text Available In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow velocity is investigated by the software ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that high material flow velocity appears near the rotational tool and material flow velocity rapidly decreases with the increase of distance away from the axis of the tool. Maximum material flow velocity by the tool with the tapered-flute pin appears at the beginning position of flute and the velocity decreases with the increase of flow length in flute. From the view of increasing the flow velocity of material near the bottom of the workpiece or in the middle of workpiece, the tool with the half-screw pin and the tool with the tapered-flute pin are both better than the conventional tool.

  18. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  19. Finite-element analysis of flawed and unflawed pipe tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.J.; Nickell, R.E.; Sullaway, M.F. (ANATECH Research Corp., La Jolla, CA (USA))


    Contemporary versions of the general purpose, nonlinear finite element program ABAQUS have been used in structural response verification exercises on flawed and unflawed austenitic stainless steel and ferritic steel piping. Among the topics examined, through comparison between ABAQUS calculations and test results, were: (1) the effect of using variations in the stress-strain relationship from the test article material on the calculated response; (2) the convergence properties of various finite element representations of the pipe geometry, using shell, beam and continuum models; (3) the effect of test system compliance; and (4) the validity of ABAQUS J-integral routines for flawed pipe evaluations. The study was culminated by the development and demonstration of a macroelement'' representation for the flawed pipe section. The macroelement can be inserted into an existing piping system model, in order to accurately treat the crack-opening and crack-closing static and dynamic response. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Flaws and fallacies in statistical thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Stephen K


    This book was written with a dual purpose: first, the author was motivated to relieve his distress over the faulty conclusions drawn from the frequent misuse of relatively simple statistical tools such as percents, graphs, and averages. Second, his objective was to create a nontechnical book that would help people make better-informed decisions by increasing their ability to judge the quality of statistical evidence. This volume achieves both, serving as a supplemental text for students taking their first course in statistics, and as a self-help guide for anyone wishing to evaluate statistica

  1. Volume Based DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Photogrammetric Dsms (United States)

    Piltz, B.; Bayer, S.; Poznanska, A. M.


    In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM) model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs). It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66%) are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH).

  2. Coarsening in high volume fraction nickel-base alloys (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Nathal, M. V.


    The coarsening behavior of the gamma-prime precipitate has been examined in high volume fraction nickel-base alloys aged at elevated temperatures for times of up to 5000 h. Although the cube rate law was observed during coarsening, none of the presently available coarsening theories showed complete agreement with the experimental particle size distributions (PSDs). These discrepancies were thought to be due to elastic coherency strains which were not considered by the available models. Increasing the Mo content significantly influenced the PSDs and decreased the coarsening rate of the gamma-prime cubes, as a result of increasing the magnitude of the lattice mismatch. After extended aging times, the gamma-prime cubes underwent massive coalescence into plates at a rate which was much faster than the cuboidal coarsening rate. Once the gamma-prime plates were formed, further coarsening was not observed, and this stabilization of the microstructure was attributed to the development of dislocation networks at the gamma-gamma-prime interfaces.

  3. Photoelectric detection system of inside flaws of metal tube (United States)

    Lu, Dong; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Guangwei; Yu, Dachuan


    This paper introduces a photoelectric detection system, i.e. the internal surface of the metal tube illuminated by Xenon light through fiber bundle, is imaged on CCD optical receiver by endoscope. The image can be converted to video frequency signal, then this signal can be converted to digital signal by a sampling control system, which processed by a computer. SO the measurement system can clearly display the surface flaws of workspace of complicated construction, and quantitatively measure sorts of flaws by an image processing system.

  4. Surface flaw detection in structural ceramics by scanning photoacoustic spectroscopy (United States)

    Khandelwal, P. K.; Heitman, P. W.; Wakefield, T. D.; Silversmith, A. J.


    Laser-scanned photoacoustic spectroscopy has been used to detect tightly closed surface cracks in three structural ceramic materials: sintered silicon nitride, reaction-bonded silicon nitride, and sintered silicon carbide. It is found that the amplitude of the photoacoustic signal from the flaws is greater for the silicon nitrides than for silicon carbide, which is attributed to the lower thermal diffusivity of silicon nitride as well as differences in the grain size distribution and chemical composition. Signal amplitude, reproducibility, and signal-to-noise ratio are acceptable for effective flaw detection

  5. Stress analysis and damage evaluation of flawed composite laminates by hybrid-numerical methods (United States)

    Yang, Yii-Ching


    Structural components in flight vehicles is often inherited flaws, such as microcracks, voids, holes, and delamination. These defects will degrade structures the same as that due to damages in service, such as impact, corrosion, and erosion. It is very important to know how a structural component can be useful and survive after these flaws and damages. To understand the behavior and limitation of these structural components researchers usually do experimental tests or theoretical analyses on structures with simulated flaws. However, neither approach has been completely successful. As Durelli states that 'Seldom does one method give a complete solution, with the most efficiency'. Examples of this principle is seen in photomechanics which additional strain-gage testing can only average stresses at locations of high concentration. On the other hand, theoretical analyses including numerical analyses are implemented with simplified assumptions which may not reflect actual boundary conditions. Hybrid-Numerical methods which combine photomechanics and numerical analysis have been used to correct this inefficiency since 1950's. But its application is limited until 1970's when modern computer codes became available. In recent years, researchers have enhanced the data obtained from photoelasticity, laser speckle, holography and moire' interferometry for input of finite element analysis on metals. Nevertheless, there is only few of literature being done on composite laminates. Therefore, this research is dedicated to this highly anisotropic material.

  6. A 3D mechanistic model for brittle materials containing evolving flaw distributions under dynamic multiaxial loading (United States)

    Hu, Guangli; Liu, Junwei; Graham-Brady, Lori; Ramesh, K. T.


    We present a validated fully 3D mechanism-based micromechanical constitutive model for brittle solids under dynamic multiaxial loading conditions. Flaw statistics are explicitly incorporated through a defect density, and evolving flaw distributions in both orientation and size. Interactions among cracks are modeled by means of a crack-matrix-effective-medium approach. A tensorial damage parameter is defined based upon the crack length and orientation development under local effective stress fields. At low confining stresses, the wing-cracking mechanism dominates, leading to the degradation of the modulus and peak strength of the material, whereas at high enough confining stresses, the cracking mechanism is completely shut-down and dislocation mechanisms become dominant. The model handles general multiaxial stress states, accounts for evolving internal variables in the form of evolving flaw size and orientation distributions, includes evolving anisotropic damage and irreversible damage strains in a thermodynamically consistent fashion, incorporates rate-dependence through the micromechanics, and includes dynamic bulking based on independent experimental data. Simulation results are discussed and compared with experimental results on one specific structural ceramic, aluminum nitride. We demonstrate that this 3D constitutive model is capable of capturing the general constitutive response of structural ceramics.

  7. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete. (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T


    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid


    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  9. Detection of flaws in hazelnuts using VIS/NIR spectroscopy (United States)

    The feasibility of VIS/NIR spectroscopy for detection of flaws in hazelnut kernels was demonstrated. Feature datasets comprising raw absorbance values, raw absorbance Ratios (Abs['1] : Abs['2]) and Differences (Abs['1] – Abs['2]) for all possible pairs of wavelengths from 306.5 nm to 1710.9 nm were ...

  10. Do item-writing flaws reduce examinations psychometric quality? (United States)

    Pais, João; Silva, Artur; Guimarães, Bruno; Povo, Ana; Coelho, Elisabete; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Lourinho, Isabel; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton


    The psychometric characteristics of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) changed when taking into account their anatomical sites and the presence of item-writing flaws (IWF). The aim is to understand the impact of the anatomical sites and the presence of IWF in the psychometric qualities of the MCQ. 800 Clinical Anatomy MCQ from eight examinations were classified as standard or flawed items and according to one of the eight anatomical sites. An item was classified as flawed if it violated at least one of the principles of item writing. The difficulty and discrimination indices of each item were obtained. 55.8 % of the MCQ were flawed items. The anatomical site of the items explained 6.2 and 3.2 % of the difficulty and discrimination parameters and the IWF explained 2.8 and 0.8 %, respectively. The impact of the IWF was heterogeneous, the Writing the Stem and Writing the Choices categories had a negative impact (higher difficulty and lower discrimination) while the other categories did not have any impact. The anatomical site effect was higher than IWF effect in the psychometric characteristics of the examination. When constructing MCQ, the focus should be in the topic/area of the items and only after in the presence of IWF.

  11. Ultrasonic imaging of material flaws exploiting multipath information (United States)

    Shen, Xizhong; Zhang, Yimin D.; Demirli, Ramazan; Amin, Moeness G.


    In this paper, we consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT) tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. Multipath exploitations provide extended virtual array apertures and, in turn, enhance imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior discontinuities. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles. Exploitation of multipath information addresses unique issues observed in ultrasonic imaging. (1) Utilization of physical and virtual sensors significantly extends the array aperture for image enhancement. (2) Multipath signals extend the angle of view of the narrow beamwidth of the ultrasound transducers, allowing improved visibility and array design flexibility. (3) Ultrasonic signals experience difficulty in penetrating a flaw, thus the aspect angle of the observation is limited unless access to other sides is available. The significant extension of the aperture makes it possible to yield flaw observation from multiple aspect angles. We show that data fusion of physical and virtual sensor data significantly improves the detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated through experimental studies.

  12. Ultrasonic flaw detection using radial basis function networks (RBFNs). (United States)

    Gil Pita, R; Vicen, R; Rosa, M; Jarabo, M P; Vera, P; Curpian, J


    Ultrasonic flaw detection has been studied many times in the literature. Schemes based on thresholding after a previous matched filter use to be the best solution, but results obtained with this method are only satisfactory when scattering and attenuation are not considered. In this paper, we propose an alternative solution to thresholding detection method. We deal with the usage of different flaw detection methods comparing them with the proposed one. The experiment tries to determinate whether a given ultrasonic signal contains a flaw echo or not. Starting with a set of 24,000 patterns with 750 samples each one, two subsets are defined for the experiments. The first one, the training set, is used to obtain the detection parameters of the different methods, and the second one is used to test the performance of them. The proposed method is based on radial basis functions networks, one of the most powerful neural network techniques. This signal processing technique tries to find the optimal decision criterion. Comparing this method with thresholding based ones, an improvement over 25-30% is obtained, depending on the probability of false alarm. So our new method is a good alternative to flaw detection problem.

  13. Preventing, detecting & revising flaws in object property expressions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keet, CM


    Full Text Available . However, the more one can do, the higher the chance modelling flaws are introduced; hence, an unexpected or undesired classification or inconsistency in the class hierarchy may actually be due to a mistake in the `object property box', not the class axioms...

  14. Radiographic Sensitivity of Flaw Detection in Solid Rocket Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G Puranik


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of flaw detection with x-ray radiographic methods is investigated here qualitatively in case of cast double base and cast composite propellants and for air pockets it is found to be 1.5 and 0.9 percent of the web respectively. General guidelines for the inspection of sustainer charges have also been laid down.

  15. Probability management and the flaw-of-averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger, Paul


    Full Text Available Uncertainty is ever-present and is an integral part of life. Recognising the existence of uncertainty and its possible effects on decision-making may be important for the profitability, financial success, or even survival of an organisation. A relatively new discipline, - known as probability management, - has recently emerged as part of operations research/management science. This paper will attempt to provide a brief introduction to the concepts of probability management and the motivation behind its development. One of the major driving forces resulting in this development is the phenomenon known as the ‘flaw-of-averages’. The flaw-of-averages has important consequences in industrial engineering, financial, business, and economic models. The classic newsvendor problem will be used as an illustrative example. However, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the most important characteristics of the flaw-of-averages. It will investigate and attempt to quantify some of the generic factors that may have an influence on the existence and severity of the flaw-of-averages and its expected consequences. Various models will be developed, and experiments will be conducted using Microsoft Excel as a modelling tool and an experimental approach based on Monte Carlo simulation modelling.

  16. High-Volume Utilization of Cotton in Nonwovens (United States)

    This article briefly explores possible utilization of cotton in volume in the traditional textile sector and in the growing nontraditional nonwovens sector and covers the challenges and opportunities that may exist on the way. Some new concepts in the development of predominantly cotton-based textil...

  17. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics (United States)

    Nurge, Mark


    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  18. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa


    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  19. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher


    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  20. Microfluidic Cell Volume Biosensor for High Throughput Drug Screening (United States)


    method is non- invasive, and it provides real-time measurement of changes in cell volume for both adherent and suspended cells. The microfluidic nature of...channels as well as the release of organic osmolytes, such as taurine [11]. Upon returning to isotonic solution at the end of RVD we observed cell...Haussinger, Biochem. J, 313,697 (1996). [2] Sachs, F. Nature Structural Biology 9, 636-637 (2002). [3] F. Schliess, and D. Haussinger, Bio. Chem. 383

  1. Reliability estimates for flawed mortar projectile bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A. [US Army ARDEC, AMSRD-AAR-MEF-E, Analysis and Evaluation Division, Fuze and Precision Armaments Technology Directorate, US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 (United States)], E-mail:; Thomas, J.; Wong, R.S.; Carlucci, D. [US Army ARDEC, AMSRD-AAR-MEF-E, Analysis and Evaluation Division, Fuze and Precision Armaments Technology Directorate, US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 (United States)


    The Army routinely screens mortar projectiles for defects in safety-critical parts. In 2003, several lots of mortar projectiles had a relatively high defect rate, 0.24%. Before releasing the projectiles, the Army reevaluated the chance of a safety-critical failure. Limit state functions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate reliability. Measured distributions of wall thickness, defect rate, material strength, and applied loads were used with calculated stresses to estimate the probability of failure. The results predicted less than one failure in one million firings. As of 2008, the mortar projectiles have been used without any safety-critical incident.

  2. Development of a flaw detection material for the magnetic particle method (United States)

    Chesnokova, A. A.; Kalayeva, S. Z.; Ivanova, V. A.


    The issues of increasing the effectiveness of the magnetic particle method of nondestructive testing by using a new flaw detection material is considered in the paper. The requirements for flaw detection materials are determined, which ensure the effectiveness of the inspection method. A new flaw detection material - magnetic fluids from iron-containing waste products - has been developed.

  3. Residual Stresses and Critical Initial Flaw Size Analyses of Welds (United States)

    Brust, Frederick W.; Raju, Ivatury, S.; Dawocke, David S.; Cheston, Derrick


    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). A series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on the fatigue life. The purpose of the weld analyses was to model the weld process using a variety of sequences to determine the 'best' sequence in terms of weld residual stresses and distortions. The many factors examined in this study include weld design (single-V, double-V groove), weld sequence, boundary conditions, and material properties, among others. The results of this weld analysis are included with service loads to perform a fatigue and critical initial flaw size evaluation.

  4. Reconstructing flaw image using dataset of full matrix capture technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Jeong Seok [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A conventional phased array ultrasonic system offers the ability to steer an ultrasonic beam by applying independent time delays of individual elements in the array and produce an ultrasonic image. In contrast, full matrix capture (FMC) is a data acquisition process that collects a complete matrix of A-scans from every possible independent transmit-receive combination in a phased array transducer and makes it possible to reconstruct various images that cannot be produced by conventional phased array with the post processing as well as images equivalent to a conventional phased array image. In this paper, a basic algorithm based on the LLL mode total focusing method (TFM) that can image crack type flaws is described. And this technique was applied to reconstruct flaw images from the FMC dataset obtained from the experiments and ultrasonic simulation.

  5. Molecular Profiling and Clinical Outcome of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Presenting with Low- versus High-Volume Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Feigenberg


    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer consists of multiple histotypes differing in etiology and clinical course. The most prevalent histotype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC, which often presents at an advanced stage frequently accompanied with high-volume ascites. While some studies suggest that ascites is associated with poor clinical outcome, most reports have not differentiated between histological subtypes or tumor grade. We compared genome-wide gene expression profiles from a discovery cohort of ten patients diagnosed with stages III-IV HGSOC with high-volume ascites and nine patients with low-volume ascites. An upregulation of immune response genes was detected in tumors from patients presenting with low-volume ascites relative to those with high-volume ascites. Immunohistochemical studies performed on tissue microarrays confirmed higher expression of proteins encoded by immune response genes and increased tumorinfiltrating cells in tumors associated with low-volume ascites. Comparison of 149 advanced-stage HGSOC cases with differential ascites volume at time of primary surgery indicated low-volume ascites correlated with better surgical outcome and longer overall survival. These findings suggest that advanced stage HGSOC presenting with low-volume ascites reflects a unique subgroup of HGSOC, which is associated with upregulation of immune related genes, more abundant tumor infiltrating cells and better clinical outcomes.

  6. The tendering process: flaws and all. (United States)

    Spurgeon, Peter; Hicks, Carolyn


    The tendering process has become the dominant and now traditional approach to the allocation of research and consultancy projects. This is largely built around the notion that it ensures accountability and probity within the allocative procedure, and that high quality of work and 'value for money' are the outcomes. It appears to have become an institutionalized and unchallengeable process. Yet it is rarely costed in terms of the true resource implications for all the organizations involved, nor is quality assessed in terms of alternative processes that might be employed. This paper explores the tendering process in terms of factors that may suggest that the quality of work produced via the tendering process is not always as good as it might be. Also in a hypothetical example involving the university sector and the National Health Service, data are presented indicating that the overall cost to the public sector is often actually greater than the value of the contract being allocated. An alternative preferred provider relationship-based allocative process is advocated as an improvement to the current established tendering procedure.

  7. Detecting and Preventing Type flaws at Static Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Brodo, Linda; Degano, Pierpaolo


    the intended types of terms. We develop a Control Flow Analysis for this calculus which soundly over-approximates all the possible behaviour of a protocol and, in particular, is able to capture any type confusion that may occur during the protocol execution. The analysis acts in a descriptive way: it describes...... to capture type flaw attacks. The implementation complexity of the analysis is low polynomial....

  8. Fate or Flaws:On Oedipus the King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ People usually think that Oedipus in Sophocles'Oedipus the King is the most tragic and innocentprotagonist among all the characters in ancient Greekdramas. Yet, after reading this masterpiece I can' thelp asking: is Oedipus really so desperate that he evendoesn't have a slightest chance to make things right andto avoid that tragedy? Not exactly. Fate, prophesy andhis own flaws together lead the tragic outcome comingstep by step.

  9. An Analysis of the Flaws in The Duchess of Malfi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Duchess of Malfi is a tragedy written by John Webster in the 16 th century.Its complexity of its characters,themes,plus Web-ster’s poetic language,ensures the play often considered among the greatest tragedies of English Renaissance Drama.However,the play gains lots of compliments and also criticisms over centuries and this paper argues that the flaws do exist in this play.

  10. High resolution finite volume scheme for the quantum hydrodynamic equations (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Tien; Yeh, Jia-Yi; Chen, Jiun-Yeu


    The theory of quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) helps nanotechnology engineers to understand the physical effect of quantum forces. Although the governing equations of quantum fluid dynamics and classical fluid mechanics have the same form, there are two numerical simulation problems must be solved in QFD. The first is that the quantum potential term becomes singular and causes a divergence in the numerical simulation when the probability density is very small and close to zero. The second is that the unitarity in the time evolution of the quantum wave packet is significant. Accurate numerical evaluations are critical to the simulations of the flow fields that are generated by various quantum fluid systems. A finite volume scheme is developed herein to solve the quantum hydrodynamic equations of motion, which significantly improve the accuracy and stability of this method. The QFD equation is numerically implemented within the Eulerian method. A third-order modified Osher-Chakravarthy (MOC) upwind-centered finite volume scheme was constructed for conservation law to evaluate the convective terms, and a second-order central finite volume scheme was used to map the quantum potential field. An explicit Runge-Kutta method is used to perform the time integration to achieve fast convergence of the proposed scheme. In order to meet the numerical result can conform to the physical phenomenon and avoid numerical divergence happening due to extremely low probability density, the minimum value setting of probability density must exceed zero and smaller than certain value. The optimal value was found in the proposed numerical approach to maintain a converging numerical simulation when the minimum probability density is 10 -5 to 10 -12. The normalization of the wave packet remains close to unity through a long numerical simulation and the deviations from 1.0 is about 10 -4. To check the QFD finite difference numerical computations, one- and two-dimensional particle motions were

  11. Study on flaw identification of ultrasonic signal for large shafts based on optimal support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiufen; Yin Guofu; Tian Guiyun; Yin Ying


    Automatic identification of flaws is very important for ultrasonic nondestructive testing and evaluation of large shaft. A novel automatic defect identification system is presented. Wavelet packet analysis (WPA) was applied to feature extraction of ultrasonic signal, and optimal Support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform the identification task. Meanwhile, comparative study on convergent velocity and classified effect was done among SVM and several improved BP network models. To validate the method, some experiments were performed and the results show that the proposed system has very high identification performance for large shafts and the optimal SVM processes better classification performance and spreading potential than BP manual neural network under small study sample condition.

  12. High-speed volume measurement system and method (United States)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.


    Disclosed is a volume sensor having first, second, and third laser sources emitting first, second, and third laser beams; first, second, and third beam splitters splitting the first, second, and third laser beams into first, second, and third beam pairs; first, second, and third optical assemblies expanding the first, second, and third beam pairs into first, second, and third pairs of parallel beam sheets; fourth, fifth, and sixth optical assemblies focusing the first, second, and third beam sheet pairs into fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs; and first, second, and third detector pairs receiving the fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs and converting a change in intensity of at least one of the beam pairs resulting from an object passing through at least one of the first, second, and third parallel beam sheets into at least one electrical signal proportional to a three-dimensional representation of the object.

  13. Factors that influence minority use of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer care. (United States)

    Huang, Lyen C; Tran, Thuy B; Ma, Yifei; Ngo, Justine V; Rhoads, Kim F


    Previous studies suggest that minorities cluster in low-quality hospitals despite living close to better performing hospitals. This may contribute to persistent disparities in cancer outcomes. The purpose of this work was to examine how travel distance, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors influenced minority underuse of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer. The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study. All hospitals in California from 1996 to 2006 were included. Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed and treated in California between 1996 and 2006 were identified using California Cancer Registry data. Multivariable logistic regression models predicting high-volume hospital use were adjusted for age, sex, race, stage, comorbidities, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. A total of 79,231 patients treated in 417 hospitals were included in the study. High-volume hospitals were independently associated with an 8% decrease in the hazard of death compared with other settings. A lower proportion of minorities used high-volume hospitals despite a higher proportion living nearby. Although insurance status and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with high-volume hospital use, only socioeconomic factors attenuated differences in high-volume hospital use of black and Hispanic patients compared with white patients. The use of cross-sectional data and racial and ethnic misclassifications were limitations in this study. Minority patients do not use high-volume hospitals despite improved outcomes and geographic access. Low socioeconomic status predicts low use of high-volume settings in select minority groups. Our results provide a roadmap for developing interventions to increase the use of and access to higher quality care and outcomes. Increasing minority use of high-volume hospitals may require community outreach programs and changes in physician referral practices.

  14. Centrifugal Step Emulsification can Produce Water in Oil Emulsions with Extremely High Internal Volume Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Schuler


    Full Text Available The high throughput preparation of emulsions with high internal volume fractions is important for many different applications, e.g., drug delivery. However, most emulsification techniques reach only low internal volume fractions and need stable flow rates that are often difficult to control. Here, we present a centrifugal high throughput step emulsification disk for the fast and easy production of emulsions with high internal volume fractions above 95%. The disk produces droplets at generation rates of up to 3700 droplets/s and, for the first time, enables the generation of emulsions with internal volume fractions of >97%. The coefficient of variation between droplet sizes is very good (4%. We apply our system to show the in situ generation of gel emulsion. In the future, the recently introduced unit operation of centrifugal step emulsification may be used for the high throughput production of droplets as reaction compartments for clinical diagnostics or as starting material for micromaterial synthesis.

  15. Textual and language flaws: problems for Spanish doctors in producing abstracts in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Divasson Cilveti


    Full Text Available Scientific journals are the primary source of information for researchers. The number of articles currently indexed in databases is so large that it has become almost impossible to read every relevant article in a particular field. Thus, research paper abstracts (RPAs have acquired increasing importance. Several studies have shown that they are the skipping point, particularly among non-native English speakers. To our knowledge, little research has been carried out on RPA writing by Spanish doctors. It is thus the objective of this article to analyse the way abstracts are structured and linguistically realized by these professionals. We selected 30 RPAs written in English by Spanish speaking doctors from three leading Spanish journals on internal medicine. We recorded their textual level flaws by measuring the degree of informativeness with regard to three main variables: move patterning, ordering and structuring, and their language use flaws under two broad categories: ortho-typographic and grammatical. Length, use of hedges and keywords were also identified. 86.6% of the abstracts were informative, 13.3% uninformative while none of them could be classified as highly informative. With regard to the authors' use of language, over 70% presented some kind of flaws: 21.55% of these mistakes were ortho-typographic while 78.44% were grammatical. Our results support the need of designing specific units geared on the one hand towards explicit teaching of structured abstracts and on the other, towards the difficulties found by doctors because they lack language competence. They would also benefit from clearer guidelines from journal editors.

  16. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.


    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  17. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.


    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface heatin

  18. Relationship between amygdala volume and emotion recognition in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis. (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Whittle, Sarah L; Pilioussis, Eleanor; Allott, Kelly; Rice, Simon; Schäfer, Miriam R; Pantelis, Christos; Amminger, G Paul


    Amygdala volume has been proposed as a neural risk biomarker for psychotic illness, but findings in the ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) population have been somewhat inconsistent, which may be related to underlying social cognitive abilities. The current study investigated whether amygdala volumes were related to emotion-recognition impairments in UHR individuals, and whether volumes differed by sex. Secondary aims were to assess whether (a) emotion-recognition performance was associated with interhemispheric amygdala volume asymmetry and (b) amgydala volume and volume asymmetry acted as a mediator between emotion-recognition and outcome measures. The amygdala was manually delineated from magnetic resonance images for 39 UHR individuals who had also completed facial and prosody emotion-recognition tasks. Partial correlations were conducted to examine associations between amydgala volume/asymmetry and recognition of negative emotions. Mediation analyses were conducted using regression and bootstrapping techniques. Amygdala volume was positively correlated with sadness emotion recognition, in particular prosody, for females only. Left amygdala volume mediated the effect of sadness recognition on depressive symptoms, negative symptoms, overall psychopathology, and global functioning in females. Findings suggest a complex relationship between emotion recognition, the structure of the amygdala and illness outcome, where recognition of sadness appears to be the precipitator of this relationship in UHR females. Further research is needed to determine illness specificity and to confirm our sex- and emotion-specific results.

  19. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings technology. The...

  20. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase II proposal is development of a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings...

  1. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  2. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N. (comp.)


    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  3. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara


    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackett


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.

  5. Differences in energy expenditure between high- and low-volume training. (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pivarnik, James M; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J


    Several studies have examined energy expenditure in various sports but there is a lack of research on the contribution of exercise and habitual activity during different training periods. This study examined changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components during high- and low-volume training periods. Further, changes in time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activity in response to different training volumes were explored. Energy expenditure was measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 non-consecutive weeks - 1 week of high volume (>13 hours) training and another week of low volume (energy expenditure (EEE) and resting metabolic rate, respectively. Time spent at different intensities was assessed using previously established MET cutpoints. TDEE as well as EEE increased significantly with higher training volume, while no difference in NEAT occurred. Further, significantly less time was spent in sedentary activities during the high-volume week. These results suggest that highly trained athletes do not compensate for increased training volume and reduce sedentary activities to allow for more training time.

  6. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others


    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  7. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud




    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  8. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes (United States)

    Denisenkov, Valentin S.; Kiyko, Vadim V.; Vdovin, Gleb V.


    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface heating with different approaches to make the heat distribution more uniform and the process more efficient. High-power lasers can in theory provide in-bulk heating which can sufficiently increase the uniformity of heat distribution thus making the process more efficient. We chose two media (vegetable fat and glucose) for feasibility experiments. First, we checked if the media have necessary absorption coefficients on the wavelengths of commercially available laser diodes (940-980 nm). This was done using spectrophotometer at 700-1100 nm which provided the dependences of transmission from the wavelength. The results indicate that vegetable fat has noticeable transmission dip around 925 nm and glucose has sufficient dip at 990 nm. Then, after the feasibility check, we did numerical simulation of the heat distribution in bulk using finite elements method. Based on the results, optimal laser wavelength and illuminator configuration were selected. Finally, we carried out several pilot experiments with high-power diodes heating the chosen media.

  9. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 2). (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, non-metric…

  10. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I (Part 2). (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include the rational number system; parallels, parallelograms,…

  11. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  12. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908 (United States)

    Blazer, Christie


    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  13. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 1). (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  14. High-throughput DNA droplet assays using picoliter reactor volumes. (United States)

    Srisa-Art, Monpichar; deMello, Andrew J; Edel, Joshua B


    The online characterization and detection of individual droplets at high speeds, low analyte concentrations, and perfect detection efficiencies is a significant challenge underpinning the application of microfluidic droplet reactors to high-throughput chemistry and biology. Herein, we describe the integration of confocal fluorescence spectroscopy as a high-efficiency detection method for droplet-based microfluidics. Issues such as surface contamination, rapid mixing, and rapid detection, as well as low detections limits have been addressed with the approach described when compared to conventional laminar flow-based fluidics. Using such a system, droplet size, droplet shape, droplet formation frequencies, and droplet compositions can be measured accurately and precisely at kilohertz frequencies. Taking advantage of this approach, we demonstrate a high-throughput biological assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). By attaching a FRET donor (Alexa Fluor 488) to streptavidin and labeling a FRET acceptor (Alexa Fluor 647) on one DNA strand and biotin on the complementary strand, donor and acceptor molecules are brought in proximity due to streptavidin-biotin binding, resulting in FRET. Fluorescence bursts of the donor and acceptor from each droplet can be monitored simultaneously using separate avalanche photodiode detectors operating in single photon counting mode. Binding assays were investigated and compared between fixed streptavidin and DNA concentrations. Binding curves fit perfectly to Hill-Waud models, and the binding ratio between streptavidin and biotin was evaluated and found to be in agreement with the biotin binding sites on streptavidin. FRET efficiency for this FRET pair was also investigated from the binding results. Efficiency results show that this detection system can precisely measure FRET even at low FRET efficiencies.

  15. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (counterrotation). Volume 1: Model development (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Mani, R.; Gliebe, P. R.


    The isolated counterrotating high speed turboprop noise prediction program was compared with model data taken in the GE Aircraft Engines Cell 41 anechoic facility, the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel, and in NASA-Lewis' 8x6 and 9x15 wind tunnels. The predictions show good agreement with measured data under both low and high speed simulated flight conditions. The installation effect model developed for single rotation, high speed turboprops was extended to include counterotation. The additional effect of mounting a pylon upstream of the forward rotor was included in the flow field modeling. A nontraditional mechanism concerning the acoustic radiation from a propeller at angle of attach was investigated. Predictions made using this approach show results that are in much closer agreement with measurement over a range of operating conditions than those obtained via traditional fluctuating force methods. The isolated rotors and installation effects models were combines into a single prediction program, results of which were compared with data taken during the flight test of the B727/UDF engine demonstrator aircraft. Satisfactory comparisons between prediction and measured data for the demonstrator airplane, together with the identification of a nontraditional radiation mechanism for propellers at angle of attack are achieved.

  16. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques (United States)

    Spindloe, C.; Arthur, G.; Hall, F.; Tomlinson, S.; Potter, R.; Kar, S.; Green, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Booth, N.; Tolley, M. K.


    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed.

  17. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You


    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  18. Digital ultrasonics signal processing: Flaw data post processing use and description (United States)

    Buel, V. E.


    A modular system composed of two sets of tasks which interprets the flaw data and allows compensation of the data due to transducer characteristics is described. The hardware configuration consists of two main units. A DEC LSI-11 processor running under the RT-11 sngle job, version 2C-02 operating system, controls the scanner hardware and the ultrasonic unit. A DEC PDP-11/45 processor also running under the RT-11, version 2C-02, operating system, stores, processes and displays the flaw data. The software developed the Ultrasonics Evaluation System, is divided into two catagories; transducer characterization and flaw classification. Each category is divided further into two functional tasks: a data acquisition and a postprocessor ask. The flaw characterization collects data, compresses its, and writes it to a disk file. The data is then processed by the flaw classification postprocessing task. The use and operation of a flaw data postprocessor is described.

  19. Analysis of the Mutual Inductance between Two Parallel Plates for the Detection of Surface Flaws (United States)

    Namking, M.; Clendenin, C. G.; Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.


    There has recently been much effort behind the development of NDE methods applicable to the detection of surface/subsurface flaws in thin metallic structures with a rapid scan capability. One such method, an electromagnetic technique using a current-sheet parallel to the surface of a specimen in order to induce eddy current flow shows a high potential for satisfying the rapid scan requirement stated above. The technique is based on the detection of flaw-induced magnetic field components normal to the specimen surface by an appropriate detection mechanism positioned above the current-sheet as shown schematically in Fig. 1. As indicated in this figure, the current-sheet separates the source of the normal magnetic field components from the detector in such a way that the electric and magnetic properties of the current-sheet can be a major factor affecting the strength of the detected signals. The purpose of the present study is, therefore, to perform a detailed investigation on the effect of the material properties of the current-sheet on the detected signal strength and to establish a simple theoretical model for the detection mechanism.

  20. Myths, Artifacts, and Fatal Flaws: Identifying Limitations and Opportunities in Vitamin C Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Michels


    Full Text Available Research progress to understand the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid in human health has been slow in coming. This is predominantly the result of several flawed approaches to study design, often lacking a full appreciation of the redox chemistry and biology of ascorbic acid. In this review, we summarize our knowledge surrounding the limitations of common approaches used in vitamin C research. In human cell culture, the primary issues are the high oxygen environment, presence of redox-active transition metal ions in culture media, and the use of immortalized cell lines grown in the absence of supplemental ascorbic acid. Studies in animal models are also limited due to the presence of endogenous ascorbic acid synthesis. Despite the use of genetically altered rodent strains lacking synthesis capacity, there are additional concerns that these models do not adequately recapitulate the effects of vitamin C deprivation and supplementation observed in humans. Lastly, several flaws in study design endemic to randomized controlled trials and other human studies greatly limit their conclusions and impact. There also is anecdotal evidence of positive and negative health effects of vitamin C that are widely accepted but have not been substantiated. Only with careful attention to study design and experimental detail can we further our understanding of the possible roles of vitamin C in promoting human health and preventing or treating disease.

  1. Assessment of item-writing flaws in multiple-choice questions. (United States)

    Nedeau-Cayo, Rosemarie; Laughlin, Deborah; Rus, Linda; Hall, John


    This study evaluated the quality of multiple-choice questions used in a hospital's e-learning system. Constructing well-written questions is fraught with difficulty, and item-writing flaws are common. Study results revealed that most items contained flaws and were written at the knowledge/comprehension level. Few items had linked objectives, and no association was found between the presence of objectives and flaws. Recommendations include education for writing test questions.

  2. Perioperative mortality in cats and dogs undergoing spay or castration at a high-volume clinic. (United States)

    Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A


    High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  4. High volume microinfusion suppresses local astrocyte response within nucleus basalis of rat. (United States)

    Bjelobaba, I; Saponjic, J


    Our study investigates the impact of different volume sham control and excitotoxin microinfusions in vivo on local reactive astroglial response within rat nucleus basalis (NB). We followed the effects of unilateral 200, 100, and 50 nL of sham-control (phosphate buffer PBS) versus ibotenic acid (IBO) microinfusions, mechanical NB lesion (10 µL Hamylton syringe needle positioned into NB for 5 min), or physiological control (intact brain), on the local reactive astroglial response within the NB site, by immunoreactivity against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). NB lesions were identified by NADPHdiaphorase histochemistry. Local astrocytes responses within NB were suppressed by both high volume microinfusions, PBS and IBO (200 and 100 nL) versus mechanical lesion. Our study has proved, for the first time, the volume of microinfusion as critical for any selective pharmacological stimulation or lesion in vivo, and suggest the microinfusion volume less than 50nL as protective for physiological astroglial reactivity.

  5. Design Flaws and Service System Breakdowns: Learning from Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ing


    Full Text Available In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers?  In the 21st century, the types of project with which designers have become engaged has expanded to include service systems.  Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies.  Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries.  Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems.  As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as a starting context.  These conditions are presented neither as rigourously defined nor as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement.

  6. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct? (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison


    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. An Analysis of the Flaws in the Spanish Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Spanish Tragedy, written by Thomas Kyd in the late 1580s, was the grandfather of all revenge tragedies. It estab-lished a new genre named revenge tragedy in English theater. Its well-developed characters, timeless themes, dramatic intrigue and pioneering adoption of blank verse enabled it to be viewed as a classic of London theater. Yet it also has received criticisms over the past centuries. Based on Aristotle's opinion of a perfect tragedy in"Poetics", this paper aims to point out the flaws of the play from five perspectives:the fate of Hieronimo, the cause of it, Bel-imperia's sudden love for Horatio, subplot concern-ing Villuppo and Alexandro, the discovery and the diction.

  8. Detecting flaws in Portland cement concrete using TEM horn antennae (United States)

    Al-Qadi, Imad L.; Riad, Sedki M.; Su, Wansheng; Haddad, Rami H.


    To understand the dielectric properties of PCC and better correlate them with type and severity of PCC internal defects, a study was conducted to evaluate PCC complex permittivity and magnetic permeability over a wideband of frequencies using both time domain and frequency domain techniques. Three measuring devices were designed and fabricated: a parallel plate capacitor, a coaxial transmission line, and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antennae. The TEM horn antenna covers the microwave frequencies. The measurement technique involves a time domain setup that was verified by a frequency domain measurement. Portland cement concrete slabs, 60 by 75 by 14 cm, were cast; defects include delamination, delamination filled with water, segregation, and chloride contamination. In this paper, measurements using the TEM horn antennae and the feasibility of detecting flaws at microwave frequency are presented.

  9. Profitable failure: antidepressant drugs and the triumph of flawed experiments. (United States)

    McGoey, Linsey


    Drawing on an analysis of Irving Kirsch and colleagues' controversial 2008 article in "PLoS [Public Library of Science] Magazine" on the efficacy of SSRI antidepressant drugs such as Prozac, I examine flaws within the methodologies of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have made it difficult for regulators, clinicians and patients to determine the therapeutic value of this class of drug. I then argue, drawing analogies to work by Pierre Bourdieu and Michael Power, that it is the very limitations of RCTs -- their inadequacies in producing reliable evidence of clinical effects -- that help to strengthen assumptions of their superiority as methodological tools. Finally, I suggest that the case of RCTs helps to explore the question of why failure is often useful in consolidating the authority of those who have presided over that failure, and why systems widely recognized to be ineffective tend to assume greater authority at the very moment when people speak of their malfunction.

  10. Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Compensated by Metakaolin or Silica Fume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The compressive strength and dynamic modulus of high volume fly ash concrete with incorporation of either metakaolin or silica fume were investigated. The water to cementitious materials ratio was kept at 0.4 for all mixtures. The use of high volume fly ash in concrete greatly reduces the strength and dynamic modulus during the first 28 days. The decreased properties during the short term of high volume fly ash concrete is effectively compensated by the incorporation of metakaolin or silica fume. The DTA results confirmed that metakaolin or silica fume increase the amount of the hydration products. An empirical relationship between dynamic modulus and compressive strength of concrete has been obtained. This relation provides a nondestructive evaluation for estimating the strength of concrete by use of the dynamic modulus.

  11. Effects of high intensity training and high volume training on endothelial microparticles and angiogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    Full Text Available AIMS: Endothelial microparticles (EMP are complex vesicular structures shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. As endurance exercise affects the endothelium, the objective of the study was to examine levels of EMP and angiogenic growth factors following different endurance exercise protocols. METHODS: 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High volume training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO; 2. 4 × 4 min at 95% PPO; 3. 4 × 30 sec all-out. EMPs were quantified using flow cytometry after staining platelet-poor-plasma. Events positive for Annexin-V and CD31, and negative for CD42b, were classified as EMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, migratory inhibiting factor (MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF were determined by ELISA technique. For all these measurements venous blood samples were taken pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after each intervention. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to explore the effect of collected sera on target endothelial functions and MP uptake capacities. RESULTS: VEGF and HGF significantly increased after HIT interventions. All three interventions caused a significant decrease in EMP levels post exercise compared to pre values. The sera taken after exercise increased the uptake of EMP in target endothelial cells compared to sera taken under resting conditions, which was shown to be phosphatidylserin-dependent. Increased EMP uptake was associated with an improved protection of target cells against apoptosis. Sera taken prior and after exercise promoted target endothelial cell migration, which was abrogated after inhibition of VEGF. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise leads to decreased EMP levels and promotes a phosphatidylserin-dependent uptake of EMP into target endothelial cells, which is associated with a protection of target cells against apoptosis.

  12. Real-time volumetric visualization of high-resolution array and toroidal volume search sonar data (United States)

    Cross, Robert A.


    The Advanced Volume Visualization Display (AVVD) research program is a joint research program between the Fraunhofer Center for Research in Computer Graphics, Inc. and Innovative Research and Development Corp. It is dedicated the application of the human visual system to real-time visualization of high- resolution volumetric sensor data sets. The AVVD program has successfully demonstrated its application to undersea imaging using data from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center -- Division Newport's High Resolution Array (HRA), and from the Naval Surface Warfare Center -- Coastal System Stations's Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS).

  13. Simulation and detection of flaws in pre-cured CFRP using laser displacement sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miesen, N.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.


    The novelty of the research is the detection of different types of flaws in the prepreg carbon fibre-reinforced fibres (CFRP) layup compared to in cured products. This paper presents the development of a new method for in situ detection of prepreg CFRP production flaws combining laser displacement s

  14. High-Resolution Finite Volume Modeling of Wave Propagation in Orthotropic Poroelastic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, Grady I; LeVeque, Randall J


    Poroelasticity theory models the dynamics of porous, fluid-saturated media. It was pioneered by Maurice Biot in the 1930s through 1960s, and has applications in several fields, including geophysics and modeling of in vivo bone. A wide variety of methods have been used to model poroelasticity, including finite difference, finite element, pseudospectral, and discontinuous Galerkin methods. In this work we use a Cartesian-grid high-resolution finite volume method to numerically solve Biot's equations in the time domain for orthotropic materials, with the stiff relaxation source term in the equations incorporated using operator splitting. This class of finite volume method has several useful properties, including the ability to use wave limiters to reduce numerical artifacts in the solution, ease of incorporating material inhomogeneities, low memory overhead, and an explicit time-stepping approach. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first use of high-resolution finite volume methods to model poroelasticity. T...

  15. Cohesive zone modelling of interface fracture near flaws in adhesive joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Feraren; Jensen, Henrik Myhre


    A cohesive zone model is suggested for modelling of interface fracture near flaws in adhesive joints. A shear-loaded adhesive joint bonded with a planar circular bond region is modelled using both the cohesive zone model and a fracture mechanical model. Results from the models show good agreement...... of crack propagation on the location and shape of the crack front and on the initial joint strength. Subsequently, the cohesive zone model is used to model interface fracture through a planar adhesive layer containing a periodic array of elliptical flaws. The effects of flaw shape are investigated, as well...... on the fracture process zone width relative to the flaw dimensions. It is also seen that with increasing fracture process zone width, the strength variation with the flaw shape decreases, however, the strength is effected over a wider range of propagation, (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Compact high order finite volume method on unstructured grids III: Variational reconstruction (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ren, Yu-Xin; Pan, Jianhua; Li, Wanai


    This paper presents a variational reconstruction for the high order finite volume method in solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary unstructured grids. In the variational reconstruction, an interfacial jump integration is defined to measure the jumps of the reconstruction polynomial and its spatial derivatives on each cell interface. The system of linear equations to determine the reconstruction polynomials is derived by minimizing the total interfacial jump integration in the computational domain using the variational method. On each control volume, the derived equations are implicit relations between the coefficients of the reconstruction polynomials defined on a compact stencil involving only the current cell and its direct face-neighbors. The reconstruction and time integration coupled iteration method proposed in our previous paper is used to achieve high computational efficiency. A problem-independent shock detector and the WBAP limiter are used to suppress non-physical oscillations in the simulation of flow with discontinuities. The advantages of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction over the compact least-squares finite volume method proposed in our previous papers are higher accuracy, higher computational efficiency, more flexible boundary treatment and non-singularity of the reconstruction matrix. A number of numerical test cases are solved to verify the accuracy, efficiency and shock-capturing capability of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction.

  17. High versus standard volume enteral feeds to promote growth in preterm or low birth weight infants. (United States)

    Abiramalatha, Thangaraj; Thomas, Niranjan; Gupta, Vijay; Viswanathan, Anand; McGuire, William


    Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To assess the effect on growth and safety of feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with high (> 200 mL/kg/d) versus standard (≤ 200 mL/kg/d) volume of enteral feeds. Infants in intervention and control groups should have received the same type of milk (breast milk, formula, or both), the same fortification or micronutrient supplements, and the same enteral feeding regimen (bolus, continuous) and rate of feed volume advancement.To conduct subgroup analyses based on type of milk (breast milk vs formula), gestational age or birth weight category of included infants (very preterm or VLBW vs preterm or LBW), presence of intrauterine growth restriction (using birth weight relative to the reference population as a surrogate), and income level of the country in which the trial was conducted (low or middle income vs high income) (see 'Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity'). We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy, which included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1946 to November 2016); Embase (1974 to November 2016); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to November 2016), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial

  18. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15...

  19. Topical therapy with high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations in difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Macoto Kosugi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is termed difficult-to-treat when patients do not reach acceptable level of control despite adequate surgery, intranasal corticosteroid treatment and up to 2 short courses of systemic antibiotics or corticosteroids in the preceding year. Recently, high-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations have been recommended for CRS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations for difficult-to-treat CRS. METHODS: Prospective uncontrolled intervention trial. Participants were assessed before- and 3 months after nasal irrigation with 1 mg of budesonide in 500 mL of saline solution daily for 2 days. Subjective (satisfactory clinical improvement and objective (SNOT-22 questionnaire and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores assessments were performed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included, and 13 (81.3% described satisfactory clinical improvement. SNOT-22 mean scores (50.2-29.6; p = 0.006 and Lund-Kennedy mean scores (8.8-5.1; p = 0.01 improved significantly. Individually, 75% of patients improved SNOT-22 scores, and 75% improved Lund-Kennedy scores after high volume budesonide nasal irrigations. CONCLUSION: High-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations are a good option in difficult-to-treat CRS control of disease, reaching 81.3% success control and significant improvement of SNOT-22 and Lund-Kennedy scores.

  20. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes


    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  1. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.


    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume




  3. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory. (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C


    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.




  5. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V


    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  6. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes


    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control t

  7. Operating manual for the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Volume I. Description of the facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains a comprehensive description of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility. Its primary purpose is to supplement the detailed operating procedures, providing the reactor operators with background information on the various HFIR systems. The detailed operating procdures are presented in another report.

  8. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.


    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  9. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke;


    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT c...

  10. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surfacetreatment by a pulsed volume discharge


    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, Sergey Viktorovich


    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the r...

  11. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others


    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  12. Pre-referral rectal artesunate in severe malaria: flawed trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premji Zulfiqarali G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas. Enrolling nearly 18,000 cases, the aim was to evaluate whether, as patients were in transit to a health facility, a pre-referral artesunate suppository blocked disease progression sufficiently to reduce these risks. The affirmative findings of this, the only trial on the issue thus far, have led the WHO to endorse rectal artesunate as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. In the light of its public health importance and because its scientific quality has not been assessed for a systematic review, our paper provides a detailed evaluation of the design, conduct, analysis, reporting, and practical features of this trial. Results We performed a checklist-based and an in-depth evaluation of the trial. The evaluation criteria were based on the CONSORT statement for reporting clinical trials, the clinical trial methodology literature, and practice in malaria research. Our main findings are: The inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sample size justification are not stated. Many clearly ineligible subjects were enrolled. The training of the recruiters does not appear to have been satisfactory. There was excessive between center heterogeneity in design and conduct. Outcome evaluation schedule was not defined, and in practice, became too wide. Large gaps in the collection of key data were evident. Primary endpoints were inconsistently utilized and reported; an overall analysis of the outcomes was not done; analyses of time to event data had major flaws; the stated intent-to-treat analysis excluded a third of the randomized subjects; the design

  13. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine. (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan


    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4-6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions.

  14. Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder (United States)

    Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I.; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki


    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are significantly at high-risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents with (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdala volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. PMID:22041532

  15. High volume Pozzolan concrete:three years of industrial experience in Texas with CemPozz


    Pike, Clinton W; Ronin, Vladimir; ELFGREN, Lennart


    High Volume Pozzolan Concrete (HVPC) can be manufactured with low carbon dioxide footprint and energy consumption with the help of a new technology based on Energetically Modified Cement (EMC). The technology consists of mechanical processing a blend of ordinary portland cement (PC) and a pozzolan (Class F fly ash) through multiple high intensity grinding mills. The process imparts an increased surface activation of the PC and the pozzolan particles. Fly ash may be processed with all cements ...

  16. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation: Pneumotachograph Validation and Tidal Volume Analysis (United States)


    Meredith Pride for their invaluable research efforts. Table 3. Mean Difference in High-Frequency VT* Relative to Test- Lung VT† Difference in High...respiratory gas on pneumotachographic measurement of ventilation in newborn infants. Biomed Tech 1994;39(4):85-92. 15. Jackson AC, Vinegar A. A technique...for measuring frequency re- sponse of pressure, volume, and flow transducers. J Appl Physiol 1979;47(2):462-467. 16. Finucane KE, Egan BA, Dawson SV

  17. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  18. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes


    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has a highly competitive alcoholic beverage market. All role players in this market place a huge emphasis on service delivery and customer service.Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations.Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale.Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction.Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers.Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension. 

  19. New England journal of medicine article evaluating the usefulness of meniscectomy is flawed. (United States)

    Elattrache, Neal; Lattermann, Christian; Hannon, Michael; Cole, Brian


    A controversial article was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine titled "Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy Versus Sham Surgery for a Degenerative Meniscal Tear" by Sihvonen et al. We believe that readers of this article should be careful about making sweeping generalizations regarding the study findings given several methodologic flaws inherent in the population studied. There are significant concerns regarding the generalizability of these data. The actual study sample group is exceedingly small as compared with the normal volume of meniscal surgery the authors are reported to routinely perform. The authors' definition of a sham procedure must be revisited. The authors' final conclusion that "arthroscopic partial meniscectomy is of no value" is simply not what the study found. We share the concerns that several other leading authorities have recently expressed about the societal implications of this work. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy has revolutionized the way we are able to treat symptomatic meniscal pathology. However, this procedure, like all surgical procedures, must be properly indicated to truly benefit our patients. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Your flaws are my pain: linking empathy to vicarious embarrassment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Krach

    Full Text Available People vicariously experience embarrassment when observing others' public pratfalls or etiquette violations. In two consecutive studies we investigated the subjective experience and the neural correlates of vicarious embarrassment for others in a broad range of situations. We demonstrated, first, that vicarious embarrassment was experienced regardless of whether the observed protagonist acted accidentally or intentionally and was aware or unaware that he/she was in an embarrassing situation. Second, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we showed that the anterior cingulate cortex and the left anterior insula, two cortical structures typically involved in vicarious feelings of others' pain, are also strongly implicated in experiencing the 'social pain' for others' flaws and pratfalls. This holds true even for situations that engage protagonists not aware of their current predicament. Importantly, the activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and the left anterior insula positively correlated with individual differences in trait empathy. The present findings establish the empathic process as a fundamental prerequisite for vicarious embarrassment experiences, thus connecting affect and cognition to interpersonal processes."When we are living with people who have a delicate sense of propriety, we are in misery on their account when anything unbecoming is committed. So I always feel for and with Charlotte when a person is tipping his chair. She cannot endure it." [Elective Affinities, J. W. Goethe].

  1. Enron Flaws In Organizational Architecture And Its Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A series of corporate scandals at the beginning of last decade has given rise to the doubt on the efficiency of corporate governance practice in the United States. Of these scandals the collapse of Enron has exceptionally captured the public concern. It was the once seventh-largest company in the United States 1. It was rated the most innovative large company in America in Fortunes Most Admired Companies survey 2. In August 2000 its stock reached a peak of nearly 70 billion 3. However within a year its stock had become almost useless papers 2. It just was unbelievable for many people. What went wrong Was it due to the failure of corporate governance in general Actually the central factor leading to the collapse of Enron was the failure in its organizational architecture. This paper starts by providing an overview of corporate governance system with an emphasis on the corporate organizational architecture as its important facet. Then it discusses flaws in the organizational architecture of Enron and argues that these eventually led to the breakdown of the whole corporate governance system at Enron. Finally some implications and lessons for the practice of corporate governance are presented.

  2. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.


    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  3. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map (United States)

    Kim, K. M.


    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  4. Characterization of constraint effects on flaw growth. [in graphite-epoxy composite materials (United States)

    Yeung, P. C.; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.


    Experimental results have been presented for the case of a flawed unidirectional lamina constrained by off-axis unflawed plies under static and fatigue loading. Flaw growth in the interior of the laminate, around the embedded flaw, was followed by nondestructive testing methods including video-thermographs and ultrasonic C-scan schemes. Two aspects of the results were distinctive. There was an effort of lamination on damage development which was independent of the presence of the notch, and effects which were directly related to the influence of the notch on the local situation. The results are compared with sectioning studies, surface replication, and stiffness change measurements.

  5. A taxonomy of reasoning flaws in the anti-vaccine movement. (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Targonski, Paul V; Poland, Gregory A


    In a scholarly analysis of widely held misconceptions, Gilovich provides a classification scheme of common flaws in reasoning seen in contemporary society. He broadly categorizes these flaws as having cognitive determinants or in having motivational and social determinants. In this survey, the authors examine the various claims against routine childhood and adult vaccines as made by the more public and more organized entities of the anti-vaccine movement as well as those made apparent by surveys of parents and other groups of individuals. The claims illustrate the breadth of reasoning flaws while providing a basis for anticipating and correcting them.

  6. Fetal lung volume measurement by MRI with high-speed imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Hisao; Kaku, Kenshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Hospital


    Although ultrasonography is widely used for fetal morphologic observation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained popularity as a new prenatal diagnostic method with recent introduction of high-speed imaging systems. Infants with lung hypoplasia affecting respiratory function require intensive management starting immediately after birth. Therefore, accurate prenatal differential diagnosis and severity evaluation are extremely important for these fetuses. The aim of this study is to measure fetal lung volume using a computer-based, three-dimensional MRI imaging system and to evaluate the possibility of clinical applications of this procedure. A total of 96 fetuses were evaluated, all were morphologically abnormal, and MRI was done for advanced assessment from 24 to 39 weeks gestation. Three-directional views of fetal chest were imaged by Signa Horizon, 1.5 Tesla, version 5.6 (General Electronics) with the following conditions; coil: TORSO coil, sequence: SSFSE (single shot fast spin echo), slice thickness: 5 mm, and imaging speed: 2 seconds/slice. To calculate the lung volume and create three-dimensional image, the lung area in each slice was traced out, then multiplied using computer image processing. Simultaneously, the volumes of all slices were summed to give the volume of each lung. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for statistical analyses. In all cases, clear images were obtained, and were adequate for three-dimensional evaluation of the fetal lung. Thirty-five fetuses had poor outcomes, such as intrauterine fetal death, neonatal death, and intensive respiratory care. Regression lines of lung volume versus gestational week were calculated for these fetuses with poor outcome and 61 other fetuses with good outcome. ANCOVA, with gestational week as a covariant, revealed a significant intergroup difference in the lung volume (p<0.001). Similarly, regression lines of lung volume versus fetal body weight estimated by

  7. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)


    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  8. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kronebusch


    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use.

  9. High Volume Throughput Computing: Identifying and Characterizing Throughput Oriented Workloads in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Sun, Ninghui; Wang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie


    For the first time, this paper systematically identifies three categories of throughput oriented workloads in data centers: services, data processing applications, and interactive real-time applications, whose targets are to increase the volume of throughput in terms of processed requests or data, or supported maximum number of simultaneous subscribers, respectively, and we coins a new term high volume throughput computing (in short HVC) to describe those workloads and data center systems designed for them. We characterize and compare HVC with other computing paradigms, e.g., high throughput computing, warehouse-scale computing, and cloud computing, in terms of levels, workloads, metrics, coupling degree, data scales, and number of jobs or service instances. We also preliminarily report our ongoing work on the metrics and benchmarks for HVC systems, which is the foundation of designing innovative data center systems for HVC workloads.

  10. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.A.; Bevan, C.; Beyer, B.K. (Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ (United States))


    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  11. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.


    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  12. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi


    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  13. Frequency dependence of lung volume changes during superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation. (United States)

    Sütterlin, R; Priori, R; Larsson, A; LoMauro, A; Frykholm, P; Aliverti, A


    Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) has proved to be safe and effective in clinical practice. However, it is unclear which frequency range optimizes ventilation and gas exchange. The aim of this study was to systematically compare high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) with HFJV by assessing chest wall volume variations (ΔEEV(CW)) and gas exchange in relation to variable high frequency. SHFJV or HFJV were used alternatively to ventilate the lungs of 10 anaesthetized pigs (21-25 kg). The low-frequency component was kept at 16 min(-1) in SHFJV. In both modes, high frequencies ranging from 100 to 1000 min(-1) were applied in random order and ventilation was maintained for 5 min in all modalities. Chest wall volume variations were obtained using opto-electronic plethysmography. Airway pressures and arterial blood gases were measured repeatedly. SHFJV increased ΔEEV(CW) compared with HFJV; the difference ranged from 43 to 68 ml. Tidal volume (V(T)) was always >240 ml during SHFJV whereas during HFJV ranged from 92 ml at the ventilation frequency of 100 min(-1) to negligible values at frequencies >300 min(-1). We observed similar patterns for Pa(O₂) and Pa(CO₂). SHFJV provided generally higher, frequency-independent oxygenation (Pa(O₂) at least 32.0 kPa) and CO₂ removal (Pa(CO₂) ∼5.5 kPa), whereas HFJV led to hypoxia and hypercarbia at higher rates (Pa(O₂) 10 kPa at f(HF)>300 min(-1)). In a porcine model, SHFJV was more effective in increasing end-expiratory volume than single-frequency HFJV, but both modes may provide adequate ventilation in the absence of airway obstruction and respiratory disease, except for HFJV at frequencies ≥300 min(-1).

  14. Low variation and high reproducibility in plaque volume with intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Pedersen, Knud Erik;


    by electrocardiographic-gated three-dimensional (3D) IVUS in 20 male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). RESULTS: The study lesions were angiographically insignificant, with a length of the analysed segment on 11.4+/-5.9 mm. At baseline the mean minimal lumen diameter was 2.41+/-0.59 mm, minimal lumen area 4.......82+/-2.38 mm2, and maximal plaque burden 65.61+/-9.57%. Mean reference diameter was 3.1+/-0.6 mm. No significant changes were observed in volumes of total vessel, lumen or plaque. The coefficient of variation (CV) for two volume measurements at baseline was: vessel 0.8%, plaque 1.3%, and lumen 1.......4%. For measurements recorded at baseline and after 12.6+/-1.5 weeks, CV was respectively 3.5%, 3.3% and 6.6%. Reproducibility and interobserver and intraobserver variation showed very high correlations. A linear correlation was present in percent changes over 12.6+/-1.5 weeks between vessel volume and lumen volume (r...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva


    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  16. Protein-bound toxins: added value in their removal with high convective volumes. (United States)

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; Reque, Javier Eduardo; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In recent years, protein-bound toxins have become more important due to their association with increased morbidity and mortality, characterised by inadequate clearance during dialysis. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of high convective volumes on postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on the removal of medium-sized molecules, small molecules and protein-bound molecules.

  17. Volume structuring of high power LED encapsulates by femtosecond laser direct writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuna, L.; Sommer, C.; Zinterl, E.; Krenn, J.R.; Wenzl, F.P. [Joanneum Research Forschungsges. mbH, Institute of Nanostructured Materials and Photonics, Weiz (Austria); Pachler, P.; Hartmann, P.; Tasch, S. [TridonicAtco Optoelectronics GmbH, Jennersdorf (Austria); Leising, G. [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz (Austria)


    We report on the micro-fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) such as 1D, 2D and concentric grating structures inside the volume of thin silicone films by femtosecond laser direct writing. In addition, we show that such structures can also be integrated into silicone films that act as encapsulation layers of high power light-emitting diodes. The latter strategy opens new possibilities to homogenize and to control the light emitted from such devices. (orig.)

  18. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source (United States)

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming


    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  19. High-throughput in-volume processing in glass with isotropic spatial resolutions in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yuanxin; Chu, Wei; Liao, Yang; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya


    We report on fabrication of three dimensional (3D) microstructures in glass with isotropic spatial resolutions. To achieve high throughput fabrication, we expand the focal spot size with a low-numerical-aperture lens, which naturally results in a degraded axial resolution. We solve the problem with simultaneous spatial temporal focusing which leads to an isotropic laser-affected volume with a spatial resolution of ~100 micron.

  20. A reliable and consistent production technology for high volume compacted graphite iron castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jincheng


    The demands for improved engine performance, fuel economy, durability, and lower emissions provide a continual chalenge for engine designers. The use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) has been established for successful high volume series production in the passenger vehicle, commercial vehicle and industrial power sectors over the last decade. The increased demand for CGI engine components provides new opportunities for the cast iron foundry industry to establish efficient and robust CGI volume production processes, in China and globaly. The production window range for stable CGI is narrow and constantly moving. Therefore, any one step single addition of magnesium aloy and the inoculant cannot ensure a reliable and consistent production process for complicated CGI engine castings. The present paper introduces the SinterCast thermal analysis process control system that provides for the consistent production of CGI with low nodularity and reduced porosity, without risking the formation of lfake graphite. The technology is currently being used in high volume Chinese foundry production. The Chinese foundry industry can develop complicated high demand CGI engine castings with the proper process control technology.

  1. Feasibility tests on concrete with very-high-volume supplementary cementitious materials. (United States)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Jeon, Yong-Su


    The objective of this study is to examine the compressive strength and durability of very high-volume SCM concrete. The prepared 36 concrete specimens were classified into two groups according to their designed 28-day compressive strength. For the high-volume SCM, the FA level was fixed at a weight ratio of 0.4 and the GGBS level varied between the weight ratio of 0.3 and 0.5, which resulted in 70-90% replacement of OPC. To enhance the compressive strength of very high-volume SCM concrete at an early age, the unit water content was controlled to be less than 150 kg/m(3), and a specially modified polycarboxylate-based water-reducing agent was added. Test results showed that as SCM ratio (R SCM) increased, the strength gain ratio at an early age relative to the 28-day strength tended to decrease, whereas that at a long-term age increased up to R SCM of 0.8, beyond which it decreased. In addition, the beneficial effect of SCMs on the freezing-and-thawing and chloride resistances of the concrete decreased at R SCM of 0.9. Hence, it is recommended that R SCM needs to be restricted to less than 0.8-0.85 in order to obtain a consistent positive influence on the compressive strength and durability of SCM concrete.

  2. Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with Natural Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE


    Full Text Available Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating san fibres are presented in this paper. For this investigation, initially, three concrete mixtures were made with 35%, 45%, and 55% of Class F fly as partial replacement of cement. After this, three percentages (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75% of san fibres (25 mm length were added in each of the fly ash concrete mixtures. San is a natural bast fibre, and is also known as Sunn Hemp (Botanical name: Crotalaria Juncea. It is grown in Indian Sub-Continent, Brazil, Eastern and Southern Africa, and also in some parts of U.S.A. Tests were performed for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength at the ages of 28, 91 and 365 days. Tests were also performed for fresh concrete properties. 28 days test results indicated that san fibres reduced the compressive strength of high-volume fly ash concrete by 2 to 13%, increased splitting tensile strength by 6 to 26%, flexural strength by 5 to 14%, and enhanced impact strength tremendously (by 100 to 300% depending upon the fly ash content and fibre percentage. Later age (91 and 365 days results showed continuous increase in strength properties of high-volume fly ash concrete. This was probably be possible due to the pozzolanic action of fly ash, leading to more densification of the concrete matrix, and development of more effective bond between fibres and fly ash concrete matrix.

  3. SAFT inspections for developing empirical database of fabrication flaws in nuclear reactor pressure vessels (United States)

    Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Pardini, Allan F.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a methodology for estimating the size and density distribution of fabrication flaws in U.S. nuclear reactor pressure vessels. This involves the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reactor pressure vessel materials and the destructive validation of the flaws found. NDE has been performed on reactor pressure vessel material made by Babcock & Wilcox and Combustion Engineering. A metallographic analysis is being performed to validate the flaw density and size distributions estimated from the 2500 indications of fabrication flaws that were detected and characterized in the very sensitive SAFT-UT (synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing) inspection data from the Pressure Vessel Research User Facility (PVRUF) vessel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Research plans are also described for expanding the work to include other reactor pressure vessel materials.

  4. Fracture characteristics of structural aerospace alloys containing deep surface flaws. [aluminum-titanium alloys (United States)

    Masters, J. N.; Bixler, W. D.; Finger, R. W.


    Conditions controlling the growth and fracture of deep surface flaws in aerospace alloys were investigated. Static fracture tests were performed on 7075-T651 and 2219-T87 aluminum, and 6Ai-4V STA titanium . Cyclic flaw growth tests were performed on the two latter alloys, and sustain load tests were performed on the titanium alloy. Both the cyclic and the sustain load tests were performed with and without a prior proof overload cycle to investigate possible growth retardation effects. Variables included in all test series were thickness, flaw depth-to-thickness ratio, and flaw shape. Results were analyzed and compared with previously developed data to determine the limits of applicability of available modified linear elastic fracture solutions.

  5. Unaccompanied asylum-seeker children: flawed processes and protection gaps in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Bianchini


    Full Text Available My experience of working as an immigration lawyer on unaccompanied asylum-seeker children’s cases has highlighted a number of serious flaws in the processes which determine their futures....

  6. Assessment of strength limiting flaws in ceramic heat exchanger components: Phase 1, Final report, September 28, 1984-June 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.; Snyder, J.


    Assurance of energy efficient design lifetimes of high temperature structural ceramics requires the ability to specify acceptance criteria and to test to those criteria. These criteria will be established through nondestructive testing, to determine which defects are detectable, together with fracture mechanics, to calculate effects of indetectable flaws. The first phase of this program is to examine heat exchanger material with four test methods which have shown promise for use in ceramics; ultrasonic scanning, microfocus x-ray, Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope, and Acoustic Holography. The capabilities, limits, and potential for improvement of these are presented in this report. Destructive testing, material sectioning, and fractography are included. 24 refs., 68 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume I (United States)


    i pi» ■«■■i . ilMi<MI««iPMpM«l««P«nMVHV*W«nPW- AD-A007 340 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS...OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME I By Alan J. Stewart 6 December 1974 Approved for Public Release... Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types 7. AH r:i.iR(JJ Alan J. Stewart 9. Pr.fii-OFIMING OiiüANIi ATION NAMI A’JD AOOMESS Bradford

  8. Approximating the volume of unions and intersections of high-dimensional geometric objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Karl


    We consider the computation of the volume of the union of high-dimensional geometric objects. While showing that this problem is #P-hard already for very simple bodies (i.e., axis-parallel boxes), we give a fast FPRAS for all objects where one can: (1) test whether a given point lies inside the object, (2) sample a point uniformly, (3) calculate the volume of the object in polynomial time. All three oracles can be weak, that is, just approximate. This implies that Klee's measure problem and the hypervolume indicator can be approximated efficiently even though they are #P-hard and hence cannot be solved exactly in time polynomial in the number of dimensions unless P=NP. Our algorithm also allows to approximate efficiently the volume of the union of convex bodies given by weak membership oracles. For the analogous problem of the intersection of high-dimensional geometric objects we prove #P-hardness for boxes and show that there is no multiplicative polynomial-time $2^{d^{1-\\epsilon}}$-approximation for certain...

  9. Resistance to Corrosion of Reinforcement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. O.; Bae, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S. H. [Korea Confirmity Laboratories, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Due to the increasing of interest about the eco-friendly concrete, it is increased to use concretes containing by-products of industry such as fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS), silica fume(SF), and etc. Especially, these are well known for improving the resistances to reinforcement corrosion in concrete and decreasing chloride ion penetration. The purpose of this experimental research is to evaluate the resistance against corrosion of reinforcement of high volume fly ash(HVFA) concrete which is replaced with high volume fly ash for cement volume. For this purpose, the concrete test specimens were made for various strength level and replacement ratio of FA, and then the compressive strength and diffusion coefficient for chloride ion of them were measured for 28, 91, and 182 days, respectively. Also, corrosion monitoring by half cell potential method was carried out for the made lollypop concrete test specimens to detect the time of corrosion initiation for reinforcement in concrete. As a result, it was observed from the test results that the compressive strength of HVFA concrete was decreased with increasing replacement ratio of FA but long-term resistances against reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion penetration of that were increased.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Chen ZHOU


    High volume conveyor systems in distribution centers have very large footprint and can handle large volumes and hold thousands of items. Traditional discrete-event cell-based approach to simulate such networks becomes computationally challenging. An alternative approach, in which the traffic is represented by segments of fluid flow of different density instead of individual packages, is presented in this paper to address this challenge. The proposed fluid-based simulation approach is developed using a Hybrid Petri Nets framework. The underlying model is a combination of an extension of a Batches Petri Nets (BPN) and a Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). The extensions are in the inclusion of random elements and relaxation of certain structural constraints. Some adaptations are also made to fit the target system modeling. The approach is presented with an example.

  11. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen


    for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A high-resolution finite volume numerical method for solving the shallow water equations is developed in this paper. In order to extend finite difference TVD scheme to finite volume method, a new geometry and topology of control bodies is defined by considering the corresponding relationships between nodes and elements. This solver is implemented on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes and their satellite elements, and based on a second-order hybrid type of TVD scheme in space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta method in time discretization. Then it is used to deal with two typical dam-break problems and very satisfactory results are obtained comparied with other numerical solutions. It can be considered as an efficient implement for the computation of shallow water problems, especially concerning those having discontinuities, subcritical and supercritical flows and complex geometries.

  13. Low-cost preparation of mesoporous silica with high pore volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuling Shen; Wei Wu; Kai Guo; Jianfeng Chen


    Mesoporous silica materials with high pore volume were successfully prepared by the chemical precipitation method, with water glass and a biodegradable nonionic surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). The obtained materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the changes of the pore parameters depended on both the surfactant content and heat treatment temperature. When the content of PEG was 10wt% and the obtained PEG/SiO2 composite was heated at 600℃, the mesoporous silica with a pore volume of 2.2 cm3/g, a BET specific surface area of 361.55 m2/g, and a diameter of 2-4 μm could be obtained. The obtained mesoporous silica materials have potential applications in the fields of paint and plastic, as thickening, reinforcing, and flatting agents.

  14. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenberg, T J; Vahala, K J


    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume V . Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than $10^{6}(\\lambda/n)^{-3}$. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of $2.8\\times10^{6}$ is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing

  15. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip (United States)

    Kippenberg, T. J.; Spillane, S. M.; Vahala, K. J.


    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume (V). Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than 106(λ/n)-3. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of >2.8×106 is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing.

  16. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.


    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  17. Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers. (United States)

    Drachenberg, Derrek R; Andrusyak, Oleksiy; Venus, George; Smirnov, Vadim; Glebov, Leonid B


    High-radiance lasers are desired for many applications in defense and manufacturing. Spectral beam combining (SBC) by volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) is a very promising method for high-radiance lasers that need to achieve 100 kW level power. Laser-induced heating of VBGs under high-power radiation presents a challenge for maintaining Bragg resonance at various power levels without mechanical realignment. A novel thermal tuning technique and apparatus is presented that enables maintaining peak efficiency operation of the SBC system at various power levels without any mechanical adjustment. The method is demonstrated by combining two high-power ytterbium fiber lasers with high efficiency from low power to full combined power of 300 W (1.5 kW effective power), while maintaining peak combining efficiency within 0.5%.

  18. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.


    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  19. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon


    High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young\\'s modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Béton - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete\\'s mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development (United States)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.


    Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  1. Entropy and volume change of dissociation in tobacco mosaic virus probed by high pressure. (United States)

    Bispo, Jose A C; Bonafe, Carlos F S; Joekes, Ines; Martinez, Ernesto A; Carvalho, Giovani B M; Norberto, Douglas R


    Virus dissociation and inactivation by high pressure have been extensively studied in recent decades. Pressure-induced dissociation of viral particles involves a reduction in the Gibbs free energy of dissociation and a negative change in volume. In this work, we investigated the combined effect of high pressure and temperature on the dissociation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). We assumed the presence of two states of TMV with different tendencies to dissociate. Thus one form presents a low tendency (L) and the other a high tendency (H) to dissociate. Based on the model described here, the L-H transition was favored by an increase in pressure and a decrease in temperature. The volume change of dissociation was pressure- and temperature-dependent, with a highly negative value of -80 mL/mol being recorded at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure. The entropy and enthalpy of dissociation were very temperature- and pressure-dependent, with values of entropy of 450 to -1300 kJ/mol and values of enthalpy of 5.5 × 10(4) to 2.4 × 10(4) kJ/mol. The dissociation of TMV was enthalpy-driven at all temperatures and pressures investigated. Based on these findings, we conclude that the model presented allows accurate predictions of viral dissociation behavior in different experimental conditions.

  2. High Volume Manufacturing of NanoEngineered High ZT Thermoelectrics for Multiple Energy Generation Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMI has teamed with a leading thermoelectric (TE) research group in order to optimize and convert high-performance TE materials developed in laboratory-scale into...

  3. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.


    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  5. 77 FR 28281 - Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume... (United States)


    ... issue of March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15609) (FRL-9335-6). If you have questions regarding the applicability of... One High Production Volume Chemical Substance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... production volume chemicals (HPV1). * * * * * (j) * * * Table 2--Chemical Substances and Testing...

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  7. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  9. Association of Competition Volume, Club Sports, and Sport Specialization With Sex and Lower Extremity Injury History in High School Athletes. (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A


    High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ(2) = 84.7, P sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized, potentially placing them at increased risk of injury. Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of intense, year-round participation in organized sports.

  10. Sulfate resistance of concrete containing high volume of mineral admixtures[ACI SP-234-37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irassar, E.F. [Buenos Aires Central State Univ., Olavarria (Argentina). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Batic, O.R. [La Plata Univ., (Argentina)]|[Commission of Scientific Research of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Maio, A. [La Plata Technilogical Univ. (Argentina)]|[CONICET-LEMIT (Argentina); Ponce, J.M. [LEMIT-CIC (Argentina)]|[La Plata Univ. (Argentina). Faculty of Natural Sciences


    Various physical and chemical processes that influence the durability of concrete structures were discussed. For underground or on grade structures, the durability of concrete depends on the chemical composition of concrete and the concentration of ionic species present in the soil or groundwater, the permeability of soil, exposition to water, the flow of water, and the shape and size of structure. It also depends on the quality of concrete in terms of compaction, water to cementitious ratio, cementitious content, type of cementitious materials, and curing process. The rate and course of concrete deterioration also depends on environmental conditions such as low temperature, temperature cycles between day and night, and the relative humidity of ambient air. Durable foundations in a sulfate environment require a low permeability concrete in order to assure good compaction and curing procedures. The type of cementitious material is also important in preventing deterioration. This paper summarized 15 years of results related to the effect of high volume mineral admixtures on the sulfate resistance of concrete. A mechanism of concrete degradation was presented based on macroscopic and microscopic behaviour. The physical and chemical attack produced by sulfate soils was emphasized. The presentation outlined the materials used, mixture proportions, curing, exposure conditions, inspection, compressive strength test methods and microstructural analyses. It was shown that a combination of portland cement with a high volume of appropriate fly ash, natural pozzolan or granulated blast-furnace slag provides an excellent performance for concrete structures buried in harsh alkali sulfate soils. Concretes with high volume of mineral admixtures are more susceptible to the physical salt attack caused by cycles of wetting and drying that produce progressive scaling and mass loss. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  11. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  12. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin


    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of defects. Part 4. Study of realistic flaws in welded carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingvall, F.; Stepinski, T. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Signals and Systems


    This report treats the ultrasonic measurements performed on the new V-welded carbon steel blocks and development of the algorithms for feature extraction, flaw position estimation, etc. Totally 36 different defects, divided into 8 types, were manufactured and implanted into the V-welds in the steel blocks. The flaw population can also be divided in two major groups: sharp flaws (various types of cracks and lack of fusion) and soft types of flaws (slag, porosity and over penetration). A large amount of B- and D-scan measurements were performed on these flaws using 6 different transducers. The evaluation of these measurements resulted in the conclusion that the signal variation for the same type of defects is rather large compared to the variation found in signals from artificial and simulated defects. The steel block measurements also revealed that some of the defects were hard to distinguish, particularly if traditional features like fall/raise times, pulse duration and echo dynamics are used. To overcome this difficulty more powerful feature extraction methods were proposed, like the discrete wavelet transform and principal component analysis. Another important subject that is treated in this report is the estimation of flaw positions from B-scans. The previously used, one dimensional method, appeared to be sensitive to errors in the steel block measurements which, in some cases, resulted in poor flaw position estimates. Therefore, a two dimensional approach was proposed which should result in more robust estimates due to the larger amount of data that is used for the estimation.

  14. UCLA High Speed, High Volume Laboratory Network for Infectious Diseases. Addendum (United States)


    neuraminidase activity? Does resistance in influenza A/H1N1 imply a chance that resistance will develop in highly pathogenic avian A/H5N1 viruses, which bear the...could
 cross‐ contaminate

  15. Analysis of volume expansion data for periclase, lime, corundum and spinel at high temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Singh; H Chandra; R Shyam; A Singh


    We have presented an analysis of the volume expansion data for periclase (MgO), lime (CaO), corundum (Al2O3) and spinel (MgAl2O4) determined experimentally by Fiquet et al (1999) from 300K up to 3000K. The thermal equation of state due to Suzuki et al (1979) and Shanker et al (1997) are used to study the relationships between thermal pressure and volume expansion for the entire range of temperatures starting from room temperature up to the melting temperatures of the solids under study. Comparison of the results obtained in the present study with the corresponding experimental data reveal that the thermal pressure changes with temperature almost linearly up to quite high temperatures. At extremely high temperatures close to the melting temperatures thermal pressure deviates significantly from linearity. This prediction is consistent with other recent investigations. A quantitative analysis based on the theory of anharmonic effects has been presented to account for the nonlinear variation of the thermal pressure at high temperatures.

  16. In situ synthesis of calcium phosphate-polycaprolactone nanocomposites with high ceramic volume fractions. (United States)

    Makarov, C; Gotman, I; Jiang, X; Fuchs, S; Kirkpatrick, C J; Gutmanas, E Y


    Biodegradable calcium phosphate-PCL nanocomposite powders with unusually high ceramic volume fractions (80-95%) and uniform PCL distribution were synthesized by a non-aqueous chemical reaction in the presence of the dissolved polymer. No visible polymer separation occurred during processing. Depending on the reagents combination, either dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or Ca-deficient HA (CDHA) was obtained. CDHA-PCL composite powders were high pressure consolidated at room temperature yielding dense materials with high compressive strengths. Such densification route provides the possibility of incorporating drug and proteins without damaging their biological activity. The CDHA-PCL composites were tested in osteoblastic and endothelial cell line cultures and were found to support the attachment and proliferation of both cell types.

  17. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J


    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  18. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nyberg, Michael Permin


    to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min...... adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function...

  19. Fresh properties of high-volume fly ash self consolidating concretes[ACI SP-235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmaran, M.; Yaman, I.O.; Tokyay, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has excellent deformability, high resistance to segregation and can be filled into heavily reinforced molds without applying vibration. In addition to these technical advantages, SCC shortens construction time and guarantees higher durability and strength. Self consolidating characteristics are typically achieved using new generation superplasticizers to provide the required flowability. However, plasticizers reduce the viscosity of the SCC. The required cohesion can be achieved by a variety of methods, including the use of viscosity modifying admixtures, but all of the methods increase the cost of SCC. For that reason, mineral admixtures or inert materials such as limestone powder, natural pozzolans and fly ash (FA) are used to increase the viscosity and to reduce the cost of SCC. FA, a by-product of thermal power plants, has been shown to improve the mechanical properties and durability of concrete when used as a cement replacement material. This study evaluated the effects of adding high volumes of high-lime and low-lime FA on the fresh properties of SCCs. Properties of SCC in the fresh and hardened states with both high-lime and low-lime FA types were also examined. Following the mixing procedure, tests were performed on the fresh concrete to determine slump flow time to reach a concrete 500 mm spread circle and diameter, V-funnel flow time, L-box test, GTM sieve stability, setting times, and rheological parameters, relative yield stress and plastic viscosity. During the slump flow test, segregation and bleeding were also visually checked. The results of density and compressive strength of hardened SCC mixtures at 28 and 90 days were also presented. It was concluded that the addition of low-lime FA at high volumes reduced the water requirement of the SCC mixture. Slump flow time, V-funnel flow time and the relative plastic viscosity were related to the viscosity of concrete. The segregation resistance, L-box height ratio and

  20. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery (United States)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin


    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  1. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Christianto


    Full Text Available LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI, the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  2. Total pancreatectomy: Short- and long-term outcomes at a high-volume pancreas center (United States)

    Zakaria, Hazem M; Stauffer, John A; Raimondo, Massimo; Woodward, Timothy A; Wallace, Michael B; Asbun, Horacio J


    AIM To identify the current indications and outcomes of total pancreatectomy at a high-volume center. METHODS A single institutional retrospective study of patients undergoing total pancreatectomy from 1995 to 2014 was performed. RESULTS One hundred and three patients underwent total pancreatectomy for indications including: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 42, 40.8%), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (n = 40, 38.8%), chronic pancreatitis (n = 8, 7.8%), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (n = 7, 6.8%), and miscellaneous (n = 6, 5.8%). The mean age was 66.2 years, and 59 (57.3%) were female. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) underwent a laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Splenic preservation and portal vein resection and reconstruction were performed in 24 (23.3%) and 18 patients (17.5%), respectively. The 90 d major complications, readmission, and mortality rates were 32%, 17.5%, and 6.8% respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival for patients with benign indications were 84%, 82%, 79.5%, and 75.9%, and for malignant indications were 64%, 40.4%, 34.7% and 30.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION Total pancreatectomy, including laparoscopic total pancreatectomy, appears to be an appropriate option for selected patients when treated at a high-volume pancreatic center and through a multispecialty approach. PMID:27721927

  3. Changes in perceived recovery status scale following high-volume muscle damaging resistance exercise. (United States)

    Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Laurent, C Matthew; Wilson, Stephanie M-C; Hesson, Domini; Naimo, Marshall A; Averbuch, Brian; Gilchrist, Phil


    Currently no research has investigated the relationship between muscle damage, hormonal status, and perceived recovery scale (PRS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high-volume training session on PRS and to determine the relationship between levels of testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase (CK) and PRS. Thirty-five trained subjects (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were recruited. All subjects participated in a high-volume resistance training session consisting of 3 sets of full squats, bench press, deadlifts, pullups, dips, bent over rows, shoulder press, and barbell curls and extensions. Pre-PRS and post-PRS measurements (0-10), soreness, CK, cortisol, and testosterone were measured before and 48 hours after training. Perceived recovery scale declined from 8.6 ± 2.3 to 4.2 ± 1.85 (p Creatine kinase significantly increased from pre- to postworkout (189.4 ± 100.2 to 512 ± 222.7 U/L). Cortisol, testosterone, and free testosterone did not change. There was an inverse relationship between CK and PRS (r = 0.58, p resistance exercise lowers PRS scores. These changes are partly explained by a rise in serum indices of muscle damage. Moreover, free testosterone seems to have a positive relationship with PRS.

  4. Multivariate process modeling of high-volume manufacturing of consumer electronics (United States)

    Asp, Stefan; Wide, Peter


    As production volumes continue to increase and the global market for consumer electronics is getting fiercer, the need for a reliable and essentially fault-free production process is becoming a necessity to survive. The manufacturing processes of today are highly complex and the increasing amount of process data produced in making it hard to unravel the useful information extracted from a huge data set. We have used multivariate and nonlinear process modeling to examine the surface mount production process in a high volume manufacturing of mobile telephones and made an artificial neural network model of the process. As input parameters to the model we have used process data logged by an automatic test equipment and the result variables come from an Automatic Inspection system placed after the board manufacturing process. Using multivariate process modeling has enabled us to identify parameters, which contributes heavily to the quality of the product and can further be implemented to optimize the manufacturing process for system production faults.

  5. Single CMOS sensor system for high resolution double volume measurement applied to membrane distillation system (United States)

    Lorenz, M. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Sanchez-Reillo, R.; Fernandez-Pineda, C.


    Membrane distillation (MD) [1] is a relatively new process that is being investigated world-wide as a low cost, energy saving alternative to conventional separation processes such as distillation and reverse osmosis (RO). This process offers some advantages compared to other more popular separation processes, such as working at room conditions (pressure and temperature); low-grade, waste and/or alternative energy sources such as solar and geothermal energy may be used; a very high level of rejection with inorganic solutions; small equipment can be employed, etc. The driving force in MD processes is the vapor pressure difference across the membrane. A temperature difference is imposed across the membrane, which results in a vapor pressure difference. The principal problem in this kind of system is the accurate measurement of the recipient volume change, especially at very low flows. A cathetometer, with up to 0,05 mm resolution, is the instrument used to take these measurements, but the necessary human intervention makes this instrument not suitable for automated systems. In order to overcome this lack, a high resolution system is proposed, that makes automatic measurements of the volume of both recipients, cold and hot, at a rate of up to 10 times per second.

  6. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under...

  7. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Poh -Sang [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Materials Science and Technology; Sindelar, Robert L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Materials Science and Technology


    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  8. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multiple-purpose canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Materials Science and Technology; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Materials Science and Technology


    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic In-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  9. Development and application of an LWR reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R. (Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States))


    Previous efforts by the US Department of Energy have shown that the PWR reactor vessel integrity predictions performed through probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for a pressurized thermal shock event are significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modern vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. The methodology helped provide original insight into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. This paper briefly discusses the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses.

  10. Development and application of an LWR reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R. [Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Previous efforts by the US Department of Energy have shown that the PWR reactor vessel integrity predictions performed through probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for a pressurized thermal shock event are significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modern vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. The methodology helped provide original insight into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. This paper briefly discusses the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses.

  11. Statistical flaw characterization through Bayesian shape inversion from scattered wave observations (United States)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Criner, Amanda K.


    A method is discussed to characterize the shape of a flaw from noisy far-field measurements of a scattered wave. The scattering model employed is a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation which quantifies scattering due to interrogating signals from various physical phenomena such as acoustics or electromagnetics. The well-known inherent ill-posedness of the inverse scattering problem is addressed via Bayesian regularization. The method is loosely related to the approach described in [1] which uses the framework of [2] to prove the well-posedness of the infinite-dimensional problem and derive estimates of the error for a particular discretization approach. The method computes the posterior probability density for the flaw shape from the scattered field observations, taking into account prior assumptions which are used to describe any a priori knowledge of the flaw. We describe the computational approach to the forward problem as well as the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based approach to approximating the posterior. We present simulation results for some hypothetical flaw shapes with varying levels of observation error and arrangement of observation points. The results show how the posterior probability density can be used to visualize the shape of the flaw taking into account the quantitative confidence in the quality of the estimation and how various arrangements of the measurements and interrogating signals affect the estimation

  12. Predicting Flaw-Induced Resonance Spectrum Shift with Theoretical Perturbation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Canhai; Sun, Xin


    Resonance inspection is an emerging non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique which uses the resonance spectra differences between the good part population and the flawed parts to identify anomalous parts. It was previously established that finite-element (FE)-based modal analysis can be used to predict the resonance spectrum for an engineering scale part with relatively good accuracy. However, FE-based simulations can be time consuming in examining the spectrum shifts induced by all possible structural flaws. This paper aims at developing a computationally efficient perturbation technique to quantify the frequency shifts induced by small structural flaws, based on the FE simulated resonance spectrum for the perfect part. A generic automotive connecting rod is used as the example part for our study. The results demonstrate that the linear perturbation theory provides a very promising way in predicting frequency changes induced by small structural flaws. As the flaw size increases, the discrepancy between the perturbation analysis and the actual FE simulation results increases due to nonlinearity, yet the perturbation analysis is still able to predict the right trend in frequency shift.

  13. A comparison of 1D and 1.5D arrays for imaging volumetric flaws in small bore pipework (United States)

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.


    1.5D arrays can be seen as a potentially ideal compromise between 1D arrays and 2D matrix arrays in terms of focusing capability, element density, weld coverage and data processing time. This paper presents an initial study of 1D and 1.5D arrays for high frequency (15MHz) imaging of volumetric flaws in small-bore (30-60mm outer diameter) thin-walled (3-8mm) pipework. A combination of 3D modelling and experimental work is used to determine Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement with a strong relationship between SNR and the longer dimension of element size observed. Similar behavior is demonstrated experimentally rendering a 1mm diameter Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in Copper-Nickel alloy undetectable using a larger array element. A 3-5dB SNR increase is predicted when using a 1.5D array assuming a spherical reflector and a 2dB increase was observed on experimental trials with a FBH. It is argued that this improvement is likely to be a lower bound estimate due to the specular behavior of a FBH with future trials planned on welded samples with realistic flaws.

  14. "openness of search engine": A critical flaw in search systems; a case study on google, yahoo and bing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Katuru SM Kalyana


    There is no doubt that Search Engines are playing a great role in Internet usage. But all the top search engines Google, Yahoo and Bing are having a critical flaw called "Openness of a Search Engine". An Internet user should be allowed to get the search results only when requested through Search engine's web page but the user must not be allowed to get the search results when requested through any web page that does not belong to the Search Engine. Only results of a search engine should be available to the Internet user but not the Search Engine. This paper explains the critical flaw called "Openness of Search Engine" with a case study on top 3 search engines 'Google', 'Yahoo' and 'Bing'. This paper conducts an attack based test using J2EE framework and proves that 'Google' passed the test and it strongly protects its Critical Search System, where 'Yahoo' and 'Bing' are failed to protect their Search Engines. But previously 'Google' also had other high severity issues with the Openness of search engine; this ...

  15. PowerPoint® Presentation Flaws and Failures: A Psychological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Michael Kosslyn


    Full Text Available Electronic slideshow presentations are often faulted anecdotally, but little empirical work has documented their faults. Three studies reported here document psychological causes of their flaws. In Study 1 we found that eight psychological principles are often violated in PowerPoint® presentations, across different fields—for example, academic research presentations generally were no better or worse than business presentations. In Study 2 we found that respondents reported having noticed, and having been annoyed by, specific problems in presentations arising from violations of particular psychological principles. Finally, in Study 3 we showed that observers are not highly accurate in recognizing when slides violated a specific psychological rule. Furthermore, even when they correctly identified the violation, they often could not explain the nature of the problem. In sum, the psychological foundations for effective slideshow presentation design are neither obvious nor necessarily intuitive, and presentation designers in all fields, from education to business to government, could benefit from explicit instruction in relevant aspects of psychology.

  16. Toward smart aerospace structures: design of a piezoelectric sensor and its analog interface for flaw detection. (United States)

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Fourniols, Jean-Yves


    Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures' reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure's integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated.

  17. Flaws detection and localization in weld structure using the topological energy method (United States)

    Lubeigt, Emma; Mensah, Serge; Rakotonarivo, Sandrine; Chaix, Jean-François; Gobillot, Gilles; Baqué, François


    The non-destructive testing of austenitic welds using ultrasound plays an important role in the assessment of the structural integrity and safety of critical structures in a nuclear reactor. The bedspring and the deck are complex welded structures of very restricted access; the ability to reliably detect and locate defects like cracks is therefore a difficult challenge. Ultrasonic testing is a well-recognized non-invasive technique which exhibits high characterization performances in homogeneous media (steel). However, its capabilities are hampered when operating in heterogeneous and anisotropic austenitic welds because of deviation and splitting of the ultrasonic beam. In order to rise to this important challenge, a model-based method is proposed, which takes into account a prior knowledge corresponding to the welding procedure specifications that condition the austenitic grains orientation within the weld and thus the wave propagation. The topological imaging method implemented is a differential approach which, compares signals from the reference defect-free medium to the inspected medium. It relies on combinations of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. Numerical simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the practical relevance of this approach to detect and locate a flaw in a weld.

  18. Toward Smart Aerospace Structures: Design of a Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Analog Interface for Flaw Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Boukabache


    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures’ reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure’s integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated.

  19. Toward Smart Aerospace Structures: Design of a Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Analog Interface for Flaw Detection (United States)

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Fourniols, Jean-Yves


    Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures' reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure's integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated. PMID:25365457

  20. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q


    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  1. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin


    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  2. Middleware Proxy: A Request-Driven Messaging Broker For High Volume Data Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Sliwinski, W; Dworak, A


    Nowadays, all major infrastructures and data centres (commercial and scientific) make an extensive use of the publish-subscribe messaging paradigm, which helps to decouple the message sender (publisher) from the message receiver (consumer). This paradigm is also heavily used in the CERN Accelerator Control system, in Proxy broker - critical part of the Controls Middleware (CMW) project. Proxy provides the aforementioned publish-subscribe facility and also supports execution of synchronous read and write operations. Moreover, it enables service scalability and dramatically reduces the network resources and overhead (CPU and memory) on publisher machine, required to serve all subscriptions. Proxy was developed in modern C++, using state of the art programming techniques (e.g. Boost) and following recommended software patterns for achieving low-latency and high concurrency. The outstanding performance of the Proxy infrastructure was confirmed during the last 3 years by delivering the high volume of LHC equipment...

  3. High-Throughput Spheroid Screens Using Volume, Resazurin Reduction, and Acid Phosphatase Activity. (United States)

    Ivanov, Delyan P; Grabowska, Anna M; Garnett, Martin C


    Mainstream adoption of physiologically relevant three-dimensional models has been slow in the last 50 years due to long, manual protocols with poor reproducibility, high price, and closed commercial platforms. This chapter describes high-throughput, low-cost, open methods for spheroid viability assessment which use readily available reagents and open-source software to analyze spheroid volume, metabolism, and enzymatic activity. We provide two ImageJ macros for automated spheroid size determination-for both single images and images in stacks. We also share an Excel template spreadsheet allowing users to rapidly process spheroid size data, analyze plate uniformity (such as edge effects and systematic seeding errors), detect outliers, and calculate dose-response. The methods would be useful to researchers in preclinical and translational research planning to move away from simplistic monolayer studies and explore 3D spheroid screens for drug safety and efficacy without substantial investment in money or time.

  4. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, S. V.


    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface.

  5. Formation and ridging of flaw leads in the eastern Canadian Beaufort Sea. Special Session C06 on: “Physical, biological and biogeochemical processes associated with young thin ice types” (United States)

    Prinsenberg, S. J.


    Formation and ridging of flaw leads in the eastern Canadian Beaufort Sea. Simon Prinsenberg1 and Yves Graton2 1Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada P.O. Box1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2, Canada 2Inst. National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, INRS-ETE University of Quebec at Quebec City, Quebec During the winter of 2008, the flaw lead south of Banks Island repeatedly opened and closed representing an elongated region where periodically the large ice growth stimulates the densification of the surface layer due to salt rejection and instigates a local circulation pattern that will affect the biological processes of the region. Helicopter-borne sensors were available to monitor the aftermath of one of the rapid closing of the flaw lead into extensive elongated rubble field using a Canadian Ice breaker, CCGS Amundsen, as a logistic base. After the wind reversed a new open flaw lead 20km wide restarting a new flaw lead formation cycle. Ice thickness and surface roughness data were collected from the rubble field and adjacent open flaw lead with an Electromagnetic-Laser system. The strong wind event of April 4-5 2009 generated a large linear 1.5km wide ice rubble field up to 8-10m thick when the 60cm thick, 18km wide flaw lead was crunched into land-fast by the 1.5m thick offshore pack ice. It is expected that during rapid ice growth in a flaw lead, salt rejection increase the density of the surface water layer producing a surface depression (Low) and cyclonic circulation. In contrast at depth, the extra surface dense water produces a high in the horizontal pressure field and anti-cyclonic circulation which remains after the rapid ice growth within the flaw lead stops. One of such remnants may have been observed during the CFL-IPY winter survey.

  6. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  7. Mixing subattolitre volumes in a quantitative and highly parallel manner with soft matter nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sune M.; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Hatzakis, Nikos;


    Handling and mixing ultrasmall volumes of reactants in parallel can increase the throughput and complexity of screening assays while simultaneously reducing reagent consumption. Microfabricated silicon and plastic can provide reliable fluidic devices, but cannot typically handle total volumes sma...

  8. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  9. Determination of Flaw Size and Depth From Temporal Evolution of Thermal Response (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Cramer, Elliott; Howell, Patricia A.


    Simple methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of flaws have tended to be based on either the spatial or temporal response. This independent assessment limits the accuracy of characterization. A variational approach is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for a flaw that incorporates both the temporal and spatial response to improve the characterization. The size and depth are determined from both the temporal and spatial thermal response of the exterior surface above a flaw and constraints on the length of the contour surrounding the delamination. Examples of the application of the technique to simulation and experimental data acquired are presented to investigate the limitations of the technique.

  10. Investigation and characterization of constraint effects on flaw growth during fatigue loading of composite materials (United States)

    Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.; Yeung, P.; Gibbins, M. N.


    An investigative program is presented in an attempt to add to the current understanding of constraint effects on the response of composite materials under cyclic loading. The objectives were: (1) to use existing data and to develop additional data in order to establish an understanding and quantitative description of flaw growth in unidirectional lamina under cyclic loading at different load direction to fiber direction angles; (2) to establish a similar understanding and description of flaw growth in lamina which are embedded in laminates between other unflawed lamina; (3) to determine the nature of the influence of constraint on flaw growth by quantitatively comparing the results of the tests; and (4) to develop a model and philosophy of constraints effects based on our investigative results.

  11. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.

  12. Probabilistic integrity assessment of CANDU pressure tube for the consideration of flaw generation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Seong [Kyonggi Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youn Won [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper describes a Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) analysis based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. In the analysis of CANDU pressure tube, it is necessary to perform the PFM analyses based on statistical consideration of flaw generation time. A depth and an aspect ratio of initial semi-elliptical surface crack, a fracture toughness value, Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) velocity, and flaw generation time are assumed to be probabilistic variables. In all the analyses, degradation of fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation is considered. Also, the failure criteria considered are plastic collapse, unstable fracture and crack penetration. For the crack growth by DHC, the failure probability was evaluated in due consideration of flaw generation time.

  13. Adherence to enhanced recovery after surgery protocols across a high-volume gastrointestinal surgical service. (United States)

    Hammond, John S; Humphries, Sarah; Simson, Nick; Scrimshaw, Helen; Catton, James; Gornall, Christopher; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles


    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been shown to improve outcomes for patients following gastrointestinal surgery. Data on protocol adherence and how this impacts on outcome are limited. This study examines how protocol adherence changes over time and determines how this impacts on outcome across a large-volume gastrointestinal surgical service. A prospective review of patients eligible for colorectal, liver and oesophagogastric ERAS over two 3-month periods in 2010 and 2011 was performed. End points included: length of stay (LOS), overall protocol adherence, individual modality adherence, reason for pathway deviation and patient outcomes. 172 patients (110 colorectal, 31 liver and 31 oesophagogastric) were evaluated. For each sub-speciality, the introduction of ERAS led to significant reductions in LOS that were sustained for the duration of the study. Adherence was achieved across 60% (colorectal), 75% (liver) and 88% (oesophagogastric) of individual pathway modalities. The major causes of pathway deviation were: post-operative nausea and vomiting (colorectal), pain (liver) and pulmonary complications (oesophagogastric). Large-scale implementation of ERAS at a high-volume centre is feasible and offers many of the benefits demonstrated in controlled trials, but adherence may diminish over time. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Desorption of Herbicides from Atmospheric Particulates During High-Volume Air Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight V. Quiring


    Full Text Available Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF, often in combination with an adsorbent resin such as XAD-2, to capture pesticides present as vapours, is generally employed during atmospheric monitoring for pesticides. However, the particulate fraction may be underestimated because some pesticides may be stripped or desorbed from captured particulates due to the pressure drop created by the high flow of air through the filter. This possibility was investigated with ten herbicide active ingredients commonly used on the Canadian prairies (dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate, diclofop methyl ester, fenoxaprop ethyl ester, trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin and seven hydrolysis products (2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, bromoxynil, diclofop, clopyralid and mecoprop. Finely ground heavy clay soil fortified with active ingredients/hydrolysis products was evenly distributed on the glass fibre filters of high-volume air samplers and air aspirated through the samplers at a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h for a 7-day period. The proportion desorbed as vapour from the fortified soil was determined by analysis of the PUF/XAD-2 resin composite cartridges. The extent of desorption from the fortified soil applied to the filters varied from 0% for each of the dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba to approximately 50% for trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin.

  15. Volume and Pressure Delivery During Pediatric High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation. (United States)

    Wong, Ronald; Deakers, Timothy; Hotz, Justin; Khemani, Robinder G; Ross, Patrick A; Newth, Christopher J


    Identify variables independently associated with delivered tidal volume (VT) and measured mean airway pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation across the range of pediatric endotracheal tube sizes. In vitro study. Research laboratory. An in vitro bench model of the intubated pediatric respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was used to obtain delivered VT and mean airway pressure (in the distal lung) for various endotracheal tube sizes. Measurements were taken at different combinations of ventilator set mean airway pressure (Paw), amplitude (ΔP), frequency, and test lung compliance. Multiple regression analysis was used to construct multivariable models predicting delivered VT and mean airway pressure. Variables independently associated with higher delivered VT for all endotracheal tube sizes include higher ΔP (p frequency (p frequency and ΔP magnifies the delivered VT when ΔP is high and frequency is low (p frequency increases (p frequency in delivered VT and the effect of ΔP and frequency on delivered mean airway pressure. These results demonstrate the need to measure or estimate VT and delivered pressures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and may be useful in determining optimal strategies for lung protective ventilation during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

  16. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett


    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  17. The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study. (United States)

    Barber, D. G.; Iacozza, J.


    The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study supported a large multidisciplinary overwintering in the Banks Island (NT) flaw lead over the period September 2007 to August 2008. The CFL system is formed when the central pack ice (which is mobile) moves away from coastal fast ice, opening a flaw lead. The CFL forms in the fall and continues as thin ice or open water throughout the winter. The flaw lead is circumpolar, with recurrent and interconnected polynyas occurring throughout the Arctic. The overarching objectives of the CFL project were to contrast the physical and biological systems of the flaw lead open water and thin ice to the adjacent landfast ice cover. The Canadian Research Icebreaker (NGCC Amundsen) completed the first-ever overwintering of a research icebreaker in the flaw lead. She supported a total of 11,000 person days distributed across 295 investigators from 28 different countries, making the CFL project the largest single IPY effort in the northern hemisphere. The project obtained many first-ever measurements of a complete suite of physical, biogeochemical, contaminant and marine ecosystem variables across the open water - fast ice contrast. Throughout the project we recognized that Inuvialuit and western science have two different ways of understanding the dramatic changes that are occurring in this sector of the Arctic. This ‘two-ways-of-knowing' saw the integration of traditional knowledge studies with the science teams onboard the Amundsen. We present information on the design of the project, an overview of the sampling program completed, highlight the scientific programs conducted, and provide some preliminary results. We conclude with an overview of the various outreach programs including a World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) competition and ‘Schools on Board' programs.

  18. Imaging flaws in thin metal plates using a magneto-optic device (United States)

    Wincheski, B.; Prabhu, D. R.; Namkung, M.; Birt, E. A.


    An account is given of the capabilities of the magnetooptic/eddy-current imager (MEI) apparatus in the case of aging aircraft structure-type flaws in 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. Attention is given to images of cyclically grown fatigue cracks from rivetted joints in fabricated lap-joint structures, electrical discharge machining notches, and corrosion spots. Although conventional eddy-current methods could have been used, the speed and ease of MEI's use in these tests is unmatched by such means. Results are displayed in real time as a test piece is scanned, furnishing easily interpreted flaw images.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Hong-wei; MA Yi-chen; ZHANG Zhi-bin; WANG Ying-xi; CAO Jian-feng


    Eddy-current inverse technique is a very important method to reconstruct the shape of flaws or cracks. Using the domain derivative of the far-field pattern for eddy-current inverse problem with Dirichlet boundary condition, a new algorithm to recover the shape of cracks was constructed and some numerical examples were given.The algorithm demonstrates that the algorithm is feasible and correct for obtaining a reasonable reconstruction of a shape of flaws or cracks from the far-field measurements even though using less data of directions of incidence and observations for fewer wave numbers are gived.

  20. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press (United States)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron


    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  1. Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process. (United States)

    Orcutt, Jason S; Tang, Sanh D; Kramer, Steve; Mehta, Karan; Li, Hanqing; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J


    We measure end-of-line polysilicon waveguide propagation losses of ~6-15 dB/cm across the telecommunication O-, E-, S-, C- and L-bands in a process representative of high-volume product integration. The lowest loss of 6.2 dB/cm is measured at 1550 nm in a polysilicon waveguide with a 120 nm x 350 nm core geometry. The reported waveguide characteristics are measured after the thermal cycling of the full CMOS electronics process that results in a 32% increase in the extracted material loss relative to the as-crystallized waveguide samples. The measured loss spectra are fit to an absorption model using defect state parameters to identify the dominant loss mechanism in the end-of-line and as-crystallized polysilicon waveguides.

  2. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William


    An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  3. High-order conservative reconstruction schemes for finite volume methods in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Mignone, A


    High-order reconstruction schemes for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are revised in the finite volume approach. The formulation employs a piecewise polynomial approximation to the zone-average values to reconstruct left and right interface states from within a computational zone to arbitrary order of accuracy by inverting a Vandermonde-like linear system of equations with spatially varying coefficients. The approach is general and can be used on uniform and non-uniform meshes although explicit expressions are derived for polynomials from second to fifth degree in cylindrical and spherical geometries with uniform grid spacing. It is shown that, in regions of large curvature, the resulting expressions differ considerably from their Cartesian counterparts and that the lack of such corrections can severely degrade the accuracy of the solution close to the coordinate origin. Limiting techniques and monotonicity constraints are revised for conventional reconstruct...

  4. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng


    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  5. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng


    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  6. Community-based risk assessment of water contamination from high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Penningroth, Stephen M; Yarrow, Matthew M; Figueroa, Abner X; Bowen, Rebecca J; Delgado, Soraya


    The risk of contaminating surface and groundwater as a result of shale gas extraction using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has not been assessed using conventional risk assessment methodologies. Baseline (pre-fracking) data on relevant water quality indicators, needed for meaningful risk assessment, are largely lacking. To fill this gap, the nonprofit Community Science Institute (CSI) partners with community volunteers who perform regular sampling of more than 50 streams in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of upstate New York; samples are analyzed for parameters associated with HVHHF. Similar baseline data on regional groundwater comes from CSI's testing of private drinking water wells. Analytic results for groundwater (with permission) and surface water are made publicly available in an interactive, searchable database. Baseline concentrations of potential contaminants from shale gas operations are found to be low, suggesting that early community-based monitoring is an effective foundation for assessing later contamination due to fracking.

  7. Mechanical behavior of LC4 alloy in semisolid state at high volume fractions of solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mechanical behavior of LC4 alloy in the semisolid state at high volume fractions of solid has been studied through unconstrictive compressing test. The results show that peak stress mainly depends on grain boundary's cohesion and instantaneous strain rate sensitivity in the semisolid state, which is similar to that in the solid state. Analyses on microstructures and status of compressive stress of specimen demonstrate that segregation of liquid-solid phase is mainly affected by strain rate and deformation temperature. There are mainly two kinds of flow in liquid phase: either from the region with relatively large hydrostatic compressive stress to the region with relatively small hydrostatic compressive stress or from the grain boundaries perpendicular to the compression axis to the grain boundaries with a certain directional angle to the compression direction. Based on the above results, compressive deformation mechanism mainly depends on deformation temperature, strain rate and stress state.

  8. High-volume hydrodissection: increasing the safety and efficiency of perforator dissection. (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Fanzio, Paolo M; Lee, Ethan T; Chang, Chee J; Lee, Bernard T; Cheng, Ming-Huei


    Although perforator flaps have advanced the field of reconstructive microsurgery, these flaps increase operative time and difficulty of dissection. A prospective experimental animal study was performed to study the use of high-volume hydrodissection to simultaneously decrease the operative time while increasing the safety of perforator dissection. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral "deep inferior epigastric perforator" flap dissections with hydrodissection used on the study side and a traditional dissection performed on the control side. Primary outcome measurements included dissection time and dissection difficulty score (1-5 in order of increasing difficulty). The mean (SD) dissection time for the hydrodissected perforators was 9.29 (2.50) minutes versus 13.22 (2.44) minutes for the control perforators (P dissection difficulty score was 4.44 (0.73) for the dissection of the control side compared with 1.69 (0.87) for the hydrodissected side (P dissection time and difficulty.

  9. Transport and mechanical properties of self consolidating concrete with high volume fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Ismail O. Yaman; Mustafa Tokyay [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering


    This paper presents the transport and mechanical properties of self consolidating concrete that contain high percentages of low-lime and high-lime fly ash (FA). Self consolidating concretes (SCC) containing five different contents of high-lime FA and low-lime FA as a replacement of cement (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 by weight of total cementitious material) are examined. For comparison, a control SCC mixture without any FA was also produced. The fresh properties of the SCCs were observed through, slump flow time and diameter, V-funnel flow time, L-box height ratio, and segregation ratio. The hardened properties included the compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage and transport properties (absorption, sorptivity and rapid chloride permeability tests) up to 365 days. Test results confirm that it is possible to produce SCC with a 70% of cement replacement by both types of FA. The use of high volumes of FA in SCC not only improved the workability and transport properties but also made it possible to produce concretes between 33 and 40 MPa compressive strength at 28 days, which exceeds the nominal compressive strength for normal concrete (30 MPa).

  10. Nanoimprint system development and status for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Takashima, Tsuneo; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nishimura, Naosuke; Emoto, Keiji; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Atsushi; Choi, Jin; Schumaker, Philip


    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made overlay, throughput and defectivity and to introduce the FPA-1200NZ2C cluster system designed for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices. in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Overlay results better than 5nm 3sigma have been demonstrated. To further enhance overlay, wafer chucks with improved flatness have been implemented to reduce distortion at the wafer edge. To address higher order corrections, a two part solution is discussed. An array of piezo actuators can be applied to enable linear corrections. Additional reductions in distortion can then be addressed by the local heating of a wafer field. The NZ2C cluster platform for high volume manufacturing is also discussed. System development continues this year with a target for introduction later in 2016. The first application is likely to be NAND Flash memory, and eventual use for DRAM and logic devices as both overlay and defectivity improve.

  11. Inspection technique of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates using stress-induced light scattering method (United States)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Sakai, Kazufumi; Nonaka, Kazuhiro


    The fine polishing technique, e.g. Chemical Mechanical Polishing treatment (CMP), is one of the most important techniques in the glass substrate manufacturing. However, mechanical interaction, e.g. friction, occurs between the abrasive and the surface of substrates. Therefore, latent flaws are formed in the surfaces of glass substrates depending on the polishing condition. In the case of the cleaning process of the glass substrate in which the latent flaws existed, latent flaws become obvious because glass surfaces were eaten away by chemical interaction of cleaning liquid. Therefore, latent flaws are the cause of decrease the yield of products. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, e.g. light scattering method, foreign matter on the surface of glass substrates. Though, it is difficult to detect the latent flaws by these method, because these are closed. The present authors propose a novel inspection technique of latent flaws which occurred by the fine polishing technique, using light scattering method with stress concentration (Stress-Induced Light scattering Method; SILSM). SILSM is possible to classify and separately detect latent flaws and particles on the surfaces. Samples are deformed by the actuator and stress concentrations are occurred around the tip of latent flaws. By photo-elastic effect, the refractive index of around the tip of latent flaws is changed. And then, changed refractive index is detected by cooled CCD camera as the light scattering intensity. In this report, applying SILSM to glass substrates, latent flaws on the surface of glass substrates are detected non-destructively, and the usefulness of SILSM is evaluated as novel inspection technique of latent flaws.

  12. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training


    Schoenfeld; Ogborn; Contreras,, J. g.; Cappaert; Silva Ribeiro; Alvar; Vigotsky


    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. ...

  13. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Stanley


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, SV, cardiac output (Qc, and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60% compared with low-intensity (30% (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2 and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7 recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2. To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT.

  14. High-Dimensional Function Approximation With Neural Networks for Large Volumes of Data. (United States)

    Andras, Peter


    Approximation of high-dimensional functions is a challenge for neural networks due to the curse of dimensionality. Often the data for which the approximated function is defined resides on a low-dimensional manifold and in principle the approximation of the function over this manifold should improve the approximation performance. It has been show that projecting the data manifold into a lower dimensional space, followed by the neural network approximation of the function over this space, provides a more precise approximation of the function than the approximation of the function with neural networks in the original data space. However, if the data volume is very large, the projection into the low-dimensional space has to be based on a limited sample of the data. Here, we investigate the nature of the approximation error of neural networks trained over the projection space. We show that such neural networks should have better approximation performance than neural networks trained on high-dimensional data even if the projection is based on a relatively sparse sample of the data manifold. We also find that it is preferable to use a uniformly distributed sparse sample of the data for the purpose of the generation of the low-dimensional projection. We illustrate these results considering the practical neural network approximation of a set of functions defined on high-dimensional data including real world data as well.

  15. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation (United States)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.


    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  16. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.


    tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...... are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes....

  17. Prostate volume modifies the association between obesity and prostate cancer or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Motley, Saundra S; Wills, Marcia; Cookson, Michael S; Concepcion, Raoul S; Eckstein, Charles W; Chang, Sam S; Smith, Joseph A


    The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effect of prostate volume on the obesity and prostate cancer association. With a multi-centered, rapid-recruitment protocol, weight and body size measurements were collected prior to diagnosis, and medical charts were reviewed for pathology results (n = 420 controls, 119 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) cases, and 286 cancer cases (41% Gleason > 6). In multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, PSA levels and history, DRE results, and number of cores at biopsy, the association between BMI and cancer was restricted to men with a smaller prostate volume (volume or = 30) = 2.17 (1.09, 4.32), p (trend) = 0.02; volume > or = 40 cm(3): OR(BMI > or = 30) = 0.77 (0.34, 1.77), p (trend) = 0.17; p (interaction) = 0.03). Similarly, the WHR and PIN association was significantly modified by prostate volume (volume or = 40 m(3): OR((WHR: T3 vs. T1)) = 0.63 (0.32, 1.23) (p (trend) = 0.17); p (interaction) prostate volume acts as a modifier, and BMI and WHR are significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN, respectively, in the absence of biopsy sampling error derived from obesity-related prostate enlargement.

  18. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training as a Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    Alvarez, C; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Martinez-Salazar, C; Mancilla, R; Flores-Opazo, M; Cano-Montoya, J; Ciolac, E G


    Our purpose was to investigate the effects of low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiometabolic risk and exercise capacity in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sedentary overweight/obese T2DM women (age=44.5±1.8 years; BMI=30.5±0.6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a tri-weekly running-based HIT program (n=13) or non-exercise control follow-up (CON; n=10). Glycemic control, lipid and blood pressure levels, endurance performance, and anthropometry were measured before and after the follow-up (16 weeks) in both groups. Medication intake was also assessed throughout the follow-up. Improvements (P<0.05) on fasting glucose (14.3±1.4%), HbA1c (12.8±1.1%), systolic blood pressure (3.7±0.5 mmHg), HDL-cholesterol (21.1±2.8%), triglycerides (17.7±2.8%), endurance performance (9.8±1.0%), body weight (2.2±0.3%), BMI (2.1±0.3%), waist circumference (4.0±0.5%) and subcutaneous fat (18.6±1.4%) were found after HIT intervention. Patients of HIT group also showed reductions in daily dosage of antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive medication during follow-up. No changes were found in any variable of CON group. The HIT-induced improvements occurred with a weekly time commitment 56-25% lower than the minimal recommended in current guidelines. These findings suggest that low-volume HIT may be a time-efficient intervention to treat T2DM women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure (United States)

    Sawamura, Seiji


    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  20. Influence of flaws and crystal properties on particle fracture in a jet mill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, Onno; Vromans, Herman; den Toonder, Jaap; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort


    jet milling is commonly used for reducing the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Unfortunately, this process is sometimes difficult to control as pre-existing flaws and mechanical properties affect the particle fracture behaviour in a mill. In this study the effect of pre-existing f

  1. Cracking Process and Stress Field Evolution in Specimen Containing Combined Flaw Under Uniaxial Compression (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Lin, Baiquan; Yang, Wei; Zou, Quanle; Kong, Jia; Yan, Fazhi


    Hydraulic slotting, an efficient technique for underground enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) recovery, has been widely used in China. However, its pressure relief mechanism is unclear. Thus far, only limited research has been conducted on the relationships among the mechanical properties, flaw parameters, and crack propagation patterns of coal after hydraulic slotting. In addition, because of the limitations of test methods, an in-depth information is not available for this purpose. In this work, numerical models of specimens containing combined flaws are established based on particle flow code method. Our results provide insights into the effects of flaw inclination angle on the mechanical properties, crack propagation patterns, and temporal and spatial evolution rules of stress field in specimens containing combined flaws during the loading process. Besides, based on the initiation position and underlying mechanism, three types of crack initiation modes are identified from the failure processes of specimens. Finally, the crack propagation pattern is quantitatively described by the fractal dimension, which is found to be inversely proportional to the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the specimen. To verify the rationality of the numerical simulation results, laboratory tests were conducted and their results match well with those obtained from the numerical simulation.

  2. Non-destructive detection of flawed hazelnut kernels and lipid oxidation assessment using NIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannico, A.; Schouten, R.E.; Basile, B.; Woltering, E.J.; Cirillo, C.


    Microbial contamination, seed browning, bad taste and lipid oxidation are primary causes of quality deterioration in stored hazelnuts, affecting their marketability. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to detect flawed kernels and estimate lipid oxidation in in-shell and shelled hazelnuts was invest

  3. Influence of flaws and crystal properties on particle fracture in a jet mill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, Onno; Vromans, Herman; den Toonder, Jaap; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort


    jet milling is commonly used for reducing the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Unfortunately, this process is sometimes difficult to control as pre-existing flaws and mechanical properties affect the particle fracture behaviour in a mill. In this study the effect of pre-existing

  4. Medicare payment data for spine reimbursement; important but flawed data for evaluating utilization of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Menger


    Conclusion: Medicare reimbursement data are fundamentally flawed in determining healthcare expenditure as it shows a bias toward delivery of care in specific patient demographics. However, neurosurgeons, not just policy makers, must take ownership to analyze, investigate, and interpret these data as it will affect healthcare reimbursement and delivery moving forward.

  5. The Dangerous Myth of Emerging Adulthood: An Evidence-Based Critique of a Flawed Developmental Theory (United States)

    Côté, James E.


    This article examines the theory of emerging adulthood, introduced into the literature by Arnett (2000), in terms of its methodological and evidential basis, and finds it to be unsubstantiated on numerous grounds. Other, more convincing, formulations of variations in the transition to adulthood are examined. Most flawed academic theories are…

  6. On the tensile strength of a fiberreinforced ceramic composite containing a crack-like flaw (United States)

    Budiansky, Bernard; Cui, Yingqing Lawrence


    T HE TENSILE STRENGTH of a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite containing a through-the-fiber flaw in the form of a sharp crack is studied. The strength of a brittle unreinforced ceramic containing a sharp crack of length 2 a0, subjected to uniaxial load in the direction normal to the crack plane, is given by linear elastic fracture mechanics as σ s = Km/√π a0, where km is the fracture toughness of the material. However, for a fiber-reinforced ceramic, the strength can only be determined on the basis of a full analysis of crack growth in the matrix and the failure of crack-bridging fibers. The tensile strength of a flawed ceramic material that is reinforced by fibers aligned in the direction perpendicular to the flaw surfaces is studied in this paper. Crack-bridging fibers are assumed to slip relative to the matrix when a critical interface shear stress is reached. The orthotropy of the composite produced by the presence of aligned fibers is rigorously accounted for in the analysis. The dependence of the composite tensile strength on fiber tensile strength, matrix toughness, flaw-size and frictional shear stress at the fiber-matrix interface is determined and described in terms of a universal set of non-dimensional parameters.

  7. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  9. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl


    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  10. Effects of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Oscillated Volume during High-Frequency Chest Compression in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara F Dosman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP on end-expiratory lung volume (EELV and mean oscillated volume (Vosc during high frequency chest compression (HFCC.

  11. A High-Temperature, "Volume-Type" ECR Ion Source for RIB Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.; Zhang, T.


    A high temperature, low-charge-state, "volume-type" source has been designed for use in the nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research radioactive ion beam (RIB) programs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF). The source utilizes electromagnetic coils to generate a large and uniformly distributed central magnetic field with magnitude (875 G) chosen to be in electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) with single- frequency (2.45 GHz) microwave radiation. Among the features of the source includti a variable mirror-ratio at ion extraction as required for optimizing low-charge state ion beam generation, a right-hand, circularly-polarized RF injection system to overcome the relatively-low, cutoff-density, (nC - 7.4x10'0/cm3) associated with the use of 2.45 GHz microwave radiatiom, and a high temperature, Ir- or Re-coated-Ta plasma chamber to reduce the residence times of radioactive species that are adsorbed on the walls of the chamber. No provisions are made for radial plasma confinement due to the sensitivity of permanent magnets to degradation by the huge fluxes of neutrons incumbent during target irradiation, routinely used for this purpose. Aspects of the design features of the source are described in this report.

  12. "How to" incorporate dual-energy imaging into a high volume abdominal imaging practice. (United States)

    Tamm, Eric P; Le, Ott; Liu, Xinming; Layman, Rick R; Cody, Dianna D; Bhosale, Priya R


    Dual-energy CT imaging has many potential uses in abdominal imaging. It also has unique requirements for protocol creation depending on the dual-energy scanning technique that is being utilized. It also generates several new types of images which can increase the complexity of image creation and image interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review, for rapid switching and dual-source dual-energy platforms, methods for creating dual-energy protocols, different approaches for efficiently creating dual-energy images, and an approach to navigating and using dual-energy images at the reading station all using the example of a pancreatic multiphasic protocol. It will also review the three most commonly used types of dual-energy images: "workhorse" 120kVp surrogate images (including blended polychromatic and 70 keV monochromatic), high contrast images (e.g., low energy monochromatic and iodine material decomposition images), and virtual unenhanced images. Recent developments, such as the ability to create automatically on the scanner the most common dual-energy images types, namely new "Mono+" images for the DSDECT (dual-source dual-energy CT) platform will also be addressed. Finally, an approach to image interpretation using automated "hanging protocols" will also be covered. Successful dual-energy implementation in a high volume practice requires careful attention to each of these steps of scanning, image creation, and image interpretation.

  13. Indications and Early Outcomes for Total Pancreatectomy at a High-Volume Pancreas Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika S. Janot


    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to analyse the most common current indications for total pancreatectomy (TP at a high-volume pancreas center. Method. Prospectively collected data on indications and short-term outcome of all TP's performed from January 2004 until June 2008 were analysed. Results. The total pancreatectomies (TP were 63, i.e., 6.7% of all pancreatic procedures (=948. Indications for TP were classified into 4 groups: tumors of advanced stage, =23 (36.5%, technical problems due to soft pancreatic tissue, =18 (28.6%, troubles due to perioperative surgical complications, =15 (23.8%, and therapy-resistant pain due to chronic pancreatitis, =7 (11.1%. Surgical complications occurred in 23 patients (36.5%. The mortality in elective TP was 6.25%. Median postoperative stay was 21 days. Mortality, morbidity and the other perioperative parameters differed substantially according to the indication for pancreatectomy. Conclusion. Total pancreatectomy is definitely indicated for a limited range of elective and emergency situations. Indications can be: size or localisation of pancreatic tumor, trouble, technical diffuculties and therapy-refractory pain in chronic pancreatitis. A TP due to perioperative complications (troubles after pancreatic resections is doomed by extremely high morbidity and mortality and should be avoided.

  14. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy. (United States)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-André; Pötter, Richard


    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on "Radiotherapy and Oncology". These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing inspiratory time exacerbates ventilator-induced lung injury during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Casetti, Alfredo V; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B


    Ventilator-induced lung injury may be caused by overdistension of alveoli during high-pressure ventilation. In this study, we examined the effects of increasing inspiratory time on ventilator-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four different groups with ten animals per group. Each group was then ventilated for 30 mins with one of four ventilator strategies. All groups were ventilated with an Fio2 of 1.0 and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0 cm H2O. Group LoP was the negative control group and was ventilated with low pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 12 cm H2O, rate = 30, and inspiratory time = 0.5 secs). Groups iT = 0.5, iT = 1.0, and iT = 1.5 were the experimental groups and were ventilated with high pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 45 cm H2O, rate = 10, and inspiratory times = 0.5 secs, iT = 1.0 sec, and iT = 1.5 secs, respectively). Outcome measures included lung compliance, Pao /Fio ratio, wet/dry lung weight, and dry lung/body weight. Final static lung compliance (p =.0002) and Pao2/Fio2 (p =.001) decreased as inspiratory time increased. Wet/dry lung weights (p <.0001) and dry lung/body weights (p <.0001) increased as inspiratory time increased. Light microscopy revealed evidence of intra-alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the iT = 1.0 and iT = 1.5 animals but not the LoP and iT = 0.5 animals. Increasing inspiratory time during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation is associated with an increase in variables of lung injury.

  16. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings (United States)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.


    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  17. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics of Reactor Pressure Vessels with Populations of Flaws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Backman, Marie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Williams, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dickson, Terry [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bass, B. Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klasky, Hilda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report documents recent progress in developing a tool that uses the Grizzly and RAVEN codes to perform probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses of reactor pressure vessels in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The Grizzly code is being developed with the goal of creating a general tool that can be applied to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. Because of the central role of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a nuclear power plant, particular emphasis is being placed on developing capabilities to model fracture in embrittled RPVs to aid in the process surrounding decision making relating to life extension of existing plants. A typical RPV contains a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced during the manufacturing process. The use of probabilistic techniques is necessary to assess the likelihood of crack initiation at one or more of these flaws during a transient event. This report documents development and initial testing of a capability to perform probabilistic fracture mechanics of large populations of flaws in RPVs using reduced order models to compute fracture parameters. The work documented here builds on prior efforts to perform probabilistic analyses of a single flaw with uncertain parameters, as well as earlier work to develop deterministic capabilities to model the thermo-mechanical response of the RPV under transient events, and compute fracture mechanics parameters at locations of pre-defined flaws. The capabilities developed as part of this work provide a foundation for future work, which will develop a platform that provides the flexibility needed to consider scenarios that cannot be addressed with the tools used in current practice.

  18. Toward automatic estimation of urban green volume using airborne LiDAR data and high resolution Remote Sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; Bailang YU; Jianhua ZHOU; Chunlin HU; Wenqi TAN; Zhiming HU; Jianping WU


    Urban green volume is an important indicator for analyzing urban vegetation structure,ecological evaluation,and green-economic estimation,This paper proposes an object-based method for automated estimation of urban green volume combining three-dimensional (3D)information from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and vegetation information from high resolution remotely sensed images through a case study of the Lujiazui region,Shanghai,China.High resolution airborne near-infrared photographs are used for identifying the urban vegetation distribution.Airborne LiDAR data offer the possibility to extract individual trees and to measure the attributes of trees,such as tree height and crown diameter.In this study,individual trees and grassland are identified as the independent objects of urban vegetation,and the urban green volume is computed as the sum of two broad portions:individual trees volume and grassland volume.The method consists of following steps:generating and filtering the normalized digital surface model (nDSM),extracting the nDSM of urban vegetation based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),locating the local maxima points,segmenting the vegetation objects of individual tree crowns and grassland,and calculating the urban green volume of each vegetation object.The results show the quantity and distribution characteristics of urban green volume in the Lujiazui region,and provide valuable parameters for urban green planning and management.It is also concluded from this paper that the integrated application of LiDAR data and image data presents an effective way to estimate urban green volume.

  19. Research on Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of Steel Weld in Spatial Grid Structure (United States)

    Du, Tao; Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Shengguang; Zhang, Changquan; Gao, Qing


    The welding quality of spatial grid member is an important link in quality control of steel structure. The paper analyzed the reasons that the welding seam of small-bore pipe with thin wall grid structure is difficult to be detected by ultrasonic wave from the theoretical and practical aspects. A series of feasible detection methods was also proposed by improving probe and operation approaches in this paper, and the detection methods were verified by project cases. Over the years, the spatial grid structure is widely used the engineering by virtue of its several outstanding characteristics such as reasonable structure type, standard member, excellent space integrity and quick installation. The wide application of spatial grid structure brings higher requirements on nondestructive test of grid structure. The implementation of new Code for Construction Quality Acceptance of Steel Structure Work GB50205-2001 strengthens the site inspection of steel structure, especially the site inspection of ultrasonic flaw detection in steel weld. The detection for spatial grid member structured by small-bore and thin-walled pipes is difficult due to the irregular influence of sound pressure in near-field region of sound field, sound beam diffusion generated by small bore pipe and reduction of sensitivity. Therefore, it is quite significant to select correct detecting conditions. The spatial grid structure of welding ball and bolt ball is statically determinate structure with high-order axial force which is connected by member bars and joints. It is welded by shrouding or conehead of member bars and of member bar and bolt-node sphere. It is obvious that to ensure the quality of these welding positions is critical to the quality of overall grid structure. However, the complexity of weld structure and limitation of ultrasonic detection method cause many difficulties in detection. No satisfactory results will be obtained by the conventional detection technology, so some special


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R; Ps Lam, P; Andrew Duncan, A; Bruce Wiersma, B; Karthik Subramanian, K; James Elder, J


    Discovery of aging phenomena in the materials of a structure may arise after its design and construction that impact its structural integrity. This condition can be addressed through a demonstration of integrity with the material-specific degraded conditions. Two case studies of development of fracture and crack growth property data, and their application in development of in-service inspection programs for nuclear structures in the defense complex are presented. The first case study covers the development of fracture toughness properties in the form of J-R curves for rolled plate Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel filler in the application to demonstrate the integrity of the reactor tanks of the heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The fracture properties for the base, weld, and heat-affected zone of the weldments irradiated at low temperatures (110-150 C) up to 6.4 dpa{sub NRT} and 275 appm helium were developed. An expert group provided consensus for application of the irradiated properties for material input to acceptance criteria for ultrasonic examination of the reactor tanks. Dr. Spencer H. Bush played a lead advisory role in this work. The second case study covers the development of fracture toughness for A285 carbon steel in high level radioactive waste tanks. The approach in this case study incorporated a statistical experimental design for material testing to address metallurgical factors important to fracture toughness. Tolerance intervals were constructed to identify the lower bound fracture toughness for material input to flaw disposition through acceptance by analysis.

  1. Stress-induced light scattering method for the detection of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates (United States)

    Sakata, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nonaka, K.


    Fine polishing techniques, such as the chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are one of the most important technique to glass substrate manufacturing. Mechanical interaction in the form of friction occurs between the abrasive and the substrate surface during polishing, which may cause formation of latent flaws on the glass substrate surface. Fine polishing-induced latent flaws may become obvious during a subsequent cleaning process if glass surfaces are corroded away by chemical interaction with the cleaning liquid. Latent flaws thus reduce product yield. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, such as the light-scattering methods, used to detect foreign matters on the glass substrate surface. However, it is difficult to detect latent flaws by these methods because the flaws remain closed. Authors propose a novel inspection technique for fine polishing-induced latent flaws by combining the light scattering method with stress effects, referred to as the stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM). SILSM is able to distinguish between latent flaws and particles on the surface. In this method, samples are deformed by an actuator and stress effects are induced around the tips of latent flaws. Due to the photoelastic effect, the refractive index of the material around the tip of a latent flaw is changed. This changed refractive index is in turn detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera as variations in light scattering intensity. In this report, surface latent flaws are detected non-destructively by applying SILSM to glass substrates, and the utility of SILSM evaluated as a novel inspection technique.

  2. Fundamental Flaws of Hormesis for Public Health Decisions


    Thayer, Kristina A.; Melnick, Ronald; Burns, Kathy; DAVIS, Devra; Huff, James


    Hormesis (defined operationally as low-dose stimulation, high-dose inhibition) is often used to promote the notion that while high-level exposures to toxic chemicals could be detrimental to human health, low-level exposures would be beneficial. Some proponents claim hormesis is an adaptive, generalizable phenomenon and argue that the default assumption for risk assessments should be that toxic chemicals induce stimulatory (i.e., “beneficial”) effects at low exposures. In many cases, nonmonoto...

  3. A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer



    Disposal of fly ash (FA) resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA) as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a part...

  4. Robust high-performance nanoliter-volume single-cell multiple displacement amplification on planar substrates (United States)

    Leung, Kaston; Klaus, Anders; Lin, Bill K.; Laks, Emma; Biele, Justina; Lai, Daniel; Bashashati, Ali; Huang, Yi-Fei; Aniba, Radhouane; Moksa, Michelle; Steif, Adi; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Hirst, Martin; Shah, Sohrab P.; Aparicio, Samuel; Hansen, Carl L.


    The genomes of large numbers of single cells must be sequenced to further understanding of the biological significance of genomic heterogeneity in complex systems. Whole genome amplification (WGA) of single cells is generally the first step in such studies, but is prone to nonuniformity that can compromise genomic measurement accuracy. Despite recent advances, robust performance in high-throughput single-cell WGA remains elusive. Here, we introduce droplet multiple displacement amplification (MDA), a method that uses commercially available liquid dispensing to perform high-throughput single-cell MDA in nanoliter volumes. The performance of droplet MDA is characterized using a large dataset of 129 normal diploid cells, and is shown to exceed previously reported single-cell WGA methods in amplification uniformity, genome coverage, and/or robustness. We achieve up to 80% coverage of a single-cell genome at 5× sequencing depth, and demonstrate excellent single-nucleotide variant (SNV) detection using targeted sequencing of droplet MDA product to achieve a median allelic dropout of 15%, and using whole genome sequencing to achieve false and true positive rates of 9.66 × 10−6 and 68.8%, respectively, in a G1-phase cell. We further show that droplet MDA allows for the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) as small as 30 kb in single cells of an ovarian cancer cell line and as small as 9 Mb in two high-grade serous ovarian cancer samples using only 0.02× depth. Droplet MDA provides an accessible and scalable method for performing robust and accurate CNV and SNV measurements on large numbers of single cells. PMID:27412862

  5. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material (United States)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo


    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  6. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici


    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  7. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra


    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  8. Properties of High Volume Fraction Fly Ash/Al Alloy Composites Produced by Infiltration Process (United States)

    Kountouras, D. T.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.; Vogiatzis, C. A.; Skolianos, S. M.


    In the present study, pressure infiltration is employed to synthesize aluminum alloy 7075-fly ash composites. The microstructure and chemical composition of the fly ash and the produced composite material was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as x-ray diffraction. Several properties of the produced composite material were examined and evaluated including macro-hardness, wear, thermal expansion, and corrosion behavior. The wear characteristics of the composite, in the as-cast conditions, were studied by dry sliding wear tests. The corrosion behavior of composite material was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The composite specimens exhibit a homogeneous distribution of fly ash particles and present enhanced hardness values, compared to the matrix material. The high volume fraction of the fly ash reinforcement (>40%) in the composite material led to increased wear rates, attributed to the fragmentation of the fly ash particles. However, the presence of fly ash particles in the Al alloy matrix considerably decreased the coefficiency of thermal expansion, while resulting in an altered corrosion mechanism of the composite material with respect to the matrix alloy.

  9. Replicable Interprofessional Competency Outcomes from High-Volume, Inter-Institutional, Interprofessional Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bambini


    Full Text Available There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking to determine the extent to which a single, large, inter-institutional, and IPE simulation event improves student perceptions of the importance and relevance of IPE and simulation as a learning modality, whether there is a difference in students’ perceptions among disciplines, and whether the results are reproducible. A total of 290 medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy students participated in one of two large, inter-institutional, IPE simulation events. Measurements included student perceptions about their simulation experience using the Attitude Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation (ATTITUDES Questionnaire and open-ended questions related to teamwork and communication. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement across all ATTITUDES subscales, while time management, role confusion, collaboration, and mutual support emerged as significant themes. Results of the present study indicate that a single IPE simulation event can reproducibly result in significant and educationally meaningful improvements in student perceptions towards teamwork, IPE, and simulation as a learning modality.

  10. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S


    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m{sup 3}/h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10{sup -6} Bq/m{sup 3}. The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too 10 refs.

  11. Compression Behavior of Confined Columns with High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Yoo


    Full Text Available The use of fly ash in ordinary concrete provides practical benefits to concrete structures, such as a gain in long-term strength, reduced hydration heat, improved resistance to chloride, and enhanced workability. However, few studies with high-volume fly ash (HVFA concrete have been conducted that focus on the structural applications such as a column. Thus, there is a need to promote field applications of HVFA concrete as a sustainable construction material. To this end, this study investigated the compressive behavior of reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA with a 50 percent replacement rate. Six columns were fabricated for this study. The study variables were the HVFA replacement rate, tied steel ratio, and tie steel spacing. The computed ultimate strength by the American Concrete Institute (ACI code conservatively predicted the measured values, and, thus, the existing equation in the ACI code is feasible for confined RC columns that contain HVFA. In addition, an analysis model was calibrated based on the experimental results and is recommended for predicting the stress-strain relationship of confined reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams


    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  13. Automatic CD-SEM offline recipe creation in a high volume production fab (United States)

    Girol-Gunia, Stefanie; Roling, Stefan; Menadeva, Ovadya; Levitzky, Dan; Costa, Adi; Fischer, Daniel


    CAD based recipe creation paves the way for complete recipe automation and minimizes the need for human intervention. A high volume production environment presents its own unique challenges for automatic CAD based metrology. In our work we describe the approach of automatic offline CD-SEM recipe creation for production using the Applied Materials OPC Check application. In addition, the study includes a comprehensive analysis of success rates for recipe creation, pattern recognition and measurement. The stability of automatically created recipes was evaluated against process variations for a number of test structures which are typically used for production control. Data was collected for various layers on multiple lots and the performance was compared to that of recipes created directly on the tool. All offline recipes for production were generated waferless from design data with success rates of 100%. They showed pattern recognition success rates and measurement success rates at the same level or better than the rates typically reached by recipes created directly on the tool by an experienced CD-SEM engineer.

  14. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke


    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...... (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14) and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15). Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14) and CON...

  15. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles. (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P


    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  16. Impact of Micro Silca on the mechanical properties of high volume Fly Ash Concrete (United States)

    Sripagadeesh, R.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Pugazhmani, G.; Ramasundram, S.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.


    In the current situation, to overcome the difficulties of feasible construction, concrete made with various mixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and diverse mineral admixtures, is the wise choice for engineering construction. Mineral admixtures viz. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Meta kaolin (MK), Fly Ash (FA) and Silica Fume (SF) etc. are used as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) in binary and ternary blend cement system to enhance the mechanical and durability properties. Investigation on the effect of different replacement levels of OPC in M25 grade with FA + SF in ternary cement blend on the strength characteristics and beam behavior was studied. The OPC was partially replaced (by weight) with different combinations of SF (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) and FA as 50% (High Volume Fly Ash - HVFA). The amount of FA addition is kept constant at 50% for all combinations. The compressive strength and tensile strength tests on cube and cylinder specimens, at 7 and 28 days were carried out. Based on the compressive strength results, optimum mix proportion was found out and flexural behaviour was studied for the optimum mix. It was found that all the mixes (FA + SF) showed improvement in compressive strength over that of the control mix and the mix with 50% FA + 10% SF has 20% increase over the control mix. The tensile strength was also increased over the control mix. Flexural behaviour also showed a significant improvement in the mix with FA and SF over the control mix.

  17. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women. (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni


    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  18. Resonant frequency does not predict high-frequency chest compression settings that maximize airflow or volume. (United States)

    Luthy, Sarah K; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Weiner, Daniel J


    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) is a therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that the resonant frequency (f(res)), as measured by impulse oscillometry, could be used to determine what HFCC vest settings produce maximal airflow or volume in pediatric CF patients. In 45 subjects, we studied: f(res), HFCC vest frequencies that subjects used (f(used)), and the HFCC vest frequencies that generated the greatest volume (f(vol)) and airflow (f(flow)) changes as measured by pneumotachometer. Median f(used) for 32 subjects was 14 Hz (range, 6-30). The rank order of the three most common f(used) was 15 Hz (28%) and 12 Hz (21%); three frequencies tied for third: 10, 11, and 14 Hz (5% each). Median f(res) for 43 subjects was 20.30 Hz (range, 7.85-33.65). Nineteen subjects underwent vest-tuning to determine f(vol) and f(flow). Median f(vol) was 8 Hz (range, 6-30). The rank order of the three most common f(vol) was: 8 Hz (42%), 6 Hz (32%), and 10 Hz (21%). Median f(flow) was 26 Hz (range, 8-30). The rank order of the three most common f(flow) was: 30 Hz (26%) and 28 Hz (21%); three frequencies tied for third: 8, 14, and 18 Hz (11% each). There was no correlation between f(used) and f(flow) (r(2)  = -0.12) or f(vol) (r(2) = 0.031). There was no correlation between f(res) and f(flow) (r(2)  = 0.19) or f(vol) (r(2) = 0.023). Multivariable analysis showed no independent variables were predictive of f(flow) or f(vol). Vest-tuning may be required to optimize clinical utility of HFCC. Multiple HFCC frequencies may need to be used to incorporate f(flow) and f(vol).

  19. Expression Changes of Early Response Genes in Lung Due to High Volume Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuelan; YAO Shanglong; XIONG Ping


    Summary: The expression changes of early response genes due to ventilation with high volume in adult rats in vivo were observed. Forty SD male rats were randomly divided into control and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min ventilation groups, respectively (n=8 in each group). The animals were ventilated with tidal volume of 42 ml/kg and a PEEP level of 0 cmH2O at a rate of 40 breaths per minute in room air with a ventilator was given to the small animals. The expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β mRNA and proteins was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. The pathological changes in lung tissues were examined by HE staining. The results indicated that the expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β mRNA was detectable at 30th min after overventilation, but there was no significant difference in comparison with that in control group until overventilation for 60 min. However, at 90 and 120 min there was a significent increase as compared with 30 min or control group (P<0.05). The expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β deteced by immunohistochemical assay also showed a similar tendency of the gradual increase. In the 120 min ventilation group, the expression intensity of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β proteins in lung cells was the strongest and the nuclear translocation was increased markedly in comparison with any other groups (P<0.05). HE staining suggested that the degree of lung injury was aggravated gradually with the ventialtion going on and had a similar tendency to the expression of these early response genes and proteins. The current data suggested that overventilation activated and upregulated the expression of early response genes and the expression of these genes may be taken as the early signal to predict the onset and degree of lung injury. These results may demonstrated partially that the expression of early response genes induced by the mechanical stretch is associated with biochamic lung injury.

  20. Glomerular filtration is reduced by high tidal volume ventilation in an in vivo healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luque


    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation has been associated with organ failure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present study examines the effects of tidal volume (V T on renal function using two V T values (8 and 27 mL/kg in anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated male Wistar rats. Animals were randomized into two groups of 6 rats each: V T8 (V T, 8 mL/kg; 61.50 ± 0.92 breaths/min; positive end-expiratory pressure, 3.0 cmH2O; peak airway pressure (PAW, 11.8 ± 2.0 cmH2O, and V T27 (V T, 27 mL/kg; 33.60 ± 1.56 breaths/min; positive end-expiratory pressure, none, and PAW, 22.7 ± 4.0 cmH2O. Throughout the experiment, mean PAW remained comparable between the two groups (6.33 ± 0.21 vs 6.50 ± 0.22 cmH2O. For rats in the V T27 group, inulin clearance (mL·min-1·body weight-1 decreased acutely after 60 min of mechanical ventilation and even more significantly after 90 min, compared with baseline values (0.60 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.05 vs 0.95 ± 0.07; P < 0.001, although there were no differences between groups in mean arterial pressure or gasometric variables. In the V T8 group, inulin clearance at 120 min of mechanical ventilation remained unchanged in relation to baseline values (0.72 ± 0.03 vs 0.80 ± 0.05. The V T8 and V T27 groups did not differ in terms of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (3.97 ± 0.27 vs 4.02 ± 0.45 nmol/mL or endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (94.25 ± 2.75 vs 96.25 ± 2.39%. Our results show that glomerular filtration is acutely affected by high tidal volume ventilation but do not provide information about the mechanism.

  1. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler


    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi


    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  2. High-order accurate finite-volume formulations for the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models

    CERN Document Server

    Engwirda, Darren; Marshall, John


    The development of a set of high-order accurate finite-volume formulations for evaluation of the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is described. A pair of new schemes are presented, both based on an integration of the contact pressure force about the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. The two proposed methods differ in their choice of control-volume geometries. High-order accurate numerical integration techniques are employed in both schemes to account for non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles, and details of an associated vertical interpolation and quadrature scheme are discussed in detail. Numerical experiments are used to confirm the consistency of the two formulations, and it is demonstrated that the new methods maintain hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer-wise geometry, non-linear equation-of-state definitions and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. Additionally, one...

  3. Spatio-temporal experiments of volume elastic objects with high speed digital holographic interferometry (United States)

    Pérez López, C.; Hernández Montes, M. S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.; Gutiérrez Hernandez, D. A.


    The optical non-destructive digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique has proven to be a powerful tool in measuring vibration phenomena with a spatial resolution ranging from a few hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. With the aid of high speed digital cameras it is possible to achieve simultaneously spatial and temporal resolution, and thus capable of measuring the entire object mechanical oscillation trajectory from one to several cycles. It is important to mention that due to faster computers with large data storage capacity there is an increasing interest in applying numerical simulation methods to mimic different real life objects for example, in the field of modern elastic materials and biological systems. The complex algorithms involved cannot render significant results mainly due to the rather large number of variables. In order to test these numerical simulations some experiments using optical techniques have been designed and reported. This is very important for example in measurements of the dynamic elastic properties of materials. In this work we present some preliminary results from experiments that use DHI to measure vibrations of an elastic spherical object subject to a mechanical excitation that induces resonant vibration modes in its volume. We report on the spatial and temporal effects that by their nature have a non-linear mechanical response. The use of a high speed CMOS camera in DHI assures the measurement of this nonlinear behavior as a sum of linear effects that happen during very short time lapses and with very small displacement amplitudes. We conclude by stating that complex numerical models may be compared to results using DHI, thus proposing an alternative method to prove and verify the mathematical models vs. real measurements on volumetric elastic objects.

  4. Rectal dose-volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer. (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Cozzarini, Cesare; Fellin, Gianni; Foppiano, Franca; Menegotti, Loris; Piazzolla, Anna; Vavassori, Vittorio; Valdagni, Riccardo


    To investigate the relationship between rectal bleeding and dosimetric-clinical parameters in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. In a retrospective national study (AIROPROS01-01, AIRO: Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica), planning/clinical data for 245 consecutive patients with stage T1-4N0-x prostate carcinoma who underwent 3D-CRT to 70-78 Gy (ICRU point) were pooled from four Italian institutions. The correlation between late rectal bleeding and rectal dose-volume data (the percentage of rectum receiving more than 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 Gy [V(50-70)]) and other dosimetric and clinical parameters were investigated in univariate (log-rank) and multivariate (Cox regression model) analyses. Median follow-up was 2 years. Twenty-three patients were scored as late bleeders according to a modified RTOG definition (Grade 2: 16; Grade 3: 7); the actuarial 2-year rate was 9.2%. Excepting V75, all median and third quartile V(50-70) values were found to be significantly correlated with late bleeding at univariate analysis. The smallest p value was seen for V(50) below/above the third quartile value (66%). The V70 (cut-off value: 30%) was found to be also predictive for late bleeding. In the high-dose subgroup (74-78 Gy), Grade 3 bleeding was highly correlated with this constraint. The predictive value of both V(50) and V(70) was confirmed by multivariate analyses. The present article provides evidence for correlation between rectal DVH parameters and late rectal bleeding in patients treated with curative intent with 3D-CRT. To keep the rate of moderate/severe rectal bleeding below 5-10%, it seems advisable to limit V(50) to 60-65%, V(60) to 45-50%, and V70 to 25-30%.

  5. Fiscally Sound Options for a Flawed Tanker Recapitalization Strategy (United States)


    include the previously sacro - sanct defense budget, which set record highs and nearly doubled with wartime sup- plemental defense spending since, testing , and production process should not be limited to new ac- quisitions. Since the KC-135 will remain the backbone of the air-refueling...DOD, and Con- gress continue to work through many acqui- sition challenges in which cutting-edge re- search, development, and testing of new

  6. Effects of serum of the rats ventilated with high tidal volume on endothelial cell permeability and therapeutic effects of ulinastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Guo-dong; CAI Shao-xi; CHEN Bo; CHEN Ying-hua


    Background With the widespread use of ventilators in treating critically ill patients, the morbidity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is increasing accordingly. VILI is characterized by a considerable increase in microvascular leakiness and activation of inflammatory processes. In this study we investigated the effects of inflammatory mediators in VILI rat serum on endothelial cytoskeleton and monolayer cellular permeability, as well as the therapeutic effect of ulinastatin, to explore the pathogenesis and the relationship between biotrauma and lung oedema induced by VILI.Methods Thirty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: group A (normal tidal volume ventilation), group B (high tidal volume ventilation) and group C (high tidal volume ventilation plus ulinastatin). The serum of each rat after ventilation was added to endothelial cell line ECV-304 medium for two hours to observe the effects of serum and/or ulinastatin on endothelial fibrous actin and permeability. Results Compared to rats ventilated with normal tidal volume, serum of rats ventilated with high tidal volume caused a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity at the peripheral filament bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibres in the centre resulting in endothelial contraction and higher permeability. Prior treatment with ulinastatin lessened the above changes significantly. The changes of permeability coefficient of endothelial permeability after group A, B or C rats serum stimulation were (6.95 ±1.66)%, (27.50±7.77)% and (17.71±4.66)% respectively with statistically significant differences (P<0.05)among the three groups.Conclusions The proinflammatory mediators in the serum of the rats given high tidal volume ventilation increases endothelial permeability by reorganizing actin cytoskeleton, and pretreatment with ulinastatin lessens the permeability by inhibiting of proinflammatory mediators.

  7. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  8. High Power Compact Single-Frequency Volume Bragg Er-Doped Fiber Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is based on successful results of Phase I project where it was shown that the use of volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass as selectors of transverse and...

  9. The Web Application Hacker's Handbook Finding and Exploiting Security Flaws

    CERN Document Server

    Stuttard, Dafydd


    The highly successful security book returns with a new edition, completely updated Web applications are the front door to most organizations, exposing them to attacks that may disclose personal information, execute fraudulent transactions, or compromise ordinary users. This practical book has been completely updated and revised to discuss the latest step-by-step techniques for attacking and defending the range of ever-evolving web applications. You'll explore the various new technologies employed in web applications that have appeared since the first edition and review the new attack technique

  10. Detection of flaws on surface of civil infrastructures and their profiling using imaging system with laser displacement sensor (United States)

    Giri, Paritosh; Kharkovsky, Sergey


    Civil infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, roads and pipelines are the integral part of people's lives and their failure can have large public safety and economic consequences. Early detection of flaws in civil infrastructures and their appropriate retrofitting will aid in preventing this failure. Flaws such as cracks and impact damages initially occur on the surface and propagate inside the materials causing further degradation. There is a need to develop systems that can detect these surface flaws. Developing a system with one sensing technique which can detect the flaws is a challenging task since infrastructures are made up of diverse materials such as concrete, metal, plastics, composite and timber that have different electrical and mechanical properties. It is also desired that non-plain surfaces with complex profiles can be interrogated and surface flaws can be detected. We have proposed an imaging system capable of interrogating structures with complex surface profiles for the purpose of detection and evaluation of surface flaws such as cracks and impact damages using laser displacement sensor (LDS). The developed system consists of LDS mounted on the scanner which is able to perform raster scan over the specimen under test. The reading of displacement from the sensor head to the laser spot on the surface of the test material is then used to generate images which can be used to detect the surface flaws. The proof of concept is given by testing specimens made of metal, concrete and plastics with complex surface profiles.

  11. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H


    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect.......Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  12. Volume of hospital is important for the prognosis of high-risk patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Jung Gu; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byung Ik; Park, Jung Bae; Park, Youn Sun


    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a potentially life-threatening hospital emergency requiring hemodynamic stabilization and resuscitation. This study is carried out to determine whether hospital volume can influence outcome in patients with NVUGIB. This is a retrospective study with a prospective cohort database (KCT 0000514. Eight teaching hospitals were divided into two different groups: high-volume centers (HVC, ≥60 NVUGIB patients/year, four clinics) and low-volume centers (LVC, bleeding after treatment, re-bleeding, necessity for surgical/other retreatments, and death within 30 days. Similar baseline characters for patients were observed in both groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of poor outcome between the HVC and LVC groups (9.06 vs. 13.69%, P = 0.014). The incidence rate of poor outcome in high-risk patients (Rockall score ≥8) in HVC was lower than that in high-risk patients in LVC (16.07 vs. 26.92%, P = 0.048); however, there was no significant difference in poor outcome in the lower-risk patients in either group (8.72 vs. 10.42%, P = 0.370). Significant correlation between hospital volume and outcome in NVUGIB patients was observed. Referral to HVC for the management of high-risk NVUGIB patients should be considered in clinical practice.

  13. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  14. 3D highly heterogeneous thermal model of pineal gland in-vitro study for electromagnetic exposure using finite volume method (United States)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning


    In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. CERN tests reveal security flaws with industrial network devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan


    The CERN high energy particle physics facility at Geneva, Switzerland will incorporate a wide range of COTS industrial control systems within its next generation particle collider, the LHC. In particular, the Internet will be used to facilitate the remote access for accelerator and particle physicists and system experts based at several hundred locations around the globe. The integration of Industrial Ethernet and COTS PLCs within the LHC program focuses extreme attention on the industrial network cyber-security requirement. CERN's response has been to conduct operational research on the security resilience of networked industrial devices. As test team lead Stefan Lüders reports here, industrial networked devices put through the organisation's test procedures have generally shown up unexpected vulnerabilities.

  16. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.


    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  17. Origin of light scattering variations of a latent flaw through light scattering measurement with applied stress effect (United States)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Terasaki, Nao; Sakai, Kazufumi; Nonaka, Kazuhiro


    The stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM) was proposed for inspecting surface to detect polishing induced latent flaws. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of the light scattering intensity variation of latent flaws using SILSM, we have investigated stress effect of light scattering intensities using polarized light system and calculated the reflectance and the retardation using Jones matrix. As the results, we evaluated the change in the birefringence around a tip of a latent flaw between before and after stress were applied.

  18. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (single rotation). Volume 1: Model development (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mani, R.; Mungur, P.


    A frequency-domain noncompact-source theory for the steady loading and volume-displacement (thickness) noise of high speed propellers has been developed and programmed. Both near field and far field effects have been considered. The code utilizes blade surface pressure distributions obtained from three-dimensional nonlinear aerodynamic flow field analysis programs as input for evaluating the steady loading noise. Simplified mathematical models of the velocity fields induced at the propeller disk by nearby wing and fuselage surfaces and by angle-of-attack operation have been developed to provide estimates of the unsteady loading imposed on the propeller by these potential field type interactions. These unsteady blade loadings have been coupled to a chordwise compact propeller unsteady loading noise model to provide predictions of unsteady loading noise caused by these installation effects. Finally, an analysis to estimate the corrections to be applied to the free-field noise predictions in order to arrive at the measurable fuselage sound pressure levels has been formulated and programmed. This analysis considers the effects of fuselage surface reflection and diffraction together with surface boundary layer refraction. The steady loading and thickness model and the unsteady loading model have been verified using NASA-supplied data for the SR-2 and SR-3 model propfans. In addition, the steady loading and thickness model has been compared with data from the SR-6 model propfan. These theoretical models have been employed in the evaluation of the SR-7 powered Gulfstream aircraft in terms of noise characteristics at representative takeoff, cruise, and approach operating conditions. In all cases, agreement between theory and experiment is encouraging.

  19. The role of equilibrium volume and magnetism on the stability of iron phases at high pressures. (United States)

    Alnemrat, S; Hooper, J P; Vasiliev, I; Kiefer, B


    The present study provides new insights into the pressure dependence of magnetism by tracking the hybridization between crystal orbitals for pressures up to 600 GPa in the known hcp, bcc and fcc iron. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters are; bcc: V0 = 11.759 A(3)/atom, K0 = 177.72 GPa; hcp: V0 = 10.525 A(3)/atom, K0 = 295.16 GPa; and fcc: V0 = 10.682 A(3)/atom, K0 = 274.57 GPa. These parameters compare favorably with previous studies. Consistent with previous studies we find that the close-packed hcp and fcc phases are non-magnetic at pressures above 50 GPa and 60 GPa, respectively. The principal features of magnetism in iron are predicted to be invariant, at least up to ∼6% overextension of the equilibrium volume. Our results predict that magnetism for overextended fcc iron disappears via an intermediate spin state. This feature suggests that overextended lattices can be used to stabilize particular magnetic states. The analysis of the orbital hybridization shows that the magnetic bcc structure at high pressures is stabilized by splitting the majority and minority spin bands. The bcc phase is found to be magnetic at least up to 600 GPa; however, magnetism is insufficient to stabilize the bcc phase itself, at least at low temperatures. Finally, the analysis of the orbital contributions to the total energy provides evidence that non-magnetic hcp and fcc phases are likely more stable than bcc at core earth pressures.

  20. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing (United States)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc


    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  1. Storage of allogeneic vascular grafts: experience from a high-volume liver transplant institute. (United States)

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Ince, Volkan; Otan, Emrah; Akbulut, Sami; Koc, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai


    Allogeneic vascular grafts are often required for vascular reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. Such grafts are obtained prior to use, making storage conditions a critical issue for maintaining the integrity of the tissue to ensure a successful transplantation. This study describes an optimized storage protocol currently in use at a high-volume liver transplant center. Twenty-nine allogeneic vascular graft tissues obtained during cardiovascular surgery or from cadaveric donors were stored respectively in sterile 50 mL of Ringer lactate solution, without any preservation solutions or antimicrobials, at -22°C for a maximum of 3 months. Prior to use in vascular reconstruction, grafts were thawed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C, and 1 × 0.5-cm(2) tissue samples were collected for microbial culturing and viral serology. ABO compatibility was not performed for any patients receiving vascular grafts. During this prospective study, all 29 allogeneic vascular grafts were used for back-table vascular reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation procedures. A total of 16 grafts were from the saphenous vein, 10 were from the iliac vein, and 3 were from the iliac artery. Bacterial growth was not detected in any tissue samples taken from the stored grafts. No vascular graft-related complications occurred during the 5 months of follow-up. The successful vascular reconstructions achieved with all 29 study grafts demonstrate that the simple, inexpensive storage method described herein is feasible and safe. Randomized, controlled studies should be carried out to further optimize and standardize the technique.

  2. Operating a High Volume Plankton Sampler from a Deep Water Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (United States)

    Kaiser, C. L.; Billings, A.; Young, C.; Hiebert, L.; Van Dover, C. L.


    During the summer of 2015, a high volume plankton sampler was placed on the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry as part of a cruise to investigate methane seeps. The sampler was successful in collecting over 800 larvae and 130 morphotypes. Most samples were split 2:1 or 4:1, so the total collection was substantially higher. The Sentry Precision Impeller Driven Sampler (SyPRID Sampler) was designed to mount as a "backpack" for the AUV Sentry. Sentry is able to fly the sampler at precision altitude as close as 150 cm from the seafloor and in precision patterns or locations for durations of 18 hours or more. Acoustic telemetry is used to monitor both Sentry and the samplers and to tune flight profiles or sampler operation in real time. Two independent samples can be collected per dive, allowing for comparative studies. The sampler is designed based on lessons learned from traditional tow-net systems and utilizes standard mesh net - in this case 150 micron. The sampler is impeller driven and Sentry moves at approximately 0.25m/s, resulting in little or no bow wave while maintaining an estimated flow rate of between 600 and 1000 m3/h per side. The sampler funnels plankton to a "cod end", where restriction and expansion is used to substantially reduce fluid pressure and velocity, thereby preserving the larvae in excellent condition. Valves are used to prevent contamination when not actively sampling. Substantial co-registered data is collected during the sampling including, CTD, optical backscatter, dissolved Oxygen, redox potential, and magnetics. When sampling more than 5m above bottom, multibeam sonar data can be collected. Future work will include simultaneous photography of the bottom for low-altitude sampling missions, real-time flow rate measurement, and simultaneous collection of ADCP water column data. Future work will also likely include use in the water column. The sampler is available for use on Sentry through UNOLS.

  3. Self-healing of mechanically-loaded self consolidating concretes with high volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Suleyman B. Keskin; Gozde Ozerkan; Ismail O. Yaman [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering


    This article discusses the effects of self-healing on self consolidating concretes incorporating high volumes of fly ash (HVFA-SCC) when subjected to continuous water exposure. For this purpose, self consolidating concretes with fly ash replacement ratios of 0%, 35%, and 55% were prepared having a constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.35. A uniaxial compression load was applied to generate microcracks in concrete where cylindrical specimens were pre-loaded up to 70% and 90% of the ultimate compressive load determined at 28 days. Later, the extent of damage was determined as percentage of loss in mechanical properties and percentage of increase in permeation properties. After pre-loading, concrete specimens were stored in water for a month and the mechanical and permeation properties are monitored at every two weeks. It was observed that HVFA-SCC mixtures initially lost 27% of their strength when pre-loaded up to 90% of their ultimate strength, and after 30 days of water curing that reduction was only 7%, indicating a substantial healing. On the other hand, for SCC specimens without fly ash that were pre-loaded to the same level, the loss in strength was initially 19%, and after a month of moist curing it was only 13%. Similar observations were also made on the permeation properties with greater effects. As the HVFA-SCCs studied have an important amount of unhydrated fly ash available in their microstructure, these observations are attributed to the self-healing of the pre-existing cracks, mainly by hydration of anhydrous fly ash particles on the crack surfaces.

  4. Structure and flaws of CuCr alloys by explosive compaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-ping; MENG Song-he; HAN Jie-cai


    CuCr alloys are prepared by mechanical alloying and explosive compaction. After we have studied their structure and flaws, the results show that the CuCr alloys have definite strength and toughness, while their fractured surface displays ductile characteristics. In the metallurgical structure, CuCr alloys are composed of two phases of uniform distribution; the SEM morphology is like thin strips with an end arrangement that is bonded to each other and the two-phase distribution of CuCr alloys is more homogenous. It is in only in a very small zone that formation of Cu-rich and Cr-rich phases take place. The flaws of the compaction samples are mainly central-holes and cracks.

  5. Method and apparatus for detecting flaws and defects in heat seals (United States)

    Rai, Kula R. (Inventor); Lew, Thomas M. (Inventor); Sinclair, Robert B. (Inventor)


    Flaws and defects in heat seals formed between sheets of translucent film are identified by optically examining consecutive lateral sections of the seal along the seal length. Each lateral seal section is illuminated and an optical sensor array detects the intensity of light transmitted through the seal section for the purpose of detecting and locating edges in the heat seal. A line profile for each consecutive seal section is derived having an amplitude proportional to the change in light intensity across the seal section. Instances in the derived line profile where the amplitude is greater than a threshold level indicate the detection of a seal edge. The detected edges in each derived line profile are then compared to a preset profile edge standard to identify the existence of a flaw or defect.

  6. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A


    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is volume dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann Okubo mass-relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)L ? SU(2)R and SU(3)L ? SU(3)R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the ?N? axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and eta's. At a given value of m?L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_\\pi ? 140 MeV than at m_\\pi ? 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ? m_\\pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.

  7. Comparison of annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers for measuring per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere. (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lane, Douglas A; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J


    Overestimation of the particle phase concentration collected on glass-fiber filters (GFFs) has been reported for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) using conventional high volume air samplers. In this study, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in the gas and particulate phases using colocated annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers at a semiurban site in Toronto, Canada, in winter 2010. Samples were analyzed for 7 PFAS classes (i.e., PFCAs, perfluoro-alkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs)). The gas diffusion coefficients for individual PFASs were calculated and the denuder performance was evaluated. Modeled subcooled liquid vapor pressures (p(L)) correlated well with the vapor phase breakthrough for the denuder and high volume air systems. Total air concentrations for PFASs measured using annular diffusion denuders and high volume samplers were in agreement within a factor of 4; however, much greater differences were observed for measurements of gas-particle partitioning. Vapor phase PFSAs and PFCAs can adsorb to the GFF using high volume air samplers, resulting in much higher particle-associated fractions for these chemicals compared to the annular diffusion denuder sampler. This effect was not observed for the FTOHs, FTMACs, FTACs, FOSAs, and FOSEs. Thus, for investigations of gas-particle partitioning of PFSAs and PFCAs, the diffusion denuder sampler is the preferred method. The results of this study improve our understanding of the gas-particle partitioning of PFASs, which is important for modeling their long-range transport in air.

  8. Application and assessment of ultrasonic inspection methods for flaw detection and characterization of manganese steel frogs (United States)

    Cinson, A.; Diaz, A.; Prowant, M.


    Ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) has a long and successful history of application across a wide array of industries, including nuclear, aerospace, and transportation sectors. In coarse-grained, cast Manganese (Mn) steel frog components, NDE/inspection challenges are encountered both in-field (after the frogs have been installed on a rail line) and at the manufacturing facilities during post-fabrication QA/QC activities. Periodically inherently flawed frogs are received from a manufacturer, and put into service, as most railroad operators do not have a means to conduct pre-service examinations on received components. Accordingly, there is a need for a pre-service inspection system that can provide a rapid, cost-effective and non-intrusive inspection capability for detection of defects, flaws, and other anomalies in frog components, in order to avoid premature initiation of cracks or failures of these components during service. This study focused on evaluating use of a volumetric phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) method to monitor fabrication quality assurance. In this preliminary assessment of using PA-UT, data were acquired at a frequency of 2.0 MHz on a known, flawed Mn steel frog component directly from a manufacturing facility. The component contained flaws commonly found as a result of the manufacturing process of these cast rail components. The data were analyzed and the anomalies were detected, localized and characterized. Results were compared against baseline radiographic data. A detection metric was reported in the form of signal-to-noise values.

  9. A simplified approach for assessing the leak-before-break for the flawed pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, P. [Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station, NTPC Ltd, Jyothinagar 505215 (India); Amirthagadeswaran, K.S. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore 641013 (India); Christopher, T. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Tirunelveli 627007 (India); Nageswara Rao, B., E-mail: [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Civil Sciences, K L University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur 522502 (India)


    Surface cracks or embedded cracks in pressure vessels under service may grow and form stable through-thickness cracks causing leak prior to failure. If this leak-before-break phenomenon takes place, then there is a possibility of preventing the vessel failure. This paper presents a simplified approach for assessing the leak-before-break or failure of the flawed pressure vessels. This approach is validated through comparison of existing test data.

  10. PowerPoint® Presentation Flaws and Failures: A Psychological Analysis


    Stephen Michael Kosslyn; Kievit, Rogier A.; Russell, Alexandra G.; Shephard, Jennifer M.


    Electronic slideshow presentations are often faulted anecdotally, but little empirical work has documented their faults. Three studies reported here document psychological causes of their flaws. In Study 1 we found that eight psychological principles are often violated in PowerPoint® presentations, across different fields—for example, academic research presentations generally were no better or worse than business presentations. In Study 2 we found that respondents reported having noticed...

  11. Toward Smart Aerospace Structures: Design of a Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Analog Interface for Flaw Detection


    Hamza Boukabache; Christophe Escriba; Jean-Yves Fourniols


    Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures’ reliability. The study begins by a physical...

  12. Specimen Preparation for Metal Matrix Composites with a High Volume Fraction of Reinforcing Particles for EBSD Analysis (United States)

    Smirnov, A. S.; Belozerov, G. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Konovalov, A. V.; Shveikin, V. P.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.


    The paper deals with a procedure of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. Unlike standard procedures of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis, the proposed procedure is iterative with consecutive application of mechanical and electrochemical polishing. This procedure significantly improves the results of an indexed MMC matrix in comparison with the standard procedure of specimen preparation. The procedure was verified on a MMC with pure aluminum (99.8% Al) as the matrix, SiC particles being used as reinforcing elements. The average size of the SiC particles is 14 μm, and their volume fraction amounts to 50% of the total volume of the composite. It has been experimentally found that, for making the EBSD analysis of a material matrix near reinforcing particles, the difference in height between the particles and the matrix should not exceed 2 µm.

  13. Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang


    Full Text Available Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.

  14. Laboratory investigation of self-healing properties on geosynthetic clay liners with flaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guang-Wei


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the self- healing properties of a commercially-available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL using flexible-wall permeameter. The GCLs are produced by the same factory, but the contents of bentonite are different. Also the hydraulic conductivities (HC of GCLs with no defect are different. In this study, specimens were completely saturated under the backpressure of 20 kPa before the test. Permeability tests were performed on GCL specimens with penetrating flaw and also on specimens permeated with distilled water and CaCl2 solutions. The test results were presented and discussed. Experimental results showed that the GCL with penetrating flaw did not exhibit complete self-healing in the case of flaw. After 120 days, the hydraulic conductivity increased by approximately an order of magnitude. In addition, CaCl2 solutions had a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity. The research findings might be of interest to researchers and engineers who design liners for landfills and other liquid containment facilities

  15. Ligament rupture and unstable burst behaviors of axial flaws in steam generator U-bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: [Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehak-ro 63 beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin [KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co. Inc., Seongnam 463-870 (Korea, Republic of); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)


    Highlights: • Ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted with U-bends. • In general, U-bends showed higher ligament rupture and burst pressures than straight tubes. • U-bend test data was bounded by 90% lower limit of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. • Prediction models for straight tubes could be conservatively applied to U-bends. - Abstract: Incidents of U-bend cracking in steam generator (SG) tubes have been reported, some of which have led to tube rupture. Experimental and analytical modeling efforts to determine the failure criteria of flawed SG U-bends are limited. To evaluate structural integrity of flawed U-bends, ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted on 57 and 152 mm bend radius U-bends with axial electrical discharge machining notches. In general, the ligament rupture and burst pressures of the U-bends were higher than those of straight tubes with similar notches. To quantitatively address the test data scatter issue, probabilistic models were introduced. All ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends were bounded by 90% lower limits of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. It was concluded that the prediction models for straight tubes could be applied to U-bends to conservatively evaluate the ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends with axial flaws.

  16. Enhanced method for flaws depth estimation in CFRP slabs from FDTC thermal contrast sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés David Restrepo Girón


    Full Text Available After the detection of internal defects in materials, the characterization of these plays a decisive role in order to establish the severity of these flaws. Finite difference thermal contrast (FDTC is a new technique proposed recently for contrast enhancement in sequences of thermal images in order to allow the detection of internal flaws in composite slabs with greater probability of success. Besides FDTC, a criterion was also conceived for the estimation of the depth of the detected defects, which brings good results for shallow and strong contrast defects, but poor estimations for deeper and weaker defects. Considering this problem, a revision of the original criterion is carried out in this paper to define a new and robust criterion for estimating the depth of defects, applied after FDTC en-hancement and flaws detection. Results of the execution of the revised algorithm on a synthetized thermal sequence from an artificial CFRP slab (using ThermoCalc6L software show a better performance of the estimation task, reducing the average relative error by more than half.

  17. Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women. (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Brown, Lee E; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Pinto, Ronei S


    This study investigated the effects of low- and high-volume strength trainings on neuromuscular adaptations of lower- and upper-body muscles in older women after 6 weeks (6WE), 13 weeks (13WE), and 20 weeks (20WE) of training. Healthy older women were assigned to low-volume (LV) or high-volume (HV) training groups. The LV group performed one set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three sets, 2 days/week. Knee extension and elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1-RM), maximal isometric strength, maximal muscle activation, and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body muscles, as well as lower-body muscle quality (MQ) obtained by ultrasonography, were evaluated. Knee extension and elbow flexion 1-RM improved at all time points for both groups; however, knee extension 1-RM gains were greater for the HV group after 20WE. Maximal isometric strength of the lower body for both groups increased only at 20WE, while upper-body maximal isometric strength increased after 13WE and 20WE. Maximal activation of the lower and upper body for both groups increased only after 20WE. Both groups showed significant increases in MT of their lower and upper body, with greater gains in lower-body MT for the HV group at 20WE. MQ improved in both groups after 13WE and 20WE, whereas the HV group improved more than the LV group at 20WE. These results showed that low- and high-volume trainings have a similar adaptation time course in the muscular function of upper-body muscles. However, high-volume training appears to be more efficient for lower-body muscles after 20 weeks of training.

  18. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting (United States)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.


    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  19. Image analysis based quantification of bacterial volume change with high hydrostatic pressure. (United States)

    Pilavtepe-Celik, M; Balaban, M O; Alpas, H; Yousef, A E


    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Staphylococcus aureus 485 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 933 were taken after pressure treatments at 200 to 400 MPa. Software developed for this purpose was used to analyze SEM images and to calculate the change in view area and volume of cells. Significant increase in average cell view area and volume for S. aureus 485 was observed in response to pressure treatment at 400 MPa. Cell view area for E. coli O157:H7 933 significantly increased at 325 MPa, the maximum pressure treatment tested against this pathogen. In contrast to S. aureus, cells of E. coli O157:H7 exhibited significant increase in average view area and volume at 200 MPa. The pressure-induced increase in these parameters may be attributed to modifications in membrane properties, for example, denaturation of membrane-bound proteins and pressure-induced phase transition of membrane lipid bilayer.

  20. Variation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization for epithelial ovarian cancer at high volume hospitals in the United States and associated survival. (United States)

    Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M


    To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/year) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%-55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23-55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5-17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and HR 0.85 95% CI 0.75-0.95). Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of High-Temperature Curing Methods on the Compressive Strength Development of Concrete Containing High Volumes of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsuk Jung


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the high-temperature curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. GGBS was used to replace Portland cement at a replacement ratio of 60% by binder mass. The high-temperature curing parameters used in this study were the delay period, temperature rise, peak temperature (PT, peak period, and temperature down. Test results demonstrate that the compressive strength of the samples with PTs of 65°C and 75°C was about 88% higher than that of the samples with a PT of 55°C after 1 day. According to this investigation, there might be optimum high-temperature curing conditions for preparing a concrete containing high volumes of GGBS, and incorporating GGBS into precast concrete mixes can be a very effective tool in increasing the applicability of this by-product.

  2. Effects of flaw size and auto-glaze treatment on porcelain strength. (United States)

    Griggs, J A; Thompson, J Y; Anusavice, K J


    The functional surfaces of porcelain restorations are often ground to adjust occlusion. This removes the surface glaze and introduces flaws. Re-firing the restoration before final placement produces a self-glaze layer on the surface that may reduce the extent of damage caused by grinding. The objectives of this study were to determine whether re-firing after grinding increases the strength of dental porcelain and to determine whether the effectiveness of this treatment was dependent on the initial flaw size. Six groups, each containing 12 disk specimens, were prepared from experimental body porcelain (No. 36, J.F. Jelenko & Co., Armonk, NY). The specimens were fired under vacuum, ground to a thickness of 1 mm with 240-grit SiC abrasive, and polished through 600-grit on the surface to be subjected to tensile stress. Control Group A consisted of 12 non-indented specimens. Flaws were induced in the remaining groups by means of a Vickers indenter under the following loads: 3.9 N (Group B), 7.8 N (Group C), 11.8 N (Group D), 15.7 N (Group E), and 19.6 N (Group F). Following indentation, half of the specimens from each group were re-fired. The flexure strength of each specimen was determined by means of a piston-on-three-ball biaxial fixture. The TTEST procedure of SAS (1985) indicated a significant difference between the mean strength values of glazed and non-glazed specimens in Group E only (p = 0.55, 0.24, 0.13, 0.07, 0.01, and 0.69 for Groups A to F, respectively). ANOVA with the GLM procedure of SAS (1985) revealed that the mean strength values of groups subjected to five indentation loads were not significantly different (p = 0.45 for glazed specimens and p = 1.00 for non-glazed specimens). These findings support those of Fairhurst et al. (1992) for specimens with smaller flaws that were induced by grinding with 1 micron abrasive grit. The results of the current study indicate that re-firing of porcelain with large surface flaws does not significantly increase the

  3. A highly addressable static droplet array enabling digital control of a single droplet at pico-volume resolution. (United States)

    Jeong, Heon-Ho; Lee, Byungjin; Jin, Si Hyung; Jeong, Seong-Geun; Lee, Chang-Soo


    Droplet-based microfluidics enabling exquisite liquid-handling has been developed for diagnosis, drug discovery and quantitative biology. Compartmentalization of samples into a large number of tiny droplets is a great approach to perform multiplex assays and to improve reliability and accuracy using a limited volume of samples. Despite significant advances in microfluidic technology, individual droplet handling in pico-volume resolution is still a challenge in obtaining more efficient and varying multiplex assays. We present a highly addressable static droplet array (SDA) enabling individual digital manipulation of a single droplet using a microvalve system. In a conventional single-layer microvalve system, the number of microvalves required is dictated by the number of operation objects; thus, individual trap-and-release on a large-scale 2D array format is highly challenging. By integrating double-layer microvalves, we achieve a "balloon" valve that preserves the pressure-on state under released pressure; this valve can allow the selective releasing and trapping of 7200 multiplexed pico-droplets using only 1 μL of sample without volume loss. This selectivity and addressability completely arranged only single-cell encapsulated droplets from a mixture of droplet compositions via repetitive selective trapping and releasing. Thus, it will be useful for efficient handling of miniscule volumes of rare or clinical samples in multiplex or combinatory assays, and the selective collection of samples.

  4. Feasibility for development of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution: Sensitivity analyses and NDE (nondestructive evaluation) capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R. (Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))


    Pressurized water reactor pressure vessels operate under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rules and regulatory guides that are intended to maintain a low probability of vessel failure. The NRC has also addressed neutron embrittlement of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels by imposing regulations on plant operation. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified by these rules and regulations are required, among other things, to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue safe operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. A fracture mechanics sensitivity study was performed to quantify the effect of the assumed flaw distribution on the predicted vessel performance under a specified pressurized thermal shock transient and to determine the critical crack size. Results of the analysis indicate that vessel performance in terms of the estimated probability of failure is very sensitive to the assumed flaw distribution. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Using Non-Destructive Test Methods to Monitor Flaw Behavior in a Real· Time Test Environment (United States)

    Springer, K. Q.; Kersker, K.; Miller, K.; Teles, S.


    Accurate modeling of flaw behavior in both propellant-liner-insulation and insulation-to-insulation interfaces is required for flight certification of NASA's Space Launch System solid rocket booster. In-situ monitoring of the flaw propagation using nondestructive test methods such as X-ray and ultrasonic testing allows pressure and volumetric flow data to be correlated with the time of flaw propagation during pressurization. The use of X-ray and ultrasonic test inspection allowed physical flaw growth to be tracked continuously throughout testing, overcoming a limitation in previous model validation techniques. The techniques used are capable of corroborating model predictions as well as validating simpler test methodologies for past and future testing efforts.

  6. Central Issues in the Use of Computer-Based Materials for High Volume Entrepreneurship Education (United States)

    Cooper, Billy


    This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based…

  7. A Central Limit Theorem for the Volumes of High Excursions of Stationary Associated Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Demichev


    Full Text Available We prove that under certain conditions the excursion sets volumes of stationary positively associated random fields converge after rescaling to the normal distribution as the excursion level and the size of the observation window grow. In addition, we provide a number of examples.

  8. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFV


    Full Text Available Pressure Casting of Low Volume Non Ferrous Metals Components Date: 2 November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 Introduction to RPT • Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) generally used for non functional prototypes • RPT...

  9. Inflammatory Cytokines and BDNF Response to High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect the Exercise Volume (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Castrillón, Carlos I. M.; Miranda, Rodolfo A. T.; Monteiro, Paula A.; Inoue, Daniela S.; Campos, Eduardo Z.; Hofmann, Peter; Lira, Fábio S.


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two similar high-intensity intermittent exercises (HIIE) but different volume 1.25 km (HIIE1.25) and 2.5 km (HIIE2.5) on inflammatory and BDNF responses. Ten physically active male subjects (age 25.22 ± 1.74 years, body mass 78.98 ± 7.31 kg, height 1.78 ± 0.06 m, VO2peak 59.94 ± 9.38 ml·kg·min−1) performed an incremental treadmill exercise test and randomly completed two sessions of HIIE on a treadmill (1:1 min at vVO2max with passive recovery). Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 60-min after the exercise sessions. Serum was analyzed for glucose, lactate, IL-6, IL-10, and BDNF levels. Blood lactate concentrations was higher immediately post-exercise compared to rest (HIIE1.25: 1.69 ± 0.26–7.78 ± 2.09 mmol·L−1, and HIIE2.5: 1.89 ± 0.26–7.38 ± 2.57 mmol·L−1, p < 0.0001). Glucose concentrations did not present changes under the different conditions, however, levels were higher 60-min post-exercise than at rest only in the HIIE1.25 condition (rest: 76.80 ± 11.14–97.84 ± 24.87 mg·dL−1, p < 0.05). BDNF level increased immediately after exercise in both protocols (HIIE1.25: 9.71 ± 306–17.86 ± 8.59 ng.mL−1, and HIIE2.5: 11.83 ± 5.82–22.84 ± 10.30 ng.mL−1). Although both exercises increased IL-6, level percent between rest and immediately after exercise was higher in the HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (30 and 10%; p = 0.014, respectively). Moreover, IL-10 levels percent increase between immediately and 60-min post-exercise was higher in HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (37 and 10%; p = 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, both HIIE protocols with the same intensity were effective to increase BDNF and IL-6 levels immediately after exercise while only IL-10 response was related to the durantion of exercise indicanting the importance of this exercise prescription variable. PMID:27867360

  10. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable

  11. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Kilen

    Full Text Available It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT comprised ∼5 h vs. 1 h and total distance was ∼17 km vs. 35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10×10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 minutes of rest. Performance of 100 m all-out freestyle and 200 m freestyle was similar before and after the intervention in both HIT (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14 and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15. Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14 and CON (3.8±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.7 l O2×min-1; n = 11 group. Oxygen uptake determined at fixed submaximal speed was not significantly affected in either group by the intervention. Body fat % tended to increase (P = 0.09 in the HIT group (15.4±1.6% vs. 16.3±1.6%; P = 0.09; n = 16 and increased (P<0.05 in the CON group (13.9±1.5% vs. 14.9±1.5%; n = 17. A distance reduction of 50% and a more than doubled HIT amount for 12 weeks did neither improve nor compromise performance or physiological capacity in elite swimmers.

  12. Inflammatory cytokines and BDNF response to high-intensity intermittent exercise: effect the exercise volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cabral-Santos


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two similar high-intensity intermittent exercises (HIIE but different volume 1.25km (HIIE1.25 and 2.5km (HIIE2.5 on inflammatory and BDNF responses. Ten physically active male subjects (age 25.22±1.74years, body mass 78.98±7.31kg, height 1.78±0.06m, VO2peak 59.94±9.38ml•kg•min-1 performed an incremental treadmill exercise test and randomly completed two sessions of HIIE on a treadmill (1:1 min at vVO2max with passive recovery. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 60-minutes after the exercise sessions. Serum was analyzed for glucose, lactate, IL-6, IL-10 and BDNF levels. Blood lactate concentrations was higher immediately post-exercise compared to rest (HIIE1.25: 1.69±0.26 to 7.78±2.09mmol•L-1, and HIIE2.5: 1.89±0.26 to 7.38±2.57mmol•L-1, p<0.0001. Glucose concentrations did not present changes under the different conditions, however, levels were higher 60-min post-exercise than at rest only in the HIIE1.25 condition (rest: 76.80±11.14 to 97.84±24.87mg•dL-1, p<0.05. BDNF level increased immediately after exercise in both protocols (HIIE1.25: 9.71±306 to 17.86±8.59ng.mL-1, and HIIE2.5: 11.83±5.82 to 22.84±10.30ng.mL-1. Although both exercises increased IL-6, level percent increase between rest and immediately after exercise was higher in the HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (30% and 10%; p=0.014, respectively. Moreover, IL-10 levels percent increase between immediately and 60-min post-exercise was higher in HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (37% and 10%; p=0.012, respectively. In conclusion, both HIIE protocols with the same intensity were effective to increase BDNF and IL-6 levels immediately after exercise while only IL-10 response was related to the durantion of exercise indicanting the importance ofthis exercise prescription variable.

  13. Development of a novel high volume band compression injector for the analysis of complex samples like toxaphene pesticide. (United States)

    Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Gouteux, Bruno; Bertrand, Michel J


    A new type of injector has been developed for gas chromatographic analysis. The injector has high volume and band compression (HVBC) capabilities useful for the analysis of complex samples. The injector consists essentially of a packed liner operated at room temperature while a narrow heated zone is used to axially scan the liner selectively desorbing the compounds of interest. The scanning speed, distance and temperature of the zone are precisely controlled. The liner is connected to an interface which can vent the solvent or any undesirable compounds, and transfer the analytes to an analytical column for separation and quantification. The injector is designed to be compatible with injection volumes from 1 to more than 250microL. At a low sample volume of 1microL, the injector has competitive performances compared to those of the "on-column" and "split/splitless" injectors for the fatty acid methyl esters and toxaphene compounds tested. For higher volumes, the system produces a linear response according to the injected volume. In this explorative study, the maximum volume injected seems to be limited by the saturation of the chromatographic system instead of being defined by the design of the injector. The HVBC injector can also be used to conduct "in situ" pretreatment of the sample before its transfer to the analytical column. For instance, a toxaphene sample was successively fractionated, using the HVBC injector, in six sub-fractions characterized by simpler chromatograms than the chromatogram of the original mixture. Finally, the ability of the HVBC injector to "freeze" the separation in time allowing the analyst to complete the analysis at a later time is also discussed.

  14. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm


    Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.

  15. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.


    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  16. Comparison of Canopy Volume Measurements of Scattered Eucalypt Farm Trees Derived from High Spatial Resolution Imagery and LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niva Kiran Verma


    Full Text Available Studies estimating canopy volume are mostly based on laborious and time-consuming field measurements; hence, there is a need for easier and convenient means of estimation. Accordingly, this study investigated the use of remotely sensed data (WorldView-2 and LiDAR for estimating tree height, canopy height and crown diameter, which were then used to infer the canopy volume of remnant eucalypt trees at the Newholme/Kirby ‘SMART’ farm in north-east New South Wales. A regression model was developed with field measurements, which was then applied to remote-sensing-based measurements. LiDAR estimates of tree dimensions were generally lower than the field measurements (e.g., 6.5% for tree height although some of the parameters (such as tree height may also be overestimated by the clinometer/rangefinder protocols used. The WorldView-2 results showed both crown projected area and crown diameter to be strongly correlated to canopy volume, and that crown diameter yielded better results (Root Mean Square Error RMSE 31% than crown projected area (RMSE 42%. Although the better performance of LiDAR in the vertical dimension cannot be dismissed, as suggested by results obtained from this study and also similar studies conducted with LiDAR data for tree parameter measurements, the high price and complexity associated with the acquisition and processing of LiDAR datasets mean that the technology is beyond the reach of many applications. Therefore, given the need for easier and convenient means of tree parameters estimation, this study filled a gap and successfully used 2D multispectral WorldView-2 data for 3D canopy volume estimation with satisfactory results compared to LiDAR-based estimation. The result obtained from this study highlights the usefulness of high resolution data for canopy volume estimations at different locations as a possible alternative to existing methods.

  17. A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Rashad


    Full Text Available Disposal of fly ash (FA resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a partial replacement of cement in traditional paste/mortar/concrete mixtures based on Portland cement (PC. Fresh properties, mechanical properties, abrasion resistance, thermal properties, drying shrinkage, porosity, water absorption, sorptivity, chemical resistance, carbonation resistance and electrical resistivity of paste/mortar/concrete mixtures containing HVFA (⩾45% as cement replacement have been reviewed. Furthermore, additives used to improve some properties of HVFA system have been reviewed.

  18. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a multiphase screw pump, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raebiger, K. [LEISTRITZ Pumpen GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany); Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Hausmann, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Building Services Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Nuremberg (Germany)


    In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)

  19. Highly efficient volume hologram multiplexing in thick dye-doped jelly-like gelatin. (United States)

    Katarkevich, Vasili M; Rubinov, Anatoli N; Efendiev, Terlan Sh


    Dye-doped jelly-like gelatin is a thick-layer self-developing photosensitive medium that allows single and multiplexed volume phase holograms to be successfully recorded using pulsed laser radiation. In this Letter, we present a method for multiplexed recording of volume holograms in a dye-doped jelly-like gelatin, which provides significant increase in their diffraction efficiency. The method is based on the recovery of the photobleached dye molecule concentration in the hologram recording zone of gel, thanks to molecule diffusion from other unexposed gel areas. As an example, an optical recording of a multiplexed hologram consisting of three superimposed Bragg gratings with mean values of the diffraction efficiency and angular selectivity of ∼75% and ∼21', respectively, is demonstrated by using the proposed method.

  20. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial. (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim


    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P football players during pre-season conditioning.

  1. Using microcontact printing to fabricate microcoils on capillaries for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance on nanoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A.; Jackman, R.J.; Whitesides, G.M. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Olson, D.L.; Sweedler, J.V. [Beckman Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    This letter describes a method for producing conducting microcoils for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopy on nanoliter volumes. This technique uses microcontact printing and electroplating to form coils on microcapillaries. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra collected using these microcoils, have linewidths less than 1 Hz for model compounds and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for ethylbenzene of 2.6 nmol in 13 min. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Desarda


    Full Text Available Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient’s oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination.

  3. Temporal dynamics of the circadian heart rate following low and high volume exercise training in sedentary male subjects. (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Karmakar, C; Kiviniemi, A M; Hautala, A J; Tulppo, M P; Mäkikallio, T H; Huikuri, H V; Khandoker, A H; Palaniswami, M


    Increased risk of arrhythmic events occurs at certain times during the circadian cycle with the highest risk being in the second and fourth quarter of the day. Exercise improves treatment outcome in individuals with cardiovascular disease. How different exercise protocols affect the circadian rhythm and the associated decrease in adverse cardiovascular risk over the circadian cycle has not been shown. Fifty sedentary male participants were randomized into an 8-week high volume and moderate volume training and a control group. Heart rate was recorded using Polar Electronics and investigated with Cosinor analysis and by Poincaré plot derived features of SD1, SD2 and the complex correlation measure (CCM) at 1-h intervals over the 24-h period. Moderate exercise significantly increased vagal modulation and the temporal dynamics of the heart rate in the second quarter of the circadian cycle (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007 respectively). High volume exercise had a similar effect on vagal output (p = 0.003) and temporal dynamics (p = 0.003). Cosinor analysis confirms that the circadian heart rate displays a shift in the acrophage following moderate and high volume exercise from before waking (1st quarter) to after waking (2nd quarter of day). Our results suggest that exercise shifts vagal influence and increases temporal dynamics of the heart rate to the 2nd quarter of the day and suggest that this may be the underlying physiological change leading to a decrease in adverse arrhythmic events during this otherwise high-risk period.

  4. Routine diversion of patients with STEMI to high-volume PCI centres: modelling the financial impact on referral hospitals


    Pathak, Elizabeth Barnett; Comins, Meg M; Forsyth, Colin J.; Strom, Joel A


    Objective To quantify possible revenue losses from proposed ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient diversion policies for small hospitals that lack high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability status (ie, ‘STEMI referral hospitals’). Background Negative financial impacts on STEMI referral hospitals have been discussed as an important barrier to implementing regional STEMI bypass/transfer protocols. However, there is little empirical data available that directly ...

  5. Aggravation of pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes by 6 weeks of low-volume, low-intensity training. (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Maimoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Manetta, Jérôme; Boussana, Alain; Préfaut, Christian; Hue, Olivier


    Postexercise alveolar-capillary membrane-diffusing capacity (DLco) often decreases in highly trained endurance athletes and seems linked to their training status. To test the hypothesis that training status influences postexercise DLco, 13 male and 2 female triathletes (20.2 ± 4.4 y old, 175.2 ± 6.7 cm tall; weight in a range of 66.6 ± 7.4 kg to 67.4 ± 7.8 kg during the 1-y study) were randomized into experimental (n = 7) and control (n = 8) groups and performed VO(2max) cycle tests and simulated cycle-run successions (CR) of 30 min + 20 min after 3 periods in the competitive season. Both groups were tested before (pre- HTP) and after a 30-wk high-training period (HTP) with high training volume, intensity, and frequency. The experimental group was then also tested after a 6-wk low-training period (LTP) with low training volume, intensity, and frequency, while the control group continued training according to the HTP schedule for these 6 wk. Ventilatory data were collected continuously. DLco testing was performed before and 30, 60, and 120 min after the CR trials. Whatever the period or group, DLco was significantly decreased 30 min after CR, with a significantly greater decrease in the experimental group than the control group in LTP (-15.7% and -9.3% of DLco, respectively). Six weeks of low training volume and intensity were sufficient to reverse the effects of high training volume and intensity on the alveolar-capillary membrane after a CR succession in competitive triathletes.

  6. High-Order Spectral Volume Method for 2D Euler Equations (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Laiping; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)


    The Spectral Volume (SV) method is extended to the 2D Euler equations. The focus of this paper is to study the performance of the SV method on multidimensional non-linear systems. Implementation details including total variation diminishing (TVD) and total variation bounded (TVB) limiters are presented. Solutions with both smooth features and discontinuities are utilized to demonstrate the overall capability of the SV method.

  7. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft. Volume 2 (United States)


    drag, or cruise. As the prime contractor for NASA, ATK GASL had the unique perspective of seeing the complete program from start to finish. Although... prime contractor to NASA for the execution of the program and had overall responsibility for the detailed design and manufacture and support to flight...Digest, Volume 26, Number 4 (2005) [9] 9 Tyll, J., Erdos , J., Bakos, R., Low-Cost Free-Flight Testing of Hypersonic Airbreathing I Engines, ISOABE 2001

  8. Evolving progress in oncologic and operative outcomes for esophageal and junctional cancer: lessons from the experience of a high-volume center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reynolds, John V


    Modern series from high-volume esophageal centers report an approximate 40% 5-year survival in patients treated with curative intent and postoperative mortality rates of less than 4%. An objective analysis of factors that underpin current benchmarks within high-volume centers has not been performed.

  9. Multicenter analysis comparing robotic, open, laparoscopic, and vaginal hysterectomies performed by high-volume surgeons for benign indications. (United States)

    Lim, Peter C; Crane, John T; English, Eric J; Farnam, Richard W; Garza, Devin M; Winter, Marc L; Rozeboom, Jerry L


    To compare perioperative outcomes between robotic-assisted benign hysterectomies and abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomies when performed by high-volume surgeons. A multicenter data analysis compared 30-day outcomes from consecutive robotic-assisted hysterectomies performed by high-volume surgeons (≥60 prior procedures) at nine centers with records retrieved from the Premier Perspective database for abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomies performed by high-volume gynecologic surgeons. Data on benign hysterectomy disorders from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013 were included. Data from 2300 robotic-assisted, 9745 abdominal, 8121 vaginal, and 11 952 laparoscopic hysterectomies were included. The robotic-assisted patient cohort had a significantly higher rate of adhesive disease compared with the vaginal (Plaparoscopic cohorts (Pobesity than the vaginal (Plaparoscopic cohorts (P250g) than the abdominal (Plaparoscopic cohorts (P=0.017). The robotic-assisted cohort experienced significantly fewer intraoperative complications than the abdominal (Physterectomy provided improved outcomes compared with abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomy. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Gelen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg performed 4 different warm-up (WU routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice (TRAD; traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS; traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE; and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP. Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p 0.05. ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93 for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players.

  11. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart. (United States)

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E


    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  12. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi


    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  13. From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Tchetchik

    Full Text Available The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians' research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments' quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research.

  14. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)


    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  15. Quantifying seasonal volume of groundwater in high elevation meadows: Implications for complex aquifer geometry in a changing climate (United States)

    Ciruzzi, Dominick M.

    The hydrologic impacts of rising global temperatures are severe and imminent particularly in snow-dominated regions. In the western United States, high elevation meadows are among the ecosystems highly sensitive to climate change. High elevation meadows are groundwater dependent ecosystems and rely on seasonal snowpack melt in order to support ecologic function and baseflow to streams. This stream flow in turn supplies an estimated 2.6 million San Francisco residents with water. Once the snow melts and recharges the aquifer, groundwater supports vegetation separate from the surrounding hillslopes, which promotes important ecologic functions like flood regulation and nutrient cycling. Groundwater also supports baseflow to perennial rivers late into the summer months transferring this snowmelt to downstream ecologic and human communities. By 2100 snowpack accumulation in the Sierra Nevada is expected to decrease by ~40-90% due to near-surface temperature rise. Though precipitation intensity is not expected to change, a decrease in snowpack will change the timing and magnitude of groundwater recharge necessary to sustain high elevation meadows. An additional climate-driven shift and decrease in peak stream flow to early spring away from summer when demand is highest puts into question ecosystem survivability and water supply to downstream users. Here, a new quantitative framework is presented to lay the foundation for the widespread identification of vulnerabilities in high elevation meadows due to climate change. This research proposed and tested a new conceptual model for the volume of groundwater stored in high elevation meadows similar to that of a reservoir with active and dead storage. The seasonal fluctuations in active storage, which is defined as the volume of groundwater able to exchange between the aquifer, streams, and vegetation, are thought to be highly sensitive to aquifer parameters, such as bedrock geometry, meadow gradient, and hydraulic conductivity

  16. Does an inter-flaw length control the accuracy of rupture forecasting in geological materials? (United States)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Main, Ian G.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Multi-scale failure of porous materials is an important phenomenon in nature and in material physics - from controlled laboratory tests to rockbursts, landslides, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. A key unsolved research question is how to accurately forecast the time of system-sized catastrophic failure, based on observations of precursory events such as acoustic emissions (AE) in laboratory samples, or, on a larger scale, small earthquakes. Until now, the length scale associated with precursory events has not been well quantified, resulting in forecasting tools that are often unreliable. Here we test the hypothesis that the accuracy of the forecast failure time depends on the inter-flaw distance in the starting material. We use new experimental datasets for the deformation of porous materials to infer the critical crack length at failure from a static damage mechanics model. The style of acceleration of AE rate prior to failure, and the accuracy of forecast failure time, both depend on whether the cracks can span the inter-flaw length or not. A smooth inverse power-law acceleration of AE rate to failure, and an accurate forecast, occurs when the cracks are sufficiently long to bridge pore spaces. When this is not the case, the predicted failure time is much less accurate and failure is preceded by an exponential AE rate trend. Finally, we provide a quantitative and pragmatic correction for the systematic error in the forecast failure time, valid for structurally isotropic porous materials, which could be tested against larger-scale natural failure events, with suitable scaling for the relevant inter-flaw distances.

  17. Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal Inversion of Corrosive Flaws Based on Modified Genetic Local Search Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wen-hua; FANG Ping; XIA Fei; XUE Fang


    In this paper, a modified genetic local search algorithm (MGLSA) is proposed. The proposed algorithm is resulted from employing the simulated annealing technique to regulate the variance of the Gaussian mutation of the genetic local search algorithm (GLSA). Then, an MGLSA-based inverse algorithm is proposed for magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal inversion of corrosive flaws, in which the MGLSA is used to solve the optimization problem in the MFL inverse problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the MGLSA-based inverse algorithm is more robust than GLSA-based inverse algorithm in the presence of noise in the measured MFL signals.

  18. Ductile growth of crack like flawing during hydrotest; Propagacao dutil de defeitos planares durante teste hidrostatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Jose C.; Donato, Guilherme V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Silva, Marcinei S. da; Bastian, Fernando L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Romulo S. de [PETROBRAS/AB-RE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In this paper effects of hydrostatic testing on ductile propagation of crack like flaw defects were evaluated in API X-60 steel. The model used was based on the J-tearing theory, supported by elastic - plastic fracture mechanics. The J-initiation resistance values (JIc) were determined by fracture mechanic tests using potential drop technique and compact test specimen. The JIc values were also determined from flow stress and Charpy V-notch at plateau, which are both usually available in mill-test data. Despite of being based on small database it seems it could be extended and it will be useful for future analysis. (author)

  19. Effect of high tidal volume ventilation and lipopolysaccharide on mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat lung tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Mechanical ventilation, a crucial therapy to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), could exacerbate lung injury, and even result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) if misused in some condition1. Over-activating inflammatory cells and expanding inflammatory responses, which are induced by infection, are fundamental reasons for ARDS. Among them, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signal transduction pathways are key processes. This study aimed to investigate the time course of MAPK activation in rat lung tissue after high tidal volume (VT) ventilation and the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in high-sensitivity, and to elucidate the effect of the pathway on VILI.

  20. The Partition of Unity Method for High-Order Finite Volume Schemes Using Radial Basis Functions Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serena Morigi; Fiorella Sgallari


    This paper introduces the use of partition of unity method for the develop-ment of a high order finite volume discretization scheme on unstructured grids for solv-ing diffusion models based on partial differential equations. The unknown function and its gradient can be accurately reconstructed using high order optimal recovery based on radial basis functions. The methodology proposed is applied to the noise removal prob-lem in functional surfaces and images. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new numerical approach and provide experimental order of convergence.

  1. Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William PRINCE


    Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.

  2. High-order accurate finite-volume formulations for the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models (United States)

    Engwirda, Darren; Kelley, Maxwell; Marshall, John


    Discretisation of the horizontal pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is a challenging task, with non-trivial interactions between the thermodynamics of the fluid and the geometry of the layers often leading to numerical difficulties. We present two new finite-volume schemes for the pressure gradient operator designed to address these issues. In each case, the horizontal acceleration is computed as an integration of the contact pressure force that acts along the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. A pair of new schemes are developed by exploring different control-volume geometries. Non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles are treated using a high-order accurate numerical integration framework, designed to preserve hydrostatic balance in a non-linear manner. Numerical experiments show that the new methods achieve high levels of consistency, maintaining hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer geometries, non-linear equations-of-state and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. These results suggest that the new pressure gradient formulations may be appropriate for general circulation models that employ hybrid vertical coordinates and/or terrain-following representations.

  3. Intenational conference on high-energy physics. Volume 2. Sessions IV to VIII. [Geneva, June 27-July 4, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Volume 2 of the conference proceedings contains sessions on hadron physics, charged-lepton physics, the p-p-bar collider at CERN, future European accelerator possibilities, parallel discussion sessions (on high-energy) hadron-induced reactions, deep inelastic phenomena, hadron spectroscopy, weak ineractions and gauge theories, and quark confinement), and a closing session on gauge appreciation of developments in particle physics. A list of participants is also included. Three of the papers in this volume have already been cited in ERA, and can be found as reference to the entry CONF-790642-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining 36 will be processed as they are received on the Atomindex tape. (RWR)

  4. Extended free-volume defects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors induced by high-energy {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, Valentina [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC (Ukraine); State University of Vital Activity Safety, Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Filipecki, Jacek; Shpotyuk, Oleh [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland)


    It was shown that under-coordinated topological defects induced by high-energy {gamma}-irradiation can be a reason for significant changes in positron annihilation lifetime spectra of multicomponent chalcogenide glassy semiconductors within ternary Ge-As(Sb)-S systems. In the case of negatively-charged sulphur and arsenic atoms, the excess of free volume is quite enough to produce additional input in the second defect-related channel of positron trapping, while under-coordinated germanium atoms are practically non-detectable with this technique because of low associated free volume. Despite radiation-induced densification, the average positron lifetime demonstrate both growing and decaying tendencies after {gamma}-irradiation depending on glass composition. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. A Comprehensive Archival Search for Counterparts to Ultra-Compact High Velocity Clouds: Five Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Bennet, P; Willman, B; Hargis, J; Strader, J; Olszewski, E; Tollerud, E J; Simon, J D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; James, B L; Koposov, S; McLeod, B; Morrell, N; Peacock, M; Salinas, R; Seth, A C; Stark, D P; Toloba, E


    We report the discovery of five Local Volume dwarf galaxies uncovered during a comprehensive archival search for optical counterparts to ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). The UCHVC population of HI clouds are thought to be candidate gas-rich, low mass halos at the edge of the Local Group and beyond, but no comprehensive search for stellar counterparts to these systems has been presented. Careful visual inspection of all publicly available optical and ultraviolet imaging at the position of the UCHVCs revealed six blue, diffuse counterparts with a morphology consistent with a faint dwarf galaxy beyond the Local Group. Optical spectroscopy of all six candidate dwarf counterparts show that five have an H$\\alpha$-derived velocity consistent with the coincident HI cloud, confirming their association; the sixth diffuse counterpart is likely a background object. The size and luminosity of the UCHVC dwarfs is consistent with other known Local Volume dwarf irregular galaxies. The gas fraction ($M_{HI}/M_{sta...

  6. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women. (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali


    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  7. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro


    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  8. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on High Energy Physics: Ichep '98 (in 2 Volumes) (United States)

    Astbury, Alan; Axen, David; Robinson, Jacob


    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * VOLUME I * Foreword * Conference Organization * PLENARY SESSIONS * Pl-01 Recent Results from the Super-Kamiokande * Recent Results from the Super-Kamiokande * Pl-02 Recent Results on Neutrino Oscillations * Recent Results on Neutrino Oscillations * Pl-03 Experimental Status of the Standard Model * Experimental Status of the Standard Model * Pl-04 Standard Model Theory * Standard Model Theory * Pl-05 Searches at Existing Machines * Searches at Existing Machines * Pl-06 Heavy Quark Production and Decay (t, b, and Onia) * Heavy Quark Production and Decay: (t, b, and Onia) * Pl-07 Heavy Quark Decay * Heavy Quark Decay * Pl-08 CP Violation, Rare Decays and Lepton Flavor Violation * CP Violation, Rare Decays and Lepton Flavor Violation * Pl-09 Light and Charmed Hadron Spectroscopy * Light and Charmed Hadron Spectroscopy * Pl-10 Progress in Lattice Gauge Theory * Progress in Lattice Gauge Theory * Pl-11 Structure Functions * Structure Functions * Pl-12 Diffraction and Low-Q2 Physics Including Two-Photon Physics * Diffraction and Low-Q2 Physics Including Two-Photon Physics * Pl-13 Heavy Ion Collisions at High Energy * Heavy Ion Collisions at High Energy * Pl-14 "Non-Perturbative Methods" in Field Theory * "Non-Perturbative Methods" in Field Theory * Pl-15 Experimental Aspects of QCD in e+e- Collisions * Experimental Aspects of QCD in e+e- Collisions * Pl-16 QCD at High Energy (Hadron-Hadron, Lepton-Hadron, and Gamma-Hadron) * QCD at High Energy (Hadron-Hadron, Lepton-Hadron, Gamma-Hadron) * Pl-17 Perturbative QCD Theory (Includes Our Knowledge of αs) * Perturbative QCD Theory (Includes our Knowledge of αs) * Pl-18 Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Pl-19 Particle Cosmology * Particle Cosmology * Pl-20 Guide to Physics Beyond the Standard Model * Guide to Physics Beyond the Standard Model * Pl-21 Developments in Superstring Theory * Developments in Superstring Theory * Pl-22 Future

  9. Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    field in the presence of a finite a two-layer rod and a conductive tube. The results are in very good agreement with those obtained by using a 2D finite element code. In the third part, a new probe technology with enhanced flaw detection capability is described. The new probe can reduce inspection time through the use of multiple Hall sensors. A prototype Hall array probe has been built and tested with eight individual Hall sensor ICs and a racetrack coil. Electronic hardware was developed to interface the probes to an oscilloscope or an eddy current instrument. To achieve high spatial resolution and to limit the overall probe size, high-sensitivity Hall sensor arrays were fabricated directly on a wafer using photolithographic techniques and then mounted in their unencapsulated form. The electronic hardware was then updated to interface the new probes to a laptop computer.

  10. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 High Park Burn Area near Fort Collins, Colorado (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.


    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and to estimate the same for 44 selected drainage basins along State Highway 14 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (25 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (43 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (51 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities along the drainage network and throughout the drainage basins of interest ranged from 1 to 84 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; from 2 to 95 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; and from 3 to 97 in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the eastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Estimated debris-flow volumes range from a low of 1,600 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and

  11. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on High Energy Physics (in 2 Volumes) (United States)

    Ajduk, Z.; Wroblewski, A. K.


    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * VOLUME I * Foreword * Conference Organization * Welcome Address * PLENARY SESSIONS * Pl-01 New Results in Spectroscopy * New Results in Spectroscopy * Pl-02 Soft Interactions and Diffraction Phenomena * Soft Interactions and Diffraction Phenomena * Pl-03 Spin Structure of the Nucleon * Spin Structure of the Nucleon * Pl-04 QCD, Low x and High pT Physics * Tests of QCD at Low x * High pT QCD Physics Results from the Tevatron * Pl-05 QCD and Hard Scattering * Status of the Strong Coupling Constant * Hard Scattering in QCD * Pl-06 Top Quark Properties and Their Theoretical Implications * Experimental Top Quark Physics * Top Quark Theory * Pl-07 Heavy Flavours * Progress in Understanding Heavy Flavor Decays * Theoretical Review of Heavy Flavour Physics * Pl-08 Quark Masses and Mixing from Weak Processes * Status of Weak Quark Mixing * Pl-09 Status of the Electroweak Interactions * Experimental Tests of the Electroweak Theory * Electroweak Interactions - Theory * Pl-10 FCNC Processes: Experimental Status and Theoretical Implications * Flavour Changing Neutral Current Processes * Pl-11 Neutrino Masses and Oscillations * Neutrino Masses and Oscillations - Experiment * Neutrino Masses and Oscillations - Theory * Pl-12 Searches for New Particles * Searches for New Particles * Pl-13 Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory * Recent Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory * Development in Lattice QCD * Pl-14 Supersymmetry and GUT's * Supersymmetry and (Grand) Unification * Pl-15 Non-Supersymmetric Extensions of the Standard Model * Non-Supersymmetric Extensions of the Standard Model * Pl-16 High Energy Nuclear Interactions and Heavy Ion Collisions * High Energy Nuclear Interactions and Heavy Ion Collisions * Pl-17 Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology * Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Zeroing in on the Fundamental Parameters of Cosmology * Pl-18 New Experimental Techniques and Detectors

  12. Expired tidal volumes measured by hot-wire anemometer during high-frequency oscillation in preterm infants. (United States)

    Zimová-Herknerová, Magdalena; Plavka, Richard


    We sought to determine the normocapnic values of expiratory tidal volume measured by hot-wire anemometer, and to evaluate how often expiratory tidal volume exceeds estimated anatomical dead space during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in preterm infants. We also sought to determine the relationship between expiratory tidal volume and other respiratory parameters. The neonatal respiration monitor SLE 2100 VPM, a hot-wire anemometer, was used to measure expired tidal volume (V(T,E)) in patients ventilated by the Sensormedics 3,100A during routine clinical use of HFOV. Two hundred and fourteen simultaneous measurements of PaCO(2), V(T,E), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)), continuous distending pressure (CDP), frequency, and amplitude were obtained from 28 patients. The median birth weight was 852 g (range, 435-3,450 g), and median gestational age was 27.2 weeks (range, 23.3-41.0 weeks). One hundred and eighteen (55%) normocapnic measurements, 42 (20%) hypocapnic measurements, and 54 (25%) hypercapnic measurements were recorded in which the median V(T,E) was 1.67 ml/kg (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-1.79), 1.94 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.74-2.14), and 1.54 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.42-1.66), respectively. The measured V(T,E) exceeded 2.0 ml/kg in 30 instances of normocapnic V(T,E) (14%) and 54 of all V(T,E) (25%), and 3 ml/kg only in 7 (3%) and 11 (5%) instances of normocapnic and all V(T,E). There was a significant difference in median normocapnic V(T,E) obtained when FiO(2) was between 0.21-0.35, compared to values obtained when FiO(2) was 0.36-1.0 (1.61 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.52-1.70) vs. 2.06 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.93-2.19), P 47 should predict hypercapnia in 81% of cases. In conclusion, expired tidal volume measurement by heated double-wire anemometer sensor is feasible, provides useful real-time information about tidal volume changes, and may improve the clinical management of HFOV.

  13. A 3D time reversal cavity for the focusing of high-intensity ultrasound pulses over a large volume (United States)

    Robin, J.; Arnal, B.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.


    Shock wave ultrasound therapy techniques, increasingly used for non-invasive surgery, require extremely high pressure amplitudes in precise focal spots, and large high-power transducers arranged on a spherical shell are usually used to achieve that. This solution allows limited steering of the beam around the geometrical focus of the device at the cost of a large number of transducer elements, and the treatment of large and moving organs like the heart is challenging or impossible. This paper validates numerically and experimentally the possibility of using a time reversal cavity (TRC) for the same purpose. A 128-element, 1 MHz power transducer combined with different multiple scattering media in a TRC was used. We were able to focus high-power ultrasound pulses over a large volume in a controlled manner, with a limited number of transducer elements. We reached sufficiently high pressure amplitudes to erode an Ultracal® target over a 10 cm2 area.

  14. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training. (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A; Vigotsky, Andrew D


    It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  15. Insensitivity to Flaws Leads to Damage Tolerance in Brittle Architected Meta-Materials (United States)

    Montemayor, L. C.; Wong, W. H.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Greer, J. R.


    Cellular solids are instrumental in creating lightweight, strong, and damage-tolerant engineering materials. By extending feature size down to the nanoscale, we simultaneously exploit the architecture and material size effects to substantially enhance structural integrity of architected meta-materials. We discovered that hollow-tube alumina nanolattices with 3D kagome geometry that contained pre-fabricated flaws always failed at the same load as the pristine specimens when the ratio of notch length (a) to sample width (w) is no greater than 1/3, with no correlation between failure occurring at or away from the notch. Samples with (a/w) > 0.3, and notch length-to-unit cell size ratios of (a/l) > 5.2, failed at a lower peak loads because of the higher sample compliance when fewer unit cells span the intact region. Finite element simulations show that the failure is governed by purely tensile loading for (a/w) < 0.3 for the same (a/l); bending begins to play a significant role in failure as (a/w) increases. This experimental and computational work demonstrates that the discrete-continuum duality of architected structural meta-materials may give rise to their damage tolerance and insensitivity of failure to the presence of flaws even when made entirely of intrinsically brittle materials. PMID:26837581

  16. Insensitivity to Flaws Leads to Damage Tolerance in Brittle Architected Meta-Materials (United States)

    Montemayor, L. C.; Wong, W. H.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Greer, J. R.


    Cellular solids are instrumental in creating lightweight, strong, and damage-tolerant engineering materials. By extending feature size down to the nanoscale, we simultaneously exploit the architecture and material size effects to substantially enhance structural integrity of architected meta-materials. We discovered that hollow-tube alumina nanolattices with 3D kagome geometry that contained pre-fabricated flaws always failed at the same load as the pristine specimens when the ratio of notch length (a) to sample width (w) is no greater than 1/3, with no correlation between failure occurring at or away from the notch. Samples with (a/w) > 0.3, and notch length-to-unit cell size ratios of (a/l) > 5.2, failed at a lower peak loads because of the higher sample compliance when fewer unit cells span the intact region. Finite element simulations show that the failure is governed by purely tensile loading for (a/w) structural meta-materials may give rise to their damage tolerance and insensitivity of failure to the presence of flaws even when made entirely of intrinsically brittle materials.

  17. Wavelet analysis applied to thermographic data for the detection of sub-superficial flaws in mosaics (United States)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Regi, Mauro


    Up to now, the sun-pulse recorded during the heating (day) and cooling (night) phases has not yet been analyzed by using the infrared thermography (IRT) method through the complex wavelet transform (CWT) technique. CWT can be used with the sun-pulse data in a similar way as the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In addition, CWT preserves the time information of the signal both in the phasegrams and in the amplitudegrams. In this work, a mosaic sample containing artificial flaws positioned at different depths was inspected into the long wave IR spectrum. It is possible to observe that by comparing defective and defect-free areas, a difference in phase during the thermal diffusion appears. The signal reference, measured on the defect-free area, was subtracted from the other measurement points. The resulting signal thermal contrast, representing the difference of the temporal evolutions of the surface temperature above the defective and defect-free positions, was also plotted. Subsequently, the wavelet phase contrast was computed. The solar radiation influencing the sample was estimated bearing in mind the sun path in the sky, the mosaic orientation and the inclination with respect to its local geographical coordinates. Finally, the ambient parameters have been recorded by a control unit. Although the CWT technique did not provided a sound visualization of the shape of the flaws, it permitted to reflect on the heat release coming from the bituminous material behind the statumen layer. Indeed, it is not atypical to find inclined mosaics to be restored.

  18. Topological Galleries: A High Level User Interface for Topology Controlled Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarthy, Brian; Carr, Hamish; Weber, Gunther H.


    Existing topological interfaces to volume rendering are limited by their reliance on sophisticated knowledge of topology by the user. We extend previous work by describing topological galleries, an interface for novice users that is based on the design galleries approach. We report three contributions: an interface based on hierarchical thumbnail galleries to display the containment relationships between topologically identifiable features, the use of the pruning hierarchy instead of branch decomposition for contour tree simplification, and drag-and-drop transfer function assignment for individual components. Initial results suggest that this approach suffers from limitations due to rapid drop-off of feature size in the pruning hierarchy. We explore these limitations by providing statistics of feature size as function of depth in the pruning hierarchy of the contour tree.

  19. Short transmembrane domains with high-volume exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex. (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; González Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Maccioni, Hugo J F


    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the Golgi SNARE protein Sft1 and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sso1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model proteins, we modified the length of their TMDs and the volume of their exoplasmic hemi-TMD, and determined their subcellular localization both in yeast and mammalian cells. We found that short TMDs with high-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs confer Golgi membrane residence, whereas TMDs with low-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs, either short or long, confer plasma membrane residence to these proteins. Results indicate that the shape of the exoplasmic hemi-TMD, in addition to the length of the entire TMD, determine retention in the Golgi or exit to the plasma membrane of Type II membrane proteins.

  20. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)


    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  1. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Executive summary: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)


    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer software used in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. The framework for the work consisted of the following software development and assurance activities: requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, including static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire range of software life-cycle activities; the assessment of the technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary, includes an overview of the framework and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; Volume 2 is the main report.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.


    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  3. Developing an Ice Volume Estimate of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska, using Ground-Penetrating Radar and High Resolution Satellite Imagery (United States)

    Wu, N. L.; Campbell, S. W.; Douglas, T. A.; Osterberg, E. C.


    Jarvis Glacier is an important water source for Fort Greely and Delta Junction, Alaska. Yet with warming summer temperatures caused by climate change, the glacier is melting rapidly. Growing concern of a dwindling water supply has caused significant research efforts towards determining future water resources from spring melt and glacier runoff which feeds the community on a yearly basis. The main objective of this project was to determine the total volume of the Jarvis Glacier. In April 2012, a centerline profile of the Jarvis Glacier and 15 km of 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles were collected in cross sections to provide ice depth measurements. These depth measurements were combined with an interpreted glacier boundary (depth = 0 m) from recently collected high resolution WorldView satellite imagery to estimate total ice volume. Ice volume was calculated at 0.62 km3 over a surface area of 8.82 km2. However, it is likely that more glacier-ice exists within Jarvis Glacier watershed considering the value calculated with GPR profiles accounts for only the glacier ice within the valley and not for the valley side wall ice. The GLIMS glacier area database suggests that the valley accounts for approximately 50% of the total ice covered watershed. Hence, we are currently working to improve total ice volume estimates which incorporate the surrounding valley walls. Results from this project will be used in conjunction with climate change estimates and hydrological properties downstream of the glacier to estimate future water resources available to Fort Greely and Delta Junction.

  4. Nonlinear imaging (NIM) of flaws in a complex composite stiffened panel using a constructive nonlinear array (CNA) technique. (United States)

    Malfense Fierro, Gian Piero; Meo, Michele


    Recently, there has been high interest in the capabilities of nonlinear ultrasound techniques for damage/defect detection as these techniques have been shown to be quite accurate in imaging some particular type of damage. This paper presents a Constructive Nonlinear Array (CNA) method, for the detection and imaging of material defects/damage in a complex composite stiffened panel. CNA requires the construction of an ultrasound array in a similar manner to standard phased arrays systems, which require multiple transmitting and receiving elements. The method constructively phase-match multiple captured signals at a particular position given multiple transmit positions, similar to the total focusing method (TFM) method. Unlike most of the ultrasonic linear techniques, a longer excitation signal was used to achieve a steady-state excitation at each capturing position, so that compressive and tensile stress at defect/crack locations increases the likelihood of the generation of nonlinear elastic waves. Moreover, the technique allows the reduction of instrumentation nonlinear wave generation by relying on signal attenuation to naturally filter these errors. Experimental tests were carried out on a stiffened panel with manufacturing defects. Standard industrial linear ultrasonic test were carried out for comparison. The proposed new method allows to image damages/defects in a reliable and reproducible manner and overcomes some of the main limitations of nonlinear ultrasound techniques. In particular, the effectiveness and robustness of CNA and the advantages over linear ultrasonic were clearly demonstrated allowing a better resolution and imaging of complex and realistic flaws.

  5. A Single Session of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Men. (United States)

    Dantas, Teresa C B; Farias Junior, Luiz F; Frazão, Danniel T; Silva, Paulo H M; Sousa Junior, Altieres E; Costa, Ingrid B B; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Duhamel, Todd A; Costa, Eduardo C


    Dantas, TCB, Farias Junior, LF, Frazão, DT, Silva, PHM, Sousa Junior, AE, Costa, IBB, Ritti-Dias, RM, Forjaz, CLM, Duhamel, TA, and Costa, EC. A single session of low-volume high-intensity interval exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive men. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2263-2269, 2017-The magnitude and duration of postexercise hypotension (PEH) may provide valuable information on the efficacy of an exercise approach to blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the acute effect of a time-efficient high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on ambulatory BP. Twenty-one normotensive men (23.6 ± 3.6 years) completed 2 experimental sessions in a randomized order: (a) control (no exercise) and (b) low-volume HIIE: 10 × 1 minute at 100% of maximal treadmill velocity interspersed with 1 minute of recovery. After each experimental session, an ambulatory BP monitoring was initiated. Paired sample t-test was used to compare BP averages for awake, asleep, and 20-hour periods between the control and the low-volume HIIE sessions. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze hourly BP after both experimental sessions. Blood pressure averages during the awake (systolic: 118 ± 6 vs. 122 ± 6 mm Hg; diastolic: 65 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 7 mm Hg) and 20-hour (systolic: 115 ± 7 vs. 118 ± 6 mm Hg; diastolic: 62 ± 7 vs. 64 ± 7 mm Hg) periods were lower after the low-volume HIIE compared with the control (p ≤ 0.05). Systolic and diastolic PEH presented medium (Cohen's d = 0.50-0.67) and small (Cohen's d = 0.29) effect sizes, respectively. Systolic PEH occurred in a greater magnitude during the first 5 hours (3-5 mm Hg). No changes were found in asleep BP (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a single session of low-volume HIIE reduced ambulatory BP in normotensive men. The PEH occurred mainly in systolic BP during the first 5 hours postexercise.

  6. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network. (United States)

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff


    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  7. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J


    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures...... on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate...

  8. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer based on sentinel node SPECT imaging for target volume definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadis Aristotelis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging. Methods Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV. Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed. Results Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29. 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10, that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss' only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG

  9. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.


    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  10. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Frotzler, Angela; Coupaud, Sylvie; Perret, Claudio; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Hunt, Kenneth J; Donaldson, Nick de N; Eser, Prisca


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss in the paralysed limbs and to a resulting increased fracture risk thereof. Since long bone fractures can lead to comorbidities and a reduction in quality of life, it is important to improve bone strength in people with chronic SCI. In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we investigated whether functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced high-volume cycle training can partially reverse the loss of bone substance in the legs after chronic complete SCI. Eleven participants with motor-sensory complete SCI (mean age 41.9+/-7.5 years; 11.0+/-7.1 years post injury) were recruited. After an initial phase of 14+/-7 weeks of FES muscle conditioning, participants performed on average 3.7+/-0.6 FES-cycling sessions per week, of 58+/-5 min each, over 12 months at each individual's highest power output. Bone and muscle parameters were investigated in the legs by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the muscle conditioning (t1), and after six (t2) and 12 months (t3) of high-volume FES-cycle training. After 12 months of FES-cycling, trabecular and total bone mineral density (BMD) as well as total cross-sectional area in the distal femoral epiphysis increased significantly by 14.4+/-21.1%, 7.0+/-10.8% and 1.2+/-1.5%, respectively. Bone parameters in the femoral shaft showed small but significant decreases, with a reduction of 0.4+/-0.4% in cortical BMD, 1.8+/-3.0% in bone mineral content, and 1.5+/-2.1% in cortical thickness. These decreases mainly occurred between t1 and t2. No significant changes were found in any of the measured bone parameters in the tibia. Muscle CSA at the thigh increased significantly by 35.5+/-18.3%, while fat CSA at the shank decreased by 16.7+/-12.3%. Our results indicate that high-volume FES-cycle training leads to site-specific skeletal changes in the paralysed limbs, with an increase in bone parameters at the actively loaded distal femur but not the passively loaded

  11. Highly sensitive SERS detection of cancer proteins in low sample volume using hollow core photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    U S, Dinish; Fu, Chit Yaw; Soh, Kiat Seng; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Kumar, Anil; Olivo, Malini


    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are commonly used for detecting cancer proteins at concentration in the range of about ng-μg/mL. Hence it often fails to detect tumor markers at the early stages of cancer and other diseases where the amount of protein is extremely low. Herein, we report a novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing platform for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer proteins in an extremely low sample volume. As a proof of concept, epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in a lysate solution from human epithelial carcinoma cells were immobilized into the hollow core PCF. Highly sensitive detection of protein was achieved using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated SERS nanotag. This SERS nanotag probe was realized by anchoring highly active Raman molecules onto the gold nanoparticles followed by bioconjugation. The proposed sensing method can detect low amount of proteins at ∼100 pg in a sample volume of ∼10 nL. Our approach may lead to the highly sensitive protein sensing methodology for the early detection of diseases.

  12. Cascading and Parallelising Curvilinear Inertial Focusing Systems for High Volume, Wide Size Distribution, Separation and Concentration of Particles (United States)

    Miller, B.; Jimenez, M.; Bridle, H.


    Inertial focusing is a microfluidic based separation and concentration technology that has expanded rapidly in the last few years. Throughput is high compared to other microfluidic approaches although sample volumes have typically remained in the millilitre range. Here we present a strategy for achieving rapid high volume processing with stacked and cascaded inertial focusing systems, allowing for separation and concentration of particles with a large size range, demonstrated here from 30 μm-300 μm. The system is based on curved channels, in a novel toroidal configuration and a stack of 20 devices has been shown to operate at 1 L/min. Recirculation allows for efficient removal of large particles whereas a cascading strategy enables sequential removal of particles down to a final stage where the target particle size can be concentrated. The demonstration of curved stacked channels operating in a cascaded manner allows for high throughput applications, potentially replacing filtration in applications such as environmental monitoring, industrial cleaning processes, biomedical and bioprocessing and many more.

  13. Reforming New York State's Flawed School Finance System. In Evidence: Policy Reports from the CFE Trial, Volume 2. (United States)

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report exposes inadequacies in New York's education finance system, summarizing testimony and research collected for a lawsuit filed by the Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., on behalf of New York City students. The lawsuit charges that the state has underfunded the City's public schools, thus denying City students a sound basic education. The…

  14. The effects of violating standard item writing principles on tests and students: the consequences of using flawed test items on achievement examinations in medical education. (United States)

    Downing, Steven M


    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of violations of standard multiple-choice item writing principles on test characteristics, student scores, and pass-fail outcomes. Four basic science examinations, administered to year-one and year-two medical students, were randomly selected for study. Test items were classified as either standard or flawed by three independent raters, blinded to all item performance data. Flawed test questions violated one or more standard principles of effective item writing. Thirty-six to sixty-five percent of the items on the four tests were flawed. Flawed items were 0-15 percentage points more difficult than standard items measuring the same construct. Over all four examinations, 646 (53%) students passed the standard items while 575 (47%) passed the flawed items. The median passing rate difference between flawed and standard items was 3.5 percentage points, but ranged from -1 to 35 percentage points. Item flaws had little effect on test score reliability or other psychometric quality indices. Results showed that flawed multiple-choice test items, which violate well established and evidence-based principles of effective item writing, disadvantage some medical students. Item flaws introduce the systematic error of construct-irrelevant variance to assessments, thereby reducing the validity evidence for examinations and penalizing some examinees.

  15. Influence of Flaws of Wire Rod Surface, Inclusions and Voids on Wire Breaks in Superfine Wire Drawing (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Norasethasopon, Somchai; Shinohara, Tetsuo; Ido, Ryuta

    By means of the finite element analysis (FEA), this study analyzed wire breaks that occurred in the drawing fine wires containing flaws on the wire surface, inclusion and void. The deformation behavior of an inclusion was examined, in which the inclusion's location is assumed to be on the center axis of the wire, and the cause of wire breaks and their prevention method were clarified. It was found that an inclusion diameter/wire diameter ratio of 0.4 or higher increases the likelihood of wire breaks occurring. When the inclusion is not assumed to be in the center axis of the wire, it was also found that necking and wire breaks appear more frequently. FEA showed that a flaw grows with each processing step, when a small circumferential flaw is placed on the wire rod surface, and eventually becomes a surface defect, which is called a check mark in practice.

  16. A comparative study of experimental and finite element analysis on submillimeter flaws by laser and ultrasonic excited thermography (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Fernandes, Henrique; Yu, Lingyao; Hassler, Ulf; Genest, Marc; Robitaille, François; Joncas, Simon; Sheng, Yunlong; Maldague, Xavier


    Stitching is used to reduce dry-core and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it might cause new types of flaws, especially submillimeter flaws. In this paper, new approaches including micro-VT, lock-in micro-LLT and micro-LST based on both lock-in and pulse methods are used to detect submillimeter flaws in stitched CFRP. A comparison of laser excitation thermography and micro-VT on micro-porosities is conducted. Micro-CT is used to validate the infrared results. Then, a finite element analysis (FEA) is performed. The geometrical model needed for finite element discretization was developed from micro-CT measurements. The model is validated for the experimental results. Finally a comprehensive experimental and simulation comparison of micro-LLT and micro-LST based on both lock-in and pulse methods is conducted.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of 3D Crack Growth in Transparent Rock-Like Material Containing Preexisting Flaws under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Dan Tang


    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of 3D crack propagation and coalescence is investigated in rock-like material under uniaxial compression. A new transparent rock-like material is developed and a series of uniaxial compressive tests on low temperature transparent resin materials with preexisting 3D flaws are performed in laboratory, with changing values of bridge angle β (inclination between the inner tips of the two preexisting flaws of preexisting flaws in specimens. Furthermore, a theoretical peak strength prediction of 3D cracks coalescence is given. The results show that the coalescence modes of the specimens are varying according to different bridge angles. And the theoretical peak strength prediction agrees well with the experimental observation.

  18. Ultra-high frequency, high Q/volume micromechanical resonators in a planar AlN phononic crystal (United States)

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Alaie, S.; Reinke, C. M.; El-Kady, I.; Leseman, Z. C.


    This paper presents the first design and experimental demonstration of an ultrahigh frequency complete phononic crystal (PnC) bandgap aluminum nitride (AlN)/air structure operating in the GHz range. A complete phononic bandgap of this design is used to efficiently and simultaneously confine elastic vibrations in a resonator. The PnC structure is fabricated by etching a square array of air holes in an AlN slab. The fabricated PnC resonator resonates at 1.117 GHz, which corresponds to an out-of-plane mode. The measured bandgap and resonance frequencies are in very good agreement with the eigen-frequency and frequency-domain finite element analyses. As a result, a quality factor/volume of 7.6 × 1017/m3 for the confined resonance mode was obtained that is the largest value reported for this type of PnC resonator to date. These results are an important step forward in achieving possible applications of PnCs for RF communication and signal processing with smaller dimensions.

  19. Chemically Modified Plastic Tube for High Volume Removal and Collection of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gaitas

    Full Text Available In this preliminary effort, we use a commercially available and chemically modified tube to selectively capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs from the blood stream by immobilizing human anti-EpCAM antibodies on the tube's interior surface. We describe the requisite and critical steps required to modify a tube into a cancer cell-capturing device. Using these simple modifications, we were able to capture or entrap about 85% of cancer cells from suspension and 44% of cancer cells from spiked whole blood. We also found that the percentage of cells captured was dependent on the tube's length and also the number of cancer cells present. It is our strong belief that with the utilization of appropriate tube lengths and procedures, we can ensure capture and removal of nearly the entire CTC population in whole blood. Importantly after a patient's entire blood volume has circulated through the tube, the tube can then be trypsinized to release the captured live CTCs for further analysis and testing.

  20. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone. (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce


    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Training on Performance in Competitive Swimmers: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Burrows, Emma; Warrington, Giles D


    Nugent, FJ, Comyns, TM, Burrows, E, and Warrington, GD. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 837-847, 2017-The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature to determine the effects of low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) on physiological performance and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. The methodology followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. A search of relevant databases and conference proceedings was performed until December 2015. The inclusion criteria were (a) competitive swimmers, (b) ≥4 weeks HIT intervention, (c) comparison group had to involve a higher training volume, (d) outcome measures of physiological and swimming performance, and (e) all experimental study designs. Quality assessment was performed using the Quality Index checklist. Results indicate that of the 538 studies retrieved, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 studies found that an HIT intervention resulted in significant improvements in physiological performance. Four of the 7 studies found that HIT resulted in significant improvements in swimming performance, whereas none of the 7 studies resulted in a reduction in physiological or swimming performance. Despite the positive findings of this review, the short study duration is a limitation to a number of studies. The current evidence on the effects of HIT on performance is promising; however, it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions until further research has been conducted.

  2. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee


    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  3. Development of a Weibull model of cleavage fracture toughness for shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Williams, P.T.; McAfee, W.J.; Pugh, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    A primary objective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) -sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is to develop and validate technology applicable to quantitative assessments of fracture prevention margins in nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing flaws and subjected to service-induced material toughness degradation. This paper describes an experimental/analytical program for the development of a Weibull statistical model of cleavage fracture toughness for applications to shallow surface-breaking and embedded flaws in RPV materials subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The experimental part includes both material characterization testing and larger fracture toughness experiments conducted using a special-purpose cruciform beam specimen developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for applying biaxial loads to shallow cracks. Test materials (pressure vessel steels) included plate product forms (conforming to ASTM A533 Grade B Class 1 specifications) and shell segments procured from a pressurized-water reactor vessel intended for a nuclear power plant. Results from tests performed on cruciform specimens demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower-transition temperature region. A local approach methodology based on a three-parameter Weibull model was developed to correlate these experimentally-observed biaxial effects on fracture toughness. The Weibull model, combined with a new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the Weibull stress integral definition, is shown to provide a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states for 2-dimensional flaws located in the A533-B plate material. The Weibull stress density was introduced as a matrice for identifying regions along a semi-elliptical flaw front that have a higher probability of cleavage initiation. Cumulative

  4. An Advanced Flaw-Response Modelling Approach for Inspection Qualification Using a Multi-Agent System Software Platform (United States)

    McKenna, James P.; McLean, Neil; Gachagan, Anthony; McArthur, Stephen D. J.; Hayward, Gordon


    This paper describes the application of a Multi-Agent System used in the design and qualification of ultrasonic NDT inspections using theoretical ultrasonic flaw-response modelling. When a large number of models are available the selection of the most appropriate one for a given inspection scenario becomes time-consuming; the disparate nature of the software models prevents easy integration with other NDT software tools to automate this process. A prototype Inspection Qualification Multi-Agent System has been developed which incorporates a rule-based software system to perform the flaw-response model selection procedure.

  5. Difference in kinematics and kinetics between high- and low-velocity resistance loading equated by volume: implications for hypertrophy training. (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Ikhwan; Cronin, John B; Nosaka, Ken K


    Although it is generally accepted that a high load is necessary for muscle hypertrophy, it is possible that a low load with a high velocity results in greater kinematics and kinetics than does a high load with a slow velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine if 2 training loads (35 and 70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) equated by volume, differed in terms of their session kinematic and kinetic characteristics. Twelve subjects were recruited in this acute randomized within-subject crossover design study. Two bouts of a half-squat exercise were performed 1 week apart, one with high load-low velocity (HLLV = 3 sets of 12 reps at 70% 1RM) and the other with low-load high-velocity (LLHV = 6 sets of 12 reps at 35% 1RM). Time under tension (TUT), average force, peak force (PF), average power (AP), peak power (PP), work (TW), and total impulse (TI) were calculated and compared between loads for the eccentric and concentric phases. For average eccentric and concentric single repetition values, significantly (p eccentric and concentric TUT, PF, AP, PP, and TW. The only variable that was significantly greater for the HLLV protocol than for the LLHV protocol was TI (∼20-24%). From these results, it seems that the LLHV protocol may offer an equal if not better training stimulus for muscular adaptation than the HLLV protocol, because of the greater time under tension, power, force, and work output when the total volume of the exercise is equated.

  6. A new high-order finite volume method for 3D elastic wave simulation on unstructured meshes (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Zhang, Lina


    In this paper, we proposed a new efficient high-order finite volume method for 3D elastic wave simulation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. With the relative coarse tetrahedral meshes, we make subdivision in each tetrahedron to generate a stencil for the high-order polynomial reconstruction. The subdivision algorithm guarantees the number of subelements is greater than the degrees of freedom of a complete polynomial. We perform the reconstruction on this stencil by using cell-averaged quantities based on the hierarchical orthonormal basis functions. Unlike the traditional high-order finite volume method, our new method has a very local property like DG and can be written as an inner-split computational scheme which is beneficial to reducing computational amount. Moreover, the stencil in our method is easy to generate for all tetrahedrons especially in the three-dimensional case. The resulting reconstruction matrix is invertible and remains unchanged for all tetrahedrons and thus it can be pre-computed and stored before time evolution. These special advantages facilitate the parallelization and high-order computations. We show convergence results obtained with the proposed method up to fifth order accuracy in space. The high-order accuracy in time is obtained by the Runge-Kutta method. Comparisons between numerical and analytic solutions show the proposed method can provide accurate wavefield information. Numerical simulation for a realistic model with complex topography demonstrates the effectiveness and potential applications of our method. Though the method is proposed based on the 3D elastic wave equation, it can be extended to other linear hyperbolic system.

  7. Dynamic behaviors of various volume rate steel-fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature burnt (United States)

    Pang, Baojun; Wang, Liwen; Yang, Zhenqi; Chi, Runqiang


    Dynamic strain-stress curves of reactive powder concrete under high strain rate (10/s-100/s) were determined by improved split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. A plumbum pulse shaper was used to ensure the symmetrical stress in the specimens before fracture and avoid the fluctuation of test data due to input shaky stress pulse. A time modified method was induced for data processing in order to get accurate SHPB results. The results of experiment showed after high temperature burnt, different volume rate (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) steel-fiber reinforced reactive power concrete had the same changing tendency of residual mechanics behaviors, e.g. after 400 centigrade burnt, the residual compression strength was about 70% of material strength without burnt under 100/s. After 800 centigrade burnt, the compression strength is about 30% under 100/s while the deformation ability increased. At meanwhile, steel fiber had improved the mechanism of reinforcing effect and toughening effect of concrete material after burnt. With increasing of steel fiber volume rate, dynamic residual behavior of samples was improved. Microcosmic characteristics and energy absorption were induced for explaining the experiment results.

  8. Operation and control of flow manufacturing based on constraints management for high-mix/low-volume production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailin GUAN; Yunfang PENG; Li MA; Chaoyong ZHANG; Peigen LI


    The existing technology of flow manufacturing, which is mainly appropriate for high volume and repetitive production, is proven difficult to be applied in high-mix/ low-volume environments. To adapt lean production into the latter, a new type of flow manufacturing is proposed based on flow path management technology. This paper first describes the general operation framework of the pro-posed new mode. The main idea is the dynamic formation of adaptable virtual production lines (called flow paths) corresponding to different product families. The applica-tion of different theories of constraints/drum-buffer-rope (TOC/DBR) control policies depends on the differences in scope of variety and scale of demand for these product families. The overall architecture of the proposed mech-anism of constraint management-based operation and con-trol is introduced. For the implementation, a mathematical programming method is suggested for the dynamic plan-ning of flow paths, and a TOC/DBR 'path-specific' mech-anism with group scheduling is used for the control over each flow path. We also study other critical issues including the identification and management of resource bottlenecks, and the setting of the buffer size in the deployment of the TOC/DBR mechanism.

  9. An Adaptive Detection Algorithm for Flaw on CTP Plate%一种用于CTP版表面瑕疵的自适应检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凌云; 朱明; 郎百和; 韩太林


    In order to realize automatic detection for flaw on CTP plate,an automatic detection system is established and its applied algorithms such as region growing and graph-based visual saliency(GBVS) is investigated. First,accord-ing to biological characteristics of the human visual attention mechanism,image elementary features were extracted by sampling the center-surround differences,which were combined into a saliency map. Then competition among salient points in this map gave rise to a single focus of attention (FOA) which was selected as the seed point of region grow-ing segmentation. Taking similarity for region growing criteria,binary image of flaw region was formed. Finally,after computing characteristic parameters according to flaw region and using area features,flaw on CTP plate surface were identified. Experimental results indicate that intelligent detection of flaw on CTP plate achieves system resolution of 0.1mm with average accuracy rate of 96.3%.It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact,online,real time,high-er precision,rapid speed and stabilization.%为了实现CTP版材表面不同类型瑕疵的自适应在线检测,引入人类视觉注意机制,融合区域生长算法对表面瑕疵图像进行分割,以面积作为特征值对瑕疵进行识别。首先根据人类视觉系统具有选择性注意机制的特性,对CTP版材表面图像的多特征图像采用图像金字塔分解得到多尺度图像,并利用基于图的算法(GBVS)将多尺度下多特征的图像融合为全局显著图。然后将显著图中最显著点即注意焦点作为区域生长的种子点,相似性作为区域生长准则,对原图像的梯度图像采用区域生长算法获得瑕疵区域二值化图像。最后利用注意抑制返回机制和邻近优先的准则,查找其他未检瑕疵,直至满足CTP版材的行业标准。实验结果表明:瑕疵检测系统分辨率0.1mm,检测平均准确率达96.3%以上,算法

  10. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume II. High-temperature proppant testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Data were obtained from a newly built proppant tester, operated at actual geothermal temperatures. The short term test results show that most proppants are temperature sensitive, particularly at the higher closure stresses. Many materials have been tested using a standard short-term test, i.e., fracture-free sand, bauxite, and a resin-coated sand retained good permeability at the high fluid temperatures in brine over a range of closure stresses. The tests were designed to simulate normal closure stress ranges for geothermal wells which are estimated to be from 2000 to 6000 psi. Although the ultra high closure stresses in oil and gas wells need not be considered with present geothermal resources, there is a definite need for chemically inert proppants that will retain high permeability for long time periods in the high temperature formations.

  11. USAF Summer Research Program - 1993 High School Apprenticeship Program Final Reports, Volume 12, Armstrong Laboratory (United States)


    Page No: 16- 1 Tullahoma High School Tullahoma, TN 37388-0000 Bowlby , Andrea Laboratory: PL/GP Mudge Way Vol-Page No: 13- 1 Bedford High School Bedford...Ingram Rd. San Antonio, TX 78238 Dr. John Taboada Mentor Final Report for: AFOSR Summer Research Program Armstrong Laboratory Sponsored by: Air Force...Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor (PAS) as well as with other methods for studies involving aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (4-8). Dr. John

  12. Turbo system technology for downsized high volume engines with PZEV capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernsson, Haakan; Johansson, Lena [Volvo Car Corp., Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Turbo charging is not anymore only used for exotic high performance vehicles. Instead boosting technology will be used to provide high specific power output, reduced fuel consumption and consequently lower CO2 emissions for all types of vehicles in the future. The main reason for this change is the obvious need for a shift towards more fuel efficient down-sized engines which output that enables a lower fuel consumption. This new way of using turbo charging introduces a new set of demands which needs to be fulfilled before this technology can be applied efficiently in to mass production. Since one of the most basic down-sizing features is a high specific low end torque with an associated excellent transient behavior at low speeds, the overall charging efficiency, must be high over a broad speed and load range. The down-sizing effect also imply a more frequent use of the high specific power, which means that smaller engines needs to cope with a high exhaust gas temperature more often. High specific power output also has to be combined with strict US and EC emission legislation i.e. fulfillment of PZEV and Euro 6 emissions. This will add new challenges to turbo system development. Simultaneously, material prices have increased significantly over the last five years. Unfortunately, these new requirements have a tendency to push the piece price in the wrong direction, which means that down-sizing have a tendency to add high on-cost to the most price sensitive products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to discuss possible solutions for future turbo system technology. (orig.)

  13. T3 tongue cancer treated with low- and high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy using two-plane or volume implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Shohei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Dentistry; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Shimizutani, Kimishige [Osaka Dental Coll., Hirakata (Japan)


    Fifty-two patients with T3 tongue cancer were treated with low- and high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy using two-plane or volume implant method. Two-year local control rate was 60% and 3-year overall survival rate was 50%. Low- and high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy using two-plane or volume implant was effective treatment for T3 tongue cancer with deep infiltration. (author)

  14. Mapping high-fidelity volume rendering for medical imaging to CPU, GPU and many-core architectures. (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Holmes, David; Chhugani, Jatin; Larson, Alan; Carmean, Douglas M; Hanson, Dennis; Dubey, Pradeep; Augustine, Kurt; Kim, Daehyun; Kyker, Alan; Lee, Victor W; Nguyen, Anthony D; Seiler, Larry; Robb, Richard


    Medical volumetric imaging requires high fidelity, high performance rendering algorithms. We motivate and analyze new volumetric rendering algorithms that are suited to modern parallel processing architectures. First, we describe the three major categories of volume rendering algorithms and confirm through an imaging scientist-guided evaluation that ray-casting is the most acceptable. We describe a thread- and data-parallel implementation of ray-casting that makes it amenable to key architectural trends of three modern commodity parallel architectures: multi-core, GPU, and an upcoming many-core Intel architecture code-named Larrabee. We achieve more than an order of magnitude performance improvement on a number of large 3D medical datasets. We further describe a data compression scheme that significantly reduces data-transfer overhead. This allows our approach to scale well to large numbers of Larrabee cores.

  15. Immunochemical estimations of allergenic activities from outdoor aero-allergens, collected by a high-volume air sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Poulsen, L K; Mygind, K;


    To quantify airborne allergens in amorphus and morphological particles, a survey with collection of aero-allergens on glass fibre filters by means of a high-volume air-sampler (HIVOL) was conducted. In preliminary laboratory experiments we compared various filter elution techniques......, and the pulverizing elution technique was found to be optimal with regard to yield and convenience. When a surfactant, Tween 20 (0.5% v/v), was added to the elution buffer, a recovery of 80% could be obtained. Allergens in eluates were analysed by means of an IgG-subclass RAST inhibition assay. This immunochemical...... method for quantification of airborne allergens was validated, as a high recovery of timothy grass pollen allergens was eluted from air filters, and eluates were shown specific by RAST inhibition. The amount of immunochemically measured airborne timothy and birch allergens collected by means of the HIVOL...

  16. 2D and 3D milled surface roughness of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on surface roughness generated by high speed milling of high volume fraction (65% silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum matrix (SiCp/Al composites. Typical 2D (Ra and Rz and 3D (Sa and Sq surface roughness parameters were selected to evaluate the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality in comparison with aluminum alloy. The 3D topography of the milled surface was studied as well. The results indicate that 3D parameters (Sa and Sq are more capable to describe the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality, and among them Sq is preferable due to its good sensitivity. Sq decreases with milling speed and increases with feed rate. The influence of axial depth of cut (ADOC is negligible.

  17. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin


    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.

  18. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Hoang, Khoa; Pophristic, Milan; Horan, Andrew J.; Johnston, Murray V.; McEwen, Charles N.


    First results are reported using a simple, fast, and reproducible matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) sample introduction method that provides substantial improvements relative to previously published MAI methods. The sensitivity of the new MAI methods, which requires no laser, high voltage, or nebulizing gas, is comparable to those reported for MALDI-TOF and n-ESI. High resolution full acquisition mass spectra having low chemical background are acquired from low nanoliters of solution using only a few femtomoles of analyte. The limit-of-detection for angiotensin II is less than 50 amol on an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Analysis of peptides, including a bovine serum albumin digest, and drugs, including drugs in urine without a purification step, are reported using a 1 μL zero dead volume syringe in which only the analyte solution wetting the walls of the syringe needle is used in the analysis.

  19. Once again on cardiac transplantation. Flaws in the logic of the proponents. (United States)

    Watanabe, Y


    In response to a paper written by Drs. Toshima and Kawai trying to refute my earlier article on the movement for cardiac transplantation in Japan, I present the results of my survey of the opinions of medical students and student nurses to prove that polls showing a majority of people supporting organ transplantation from so-called brain-dead persons, to which transplant protagonists rely heavily, merely reflect the failure of the mass media to distribute information on the negative aspects of organ transplantation to the public. Several major flaws in the logic of the proponents are pointed out to show how fragile their theoretical background is. Thus, the need for the distribution of better-balanced information to the public and continued debate on this most serious medical, ethical, social and cultural issue is emphasized.

  20. Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samohyl, P.


    The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.