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Sample records for volume filling factor

  1. Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Ramiro, B [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Illarramendi, M A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Aramburu, I [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Fernandez, J [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Balda, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Al-Saleh, M [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-11-14

    In this work, we analyse the light propagation in some laser and nonlinear crystal powders. In particular, we study the dependence of the diffusive absorption lengths and the transport lengths on particle size and volume filling factor. The theoretical calculations have been made by assuming a diffusive propagation of light in these materials.

  2. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, A; Just, A; Noel, T

    2015-01-01

    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechnism "mass-loss driven dissolution" in contrast to "two-body relaxation driven dissolution" which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be d...

  3. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, A.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.; Noel, T.

    2015-08-01

    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechanism ``mass-loss driven dissolution'' in contrast to ``two-body relaxation driven dissolution'' which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be described by a log-logistic differential equation. We report the finding of a resonance condition which may play a role for the evolution of star clusters and may be calibrated by the main periodic orbit in the large island of retrograde quasiperiodic orbits in the Poincaré surfaces of section. We also report on the existence of a stability curve which may be of relevance with respect to the structure of star clusters.

  4. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions......This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...

  5. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  6. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions......This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  7. Volume Changes in Filled Rubber Under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina KAZINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber, neat and filled with different silica content was investigated under uniaxial cyclic loading under a constant crosshead speed, with increasing deformation amplitude in subsequent loading cycles. Rubber was investigated in order to evaluate the reversibility of structure rearrangements, occurring in rubber when subjected to cyclic loading. Volume uniformly increases with growing strain and shows hysteresis at unloading. After complete unloading, no residual strain changes are observed. These data are in good conformity with the data of density measurements, which were made on specimens before and after the tests. By correlating data, obtained from volume changes and kinetics of hysteresis losses there were made assumptions on deformation mechanisms at different elongations. Deformational mechanisms, responsible for volume changes in rubber are reversible. Volume changes in specimen occur due to voids formation caused by filler microstructure breakage, rubber chains disentanglement, spaces between rubber macromolecular chains shrinkage, and chain slippage under higher elongations. Voids formation and deformation of rubber macromolecular chain reaches equilibrium state after certain elongation.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.592

  8. Realistic Models for Filling Factors in HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Costa, Allison H.; Bergerud, Brandon M.; Beauchamp, Kara M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the parameters used to describe HII regions and other ionized parts of the interstellar medium is the filling factor, defined as the volume fraction of an HII region occupied by matter. The best observational evidence for the existence of a filling factor less than unity is a discrepancy between the electron density derived from density-sensitive line ratios and the root mean square density obtained from emission measure measurements. Following the early, influential study by Osterbrock and Flather (ApJ 129, 26, 1959), most investigations of HII regions envision these objects as a group of isolated cells of high gas density embedded in a vacuum. This picture is at serious odds with more direct measurements of other astrophysical plasmas like the solar wind, where the density follows a less extreme probability distribution function (pdf) such as an exponential or lognormal. We have carried out a set of simulations in which model HII regions are created with different density pdfs such as exponential and lognormal as well as the extreme case of two delta functions. We calculate the electron density as inferred from spectroscopic line ratios and emission measures for all lines of sight through the model nebulas. In the cases of exponential and lognormal pdfs, the spectroscopically derived densities are higher than those obtained by the emission measures by factors of 20 to 100 percent. These are considerably smaller than values often reported in the literature, which can be an order of magnitude or greater. We will discuss possible ways to reconcile realistic density pdfs such as measured in space and laboratory plasmas with the results from astronomical spectroscopic measurements. Finally, we point out that for the Orion Nebula, the density discrepancy is due to geometry, not filling factor (O'Dell, ARAA 39, 99, 2001).

  9. Equations for filling factor estimation in opal matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Abrarov, S M; Kim, T W

    2005-01-01

    We consider two equations for the filling factor estimation of infiltrated zinc oxide (ZnO) in silica (SiO2) opal and gallium nitride in ZnO opal. The first equation is based on the effective medium approximation, while the second one - on Maxwell-Garnett approximation. The comparison between two filling factors shows that both equations can be equally used for the estimation of the quantity of infiltrated nanocrystals inside opal matrix.

  10. Increasing fill volume reduces cardiac performance in peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, Per; Povlsen, Johan V; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that peritoneal dialysis (PD) affects systemic haemodynamics less than haemodialysis, but little is known about changes in haemodynamics during PD. It is unknown if increasing PD volume causes changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics possibly increasing...

  11. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding.

  12. Impact of fill volume on ultrafiltration with icodextrin in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousso, Sharon; Banh, Tonny M; Ackerman, Susan; Piva, Elizabeth; Licht, Christoph; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Icodextrin is a solution of glucose polymers developed to provide sustained ultrafiltration over an extended dwell. Our aim was to determine whether or not fill volume with icodextrin contributes to the ability to achieve ultrafiltration in children. The charts of all children on chronic peritoneal dialysis between January 2000 and July 2014 were screened for the use of an icodextrin day dwell. Data were extracted from the electronic chart and the HomeChoice™ Pro card and corrected for body surface area (BSA). Fifty children had an icodextrin day dwell. A linear correlation was found between the daytime fill volume and net ultrafiltration (p Icodextrin was well tolerated. Our observations reveal that the larger the fill volume the higher the likelihood of achieving ultrafiltration with icodextrin and suggest that a minimum day dwell volume of 550 ml/m(2) BSA seems to facilitate ultrafiltration in children. To our knowledge this is the largest study addressing ultrafiltration with icodextrin in children.

  13. Roche volume filling of star clusters in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, A.; Just, A.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the ratios rh/rJ of projected half-mass and Jacobi radius as well as rt/rJ of tidal and Jacobi radius for open and globular clusters in the Milky Way using data of both observations and simulations. We applied an improved calculation of rJ for eccentric orbits of globular clusters. A sample of 236 open clusters of Piskunov et al. within the nearest kiloparsec around the Sun has been used. For the Milky Way globular clusters, data are taken from the Harris catalogue. We particularly use the subsample of 38 Milky Way globular clusters for which orbits have been integrated by Dinescu et al. We aim to quantify the differences between open and globular clusters and to understand, why they form two intrinsically distinct populations. We find under certain assumptions, or, in other words, in certain approximations (i) that globular clusters are presently Roche volume underfilling, (ii) with at least 3σ confidence that the ratio rh/rJ of half-mass and Jacobi radius is three to five times larger at present for an average open cluster in our sample than for an average globular cluster in our sample and (iii) that a significant fraction of globular clusters may be Roche volume overfilling at pericentre with rt > rJ. Another aim of this paper is to throw light on the underlying theoretical reason for the existence of the van den Bergh correlation between half-mass and Galactocentric radius.

  14. Roche volume filling of star clusters in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, A

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ratios $r_h/r_J$ of projected half-mass and Jacobi radius as well as $r_t/r_J$ of tidal and Jacobi radius for open and globular clusters in the Milky Way using data of both observations and simulations. We applied an improved calculation of $r_J$ for eccentric orbits of globular clusters. A sample of 236 open clusters of Piskunov et al. within the nearest kiloparsec around the Sun has been used. For the Milky Way globular clusters, data are taken from the Harris catalogue. We particularly use the subsample of 38 Milky Way globular clusters for which orbits have been integrated by Dinescu et al. We aim to quantify the differences between open and globular clusters and to understand, why they form two intrinsically distinct populations. We find under certain assumptions, or, in other words, in certain approximations, (i) that globular clusters are presently Roche volume underfilling and (ii) with at least $3\\sigma$ confidence that the ratio $r_h/r_J$ of half-mass and Jacobi radius is $3 - 5$ time...

  15. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  16. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations. PMID:26740917

  17. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  18. Phasor analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different fill factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, Antonio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Sanchez-Lopez, Ma del Mar [Instituto de BioingenierIa y Departamento de Fisica y Arquitectura de Computadores, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain); Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Optica y TecnologIa Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2007-09-11

    In this work, we present a simple analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different slit widths relative to the grating period. The analysis is based on a simple phasor technique directly derived from the Huygens principle. By introducing a slit phasor and a grating phasor, the intensity of the diffracted orders and the grating's resolving power can be easily obtained without applying the usual Fourier transform operations required for these calculations. The proposed phasor technique is mathematically equivalent to the Fourier transform calculation of the diffraction order amplitude, and it can be useful to explain binary diffraction gratings in a simple manner in introductory physics courses. This theoretical analysis is illustrated with experimental results using a liquid crystal device to display diffraction gratings with different fill factors.

  19. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Effect of operating current dependent series resistance on the fill factor of a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadu, Meena; Kapoor, A.; Tripathi, K.N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez road, -110 021 New Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    The fill factor of a solar cell depends upon the series resistance, reverse saturation current, diode quality factor, operating current and voltage. Since the series resistance itself depends upon the operating current (or voltage), it makes the evaluation of fill factor very complicated. In this paper, we have evaluated the fill factor of a solar cell, taking into account operating current dependence of the series resistance.

  1. Pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate: effect of nebuliser type, dose, and volume of fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, M; Thomas, S; Page, C; Bradbeer, C; Nunan, T; Bateman, N

    1990-01-01

    An estimate of the absolute pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate was obtained in nine patients with AIDS. Two nebuliser systems were compared, System 22 Mizer (Medic-Aid) and Respirgard II (Marquest), with 50 and 150 mg doses of pentamidine in a 3 ml solution driven by an air flow of 6 l/min with the patient in the sitting position. The 50 mg pentamidine dose was repeated with a 6 ml fill with both devices. The nebuliser cloud was labelled with technetium-99m human serum albumin (Ventocol) and lung deposition was measured with a gamma camera. Of the two nebulisers studied, System 22 Mizer delivered more drug to the lungs as a whole and to each individual lung region, including the peripheral and upper zones. For the 50 mg dose the mean (SEM) total pulmonary deposition with the 3 and the 6 ml fill respectively was 2.63 (0.34) and 3.71 (0.41) mg for the System 22 Mizer and 1.37 (0.26) and 1.45 (0.18) mg for the Respirgard II. For the 150 mg dose the System 22 Mizer delivered 7.16 (1.02) mg and the Respirgard II 4.34 (0.57) mg. Increasing the volume of fill from 3 to 6 ml increased pulmonary deposition with System 22 Mizer, and this was related to an increase in nebuliser output. Neither pulmonary deposition nor nebuliser output was increased by using a 6 ml solution in the Respirgard II. Increasing the volume of fill prolonged the time required for nebulisation with both nebulisers. The System 22 Mizer produced more nonpulmonary (gastric and oropharyngeal) deposition of drug, more frequent local adverse effects (cough, burning in the throat, and a metallic taste), and small reductions in lung function, particularly with the 150 mg pentamidine dose. Thus nebuliser type, volume of fill, and nebuliser dose affect the pulmonary deposition of pentamidine. A 300 mg dose of pentamidine via a Respirgard II is generally recommended as providing effective prophylaxis; our results suggest that similar pulmonary deposition can be produced with System 22

  2. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  3. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  4. A white matter lesion-filling approach to improve brain tissue volume measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis white matter (WM lesions can affect brain tissue volume measurements of voxel-wise segmentation methods if these lesions are included in the segmentation process. Several authors have presented different techniques to improve brain tissue volume estimations by filling WM lesions before segmentation with intensities similar to those of WM. Here, we propose a new method to refill WM lesions, where contrary to similar approaches, lesion voxel intensities are replaced by random values of a normal distribution generated from the mean WM signal intensity of each two-dimensional slice. We test the performance of our method by estimating the deviation in tissue volume between a set of 30 T1-w 1.5 T and 30 T1-w 3 T images of healthy subjects and the same images where: WM lesions have been previously registered and afterwards replaced their voxel intensities to those between gray matter (GM and WM tissue. Tissue volume is computed independently using FAST and SPM8. When compared with the state-of-the-art methods, on 1.5 T data our method yields the lowest deviation in WM between original and filled images, independently of the segmentation method used. It also performs the lowest differences in GM when FAST is used and equals to the best method when SPM8 is employed. On 3 T data, our method also outperforms the state-of-the-art methods when FAST is used while performs similar to the best method when SPM8 is used. The proposed technique is currently available to researchers as a stand-alone program and as an SPM extension.

  5. The filling factor of intergalactic metals at redshift z=3

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C M; Delgado, J D; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2010-01-01

    Observations of quasar absorption line systems reveal that the z=3 intergalactic medium (IGM) is polluted by heavy elements down to HI optical depths tau_HI10^2 kpc. Galaxies in more massive haloes cannot possibly account for the observations as they are too rare for their outflows to cover a sufficiently large fraction of the volume. Galaxies need to enrich gas out to distances that are much greater than the virial radii of their host haloes. Assuming the metals to be well mixed on small scales, the fractions of the volume and baryonic mass that are polluted with metals are, respectively, >10% and >50% in all successful models.

  6. Applicability of the theory of volume filling of micropores to adsorption of caprolactam from aqueous solutions with active carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodorov, E.I.; Kazakov, V.A.; Semerikova, V.V.; Surinova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    The absence of a scientifically based method of selecting adsorbents in the extraction of organic substances from waste water and solution which would allow for their multicycle use in adsorption-desorption stages often prevents the introduction of adsorption technology into industrial practice. This paper demonstrates the possibility of calculating the adsorption equilibrium of highly soluble organic compounds with the theory of volume filling of micropores equations in consideration of the activities of the extracted component in the solution and the change in the partial affinity coefficient with the degree of filling of the adsorption volume on the example of extraction of caprolactam from aqueous solutions.

  7. Effect of Dielectric Constant Contrast and Filling Factor to Photonic Bandgap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of dielectric constant contrast and the filling factor to the photonic bandgap in a 2-D square lattice photonic crystal is discussed. The location, width and number of photonic bandgap can be modulated.

  8. Investigation and calculation of filling factor of SnO2 inverse opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Shimin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    In the process of preparing inverse opal, the structure of inverse opal is affected by many factors, and the filling factor of inverse opal is difficult to directly test. In this paper, SnO2 inverse opal was prepared with the sol-gel method by cooperative opal template. The repetition times of the infiltrating precursor into the opal templates were investigated in detail. The band-gap positions of SnO2 inverse opal were tested. In order to prepare perfect inverse opal structure, the filling quantity of the precursor is greater, as the diameter of the PS microsphere of opal is bigger. The filling factor of air in inverse opal can be calculated with a formula derived from Bragg’s law. For inverse opal, the filling factor of air in inverse opal gradually enlarges as the diameter of the void increases.

  9. How to achieve synergy between volume replacement and filling products for global facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspaldo, Hervé; Aziza, Richard; Belhaouari, Lakhdar; Berros, Philippe; Body, Sylvie; Galatoire, Olivier; Le Louarn, Claude; Michaud, Thierry; Niforos, François; Rousseaux, Isabelle; Runge, Marc; Taieb, Maryna

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an expert consensus regarding facial rejuvenation using a combination of volume replacement (Juvéderm(®) VOLUMA(®)), filling products (Juvéderm(®) Ultra product line) and botulinum toxin. The Juvéderm product line exploits innovative 3-D technology, producing a range of cohesive, homogenous gels that produce predictable, long-lasting and natural results. The products are easy to use by practitioners and are well-tolerated by patients, and used in combination can provide additional benefits not achieved with one product alone. An assessment of facial anatomy and consideration of the aging process, as well as available treatment options, are also addressed in determining the best combination of products to use. Outcomes from a questionnaire and workshop sessions focusing on specific aspects of use of the Juvéderm product line and botulinum toxin in daily clinical practice are discussed, and recommendations for product use following debate amongst the experts are provided.

  10. Providing stability of properties of filled polymers under the joint effect of exploitation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakova, N. N.; Ushakov, V. Ya.

    2016-11-01

    The present work is devoted to a search for the structural parameter that can be used to adjust the structure of a resistive polymer composite material stable against the action of exploitation factors. The objects of research are polymers filled with technical carbon. Various approaches have been developed for them to control the stability of their properties: application of polymers of different chemical compositions and electroconductive filler with different concentrations, grades, and surface modifications. The following main problems have been formulated: based on an analysis of physical structurization processes, to reveal geometrical parameters determining the stability of properties under the joint effect of the exploitation factors; to adjust the structural parameter that responds to these factors; to check its efficiency; to estimate the importance of factors that influence the stability of the properties; and to propose an approach to the adjustment of the main material components to provide the stability of properties under the effect of the exploitation factors. The structural parameter was adjusted based on the physical principles developed earlier by the authors of the present report and other authors, whose publications are given in the References. It has been established that the stability of properties to the joint influence of the exploitation factors can be determined by the structural parameter that responds to branching of the electroconductive grid in a comparative analysis of the known material and the material being synthesized. Its application allows the problem of adjusting the material components to be also solved in the case in which identical values of the specific volume electrical resistances are formed for different elemental compositions.

  11. Factors of Formation of Various Types of Left Ventricular Diastolic Filling in Adolescents with Myocardium Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bogmat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the main components of the formation of impaired left ventricular diastolic filling in adolescents with myocardial pathology. Materials and methods. The study involved 110 adolescents with myocardial pathology aged 13–18 years, of which 40 — with heart rhythm disorder, 40 — with dysplastic cardiomyopathy, 30 — with primary hypertension. Morphological and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ultrasound according to standard procedure. Left ventricular diastolic function has been studied in the pulsed wave Doppler mode with transmitral flow mapping from the apical access of four-chambered heart. For an adequate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function and detection of its earliest disorders, adolescents underwent tests with isometric exercise. Based on these results, adolescents were divided in terms of the E/A ratio. In order to identify common latent factors that explain the correlation between indicators, we have used the factor analysis, namely, the principal component analysis. All statistical procedures were performed using application packages Statgraphics Centurion. Results. On the initial stages of formation of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricular myocardium in adolescents, a significant role is played by a number of factors, which can be conditionally defined as the geometric, functional and neurohumoral factors consistently included in the pathological process. Thus, during the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 1, the number one is neurohumoral factor, namely, the activation of the sympathoadrenal system, then peripheral vascular tone is being involved in the pathological process, and, consequently, a geometric factor — changing the sizes of the left atrium. In the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 2, the process consistently involves the renin-angiotensin system, namely, renin, a functional factor is presented by the indices

  12. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rate for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The order fill rate (OFR) is sometimes suggested as an alternative to the volume fill rate (VFR) (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. We consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where replenishment orders have a constant lead time...

  13. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rate for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The order fill rate (OFR) is sometimes suggested as an alternative to the volume fill rate (VFR) (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. We consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where replenishment orders have a constant lead time and...

  14. Factors affecting the haptic filled-space illusion for dynamic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Abram F J; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2009-02-01

    In the haptic filled-space illusion for active dynamic touch, observers move their fingertip across an unfilled extent or an extent filled with intermediate stimulations. Previous researchers have reported lengths of filled extents to be overestimated, but the parameters affecting the strength of the illusion are still largely unknown. In the current research, we show that the illusion persists when intermediate stimulations do not provide information about the extent's length. In addition, the results show that the strength of the illusion increases with the number of filler elements. In contrast with earlier research, we control for movement speed differences between filled and unfilled extents. The results suggest that the strength of the illusion is independent of the overall average movement speed. Insight into factors affecting the strength of the illusion may provide a better understanding of the kinematic mechanisms underlying haptic length perception.

  15. New high fill-factor triangular micro-lens array fabrication method using UV proximity printing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, T -H; Chao, C -K

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective method to fabricate a high fill-factor triangular microlens array using the proximity printing in lithography process is reported. The technology utilizes the UV proximity printing by controlling a printing gap between the mask and substrate. The designed approximate triangle microlens array pattern can be fabricated the high fill-factor triangular microlens array in photoresist. It is due to the UV light diffraction to deflect away from the aperture edges and produce a certain exposure in photoresist material outside the aperture edges. This method can precisely control the geometric profile of high fill factor triangular microlens array. The experimental results showed that the triangular micro-lens array in photoresist could be formed automatically when the printing gap ranged from 240 micrometers to 840 micrometers. The gapless triangular microlens array will be used to increases of luminance for backlight module of liquid crystal displays.

  16. High fill-factor multilevel Fresnel zone plate arrays by femtosecond laser direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Gang; Wang, Dian; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Si-Zhu; Li, Ai-Wu; Song, Jun-Feng

    2011-02-01

    Fresnel zone plate arrays (FZPAs), as a kind of an important integrated micro-optical device, have attracted great attention. However, the fill factor of present FZPAs by femtosecond technology is a little low, which leads to serious light loss and low signal-to-noise. Here we reported high fill-factor square and hexagonal FZPAs by femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization of the resin SU-8. Their optical focusing and imaging properties showed the high uniformity and high fidelity of these FZPAs. Moreover, 100% fill-factor FZPAs were demonstrated by optimal theoretical design and experimental parameters. With this high quality FZPAs, clear imaging "F" was obtained. At last, high-level phase type FZPAs were prepared to further enhance the diffractive efficiency to as much as 75%.

  17. Charge filling factors in clean and disordered arrays of tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kelly A; Vogt, Nicolas; Cole, Jared H

    2015-12-02

    We simulate one-dimensional arrays of tunnel junctions using the kinetic Monte Carlo method to study charge filling behaviour in the large charging energy limit. By applying a small fixed voltage bias and varying the offset voltage, we investigate this behaviour in clean and disordered arrays (both weak and strong disorder effects). The offset voltage dependent modulation of the current is highly sensitive to background charge disorder and exhibits substantial variation depending on the strength of the disorder. We show that while small fractional charge filling factors are likely to be washed out in experimental devices due to strong background charge disorder, larger factors may be observable.

  18. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  19. Competition between recombination and extraction of free charges determines the fill factor of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartesaghi, Davide; Perez, Irene del Carmen; Kniepert, Juliane; Roland, Steffen; Turbiez, Mathieu; Neher, Dieter; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    Among the parameters that characterize a solar cell and define its power-conversion efficiency, the fill factor is the least well understood, making targeted improvements difficult. Here we quantify the competition between charge extraction and recombination by using a single parameter theta, and we

  20. Ultralow power, high fill factor smart complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor with motion detection capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbod, Abbas; Karimiyan, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Bandwidth saving, power consumption, and fill factor improvement are known as vitally important challenges image sensor designers face in order to accomplish high-performance imaging systems. This paper presents an ultralow power, high fill factor smart complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with motion detection capability. In this efficient methodology, the amount of redundant data processed in unimportant frames has been reduced significantly, and therefore, the proposed imaging system consumes less power compared with counterpart imagers. Furthermore, a pixel structure is introduced that outputs two consecutive frame voltages in series, with the result that the pixel size is minimized and a higher fill factor is achieved. In order to simulate the image capturing procedure, a state-of-the-art approach based on MATLAB and HSPICE software is devised, which is another important achievement of this paper. The performance of this technique is demonstrated using a 64×64 pixel sensor designed in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS technology. The sensor chip consumes 0.2 mW of power while operating at 100 fps with a fill factor of 45%.

  1. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  2. Improving poor fill factors for solar cells via light-induced plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Zhao; Jia Rui; Ding Wuchang; Meng Yanlong; Jin Zhi; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are prepared following the conventional fabrication processes,except for the metallization firing process.The cells are divided into two groups with higher and lower fill factors,respectively.After light-induced plating (LIP),the fill factors of the solar cells in both groups with different initial values reach the same level.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are taken under the bulk silver electrodes,which prove that the improvement for cells with a poor factor after LIP should benefit from sufficient exploitation of the high density silver crystals formed during the firing process.Moreover,the application of LIP to cells with poor electrode contact performance,such as nanowire cells and radial junction solar cells,is proposed.

  3. Characteristics and influence factors of mold filling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Qingming; Chen Xia; Chen Changjun; Bao Siqian; David Schwam

    2009-01-01

    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold filling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum flowing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many influencing factors on the mold filling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fill into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold filling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidification.

  4. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    process. We also elaborate on when the order fill rate can be interpreted as the (extended) ready rate. Furthermore, for the case when customer orders are generated by a negative binomial distribution, we show that it is the size of the shape parameter of this distribution that determines the relative......The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should...... be the preferred measure. In this paper we consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where all replenishment orders have the same constant lead time and all unfilled demands are backordered. We develop exact mathematical expressions for the two fill-rate measures when demand follows a compound renewal...

  5. Fractional Quantum Hall Filling Factors from String Theory using Toric Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, A; Idrissi, M El; Manaut, B; Sebbar, A; Sedra, M B

    2015-01-01

    Using toric Cartan matrices as abelian gauge charges, we present a class of stringy fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) producing some recent experimental observed filling factor values. More precisely, we derive the corresponding Chern-Simons type models from M-theory compactified on four complex dimensional hyper-K\\"{a}hler manifolds X^4. These manifolds, which are viewed as target spaces of a particular N=4 sigma model in two dimensions, are identified with the cotangent bundles over intersecting 2-dimensional toric varieties V_i^2 according to toric Cartan matrices. Exploring results of string dualities, the presented FQHE can be obtained from D6-banes wrapping on such intersecting toric varieties interacting with R-R gauge fields. This string theory realization provides a geometric interpretation of the filling factors in terms of toric and Euler characteristic topological data of the compactified geometry. Concretely, explicit bilayer models are worked out in some details.

  6. Eruption versus intrusion? Arrest of propagation of constant volume, buoyant, liquid-filled cracks in an elastic, brittle host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Tait, S.

    2009-06-01

    When a volume of magma is released from a source at depth, one key question is whether or not this will culminate in an eruption or in the emplacement of a shallow intrusion. We address some of the physics behind this question by describing and interpreting laboratory experiments on the propagation of cracks filled with fixed volumes of buoyant liquid in a brittle, elastic host. Experiments were isothermal, and the liquid was incompressible. The cracks propagated vertically because of liquid buoyancy but were then found to come to a halt at a configuration of static mechanical equilibrium, a result that is inconsistent with the prediction of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics in two dimensions. We interpret this result as due to a three-dimensional effect. At the curved crack front, horizontal cracking is necessary in order for vertical propagation to take place. As the crack elongates and thins, the former becomes progressively harder and, in the end, impossible to fracture. We present a scaling law for the final length and breadth of cracks as a function of a governing dimensionless parameter, constructed from the liquid volume, the buoyancy, and host fracture toughness. An important implication of this result is that a minimum volume of magma is required for a volcanic eruption to occur for a given depth of magma reservoir.

  7. Fill-factor and performance optimization in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L.; Trindade, A. J.; Santos, M. G.; Gomes, J.

    2014-08-01

    One important key to improve the bulk-heterojunction photovoltaics (BHJs) is the fill-factor (FF). In this work, a study of the FF dependence factors on BHJs with an active layer of MEH-PPV / PCBM is made. The FF changes from 20% to 70%, depending on the current - voltage behavior and on the photovoltaic equivalent circuit parameters changes (parallel and series resistances, voltage open circuit, short circuit current and photocurrent). The efficiency changes from 1% to 5%. A theoretical simulation for FF optimization is made allowing a better understand of the physical process involved in the BHJ that modulates such parameter.

  8. The bond strength of highly filled flowable composites placed in two different configuration factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Sagsoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS of different flowable composite resins placed in different configuration factors (C-factors into Class I cavities. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human molars were divided into 10 groups. Five different composite resins; a universal flowable composite (AeliteFlo, BISCO, two highly filled flowable composites (GrandioSO Flow, VOCO; GrandioSO Heavy Flow, VOCO, a bulk-fill flowable composite (smart dentin replacement [SDR], Dentsply, and a conventional paste-like composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE were placed into Class I cavities (4 mm deep with 1 mm or 2 mm layers. Restored teeth were sectioned vertically with a slow-speed diamond saw (Isomet 1000, Buehler and four micro-specimens (1 mm × 1 mm were obtained from each tooth (n = 20. Specimens were subjected to μTBS test. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey′s post-hoc test. Fractured surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Results: The μTBS in SDR-1 mm were higher than other groups, where Filtek Supreme XT-2 mm and GrandioSO Flow-2 mm were lower. No significant differences were found between C-factors for any composite resin (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Bulk-fill flowable composite provided more satisfactory μTBS than others. Different C-factors did not affect mean μTBS of the materials tested.

  9. Numerical modeling of turbulence mixed convection heat transfer in air filled enclosures by finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, first the turbulent natural convection and then laminar mixed convection of air flow was solved in a room and the calculated outcomes are compared with results of other scientists and after showing validation of calculations, aforementioned flow is solved as a turbulent mixed convection flow, using the valid turbulence models Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and RSM. To solve governing differential equations for this flow, finite volume method was used. This method is a specific case of residual weighting method. The results show that at high Richardson Numbers, the flow is rather stationary at the center of the enclosure. Moreover, it is distinguished that when Richardson Number increases the maximum of local Nusselt decreases. Therefore, it can be said that less number of Richardson Number, more rate of heat transfer.

  10. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2008-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C3F8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C3F8-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.

  11. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yingzheng [General Hospital of Beijing Military Command of PLA, Department of Clinical Pharmacology (China)], E-mail: lctuua@yahoo.com.cn; Lu Cuitao [Madam Medical Management Group (China)

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C{sub 3}F{sub 8}, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C{sub 3}F{sub 8} microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C{sub 3}F{sub 8}-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.

  12. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin type and margin location (Pcomposite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins.

  13. On the collective mode spectrum for composite fermions at 1/3 filling factor

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Martínez, A; Guerra, V; Martinez, Aurora Perez; Cabo, Alejandro; Guerra, Valia

    1995-01-01

    The collective mode spectrum of the composite fermion state 1/3 filling factor is evaluated. At zero momentum, the result coincides with the cyclotron energy at the external magnetic field value, and not at the effective magnetic field, in spite of the fact that only the former enters in the equations, thus, the Kohn theorem is satisfied. Unexpectedly, in place of a magneto roton minimum, the collective mode gets a treshold indicating the instability of the mean field composite fermion state under the formation of crystalline structures. However, the question about if if this outcome only appears within the mean field approximation should be further considered.

  14. Excitation Spectrum of Spin-1 Bosonic Atoms in an Optical Lattice with High Filling Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing-Min

    2007-01-01

    The Green's function and the higher-order correlation functions of spin-1 cold atoms in an optical lattice are defined.Because we consider the problem of spin-1 Bose condensed atoms in an optical lattice with high filling factors,I.e.,the number density of Bose condensed atoms no is large,the fluctuation of them can be neglected and we take mean-field approximation for the higher-order terms.The excitation spectra for both the polar case and the ferromagnetic case are obtained and analyzed.

  15. High Fill-Factor Imagers for Neuromorphic Processing Enabled by Floating-Gate Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasler Paul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In neuromorphic modeling of the retina, it would be very nice to have processing capabilities at the focal plane while retaining the density of typical active pixel sensor (APS imager designs. Unfortunately, these two goals have been mostly incompatible. We introduce our transform imager technology and basic architecture that uses analog floating-gate devices to make it possible to have computational imagers with high pixel densities. This imager approach allows programmable focal-plane processing that can perform retinal and higher-level bioinspired computation. The processing is performed continuously on the image via programmable matrix operations that can operate on the entire image or blocks within the image. The resulting dataflow architecture can directly perform computation of spatial transforms, motion computations, and stereo computations. The core imager performs computations at the pixel plane, but still holds a fill factor greater than 40 percent—comparable to the high fill factors of APS imagers. Each pixel is composed of a photodiode sensor element and a multiplier. We present experimental results from several imager arrays built in 0.5 m process (up to in an area of 4 millimeter squared.

  16. A high fill-factor low dark leakage CMOS image sensor with shared-pixel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated the high responsivity and low dark leakage CMOS image sensor with the ring-gate shared-pixel design. A ring-gate shared-pixel design with a high fill factor makes it possible to achieve the low-light imaging. As eliminating the shallow trench isolation in the proposed pixel, the dark leakage current is significantly decreased because one of major dark leakage sources is removed. By sharing the in-pixel transistors such as a reset transistor, a select transistor, and a source follower amplifier, each pixel has a high fill-factor of 43 % and high sensitivity of 144.6 ke-/lx·sec. In addition, the effective number of transistors per pixel is 1.75. The proposed imager achieved the relatively low dark leakage current of about 104.5 e-/s (median at 60°C), corresponding to a dark current density Jdark_proposed of about 30 pA/cm2. In contrast, the conventional type test pixel has a large dark leakage current of 2450 e-/s (median at 60°C), corresponding to Jdark_conventional of about 700 pA/cm2. Both pixels have a same pixel size of 7.5×7.5 μm2 and are fabricated in same process.

  17. Factors affecting the haptic filled-space illusion for dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the haptic filled-space illusion for active dynamic touch, observers move their fingertip across an unfilled extent or an extent filled with intermediate stimulations. Previous researchers have reported lengths of filled extents to be overestimated, but the parameters affecting the strength of th

  18. Limits on the Fill Factor in Organic Photovoltaics: Distinguishing Nongeminate and Geminate Recombination Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, George F A; Jamieson, Fiona C; Maurano, Andrea; Nelson, Jenny; Durrant, James R

    2013-03-07

    In this Letter, we present transient optoelectronic experimental studies of the recombination processes limiting the fill factor (FF) in three conjugated polymer:fullerene systems, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and two lower-band-gap polymers that exhibit lower FFs poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) and poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-3). Using transient absorption spectroscopy, charge extraction, and transient photovoltage experiments, we show that the lower FF observed for the PCPDTBT-based device results from enhanced nongeminate recombination even at short circuit, In contrast, we show that for APFO-3 devices, the FF is primarily limited by a voltage-dependent free charge generation, which we assign to a geminate recombination process.

  19. Inverted polymer solar cells with enhanced fill factor by inserting the potassium stearate interfacial modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangsheng; Jiu, Tonggang; Li, Bairu; Kuang, Chaoyang; Chen, Qiushan; Ma, Sushuang; Shu, Jie; Fang, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    A thin potassium stearate (KSt) film combined with an optimized ZnO film was introduced to improve the fill factor (FF) of highly efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements were used to show that the introduction of KSt did not change the morphology of interlayer. On the contrary, it is beneficial for the spread of the active layer on the interlayer. The origin of enhanced FF was systematically studied by the ideal current-voltage model for a single heterojunction solar cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of the data analysis, the reduced charge recombination loss was responsible for this improved FF. At last, when KSt was replaced by sodium stearate (NaSt), the similar experiment phenomenon was observed. This indicates that inserting a metallic stearate modified layer is a promising strategy to enhance inverted PSCs performance.

  20. Inverted polymer solar cells with enhanced fill factor by inserting the potassium stearate interfacial modification layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiangsheng [Institute of New Energy Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Ningbo 315201 (China); Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, No. 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211 (China); Jiu, Tonggang, E-mail: jiutonggang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: fangjf@nimte.ac.cn; Li, Bairu; Kuang, Chaoyang; Chen, Qiushan; Ma, Sushuang; Fang, Junfeng, E-mail: jiutonggang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: fangjf@nimte.ac.cn [Institute of New Energy Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Ningbo 315201 (China); Shu, Jie [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, No. 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2016-05-02

    A thin potassium stearate (KSt) film combined with an optimized ZnO film was introduced to improve the fill factor (FF) of highly efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements were used to show that the introduction of KSt did not change the morphology of interlayer. On the contrary, it is beneficial for the spread of the active layer on the interlayer. The origin of enhanced FF was systematically studied by the ideal current-voltage model for a single heterojunction solar cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of the data analysis, the reduced charge recombination loss was responsible for this improved FF. At last, when KSt was replaced by sodium stearate (NaSt), the similar experiment phenomenon was observed. This indicates that inserting a metallic stearate modified layer is a promising strategy to enhance inverted PSCs performance.

  1. Effective variables to control the fill factor of organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Su; Kim, Bong-Gi; Kim, Jinsang

    2009-06-01

    Effective cell design variables having a large impact on the fill factor (FF) of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) were systematically identified using a general device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT + PCBM/LiF/Al. The results show that the characteristic properties of the organic layer, such as morphology and thickness, the regioregularity of the conjugated polymer, and the two interfaces between the electrodes and the blend layer have a large influence on the FF by affecting the series resistance (R(s)) and the shunt resistance (R(sh)). The systematic investigation described in this contribution provides a comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the device variables and R(s) and R(sh) and a way to control FF, which is critically important to achieving a high-performance OPVC.

  2. High-power laser arrays with 100% fill factor emission facet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanson, Dan A.; McDougall, Stewart D.; Qiu, Bocang; Loyo-Maldonado, Valentin; Bacchin, Gianluca; Robertson, Stephen; Bon, Sébastien; Marsh, John H.

    2008-02-01

    Novel types of laser diode array with a 100% filling factor at the emission facet are reported. The arrays utilize both parallel and tapered cavity emitters that are connected via a common Laterally Unconfined Non-Absorbing Mirror (LUNAM) defined with quantum-well intermixing technology at 808 nm wavelength. Two LUNAM array types are considered: incoherent (weakly coupled) and coherent (diffraction coupled). Incoherent LUNAM arrays benefit from a reduced power density at the facet, improving reliability, and a near-uniform intensity distribution across the array aperture. Stacked laser diode arrays built with LUNAM bars deliver 950 W power under QCW operation with monolithically integrated LUNAM Talbot cavity. The devices produce a single-lobed horizontal far-field pattern over a limited current range with <10% slope efficiency penalty compared to an uncoupled case. The LUNAM arrays are promising candidates for high-power, high-brightness and high-reliability operation.

  3. Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Serena H; Kupnik, Mario; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Lin, Der-Song; Butts-Pauly, Kim; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2008-09-01

    Increasing fill factor is one design approach used to increase average output displacement, output pressure, and sensitivity of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). For rectangular cells, the cell-to-cell spacing and the aspect ratio determine the fill factor. In this paper, we explore the effects of these parameters on performance, in particular the nonuniformity of collapse voltage between neighboring cells and presence of higher order modes in air or immersed operation. We used a white light interferometer to measure nonuniformity in deflection between neighboring cells. We found that reducing the cell-to-cell spacing could cause bending of the center support post, which amplifies nonuniformities in collapse voltage to 18.4% between neighboring cells. Using a 2-D finite element model (FEM), we found that for our designs, increasing the support post width to 1.67 times the membrane thickness alleviated the post bending problem. Using impedance and interferometer measurements to observe the effects of aspect ratio on higher order modes, we found that the (1,3) modal frequency approached the (1,1) modal frequency as the aspect ratio of the rectangles increased. In air operation, under continuous wave (CW) excitation at the center frequency, the rectangular cells behaved in the (1,1) mode. In immersion, because of dispersive guided modes, these cells operated in a higher order mode when excited with a CW signal at the center frequency. This contributed to a loss of output pressure; for this reason our rectangular design was unsuitable for CW operation in immersion.

  4. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  5. Enhancement of fill factor in air-processed inverted organic solar cells using self-assembled monolayer of fullerene catechol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Ogumi, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Takafumi; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    [60]Fullerene catechol self-assembled monolayers were prepared and applied to inverted organic solar cells by an immersion method, and their energy conversion properties were measured. By introducing fullerenes at the surface, we improved the hole-blocking capability of electron-transporting metal oxide, as shown by the fill factor enhancement. The fullerene catechol-treated TiO x -containing device gave a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.81% with a fill factor of 0.56 while the non treated device gave a PCE of 2.46% with a fill factor of 0.49. The solar cell efficiency improved by 13% compared with the non treated reference device.

  6. Correlation between fill factors of amorphous silicon solar cells, and their i layer densities of states as determined by DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, J.; Schade, H.; Delahoy, A.E. (Chronar Corporation, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1989-10-15

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), based on short-circuit current transients after repetitive excitation by light, was performed on a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells over the temperature range 900-350 K. The fill factors of these same cells were measured at room temperature (at a light intensity of 0.01 sun to minimize series resistance effects) to obtain a measure of i layer quality. Dangling bond concentrations, N{sub s}, deduced from the DLTS spectra, and changes in N{sub s} caused by light soaking, agree with values commonly reported in the literature. The collection length/i layer thickness ratios deduced from the measured fill factors are found to be inversely related to N{sub s}. However, fill factor is not uniquely determined by N{sub s}-field distortion in the i layer must be taken into account. (orig.).

  7. Radiation damping and reciprocity in nuclear magnetic resonance: the replacement of the filling factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, James; Van Criekinge, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The basic equation describing radiation damping in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is rewritten by means of the reciprocity principle, to remove the dependence of the damping constant upon filling factor - a parameter which is neither uniquely defined for easily measured. The new equation uses instead the transceive efficiency, i.e. the peak amplitude of the radiofrequency B field in laboratory coordinates, divided by the square root of the resistance of the detection coil, for which a simple and direct means of measurement exists. We use the efficiency to define the intrinsic damping constant, i.e. that which obtains when both probe and preamplifier are perfectly matched to the system impedance. For imperfect matching of the preamp, it is shown that the damping constant varies with electrical distance to the probe, and equations are given and simulations performed, to predict the distance dependence, which (for lossless lines) is periodic modulo a half wavelength. Experimental measurements of the radiation-damped free induction NMR signal of protons in neat water are performed at a static B field strength of 14.1T; and an intrinsic damping constant measured using the variable line method. For a sample of 5mm diameter, in an inverse detection probe we measure an intrinsic damping constant of 204 s(-1), corresponding to a damping linewidth of 65 Hz for small tip angles. The predicted intrinsic linewidth, based upon three separate measurements of the efficiency, is 52.3 Hz, or 80% of the measured value.

  8. The filling factor - radius relation for 58 HII regions across the disk of NGC6946

    CERN Document Server

    Cedrés, B; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Ramos, A Asensio; Giammanco, C; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Alfaro, E

    2013-01-01

    Using the OSIRIS tunable narrow band imager on the 10.4m GTC (La Palma) we have mapped the SAB(rs)cd galaxy NGC 6946 over a 7.3x7.5 square arcminutes field in the emission lines of the [SII]\\lambda\\lambda, 6717, 6731 doublet, and in H\\alpha. From these maps we have produced catalogs of the H\\alpha luminosities and effective radii of 557 HII regions across the disk, and derived the [SII] emission line ratios of 370 of these. The H\\alpha observations were used to derive the mean luminosity-weighted electron densities for the regions of the sample, while the [SII] line ratios allowed us to derive values of the in situ electron densities in the denser zones from which the major fraction of the radiation in these lines is emitted, for 58 of the regions. This is by far the largest data set of its kind for a single galaxy. A classical two phase model is used to derive the filling factors of the regions. We find that although the mean electron density decreases with the square root of the radius of the regions, the i...

  9. Fabrication of a 100% fill-factor silicon microlens array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jianhua; Ou Wen; Ou Yi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for the fabrication of a silicon microlens array with a 100% fill factor and a smooth configuration.The microlens array is fabricated by using the processes of photoresist (SU8-2005) spin coating,thermal reflow,thermal treatment and reactive ion etching (RIE).First,a photoresist microlens array on a single-polished silicon substrate is fabricated by both thermal reflow and thermal treatment technologies.A typical microlens has a square bottom with size of 25 μm,and the distance between every two adjacent microlenses is 5 μm.Secondly,the photoresist microlens array is transferred to the silicon substrate by RIE to fabricate the silicon microlens array.Experimental results reveal that the silicon microlens array could be formed by adjusting the quantities of the reactive ion gases of SF6 and O2 to proper values.In this paper,the quantities of SF6 and 02 are 60 sccm and 50 sccm,respectively,the corresponding etch ratio of the photoresist and the silicon substrate is 1 to1.44.The bottom size and height of a typical silicon microlens are 30.1μm and 3μm,respectively.The focal lengths of the microlenses ranged from 15.4 to 16.6μm.

  10. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one ...... customer class will get the best service. That theoretical result is validated through a series of numerical experiments which also reveal that it is quite robust.......We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  11. Extracting Information about the Electronic Quality of Organic Solar-Cell Absorbers from Fill Factor and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaienburg, Pascal; Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fill factor in organic solar cells remains challenging due to its complex dependence on a multitude of parameters. By means of drift-diffusion simulations, we thoroughly analyze the fill factor of such low-mobility systems and demonstrate its dependence on a collection coefficient defined in this work. We systematically discuss the effect of different recombination mechanisms, space-charge regions, and contact properties. Based on these findings, we are able to interpret the thickness dependence of the fill factor for different experimental studies from the literature. The presented model provides a facile method to extract the photoactive layer's electronic quality which is of particular importance for the fill factor. We illustrate that over the past 15 years, the electronic quality has not been continuously improved, although organic solar-cell efficiencies increased steadily over the same period of time. Only recent reports show the synthesis of polymers for semiconducting films of high electronic quality that are able to produce new efficiency records.

  12. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Weijun [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 China; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Xiao, Chuanxiao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Wang, Changlei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Saparov, Bayrammurad [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Duan, Hsin-Sheng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Zhao, Dewei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Xiao, Zewen [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Schulz, Philip [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Harvey, Steven P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Liao, Weiqiang [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Meng, Weiwei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Yu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Cimaroli, Alexander J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA; Jiang, Chun-Sheng [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Zhu, Kai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Al-Jassim, Mowafak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Fang, Guojia [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 China; Mitzi, David B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 USA

    2016-05-04

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

  13. Strontium Insertion in Methylammonium Lead Iodide: Long Charge Carrier Lifetime and High Fill-Factor Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-del-Rey, Daniel [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/J. Beltran 2 46980 Paterna Spain; Forgács, Dávid [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/J. Beltran 2 46980 Paterna Spain; Hutter, Eline M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9 2629 HZ Delft The Netherlands; Savenije, Tom J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9 2629 HZ Delft The Netherlands; Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Linear Accelerator Campus, Stanford Synchrotron Laboratory, Menlo Park CA 94025 USA; Schulz, Philip [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Berry, Joseph J. [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Sessolo, Michele [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/J. Beltran 2 46980 Paterna Spain; Bolink, Henk J. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, C/J. Beltran 2 46980 Paterna Spain

    2016-09-22

    The addition of Sr2+ in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films enhances the charge carrier collection efficiency of solar cells leading to very high fill factors, up to 85%. The charge carrier lifetime of Sr2+-containing perovskites is in excess of 40 us, longer than those reported for perovskite single crystals.

  14. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Zewen; Schulz, Philip; Harvey, Steven P; Liao, Weiqiang; Meng, Weiwei; Yu, Yue; Cimaroli, Alexander J; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Fang, Guojia; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-07-01

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

  15. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  16. Shared genetic factors influence amygdala volumes and risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.

  17. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E., E-mail: evilella@el.ub.edu; Alonso, O.; Diéguez, A.

    2013-12-11

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor. -- Highlights: •GAPD pixel detectors present a low detection efficiency due to a reduced fill-factor. •3D-ICs are proposed as a solution to increase the fill-factor of GAPD detectors. •The maximum achievable fill-factor by a GAPD detector in a 3D-IC process is analyzed. •Fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures. •The array is operated in a time-gated mode to reduce the expected sensor noise.

  18. Factors affecting opening and filling pressures in the lungs of the lizard Pogona vitticeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P G; Daniels, C B

    1996-02-01

    We have previously reported that levels of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs of the lizard Pogona vitticeps increase with increasing body temperature. Static lung compliance decreases with increasing body temperature, and is only marginally affected by the presence of surfactant. Here, we examined the effects of surfactant, temperature, ventilatory pattern and autonomic neurotransmitters on opening and filling pressures. Isolated lungs were ventilated at either 18 or 37 degrees C at low, intermediate and high ventilatory regimes. The effects of acetylcholine and adrenaline were examined using an isolated perfused lung preparation at 27 degrees C. Changing ventilatory pattern or experimental temperature had no effect on either filling or opening pressures. Removal of surfactant increased both opening and filling pressures. Adrenaline administration reduced opening and filling pressures. Normal variations in surfactant levels, which occur with changes in body temperature, do not affect either opening or filling pressures. A critical amount of surfactant may be necessary to prevent adhesion of epithelial surfaces in the lungs of Pogona vitticeps. The anti-glue function of pulmonary surfactant may be more important at 18 than at 37 degrees C.

  19. Prehospital Volume Therapy as an Independent Risk Factor after Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Matthias; Lefering, Rolf; Touma, Alexander; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Keitel, Judith; Lendemans, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010), and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34). This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (odds ratio: 2.71), while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed. PMID:25949995

  20. Prehospital Volume Therapy as an Independent Risk Factor after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Hussmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010, and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells, blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34. This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI (odds ratio: 2.71, while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed.

  1. Regulation of central blood volume and cardiac filling in endurance athletes: the Frank-Starling mechanism as a determinant of orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance may result from either an abnormally large postural decrease in central blood volume, cardiac filling pressures, and stroke volume, or inadequate neurohumoral responses to orthostasis. Endurance athletes have been reported as having a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance, which has been attributed primarily to abnormalities in baroreflex regulation of heart rate and peripheral resistance. In this review, we present evidence that athletes also have structural changes in the cardiovascular system that although beneficial during exercise, lead to an excessively large decrease in stroke volume during orthostasis and contribute to orthostatic intolerance. A unifying hypothesis based on cardiac mechanics that may explain the divergence of findings in conditions such as bed rest or spaceflight, and short- and long-term endurance training is presented.

  2. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  3. Finite volume form factors and correlation functions at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pozsgay, Balázs

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate finite size effects in 1+1 dimensional integrable QFT. In particular we consider matrix elements of local operators (finite volume form factors) and vacuum expectation values and correlation functions at finite temperature. In the first part of the thesis we give a complete description of the finite volume form factors in terms of the infinite volume form factors (solutions of the bootstrap program) and the S-matrix of the theory. The calculations are correct to all orders in the inverse of the volume, only exponentially decaying (residual) finite size effects are neglected. We also consider matrix elements with disconnected pieces and determine the general rule for evaluating such contributions in a finite volume. The analytic results are tested against numerical data obtained by the truncated conformal space approach in the Lee-Yang model and the Ising model in a magnetic field. In a separate section we also evaluate the leading exponential correction (the $\\mu$-term) associate...

  4. Designing ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with reduced carrier recombination and a fill factor of 77%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Jiao, Xuechen; Heumueller, Thomas; Baran, Derya; Matt, Gebhard J.; Fladischer, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ade, Harald; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh

    2016-09-01

    In recent years the concept of ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on organic semiconductors has been widely used to achieve a better match to the solar irradiance spectrum, and power conversion efficiencies beyond 10% have been reported. However, the fill factor of organic solar cells is still limited by the competition between recombination and extraction of free charges. Here, we design advanced material composites leading to a high fill factor of 77% in ternary blends, thus demonstrating how the recombination thresholds can be overcome. Extending beyond the typical sensitization concept, we add a highly ordered polymer that, in addition to enhanced absorption, overcomes limits predicted by classical recombination models. An effective charge transfer from the disordered host system onto the highly ordered sensitizer effectively avoids traps of the host matrix and features an almost ideal recombination behaviour.

  5. High-Performance Integrated Perovskite and Organic Solar Cells with Enhanced Fill Factors and Near-Infrared Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Geunjin; Back, Hyungcheol; Kong, Jaemin; Hwang, In-Wook; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kwon, Sooncheol; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yu, Kilho; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kang, Hongkyu; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-04-01

    Highly efficient P-I-N type perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) integrated solar cells (ISCs) with enhanced fill factor (FF) (≈80%) and high near-infrared harvesting (>30%) are demonstrated by optimizing the BHJ morphology with a novel n-type polymer, N2200, and a new solvent-processing additive. This work proves the feasibility of highly efficient ISCs with panchromatic absorption as a new photovoltaic architecture and provides important design rules for optimizing ISCs.

  6. AnSBBR applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment: effects of fill time, volume treated per cycle, and organic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 °C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system, as it resulted in indirect control over the conversion of substrate into intermediates that would negatively interfere with the biochemical reactions regarding the degradation of organic matter. As a result, the average substrate consumption increased, leading to higher organic removal efficiencies in the fed-batch operations.

  7. Analyses of mode filling factor of a laser end-pumped by a LD with high-order transverse modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juhong; Wang, You; An, Guofei; Rong, Kepeng; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cai, He; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Although the concept of the mode filling factor (also named as "mode-matching efficiency") has been well discussed decades before, the concept of so-called overlap coefficient is often confused by the laser technicians because there are several different formulae for various engineering purposes. Furthermore, the LD-pumped configurations have become the mainstream of solid-state lasers since their compact size, high optical-to-optical efficiency, low heat generation, etc. As the beam quality of LDs are usually very unsatisfactory, it is necessary to investigate how the mode filling factor of a laser system is affected by a high-powered LD pump source. In this paper, theoretical analyses of an end-pumped laser are carried out based on the normalized overlap coefficient formalism. The study provides a convenient tool to describe the intrinsically complex issue of mode interaction corresponding to a laser and an end-pumped source. The mode filling factor has been studied for many cases in which the pump mode and the laser mode have been considered together in the calculation based on analyses of the rate equations. The results should be applied for analyses of any other types of lasers with the similar optical geometry.

  8. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Alonso, O.; Diéguez, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  9. Difference in full-filled time and its controlling factors in the Central Canyon of the Qiongdongnan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhilei; XIE Xinong; LI Xushen; ZHANG Daojun; HE Yunlong; YANG Xing; CUI Mingzhe

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interpretation of high resolution 2D/3D seismic data, sedimentary filling characteristics and full-filled time of the Central Canyon in different segments in the Qiongdongnan Basin of northwestern South China Sea have been studied. The research results indicate that the initial formation age of the Central Canyon is traced back to 11.6 Ma (T40), at which the canyon began to develop due to the scouring of turbidity currents from west to east. During the period of 11.6–8.2 Ma (T40–T31), strong downcutting by gravity flow occurred, which led to the formation of the canyon. The canyon fillings began to form since 8.2 Ma (T31) and were dominated by turbidite deposits, which constituted of lateral migration and vertical superposition of turbidity channels during the time of 8.2–5.5 Ma. The interbeds of turbidity currents deposits and mass transport deposits (MTDs) were developed in the period of 5.5–3.8 Ma (T30–T28). After then, the canyon fillings were primarily made up of large scale MTDs, interrupted by small scale turbidity channels and thin pelagic mudstones. The Central Canyon can be divided into three types according to the main controlling factors, geomorphology-controlled, fault-controlled and intrusion-modified canyons. Among them, the geomorphology-controlled canyon is developed at the Ledong, Lingshui, Songnan and western Baodao Depressions, situated in a confined basin center between the northern slope and the South Uplift Belt along the Central Depression Belt. The fault-controlled canyon is developed mainly along the deep-seated faults in the Changchang Depression and eastern Baodao Depression. Intrusion-modified canyon is only occurred in the Songnan Low Uplift, which is still mainly controlled by geomorphology, the intrusion just modified seabed morphology. The full-filled time of the Central Canyon differs from west to east, displaying a tendency of being successively late eastward. The geomorphology-controlled canyon was

  10. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  11. Efficient small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-directed molecular self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Olivia P.

    2011-10-21

    Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive small molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the small molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by π-π interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to direct molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for designing high-performance small molecule OPV devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  13. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders 

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, E; Dieguez, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fillfactors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geigermode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  14. Factors influencing the difference between forecasted and actual drug sales volumes under the price-volume agreement in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Euna; Kim, Jini; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed factors contributing to increases in the actual sales volumes relative to forecasted volumes of drugs under price-volume agreement (PVA) policy in South Korea. Sales volumes of newly listed drugs on the national formulary are monitored under PVA policy. When actual sales volume exceeds the pre-agreed forecasted volume by 30% or more, the drug is subject to price-reduction. Logistic regression assessed the factors related to whether drugs were the PVA price-reduction drugs. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log-link assessed the factors influencing the increase in actual volumes compared to forecasted volume in the PVA price-reduction drugs. Of 186 PVA monitored drugs, 34.9% were price-reduction drugs. Drugs marketed by pharmaceutical companies with previous-occupation in the therapeutic markets were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than drugs marketed by firms with no previous-occupation. Drugs of multinational pharmaceutical companies were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than those of domestic companies. Having more alternative existing drugs was significantly associated with higher odds of being PVA price-reduction drugs. Among the PVA price-reduction drugs, the increasing rate of actual volume compared to forecasted volume was significantly higher in drugs with clinical usefulness. By focusing the negotiation efforts on those target drugs, PVA policy can be administered more efficiently with the improved predictability of the drug sales volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Baran, Derya; Spyropoulos, George D.

    2014-01-01

    The tandem concept involves stacking two or more cells with complementary absorption spectra in series or parallel connection, harvesting photons at the highest possible potential. It is strongly suggested that the roll-to-roll production of organic solar cells will employ the tandem concept...... to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, due to the undeveloped deposition techniques, the challenges in ink formulation as well as the lack of commercially available high performance active materials, roll-to-roll fabrication of highly efficient organic tandem solar cells currently...... presents a major challenge. The reported high PCE values from lab-scale spin-coated devices are, of course, representative, but not helpful for commercialization. Here, organic tandem solar cells with exceptionally high fill factors and PCE values of 7.66% (on glass) and 5.56% (on flexible substrate...

  16. Oil Formation Volume Factor Determination Through a Fused Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume change of oil between reservoir condition and standard surface condition is called oil formation volume factor (FVF, which is very time, cost and labor intensive to determine. This study proposes an accurate, rapid and cost-effective approach for determining FVF from reservoir temperature, dissolved gas oil ratio, and specific gravity of both oil and dissolved gas. Firstly, structural risk minimization (SRM principle of support vector regression (SVR was employed to construct a robust model for estimating FVF from the aforementioned inputs. Subsequently, an alternating conditional expectation (ACE was used for approximating optimal transformations of input/output data to a higher correlated data and consequently developing a sophisticated model between transformed data. Eventually, a committee machine with SVR and ACE was constructed through the use of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS. Committee machine integrates ACE and SVR models in an optimal linear combination such that makes benefit of both methods. A group of 342 data points was used for model development and a group of 219 data points was used for blind testing the constructed model. Results indicated that the committee machine performed better than individual models.

  17. Oil Formation Volume Factor Determination Through a Fused Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Amin

    2016-12-01

    Volume change of oil between reservoir condition and standard surface condition is called oil formation volume factor (FVF), which is very time, cost and labor intensive to determine. This study proposes an accurate, rapid and cost-effective approach for determining FVF from reservoir temperature, dissolved gas oil ratio, and specific gravity of both oil and dissolved gas. Firstly, structural risk minimization (SRM) principle of support vector regression (SVR) was employed to construct a robust model for estimating FVF from the aforementioned inputs. Subsequently, an alternating conditional expectation (ACE) was used for approximating optimal transformations of input/output data to a higher correlated data and consequently developing a sophisticated model between transformed data. Eventually, a committee machine with SVR and ACE was constructed through the use of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS). Committee machine integrates ACE and SVR models in an optimal linear combination such that makes benefit of both methods. A group of 342 data points was used for model development and a group of 219 data points was used for blind testing the constructed model. Results indicated that the committee machine performed better than individual models.

  18. Tumor volume as a prognostic factor for local control and overall survival in advanced larynx cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.J.; Lange, C.A.H.; de Bois, J.A.; van Werkhoven, E.; Hamming-Vrieze, O.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Head and neck cancer; larynx cancer; organ preservation; total laryngectomy; imaging; tumor volume;prognosis; outcome Objectives/Hypothesis Tumor volume has been postulated to be an important prognostic factor for oncological outcome after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. This postulate

  19. Differences in sedimentary filling and its controlling factors in rift lacustrine basins, East China: A case study from Qikou and Nanpu sags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Shu JIANG; Chuanyan HUANG; Hua JIANG; Huajun GAN

    2011-01-01

    The riff lacustrine basin is characterized by a variety of sediment sources, multiple sedimentary systems,and complex filling, and its sediment supply is largely influenced by climate change. The sedimentary filling and its controlling factors have always been the focuses in basin analysis. This paper first reviews the recent advancement in riff lacustrine basin investigations with an emphasis on the structural controlling on lacustrine configuration, accommodation, and directly structural controlling on basin filling characteristics. The paleogeography resulted from spatial configuration of structural styles, and the sediment supplies synergically determine the types and distribution of depositional systems. The sedimentary filling characteristics of the fourth-order sequence record the evolution of cyclic climate. The case studies are followed on the basis of the sedimentary filling analysis in typical Nanpu sag and Qikou sag in Huanghua riff lacustrine basins in East China. The comparison of sedimentary fillings within sequence stratigraphic frameworks in the two sags shows the different episodic tectonic activities, and their resulting structural frameworks mainly controlled the different sequence stratigraphic developments, their internal architectures, and depositional systems distribution. Qikou sag has more complicate sedimentary filling controlled by episodic activities of boundary and intrabasin secondary faults and sediment supplies. Based on the studies from our own and the formers, we suggest that the sedimentary filling study in rift lacustrine basin should be under the guidance of sequence stratigraphy, use high resolution seismic and all available geological data, combine tectonic evolution and structural styles to build the sequence framework, and then reconstruct the paleo-structure and paleogeography. Studying the relationship between paleogeography and paleosedimentary filling can favor the understanding of the characteristics of sedimentary

  20. Factors related to persons with health problems attributed to dental filling materials--part one in a triangular study on 65 and 75 years old Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlnacke, Katri; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate persons having problems with dental filling materials in a Swedish population, their perceived oral health, and their reception from dental care personnel. The development over time (between 1992 and 2007) has also been studied concerning the presence of problems from dental filling materials. In two counties in Sweden, Orebro and Ostergötland, all persons born in 1942 have been surveyed by mail every fifth year since 1992. In the year 2007, all persons born in 1932 also received the same questionnaire. The total number of respondents in 2007 were 9813 persons (response rate 72.6%). Logistic regression models were constructed with those having had problems or not from dental filling materials as dependent variable. Multiple regression analysis was done with selfperceived oral health as dependent variable. There were about 10% (868) reporting problems from dental filling materials. There were clear differences between the two groups, having problems or not. The group reporting problems from dental filling materials perceived both their general and oral health as being worse compared with others. More frequently they had asked questions about adverse effects from dental filling materials, had changed dental fillings and crowns, and had amalgam present. They also felt less well treated by dental personnel and were not so pleased with dental care in general as others. In conclusion, there were many persons perceiving problems from dental filling materials. Forthose, both perceived general health and oral health was worse and they were less satisfied with dental care in general. No consistent common characteristic, neither as to socioeconomic nor lifestyle factors, could be shown for those having experienced problems from dental filling materials.

  1. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  2. Mie Plasmons: Modes Volumes, Quality Factors, and Coupling Strengths (Purcell Factor to a Dipolar Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Colas des Francs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using either quasistatic approximation or exact Mie expansion, we characterize the localized surface plasmons supported by a metallic spherical nanoparticle. We estimate the quality factor Qn and define the effective volume Vn of the nth mode in such a way that coupling strength with a neighbouring dipolar emitter is proportional to the ratio Qn/Vn (Purcell factor. The role of Joule losses, far-field scattering, and mode confinement in the coupling mechanism is introduced and discussed with simple physical understanding, with particular attention paid to energy conservation.

  3. Mie plasmons: modes volumes, quality factors and coupling strengths (Purcell factor) to a dipolar emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Francs, G Colas des; Vincent, R; Bouhelier, A; Dereux, A

    2011-01-01

    Using either quasi-static approximation or exact Mie expansion, we characterize the localized surface plasmons supported by a metallic spherical nanoparticle. We estimate the quality factor $Q_n$ and define the effective volume $V_n$ of the $n^{th}$ mode in a such a way that coupling strength with a neighbouring dipolar emitter is proportional to the ratio $Q_n/V_n$ (Purcell factor). The role of Joule losses, far-field scattering and mode confinement in the coupling mechanism are introduced and discussed with simple physical understanding, with particular attention paid to energy conservation.

  4. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  5. High fill factor polymer solar cells incorporating a low temperature solution processed WO{sub 3} hole extraction layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubhan, Tobias; Li, Ning; Matt, Gebhard J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Luechinger, Norman A.; Halim, Samuel C. [Nanograde Llc., Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse, P/O Box 239, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Haberstrasse 2a, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate solution-processed tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) incorporated as hole extraction layer (HEL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs) with active layers comprising either poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or poly[(4,4'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,50-diyl] (Si-PCPDTBT) mixed with a fullerene derivative. The WO{sub 3} layers are deposited from an alcohol-based, surfactant-free nanoparticle solution. A short, low-temperature (80 C) annealing is sufficient to result in fully functional films without the need for an oxygen-plasma treatment. This allows the application of the WO{sub 3} buffer layer in normal as well as inverted architecture solar cells. Normal architecture devices based on WO{sub 3} HELs show comparable performance to the PEDOT:PSS reference devices with slightly better fill factors and open circuit voltages. Very high shunt resistances (over 1 M{Omega} cm{sup 2}) and excellent diode rectification underline the charge selectivity of the solution-processed WO{sub 3} layers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  7. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  8. Vanishing electron g factor and long-lived nuclear spin polarization in weakly strained nanohole-filled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhaq, A.; Duan, Q; Zallo, E.; Ding, F.; Schmidt, O. G.; Tartakovskii, A. I.; Skolnick, M. S.; Chekhovich, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots grown by in situ droplet etching and nanohole in-filling offer a combination of strong charge confinement, optical efficiency, and high spatial symmetry advantageous for polarization entanglement and spin-photon interface. Here, we study experimentally electron and nuclear spin properties of such dots. We find nearly vanishing electron g factors (ge

  9. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-05-04

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of {approximately}1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit.

  10. Finite element procedure for stress amplification factor recovering in a representative volume of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Plaisant Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models are proposed to the micromechanical analysis of a representative volume of composite materials. A detailed description of the meshes, boundary conditions, and loadings are presented. An illustrative application is given to evaluate stress amplification factors within a representative volume of the unidirectional carbon fiber composite plate. The results are discussed and compared to the numerical findings.

  11. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  12. Flexible organic tandem solar modules with 6% efficiency: combining roll-to-roll compatible processing with high geometric fill factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spyropoulos, G. D.; Kubis, P.; Li, Na;

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cell technology bears the potential for high photovoltaic performance combined with truly low-cost, high-volume processing. Here we demonstrate organic tandem solar modules on flexible substrates fabricated by fully roll-to-roll compatible processing at temperatures...

  13. Factors that influence minority use of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lyen C; Tran, Thuy B; Ma, Yifei; Ngo, Justine V; Rhoads, Kim F

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that minorities cluster in low-quality hospitals despite living close to better performing hospitals. This may contribute to persistent disparities in cancer outcomes. The purpose of this work was to examine how travel distance, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors influenced minority underuse of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer. The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study. All hospitals in California from 1996 to 2006 were included. Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed and treated in California between 1996 and 2006 were identified using California Cancer Registry data. Multivariable logistic regression models predicting high-volume hospital use were adjusted for age, sex, race, stage, comorbidities, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. A total of 79,231 patients treated in 417 hospitals were included in the study. High-volume hospitals were independently associated with an 8% decrease in the hazard of death compared with other settings. A lower proportion of minorities used high-volume hospitals despite a higher proportion living nearby. Although insurance status and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with high-volume hospital use, only socioeconomic factors attenuated differences in high-volume hospital use of black and Hispanic patients compared with white patients. The use of cross-sectional data and racial and ethnic misclassifications were limitations in this study. Minority patients do not use high-volume hospitals despite improved outcomes and geographic access. Low socioeconomic status predicts low use of high-volume settings in select minority groups. Our results provide a roadmap for developing interventions to increase the use of and access to higher quality care and outcomes. Increasing minority use of high-volume hospitals may require community outreach programs and changes in physician referral practices.

  14. Improved Voltage and Fill Factor by Using Zinc Oxide Thin Film as a Barrier Layer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; WANG Li-Duo; LI Bin; QIU Yong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A series of dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO-modified TiO2 nano-porous films have been prepared. The current-voltage characteristics of the cells show that the ZnO-modification can improve the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor but can decrease the short-circuit current. Dark current and transient photovoltage measurements are used to study the back reaction. It is indicated that the recombination process is suppressed by blocking the hole transporting from the nano-porous TiO2 since the surface of the semiconductor is almost fully covered with ZnO as a barrier layer.

  15. Lattice approach to finite volume form-factors of the Massive Thirring (Sine-Gordon) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Árpád

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, that the light-cone lattice approach for the Massive-Thirring (sine-Gordon) model, through the quantum inverse scattering method, admits an appropriate framework for computing the finite volume form-factors of local operators of the model. In this work we compute the finite volume diagonal matrix elements of the U(1) conserved current in the pure soliton sector of the theory. Based on the systematic large volume expansion of our results, we conjecture an exact expression for the finite volume expectation values of local operators in pure soliton states. At large volume in leading order these expectation values have the same form as in purely elastic scattering theories, but exponentially small corrections differ from previous Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz conjectures of purely elastic scattering theories.

  16. Clinical comparison between HeartMate VE auto-mode and HeartMate XVE auto-mode with Opti-Fill and the effect of stroke volume on blood chamber and inflow valve peak pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodermans, Ben F M; Lahpor, Jaap R; van Schelven, Leonard J; Nieuwenhuis, Esther; Sukkel, Eveline Y; van Schouwen-van Kranen, Else

    2007-01-01

    We determined the difference between HeartMate (HM) VE auto mode, average filling 76 mL, and HM XVE Opti-Fill, average filling 79 mL, regarding blood chamber and inflow valve peak pressure pulses (BCPP and IVPP). The relation between stroke volume (SV) and peak pressures was investigated by using a circulatory mock loop. At high SVs, 79 to 83 mL, BCPP and IVPP never exceeded 400 mm Hg. For lower SVs, down to 50 mL, the peak pressures increased to 788 mm Hg for BCPP and 416 mm Hg for IVPP. Distribution of SV was measured in 2 VE and 6 XVE patients during rest and activities of daily living (ADL). For clinical comparison, percentages of SV >78 mL were determined. At rest, 2190 (VE) and 5772 (XVE) pump beats were registered and 4511 (VE) and 8713 (XVE) during ADL. Percentages of "SV >78 mL" at rest, respectively, were 42.5 +/- 3.5 and 78.2 +/- 4.7 (p 78 mL and makes an important contribution to reducing the incidence of high peak pressures in the clinical setting.

  17. Complications of Dermal Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fillers have globally become sought after drugs due to the desire of aging population to regain the youthful looks without any surgical operations. But like other procedures, dermal filling can become complicated. Besides the profitability have introduced the factor of malpractice which can bring in misery rather than beauty and youthful body contours. This article briefly reviews the common adverse effects of dermal fillers.

  18. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low......-volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...... users (i.e., pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists), (3) involvement of heavy vehicles, (4) speed limits of 80–90 km/h, (5) longer distance to the nearest hospital, and (6) peripheral rural regions....

  20. The output factor correction as function of the photon beam field size - direct measurement and calculation from the lateral dose response functions of gas-filled and solid detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Daniela; Delfs, Björn; Meyners, Jutta; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Looe, Hui Khee

    2017-08-28

    The first aim of this study has been to extend the systematic experimental study of the field size dependence of the output factor correction for three micro-ionization chambers (PTW 31014, PTW 31022 and IBA Razor chamber), two silicon diodes (PTW 60017 and IBA Razor Diode) and the synthetic diamond detector microDiamond (PTW 60019) in a 6 MV photon beam down to an effective field side length of 2.6mm, and to summarize the present knowledge of this factor by treating it as a function of the dosimetric field size. In order to vary the dosimetric field size over this large range, output factors measurements were performed at source-to-surface distances of 60cm and 90cm. Since the output factors obtained with the organic scintillation detector Exradin W1 (Standard Imaging, Middleton, USA) at all field sizes closely agreed with those measured by EBT3 radiochromic films (ISP Corp, Wayne, USA), the scintillation detector served as the reference detector. The measured output correction factors reflect the influences of the volume averaging and density effects upon the uncorrected output factor values. In case of the microDiamond detector these opposing influences result in output factor correction values less than 1 for moderately small field sizes and larger than 1 for very small field sizes. Our results agree with most of the published experimental as well as Monte-Carlo simulated data within detector-specific limits of uncertainty. The dosimetric field side length has been identified as a reliable determinant of the output factor correction, and typical functional curve shapes of the field-size dependent output factor correction vs. dosimetric field side length have been associated with gas-filled, silicon diode and synthetic diamond detectors. The second aim of this study has been a novel, semi-empirical approach to calculate the field-size dependent output correction factors of small photon detectors by convolving film measured true dose profile data with measured

  1. Investigation of Cure Reaction, Rheology, Volume Shrinkage and Thermomechanical Properties of Nano-TiO2 Filled Epoxy/DDS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure reaction, rheology, volume shrinkage, and thermomechanical behavior of epoxy-TiO2 nanocomposites based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone have been investigated. The FTIR results show that, at the initial curing stage, TiO2 acts as a catalyst and facilitates the curing. The catalytic effect of TiO2 was further confirmed by the decrease in maximum exothermal peak temperature (DSC results; however, it was also found that the addition of TiO2 decreases the overall degree of cure, as evidenced by lower total heat of reaction of the cured composites compared to neat epoxy. The importance of cure rheology in the microstructure formation during curing was explored by using rheometry. From the PVT studies, it was found that TiO2 decreases the volume shrinkage behavior of the epoxy matrix. The mechanical properties of the cured epoxy composites, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, and fracture toughness of the polymer composites, were examined. The nanocomposites exhibited good improvement in dimensional, thermal, and mechanical properties with respect to neat cross-linked epoxy system. FESEM micrographs of fractured surfaces were examined to understand the toughening mechanism.

  2. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, S J H; Kennis, M; Sjouwerman, R; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether h

  3. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, S. J H; Kennis, M.; Sjouwerman, R.; Van Den Heuvel, M. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304820466; Kahn, R. S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Geuze, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether hi

  4. Tumor volume as a prognostic factor for local control and overall survival in advanced larynx cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.J.; Lange, C.A.H.; de Bois, J.A.; van Werkhoven, E.; Hamming-Vrieze, O.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Tumor volume has been postulated to be an important prognostic factor for oncological outcome after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. This postulate was retrospectively investigated in a consecutively treated cohort of T3-T4 larynx cancer patients. Study Design Retrospective c

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: a Bridge Between Bone Minerals and Renal Volume Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer Kor

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the interaction between the phosphate-regulating hormone Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) as key player in bone-mineral homeostasis and renal volume handling, mainly in the context of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). First, we elaborate on the ro

  6. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  7. Enhancement of the Fill Factor through an Increase of the Crystallinity in Fullerene-Based Small-Molecule Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Soo; Kim, Tae-Min; Shim, Hyun-Sub; Kim, Beom-Soo; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2015-05-01

    We report that the crystallinity of C70 is improved significantly if CuI is used as a templating layer, leading to remarkable enhancement of hole mobilities from 8.32 × 10(-6) to 3.26 × 10(-5) cm(2)/(V s). As a result, the use of the templating layer in C70-based solar cells with low donor concentration resulted in significant improvement of the fill factor from 0.51 to 0.57 and the power conversion efficiency from 5.56% to 6.23% under simulated AM 1.5G, 1 sun irradiation. This result demonstrates that the CuI templating layer is effective at improving the crystallinity of the fullerene derivatives as well as the donor materials.

  8. Financial factor influence on scaling and memory of trading volume in stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-10-01

    We study the daily trading volume volatility of 17,197 stocks in the US stock markets during the period 1989-2008 and analyze the time return intervals τ between volume volatilities above a given threshold q. For different thresholds q, the probability density function P(q)(τ) scales with mean interval 〈τ〉 as P(q)(τ)=〈τ〉(-1)f(τ/〈τ〉), and the tails of the scaling function can be well approximated by a power law f(x)∼x(-γ). We also study the relation between the form of the distribution function P(q)(τ) and several financial factors: stock lifetime, market capitalization, volume, and trading value. We find a systematic tendency of P(q)(τ) associated with these factors, suggesting a multiscaling feature in the volume return intervals. We analyze the conditional probability P(q)(τ|τ(0)) for τ following a certain interval τ(0), and find that P(q)(τ|τ(0)) depends on τ(0) such that immediately following a short (long) return interval a second short (long) return interval tends to occur. We also find indications that there is a long-term correlation in the daily volume volatility. We compare our results to those found earlier for price volatility.

  9. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  10. Altura da lâmina, tempo e volume de enchimento de um equipamento de irrigação por pavio e determinação da uniformidade de distribuição de água em substratos Water depth, filling time and volume of wick irrigation equipment and determination of water distribution uniformity in substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foram realizar a avaliação da altura da lâmina de água, do tempo e volume de enchimento de um equipamento de irrigação por pavio usando calhas autocompensadoras e determinar a uniformidade de distribuição de água (UDA nesse equipamento utilizando substratos orgânicos comerciais (casca de pinus/CP e fibra de coco/FC. Dois módulos experimentais foram montados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Verificou-se grande variação das medidas de altura da lâmina de água (1,6 a 4,0 cm, mesmo com o equipamento nivelado. O tempo médio de enchimento foi de 6h22min para o Módulo 1 com CP e de 3h45min para o Módulo 2 com FC. O volume de enchimento foi variável, observando-se que as calhas das extremidades (n.° 1 e 5 apresentaram os menores volumes no Módulo 1, e as calhas do início (n.° 1 e 2 no Módulo 2. No Módulo 1, a umidade volumétrica (θ variou de 42% a 94%, e no Módulo 2, de 24% a 72%, com pontos isolados de secamento e/ou encharcamento. A altura da lâmina de água, o tempo e o volume de enchimento das calhas foram desuniformes nos dois módulos experimentais e nas cinco calhas autocompensadoras, indicando imperfeições no equipamento. A distribuição de água foi variável nos substratos em razão de suas características físico-hídricas e também da altura da lâmina de água nas calhas, apresentando maior umidade e uniformidade de distribuição de água na casca de pinus do que na fibra de coco.The aims of this study were to evaluate the water depth, filling time and volume in a wick irrigation equipment using auto compensating gutters and to determine the water distribution uniformity (WDU in these equipments filled with organic commercial substrates (pine bark/PB and coconut coir/CC. We assembled two experimental modules in a completely randomized design with five replications. There was variation in water depth measurements (1.6 to 4.0 cm, even

  11. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF FILLING AND EXHAUSTING PROCESS IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The filling and exhausting processes in a pneumatic system are involved with many factors,and numerical solutions of many partial differential equations are always adapted in the study of those processes, which have been proved to be troublesome and less intuitive. Analytical solutions based on loss-less tube model and average friction tube model are found respectively by using fluid net theory,and they fit the experimental results well. The research work shows that: Fluid net theory can be used to solve the analytical solution of filling and exhausting processes of pneumatic system, and the result of loss-less tube model is close to that of average friction model, so loss-less tube model is recommended since it is simpler, and the difference between filling time and exhausting time is determined by initial and final pressures, the volume of container and the section area of tube, and has nothing to do with the length of the tube.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low....... The crashes were identified by map-matching the crash location to the geographic information system representing the national transport network and extracting the relevant crashes based on annual average traffic volumes. Injury severity was modeled by estimating a generalized ordered logit model due to its...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudoelasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (1) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (2) involvement of vulnerable road...

  13. Long-term results of preventive embolization of renal angiomyolipomas: evaluation of predictive factors of volume decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocquelet, A.; Cornelis, F.; Le Bras, Y.; Meyer, M.; Tricaud, E.; Lasserre, A.S.; Grenier, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Urology and Vascular Imaging, Bordeaux (France); Ferriere, J.M.; Robert, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Urology Service, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective arterial embolization (SAE) of angiomyolipomas based on the percentage volume reduction after embolization and to identify predictive factors of volume decrease. Patients receiving prophylactic SAE of renal angiomyolipomas were included retrospectively over 3 years. The volume change after SAE and haemorrhagic or surgical events were recorded. Initial tumour volume, percentage tumour fat content, mean tumour density, embolic agent used, number of angiomyolipomas and tuberous sclerosis disease were evaluated as predictive factors of volume decrease. A total of 19 patients with 39 angiomyolipomas were included with median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range 21-37 months). All treatments were technically successful (92 % primary and 8 % secondary). No distal bleeding or any increase in size or surgical nephrectomy after SAE was recorded. Mean volume reduction was 72 % (±24 %). Volumes before SAE (R{sup 2} = 0.276; p = 0.001), percentage fat content (R{sup 2} = 0.612; p < 0.0001) and mean angiomyolipoma density (R{sup 2} = 0.536; p < 0.0001) were identified as predictive factors of volume decrease. In multivariate regression, only percentage fat content influenced volume decreases. SAE is an efficient treatment for angiomyolipoma devascularisation and volume reduction. A significant reduction of volume is modulated by the initial volume and tissue composition of the tumour. (orig.)

  14. A novel correction factor based on extended volume to complement the conformity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F; Wang, Y; Wu, Y-Z

    2012-08-01

    We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application. In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CI(Paddick)), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1-1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CI(Paddick). The measurements of MCI in head-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice. The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CI(Paddick) are also provided. The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose-volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.

  15. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  16. Response of atrial natriuretic factor to acute extracellular fluid volume in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, E; Amato, D; Sánchez, G; Ron, O; Rodríguez, F; Herrera-Acosta, J

    2000-01-01

    Patients with pheochromocytoma have been reported to show high plasmatic atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) levels. Its source may not be the atrium because blood volume, the most important physiological stimulus for ANF release, is usually reduced in these patients. To evaluate ANF secretion functional integrity, we studied three patients with pheochromocytoma before and after surgical removal of the tumor. Extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, plasmatic ANF levels, and plasmatic renin activity (PRA) were measured. ANF was measured before and after an acute saline load of 1.5L in 90 min. Before surgery, ECF volume was normal or reduced, and PRA was normal but decreased after the saline load. By contrast, ANF was elevated and did not change after the saline load. After surgery ANF decreased, ECF volume rose, and the saline load induced a significant increase of plasma ANF and reduction of PRA. ANF was present in significant amounts in tumoral tissue homogenates. These data suggest that the tumor was the source of ANF in these patients with pheochromocytoma because high levels of ANF, despite reduced or normal ECF volume, as well as unresponsiveness to acute saline infusion, were found before surgery with subsequent normalization after tumor removal.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and early life adversity affect hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballedo, Angela; Morris, Derek; Zill, Peter; Fahey, Ciara; Reinhold, Elena; Meisenzahl, Eva; Bondy, Brigitta; Gill, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frodl, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The interaction between adverse life events during childhood and genetic factors is associated with a higher risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the polymorphisms found to be associated with MDD is the Val66MET polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of our two-center study was to determine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affect the volumetric measures of the hippocampus in healthy individuals and people with MDD. In this two-center study, 62 adult patients with MDD and 71 healthy matched controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used manual tracing of the bilateral hippocampal structure with help of the software BRAINS2, assessed childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and genotyped Val66Met BDNF SNP (rs6265). MDD patients had smaller hippocampal volumes, both in the left and right hemispheres (F = 5.4, P = 0.022). We also found a significant interaction between BDNF allele and history of childhood adversity (F = 6.1, P = 0.015): Met allele carriers in our samples showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes when they did have a history of childhood adversity, both in patients and controls. Our results highlight how relevant stress-gene interactions are for hippocampal volume reductions. Subjects exposed to early life adversity developed smaller hippocampal volumes when they carry the Met-allele of the BDNF polymorphism.

  18. Online blind source separation using incremental nonnegative matrix factorization with volume constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxu; Yang, Zuyuan; Xie, Shengli; Yang, Jun-Mei

    2011-04-01

    Online blind source separation (BSS) is proposed to overcome the high computational cost problem, which limits the practical applications of traditional batch BSS algorithms. However, the existing online BSS methods are mainly used to separate independent or uncorrelated sources. Recently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) shows great potential to separate the correlative sources, where some constraints are often imposed to overcome the non-uniqueness of the factorization. In this paper, an incremental NMF with volume constraint is derived and utilized for solving online BSS. The volume constraint to the mixing matrix enhances the identifiability of the sources, while the incremental learning mode reduces the computational cost. The proposed method takes advantage of the natural gradient based multiplication updating rule, and it performs especially well in the recovery of dependent sources. Simulations in BSS for dual-energy X-ray images, online encrypted speech signals, and high correlative face images show the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Dose-volume factors correlating with trismus following chemoradiation for head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, SD; Saleh, ZH; Setton, J; Tam, M; McBride, SM; Riaz, N.; Deasy, JO; Lee, NY

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Informa Healthcare. Background. To investigate the dose-volume factors in mastication muscles that are implicated as possible causes of trismus in patients following treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for head and neck cancers.Material and methods. All evaluable patients treated at our institution between January 2004 and April 2009 with chemotherapy and IMRT for squamous cell cancers of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx or larynx ...

  20. Factors Affecting Canagliflozin-Induced Transient Urine Volume Increase in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takano, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Hiroaki; Kubo, Hajime; Maruyama, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Arakawa, Kenji; Togo, Masanori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit diuretic activity, which is a possible mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefit of these inhibitors. However, the osmotic diuresis-induced increase in urine volume, and the risk of dehydration have been of concern with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-induced diuresis in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirteen T2DM patients received a daily oral dose of 100 mg canagliflozin before breakfast for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time points. The primary endpoint was evaluation of correlations between changes from baseline in urine volume and factors that are known to affect urine volume and between actual urine volume and these factors. Canagliflozin transiently increased urine volume and urinary sodium excretion on Day 1 with a return to baseline levels thereafter. Canagliflozin administration increased urinary glucose excretion, which was sustained during repeated-dose administration. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels decreased, while plasma renin activity increased. On Day 1 of treatment, changes in sodium and potassium excretion were closely correlated with changes in urine output. A post hoc multiple regression analysis showed changes in sodium excretion and water intake as factors that affected urine volume change at Day 1. Furthermore, relative to that at baseline, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose throughout the day and increased plasma total GLP-1 after breakfast. Canagliflozin induced transient sodium excretion and did not induce water intake at Day 1; hence, natriuresis rather than glucose-induced osmotic diuresis may be a major factor involved in the canagliflozin-induced transient increase in urine output. In addition, canagliflozin decreased plasma ANP and NT-proBNP levels and

  1. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Volume Change of Blended Cement Containing Steel Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the condition of 20 ℃, 5% sulfate liquor curing, standard tap water curing and 50% RH curing-three different curing environments, the volume change of steel slag blended cement influenced by environmental factors was studied. With steel slag addition 10%, 30%, 50%, from 90 days to 356 days, the relationship of shrinkage and three different curing environments is: dry curing environment>tap water curing environment>sulfate curing environment. But, the sample shrinkage in 28 days has much difference with the curing environment, which has no obvious orderliness. The different effects on blended cement containing steel slag in different environmental factors were analyzed using SEM.

  2. High-Performance CH3NH3PbI3-Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Fill Factor Over 83% via Excess Organic/Inorganic Halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar, Muhammad; Khan, Nasir; Lee, Hang Ken; Lee, Sang Kyu; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Jong-Cheol; Song, Chang Eun; Moon, Sang-Jin

    2017-10-04

    The reduction of charge carrier recombination and intrinsic defect density in organic-inorganic halide perovskite absorber materials is a prerequisite to achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells with good efficiency and stability. Here, we fabricated inverted planar perovskite solar cells by incorporation of a small amount of excess organic/inorganic halide (methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I; MAI), formamidinium iodide (CH(NH2)2I; FAI), and cesium iodide (CsI)) in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. Larger crystalline grains and enhanced crystallinity in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films with excess organic/inorganic halide reduce the charge carrier recombination and defect density, leading to enhanced device efficiency (MAI+: 14.49 ± 0.30%, FAI+: 16.22 ± 0.38% and CsI+: 17.52 ± 0.56%) compared to the efficiency of a control MAPbI3 device (MAI: 12.63 ± 0.64%) and device stability. Especially, the incorporation of a small amount of excess CsI in MAPbI3 perovskite film leads to a highly reproducible fill factor of over 83%, increased open-circuit voltage (from 0.946 to 1.042 V), and short-circuit current density (from 18.43 to 20.89 mA/cm(2)).

  3. High conductivity Ag-based metal organic complexes as dopant-free hole-transport materials for perovskite solar cells with high fill factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong; Xu, Bo; Liu, Peng; Chen, Hong; Tian, Haining; Cheng, Ming; Kloo, Lars; Sun, Licheng

    2016-04-21

    Hole-transport materials (HTMs) play an important role as hole scavenger materials in the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, for the first time, two Ag-based metal organic complexes (HA1 and HA2) are employed as a new class of dopant-free hole-transport material for application in PSCs. These HTMs show excellent conductivity and hole-transport mobility. Consequently, the devices based on these two HTMs exhibit unusually high fill factors of 0.76 for HA1 and 0.78 for HA2, which are significantly higher than that obtained using spiro-OMeTAD (0.69). The cell based on HA1-HTM in its pristine form achieved a high power conversion efficiency of 11.98% under air conditions, which is comparable to the PCE of the cell employing the well-known doped spiro-MeOTAD (12.27%) under the same conditions. More importantly, their facile synthesis and purification without using column chromatography makes these new silver-based HTMs highly promising for future commercial applications of PSCs. These results provide a new way to develop more low-cost and high conductivity metal-complex based HTMs for efficient PSCs.

  4. Copper Sulfide Catalyzed Porous Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Counter Electrode for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Fill Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Koyasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC is mainly limited by chemical reactions at the interface of the counter electrode. Generally, the fill factor (FF of QDSSCs is very low because of large charge transfer resistance at the interface between the counter electrode and electrolyte solution containing redox couples. In the present research, we demonstrate the improvement of the resistance by optimization of surface area and amount of catalyst of the counter electrode. A facile chemical synthesis was used to fabricate a composite counter electrode consisting of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO powder and CuS nanoparticles. The introduction of a sputtered gold layer at the interface of the porous-FTO layer and underlying glass substrate also markedly reduced the resistance of the counter electrode. As a result, we could reduce the charge transfer resistance and the series resistance, which were 2.5 [Ω] and 6.0 [Ω], respectively. This solar cell device, which was fabricated with the presently designed porous-FTO counter electrode as the cathode and a PbS-modified electrode as the photoanode, exhibited a FF of 58%, which is the highest among PbS-based QDSSCs reported to date.

  5. Getting a prescription filled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are located inside of a grocery or large "chain" store. It is best to fill all prescriptions ... be used for long-term medicines and medical supplies. The website should have clear directions for filling ...

  6. Use of Natural Neural Scaffolds Consisting of Engineered Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Immobilized on Ordered Collagen Fibers Filled in a Collagen Tube for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukai Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for effective strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, ordered collagen fibers were used as intraluminal fibers after nerve injury in rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays an important role in nerve regeneration, but its very fast initial burst of activity within a short time has largely limited its clinical use. For the stable binding of VEGF to ordered collagen fibers, we fused a collagen-binding domain (CBD to VEGF through recombinant DNA technology. Then, we filled the ordered collagen fibers-CBD-VEGF targeting delivery system in a collagen tube to construct natural neural scaffolds, which were then used to bridge transected nerve stumps in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. After transplantation, the natural neural scaffolds showed minimal foreign body reactions and good integration into the host tissue. Oriented collagen fibers in the collagen tube could guide regenerating axons in an oriented manner to the distal, degenerating nerve segment, maximizing the chance of target reinnervation. Functional and histological analyses indicated that the recovery of nerve function in the natural neural scaffolds-treated group was superior to the other grafted groups. The guiding of oriented axonal regeneration and effective delivery systems surmounting the otherwise rapid and short-lived diffusion of growth factors in body fluids are two important strategies in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. The natural neural scaffolds described take advantage of these two aspects and may produce synergistic effects. These properties qualified the artificial nerve conduits as a putative candidate system for the fabrication of peripheral nerve reconstruction devices.

  7. Use of natural neural scaffolds consisting of engineered vascular endothelial growth factor immobilized on ordered collagen fibers filled in a collagen tube for peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fukai; Xiao, Zhifeng; Meng, Danqing; Hou, Xianglin; Zhu, Jianhong; Dai, Jianwu; Xu, Ruxiang

    2014-10-15

    The search for effective strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, ordered collagen fibers were used as intraluminal fibers after nerve injury in rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in nerve regeneration, but its very fast initial burst of activity within a short time has largely limited its clinical use. For the stable binding of VEGF to ordered collagen fibers, we fused a collagen-binding domain (CBD) to VEGF through recombinant DNA technology. Then, we filled the ordered collagen fibers-CBD-VEGF targeting delivery system in a collagen tube to construct natural neural scaffolds, which were then used to bridge transected nerve stumps in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. After transplantation, the natural neural scaffolds showed minimal foreign body reactions and good integration into the host tissue. Oriented collagen fibers in the collagen tube could guide regenerating axons in an oriented manner to the distal, degenerating nerve segment, maximizing the chance of target reinnervation. Functional and histological analyses indicated that the recovery of nerve function in the natural neural scaffolds-treated group was superior to the other grafted groups. The guiding of oriented axonal regeneration and effective delivery systems surmounting the otherwise rapid and short-lived diffusion of growth factors in body fluids are two important strategies in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. The natural neural scaffolds described take advantage of these two aspects and may produce synergistic effects. These properties qualified the artificial nerve conduits as a putative candidate system for the fabrication of peripheral nerve reconstruction devices.

  8. General expressions for the coupling coefficient, quality and filling factors for a cavity with an insert using energy coupled mode theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y; Tervo, Richard; Mattar, Saba M

    2014-05-01

    A cavity (CV) with a dielectric resonator (DR) insert forms an excellent probe for the use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers. The probe's coupling coefficient, κ, the quality factor, Q, and the filling factor, η are vital in assessing the EPR spectrometer's performance. Coupled mode theory (CMT) is used to derive general expressions for these parameters. For large permittivity the dominating factor in κ is the ratio of the DR and CV cross sectional areas rather than the dielectric constant. Thus in some cases, resonators with low dielectric constant can couple much stronger with the cavity than do resonators with a high dielectric constant. When the DR and CV frequencies are degenerate, the coupled η is the average of the two uncoupled ones. In practical EPR probes the coupled η is approximately half of that of the DR. The Q of the coupled system generally depends on the eigenvectors, uncoupled frequencies (ω1,ω2) and the individual quality factors (Q1,Q2). It is calculated for different probe configurations and found to agree with the corresponding HFSS® simulations. Provided there is a large difference between the Q1, Q2 pair and the frequencies of DR and CV are degenerate, Q is approximately equal to double the minimum of Q1 and Q2. In general, the signal enhancement ratio, Iwithinsert/Iempty, is obtained from Q and η. For low loss DRs it only depends on η1/η2. However, when the DR has a low Q, the uncoupled Qs are also needed. In EPR spectroscopy it is desirable to excite only a single mode. The separation between the modes, Φ, is calculated as a function of κ and Q. It is found to be significantly greater than five times the average bandwidth. Thus for practical probes, it is possible to excite one of the coupled modes without exciting the other. The CMT expressions derived in this article are quite general and are in excellent agreement with the lumped circuit approach and finite numerical simulations. Hence they can also be

  9. Fast implementation of kernel simplex volume analysis based on modified Cholesky factorization for endmember extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Xiao-run LI; Li-jiao WANG; Liao-ying ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Endmember extraction is a key step in the hyperspectral image analysis process. The kernel new simplex growing algorithm (KNSGA), recently developed as a nonlinear alternative to the simplex growing algorithm (SGA), has proven a prom-ising endmember extraction technique. However, KNSGA still suffers from two issues limiting its application. First, its random initialization leads to inconsistency in final results; second, excessive computation is caused by the iterations of a simplex volume calculation. To solve the first issue, the spatial pixel purity index (SPPI) method is used in this study to extract the first endmember, eliminating the initialization dependence. A novel approach tackles the second issue by initially using a modified Cholesky fac-torization to decompose the volume matrix into triangular matrices, in order to avoid directly computing the determinant tauto-logically in the simplex volume formula. Theoretical analysis and experiments on both simulated and real spectral data demon-strate that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces computational complexity, and runs faster than the original algorithm.

  10. Enhancement of open-circuit voltage and the fill factor in CdTe nanocrystal solar cells by using interface materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaoyan; Yang, Yuehua; Gao, Yuping; Qin, Donghuan; Wu, Hongbin; Hou, Lintao; Huang, Wenbo

    2014-09-12

    Interface states influence the operation of nanocrystal (NC) solar cell carrier transport, recombination and energetic mechanisms. In a typical CdTe NC solar cell with a normal structure of a ITO/p-CdTe NCs/n-acceptor (or without)/Al configuration, the contact between the ITO and CdTe is a non-ohm contact due to a different work function (for an ITO, the value is ~4.7 eV, while for CdTe NCs, the value is ~5.3 eV), which results in an energetic barrier at the ITO/CdTe interface and decreases the performance of the NC solar cells. This work investigates how interface materials (including Au, MoO(x) and C₆₀) affect the performance of NC solar cells. It is found that devices with interface materials have shown higher V(oc) than those without interface materials. For the case in which we used Au as an interface, we obtained a high open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, coupled with a high fill factor (62%); this resulted in a higher energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of 5.3%, which showed a 30% increase in the ECE compared with those without the interlayer. The capacitance measurements indicate that the increased V(oc) in the case in which Au was used as the interface is likely due to good ohm contact between the Au's and the CdTe NCs' thin film, which decreases the energetic barrier at the ITO/CdTe interface.

  11. Spinal level of myelomeningocele lesion as a contributing factor in posterior fossa volume, intracranial cerebellar volume, and cerebellar ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Kieron J

    2013-02-01

    McLone and Knepper\\'s unified theory of Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II) describes how the loss of CSF via the open posterior neuropore fails to create adequate distending pressure for the developing rhomboencephalic vesicle. The authors of the present article describe the relationship between the posterior fossa volume and intracranial cerebellar volume as being related to the distance from the obex of the fourth ventricle to the myelomeningocele lesion using a common mathematical model, the Hagen-Poiseuille law.

  12. Dose-volume factors correlating with trismus following chemoradiation for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shyam D; Saleh, Ziad H; Setton, Jeremy; Tam, Moses; McBride, Sean M; Riaz, Nadeem; Deasy, Joseph O; Lee, Nancy Y

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dose-volume factors in mastication muscles that are implicated as possible causes of trismus in patients following treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for head and neck cancers. All evaluable patients treated at our institution between January 2004 and April 2009 with chemotherapy and IMRT for squamous cell cancers of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx or larynx were included in this analysis (N = 421). Trismus was assessed using CTCAE 4.0. Bi-lateral masseter, temporalis, lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid muscles were delineated on axial computed tomography (CT) treatment planning images, and dose-volume parameters were extracted to investigate univariate and multimetric correlations. Forty-six patients (10.9%) were observed to have chronic trismus of grade 1 or greater. From analysis of baseline patient characteristics, toxicity correlated with primary site and patient age. From dose-volume analysis, the steepest dose thresholds and highest correlations were seen for mean dose to ipsilateral masseter (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Rs = 0.25) and medial pterygoid (Rs = 0.23) muscles. Lyman-Kutcher-Burman modeling showed highest correlations for the same muscles. The best correlation for multimetric logistic regression modeling was with V68Gy to the ipsilateral medial pterygoid (Rs = 0.29). Chemoradiation-induced trismus remains a problem particularly for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Strong dose-volume correlations support the hypothesis that limiting dose to the ipsilateral masseter muscle and, in particular, the medial pterygoid muscle may reduce the likelihood of trismus.

  13. Effect of residue hematoma volume on inflammation factors in hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-san ZHANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  In this study, the relationships of residue hematoma volume to brain edema and inflammation factors were studied after intracerebral hematoma was evacuated with a frameless stereotactic aspiration. Methods  Eighty-nine patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH were treated by frameless stereotactic aspiration. According to residual volume of the hematoma, the patients were divided into gross-total removal of hematoma (GTRH (≤5ml and sub-total removal of hematoma (STRH (≥10ml groups after the operation. The pre-operative and postoperative data of the patients were compared between the two groups. The pre-operative data included age, sex, hematoma volume, time interval from the ictus to the operation, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores. The post-operative information included edema grade, level of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α(6-K-PGF1α, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α and endothelin (ET in hematoma cavity or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF. Results  There were 46 patients in GTRH group and 43 in STRH group respectively. There was no statistical difference in the pre-operative data between the two groups. The levels of TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, TNF-αand ET were significantly lower in the GTRH group than in the STRH group at different post-operative time points. There was a significant difference between the two groups. The post-operative CT scan at different time points showed that the brain edema grades were better in the GTRH group than in the STRH group. Conclusions  GTRH is helpful for decreasing ICH-induced injury to brain tissue, which is related to decreased perihematomal edema formation and secondary injury by coagulation end products activated inflammatory cascade. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.12

  14. Genetic, psychosocial and clinical factors associated with hippocampal volume in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, D; Schwahn, C; Borchardt, U; Wittfeld, K; Schulz, A; Barnow, S; Biffar, R; Hoffmann, W; Habes, M; Homuth, G; Nauck, M; Hegenscheid, K; Lotze, M; Völzke, H; Freyberger, H J; Debette, S; Grabe, H J

    2014-10-14

    The hippocampus--crucial for memory formation, recall and mood regulation--is involved in the pathophysiology of dementia and depressive disorders. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified five genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume (HV). Previous studies have described psychosocial and clinical factors (for example, smoking, type 2 diabetes and hypertension) to have an impact on HV. However, the interplay between genetic, psychosocial and clinical factors on the HV remains unclear. Still, it is likely that genetic variants and clinical or psychosocial factors jointly act in modifying HV; it might be possible they even interact. Knowledge of these factors might help to quantify ones individual risk of or rather resilience against HV loss. We investigated subjects (N=2463; 55.7% women; mean age 53 years) from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2; SHIP-TREND-0) who underwent whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genotyping. HVs were estimated with FreeSurfer. For optimal nonlinear model fitting, we used regression analyses with restricted cubic splines. Genetic variants and associated psychosocial or clinical factors were jointly assessed for potential two-way interactions. We observed associations between HV and gender (Psmoking (P=0.0058), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0211), rs7294919 (P=0.0065), rs17178006 (P=0.0002), rs6581612 (P=0.0036), rs6741949 (P=0.0112) and rs7852872 (P=0.0451). In addition, we found three significant interactions: between rs7294919 and smoking (P=0.0473), rs7294919 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0447) and between rs7852872 and rs6581612 (P=0.0114). We suggest that these factors might have a role in the individual susceptibility to hippocampus-associated disorders.

  15. The First Photometric Study of NSVS 1461538: A New W-subtype Contact Binary with a Low Mass Ratio and Moderate Fill-out Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun-Woo; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Song, Mi-Hwa; Jeong, Min-Ji; Kim, Hye-Young

    2016-09-01

    New multiband BVRI light curves of NSVS 1461538 were obtained as a byproduct during the photometric observations of our program star PV Cas for three years from 2011 to 2013. The light curves indicate characteristics of a typical W-subtype W UMa eclipsing system, displaying a flat bottom at primary eclipse and the O’Connell effect, rather than those of an Algol/ b Lyrae eclipsing variable classified by the northern sky variability survey (NSVS). A total of 35 times of minimum lights were determined from our observations (20 timings) and the SuperWASP measurements (15 ones). A period study with all the timings shows that the orbital period may vary in a sinusoidal manner with a period of about 5.6 yr and a small semiamplitude of about 0.008 day. The cyclical period variation can be interpreted as a light-time effect due to a tertiary body with a minimum mass of 0.71 M⊙. Simultaneous analysis of the multiband light curves using the 2003 version of the WilsonDevinney binary model shows that NSVS 1461538 is a genuine W-subtype W UMa contact binary with the hotter primary component being less massive and the system shows a low mass ratio of q(mc/mh)=3.51, a high orbital inclination of 88.7°, a moderate fill-out factor of 30 %, and a temperature difference of ΔT=412 K. The O’Connell effect can be similarly explained by cool spots on either the hotter primary star or the cool secondary star. A small third-light corresponding to about 5 % and 2 % of the total systemic light in the B and V bandpasses, respectively, supports the third-body hypothesis proposed by the period study. Preliminary absolute dimensions of the system were derived and used to look into its evolutionary status with other W UMa binaries in the mass-radius and mass-luminosity diagrams. A possible evolution scenario of the system was also discussed in the context of the mass vs mass ratio diagram.

  16. Water-filled telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2014-01-01

    In this short note we discuss the case of the thought experiments on water-filled telescopes and their realizations during 18th and 19th century. The story of those instruments shows that the scientific progress occurs in a curious way, since there was no stringent reason for the construction of a water-filled telescope.

  17. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  18. Response of fibroblast growth factor 23 to volume interventions in arterial hypertension and diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Seiler-Mußler, Sarah; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Navis, Gerjan; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H.; de Borst, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) rises progressively in chronic kidney disease and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. FGF-23 putatively induces volume retention by upregulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). We studied whether, conversely, interventions in volume status affect FGF-23 concentrations. We performed a post hoc analysis of 1) a prospective saline infusion study with 12 patients with arterial hypertension who received 2 L of isotonic saline over 4 hours, and 2) a randomized controlled trial with 45 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients on background angiotensin-converting enzyme -inhibition (ACEi), who underwent 4 6-week treatment periods with add-on hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) or placebo, combined with regular sodium (RS) or low sodium (LS) diet in a cross-over design. Plasma C-terminal FGF-23 was measured by ELISA (Immutopics) after each treatment period in DN and before and after saline infusion in hypertensives. The patients with arterial hypertension were 45 ± 13 (mean ± SD) years old with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 101 ± 18 mL/min/1.73 m2. Isotonic saline infusion did not affect FGF-23 (before infusion: 68 median [first to third quartile: 58–97] relative unit (RU)/mL, after infusion: 67 [57–77] RU/mL, P = 0.37). DN patients were 65 ± 9 years old. During ACEi + RS treatment, eGFR was 65 ± 25 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria 649 mg/d (230–2008 mg/d). FGF23 level was 94 (73–141) RU/mL during ACEi therapy. FGF-23 did not change significantly by add-on HCT (99 [74–148] RU/mL), LS diet (99 [75–135] RU/mL), or their combination (111 [81–160] RU/mL, P = 0.15). Acute and chronic changes in volume status did not materially change FGF-23 in hypertensive patients and DN, respectively. Our data do not support a direct feedback loop between volume status and FGF-23 in hypertension or DN. PMID:27861335

  19. Effect of variation of I{sub 01}/I{sub 02} on short-circuit current and fill factor of a real solar cell having resistive and current leakage losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadu, M.; Kapoor, A.; Tripathi, K.N. [Department of Electronic Sciences, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, -110021 New Delhi (India)

    2001-11-01

    We analyze the effect of variation of I{sub 01}/I{sub 02} on short-circuit current and the fill factor of a solar cell having resistive and current leakage losses. This analysis is particularly important for the polycrystalline solar cells, where higher values of I{sub 02} and hence lower values of I{sub 01}/I{sub 02} can be expected due to the space charge regions associated with the grain boundaries. Also in polycrystalline solar cells, we cannot ignore the effect of series and shunt resistances. It is observed that the value of fill factor depends on R{sub s}, R{sub sh} and I{sub 01}/I{sub 02}, while the value of I{sub sc} depends only on R{sub s} and I{sub 01}/I{sub 02}.

  20. Effects of high intensity training and high volume training on endothelial microparticles and angiogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    Full Text Available AIMS: Endothelial microparticles (EMP are complex vesicular structures shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. As endurance exercise affects the endothelium, the objective of the study was to examine levels of EMP and angiogenic growth factors following different endurance exercise protocols. METHODS: 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High volume training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO; 2. 4 × 4 min at 95% PPO; 3. 4 × 30 sec all-out. EMPs were quantified using flow cytometry after staining platelet-poor-plasma. Events positive for Annexin-V and CD31, and negative for CD42b, were classified as EMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, migratory inhibiting factor (MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF were determined by ELISA technique. For all these measurements venous blood samples were taken pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after each intervention. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to explore the effect of collected sera on target endothelial functions and MP uptake capacities. RESULTS: VEGF and HGF significantly increased after HIT interventions. All three interventions caused a significant decrease in EMP levels post exercise compared to pre values. The sera taken after exercise increased the uptake of EMP in target endothelial cells compared to sera taken under resting conditions, which was shown to be phosphatidylserin-dependent. Increased EMP uptake was associated with an improved protection of target cells against apoptosis. Sera taken prior and after exercise promoted target endothelial cell migration, which was abrogated after inhibition of VEGF. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise leads to decreased EMP levels and promotes a phosphatidylserin-dependent uptake of EMP into target endothelial cells, which is associated with a protection of target cells against apoptosis.

  1. Intravascular volume administration: a contributing risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.C. de; Gerrits, L.C.; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Straatman, H.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Liem, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the frequency and total volume of intravascular volume administration and the development of intracranial hemorrhage during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: In a retrospective, matched,

  2. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW (P<0.05, with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83±32.42 mm3 was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD, which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  3. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yuan; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhu, Haohao; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm(3)) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41-50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  4. The Natural History and Predictive Factors of Voided Volume in Older Men : The Krimpen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Boris; Kok, Esther T.; Blanker, Marco H.; Martens, Edwin P.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    Purpose: Although functional bladder capacity, as expressed by maximum voided volume and other frequency-volume chart parameters, are important determinants of lower urinary tract symptoms, to our knowledge no population based data are available on changes in voided volume. We determined changes in

  5. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... aggregated sales of less than 301 motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines per year (determined under the... deterioration factor. (2) Manufacturers with aggregated sales from and including 301 through 14,999...

  6. Irregularly Shaped Space-Filling Truncated Octahedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John Robert

    2008-01-01

    For any parent tetrahedron ABCD, centroids of selected sub-tetrahedra form the vertices of an irregularly shaped space-filling truncated octahedron. To reflect these properties, such a figure will be called an ISTO. Each edge of the ISTO is parallel to and one-eighth the length of one of the edges of tetrahedron ABCD and the volume of the ISTO is…

  7. Determinação de volumes e pressões de balonetes de tubos traqueais insuflados com ar ambiente ou óxido nitroso Determinación de volúmenes y presiones de balones de tubos traqueales insuflados con aire ambiente u óxido nitroso Volume and pressure of tracheal tube cuffs filled with air or nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Leonardo Cárpio Peña

    2004-06-01

    balanceada con entubación orotraqueal. El balón fue insuflado conforme criterios clínicos. Las medidas de base fueron realizadas después de 15 minutos del inicio de la anestesia con un manómetro aneróide calibrado en cm de H2O y dieron los valores iniciales de presión y volumen. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: balón reinsuflado con aire ambiente, grupo A, o con óxido nitroso, grupo B. Las medidas de presión fueron obtenidas en intervalos hasta la primera hora y los resultados comparados. RESULTADOS: Los grupos se mostraron comparables para edad y sexo. En ambos grupos los valores basales medios para presión fueron próximos de 40 cmH2O con 8 ml de volumen. En el grupo con aire ambiente, las presiones aumentaron hasta 36 cmH2O en una hora. En el grupo de balón insuflado con N2O, las presiones cayeron abajo de 20 cmH2O entre 20 y 30 minutos de anestesia. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de N2O a 100% para insuflación del balón de sonda traqueal no constituye método seguro, acarreando progresiva pérdida de la capacidad de vedación. El uso de aire ambiente promueve aumento de volumen y de presión en el balón, aumentando la posibilidad de lesión de la mucosa traqueal.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tracheal tube cuff pressure against tracheal wall should to prevent air leaked or pulmonary aspiration, allowing adequate capillary blood flow. This study aimed at determining pressure variations of tracheal tube cuffs filled with air or 100% nitrous oxide. METHODS: Participated in this study 30 patients submitted to balanced general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Cuff was inflated according to clinical criteria. The intracuff pressure measurements were undertaken after 15 minutes of anesthesia by means of an aneroid manometer gaged in cm of H2O and have provided initial pressure and volume values. The patients was allocated in two groups: cuff inflated with air, group A, and with nitrous oxide, group B. Measurements were recorded during one hour and results were

  8. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  9. Onset of quantum criticality in the topological-to-nematic transition in a two-dimensional electron gas at filling factor ν =5 /2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, K. A.; Samkharadze, N.; Gardner, G. C.; Biswas, Rudro R.; Manfra, M. J.; Csáthy, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    Under hydrostatic pressure, the ground state of a two-dimensional electron gas at ν =5 /2 changes from a fractional quantum Hall state to the stripe phase. By measuring the energy gap of the fractional quantum Hall state and of the onset temperature of the stripe phase, we mapped out a phase diagram of these competing phases in the pressure-temperature plane. Our data highlight the dichotomy of two descriptions of the half-filled Landau level near the quantum critical point: one based on electrons and another on composite fermions.

  10. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...... natriuretic factor. Arterial norepinephrine level, an index of overall sympathetic nervous activity (3.08 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.36 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (mean = 23 ml/kg in patients vs. 27 ml/kg in controls; p ....05). Similarly, renal venous norepinephrine level (an index of renal sympathetic tone; 4.26 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.78 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (r = -0.53, n = 18, p

  11. Minimum-volume-constrained nonnegative matrix factorization: enhanced ability of learning parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxu; Xie, Shengli; Yang, Zuyuan; Yang, Jun-Mei; He, Zhaoshui

    2011-10-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) with minimum-volume-constraint (MVC) is exploited in this paper. Our results show that MVC can actually improve the sparseness of the results of NMF. This sparseness is L(0)-norm oriented and can give desirable results even in very weak sparseness situations, thereby leading to the significantly enhanced ability of learning parts of NMF. The close relation between NMF, sparse NMF, and the MVC_NMF is discussed first. Then two algorithms are proposed to solve the MVC_NMF model. One is called quadratic programming_MVC_NMF (QP_MVC_NMF) which is based on quadratic programming and the other is called negative glow_MVC_NMF (NG_MVC_NMF) because it uses multiplicative updates incorporating natural gradient ingeniously. The QP_MVC_NMF algorithm is quite efficient for small-scale problems and the NG_MVC_NMF algorithm is more suitable for large-scale problems. Simulations show the efficiency and validity of the proposed methods in applications of blind source separation and human face images analysis.

  12. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Function and task analysis. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    As a treatment methodology, teletherapy selectively destroys cancerous and other tissue by exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. Sources of radiation are either a radioactive isotope, typically Cobalt-60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator. Records maintained by the NRC have identified instances of teletherapy misadministration where the delivered radiation dose has differed from the radiation prescription (e.g., instances where fractions were delivered to the wrong patient, to the wrong body part, or were too great or too little with respect to the defined treatment volume). Both human error and machine malfunction have led to misadministrations. Effective and safe treatment requires a concern for precision and consistency of human-human and human-machine interactions throughout the course of therapy. The present study is the first part of a series of human factors evaluations for identifying the root causes that lead to human error in the teletherapy environment. The human factors evaluations included: (1) a function and task analysis of teletherapy activities, (2) an evaluation of the human-system interfaces, (3) an evaluation of procedures used by teletherapy staff, (4) an evaluation of the training and qualifications of treatment staff (excluding the oncologists), (5) an evaluation of organizational practices and policies, and (6) an identification of problems and alternative approaches for NRC and industry attention. The present report addresses the function and task analysis of teletherapy activities and provides the foundation for the conduct of the subsequent evaluations. The report includes sections on background, methodology, a description of the function and task analysis, and use of the task analysis findings for the subsequent tasks. The function and task analysis data base also is included.

  13. 厦门市学龄儿童龋牙修复状况及其影响因素%An epidemiological investigation of caries filling rate among school-aged children and the influencing factors in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊震; 张旭辉; 李辉莉; 苏瑞真

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the caries filling rate and their influencing factors in school-aged children of Xiamen. METHODS: With stratified cluster random sampling, 824 urban and rural school-aged students in Xiamen from 2 schools were surveyed. Investigation included oral examination and questionnaire ( child questionnaire and parent questionnaire). Oral examination methods were recommended by WHO caries epidemiological investigation. Dental caries, loss and fill status were recorded. The results were entered by EpiData 3. 0 and analyzed by SPASS 13.0. RESULTS: Among the 824 children, the caries filling rate was 24.27%. Family income, parental education, fear of children to visit dentist, short of time to visit dentist, high medical cost and other factors showed influence on caries filling rate. CONCLUSION: Caries filling rate among school-aged children in Xiamen is low. The caries filling rate of rural school-aged children is lower than that of urban school-aged children. The factors influencing caries filling rate are diverse. Therefore corresponding measures such as oral health education, periodic oral examination and dental caries filling in children should be taken to promote oral health of school-aged children in Xiamen.%目的:了解厦门市学龄儿童龋牙的修复状况及其影响因素,为开展学龄儿童龋病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:按照分层随机整群抽样方法选取厦门市城乡各2所小学,共824名患龋儿童为研究对象.调查内容包括口腔检查和问卷(儿童问卷和父母问卷)调查.按照WHO推荐的龋病流行病学调查方法进行口腔检查,记录各牙龋、失、补状况.所有数据经EpiData 3.0录入后,运用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果:824名患龋学龄儿童龋牙修复率为24.27%,影响学龄儿童龋牙修复的主要因素包括:家庭经济文化水平、口腔检查频率、患儿的恐惧心理、就诊时间和医疗费用等.结论:厦门市学龄儿童龋牙修复率较低,

  14. On stability of exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchuk, V D

    2016-01-01

    A (n+1)-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term and cosmological constant term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, the solutions with exponential dependence of scale factors: a_i \\sim \\exp{ ( v^i t) }, i =1, ..., n, are analysed for n > 3. We study the stability of the solutions with non-static volume factor, i.e. if K(v) = \\sum_{k = 1}^{n} v^k \

  15. The Use of Helmholtz Resonance for Measuring the Volume of Liquids and Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Davies

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was undertaken to ascertain the potential of using Helmholtz resonance for volume determination and the factors that may influence accuracy. The uses for a rapid non-interference volume measurement system range from agricultural produce and mineral sampling through to liquid fill measurements. By weighing the sample the density can also measured indirectly.

  16. The use of Helmholtz resonance for measuring the volume of liquids and solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emile S; Davies, Clive E

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to ascertain the potential of using Helmholtz resonance for volume determination and the factors that may influence accuracy. The uses for a rapid non-interference volume measurement system range from agricultural produce and mineral sampling through to liquid fill measurements. By weighing the sample the density can also measured indirectly.

  17. First third filling parameters of left ventricle assessed from gated equilibrium studies in patients with various heart diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adatepe, M.H.; Nichols, K.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors determined the first third filling fraction (1/3 FF), the maximum filling rate (1/3 FR) and the mean filling rate (1/3 MFR) for the first third diastolic filling period of the left ventricle in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), valvular heart disease (VHD), pericardial effusion (PE), cardiomyopathies (CM), chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and in 5 normals-all from resting gated equilibrium studies. Parameters are calculated from the third order Fourier fit to the LV volume curve and its derivative. 1/3 FF% = 1/3 diastolic count - end systolic count / 1/3 diastolic count x 100. Patients with CAD are divided into two groups: Group I with normal ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion (WM); Group II with abnormal EF and WM. Results are shown in the table. Abnormal filling parameters are found not only in CAD but in VHD, PE and CM. The authors conclude that the first third LV filling parameters are sensitive but non-specific indicators of filling abnormalities caused by diverse etiologic factors. Abnormal first third filling parameters may occur in the presence of a normal resting EF and WM in CAD.

  18. Risk factors associated with crash severity on low-volume rural roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    -volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...

  19. von Willebrand Factor and Prekallikrein in Plasma Are Associated With Thrombus Volume in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghulam, Qasam M; Bredahl, Kim K; Gram, Jørgen B;

    2016-01-01

    anticoagulant therapy, renal impairment, or nonappearance, thus leaving 30 patients for further analysis. All patients had computed tomography angiography, and intraluminal volume was quantified off-line by OsiriX 6.5. RESULTS: Median intraluminal thrombus volume was 42.7 mL. Spearman correlation analysis...

  20. Under Pressure: Intraluminal Filling Pressures of Postpartum Hemorrhage Tamponade Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Kathleen M; Racusin, Diana A; Belfort, Michael A; Dildy, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    Objective Uterine tamponade by fluid-filled balloons is now an accepted method of controlling postpartum hemorrhage. Available tamponade balloons vary in design and material, which affects the filling attributes and volume at which they rupture. We aimed to characterize the filling capacity and pressure-volume relationship of various tamponade balloons. Study Design Balloons were filled with water ex vivo. Intraluminal pressure was measured incrementally (every 10 mL for the Foley balloons and every 50 mL for all other balloons). Balloons were filled until they ruptured or until 5,000 mL was reached. Results The Foley balloons had higher intraluminal pressures than the larger-volume balloons. The intraluminal pressure of the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (gastric balloon) was initially high, but it decreased until shortly before rupture occurred. The Bakri intraluminal pressure steadily increased until rupture occurred at 2,850 mL. The condom catheter, BT-Cath, and ebb all had low intraluminal pressures. Both the BT-Cath and the ebb remained unruptured at 5,000 mL. Conclusion In the setting of acute hemorrhage, expeditious management is critical. Balloons that have a low intraluminal pressure-volume ratio may fill more rapidly, more easily, and to greater volumes. We found that the BT-Cath, the ebb, and the condom catheter all had low intraluminal pressures throughout filling.

  1. A transient, HEX-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors. Volume 2, Monte Carlo determination of discontinuity factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A.S.G.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    This document constitutes Volume 2 of the Final Report of a three- year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. Since the material content is entirely distinct from that of Volume 1, the present report is written as a stand-along document. The original motivation for the overall research effort was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor.

  2. Injury rates in martial art athletes: anthropometric parameters and training volume, but not foot morphology indexes, are predictive risk factors for lower limb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Bassani, Tito; Galbusera, Fabio; Bianchi, Alberto; Martinelli, Nicolò

    2017-09-22

    Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.

  3. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  4. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  5. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reese, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraum and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.

  6. Investigating Liquid Leak from Pre-Filled Syringes upon Needle Shield Removal: Effect of Air Bubble Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edwin; Maa, Yuh-Fun; Overcashier, David; Hsu, Chung C

    2011-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of headspace air pressure in pre-filled syringes on liquid leak (dripping) from the syringe needle upon needle shield removal. Drip tests to measure drip quantity were performed on syringes manually filled with 0.5 or 1.0 mL of various aqueous solutions. Parameters assessed included temperature (filling and test), bulk storage conditions (tank pressure and the type of the pressurized gas), solution composition (pure water, 0.9% sodium chloride, and a monoclonal antibody formulation), and testing procedures. A headspace pressure analyzer was used to verify the drip test method. Results suggested that leakage is indeed caused by headspace pressure increase, and the temperature effect (ideal gas expansion) is a major, but not the only, factor. The dissolved gases in the liquid bulk prior to or during filling may contribute to leakage, as these gases could be released into the headspace due to solubility changes (in response to test temperature and pressure conditions) and cause pressure increase. Needle shield removal procedures were found to cause dripping, but liquid composition played little role. Overall, paying attention to the processing history (pressure and temperature) of the liquid bulk is the key to minimize leakage. The headspace pressure could be reduced by decreasing liquid bulk storage pressure, filling at a higher temperature, or employing lower solubility gas (e.g., helium) for bulk transfer and storage. Leakage could also be mitigated by simply holding the syringe needle pointing upward during needle shield removal. Substantial advances in pre-filled syringe technology development, particularly in syringe filling accuracy, have been made. However, there are factors, as subtle as how the needle shield (or tip cap) is removed, that may affect dosing accuracy. We recently found that upon removal of the tip cap from a syringe held vertically with needle pointed downwards, a small amount of solution, up to 3-4% of

  7. On stable exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchuk, V. D.; Ernazarov, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    A (n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with cosmological constant and Gauss-Bonnet term is studied. The ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted and solutions with exponential dependence of scale factors: ai ∼ exp (vit), i = 1, …, n, are considered. The stability analysis of the solutions with non-static volume factor is presented. We show that the solutions with v 1 = v 2 = v 3 = H > 0 and small enough variation of the effective gravitational constant G are stable if certain restriction on (vi ) is obeyed. New examples of stable exponential solutions with zero variation of G in dimensions D = 1 + m + 2 with m > 2 are presented.

  8. Smoking as a risk factor for thyroid volume progression and incident goiter in a region with improved iodine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittermann, Till; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; John, Ulrich; Thamm, Michael; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry

    2008-12-01

    The role of smoking in the pathogenesis of thyroid enlargement is currently under debate. It has been hypothesized that the effect of smoking on increased thyroid volume is larger in regions with than in regions without iodine deficiency. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association of smoking with thyroid volume progression and incident goiter for different age-strata in a region with improved iodine supply. The population-based Study of Health in Pomerania compromised 3300 subjects with complete 5-year examination follow-up. Data from 2484 participants without known history of thyroid disorder or thyroid medication were analyzed. Thyroid size was evaluated by ultrasound. Determinants of thyroid volume progression and incident goiter, i.e., newly occurred goiter between baseline and follow-up, were analyzed by linear and logistic regression respectively. Participants aged 20-39 years who were current smokers at baseline and at follow-up had a lower risk of incident goiter (odds ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15; 0.71; P=0.005). In this subpopulation, age was inversely related to thyroid volume progression. In subjects aged 60-79 years, smoking at baseline and follow-up was a risk factor for thyroid volume progression (beta: 3.37; 95% CI: 0.84; 5.89; P=0.009). After exclusion of individuals who had actual goiter in ultrasound at baseline, this association disappeared. We conclude that the inverse association between smoking and goiter in young adults and the lacking association of smoking with goiter and thyroid volume progression in adult non-goitrous subjects indicate that smoking has a declining impact on thyroid growth in the study region. Our findings mirror the improved iodine supply of Northeast Germany.

  9. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  10. Risk factors responsible for the volume of hemorrhage in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preadmission DBP, multiple aneurysms, and aneurysms of the ACOA are associated with markedly increased volume of hemorrhage as evaluated by the revised Fisher grades. Thus, patients harboring an intracranial aneurysm having the above mentioned features should seek an early intervention in order to prevent the occurrence of aSAH.

  11. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

  12. Unmixing of Hyperspectral Images using Bayesian Non-negative Matrix Factorization with Volume Prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Larsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging can be used in assessing the quality of foods by decomposing the image into constituents such as protein, starch, and water. Observed data can be considered a mixture of underlying characteristic spectra (endmembers), and estimating the constituents and their abundances requ...... perform as good or better than existing volume constrained methods. Further, our method gives credible intervals for the endmembers and abundances, which allows us to asses the confidence of the results....

  13. Overweight Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Lung Volumes in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte G W Seijger

    Full Text Available In this large observational study population of 105 myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients, we investigate whether bodyweight is a contributor of total lung capacity (TLC independent of the impaired inspiratory muscle strength.Body composition was assessed using the combination of body mass index (BMI and fat-free mass index. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory muscle strength measurements were performed on the same day. Patients were stratified into normal (BMI < 25 kg/m(2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 groups. Multiple linear regression was used to find significant contributors for TLC.Overweight was present in 59% of patients, and body composition was abnormal in almost all patients. In overweight patients, TLC was significantly (p = 2.40×10(-3 decreased, compared with normal-weight patients, while inspiratory muscle strength was similar in both groups. The decrease in TLC in overweight patients was mainly due to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume (ERV further illustrated by a highly significant (p = 1.33×10(-10 correlation between BMI and ERV. Multiple linear regression showed that TLC can be predicted using only BMI and the forced inspiratory volume in 1 second, as these were the only significant contributors.This study shows that, in DM1 patients, overweight further reduces lung volumes, as does impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Additionally, body composition is abnormal in almost all DM1 patients.

  14. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericksen Mielle Borba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]. Methods: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results: MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion: The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Methods Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction. PMID:28101102

  16. Monitoring metal-fill in a lost foam casting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Arulanantham, Jeanison Pradeep; Dinwiddie, Ralph; Walford, Graham; Vondra, Fred

    2006-10-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC) process is emerging as a reliable casting method. The metal-fill profile in LFC plays an important role among several factors that affect casting quality. The metal-fill profile is in turn affected by several factors. Several casting defects may result due to an improper metal-fill process. Hence, it becomes essential to characterize and control, if possible, the metal-fill process in LFC. This research presents instrumentation and a technique to monitor and characterize the metal-fill process. The characterization included the determination of the position of the metal front and the profile in which the metal fills up the foam pattern. The instrumentation included capacitive sensors. Each sensor is comprised of two electrodes whose capacitive coupling changes as the metal fills the foam pattern. Foundry tests were conducted to obtain the sensors' responses to the metal fill. Two such sensors were used in the foundry tests. Data representing the responses of these sensors during the metal-fill process were collected using a data acquisition system. A number of finite element electrostatic simulations were carried out to study the metal-fill process under conditions similar to those experienced in foundry tests. An artificial neural network was trained using the simulation data as inputs and the corresponding metal-fill profiles as outputs. The neural network was then used to infer the profile of the metal-fill during foundry tests. The results were verified by comparing the metal-fill profile inferred from the neural network to the actual metal-fill profile captured by an infrared camera used during the foundry tests. The match up between the inferred profiles and the infrared camera measurements was satisfactory, indicating that the developed technique provides a reliable and cost effective method to monitor the metal-fill profile in LFC.

  17. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  18. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  19. Hybrid plasmonic microcavity with an air-filled gap for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Binbin; Wu, Genzhu; Chen, Daru

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity with air-filled regions in the low-permittivity dielectric gap is proposed for sensing applications. Compared with the conventional structure with homogeneous gap, the introduced air-filled regions could improve the key modal characteristics of the hybrid mode. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains low loss with high quality factor ∼3062, and high field confinement with small mode volume 0.891 μm3. Moreover, in the sensing applications, this hybrid microcavity features simultaneously large refractive index sensitivity of 100 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and relatively high quality factor of 3062. Hence, it shows that the hybrid plasmonic microcavity has potential applications in ultra-compact refractive index sensor.

  20. Simulating Smoke Filling in Big Halls by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tall halls of big space volume were built and, to be built in many construction projects in the Far East, particularly Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Smoke is identified to be the key hazard to handle. Consequently, smoke exhaust systems are specified in the fire code in those areas. An update on applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in smoke exhaust design will be presented in this paper. Key points to note in CFD simulations on smoke filling due to a fire in a big hall will be discussed. Mathematical aspects concerning of discretization of partial differential equations and algorithms for solving the velocity-pressure linked equations are briefly outlined. Results predicted by CFD with different free boundary conditions are compared with those on room fire tests. Standards on grid size, relaxation factors, convergence criteria, and false diffusion should be set up for numerical experiments with CFD.

  1. A transient, Hex-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors. Volume 1: The transient nodal code; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatilla, Y.A.M.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    This document constitutes Volume 1 of the Final Report of a three-year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. The original motivation for the work was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor. Thus, part of the funding was by way of pass-through money from the Savannah River Laboratory. With this intent in mind, a three-dimensional (Hex-Z), general-energy-group transient, nodal code was created, programmed, and tested. In order to improve accuracy, correction terms, called {open_quotes}discontinuity factors,{close_quotes} were incorporated into the nodal equations. Ideal values of these factors force the nodal equations to provide node-integrated reaction rates and leakage rates across nodal surfaces that match exactly those edited from a more exact reference calculation. Since the exact reference solution is needed to compute the ideal discontinuity factors, the fact that they result in exact nodal equations would be of little practical interest were it not that approximate discontinuity factors, found at a greatly reduced cost, often yield very accurate results. For example, for light-water reactors, discontinuity factors found from two-dimensional, fine-mesh, multigroup transport solutions for two-dimensional cuts of a fuel assembly provide very accurate predictions of three-dimensional, full-core power distributions. The present document (volume 1) deals primarily with the specification, programming and testing of the three-dimensional, Hex-Z computer program. The program solves both the static (eigenvalue) and transient, general-energy-group, nodal equations corrected by user-supplied discontinuity factors.

  2. 锪窝填充孔孔边角裂纹应力强度因子的有限元分析%Stress Intensity Factor Finite Element Analysis of Corner Crack at Rivet-filled Countersink Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠少威; 黄其青; 郭今; 谢伟

    2012-01-01

    对锪窝填充孔孔边角裂纹应力强度因子进行研究对提高结构安全性具有重要意义。根据飞机上常用的锪窝铆接典型结构,运用ANSYS软件对锪窝孔孔边角裂纹进行有限元分析,建立铆钉与锪窝孔接触模拟铆钉对锪窝孔的填充作用。计算得到含铆钉填充以及空孔时锪窝孔边不同裂纹尺寸下裂纹前缘的应力强度因子分布。对比分析结果表明:铆钉填充能显著降低锪窝孔边角裂纹的应力强度因子,提高结构寿命。%Reseach of stress intensity factor on corner crack at rivet-filled countersink hole is of important significance for improving the safety of structure. Countersunk riveted joints are commonly used in aircraft structures and are the principle structures sensitive to fatigue cracking. Corner cracks initiated from both sides of a rivetfilled countersunk hole and an open hole with no riveting were analyzed using ANSYS, a finite element analysis package, to obtain the stress intensity factors (SIFs) along the crack fronts. The results indicate that the river filled process can significantly reduce the SIF of the corner cracks of countersunk holes and thus enhance the fa tigue resistance.

  3. A computationally efficient depression-filling algorithm for digital elevation models, applied to proglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Constantijn J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Many processes govern the deglaciation of ice sheets. One of the processes that is usually ignored is the calving of ice in lakes that temporarily surround the ice sheet. In order to capture this process a "flood-fill algorithm" is needed. Here we present and evaluate several optimizations to a standard flood-fill algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. As an example, we determine the land-ocean mask for a 1 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of North America and Greenland, a geographical area of roughly 7000 by 5000 km (roughly 35 million elements), about half of which is covered by ocean. Determining the land-ocean mask with our improved flood-fill algorithm reduces computation time by 90 % relative to using a standard stack-based flood-fill algorithm. This implies that it is now feasible to include the calving of ice in lakes as a dynamical process inside an ice-sheet model. We demonstrate this by using bedrock elevation, ice thickness and geoid perturbation fields from the output of a coupled ice-sheet-sea-level equation model at 30 000 years before present and determine the extent of Lake Agassiz, using both the standard and improved versions of the flood-fill algorithm. We show that several optimizations to the flood-fill algorithm used for filling a depression up to a water level, which is not defined beforehand, decrease the computation time by up to 99 %. The resulting reduction in computation time allows determination of the extent and volume of depressions in a DEM over large geographical grids or repeatedly over long periods of time, where computation time might otherwise be a limiting factor. The algorithm can be used for all glaciological and hydrological models, which need to trace the evolution over time of lakes or drainage basins in general.

  4. Three dimensional ultrasonography for advanced neurosonography (Neurosofe-3d). Analysis of acquisition-related factors influencing the quality of the brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Nerea; Alonso, Ignacio; Belar, María; Burgos, Jorge; Irasarri, Ana; Molina, Francisca S; de Paco, Catalina; Pijoan, José I; Plasencia, Walter; Rodó, Carlota; Rodríguez, M Angeles; Tajada, Mauricio; Tubau, Albert

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the acquisition-related factors influencing the quality of the brain volumes for further study of advanced neurosonography. This was a prospective multicentre study. Five centres were asked to include five cases each, acquiring two volumes per case, at different gestational ages. Ten operators performed an advanced neurosonography per case. The potential influence of the following factors on the number of evaluable structures was assessed: vaginal/ abdominal acquisition, position of the head, gestational age, subjective quality of the volume and the acquiring operator itself. Four hundred and thirty-two evaluations were included in the study. A total of 80% of the structures were evaluated satisfactorily in the axial plane, 67.1% and 55.1% in the coronal and sagittal plane, respectively. Sagittal volumes acquired transvaginally had a better quality than those acquired transabdominally. Gestational age affected the quality of axial and sagittal volumes (p < 0.001), and the best quality was obtained between 20 and 27 weeks. In axial and sagittal volumes, the head position influenced the percentage of structures visualized (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Factors affecting the quality of the volume for advanced neurosonography are gestational age, fetal head position, transvaginal acquisition in sagittal volumes, the acquiring operator and the subjective quality of the volume. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  6. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, C., E-mail: christoph.karlo@usz.c [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Reiner, C.S.; Stolzmann, P. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Breitenstein, S. [Department of Visceral Surgery, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland); Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, D. [Institute for Radiology and Radiodiagnostics, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, T. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  7. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Training and organizational analysis. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of system-user interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present work focuses solely on training and qualifications of personnel (e.g., training received before and during employment), and the potential impact of organizational factors on the performance of teletherapy. Organizational factors include such topics as adequacy of staffing, performance evaluations, commonly occurring errors, implementation of quality assurance programs, and organizational climate.

  8. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    Since the crisis-engrossed 1970s, and especially the 1990s, ‘governance’ has become a dominant concern and concept; notably, within particularly political science, a certain diagnosis explicitly or implicitly focused on a shift ‘from government to governance’ has become increasingly popular....... This study examines the governance phenomenon of the post-1970/1990s period from a state-situated and historically informed perspective. Specifically, taking initial analytical departure in an approach of the early 1970s associated with James O’Connor, Jürgen Habermas and Claus Offe focused...... on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  9. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  10. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  11. Multichannel one-to-two transition form factors in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A; Walker-Loud, André

    2014-01-01

    We perform a model-independent, non-perturbative investigation of two-point and three-point finite-volume correlation functions in the energy regime where two-particle states can go on-shell. We study three-point functions involving a single incoming particle and an outgoing two-particle state, relevant, for example, for studies of meson decays (e.g., B-to-pi Kll) or meson photo production (e.g., pi gamma-to-pi pi). We observe that, while the spectrum solely depends upon the on-shell scattering amplitude, the correlation functions also depend upon off-shell amplitudes. The main result of this work is a non-perturbative generalization of the Lellouch-Luscher formula relating matrix elements of currents in finite and infinite spatial volumes. We extend that work by considering a theory with multiple, strongly-coupled channels and by accommodating external currents which inject arbitrary four-momentum as well as arbitrary angular-momentum. The result is exact up to exponential corrections governed by mpi L. We p...

  12. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  13. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lauxen Peruzzolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder. We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD.

  14. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauxen Peruzzolo, Tatiana; Anes, Mauricio; Kohmann, Andre de Moura; Souza, Ana Claudia Mércio Loredo; Rodrigues, Ramiro Borges; Brun, Juliana Basso; Peters, Roberta; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Kapczinski, Flavio; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Zeni, Cristian Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder). We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm(3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD.

  15. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  16. 3D Ultrasound Reconstruction of Spinal Images using an Improved Olympic Hole-Filling Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, D.E.O.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Mengko, T.L.R.; Purnama, I.K.E.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Maurits, N.M.; Verkerke, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new Hole-filling algorithm by improving the Olympic operator, and we also apply it to generate the volume in our freehand 3D ultrasound reconstruction of the spine. First, the ultrasound frames and position information are compounded into a 3D volume using the Bin-filling method. Then,

  17. The eruption, pyroclastic flow behaviour, and caldera in-filling processes of the extremely large volume (> 1290 km3), intra- to extra-caldera, Permian Ora (Ignimbrite) Formation, Southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcock, M. A. W.; Cas, R. A. F.; Giordano, G.; Morelli, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Permian Ora Formation (277-274 Ma) preserves the products of the Ora caldera 'super-eruption', Northern Italy. The stratigraphic architecture of the exceptionally well preserved intra-caldera succession provides evidence for caldera collapse at the onset of the eruption, a multiple discharge point, fissure eruption style, and progressive, incremental caldera in-filling by numerous pyroclastic flow pulses within the caldera. The ignimbrites of the Ora Formation are voluminous (> 1290 km3), crystal-rich (~ 25 to 55%), and ubiquitously welded. The Ora Formation has been divided into four members (a-d), which also define the principal eruption phases. The eruption proceeded in four main stages: (1) early caldera collapse and vent opening, producing locally distributed, basal co-ignimbrite lithic breccia (member a); (2) vent clearing, which produced the eutaxitic, lithic-rich ignimbrite and minor thin ground and ash-cloud surge deposits (member b); (3) waxing and steady eruption, which produced the dominant eutaxitic, coarse-crystal-rich ignimbrite, with local lithic-rich and fine-crystal-rich ignimbrite and minor surge deposits (member c); and (4) waning eruption, recorded by the eutaxitic, fine-crystal-rich ignimbrite, with local lithic-rich ignimbrite deposits (member d).

  18. On stability of exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A (n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term and a cosmological constant term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, the solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors, a{sub i} ∝ exp(v{sup i}t), i = 1,.., n, are analyzed for n > 3. We study the stability of the solutions with non-static volume factor, i.e. K(v) = sum {sub k=1}{sup n} v{sup k} ≠ 0. We prove that under a certain restriction R imposed solutions with K(v) > 0 are stable, while solutions with K(v) < 0 are unstable. Certain examples of stable solutions are presented. We show that the solutions with v{sup 1} = v{sup 2} = v{sup 3} = H > 0 and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant are stable if the restriction R is obeyed. (orig.)

  19. Training volume and body composition as risk factors for developing jumper's knee among young elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnes, H; Bahr, R

    2013-10-01

    Training volume and body composition have been suggested as risk factors for jumper's knee among athletic youth, but research is lacking. The aim of this 4-year prospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between training and competition load, body composition, and risk for developing jumper's knee. Participants are elite volleyball players, aged 16-18 years. Training and competition load was recorded continuously and body composition semiannually. Jumper's knee was diagnosed on a standardized clinical examination. We recruited 141 healthy students (69 males and 72 females), and 28 developed jumper's knee (22 boys and six girls). In a multivariate analyses, boys had three to four times higher risk compared with girls. Volleyball training had an odds ratio (OR) 1.72 (1.18-2.53) for every extra hour trained, and match exposure was the strongest sports-related predictor for developing jumper's knee with an OR of 3.88 (1.80-8.40) for every extra set played per week. We did not detect any significant differences between the groups in body composition at the time of inclusion or in the change of body composition during the study period. Conclusion, male gender, a high volume of volleyball training and match exposure were risk factors for developing jumper's knee. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of two filling methods in vertical centrifugal casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shi-ping; LI Chang-yun; GUO Jing-jie; SU Yan-qing; LEI Xiu-qiao; FU Heng-zhi

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of the centrifugal filling process was established. The calculated results show that the centrifugal field has an important influence on the filling process. Moreover, the process of liquid flow and the location of free surface in sprue were simulated based on the Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fraction (SOLA-VOF) technique. In order to verify the mathematical model and computational results, hydraulic simulation experiment was carried out. The results of experiments and numerical simulation indicate the accuracy of mathematical model. Two kinds of filling methods were investigated and the results show that the bottom filling is better than the top filling that can achieve stable filling and reduce defects.

  1. INFLUENCE OF FILLING WATER ON AIR CONCENTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hua; MA Fei; DAI Hui-chao

    2011-01-01

    The filling water inside the cavity below an aerator occurs for the flow of low Froude number or the small bottom slope of a spillway.The aerator may cease to protect against cavitation damages,and may even act as a generator of cavitation if it is fully filled by water.The experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of the geometric parameters,and then the filling water on the air concentration.The results show that the filling water,or the net cavity length,is closely related to the plunging jet length for a given aerator,and the air concentration at some section is proportional to the ratio Ln/Lj at a fixed Lj for different geometric parameters of aerators.Secondly,at the same ratio of Ln / Lj,the aerator with a larger height or a larger angle of ramp,or a larger bottom slope,would have a larger plunging jet length,and then a larger net cavity length based on the ratio of Ln / Lj.As a result,the large space of cavity,or the high air concentration of the flow could be obtained although the filling water increases also based on the fact that Lf=Lj- Ln.It is the space of the cavity that is the dominant factor to affect the air concentration of the flow.

  2. [Atrial filling fraction predicts left ventricular systolic function after myocardial infarction: pre-discharge echocardiographic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, M; Fakher, A; Petrocelli, A; Alfieri, A; Garofalo, M; de Divitiis, O

    1995-10-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the relation between Doppler-derived indices of left ventricular diastolic and systolic function early after myocardial infarction. Fifty-three patients (31 males, 22 females) recovering from acute myocardial infarction underwent predischarge Doppler echocardiographic examination. Patients with age > 70 years, previous myocardial infarction, more than mild mitral and aortic regurgitation, mitral and aortic stenosis were excluded. Twenty-two healthy subjects (13 males; 9 females) free of coronary risk factors were selected as the control group. Both end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and ejection fraction were measured by two-dimensional echocardiography. Pulsed Doppler was used to evaluate mitral inflow and left ventricular outflow velocity patterns. The following indices were measured: peak velocity of early (E) and late (A) flows, ratio of E/A peak velocities, ratio of early to late time velocity integrals, atrial filling fraction (time velocity integral A / time velocity integral of flow during total diastole) and deceleration time of E wave for mitral inflow; peak and time-velocity integral for left ventricular outflow. Stroke volume and cardiac output were obtained by pulsed Doppler using the left ventricular outflow method. The two groups were comparable for age, with blood pressure (p volumes were significantly higher (both p volume and cardiac output (both p volumes, atrial filling fraction was an independent predictor of stroke volume, with a direct relation (beta coefficient = 0.53, p volume indicates the importance of atrial contribution to maintain an adequate systolic performance in patients with myocardial infarction.

  3. Bayesian Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with Volume Prior for Unmixing of Hyperspectral Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In hyperspectral image analysis the objective is to unmix a set of acquired pixels into pure spectral signatures (endmembers) and corresponding fractional abundances. The Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) methods have received a lot of attention for this unmixing process. Many of these NMF...

  4. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  5. Safe use of mine winding rope, volume 2: recommendations for changes in rope safety factors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The steering committee on factors of safety of winder ropes has appointed a working group to draw up a set of proposals for changing the regulations governing the required rope strength in the Minerals Act. Certain research projects have been...

  6. DOT/FAA Human Factors Workshop on AVIATION. Transcript. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    for the Controller. Human factors considerations form an important part of the development of new electronic data displays, such as ETABS and the...system. As new functions are designed and made a part of the ATC system software , the methods for displaying data to the controller must be carefully...evaluated. Examples of new software functions which will require an optimally designed man/machine interface are en route metering, terminal metering and

  7. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  8. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  9. Correlation between psychological factors and the cerebellar volume of normal young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Soon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la relación entre el volumen del cerebelo de adultos normales en la tercera década de la vida (20-29 años y varios factores psicológicos. El volumen del cerebelo de 118 sujetos (media de edad 23 ± 2,6 años, incluyendo 58 varones (media de edad 24 ± 2,8 años y 60 mujeres (media de edad, 21,9 ± 2,1 años, fue medido utilizando la imagen por resonancia magnética (IRM. Todos los participantes completaron los siguientes tests: Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas (SCL-90-R, Cuestionario de Personalidad de Tipo A, El cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado Korean YZ, El Cuestionario de 16 Factores de la Personalidad (16PF, y la Escala Autoadministrada de Depresión (EAD. Utilizando regresión linear, se analizó la relación entre el volumen del cerebelo y factores psicológicos. Sin considerar las diferencias entre géneros, en cuanto crecía la tendencia hacia la personalidad tipo A y se incrementaba el estado de ansiedad y la fuerza del superego, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo. Cuando se incrementaba la fuerza del ego, se incrementaba el volumen del cerebelo. Cuando se consideraban las diferencias de género, cuando incrementaba la ansiedad fóbica y ambición en varones, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo. En mujeres, cuando incrementaba la hostilidad, tensión y la ansiedad estado, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo.

  10. Baseline metabolic tumour volume is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, Salim; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Dygai-Cochet, Inna; Cochet, Alexandre; Humbert, Olivier; Toubeau, Michel; Brunotte, Francois [Centre G.F. Leclerc, Medecine nucleaire, Dijon (France); Rossi, Cedric; Ferrant, Emmanuelle [Hopital Le Bocage - CHU Dijon, Hematologie Clinique, Dijon Cedex (France); Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Hopital Le Bocage - CHU Dijon, Hematologie Clinique, Dijon Cedex (France); Universite de Bourgogne, Inserm U866, Labex team, Faculte de medecine, Dijon (France)

    2014-09-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a predictor of a poor outcome. The total metabolic tumour volume at baseline (TMTV0) computed on PET may improve the evaluation of tumour burden. To explore the clinical usefulness of TMTV0, we compared the prognostic value of TMTV0, tumour bulk and interim PET response in a retrospective single-centre study. From 2007 to 2010, 59 consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of HL were treated in our institution. PET was done at baseline (PET0) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (PET2), and treatment was not modified according to the PET2 result. TMTV0 was measured with a semiautomatic method using a 41 % SUVmax threshold. SUVmax reduction between PET0 and PET2 (ΔSUVmaxPET0-2) was also computed. Based on ROC analysis, patients with a ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 >71 % were considered good responders and a TMTV0 >225 ml was considered to represent hypermetabolic bulky disease. Median TMTV0 was 117 ml and 17 patients (29 %) had a TMTV0 >225 ml. TMTV0 (>225 ml vs. ≤225 ml) and tumour bulk (<10 cm vs. ≥10 cm) were predictive of 4-year PFS: 42 % vs. 85 % (p = 0.001) and 44 % vs. 79 % (p < 0.03), respectively. In multivariate analysis, using ΔSUVmaxPET0-2, TMTV0 and bulky tumour as covariates, only ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 (p = 0.0005, RR 6.3) and TMTV0 (p < 0.006, RR 4.4) remained independent predictors of PFS. Three prognosis groups were thus identified: ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 >71 % and TMTV0 ≤225 ml (n = 37, 63 %), ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 = <71 % or TMTV0 >225 ml (n = 17, 29 %), and ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 = <71 % and TMTV0 >225 ml (n = 5, 8 %). In these three groups the 4-year PFS rates were 92 %, 49 %, and 20 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. TMTV0 is more relevant than tumour bulk for predicting the outcome in patients with HL, and adds a significant prognostic insight to interim PET response assessment. The combination of TMTV0 and ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 made it possible to identify three subsets of HL patients with different outcomes. This may

  11. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Volume 2, Function and task analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Gwynne, J.W. III; Kelly, T.T.; Muckler, F.A. [Pacific Science and Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States); Saunders, W.M.; Lepage, R.P.; Chin, E. [University of California San Diego Medical Center, CA (United States). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Schoenfeld, I.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-05-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the first phase of the project, which involved an extensive function and task analysis of RAB. This analysis identified the functions and tasks in RAB, made preliminary estimates of the likelihood of human error in each task, and determined the skills needed to perform each RAB task. The findings of the function and task analysis served as the foundation for the remainder of the project, which evaluated four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training and qualifications of RAB staff; and organizational practices and policies. At its completion, the project identified and prioritized areas for recommended NRC and industry attention based on all of the evaluations and analyses.

  12. Hydrogen gas filling into an actual tank at high pressure and optimization of its thermal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Tawhidul Islam; Monde, Masanori; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2009-09-01

    Gas with high pressure is widely used at present as fuel storage mode for different hydrogen vehicles. Different types of materials are used for constructing these hydrogen pressure vessels. An aluminum lined vessel and typically carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials are commercially used in hydrogen vessels. An aluminum lined vessel is easy to construct and posses high thermal conductivity compared to other commercially available vessels. However, compared to CFRP lined vessel, it has low strength capacity and safety factors. Therefore, nowadays, CFRP lined vessels are becoming more popular in hydrogen vehicles. Moreover, CFRP lined vessel has an advantage of light weight. CFRP, although, has many desirable properties in reducing the weight and in increasing the strength, it is also necessary to keep the material temperature below 85 °C for maintaining stringent safety requirements. While filling process occurs, the temperature can be exceeded due to the compression works of the gas flow. Therefore, it is very important to optimize the hydrogen filling system to avoid the crossing of the critical limit of the temperature rise. Computer-aided simulation has been conducted to characterize the hydrogen filling to optimize the technique. Three types of hydrogen vessels with different volumes have been analyzed for optimizing the charging characteristics of hydrogen to test vessels. Gas temperatures are measured inside representative vessels in the supply reservoirs (H2 storages) and at the inlet to the test tank during filling.

  13. Medication safety: Filling your prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines. Also learn what each medicine looks like. Filling Your Prescriptions Your health plan may require you to use certain pharmacies. ... standards. The website should have clear directions for filling or ... seeing you. Make sure your health plan will cover the cost of using the ...

  14. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  15. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  16. Long-term effects of large-volume liposuction on metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, B Selma; Cohen, Samuel; Reeds, Dominic; Young, V Leroy; Klein, Samuel

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Although we previously found that using liposuction surgery to remove abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) did not result in metabolic benefits, it is possible that postoperative inflammation masked the beneficial effects. Therefore, this study provides a long-term evaluation of a cohort of subjects from our original study. Body composition and metabolic risk factors for CHD, including oral glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, and blood pressure were evaluated in seven obese (39 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) women before and at 10, 27, and 84-208 weeks after large-volume liposuction. Liposuction surgery removed 9.4 +/- 1.8 kg of body fat (16 +/- 2% of total fat mass; 6.1 +/- 1.4 kg decrease in body weight), primarily from abdominal SAT; body composition and weight remained the same from 10 through 84-208 weeks. Metabolic endpoints (oral glucose tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure and plasma triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations) obtained at 10 through 208 weeks were not different from baseline and did not change over time. These data demonstrate that removal of a large amount of abdominal SAT by using liposuction does not improve CHD metabolic risk factors associated with abdominal obesity, despite a long-term reduction in body fat.

  17. Gray matter volume in adolescent anxiety: an impact of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val(66)Met polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2013-02-01

    Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val(66)Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Using voxel-based morphometry and magnetic resonance imaging, associations of BDNF and clinical anxiety with regional GMVs of anterior cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus were examined in 39 affected (17 Met allele carriers, 22 Val/Val homozygotes) and 63 nonaffected adolescents (27 [corrected] Met allele carriers, 36 [corrected] Val/Val homozygotes). Amygdala and anterior hippocampal GMVs were significantly smaller in patients than in healthy comparison adolescents, with a reverse pattern for the insula. Post-hoc regression analyses indicated a specific contribution of social phobia to the GMV reductions in the amygdala and hippocampus. In addition, insula and dorsal-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GMVs were modulated by BDNF genotype. In both regions, and GMVs were larger in the Val/Val homozygote patients than in individuals carrying the Met allele. These results implicate reduced GMV in the amygdala and hippocampus in pediatric anxiety, particularly social phobia. In addition, the data suggest that genetic factors may modulate differences in the insula and dorsal ACC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Grey Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val66Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method Using voxel-based morphometry and magnetic resonance imaging, associations of BDNF and clinical anxiety with regional GMVs of anterior cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus were examined in 39 affected (17 Met allele carriers, 22 Val/Val homozygotes) and 63 nonaffected adolescents (27 Met allele carriers, 36 Val/Val homozygotes). Results Amygdala and anterior hippocampal GMVs were significantly smaller in patients than healthy adolescents, with a reverse pattern for the insula. Post-hoc regression analyses indicated a specific contribution of social phobia to the GMV reductions in the amygdala and hippocampus. Additionally, insula and dorsal– anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GMVs were modulated by BDNF genotype. In both regions, GMVs were larger in the Val/Val homozygote patients than in those carrying the Met allele. Conclusions These results implicate reduced GMV in the amygdala and hippocampus in pediatric anxiety, particularly social phobia. In addition, the data suggest that genetic factors may modulate differences in the insula and dorsal ACC. PMID:23357445

  19. Strong optomechanical coupling in a slotted photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with an ultrahigh quality factor-to-mode volume ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal cavity in which a central slot is used to enhance the overlap between highly localized optical and mechanical modes. The optical mode has an extremely small mode volume of 0.017 $(\\lambda_{vac}/n)^3$, and an optomechanical vacuum coupling rate of 310 kHz is measured. With optical quality factors up to $1.2 \\cdot 10^5$, fabricated devices are in the resolved-sideband regime. The electric field has its maximum at the slot wall and couples to the in-plane breathing motion of the slot. The optomechanical coupling is thus dominated by the moving-boundary effect, which we simulate to be six times greater than the photoelastic effect, in contrast to most structures, where the photoelastic effect is often the primary coupling mechanism.

  20. A carbon nanotube filled polydimethylsiloxane hybrid membrane for enhanced butanol recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Du, Guang-Qing; Chen, Li-Jie; Ren, Jian-Gang; Sun, Jian-Xin; Bai, Feng-Wu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid membrane was fabricated to evaluate its potential for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth. Compared with the homogeneous PDMS membrane, the CNTs filled into the PDMS membrane were beneficial for the improvement of butanol recovery in butanol flux and separation factor. The CNTs acting as sorption-active sites with super hydrophobicity could give an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface. The maximum total flux and butanol separation factor reached up to 244.3 g/m2·h and 32.9, respectively, when the PDMS membrane filled with 10 wt% CNTs was used to separate butanol from the butanol/water solution at 80°C. In addition, the butanol flux and separation factor increased dramatically as temperature increased from 30°C to 80°C in feed solution since the higher temperature produced more free volumes in polymer chains to facilitate butanol permeation. A similar increase was also observed when butanol titer in solution increased from 10 g/L to 25 g/L. Overall, the CNTs/PDMS hybrid membrane with higher butanol flux and selectivity should have good potential for pervaporation separation of butanol from ABE fermentation broth. PMID:25081019

  1. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  3. Influence of mild hypothermia on vascular endothelial growth factor and infarct volume in brain tissues after cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Ye; Gangming Xi; Biyong Qin; Shifeng Wang; Chengyan Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that mild hypothermia has obvious protective effect on both whole and local cerebral ischemia. However, the definite mechanism is still unclear for the brain protection of mild hypothermia on cerebral edema, inhibiting inflammatory reaction, stabilizing blood brain barrier, etc.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the infarct volume after cerebral ischemia in rats, and analyze the brain protective mechanism of mild hypothermia.DESIGN: A randomized grouping and controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Twenty adult male SD rats of clean degree, weighing (250±30) g, were provided by the animal experimental center, School of Medicine, Wuhan University. The kits for SP immunohistochemistry were purchased from Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Department of Neurology, Renmen Hospital of Wuhan University from May to July 2005. ① The 20 rats were divided randomly into normal temperature group (n =10) and mild hypothermia group (n =10). Models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were established with modified nylon suture embolization. The rats were assessed with the Longa standards: O point for without nerve dysfunction; 1 for mild neurological deficit (fore claws could no extend completely); 2 for moderate neurological deficit (circling towards the affected side); 3 for severe neurological deficit (tilting towards the affected side); 4 for coma and unconscious; 1 -3 points represented that models were successfully established. The rats of the normal temperature group were fed at room temperature, and those in the mild hypothermia group were induced by hypothermia from 2 hours postoperatively, and the rectal temperature was kept at 34-35 ℃ for 72 hours. ② Measurement of infarct volume

  4. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie, S.; de Weert, T. T.; de Monyé, C.; Homburg, P. J.; Tanghe, H L J; Dippel, D W J; van der Lugt, A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic a...

  5. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Models and form factors for stand volume estimation in natural forest ecosystems: a case study of Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KGWS),Bahraich District, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.J Adekunle; K.N.Nair; A.K.Srivastava; N.K.Singh

    2013-01-01

    In view of the difficulties in stand volume estimation in natural forests,we derived real form factors and models for volume estimation in these types of forest ecosystems,using Katamiaghat Wildlife Sanctuary as a case study.Tree growth data were obtained for all trees (dbh >10 cm) in 4 plots (25 × 25 m) randomly located in each of three strata selected in the forest.The form factor calculated for the stand was 0.42 and a range of 0.42-0.57 was estimated for selected species (density >10).The parameters of model variables were consistent with general growth trends of trees and each was statistically significant.There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the observed and predicted volumes for all models and there was very high correlation between observed and predicted volumes.The output of the performance statistics and the logical signs of the regression coefficients of the models demonstrated that they are useful for volume estimation with minimal error.Plotting the biases with respect to considerable regressor variables showed no meaningful and evident trend of bias values along with the independent variables.This showed that the models did not violate regression assumptions and there were no heteroscedacity or multiculnarity problems.We recommend use of the form factors and models in this ecosystem and in similar ones for stand and tree volume estimation.

  7. Hospital Volume and Other Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality among Diverticulitis Patients: A Nationwide Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Diamant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that a higher volume of colorectal surgery was associated with lower mortality rates. While diverticulitis is an increasingly common condition, the effect of hospital volume on outcomes among diverticulitis patients is unknown.

  8. Safety Injection System Filling Using Dynamic Venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Je; Kim, Wong Bae; Huh, Jin; Lee, Joo Hee; Im, In Young; Kim, Eun kee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the APR+, the water-level elevation of the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) is lower than the highest piping of the SIS. Since the gravity filling of water from IRWST cannot fill all SIS piping, an SIP or an SCP test line is newly provided in order to allow the dynamic venting of the SIS. NEI 09-10 Revision 1a-A has concluded that use of dynamic venting is an effective means to remove gas from local high points and traps in piping when correctly based on the dynamic flow rate, void volume, Floude number, and the system water volume. In this study, feasibility of the dynamic vent is investigated. The work presented in this study evaluates the SIS and the SCS filling using the dynamic venting which is supposed to be applied to the APR+. The main ideas are as follows; 1. Dynamic venting using SIPs for the APR+ is not appropriate on the basis of 12 inches in diameter and with the flow rate, 1,460 gpm. 2. Because the high point of the SIS and the SCS is located at the piping that the two systems are sharing, the accumulated gas at the highest point can be removed by using the SCPs, and the dimension of the new piping will be determined by its length of them and the number of elbows. The calculated results are shown in Table 2. 3. The applicability of the dynamic venting methods using the SCPs that are mentioned above should be evaluated in the aspect of the system operation after the piping arrangements are settled in the APR+. The assessments to determine the pump operation time are also required.

  9. High-volume hemofiltration reduces the expression of myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha in septic shock pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Ping; Cheng, Xiuju; Chen, Jianghua

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in myocardium correlates with the severity of cardiac dysfunction in septic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the expression of TNF-α in myocardium in septic shock pigs. Sixteen male Landrace pigs weighing 31 ± 5 kg were randomly assigned to control group (n = 4), septic shock group (n = 6), and HVHF group (septic shock + HVHF, n = 6). All animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. After baseline examinations, septic shock group and HVHF group underwent induction of peritonitis. One hour later, the animals in HVHF group received treatment with HVHF and the treatment was continued for 12 h. As the control of HVHF group, the animals in septic shock group received the same support but hemofiltration. Twelve hours after HVHF therapy, all the animals were sacrificed. TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) levels in both circulation and myocardium were measured. Compared with those of septic shock animals, the levels of cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean arterial pressure were better maintained in HVHF group. The expression of TNF-α in myocardium in HVHF group was lower than that in septic shock group (44.17 ± 18.70 vs. 92.50 ± 33.89 pg/mg protein, P = 0.015). The difference of TNF-α in circulation between HVHF group and septic shock group was no significance at different time. However, circulating NO in HVHF group was lower than that in septic shock group. These results suggest that HVHF improves hemodynamics and heart dysfunction in septic shock pigs, which may be attributed to reduction of TNF-α in myocardium but not in circulation.

  10. Evaluation of the mold-filling ability of alloy melt in squeeze casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mold-filling ability of alloy melt in squeeze casting process was evaluated by means of the maximum length of Archimedes spiral line. A theoretical evaluating model to predict the maximum filling length was built based on the flowing theory of the incompressible viscous fluid. It was proved by experiments and calculations that the mold-filling pressure and velocity are prominent influencing factors on the mold-filling ability of alloy melt. The mold-filling ability increases with the increase of the mold-filling pressure and the decrease of the proper mold-filling velocity. Moreover, the pouring temperature relatively has less effect on the mold-filling ability under the experimental conditions. The maximum deviation of theoretical calculating values with experimental results is less than 15%. The model can quantitatively estimate the effect of every factor on the mold-filling ability.

  11. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  12. Gas-filled double glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goesele, K.; Schuele, W.; Lakatos, B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the results of experiments the sonar and thermal properties of insulated double glazing filled with gas are tested. The sound insulation properties of double glazing can be improved by introducing a gas of a heavy specific weight, such as CO/sub 2/ or SF/sub 6/ into the hollow space. Even gases with a light specific weight produce an improvement in sound insulation; light gases diffuse outwards much more rapidly, however, and can thus be eliminated for practical purposes. The combination of a gas-filled space between the panes and the use of sufficiently heavy compound panes were tested. The thermal properties of insulated double glazing filled with specifically heavy gas gave favourable results with a lower heat transition coefficient. The use of gas to fill double glazing has a particularly favourable effect if the panes are given a heat-reflecting coating in synthetic frames.

  13. Evacuation from smoke filled corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, E.W.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Oerle, N.J. van

    1998-01-01

    underpinning compartmentation requirements in the Dutch regulations is that people can and will go through 30 m of smoke filled space. The hypothesis leads to the requirement that corridors are divided in compartments with a maximum length of 30 meters.

  14. Treatment Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Pulmonary Metastasectomy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcoma: a High Volume Academic Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozheng KANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The bone and soft tissue sarcoma can metastasize to distant sites, most commonly the lungs. Some cases can be cured by radical metastasectomy, but its role, indication and prognostic factors remains controversial. The rarity of the disease combined with the diverse number of subtypes can make bone and soft tissue sarcomas very difficult to study. There are few randomized control studies or international high volume results, and such reports in China are seldom seen. The aim of this study is to investigate surgical treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of pulmonary metastatic bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients. Methods From January 2007 to December 2015, patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma who underwent multimodality therapy including definitive surgery for the primary lesion and at least one pulmonary metastasectomy were enrolled in the retrospective study. All the relevant clinical variables were collected, and then statistically analyzed and interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression method. Results Totally 155 pulmonary metastasectomies in 144 patients were analyzed. Incomplete R0 resection, a less than 1-year interval from a previous surgery, more than three detected nodules; and the summed maximum diameter of more than 45 mm for pulmonary metastases were independent prognostic indicators by multivariate analysis. Conclusion We suggest that metastatic bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients can benefit most from aggressive surgical intervention of pulmonary metastasectomy. Its prognostic factors include R0 resection, a longer interval from a previous surgery, smaller total number and total size of pulmonary metastases.

  15. Effect of volume expansion with 6% hydroxyethyl starch on perioperative hemodynamics and inflammatory factors in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Wen Zhao; Xing-Chang Zhao; Yong-Guo Cui; De-Chao Lu; Jian-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of volume expansion with 6% hydroxyethyl starch on perioperative hemodynamics and inflammatory factors in patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods:A total of 82 cases of traumatic brain injury from January 2011 to June 2016 in our hospital were randomly divided into the observation group with injection of 6% hydroxyethyl starch and the control group with injection of compound sodium lactate, 41 cases in each group. Hemodynamics, TNF-α and IL-6 were detected in before induction of anesthesia (T0), before skull plate (T1), after skull plate 5 min (T2), 15 min (T3), 30 min (T4).Results:There were no significant differences in CVP, MAP and HR between the two groups at T0 time (P>0.05); HR of the two groups of patients were significantly increased (P0.05); The MAP of the two groups began to decrease significantly at T1, but the observation group was significantly lower than the control group (P0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05); After operation, the control group of TNF- and IL-6 were significantly higher, and higher than the same period of observation group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:Using 6% hydroxyethyl starch preloading craniocerebral trauma patients is helpful to maintain the perioperative hemodynamic stability, reduce the level of inflammatory factors, which is worthy of reference.

  16. Multi-region unstructured volume segmentation using tetrahedron filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willliams, Sean Jamerson [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thoma, Dan J [MDI, INSTITUTES; Hlawitschka, Mario [UC DAVIS; Hamann, Bernd [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation is one of the most common operations in image processing, and while there are several solutions already present in the literature, they each have their own benefits and drawbacks that make them well-suited for some types of data and not for others. We focus on the problem of breaking an image into multiple regions in a single segmentation pass, while supporting both voxel and scattered point data. To solve this problem, we begin with a set of potential boundary points and use a Delaunay triangulation to complete the boundaries. We use heuristic- and interaction-driven Voronoi clustering to find reasonable groupings of tetrahedra. Apart from the computation of the Delaunay triangulation, our algorithm has linear time complexity with respect to the number of tetrahedra.

  17. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...

  18. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  19. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triolo, A.; Lechner, R.E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J. [CNR - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sez. Messina, Via La Farina 237, 98123 Messina (Italy); Lo Celso, F.; Triolo, R. [Dip. Chimica Fisica, V. le delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans, Padiglione 17, Universita di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Negroni, F. [Pirelli Pneumatici S.p.A, V. le Sarca 222, 20126 Milano (Italy); Arrighi, V.; Qian, H. [Chemistry School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Frick, B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2002-07-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  20. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  1. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  2. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  3. Wear behaviour of epoxy resin filled with hard powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Minutolo, F. Capece; Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Langella, A.

    2016-10-01

    The development of high performance materials based on epoxy resin finds a growing number of applications in which high wear resistance is required. One major drawback in many of these applications is the relatively poor wear resistance of the epoxy resin. Therefore, in order to investigate on the possibility of increasing wear resistance of thermoset polymers filled with hard powders, sliding tests are carried out by means of a pin on disc apparatus. In particular, composite resins, constituted by an epoxy resin filled with different contents and sizes of Silicon Carbide powder, are analyzed; the wear resistance, in terms of volume loss, is measured for different abrasive counterfaces and loads.

  4. Unsteady Capillary Filling By Electrocapillarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Seok; Lee, Jung A.

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady filling of electrolyte solution inside a nanochannel by the electrocapillarity effect is studied. The filling rate is predicted as a function of the bulk concentration of the electrolyte, the surface potential (or surface charge density), and the cross sectional shape of the channel. Since the driving force of the flow is the electrocapillarity, it is first analyzed by using the solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. From the analysis, it is found that the results for many different cross sectional shapes can be unified with good accuracy if the hydraulic radius is adopted as the characteristic length scale of the problem. Especially in the case of constant surface potential, for both limits of κh -> 0 and κh -> ∞ , it can be shown theoretically that the electrocapillarity is independent of the cross sectional shape if the hydraulic radius is the same. In order to analyze the geometric effects more systematically, we consider the regular N-polygons with the same hydraulic radius and the rectangles of different aspect ratios. Washburn's approach is then adopted to predict the filling rate of electrolyte solution inside a nanaochannel. It is found that the average filling velocity decreases as N increases in the case of regular N-polygons with the same hydraulic radius. This is because of that the regular N-polygons of the same hydraulic radius share the same inscribing circle. This work has been supported by BK21+ program.

  5. Filling in the retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  6. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  7. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  8. 3D Analysis of D-RaCe and Self-Adjusting File in Removing Filling Materials from Curved Root Canals Instrumented and Filled with Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of D-RaCe files and a self-adjusting file (SAF system in removing filling material from curved root canals instrumented and filled with different techniques by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT. The mesial roots of 20 extracted mandibular first molars were used. Root canals (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual were instrumented with SAF or Revo-S. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable techniques. The root fillings were first removed with D-RaCe (Step 1, followed by Step 2, in which a SAF system was used to remove the residual fillings in all groups. Micro-CT scans were used to measure the volume of residual filling after root canal filling, reinstrumentation with D-RaCe (Step 1, and reinstrumentation with SAF (Step 2. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There were no statistically significant differences between filling techniques in the canals instrumented with SAF (P=0.292 and Revo-S (P=0.306. The amount of remaining filling material was similar in all groups (P=0.363; all of the instrumentation techniques left filling residue inside the canals. However, the additional use of SAF was more effective than using D-RaCe alone.

  9. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' agnol, Cristina; Barletta, Fernando Branco [Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Dental School. Dept. of Dentistry and Endodontics]. E-mail: fbarletta@terra.com.br; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins [Uninga Dental School, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Dentistry

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend ({alpha}=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation for thermal flow filling process of casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ye; ZHAO Yu-hong; HOU Hua

    2006-01-01

    The solution algorithm (SOLA) method was used to solve the velocity and pressure field of the thermal flow filling process, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method for the free surface problem. Since the "donor-acceptor" rule often results in the free interface vague, the explicit difference method was adopted, and a method describing the free surface state at 0<F<1 was proposed to deal with this problem. In order to raise the computation efficiency, such algorithms were investigated and invalidated as: 1) internal and external area separation simplification algorithm; 2) the reducing necessary search area method. With the improved algorithms, the filling processes of the valve cover castings with gravity cast and an up cylinder block casting with low-pressure cast were simulated, the simulation results are believable and the computation efficiency is greatly improved. The SOLA-VOF model and its difference method for thermal fluid flow filling process were introduced.

  11. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P putamen, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus were significantly higher (All P putamen (P putamen (P < 0.05). Our study indicated increased brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  12. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  13. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozie, S.; Weert, T.T. de; Monye, C. de; Homburg, P.J.; Tanghe, H.L.J.; Lugt, A. van der [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dippel, D.W.J. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic artery. The contribution of different components was measured as the number of voxels within defined ranges of HU values (calcification >130 HU, fibrous tissue 60-130 HU, lipid core <60 HU). Fifty-seven patients had atherosclerotic plaque in the symptomatic carotid artery. The severity of stenosis and PV were moderately correlated. Age and smoking were independently related to PV. Patients with hypercholesterolemia had significantly less lipid and more calcium in their plaques than patients without hypercholesterolemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to PV or plaque composition. Luminal stenosis of the carotid artery partly reflects the amount of atherosclerotic carotid disease. Plaque volume and plaque composition are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  14. Export Volume Increases While Price Drops: Three Major Factors Weakens Our Country’s Rare Earth Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>According to data recently disclosed by the Hohhot Customs of Inner Mongolia,in 2013,the volume of rare earth exported through the Hohhot Customs was 5,065 tons,slightly increased compared with 2012,but the export price dropped by 50%.Rare earth enterprises in Inner Mongolia can get 25%of the entire country’s rare earth export quota.Therefore,the volume increase and price decrease of rare earth export in Inner Mongolia can reflect the weakened development of the rare earth industry in 2013.

  15. Analysis of the Driving Factors and Contributions to Carbon Emissions of Energy Consumption from the Perspective of the Peak Volume and Time Based on LEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the driving factors and contributions of carbon emissions peak volume and time is essential for reducing the cumulative carbon emissions in developing countries with rapid economic development and increasing carbon emissions. Taking Jilin Province as a case study, four scenarios were set in this paper respectively: Business as Usual Scenario (BAU, Energy-Saving Scenario (ESS, Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Scenario (ELS, and Low-Carbon Scenario (LCS. Furthermore, the carbon emissions were predicted according to the energy consumption based on the application of LEAP system. The research result showed that the peak time of carbon emissions would appear in 2045, 2040, 2035 and 2025 under the four different scenarios, respectively. The peak volumes would be 489.8 Mt, 395.2 Mt, 305.3 Mt and 233.6 Mt, respectively. The cumulative emissions by 2050 are respectively 15.632 Bt, 13.321 Bt, 10.971 Bt and 8.379 Bt. According to the forecasting, we analyzed the driving factors of and contributions to carbon emissions peak volume and time. On the premise of moderate economic growth, the “structural emission reduction”, namely the adjustment of industrial structure and energy structure, and “technology emission reduction”, namely the reduction of energy intensity and carbon emission coefficient could make the peak volume reduced by 20%–52% and cumulative carbon emissions (2050 reduced by 15%–46% on the basis of BAU. Meanwhile, controlling the industrial structure, energy structure and energy intensity could make carbon emissions reach the peak 5–20 years ahead of the time on the basis of BAU. Controlling GDP, industrial structure, energy structure, energy intensity and coefficient of carbon emissions is the feasible method to adjust the carbon emissions peak volume and time in order to reduce the cumulative emissions.

  16. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  17. A randomized trial comparing bladder volume consistency during fractionated prostate radiation therapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, L.

    2014-01-10

    Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients’ satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions.

  18. Influence of health insurance, hospital factors and physician volume on receipt of immediate post-mastectomy reconstruction in women with invasive and non-invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, D L; Richards, C A; Kalinsky, K; Wilde, E T; Lu, Y S; Ascherman, J A; Neugut, A I; Wright, J D

    2012-11-01

    For women with breast cancer who undergo mastectomy, immediate breast reconstruction (IR) offers a cosmetic and psychological advantage. We evaluated the association between demographic, hospital, surgeon and insurance factors and receipt of IR. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based analysis with the Perspective database. Women who underwent a mastectomy for invasive breast cancer (IBC) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from 2000 to 2010 were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors predictive of IR. Analyses were stratified by age (insurance (OR 3.38) and Medicare (OR 1.66) insurance (vs. self-pay), high surgeon-volume (OR 1.19), high hospital-volume (OR 2.24), and large hospital size (OR 1.20). The results were identical for DCIS, and by age category. The absolute difference between the proportion of patients who received IR with commercial insurance compared to other insurance, increased over time. Immediate in-hospital complication rates were higher for flap reconstruction compared to implant or no reconstruction (15.2, 4.0, and 6.1 %, respectively, P insurance status, hospital size, hospital location, and physician volume strongly predict IR. Public policy should ensure that access to reconstructive surgery is universally available.

  19. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.;

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound...... significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  20. Some molecular/crystalline factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials: molecular surface electrostatic potentials, lattice free space and maximum heat of detonation per unit volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.

  1. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece D. Gately

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications.

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Dental Filling Material and Filling Depth on the Strength and Deformation of Filled Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifollah Gholampour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ackground and aim: It is important to evaluate the effect of the type of filling material on deformation and strength of tooth after filling and also the effect of filling depth on quality of restoration of a decayed tooth. Material and Methods: The Orthopantomogram (OPG of the first and second molars of a 28-year-old man was made and the teeth were 3D modeled. The stress-deformation analysis was then performed on the models in the three states of normal tooth, tooth filled with amalgam and tooth filled with composite using finite element method under a distributed load of 400N equivalent to chewing force. Two values (1/2 and 1/3 of the tooth height were considered for filling depth in the analyses. Results: The results showed that the normal first molar was exposed to a 7.2% greater risk of dental injuries compared to the normal second molar and also a greater stress is created in it when it is filled with composite. The first molar filled with a composite material is 13.7% weaker than the normal tooth while it is almost as strong as a normal tooth when it is filled with amalgam. The effect of the type of filling material on the strength and deformation of the second molar was trivial. Conclusion: Amalgam is a more proper dental filling material for the first molar although a 16.7% change in drilling depth is needed for tooth preparation. Dental filling material and filling depth have a small effect on the strength and deformation of filled second molars.

  3. Numerical simulation and analysis of mould filling process in lost foam casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junxia; Wu Zhichao; Chen Liliang; Hao Jing

    2008-01-01

    In lost foam casting (LFC) the foam pattern is the key criterion, and the filling process is crucial to ensure the high quality of the foam pattern. Filling which lacks uniformity and denseness will cause various defects and affect the surface quality of the casting. The influential factors of the filling process are realized in this research. Optimization of the filling process, enhancement of efficiency, decrease of waste, etc., are obtained by the numerical simulation of the filling process using a computer. The equations governing the dense gas-solid two-phase flow are established, and the physical significance of each equation is discussed. The Euler/Lagrange numerical model is used to simulate the fluid dynamic characteristics of the dense two-phase flow during the mould filling process in lost foam casting. The experiments and numerical results showed that this method can be a very promising tool in the mould filling simulation of beads' movement.

  4. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels are useful markers for prostate cancer screening after adjustments for age, obesity-related factors, and prostate volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K; Soda, T; Nakazawa, S; Yamanaka, K; Hirai, T; Kishikawa, H; Ichikawa, Y

    2012-09-01

    Adiponectin and leptin, polypeptide hormones produced by adipocytes, have recently been reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk, though, the relationship remains poorly understood. We examined the association of adiponectin and leptin levels in serum with prostate cancer risk after adjustments for age, obesity-related factors, and prostate cancer risk. Fifty-four prostate cancer patients and 70 control subjects provided blood sampled between 2008 and 2009. Using those, we determined serum adiponectin and leptin levels, and evaluated their relationships with prostate cancer risk after adjustments for age, obesity-related factors (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference), and prostate volume. Adipokine densities were calculated by dividing serum level with prostate volume. There were no differences for median serum adiponectin and leptin levels between the prostate cancer and benign control groups (P=0.22 and 0.78, respectively). Patients with levels of both adipokines in the highest quartile after adjustment for age had significantly higher risks of prostate cancer (adiponectin: odds ratio [OR] 2.79, P=0.014; leptin: OR 2.72, P=0.027). Patients with an adiponectin level greater than the median after adjustment for body weight also had a significantly elevated risk of prostate cancer (OR 2.22, P=0.031), whereas, those with a leptin level significantly greater than the median had a significantly lower risk (OR 0.46, P=0.027). Furthermore, median adiponectin density was significantly higher in the prostate cancer group than the benign group (P=0.0033). Serum adiponectin and leptin levels are useful markers for prostate cancer risk after adjustments for age, obesity-related factors, and prostate volume.

  5. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  6. Duty factor variation possibility from 1% to 100% with PKU microwave driven Cs-free volume H{sup −} sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, T.; Ren, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, A. L. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Microwave driven cesium-free volume H{sup −} sources, that have the ability to deliver tens of mA H{sup −} at 35 keV both in CW and 10% duty factor (100 Hz/1 ms), were developed at Peking University (PKU) [S. X. Peng et al., in Proceeding of IPAC 2015, WEPWA027, Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3–8 May 2015]. Recently, special efforts were paid on the investigation of duty factor variation possibility from 1% to 100% with them. Most of the experiments were carried out with a pulsed length (τ) of 1 ms and different intervals of 99 ms, 49 ms, 39 ms, 29 ms, 19 ms, 9 ms, 4 ms, 2 ms, 1 ms, 0.5 ms, and 0 ms, respectively. Other experiments were focused on CW operation and fixed duty factor of 1%. Experimental results prove that PKU H{sup −} sources can deliver tens of mA H{sup −} at duty factor from 1% to 100%. The RF power efficiency increases steadily with the increasing of duty factor from 1% to CW at a fixed pulsed length. Under a given duty factor and pulsed length, RF power efficiency keeps constant and the H{sup −} current increases with RF power linearly. Details will be presented in the paper.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism influences the association of the methylome with maternal anxiety and neonatal brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Pan, Hong; Tuan, Ta Anh; Teh, Ai Ling; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; McEwen, Lisa M; Li, Yue; Chen, Helen; Broekman, Birit F P; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Kobor, Michael S; Qiu, Anqi; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2015-02-01

    Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.

  8. Effect of Dosimetric Factors on Occurrence and Volume of Temporal Lobe Necrosis Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin; Ou, Xiaomin; Xu, Tingting; Wang, Xiaosheng; Shen, Chunying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Ding, Jianhui [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Hu, Chaosu, E-mail: hucsu62@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric risk factors for the occurrence of temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to investigate the impact of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters on the volume of TLN lesions (V-N). Methods and Materials: Forty-three NPC patients who had developed TLN following IMRT and 43 control subjects free of TLN were retrospectively assessed. DVH parameters included maximum dose (Dmax), minimum dose (Dmin), mean dose (Dmean), absolute volumes receiving specific dose (Vds) from 20 to 76 Gy (V20-V76), and doses covering certain volumes (Dvs) from 0.25 to 6.0 cm{sup 3} (D0.25-D6.0). V-Ns were quantified with axial magnetic resonance images. Results: DVH parameters were ubiquitously higher in temporal lobes with necrosis than in healthy temporal lobes. Increased Vds and Dvs were significantly associated with higher risk of TLN occurrence (P<.05). In particular, Vds at a dose of ≥70 Gy were found with the highest odds ratios. A common increasing trend was detected between V-N and DVH parameters through trend tests (P for trend of <.05). Linear regression analysis showed that V45 had the strongest predictive power for V-N (adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.305, P<.0001). V45 of <15.1 cm{sup 3} was relatively safe as the dose constraint for preventing large TLN lesions with V-N of >5 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dosimetric parameters are significantly associated with TLN occurrence and the extent of temporal lobe injury. To better manage TLN, it would be important to avoid both focal high dose and moderate dose delivered to a large area in TLs.

  9. Impaired glucose metabolism is a risk factor for increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a mild-to-moderate iodine deficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Cuneyd; Akkurt, Aysen; Ayturk, Semra; Kut, Altug; Gursoy, Alptekin

    2013-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of impaired glucose metabolism. IR is associated with increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in patients with metabolic syndrome. Data on the association of thyroid morphology and abnormal glucose metabolism are limited. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mild-to-moderate iodine deficient area. Data were gathered on all newly diagnosed patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus between May 2008 and February 2010. 156 patients with pre-diabetes and 123 patients with type 2 DM were randomly matched for age, gender, and smoking habits with 114 subjects with normal glucose metabolism. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid ultrasonography was performed in all participants. Mean TSH level in the diabetes group (1.9±0.9 mIU/L) was higher than in the control group (1.4±0.8 mIU/L) and the pre-diabetes group (1.5±0.8 mIU/L) (P<0.0001 for both). Mean thyroid volume was higher in the pre-diabetes (18.2±9.2mL) and diabetes (20.0±8.2mL) groups than in controls (11.4±3.8mL) (P<0.0001 for both). Percentage of patients with thyroid nodules was also higher in the pre-diabetes (51.3%) and diabetes groups (61.8%) than in controls (23.7%) (P<0.0001 for both). The results suggest that patients with impaired glucose metabolism have significantly increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. System-level simulation of liquid filling in microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2011-06-01

    Liquid filling in microfluidic channels is a complex process that depends on a variety of geometric, operating, and material parameters such as microchannel geometry, flow velocity∕pressure, liquid surface tension, and contact angle of channel surface. Accurate analysis of the filling process can provide key insights into the filling time, air bubble trapping, and dead zone formation, and help evaluate trade-offs among the various design parameters and lead to optimal chip design. However, efficient modeling of liquid filling in complex microfluidic networks continues to be a significant challenge. High-fidelity computational methods, such as the volume of fluid method, are prohibitively expensive from a computational standpoint. Analytical models, on the other hand, are primarily applicable to idealized geometries and, hence, are unable to accurately capture chip level behavior of complex microfluidic systems. This paper presents a parametrized dynamic model for the system-level analysis of liquid filling in three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic networks. In our approach, a complex microfluidic network is deconstructed into a set of commonly used components, such as reservoirs, microchannels, and junctions. The components are then assembled according to their spatial layout and operating rationale to achieve a rapid system-level model. A dynamic model based on the transient momentum equation is developed to track the liquid front in the microchannels. The principle of mass conservation at the junction is used to link the fluidic parameters in the microchannels emanating from the junction. Assembly of these component models yields a set of differential and algebraic equations, which upon integration provides temporal information of the liquid filling process, particularly liquid front propagation (i.e., the arrival time). The models are used to simulate the transient liquid filling process in a variety of microfluidic constructs and in a multiplexer, representing a

  11. The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TGR5, stimulates gallbladder filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Holmstrom, Sam R; Kir, Serkan; Umetani, Michihisa; Schmidt, Daniel R; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2011-06-01

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 stimulates the filling of the gallbladder with bile. Gallbladder volume was increased in wild-type but not Tgr5(-/-) mice by administration of either the naturally occurring TGR5 agonist, lithocholic acid, or the synthetic TGR5 agonist, INT-777. These effects were independent of fibroblast growth factor 15, an enteric hormone previously shown to stimulate gallbladder filling. Ex vivo analyses using gallbladder tissue showed that TGR5 activation increased cAMP concentrations and caused smooth muscle relaxation in a TGR5-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel, gallbladder-intrinsic mechanism for regulating gallbladder contractility. They further suggest that TGR5 agonists should be assessed for effects on human gallbladder as they are developed for treating metabolic disease.

  12. Preparation of TiO2 Inverse Opal via a Modified Filling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qian; DONG Peng; YI Gui-Yun; LIU Li-Xia; CHENG Bing-Ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ By applying polystyrene opals made by a vertical deposition method as the templates, a modified filling method and a well-controlled calcination process, we have successfully obtained a large-area ordered TiO2 inverse opal with a higher volume fraction (14.5%) and a visible photonic bandgap. The influences of the filling process and calcination conditions on the fabrication of the TiO2 inverse opal are investigated.

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Dental Filling Material and Filling Depth on the Strength and Deformation of Filled Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Seifollah Gholampour; Ghazale Zoorazma; Ehsan Shakouri

    2016-01-01

    ackground and aim: It is important to evaluate the effect of the type of filling material on deformation and strength of tooth after filling and also the effect of filling depth on quality of restoration of a decayed tooth. Material and Methods: The Orthopantomogram (OPG) of the first and second molars of a 28-year-old man was made and the teeth were 3D modeled. The stress-deformation analysis was then performed on the models in the three states of normal tooth, tooth filled with amalgam and ...

  14. Dedicated composite fillings − inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šaulić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and persistance of esthetics of dedicated inlay by clinical methods. Methods. The paper reviews the clinical significance and technique of preparing particular composite inlays before and after the construction of the metallic framework partial denture. On the basis of indications the total of 30 inlays were placed into cavities under relatively dry working conditions. Six, twelve eighteen and twenty-four months after the placement of filling, control check-up was carried out by Ryge criteria. Results. After two years marginal discoloration as well as the change of the colour occured in 3.3% of inlays. There was neither detectable secondary caries, nor the symtoms of pulpal damage. The requirements to be fulfilled concerning the composite materials in order that they can be implemented for this purpose, were also discussed. Conclusion. From the clinical point of view, purpouse inlays from Herculite XRV lab C8B in combination with Opti Bond System and composite cement Porcelite Dual Cure showed high functional and esthetic values in the observational period of two years.

  15. Surfaces that become isotopic after Dehn filling

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, David; Sedgwick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We show that after generic filling along a torus boundary component of a 3-manifold, no two closed, 2-sided, essential surfaces become isotopic, and no closed, 2-sided, essential surface becomes inessential. That is, the set of essential surfaces (considered up to isotopy) survives unchanged in all suitably generic Dehn fillings. Furthermore, for all but finitely many non-generic fillings, we show that two essential surfaces can only become isotopic in a constrained way.

  16. Diastolic filling dynamics in patients with aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Hess, O M; Gage, J E; Grimm, J; Krayenbuehl, H P

    1986-06-01

    Left ventricular filling dynamics were investigated in 24 patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Biplane cineangiography was performed with simultaneous micromanometry in these 24 patients and in six control subjects. Twelve of the patients with AS had moderate hypertrophy with a left ventricular muscle mass index of less than 180 g/m2 (ASI group) and 12 had severe hypertrophy with an index of 180 g/m2 or more (AS2 group). Filling dynamics were also evaluated postoperatively in eight patients in the AS1 and six patients in the AS2 group. Preoperatively, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes were larger and ejection fraction was lower in the AS2 compared with the control or AS1 group. Percent volume increase during the first half of diastole (%V1) was smaller in the AS1 than in the AS2 group. Peak filling rate in the first half of diastole (PFR 1) was higher in the AS2 than in the control or in AS1 group, while peak filling rate in the second half of diastole (PFR2) was considerably greater in the AS1 group than in the other two groups. The time constant of left ventricular pressure decline, an index of the rate of relaxation, was prolonged in the AS2 group. In contrast, mitral valve opening pressure (MVOP) was significantly higher in this group than in the other two groups. The constant of left ventricular chamber stiffness was slightly but not significantly greater in both AS groups than in the control subjects. After surgery in patients in the AS1 group, preoperatively reduced %V1 had increased and preoperatively enhanced PFR2 had decreased. In patients in the AS2 group, excluding one with a persistent low ejection fraction after surgery, preoperatively enhanced PFR1 decreased in association with a decrease in MVOP. Thus, left ventricular filling dynamics vary in patients with AS depending on the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic function. In patients with AS and moderate hypertrophy %V1 is slightly reduced but is compensated for by a

  17. Modelling of Mould Filling and Solidification of Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhian

    2000-01-01

    An experimental casting for validation has been designed. The casting is composed of two 50×600×2.5 (width×length×thick) thin-wall pieces. One downsprue is located in the middle. A pouring cup with a stopper is used. This design allows to using two different types of moulds simultaneously. An Al-10%Si alloy has been poured at different temperatures. Two effects have been studied: one is the pouring temperature and the other is the moulding method (namely by machine or manually). The filling length is proportional to the pouring temperature. The influence of different moulding methods on mould filling is more complicated. The filling length in the manual-made mould is 1.5 times as long as the one in the machine-made mould due to the different thermal conductivities. Vents have little influence. A finite volume based computer code which can simulate fluid flow during mould filling coupled with heat transfer as well as solidification has been developed in WTCM Foundry Center.. The code can predict cold shut during mould filling and shrinkage defects during solidification. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experiments.In the second part of the paper, an example is given which illustrates how to use computer simulation to aid designing the casting system. The final computational result is compared with the industrial casting. The process of designing castings by using simulation is completely different from the traditional way. The computer aided casting design offers the possibility to obtain a sound casting from the first time.

  18. Stroke volume of the heart and thoracic fluid content during head-up and head-down tilt in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lieshout, J J; Harms, M P M; Pott, F

    2005-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) of the heart depends on the diastolic volume but, for the intact organism, central pressures are applied widely to express the filling of the heart.......The stroke volume (SV) of the heart depends on the diastolic volume but, for the intact organism, central pressures are applied widely to express the filling of the heart....

  19. Dependency of blood pressure upon cardiac filling in patients with severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Stokholm, K H

    1994-01-01

    Autonomic denervation of the vascular bed results theoretically in a stronger dependency of blood pressure upon intravascular volume, and the study described aimed at an investigation of the relation between cardiac filling and arterial blood pressure in patients with severe postural hypotension...... by vasoconstriction. The reduction in cardiac output resulted from reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes with unchanged left ventricular ejection fractions and only moderate increments in heart rate. The study was demonstrated that blood pressure is strongly dependent upon cardiac filling in severe...

  20. Gingival Embrasure Fill In Fixed Implant-Supported Prosthetics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    After provisional or definitive cementation of fixed implant-supported prostheses, spontaneous gingival proliferation may occur to fill the cervical embrasure areas of the prosthesis. Adequate oral hygiene, osseous spacing between the supporting implants and attached or immovable soft tissue may be the conditions that allow this phenomenon. This proliferation embrasure fill eliminates interproximal gingival voids, that is, black triangles, and makes the outcome more esthetically acceptable. Since interproximal prosthetic deign and implant positioning may be the primary factors for the fill, the gingival fill may be, in fact, an epulis.

  1. Risk Factors for Neovascular Glaucoma After Proton Beam Therapy of Uveal Melanoma: A Detailed Analysis of Tumor and Dose–Volume Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: kmishra@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Daftari, Inder K.; Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine neovascular glaucoma (NVG) incidence and identify contributing tumor and dosing factors in uveal melanoma patients treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 704 PBRT patients treated by a single surgeon (DHC) for uveal melanoma (1996-2010) were reviewed for NVG in our prospectively maintained database. All patients received 56 GyE in 4 fractions. Median follow-up was 58.3 months. Analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate NVG distributions, univariate log–rank tests, and Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis using likelihood ratio tests to identify independent risk factors of NVG among patient, tumor, and dose–volume histogram parameters. Results: The 5-year PBRT NVG rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2%-15.9%). The 5-year rate of enucleation due to NVG was 4.9% (95% CI 3.4%-7.2%). Univariately, the NVG rate increased significantly with larger tumor diameter (P<.0001), greater height (P<.0001), higher T stage (P<.0001), and closer proximity to the disc (P=.002). Dose–volume histogram analysis revealed that if >30% of the lens or ciliary body received ≥50% dose (≥28 GyE), there was a higher probability of NVG (P<.0001 for both). Furthermore, if 100% of the disc or macula received ≥28 GyE, the NVG rate was higher (P<.0001 and P=.03, respectively). If both anterior and posterior doses were above specified cut points, NVG risk was highest (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed significant independent risk factors to include tumor height (P<.0001), age (P<.0001), %disc treated to ≥50% Dose (<100% vs 100%) (P=.0007), larger tumor diameter (P=.01), %lens treated to ≥90% Dose (0 vs >0%-30% vs >30%) (P=.01), and optic nerve length treated to ≥90% Dose (≤1 mm vs >1 mm) (P=.02). Conclusions: Our current PBRT patients experience a low rate of NVG and resultant enucleation compared with historical data. The present analysis shows that tumor height

  2. Early treatment volume reduction rate as a prognostic factor in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jeong Shin; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Hyun; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between early treatment response to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and survival outcome in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with LS-SCLC who received definitive CRT between January 2009 and December 2012. Patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy regimen of etoposide/carboplatin (n = 15) or etoposide/cisplatin (n = 32) and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy at a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 46 to 64 Gy). Early treatment volume reduction rate (ETVRR) was defined as the percentage change in gross tumor volume between diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and simulation CT for adaptive RT planning and was used as a parameter for early treatment response. The median dose at adaptive RT planning was 36 Gy (range, 30 to 43 Gy), and adaptive CT was performed in 30 patients (63.8%). With a median follow-up of 27.7 months (range, 5.9 to 75.8 months), the 2-year locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The mean diagnostic and adaptive gross tumor volumes were 117.9 mL (range, 5.9 to 447 mL) and 36.8 mL (range, 0.3 to 230.6 mL), respectively. The median ETVRR was 71.4% (range, 30 to 97.6%) and the ETVRR >45% group showed significantly better OS (p < 0.0001) and LRPFS (p = 0.009) than the other group. ETVRR as a parameter for early treatment response may be a useful prognostic factor to predict treatment outcome in LS-SCLC patients treated with CRT.

  3. Micro-CT Evaluation of Root Filling Removal after Three Stages of Retreatment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the residual filling material after filling removal, re-preparation with rotary or reciprocating files and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Twenty maxillary molars were prepared using ProTaper instruments up to F1. The teeth were filled with AH Plus and ProTaper gutta-percha points using the single-cone technique. Thereafter, the specimens were scanned using a micro-computed tomography system (Micro-CT #1). Then, the root canal filling was removed using ProTaper Retreatment files, and a new scan was performed (Micro-CT #2). The specimens were divided into two groups according to the instrument used for re-preparation: ProTaper rotary or WaveOne reciprocating files (Micro-CT #3). Finally, PUI was performed, and a new micro-CT scan was performed (Micro-CT #4). Intragroup and intergroup analyses were performed using Friedman and Dunn's post hoc test and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc tests, respectively. Palatal canal presented the highest volume of residual filling material in all stages of endodontic retreatment (p0.05). Rotary and reciprocating files achieved similar removal of the root canal filling (p>0.05). The greatest reduction in filling material was achieved after using ProTaper Retreatment files. Rotary and reciprocating instruments and PUI did not improve the removal of root canal filling materials.

  4. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  5. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  6. Influence of template fill in graphoepitaxy DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hong, SungEun; Lin, Guanyang; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is considered a promising patterning approach for the 7 nm node and beyond. Specifically, a grapho-epitaxy process using a cylindrical phase BCP may offer an efficient solution for patterning randomly distributed contact holes with sub-resolution pitches, such as found in via and cut mask levels. In any grapho-epitaxy process, the pattern density impacts the template fill (local BCP thickness inside the template) and may cause defects due to respectively over- or underfilling of the template. In order to tackle this issue thoroughly, the parameters that determine template fill and the influence of template fill on the resulting pattern should be investigated. In this work, using three process flow variations (with different template surface energy), template fill is experimentally characterized as a function of pattern density and film thickness. The impact of these parameters on template fill is highly dependent on the process flow, and thus pre-pattern surface energy. Template fill has a considerable effect on the pattern transfer of the DSA contact holes into the underlying layer. Higher fill levels give rise to smaller contact holes and worse critical dimension uniformity. These results are important towards DSA-aware design and show that fill is a crucial parameter in grapho-epitaxy DSA.

  7. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre is demo...

  8. PBL 加劲型矩形钢管混凝土不等宽 T型节点应力集中系数分析%Analysis of Stress Concentration Factor on Concrete-filled Rectangular Steel Tube T-joints Stiffened with PBL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程高; 刘永健; 邱洁霖; 罗亚林; 俞文龙

    2014-01-01

    为研究开孔钢板连接件(PBL )加劲型矩形钢管混凝土 T 型节点的疲劳性能,进行了 T 型节点支管受拉、面内受弯及面外受弯的应力集中系数分析。基于矩形钢管混凝土 T 型节点受拉试验,设计了主管为矩形钢管、矩形钢管混凝土和PB L加劲型矩形钢管混凝土,支管为方钢管的T型节点受拉试件,并采用ABAQUS软件对其进行非线性有限元分析,其中主管钢管宽厚比为27,支主管宽度比为0.4。通过非线性有限元数值模拟,分析热点可能出现位置,并采用二次外推法计算得到支主管的应力集中系数。结果表明:PB L加劲型矩形钢管混凝土节点热点出现位置与矩形钢管节点和矩形钢管混凝土节点一致;与矩形钢管混凝土节点相比,PB L加劲型矩形钢管混凝土节点的应力集中系数显著降低,抗疲劳性能明显提高。%T he stress concentration factor of concrete‐filled rectangular steel tube T‐joints stiffened with PBL subjected to tension , in‐plane bending moment and out‐of‐plane bending moment were analyzed .Based on concrete‐filled rectangular steel tube T‐joints test ,specimens w hose chord members w ere rectangular steel tube , concrete‐filled rectangular steel tube and concrete‐filled rectangular steel tube stiffened with PBL were designed . Moreover , nonlinear finite element analysis was carried out using ABAQUS software .The chord thickness ratio was 27 and width ratio was 0 .4 .Hot spot was analyzed by finite element analysis method ,and stress concentration factor was calculated by quadratic extrapolation .The results show that hot spot of concrete‐filled rectangular steel tube T‐joints stiffened with PBL is the same as steel tube T‐joints;however ,its stress concentration factor is lower and anti‐fatigue property is better .

  9. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Imai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm2/m2 for women and ≤ 36.0 cm2/m2 for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients (p = 0.007. However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child–Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.015 and sex (p < 0.0001 were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child–Pugh score (≥56 years, and enlarged tumor size (<56 years. Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  10. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  11. Excluded volume effect of counterions and water dipoles near a highly charged surface due to a rotationally averaged Boltzmann factor for water dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, Ekaterina; Iglič, Aleš

    2013-03-01

    Water ordering near a negatively charged electrode is one of the decisive factors determining the interactions of an electrode with the surrounding electrolyte solution or tissue. In this work, the generalized Langevin-Bikerman model (Gongadze-Iglič model) taking into account the cavity field and the excluded volume principle is used to calculate the space dependency of ions and water number densities in the vicinity of a highly charged surface. It is shown that for high enough surface charged densities the usual trend of increasing counterion number density towards the charged surface may be completely reversed, i.e. the drop in the counterions number density near the charged surface is predicted.

  12. The polystyrene microsphere filling with hydrogen isotopes through the fill tube with consequent freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgorodin, V. M.; Solomatina, E. Y.; Pepelyaev, A. P.; Rogozhina, M. A.; Osetrov, E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Process of spherical polystyrene capsules filling with hydrogen isotopes through the fill tube for the purpose of a cryogenic target building is described. The scheme of the stand for researches and a technique of carrying out of experiments is represented. Results of capsules filling and subsequent freezing for protium, deuterium and protium- deuterium mixture are shown.

  13. Impact of diastolic dysfunction severity on global left ventricular volumetric filling - assessment by automated segmentation of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between severity of echocardiography (echo) -evidenced diastolic dysfunction (DD) and volumetric filling by automated processing of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Background Cine-CMR provides high-resolution assessment of left ventricular (LV) chamber volumes. Automated segmentation (LV-METRIC) yields LV filling curves by segmenting all short-axis images across all temporal phases. This study used cine-CMR to assess filling changes that occur with progressive DD. Methods 115 post-MI patients underwent CMR and echo within 1 day. LV-METRIC yielded multiple diastolic indices - E:A ratio, peak filling rate (PFR), time to peak filling rate (TPFR), and diastolic volume recovery (DVR80 - proportion of diastole required to recover 80% stroke volume). Echo was the reference for DD. Results LV-METRIC successfully generated LV filling curves in all patients. CMR indices were reproducible (≤ 1% inter-reader differences) and required minimal processing time (175 ± 34 images/exam, 2:09 ± 0:51 minutes). CMR E:A ratio decreased with grade 1 and increased with grades 2-3 DD. Diastolic filling intervals, measured by DVR80 or TPFR, prolonged with grade 1 and shortened with grade 3 DD, paralleling echo deceleration time (p cine-CMR segmentation can discern LV filling changes that occur with increasing severity of echo-evidenced DD. Impaired relaxation is associated with prolonged filling intervals whereas restrictive filling is characterized by increased filling rates. PMID:20673372

  14. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  15. Pulsed electrical breakdown of a void-filled dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. A.; Lagasse, R. R.; Schroeder, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    We report breakdown strengths in a void-filled dielectric material, epoxy containing 48 vol % hollow glass microballoon filler, which is stressed with unipolar voltage pulses of the order of 10 μs duration. The microballoon voids had mean diameters of approximately 40 μm and contained SO2 gas at roughly 30% atmospheric pressure. This void-filled material displays good dielectric strength (of the order of 100 kV mm-1) under these short-pulse test conditions. Results from a variety of electrode geometries are reported, including arrangements in which the electric stress is highly nonuniform. Conventional breakdown criteria based on mean or peak electric stress do not account for these data. A statistics-based predictive breakdown model is developed, in which the dielectric is divided into independent, microballoon-sized "discharge cells" and the spontaneous discharge of a single cell is presumed to launch full breakdown of the composite. We obtain two empirical parameters, the mean and standard deviation of the spontaneous discharge field, by fitting breakdown data from two electrode geometries having roughly uniform fields but with greatly differing volumes of electrically stressed material. This model accounts for many aspects of our data, including the inherent statistical scatter and the dependence on the stressed volume, and it provides informative predictions with electrode geometries giving highly nonuniform fields. Issues related to computational spatial resolution and cutoff distance are also discussed.

  16. Numerical simulation of mold-filling capability for a thin- walled aluminum die casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Subasic, E.; Jakumeit, J.

    2015-06-01

    Mold-filling capability is an important property of casting materials. Especially in thin-walled die casting, fast cooling of the melt by contact to the die makes complete filling difficult to ensure. Simulation is an important tool enabling investigation of filling problems, even before the die is manufactured. However, the prediction of misruns is challenging. Flow and solidification have to be computed as closely coupled. The effects of surface tension, the wetting angle and reduced melt flow due to solidification must be modeled with high precision. To meet these requirements, a finite-volume method using arbitrary polyhedral control volumes is used to solve flow and solidification as closely coupled. The Volume-of-Fluid approach is used to capture the phase separation between gas, melt and solid in connection with a High-Resolution Interface-Capturing scheme to obtain sharp interfaces between phases. To model the resistance of the dendrite network to the melt flow, an additional source term in the momentum equation was implemented. The Bolt test was performed for A356 alloys at a range of different casting temperatures. Numerical prediction of incomplete filling in the bottleneck regions agreed well with experimental findings using 3D camera scanning. The simulation enables derivation of the dependence of critical wall-thickness, i.e. the thickness which is fillable, on casting temperature and metallostatic pressure. This could prove useful in predicting filling problems ahead of casting.

  17. ArteFill permanent injectable for soft tissue augmentation: I. Mechanism of action and injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Knapp, Terry R; Sadick, Neil S; Lemperle, Stefan M

    2010-06-01

    After more than 25 years of research and development, in October 2006 ArteFill became the first and only permanent injectable wrinkle filler to receive FDA approval. ArteFill is a third-generation polymeric microsphere-based filler, following its predecessor Artecoll, which was marketed outside the United States between 1994 and 2006. ArteFill is approved for the correction of nasolabial folds and has been used in over 15,000 patients since its U.S. market introduction in February 2007. No serious side effects have been reported to date according to the FDA's MAUDE reporting database. ArteFill consists of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres (20% by volume), 30-50 microm in diameter, suspended in 3.5% bovine collagen solution (80% by volume) and 0.3% lidocaine. The collagen carrier is absorbed within 1 month after injection and completely replaced by the patient's own connective tissue within 3 months. Each cc of ArteFill contains approximately six million microspheres and histological studies have shown that long-term wrinkle correction consists of 80% of the patient's own connective tissue and 20% microspheres. The standard injection technique is subdermal tunneling that delivers a strand of ArteFill at the dermal-subdermal junction. This strand beneath a wrinkle or fold acts like a support structure that protects against further wrinkling and allows the diminished thickness of the dermis to recover to its original thickness.

  18. Sound scattering from partially water-filled elastic spherical shell with an internal elastic plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yang; XU Haiting

    2008-01-01

    According to the equation of motion in the elastic medium and integral equation of target scattering, the sound scattering from the partially water-filled elastic spherical shells with and without an inner plate is studied using the finite element and boundary element method,and the scattering normalized form functions of the shell filled with different volume of water are computed and the mechanism of resonance scattering is analyzed. The results show that the resonance of the shell with partially water-filled and without the plate is mainly related to the volume of water, and the resonance is produced by inner water and the spherical shell. The resonance characteristics of partially water-filled elastic shell with the plate are similar to that of empty structured elastic spherical shell, and the sound field in inner water is weaker which indicates the main resonance characteristics are decided by spherical shell and the plate. In addition, the scattering characteristics of spherical shell with plate and one side full water-filled are greatly different from the partially water-filled ones.

  19. Is the glass half full or half empty? How to reverse the effect of glass elongation on the volume poured.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R Caljouw

    Full Text Available To reduce the volume of drinks and the risk of overconsumption, health professionals recommend the use of tall skinny instead of short wide glasses. Yet the results of the present study contradict this health advice. Participants who generously filled up a glass with lemonade served 9% more in tall narrow compared with short wide glasses (p<0.05. In addition, when pouring a small amount (i.e., a shot, participants poured 3% more in a short wide than in a tall narrow glass (p<0.05. Elongation may bias the perceived volume that is poured but also the perceived volume of the free space in the glass. We hypothesised that shifting attention from the bottom to the brim of the glass when filling it close to capacity might reverse the glass elongation effect on the quantity poured. This hypothesis was tested, by investigating two pouring tasks that differed in the required focus of attention. When the instruction was to match a reference volume, participants poured more liquid in the short wide compared with the tall narrow glass (p<0.05. The effect of glass elongation on poured volume was the opposite when the instruction was to leave space in the glasses for the reference volume. It seems likely that task and individual factors affect the pourer's viewing strategy and thus may determine the direction of the glass elongation effect on the volume poured.

  20. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic (shock responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3. The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber directions.

  1. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, D. M.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Stahl, D. B.; Scharff, R. J.; Rigg, P. A.; Furmanski, J.; Orler, E. B.; Patterson, B.; Coe, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The dynamic (shock) responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE) composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3). The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP) composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall) for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber) directions.

  2. Numerical analysis of pouch filling and emptying after laparoscopic gastric banding surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2008-01-01

    for the filling and emptying phases of the pouch. METHODS: A numerical pouch model with variable pouch volume and stoma size was generated. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed on fundus strips from fresh pig stomach and the mass flow of filling and emptying of the pouch was simulated numerically. RESULTS......Pa in the pouch wall at the same degree of filling. Decreasing the stoma diameter from 27 to 10 mm caused an increase of the maximum circumferential stress from 11.46 to 12.78 kPa and a decrease of the maximum longitudinal stress from 10.34 to 8.69 kPa. CONCLUSION: Both the pouch volume and stoma size...

  3. Transfer factor (diffusing capacity) standardized for alveolar volume: validation, reference values and applications of a new linear model to replace KCO (TL/VA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W

    1996-06-01

    Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon

  4. Numerical simulation of casting processes: coupled mould filling and solidification using VOF and enthalpy-porosity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ole; Turnow, Johann; Kornev, Nikolai; Hassel, Egon

    2017-06-01

    Within the scope of industrial casting applications a numerical model for the simultaneous mould filling and solidification process has been formulated, implemented in a finite volume code and successfully validated using analytical and experimental data. In order to account for the developing of free surface flow and the liquid/solid phase change, respectively, the volume-of-fluid and enthalpy-porosity method have been coupled under a volume averaging framework on a fixed Eulerian grid. The coupled method captures the basic physical effects of a combined mould filling and solidification process and provides a trustful method for comprehensive casting simulations.

  5. Models of venous return and their application to estimate the mean systemic filling pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den

    2007-01-01

    Mean systemic filling pressure is the equilibrium pressure in the systemic circulation when the heart is arrested and there is no flow. This pressure is a measure of the stressed volume of the systemic circulation and regarded as the driving pressure for the venous return during steady states [1-3].

  6. Models of venous return and their application to estimate the mean systemic filling pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. den Hartog (Emiel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMean systemic filling pressure is the equilibrium pressure in the systemic circulation when the heart is arrested and there is no flow. This pressure is a measure of the stressed volume of the systemic circulation and regarded as the driving pressure for the venous return during steady s

  7. Models of venous return and their application to estimate the mean systemic filling pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. den Hartog (Emiel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMean systemic filling pressure is the equilibrium pressure in the systemic circulation when the heart is arrested and there is no flow. This pressure is a measure of the stressed volume of the systemic circulation and regarded as the driving pressure for the venous return during steady

  8. Models of venous return and their application to estimate the mean systemic filling pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den

    2007-01-01

    Mean systemic filling pressure is the equilibrium pressure in the systemic circulation when the heart is arrested and there is no flow. This pressure is a measure of the stressed volume of the systemic circulation and regarded as the driving pressure for the venous return during steady states [1-3].

  9. Models of venous return and their application to estimate the mean systemic filling pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. den Hartog (Emiel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMean systemic filling pressure is the equilibrium pressure in the systemic circulation when the heart is arrested and there is no flow. This pressure is a measure of the stressed volume of the systemic circulation and regarded as the driving pressure for the venous return during steady s

  10. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  11. Gas-filled separators - An overview

    CERN Document Server

    Leino, M

    2003-01-01

    Gas-filled recoil separators have been used in nuclear physics studies since the early fifties. Most notably, they have found use in the separation of evaporation residues of heavy and very heavy elements from unwanted background. Gas-filled separators, alone or coupled to a detector array, offer an efficient, fast, compact and relatively inexpensive solution for nuclear structure studies. A new application is the use of a gas-filled device as a pre-separator in the study of chemical properties of the heaviest elements. Other uses include systematic study of fusion evaporation cross sections and accelerator mass spectrometry. In this contribution, an overview on gas-filled recoil separators, their characteristics, fields of application and possible future developments is given.

  12. Contraction stresses of composite resin filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdahl, T; Gjerdet, N R

    1977-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resin filling materials and the tensile stresses developed when the shrinkage is restrained were measured in an in vitro experiment. This allows an estimation to be made of the forces exerted upon the enamel walls of cavities filled with the resin in the acid etch technique. The results indicate that the stresses acting on the enamel are low compared to the tensile strength of the enamel.

  13. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  14. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, James [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - New York District 26 Federal Plaza, New York, New York 10278 (United States); Hays, David [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Kansas City District 601 E. 12th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64106 (United States); Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  15. Thermoelectric properties of high pressure synthesized lithium and calcium double-filled CoSb3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium and calcium are inefficient filling elements of CoSb3 at ambient pressure, but show nice filling behavior under high pressure. In this work, we synthesized Li/Ca double-filled CoSb3 with high pressure synthesis method. The products show the skutterudite structure of Im3¯ symmetry. Thermoelectric properties were effectively enhanced through Li and Ca co-filling. For the optimal Li0.08Ca0.18Co4Sb12 sample, the power factor maintains a relatively high value over the whole measurement temperature range and peaks at 4700μWm−1K−2, meanwhile the lattice thermal conductivity is greatly suppressed, leading to a maximal ZT of 1.18 at 700 K. Current work demonstrates high pressure synthesis as an effective method to produce multiple elemental filled CoSb3 skutterudites.

  16. Geometric and muscle physiological factors of the Frank-Starling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Dierberger, B; Gülch, R W; Kissling, G

    1993-01-01

    The relation between left-ventricular stroke volume (SV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) was determined based on angiocardiographic measurements in 10 open-chest minipigs under varying filling conditions (blood letting or infusions). The results were compared with a theoretical relation calculated under the assumption of varying EDV but constancy of myocardial properties. In contrast to the linear increase of SV as a function of EDV as found in the animal experiments, the calculated curve reveals a maximum near the normal operating point with a decrease in the range of higher EDV. It can be concluded that the well-known increase of SV with increasing ventricular filling, beyond the normal EDV, is almost completely due to muscle physiological factors (mainly increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus), whereas the decrease of SV in the range of low filling pressure is mainly due to the geometrical conditions.

  17. A correlation between decreased parathyroid α-Klotho and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 expression with pathological category and parathyroid gland volume in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junfang; Jingbo, Chen; Wang, Deguang; Xie, Shengxue; Yuan, Liang; Zhong, Xing; Hao, Li

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate α-Klotho and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression in hyperplastic parathyroid glands, as well as their role in the development of renal hyperparathyroidism. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands (n = 90) were obtained from 24 patients who received parathyroidectomy due to secondary renal hyperparathyroidism. Normal parathyroid tissue was obtained from glands (n = 6) that were inadvertently removed, in conjunction with thyroidectomy, from patients with thyroid carcinoma. The expression of α-Klotho and FGFR1 in the parathyroid tissue was detected using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of α-Klotho and FGFR1 was significantly reduced in the hyperplastic parathyroid tissue compared to that in the normal parathyroid tissue. The expression of α-Klotho decreased further with increasing parathyroid pathology. A significant positive correlation was observed between α-Klotho and FGFR1 (r = 0.38, P < 0.01). FGFR1 (r = -0.21, P < 0.05) and α-Klotho (r = -0.42, P < 0.01) were negatively correlated with the volume of the hyperplastic parathyroid tissue. The expression of α-Klotho and FGFR1 decreases in the parathyroid glands of dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and this decrease may play an important role in the pathogenesis of secondary renal hyperparathyroidism.

  18. Seepage characteristics of collapse column fillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Boyang; Bai Haibo; Zhang Kai

    2016-01-01

    With concealment and hysteresis, water-inrush from Karst collapse column has become an important security hazard of lower group coal mining in North China. Based on the MTS815.02 seepage test system, we analyzed the impact of consolidation pressure, initial moisture content and confining pressure on the permeability of fillings in order to study the seepage characteristics of collapse column fillings. The results show that:(1) The permeability of collapse column fillings is of the order of 10?16–10?15 magni-tude and decreases with an increase in consolidation pressure and decrease in initial moisture content. (2) The essence of filling seepage law change is the change in porosity, and a power function relationship exists between the permeability ratio and porosity ratio. (3) With increasing confining pressure, the per-meability of fillings decreases. However, under low confining pressure (1.2–4 MPa), the change of confin-ing pressure has no obvious influence on the permeability.

  19. Relationship between voice coil fill factor and loudspeaker efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    In modern audio systems, utilizing switch-mode amplifiers, the total efficiency is dominated by the rather poor efficiency of the loudspeaker. For decades voice coils have been designed so that nominal resistances of 3 to 8 Ω are obtained, despite modern audio amplifiers, using switch...

  20. Relationsssship between voice coil fill factor and loudspeaker efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    In modern audio systems, utilizing switch-mode amplifiers, the total efficiency is dominated by the rather poor efficiency of the loudspeaker. For decades voice coils have been designed so that nominal resistances of 3 to 8 Ω are obtained, despite modern audio amplifiers, using switch...

  1. Stress field evolution law of mining environment reconstructing structure with change of filling height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; WANG Li-li

    2010-01-01

    For improving global stability of mining environment reconstructing structure,the stress field evolution law of the structure with the filling height change of low-grade backfill was studied by ADINA finite element analysis code.Three kinds of filling schemes were designed and calculated,in which the filling heights were 2,4,and 7 m,separately.The results show that there are some rules in the stress field with the increase of the filling height as follows:(1)the maximum value of tension stress of the roof decreases gradually,and stress conditions are improved gradually;(2)the tension stress status in the vertical pillar is transformed into the compressive stress status,and the carrying capacity is improved gradually; however,when the filling height is beyond 2.8 m,the carrying capacity of the vertical pillar grows very slowly,so,there is little significance to continue to fill the low-grade backfill;(3)the bottom pillar suffers the squeezing action from the vertical pillars at first and then the gravity action of the low-grade backfill,and the maximum value of tension stress of the bottom pillar firstly increases and then decreases.Considering the economic factor,security and other factors,the low-grade backfill has the most reasonable height(2.8 m)in the scope of all filling height.

  2. Filling defect artefacts in magnetic resonance urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish, G.; Chooi, W.K.; Morcos, S.K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, S5 7AU, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of filling defect artefacts (FDA) in magnetic resonance urography (MRU). Retrospectively, we assessed MRU examinations of 45 patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (21 men, 24 women; mean age 35 years, age range 18-71 years). The MRU was performed 30 min after intramuscular injection of 20 mg frusemide using heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo techniques [axial, thick coronal slab, coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) images] with fat saturation. The images were reviewed by two observers to determine the presence of filling defects and dilatation of pelvicalyceal system and ureters. The filling defects were classified into central, eccentric and complete. Clinical course and plain films were reviewed to determine significance of the detected filling defects. True filling defects were observed in 5 patients (11%) and all due to stones seen on the plain radiograph of the abdomen. Filling defects artefacts (FDAs) were seen in 23 patients (51%; 17 pelvicalyceal system, 17 upper third of ureters, 7 mid ureters and 1 distal ureter). No stones were seen on the plain radiograph of these patients and they had a favourable clinical course for over 24 months. The true filling defects were large in size, eccentric in position and seen in more than one sequence of the MRU examination (axial, n=5; slab, n=5; and MIP, n=4). Four (80%) of the patients with true defects and 21 (91%) of those with FDAs had dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and ureters. The FDAs were small in size, centrally placed (74%) and always seen in axial images, rarely in slab images (2 cases) and not seen in MIP images. Artefactual filling defects can be seen in MRU examinations. The cause of the FDAs is not fully explained and could be secondary to turbulent and fast flow of the urine. Some of the FDAs seen in the calyces could be due to the tips of the papillae. Awareness of such defects obviates misinterpretation and prevents

  3. Singularity links with exotic Stein fillings

    OpenAIRE

    Özbağcı, Burak; Akhmedov, Anar

    2012-01-01

    arXiv:1206.2468v3 [math.GT] 14 May 2014 SINGULARITY LINKS WITH EXOTIC STEIN FILLINGS ANAR AKHMEDOV AND BURAK OZBAGCI ABSTRACT. In [4], it was shown that there exist infinitely many contact Seifert fibered 3-manifolds each of which admits infinitely many exotic (homeomorphic but pairwise non-diffeomorphic) simply-connected Stein fillings. Here we extend this result to a larger set of contact Seifert fibered 3-manifolds with many singular fibers and observe that these 3- ma...

  4. Experimental study on capillary filling in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Cao, Bing-Yang; Wang, Wei; Yun, He-Ming; Chen, Bao-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the capillary filling kinetics of deionized water in nanochannels with heights of 50-120 nm. The measured position of the moving meniscus was proportional to the square root of time, as predicted by the LW equation. However, the extracted slopes were significantly smaller than the predictions based on the bulk properties. This unusual behavior was found to be mainly caused by the electro-viscous effect and dynamic contact angle, which was significantly larger than the static angle. In addition, when the filling distance reached about 600 μm, bubbles tended to be formed, leading to the main meniscus was almost immobile.

  5. Investigation of Hardened Filling Grout Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....... Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....

  6. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall...

  7. Nanocapsules with fluorous filling: A "molecular zipper" approach

    KAUST Repository

    Merican, Zulkifli

    2014-11-26

    Considerable effort has been devoted to thesynthesis of liquid filled microcapsules and nanocapsules owing to their general usefulness. The DCM solution was combined with an equal volume of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and the biphasic mixture was subjected to high-power ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, it is likely that the interlocking of the polymer chains in the hydrophobic layer of the capsule shells leads to objects that are strong and stable. It is worth noting that the cryo-TEM images were obtained for a sample that was more than 30 days old. The self-assembly of capsule shells and their stability depend on the nature and size of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer blocks.

  8. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, M A; Atchison, W; Armijo, E; Bartos, Yu; García, F; Randolph, B; Sheppard, M G

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment required massive tungsten glide planes for inertial confinement of the liner fill media during implosion. Shallow sinusoidal perturbations were machined on the inside surface of the liner to seed instabilities, also true of the previous experiments. Butane was selected for a relatively low equilibrium vapor pressure, a practical attribute for use in the Pegasus vacuum power flow channel. Butane safety topics at Pegasus will be addressed. Glide planes were sealed to the liner by use of butane compatible o-rings. A sintered form of tungsten was used for the glide planes to facilitate machining the relatively complex shapes that were required. Porosity of the tungsten was sea...

  9. Economical optimization in geothermal projects: filling material; Optimizacion economica en una instalacion goetermica: Material de relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel, J. A. de

    2009-07-01

    In shallow geothermal energy applications, the filling material through the borehole is considered as a main feature in every geothermal project. The use of an adequate filling material decrease the necessary number of linear meters for a correct geothermical exchange, dropping the play back period of the installation as well. The use of this kind of material in the field of single-family houses means a direct benefit of the owner, as the installation will increase its seasonal performance factor, droping the electrical consumption. Likewise in big geothermal project the optimization of the installation can only be achieved with the use of a proper geothermal filling material. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Effect of rare earth filling on unfilled skutterudite compound CoSb3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Sekihara, Yuko; Kawahito, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Aoki, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Keitaro; Aoki, Yuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2007-03-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing the filled skutterudite compound PrxCo4Sb12 under high pressures. Pr site filling factor was estimated to be about 50 ±10% by powder X-ray diffraction and chemical composition analysis using field emission electron microscope. Apparent expansion of lattice constant 9.09 Å compared to that of CoSb39.03 Å is also indirect evidence of successful filling of Pr-ions. In the magnetization and specific heat measurements, no anomaly suggesting phase transition has been found down to 2 K.

  11. Effect of rare earth filling on unfilled skutterudite compound CoSb{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kenya [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)]. E-mail: tanaka-kenya@ed.tmu.ac.jp; Sekihara, Yuko [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kawahito, Yusuke [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kikuchi, Daisuke [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Aoki, Hidekazu [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kuwahara, Keitaro [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Aoki, Yuji [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugawara, Hitoshi [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, 770-8502 (Japan); Sato, Hideyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We have succeeded in synthesizing the filled skutterudite compound Pr{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} under high pressures. Pr site filling factor was estimated to be about 50+/-10% by powder X-ray diffraction and chemical composition analysis using field emission electron microscope. Apparent expansion of lattice constant 9.09A compared to that of CoSb{sub 3}9.03A is also indirect evidence of successful filling of Pr-ions. In the magnetization and specific heat measurements, no anomaly suggesting phase transition has been found down to 2K.

  12. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan; Zong, Peng-an; Chen, Xihong; Tao, Juzhou; Lin, He

    2017-02-01

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites YbxCo4Sb12 (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb LⅢ-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  13. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  14. SEM evaluation of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R A; Santini, M F; Heiden, K; Só, B B; Kuga, M C; Pereira, J R; Só, M V R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the presence of gaps at the interface between filling material and three root-end filling materials. Thirty human upper molars disto-buccal roots were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and eugenol-based sealer. The apicoectomy was performed 2 mm from the apex and retrograde cavities were prepared with ultrasonic points (3 mm in deep). The samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 10): Group I-white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); Group II-Super EBA; and Group III-Portland cement. The root-end filling materials were inserted into the retocavities using a MTA carrier. After 48 h, the roots were transversally sectioned in order to obtain the apical 5 mm. Next, each specimen was prepared longitudinally with crescent granulation of abrasives water-wet sandpapers in order to expose the filling and root-end filling materials. Then, the specimens were subjected to slow dehydration with silica gel, mounted onto specific stubs and coated with paladium coverage for SEM analysis of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials. The percentage of gaps at the interfacial area was calculated by using Image Tool 3.0 software. Super EBA presented the higher percentage of gaps (1.5 ± 0.67%), whereas MTA presented the lowest values (0.33 ± 0.20%; p = 0.0004). Despite the statistical differences observed between Super EBA and MTA, all the root-end filling materials presented great adaptation to the filling material, presenting small amount of gaps. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A carbon nanotube filled polydimethylsiloxane hybrid membrane for enhanced butanol recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Chuang; Du, Guang-Qing; CHEN, Li-Jie; Ren, Jian-Gang; Sun, Jian-Xin; Bai, Feng-Wu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid membrane was fabricated to evaluate its potential for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth. Compared with the homogeneous PDMS membrane, the CNTs filled into the PDMS membrane were beneficial for the improvement of butanol recovery in butanol flux and separation factor. The CNTs acting as sorption-active sites with super hydrophobicity could give an alternative route for mass transport thro...

  16. Prognostic factors that increase the risk for reduced white matter volumes and deficits in attention and learning for survivors of childhood cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E; Taghipour, Delaram J; Glass, John O; Ashford, Jason; Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie; Bonner, Melanie; Khan, Raja B; Conklin, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    In children, CNS-directed cancer therapy is thought to result in decreased cerebral white matter volumes (WMV) and subsequent neurocognitive deficits. This study was designed as a prospective validation of the purported reduction in WMV, associated influential factors, and its relationship to neurocognitive deficits in a very large cohort of both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant brain tumors (BT) survivors in comparison to an age similar cohort of healthy sibling controls. The effects of host characteristics and CNS treatment intensity on WMV were investigated in 383 childhood cancer survivors (199 ALL, 184 BT) at least 12 months post-completion of therapy and 67 healthy siblings that served as a control group. t-Tests and multiple variable linear models were used to assess cross-sectional WMV and its relation with neurocognitive function. BT survivors had lower WMV than ALL survivors, who had less than the control group. Increased CNS treatment intensity, younger age at treatment, and greater time since treatment were significantly associated with lower WMV. Additionally, cancer survivors did not perform as well as the control group on neurocognitive measures of intelligence, attention, and academic achievement. Reduced WMV had a larger impact on estimated IQ among females and children treated at a younger age. Survivors of childhood cancer that have undergone higher intensity therapy at a younger age have significantly less WMV than their peers and this difference increases with time since therapy. Decreased WMV is associated with significantly lower scores in intelligence, attention, and academic performance in survivors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Missing Ancestry: Filling in a Genetic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Missing Ancestry Follow us A Missing Ancestry Filling in a genetic background Many adopted children don’t know very much about their biological family. That was the case for David Hale. He didn’t know any of his biological family’s health. All Hale knew from his adoption papers was ...

  18. 30 CFR 57.10001 - Filling buckets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filling buckets. 57.10001 Section 57.10001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57...

  19. 30 CFR 56.10001 - Filling buckets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filling buckets. 56.10001 Section 56.10001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10001...

  20. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  1. The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, John W.; Anstice, H. Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses materials used by dentists to restore teeth after decay has been removed. Shows how dental-material science is an interdisciplinary field in which chemistry plays a major part. Reviews the many developments polymer chemistry has contributed to the field of dental fillings. (CCM)

  2. Electroviscous effects in capillary filling of nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We theoretically examine the widespread hypothesis of an electroviscous origin of the increase in apparent viscosity observed in recent experiments on capillary filling of nanochannels. Including Debye-layer corrections to the hydraulic resistance, we find that the apparent viscosity reaches a ma...

  3. Topological scaling and gap filling at crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, K. Gabor [Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, Budapest, H-1518, (Hungary); Lai, Ying-Cheng [Department of Mathematics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tel, Tamas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, Budapest, H-1518, (Hungary); Grebogi, Celso [Institute for Plasma Research, Department of Mathematics, and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Scaling laws associated with an interior crisis of chaotic dynamical systems are studied. We argue that open gaps of the chaotic set become densely filled at the crisis due to the sudden appearance of unstable periodic orbits with extremely long periods. We formulate a scaling theory for the associated growth of the topological entropy. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  5. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  6. Modelling of the Manifold Filling Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain Marie Roger; Jensen, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are dynamic models which describe dynamic engine variable (or state) responses on time scales slightly longer than an engine event. This paper describes a new model of the intake manifold filling dynamics which is simple and easy to calibrate for use in engine con...

  7. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 4 July 2013. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013 ... Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal ...... by considerations of logistics, human resources, cost and the subsequent ...

  8. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  9. Dynamic Buffering Performance of the Honeycomb Paperboard Filled with Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; XIE Weihong; CHEN Li

    2014-01-01

    A new kind of composite buffering material was made by filling the voids of honeycomb paperboard with polyurethane. Drop tests were performed to evaluate the dynamic energy absorption capacity of the material. Based on the tests results, we analyzed the mechanical behaviors of the material under different conditions and obtained the inherent influencing laws of some factors on the material’s dynamic buffering performance. It was shown that the dynamic buffering performance varied directly with impact velocity, and inversely with the void diameter, thickness and buffering area of the composite material.

  10. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  11. Numerical recipes for mold filling simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothe, D.; Juric, D.; Lam, K.; Lally, B.

    1998-07-01

    Has the ability to simulate the filling of a mold progressed to a point where an appropriate numerical recipe achieves the desired results? If results are defined to be topological robustness, computational efficiency, quantitative accuracy, and predictability, all within a computational domain that faithfully represents complex three-dimensional foundry molds, then the answer unfortunately remains no. Significant interfacial flow algorithm developments have occurred over the last decade, however, that could bring this answer closer to maybe. These developments have been both evolutionary and revolutionary, will continue to transpire for the near future. Might they become useful numerical recipes for mold filling simulations? Quite possibly. Recent progress in algorithms for interface kinematics and dynamics, linear solution methods, computer science issues such as parallelization and object-oriented programming, high resolution Navier-Stokes (NS) solution methods, and unstructured mesh techniques, must all be pursued as possible paths toward higher fidelity mold filling simulations. A detailed exposition of these algorithmic developments is beyond the scope of this paper, hence the authors choose to focus here exclusively on algorithms for interface kinematics. These interface tracking algorithms are designed to model the movement of interfaces relative to a reference frame such as a fixed mesh. Current interface tracking algorithm choices are numerous, so is any one best suited for mold filling simulation? Although a clear winner is not (yet) apparent, pros and cons are given in the following brief, critical review. Highlighted are those outstanding interface tracking algorithm issues the authors feel can hamper the reliable modeling of today`s foundry mold filling processes.

  12. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  13. 7 CFR 52.774 - Fill of container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fill of container. 52.774 Section 52.774 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Fill of Container § 52.774 Fill of container. (a) FDA requirements. Canned red tart pitted cherries shall meet the fill of...

  14. [Apical thickness of root fillings in upper premolars. A comparison of orthograde-filled, apicoectomized and retrograde-filled teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reister, Jan Philip; Staribratova-Reister, Kamelia; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the apical leakage in root canal filled, apicectomised and retrogradely filled maxillary single rooted premolars with two canals of type II configuration. For this purpose the root canals of 51 maxillary type II premolars were shaped to size ISO #55, followed by a step-back preparation to size ISO #80. Subsequently, all teeth were obturated by means of lateral condensation and randomly divided into three groups, 17 teeth each. Group I was used as a control, whereas in group II and III an apicoectomy was performed. Retrograde glass ionomer restorations (Ketac Fil) were placed additionally in group III. The specimens were exposed to methylene blue for 24 hours, then cross-sectioned, and the deepness of dye penetration was measured. Data were analyzed and tested for significant differences between the various groups (Mann-Whitney test; alpha = 0.05). The teeth in group II showed the lowest mean dye penetration. The differences were statistically significant, if compared to group I (p canals, the mean dye penetration was higher (3,557 microns +/- 1,337 microns) than in teeth without lateral canals (3,096 microns +/- 1,931 microns). The teeth in group III showed a circular dye penetration in nearly all cases. For clinical purposes, the application of retrograde glass ionomer fillings must be considered very critically.

  15. Study on Numerical Simulation of Mold Filling and HeatTransfer in Die Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A 3-D mathematical model considering turbulence phenomena has been established basedon a computational fluid dynamics technique, so called 3-D SOLA-VOF (Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fluid), to simulate the fluid flow of mold filling process of die casting. In addition, the mathematical model for simulating the heat transfer in die casting process has also been established.The computation program has been developed by the authors with the finite difference method (FDM) recently. As verification, the mold filling process of a S-shaped die casting has been simulated and the simulation results coincide with that of the benchmark test. Finally, as a practical application, the gating design of a motorcycle component was modified by the mold filling simulation and the dies design of another motorcycle component was optimized by theheat transfer simulation. All the optimized designs were verified by the production practice.

  16. Characterization of subvisible particle formation during the filling pump operation of a monoclonal antibody solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arpan; Colandene, James; Bradford, Victor; Perkins, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    Characterization and control of aggregate and subvisible particle formation during fill-finish process steps are important for biopharmaceutical products. The filling step is of key importance as there is no further filtration of the drug product beyond sterile filtration. Filling processes can impact product quality by introducing physical stresses such as shear, friction, and cavitation. Other detrimental factors include temperature generated in the process of filling, foaming, and contact with filling system materials, including processing aids such as silicone oil. Certain pumps may shed extrinsic particles that may lead to heterogeneous nucleation-induced aggregation. In this work, microflow imaging, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and turbidimetry were utilized to quantify subvisible particles, aggregation, and opalescence, respectively. The filling process was performed using several commonly used filling systems, including rotary piston pump, rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler. The rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler generated notably less protein subvisible particles than the rotary piston pump, although no change in aggregate content by SEC was observed by any pump. An extreme increase in subvisible particles was also reflected in an increase in turbidity.

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Dummy fill effect on CMP planarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junxiong, Zhou; Lan, Chen; Wenbiao, Ruan; Zhigang, Li; Weixiang, Shen; Tianchun, Ye

    2010-10-01

    With the use of a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) simulator verified by testing data from a foundry, the effect of dummy fill characteristics, such as fill size, fill density and fill shape, on CMP planarity is analyzed. The results indicate that dummy density has a significant impact on oxide erosion, and copper dishing is in proportion to dummy size. We also demonstrate that cross shape dummy fill can have the best dishing performance at the same density.

  18. Tribological properties of nanosized calcium carbonate filled polyamide 66 nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Kaito [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Nishitani, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, T.G.M. 275, Zlin, 767 72 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Eguchi, Kenichiro [Shiraishi Central Laboratories, 4-78 Motohama,Amagasaki,Hyogo,660-0085 Japan (Japan)

    2016-03-09

    For the purpose of developing high performance tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts such as gears, bearings and so on, nanosized calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) filled polyamide 66 (PA66) nanocomposites were investigated. The nano-CaCO{sub 3} was a kind of precipitated (colloid typed) CaCO{sub 3}, and its average particle size was 40, 80 and 150 nm. Surface treatment was performed by fatty acid on the nano-CaCO{sub 3} and its volume fraction in the nanocomposite was varied from 1 to 20vol.%. These nanocomposites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Tribological properties were measured by two types of sliding wear testers such as ring-on-plate type and ball-on-plate type one under dry condition. The counterface, worn surface and wear debris were observed by digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the nano-CaCO{sub 3} has a good effect on the tribological properties, although the effect on the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate is differed by the volume fraction and the type of sliding wear modes. This is attributed to the change of wear mechanisms, which is the change of form of the transfer films on the counterface and the size of wear debris. It follows from these results that PA66/nano-CaCO{sub 3} nanocomposites may be possible to be the high performance tribomaterials.

  19. Intention to Purchase Products under Volume Discount Scheme: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Iranmanesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many standard brands sell products under the volume discount scheme (VDS as more and more consumers are fond of purchasing products under this scheme. Despite volume discount being commonly practiced, there is a dearth of research, both conceptual and empirical, focusing on purchase characteristics factors and consumer internal evaluation concerning the purchase of products under VDS. To attempt to fill this void, this article develops a conceptual model on VDS with the intention of delineating the influence of the purchase characteristics factors on the consumer intention to purchase products under VDS and provides an explanation of their effects through consumer internal evaluation. Finally, the authors discuss the managerial implications of their research and offer guidelines for future empirical research.

  20. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  1. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  2. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  3. Conjectural Equilibrium in Water-filling Games

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a non-cooperative game in which competing users sharing a frequency-selective interference channel selfishly optimize their power allocation in order to improve their achievable rates. Previously, it was shown that a user having the knowledge of its opponents' channel state information can make foresighted decisions and substantially improve its performance compared with the case in which it deploys the conventional iterative water-filling algorithm, which does not exploit such knowledge. This paper discusses how a foresighted user can acquire this knowledge by modeling its experienced interference as a function of its own power allocation. To characterize the outcome of the multi-user interaction, the conjectural equilibrium is introduced, and the existence of this equilibrium for the investigated water-filling game is proved. Interestingly, both the Nash equilibrium and the Stackelberg equilibrium are shown to be special cases of the generalization of conjectural equilibrium. We develop...

  4. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  5. The Berkeley gas-filled separator

    CERN Document Server

    Ninov, V; McGrath, C A

    1998-01-01

    The BGS is being constructed at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL in Berkeley. The magnetic configuration of the BGS will allow a large angular acceptance and good suppression of primary beam particles. BGS operates as a mass spectrometer with a A/ Delta A approximately =200 and as a gas filled separator at pressures between 0.1-50 hPa. The reaction products recoiling off a thin target will be collected with efficiencies from 10-80at the focal plane. A Monte Carlo simulation program of the ion transport through the gas-filled magnets in combination of 3-dimensional TOSCA field maps has been developed and reproduces closely the experimental behavior of BGS. (9 refs).

  6. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Text can add a significant amount of detail and value to an information visualization. In particular, it can integrate more of the data that a visualization is based on, and it can also integrate information that is personally relevant to readers of a visualization. This may influence readers...... to consider a visualization a detailed enrichment of their personal experience instead of an abstract representation of anonymous numbers. However, the integration of textual detail into a visualization is often very challenging. This work discusses one particular approach to this problem, namely text......-filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...

  7. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling.

  8. Evaluation of Flowable Fill Surface Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    criteria was used to develop performance curves for conventional USAF cementitious capping materials ( rapid -setting concrete). The failure criteria...greater than 2 in. deep across 50 percent of the spall length. Similar performance curves could be developed for rapid -setting flowable fill as a...structural performance of Rapid Set Concrete Mix®. ERDC/GSL TR-16- 20. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. ERDC/GSL TR-16-33

  9. Modelling of dosator filling and discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Pinzon, Oscar Andres

    2012-01-01

    Dosators (and other machines operating on generally similar principles) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for dosing products that are delivered to the customer in powder form (i.e. capsules and dry inhaled powder applications). However a significant problem for this technology is the ability to predict how accurately and reliably, new formulations can be dosed from these machines prior to scale-up for manufacture. Dosator filling machines have been on the market for over for...

  10. Spin and charge necklaces at commensurate filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kiselev, M N, E-mail: konstk@post.tau.ac.i [The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-03-01

    The charge and spin properties of spin chains decorated with dimers and closed trimers (equilateral triangles) with commensurate partial filling (1/4 and 1/3, respectively) are considered. It is shown that due to the charge separation both systems prefer the ground state with even occupation per elementary cell, where the spin spectrum possesses the Haldane gap for negative spin exchange and magnon-like for positive coupling. The charge spectrum is always gapped.

  11. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  12. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  13. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  14. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...... to be taken into account. Furthermore investigations will be carried out to verify and further develop models based on the composite theory describing the effect of mixture composition on the rheological properties and stability of fresh SCC....

  15. Evaluation of the Efficacy of TRUShape and Reciproc File Systems in the Removal of Root Filling Material: An Ex Vivo Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira Zuolo, Arthur; Zuolo, Mario Luis; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo; Chu, Rene; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TRUShape (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) compared with the Reciproc file (VDW, Munich, Germany) in the removal of filling material from oval canals filled with 2 different sealers and differences in the working time. Sixty-four mandibular canines with oval canals were prepared and divided into 4 groups (n = 16). Half of the specimens were filled with gutta-percha and pulp canal sealer (PCS), and the remainders were filled with gutta-percha and bioceramic sealer (BCS). The specimens were retreated using either the Reciproc or TRUShape files. A micro-computed tomographic scanner was used to assess filling material removal, and the time taken for removal was also recorded. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean volume of the remaining filling material was similar when comparing both files (P ≥ .05). However, in the groups filled with BCS, the percentage of remaining filling material was higher than in the groups filled with PCS (P material when comparing both files system; however, Reciproc was faster than TRUShape. BCS groups exhibited significantly more remaining filling material in the canals and required more time for retreatment. Remaining filling material was observed in all samples regardless of the technique or sealer used. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  17. Cavity filling water control below aerator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱尚拓; 吴建华; 马飞; 徐建荣; 彭育; 汪振

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of high dam projects within China, the dragon-drop-tail spillway tunnel is introduced and widely used. In view of the high water head and the large flow velocity on the dragon-drop-tail section, aerator devices are usually placed for the cavitation damage control. For the device placed in its initial position, it is a serious concern to design a suitable flow regime of the cavity and to control the cavity filling water due to the large flow depth and the low Froude number through this aera-tor. In this study, the relationships between the geometries of the aerator device and the jet impact angle of the lower trajectory of the flow are theoretically analyzed with/without a local slope. Nine test cases with different geometries are designed, the effectiveness of the filling water control is experimentally investigated under different operation conditions, and two criteria of the local slope design are proposed. It is concluded that the cavity flow regime and the filling water can be improved if a small impact angle and some sui-table geometries of the local slope are designed.

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Fibers Randomly Filled with Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Luan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a temperature sensor design based on surface plasmon resonances (SPRs supported by filling the holes of a six-hole photonic crystal fiber (PCF with a silver nanowire. A liquid mixture (ethanol and chloroform with a large thermo-optic coefficient is filled into the PCF holes as sensing medium. The filled silver nanowires can support resonance peaks and the peak will shift when temperature variations induce changes in the refractive indices of the mixture. By measuring the peak shift, the temperature change can be detected. The resonance peak is extremely sensitive to temperature because the refractive index of the filled mixture is close to that of the PCF material. Our numerical results indicate that a temperature sensitivity as high as 4 nm/K can be achieved and that the most sensitive range of the sensor can be tuned by changing the volume ratios of ethanol and chloroform. Moreover, the maximal sensitivity is relatively stable with random filled nanowires, which will be very convenient for the sensor fabrication.

  19. Modeling of Filling and Solidification Process for TiAl Exhaust Valves During Suction Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao XIONG; Yingche MA; Bo CHEN; Kui LIU; Yiyi LI

    2013-01-01

    Investment and suction casting (ISC) represents an economic and promising process route to fabricate automotive exhaust valves ofγ-TiAl based alloys,but information available on the metal flow and the temperature changes during mould filling and solidification process for the ISC process is meager.A sequentially coupled mathematical flow-thermal model,based on the commercial finite-volume/finite-difference code FLOW-3D and the finite-element code PROCAST,has been developed to investigate the ISC process.In term of calculating the flow and temperature fields during the filling and solidification stages,potential defects including the gas bubbles and the surface air entrainment occurred in the mould filling process and the shrinkage porosities formed in the solidification process are predicted and the reasons for the formation of these defects are also analyzed.The effects of filling pressure difference control methods and moulds on gas bubble and surface air entrainment behavior are presented.It is found that by changing the filling pressure difference control methods from general suction casting to "air leakage" suction casting and reducing air leakage flow rates,the gas bubbles are eliminated effectively,and the surface air entrainment attenuate dramatically.With resort to a mould with a tetragonal runner,the surface air entrainment decrease to the lowest level.Finally,the water analogue and suction casting experiments of exhaust valves are implemented for further validation of the simulation results.

  20. Magnetic Fabrics and their Application to Basal Crevasse Fills, Flàajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, W. R., Jr.; Hooyer, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long, linear features consisting of sediment and ice, approximately 100 m long and 20 cm wide, run transverse to the margin of Flàajökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull Ice Cap. These features, interpreted as basal crevasse fills, are thought to have formed by debris and water injected into a void under pure tension or a combination of tension and shear in response to an ice pressure drop at the bed. The debris content of these basal crevasse fills are between 5 to 10% by volume. The formation of these basal crevasse fills is uncertain, because direct observation is difficult. To study these basal crevasse fills, we used the orientation of magnetic grains using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to guide us in understanding their kinematics. The AMS technique is superior over other fabric methods because a three-dimensional susceptibility ellipsoid is used to determine strain. We sampled two basal crevasse fills and obtained 86 ice core samples for AMS analyses. We also cut nine blocks of ice to determine the magnetic mineralogy, grain size of the magnetic carrier and c-axis orientation of the ice. The AMS results demonstrate that at one fill, the fabric was most likely formed by a combination of pure shear and simple shear. At the second site the AMS results were not well clustered possibly due to insufficient strain. Hysteresis and high temperature susceptibility tests indicate a magnetite carrier that was silt-sized or smaller. Thin sections used to evaluate c-axis fabrics display several multi-maximums that suggested that the fabric developed through recrystallization during deformation. It is inferred that grain scale processes reveal deformation by grain-boundary migration and grain nucleation. Magnetic particles appear to have behaved as passive markers following the March model (1932). Given this data set, we argue that the crevasse fills were formed by multiple processes including injection of turbid waters followed by in situ-freezing and

  1. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  2. Finite Element Analysis on Influence Factor of Seismic Behavior of the Concrete-Filled Steel Square Tubular Column Joints%方钢管混凝土中节点抗震性能影响因素有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽丽

    2011-01-01

    设计了6个节点模型试件,应用有限元软件ANSYS,对低周反复荷载作用下的节点模型破坏全过程进行分析,并分析芯钢管强度、核心区混凝土强度和外钢管强度对节点滞回性能以及骨架曲线的影响.ANSYS分析结果表明:芯钢管强度和外钢管强度对节点的耗能能力有一定的影响,对节点的承载力影响不大;核心区混凝土的强度对节点的耗能能力和承载力都有一定的影响.%To research the mechanical behavior of the interior joint with core steel tube in Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular under low reversed cyclic loading, and to explore the relevant factors of the impact of node performance, the whole destruction process of the node model under the action of low cyclic loading was analyzed in the paper based on six designs of the node, by using the finite element software ANSYS. The strength of core steel, the concrete of the core area, the strength of outside steel pipe, the Hysteretic Curve and the skeleton curve on the node model were investigated in details. The results showed that the core strength and outer steel pipe strength have a certain influence on the bearing capacity of the node, but they have little influence on of the energy capacity. And the strength of the concrete of the core area have the impact of the Energy Dissipation and the Bearing Capacity on the node model.

  3. Upper Eyelid Filling With or Without Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The upper eyelid of young people is characterized by a proper fullness and projection. Aging eyes show upper eyelid volume loss, symmetric or asymmetric hollowing with too much upper lid showing, dermatochalasis with skin excess. While in the past blepharoplasty surgery was the only approach used to improve eye appearance in the last years, hyaluronic acid (HA) filling of the upper eyelid area has been found very effective in reaching good eye rejuvenation and use of traditional surgical techniques can be limited. A total of 154 patients were enrolled in this study to improve eye appearance. One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated with HA injections in the upper eyelid only, 21 patients underwent surgical treatment followed by HA injections to ensure full correction, and 5 patients underwent blepharoplasty surgery only. The correct approach has been evaluated on the basis of standardized criterion. Twelve-month clinical follow-up was used to evaluate the results and the degree of patient satisfaction was high. The results are very lasting and no modifications after 2 years are common. HA filling is an effective means to rejuvenate the upper eyelid and in several cases it is the only approach able to restore the proper fullness of the upper eyelids. Surgical techniques should be used in the presence of dermatochalasis with excess skin. HA injections in the upper eyelid are easy to perform but it is important to use the correct technique and follow proper indications. This method is a manageable, lasting, and low-cost treatment. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  4. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of h...

  5. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to determine...... theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline...

  6. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  7. The effect of tube filling on the electronic properties of Fe filled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linganiso, Ella C. [Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Nano-Scale Transport Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Chimowa, George [Nano-Scale Transport Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Franklyn, Paul J. [Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Bhattacharyya, Somnath [Nano-Scale Transport Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Coville, Neil J., E-mail: neil.coville@wits.ac.za [Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM image of a twisted CNT filled with a bent single crystal of Fe. Insets from top to bottom show the power spectra of the corresponding regions, indicating the twisting of the Fe lattice. Inset in the top right shows the relative angling of the lattice fringes to accommodate the twisting of the Fe. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Fe filled CNTs with Fe content varying from 3 to 35%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM analysis indicates that Fe in the tubes is in contact with the CNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM analysis reveals that {alpha}-Fe crystallizes after CNT formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature dependent electronic transport measurements performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity varies with the % Fe filling in the CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes filled with Fe nanostructures (Fe-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection method in a 1-stage horizontal CVD furnace and a bubbling method in a 2-stage horizontal CVD reactor. Fe-CNTs were obtained through the pyrolysis of a mixture of dichlorobenzene and ferrocene in 5%H{sub 2}/Ar. Metal impurities from the Fe-CNTs were removed using 1 M HCl solution. CNTs filled with crystalline Fe nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires were obtained using these procedures. An intimate interaction between the Fe and the CNT was established by HRTEM studies. The {alpha}-Fe phase was observed to be the most dominant fraction found in the synthesized Fe-CNTs. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} residue obtained from the TGA analysis revealed the amount of Fe filled inside the CNTs and this ranged between 3 and 31% by mass after purification. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the temperature range between 2.5 and 100 K for an entangled network of Fe-CNTs was measured. An increase in conductivity due to the increased Fe filling inside the CNTs with increased temperature was observed. The observed temperature dependence was explained in terms of variable

  8. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  10. Rapid graph layout using space filling curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelder, Chris; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2008-01-01

    Network data frequently arises in a wide variety of fields, and node-link diagrams are a very natural and intuitive representation of such data. In order for a node-link diagram to be effective, the nodes must be arranged well on the screen. While many graph layout algorithms exist for this purpose, they often have limitations such as high computational complexity or node colocation. This paper proposes a new approach to graph layout through the use of space filling curves which is very fast and guarantees that there will be no nodes that are colocated. The resulting layout is also aesthetic and satisfies several criteria for graph layout effectiveness.

  11. POLYMER FILLER INTERACTIONS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH GLASS-BEADS - EFFECT OF GRAFTED POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOLKERSMA, R; CHALLA, G; SCHOUTEN, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  12. Polymer-filler interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) filled with glass beads : effect of grafted poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Gert; Folkersma, Rudy; Challa, Ger; Schouten, Arend Jan; Bosma, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  13. DEM simulations of die filling during pharmaceutical tabletting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flow behaviour of powders from a stationary shoe into a moving die, which mimics the die filling process in a rotary tablet press, was analysed using a discrete element method (DEM), in which 2D irregular shaped particles were considered. The influence of the particle shape,size and size distribution, the number of particles used in the simulation, the initial height of powder bed in the shoe, and the filling speed on the average mass flow rate and the critical filling speed (the highest speed at which the die can be completely filled) were explored. It has been found that a maximum flow rate is obtained at the critical filling speed for all systems investigated and poly-disperse systems have higher mass flow rates and higher critical filling speeds than mono-disperse systems. In addition, the powder with particles which can tessellate generally has a lower filling rate and a lower critical filling speed.

  14. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants: Updated Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants: Updated Safety Information Share Tweet ... When the Food and Drug Administration allowed silicone gel-filled breast implants back on the market in ...

  15. Selection of direct restorative and rooting filling materials by Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of direct restorative and rooting filling materials by Kenyan dentists in 2014. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... To establish the categories of direct restorative and root filling materials used by ...

  16. Fouling-release Property of Water-filled Porous Elastomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai-yong Xie; Fei Hong; Chuan-xin He; Jian-hong Liu; Chi Wu

    2012-01-01

    Since the fouling-releasing ability of silicone elastomers increased as their modulus decreases,we designed and prepared composites with embedded tiny NaCl crytals that were soluble after their immersion in water,resulting in water-filled porous elastomers.The scanning electron microscope images confirmed such a designed water-filling porous structure.The existence of many micro-drops of water in these specially designed elastomers decreased the shear storage modulus and increased the loss factors.The decrease of shear modulus plays a leading role here and is directly related to a lower critical peeling-off stress of a pseudo-barnacle on them.Therefore,such a novel preparation with cheap salts instead of an expensive silicone provides a better way to make fouling-release paints with a lower modulus,a lower critical peeling-off stress and a better fouling-release property without a significant decrease of the cross-linking density.

  17. Composite silicone rubber of high piezoresistance repeatability filled with nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The ruthenium oxide nanoparticles with size less than 20 nm were fabricated by annealing the metallic ruthenium nanoparticles in air,which were synthesized by using the thermal reduction in the polyol solution.The rutile structure of the ruthenium oxide was proved by using transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS).The oxide has good electron conductivity. The surface of the ruthenium oxide was modified by a vinyl silane coupling agent.The assembling of the silane to the oxide surface was proved by Infrared(IR)absorption spectroscopy.By mixing the nanoparticles with poly(methylvinylsiloxane)(PMVS)silicone rubber,a composite filled with dispersive conducting phase was fabricated.The temperature dependent conductivity shows that the electron transportation through composite is mainly dominated by tunneling.The measurement of piezoresistance shows that the composite at low strain has high piezoresistance repeatability.The 3D reconstruction images of the composite filled with carbon black or ruthenium oxide show that the aggregation of the nanoparticles differs much for two composites.The narrow distribution range of the particle size was thought to be the main factor for the high piezoresistance recurrence.

  18. The Elastic Mold Deformation During the Filling and Packing Stage of the Injection Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kleindel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate numerical prediction of the mold filling process of long and thin walled parts is dependent on numerous factors. This paper investigates the effect of various influencing variables on the filling pattern by means of simulation and experimental validation. It was found that mold temperature, process settings and venting conditions have little effect on the predicted filling pattern. However, in the actual case study, the filling behavior observed during the experiments was significantly different compared to the numerical prediction. A structural finite element analysis of the moving mold half showed an unacceptable large deformation of the mold plates under injection pressure. A very good correlation between simulation and experiment was attained after improving the stiffness of the mold. Therefore it can be concluded, that the elasticity of the mold may have a significant influence on the filling pattern when long and thin walled products are considered. Furthermore, it was shown, that even an apparently stiff mold can exhibit a distinct deformation during filling and packing stage.

  19. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  20. Characterization of a two-dimensional liquid-filled ion chamber detector array used for verification of the treatments in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Miljenko; Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Jurkovic, Ines-Ana; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled ion chamber detector array, which is used for the verification of radiotherapy treatment plans that use small field sizes of up to 10 × 10 cm. The device used in this study was Octavius 1000 SRS model (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Its 2D array of detectors consists of 977 liquid-filled ion chambers arranged over an area of 11 × 11 cm. The size of the detectors is 2.3 × 2.3 × 0.5 mm (volume of 0.003 cm(3)) and their spacing in the inner area of 5.5 × 5.5 cm is 2.5 mm center-to-center, whereas in the outer area it is 5 mm center-to-center. The detector reproducibility, dose linearity, and sensitivity to positional changes of the collimator were tested. Also, the output factors of field sizes ranging from 0.5 × 0.5 to 10 × 10 cm(2) both for open and wedged fields have been measured and compared against those measured by a pin-point ionization chamber, liquid filled microchamber, SRS diode, and EDR2 film. Its short-term reproducibility was within 0.2% and its medium and long-term reproducibility was within 0.5% (verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements), which is an excellent result taking into account the daily fluctuation of the linear accelerator and the errors in the device setup reproducibility. The dose linearity and dose rate dependence were measured in the range of 0.5-85 Gy and 0.5-10 Gy min(-1), respectively, and were verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements was within 3%. The measurements of the sensitivity showed that the 2D Array could detect millimetric collimator positional changes. The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 0.3% with the pinpoint chamber and microliquid filled chamber for the field sizes between 3 × 3 and 10 × 10 cm(2). For field sizes down to 1 × 1 cm(2), the agreement with SRS diode and microliquid filled chamber is better than 2%. The measurements of open and

  1. Characterization of a two-dimensional liquid-filled ion chamber detector array used for verification of the treatments in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Miljenko, E-mail: markovic@livemail.uthscsa.edu; Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Jurkovic, Ines-Ana; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled ion chamber detector array, which is used for the verification of radiotherapy treatment plans that use small field sizes of up to 10 × 10 cm. Methods: The device used in this study was Octavius 1000 SRS model (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Its 2D array of detectors consists of 977 liquid-filled ion chambers arranged over an area of 11 × 11 cm. The size of the detectors is 2.3 × 2.3 × 0.5 mm (volume of 0.003 cm{sup 3}) and their spacing in the inner area of 5.5 × 5.5 cm is 2.5 mm center-to-center, whereas in the outer area it is 5 mm center-to-center. The detector reproducibility, dose linearity, and sensitivity to positional changes of the collimator were tested. Also, the output factors of field sizes ranging from 0.5 × 0.5 to 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} both for open and wedged fields have been measured and compared against those measured by a pin-point ionization chamber, liquid filled microchamber, SRS diode, and EDR2 film. Results: Its short-term reproducibility was within 0.2% and its medium and long-term reproducibility was within 0.5% (verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements), which is an excellent result taking into account the daily fluctuation of the linear accelerator and the errors in the device setup reproducibility. The dose linearity and dose rate dependence were measured in the range of 0.5–85 Gy and 0.5–10 Gy min{sup −1}, respectively, and were verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements was within 3%. The measurements of the sensitivity showed that the 2D Array could detect millimetric collimator positional changes. The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 0.3% with the pinpoint chamber and microliquid filled chamber for the field sizes between 3 × 3 and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. For field sizes down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}, the agreement with SRS diode and microliquid filled

  2. Assessment of dome-fill technology and potential fill materials for the Hanford single-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, J.D.; Shade, J.W.; Somasundaram, S.

    1992-05-01

    This study is part of a task that will identify dome-fill materials to stabilize and prevent the collapse of the structures of 149 single- shell tanks (SSTs). The SSTs were built at the Hanford Site in Washington State and used between 1944 and 1980 to store radioactive and other hazardous wastes. In addition to identifying suitable fill materials, this task will develop the technology and methods required to fill the tanks with the selected material. To date, basalt is the only candidate fill material with any testing conducted for its suitability as a dome-fill material. Sufficient data do not exist to select or eliminate basalt as a candidate material. This report documents a review of past dome-fill work at the Hanford Site and of other pertinent literature to establish a baseline for the dome-fill technology. In addition, the report identifies existing dome-fill technology, preliminary performance criteria for dome-fill technology development, potential testing strategies, and potential fill materials. As a part of this study, potential fill materials are qualitatively evaluated and a list of preliminary candidate fill materials is identified. Future work will further screen these materials. The dome-fill task work will ultimately contribute to the development of a final waste form package and the safe isolation of wastes from the Hanford Site SSTs.

  3. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  4. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  5. Composite fermions for fractionally filled Chern bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, R.

    2012-02-01

    We consider fractionally filled bands with a non-zero Chern index that exhibit the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in zero external fieldootnotetextR. Roy and S. Sondhi, Physics 4, 46 (2011) and papers reviewed therein. a possibility supported by numerical work.ootnotetextIbid. Analytic treatments are complicated by a non-constant Berry flux and the absence of Composite Fermions (CF), which would not only single out preferred fractions, but also allow us compute numerous response functions at nonzero frequencies, wavelengths and temperature using either Chern-Simons field theory or our Hamiltonian formalism.ootnotetextG. Murthy and R. Shankar, Rev. Mod. Phys., 75, 1101, (2003) We describe a way to introduce CF's by embedding the Chern band in an auxiliary problem involving Landau levels. The embedded band can be designed to approximate a prescribed Chern density in k space which determines the commutation relations of the charge densities and hence preserve all dynamical and algebraic aspects of the original problem. We find some states for which the filling fraction and dimensionless Hall conductance are not equal. The approach extends to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators and to composite bosons.

  6. Early diastolic filling dynamics in diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crean Peter A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of peak early mitral inflow velocity and the peak early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocities in normal controls and to compare them with subjects with diastolic dysfunction. Methods The relationship between early passive diastolic transmitral flow and peak early mitral annular velocity in the normal and in diastolic dysfunction was studied. Two groups comprising 22 normal controls and 25 patients with diastolic dysfunction were studied. Results Compared with the normal group, those with diastolic dysfunction had a lower E/A ratio (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5, p 2 vs. 871 ± 128.1 cm/sec2, p Conclusions This investigation provides information on the acceleration of early diastolic filling and its relationship to mitral annular peak tissue velocity (Ea recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. It supports not only the premise that recoil is an important mechanism for rapid early diastolic filling but also the existence of an early diastolic mechanism in normal.

  7. Effect of Uniform and Non-uniform High-z Nanoparticles Distribution in Tumor Volume on Dose Enhancement Factor During 192Ir Brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zabihzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: increase of atomic number and concentrations of NPs enhance the absorbed dose due to increased possibility of photoelectric phenomena. Non-uniform distribution of NPs underestimated dose compared to uniform distribution; therefore, considering accurate NPs distribution inside the tumor volume is crucial to calculation of dose enhancement. Targeted labeling of NPs for the maximum absorption by tumor and for the minimal penetration into peripheral tissues has potential to increase radiation therapeutic ratio.

  8. Micro-Computed Tomography Study of Filling Material Removal from Oval-shaped Canals by Using Rotary, Reciprocating, and Adaptive Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Fantinato, Thais; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated filling material removal from distal oval-shaped canals of mandibular molars with rotary, reciprocating, and adaptive motion systems by using micro-computed tomography. After cone-beam computed tomography scanning, 21 teeth were selected, prepared up to a size 40 file, root filled, and divided into 3 groups (n = 7) according to the filling material removal technique: group PTUR, ProTaper Universal Retreatment combined with ProTaper Universal F2, F3, F4, and F5 files; group RP, Reciproc R50 file; and group TFA: TF Adaptive 50.04 files. The specimens were scanned preoperatively and postoperatively to assess filling material removal by using micro-computed tomography imaging, and the percent volume of residual filling material was calculated. The statistical analysis showed the lowest percent volume of residual filling material at the coronal third in all groups (P  .05). In the middle third, group TFA (31.2 ± 10.1) showed lower volume of residual filling material than group RP (52.4 ± 14.1) (P material than group RP (70.6 ± 7.2) (P material from the canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 46 CFR 98.25-65 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 98.25-65 Section 98.25-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... § 98.25-65 Filling density. (a) The filling density, or the percent ratio of the liquefied gas that may...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  11. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20... Items § 2902.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition. (1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric...

  12. Transabdominal Ultrasonography-Defined Optimal and Definitive Bladder-Filling Protocol With Time Trends During Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Mahantshetty; Kumar, Deepak P; Chadha, Pranav; Choudary, Rajiv; Kembhavi, Seema; Thakur, Meenakshi; Reena, Engineer; Chopra, Supriya; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2017-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques have emphasized on the importance of accurate target volume localization and delineation. The aim of this study was to determine time taken to achieve moderate bladder volume under physiological conditions, using transabdominal ultrasound. Patients with cervical cancer undergoing radical radiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy underwent serial ultrasound to estimate bladder filling. With a strict bladder protocol of consuming 1000 mL of water orally over 30 minutes after emptying the bladder, ultrasound was done after 45 minutes from bladder emptying time and repeated at 15-minute interval till 300 (25) mL filling was achieved and repeated every week. Forty-six patients with weekly ultrasound for bladder-filling documentation were evaluated. The mean (standard deviation) bladder volume measured at 45 minutes was 220 (93), 210 (95), 195 (91), 195 (96), and 190 (85) mL (average: 200; median: 195 mL) for the first to fifth week, respectively, and the mean (standard deviation) volume at 75 minutes was 300 (95), 310 (80), 290 (80), 295 (80), and 285 (70) mL (average: 295; median: 300 mL). The mean (standard deviation) time for bladder filling to 300 mL in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth week was 57 ( 13.5), 67 (16.6), 66 (16.7), 66 (15.5), and 69 (17.1) minutes, respectively. Bladder filling to a definitive moderate volume at a reasonably fixed time period in each week of radiation is well tolerated, feasible, and measurable by weekly transabdominal ultrasound measurements.

  13. Performance enhancement of filled-type solar collector with U-tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若冰; 张吉礼; 赵亮; 马良栋

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar collector, a methodology is proposed based on the analysis of its influencing factors, such as thermal conductivity of filled layer, structure forms of filled layer and heat loss coefficient. The results of analysis show that the heat transfer between pipes in evacuated tube is one of the most important factors, which can lead to the decrease of the outlet temperature of working fluid. In order to eliminate the negative influence of the heat transfer between pipes, the hollow filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube (HUFET) was developed, and the heat transfer characteristics of HUFET were analyzed by theoretical and experimental studies. The results show that the thermal resistances decrease with the increase of the thermal conductivity of filled layer. When the thermal conductivity is over 10 W/(m·K), the change of thermal resistances is very little. Furthermore, the larger the thermal conductivity of filled layer, the less the rate of the energy transfer between the two pipes to the total energy transfer, which is between the absorber tube and the working fluid. There is a little difference between the efficiencies of HUFET and UFET, with the efficiency of HUFET 2.4%higher than that of UFET. Meanwhile, the validation of the model developed was confirmed by the experiment.

  14. 小麦中国春 NAM 转录因子 Gpc-1和 Gpc-2灌浆期时空表达模式分析%Spatiotemporal Expression Pattern Analysis of NAM Transcription Factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in Bread Wheat Cultivar Chinese Spring During Grain Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 董剑; 要燕杰; 赵万春; 高翔

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the roles of no apical meristem (NAM) transcription factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in early senescence and nutrient remobilization to the grain of bread wheat. [Method] Their spatiotemporal expression patterns were investigated during the grain-filling stage in wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Their temporal expression dynamics were studied in penultimate leaf, flag leaf, peduncle, glume, rachis and the kernel using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). And the relative expression level was quantified using Pfaffl method with normalization against multiple verified reference genes. Applying mRNA in situ hybridization, the spatial expression pattern was explored in post-anthesis flag leaf, peduncle and the kernel only with digoxin-labeled oligonucleotide probes which were specifically targeting 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of Gpc-1 and Gpc-2. [Result] Contrary to a previous report, the functional TaNAM-B1 rather than its dysfunctional paralog was found in Chinese Spring, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with the wild-type TtNAM-B1 in T. turgidum var.dicoccoides. All the results showed that Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 were all widely expressed in studied tissues with the exception of the root in which only the transcript of Gpc-1 was detected. The outcomes of mRNA in situ hybridization indicated that all five genes shared cell-type specificities. To be specific, no transcripts were distributed in leaf epidermal cells, pericarp and the seed coat;however, they mainly aggregated in leaf mesophyll cells, aleurone layer, embryo, and the tissues responsible for the mineral element transport (vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and the transfer cell) in grain, in which the highest expression level was observed in embryo. In addition, lower expression level was detected in the peduncle and leaf vascular bundle as well. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the temporal expression

  15. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental setup is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a microelectromechanical system gas sensor...... mounted inside the mold. The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidences about...

  16. Filling the THz Gap - High Power Sources and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn Williams

    2006-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves centered at a frequency of 1 THz lie between photonics on the one hand and electronics on the other, and are very hard to generate and detect. However, since the THz part of the spectrum is energetically equivalent to many important physical, chemical and biological processes including superconducting gaps and protein dynamical processes, it is of great interest to facilitate experimental research in this region. This has stimulated major steps in the past decade for filling this gap in the usable spectrum. In this review paper we describe the evolution of a new generation of sources that boost the average power available in the THz region by more than a million-fold, making this region routinely accessible for the first time. This is achieved using two enhancement factors, namely relativistic electrons and super-radiance. We will also point to the scientific potential for discovery that is now enabled in this region.

  17. Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gwyn P [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves centred at a frequency of 1 THz lie between photonics on the one hand and electronics on the other, and are very hard to generate and detect. However, since the THz part of the spectrum is energetically equivalent to many important physical, chemical and biological processes including superconducting gaps and protein dynamical processes, it is of great interest to facilitate experimental research in this region. This has stimulated major steps in the past decade for filling this gap in the usable spectrum. In this review paper we describe the evolution of a new generation of sources that boost the average power available in the THz region by more than a million-fold, making this region routinely accessible for the first time. This is achieved using two enhancement factors, namely relativistic electrons and super-radiance. We will also point to the scientific potential for discovery that is now enabled in this region.

  18. Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.

  19. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a head-of-hollow... not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core chimney drain may be... is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  20. Computer simulation for centrifugal mold filling of precision titanium castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Computer simulation codes were developed based on a proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings (CASM-3D for Windows). Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings under a centrifugal force field than that only under the gravity. A "return back" mold filling manner is showed to be a reasonable technique for centrifugal casting processes, especially for thin section precision castings.

  1. Properties of Raphia Palm Interspersed Fibre Filled High Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Obasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of nonbiodegradable and biodegradable polymers can promote a reduction in the volume of plastic waste when they undergo partial degradation. In this study, properties of raphia palm interspersed fibre (RPIF filled high density polyethylene (HDPE have been investigated at different levels of filler loadings, 0 to 60 wt.%. Maleic anhydride-graft polyethylene was used as a compatibilizer. Raphia palm interspersed fibre was prepared by grinding and sieved to a particle size of 150 µm. HDPE blends were prepared in a corotating twin screw extruder. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends decreased with increase in RPI loadings and addition of MA-g-PE was found to improve these properties. However, the Young’s modulus increased with increase in the amount of RPI into HDPE and compatibilization further increased the Young’s modulus. The water absorption indices and weight loss for RPI/HDPE composites were found to increase with RPI loadings but were decreased on addition of MA-g-PE.

  2. Microstructural residual stress in particle-filled dental composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejzek, Ondřej; Spaniel, Miroslav; Mareš, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a micromechanical model of a particle-filled dental composite focused on the residual stress (RS) field developed during the curing process in its microstructure. A finite element model of a representative volume element of filler and resin was developed, and volumetric shrinkage was simulated during the curing process. Four material models (von Mises plasticity model, Drucker-Prager plasticity model, von Mises plasticity model with stress relaxation and Drucker-Prager plasticity with stress relaxation) of the polymer resin were built to assess the influence of the material model on the resulting internal stress. The relationship between the curing process and the magnitude of the stress components will be described, and an analysis of the post-curing state of the material in particular microstructure locations will be conducted in this study. Obtained RS is comparable to the stresses developed in the material under the external load. The substantial dependence on the choice of material model for resin is to be observed, and the suitability of particular models is discussed.

  3. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  4. Liquid-filled canyons on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, V.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A. G.; Seu, R.; Birch, S. P. D.; Lorenz, R.; Grima, C.; Hofgartner, J. D.

    2016-08-01

    In May 2013 the Cassini RADAR altimeter observed channels in Vid Flumina, a drainage network connected to Titan's second largest hydrocarbon sea, Ligeia Mare. Analysis of these altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (up to 570 m), steep-sided, canyons and have strong specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid filled. Elevations of the liquid in these channels are at the same level as Ligeia Mare to within a vertical precision of about 0.7 m, consistent with the interpretation of drowned river valleys. Specular reflections are also observed in lower order tributaries elevated above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  5. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs.

  6. Tribology of Graphite-Filled Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Gilardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-lubricating polymer compounds are currently used for a wide range of applications such as bearings, gears, and water meters. Under severe conditions such as high pressure, high velocity, and/or high temperatures, the material fails (PV limit. In this study, we investigated the effect of graphite on the tribological properties of polystyrene (PS with “ball-on-three-plates” tests. Graphite-filled PS plates were produced via an internal mixer and compression molding. Unhardened steel (1.4401 and nylon (PA66 balls were used for the tribological tests. Our results indicate that graphite loading, graphite type, and particle size have a big influence on the friction coefficient, the wear resistance, and the PV limit of PS both against steel and PA66. In particular, primary synthetic graphite performs better than secondary synthetic graphite due to the higher degree of crystallinity.

  7. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva, E-mail: dyrnjaja@ati.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Stadionallee 2, Vienna (Austria); Hummel, Stefan, E-mail: hummel@fotec.at [FOTEC GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Keding, Marcus, E-mail: keding@fotec.at [FOTEC GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Smolle, Marie-Theres, E-mail: marie-theres.smolle@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Stadionallee 2, Vienna (Austria); Gerger, Joachim, E-mail: gerger@fotec.at [FOTEC GmbH, Viktor Kaplan-Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Zawisky, Michael, E-mail: zawisky@ati.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Stadionallee 2, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed.

  8. Aging Studies of Filled and Unfilled VCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Herberg, J; Alviso, C; Small, W; Mulcahy, H; Pearson, M; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2009-11-10

    This report presents data on the effects of temperature and gamma radiation on the chemical and structural properties of both filled and unfilled VCE material produced by the Kansas City Plant using WR-qualified processes. Thermal effects up to 300 C and gamma irradiation doses of 1 MRad and 25 MRad were investigated under atmospheric conditions. Characterization techniques used in the study comprise Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Tensile Testing, Solid Phase MicroExtraction - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), phenol extraction followed by HPLC, and various Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques including: {sup 13}C, {sup 13}C {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} cross polarization (CP), {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS), 13C{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} Wide-line-Separation (2D-WISE) and development of Center band-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX).

  9. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  10. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  11. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  12. Critical temperature of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices at arbitrary integer fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases.

  13. Modelling die filling with charged particles using DEM/CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Nkem Nwose; Chunlei Pei; Chuan-Yu Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electrostatic charge on powder flow behaviour during die filling in a vacuum and in air were analysed using a coupled discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM/CFD) code,in which long range electrostatic interactions were implemented.The present 2D simulations revealed that both electrostatic charge and the presence of air can affect the powder flow behaviour during die filling.It was found that the electrostatic charge inhibited the flow of powders into the die and induced a loose packing structure.At the same filling speed,increasing the electrostatic charge led to a decrease in the fill ratio which quantifies the volumetric occupancy of powder in the die.In addition,increasing the shoe speed caused a further decrease in the fill ratio,which was characterised using the concept of critical filling speed.When the electrostatic charge was low,the air/particle interaction was strong so that a lower critical filling speed was obtained for die filling in air than in a vacuum.With high electrostatic charge,the electrostatic interactions became dominant.Consequently,similar fill ratio and critical filling speed were obtained for die filling in air and in a vacuum.

  14. Long-term pulmonary regurgitation following balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary stenosis risk factors and relationship to exercise capacity and ventricular volume and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, David M; Powell, Andrew J; Tran, Trang X; Trang, Trang X; Geva, Tal; Lock, James E; Rhodes, Jonathan; McElhinney, Doff B

    2010-03-09

    This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following balloon dilation (BD) for pulmonary stenosis (PS) and to investigate its impact on ventricular volume and function, and exercise tolerance. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty relieves PS but can cause late PR. The sequelae of isolated PR are not well understood. Patients were at least 7 years of age and 5 years removed from BD, and had no other form of congenital heart disease or significant residual PS. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and exercise testing were performed prospectively to quantify PR fraction, ventricular volumes and function, and exercise capacity. Forty-one patients underwent testing a median of 13.1 years after BD. The median PR fraction was 10%; 14 patients (34%) had PR fraction >15%; 7 (17%) had PR >30%. PR fraction was associated with age at dilation (ln-transformed, R = -0.47, p = 0.002) and balloon:annulus ratio (R = 0.57, p or =2) was present in 14/35 patients (40%). PR fraction correlated closely with indexed RV end-diastolic volume (R = 0.79, p PR fraction >15% had significantly lower peak Vo(2) than those with less PR (85 +/- 17% vs. 96 +/- 16%, p = 0.03). Mild PR and RV dilation are common in the long term following BD. A PR fraction >15% is associated with lower peak Vo(2), suggesting that isolated PR and consequent RV dilation are related to impaired exercise cardiopulmonary function. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A multifractal approach to space-filling recovery for PET quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willaime, Julien M. Y., E-mail: julien.willaime@siemens.com; Aboagye, Eric O. [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Tsoumpas, Charalampos [Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Turkheimer, Federico E. [Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A new image-based methodology is developed for estimating the apparent space-filling properties of an object of interest in PET imaging without need for a robust segmentation step and used to recover accurate estimates of total lesion activity (TLA). Methods: A multifractal approach and the fractal dimension are proposed to recover the apparent space-filling index of a lesion (tumor volume, TV) embedded in nonzero background. A practical implementation is proposed, and the index is subsequently used with mean standardized uptake value (SUV {sub mean}) to correct TLA estimates obtained from approximate lesion contours. The methodology is illustrated on fractal and synthetic objects contaminated by partial volume effects (PVEs), validated on realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET simulations and tested for its robustness using a clinical {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine PET test–retest dataset. Results: TLA estimates were stable for a range of resolutions typical in PET oncology (4–6 mm). By contrast, the space-filling index and intensity estimates were resolution dependent. TLA was generally recovered within 15% of ground truth on postfiltered PET images affected by PVEs. Volumes were recovered within 15% variability in the repeatability study. Results indicated that TLA is a more robust index than other traditional metrics such as SUV {sub mean} or TV measurements across imaging protocols. Conclusions: The fractal procedure reported here is proposed as a simple and effective computational alternative to existing methodologies which require the incorporation of image preprocessing steps (i.e., partial volume correction and automatic segmentation) prior to quantification.

  16. IgG particle formation during filling pump operation: a case study of heterogeneous nucleation on stainless steel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Anil K; Randolph, Theodore W; Dong, Aichun; Maloney, Kevin M; Hitscherich, Carl; Carpenter, John F

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with vial filling with a positive displacement piston pump leading to formation of protein particles in a formulation of an IgG. We hypothesized that nanoparticles shed from the pump's solution-contact surfaces nucleated protein aggregation and particle formation. Vials of IgG formulation filled at a clinical manufacturing site contained a few visible particles and about 100,000 particles (1.5-3 microm) per mL. In laboratory studies with the same model (National Instruments FUS-10) of pump, pumping of 20 mg/mL IgG formulation resulted in about 300,000 particles (1.5-3 microm) per mL. Pumping of protein-free formulation resulted in 13,000 particles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. More than 99% of the particles were 0.25-0.95 microm in size. Mixing of protein-free pumped solution with an equal volume of 40 mg/mL IgG resulted in 300,000 particles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. Also, mixing IgG formulation with 30,000/mL stainless steel nanoparticles resulted in formation of 30,000 protein microparticles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. Infrared spectroscopy showed that secondary structure of IgG in microparticles formed by pumping or mixing with steel nanoparticles was minimally perturbed. Our results document that nanoparticles of foreign materials shed by pumps can serve as heterogeneous nuclei for formation of protein microparticles.

  17. Right and left medial orbitofrontal volumes show an opposite relationship to agreeableness in FTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Kramer, Joel H; Schauer, Guido F; Weiner, Michael W; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Bruce L

    2004-01-01

    Recent investigations of the neuroanatomy of complex social behaviors suggest that the underlying brain circuits involve multiple cortical and subcortical structures. The neuroanatomic origins of agreeableness have not yet been clearly elucidated. However, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients can evidence dramatic alterations in agreeableness arising from frontal and temporal lobe damage. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that agreeableness would be negatively correlated with left medial orbitofrontal cortex size and positively correlated with right amygdala volume. First-degree relatives of 27 FTD patients (diagnosed according to the Lund-Manchester criteria) were asked to fill out the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to assess the patients' current level of agreeableness, a construct comprised of the facets trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness. These patients underwent T(1)-weighted MRI imaging, and gray matter volumes for right and left orbitofrontal lobes and amygdalas were derived via segmentation and region of interest tracing, normalizing for total intracranial volume. Regression analysis revealed that 38% of the variance in the NEO agreeableness score was predicted by a model in which right orbitofrontal volume (beta = 0.731) was positively correlated with agreeableness, and left orbitofrontal lobe volume (beta = -0.638) was negatively correlated with agreeableness (p agreeableness. This finding partly replicates a previous study that used a different measure of social functioning, the Interpersonal Adjective Scale, to delineate a left frontal-right amygdala circuit for agreeableness. These data support the hypothesis that regulation of agreeableness arises from a balanced, mutually inhibitory circuit involving both hemispheres.

  18. Cardiac CT: are we underestimating the dose? A radiation dose study utilizing the 2007 ICRP tissue weighting factors and a cardiac specific scan volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, O., E-mail: Oliver.gosling@pms.ac.u [Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom); Loader, R.; Venables, P.; Rowles, N.; Morgan-Hughes, G. [Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom); Roobottom, C. [Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To calculate the effective dose from cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using a computer-based model utilizing the latest International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) 103 tissue-weighting factors (2007), to compare this dose with those calculated with previously published chest conversion factors and to produce a conversion factor specific for cardiac MDCT. Materials and methods: An observational study of 152 patients attending for cardiac MDCT as part of their usual clinical care in a university teaching hospital. The dose for each examination was calculated using the computer-based anthropomorphic ImPACT model (the imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) and this was compared with the dose derived from the dose-length product (DLP) and a chest conversion factor. Results: The median effective dose calculated using the ImPACT calculator (4.5 mSv) was significantly higher than the doses calculated with the chest conversion factors (2.2-3 mSv). Conclusion: The use of chest conversion factors significantly underestimates the effective dose when compared to the dose calculated using the ImPACT calculator. A conversion factor of 0.028 would give a better estimation of the effective dose from prospectively gated cardiac MDCT.

  19. New gas-filled mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, C., E-mail: schmitt@ganil.f [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Lecornu, B.; Jacquot, B.; France, G. de; Lemasson, A.; Shrivastava, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Greenlees, P.; Uusitalo, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyvaskyla (Finland); Subotic, K. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Gaudefroy, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Theisen, Ch.; Sulignano, B. [CEA-Saclay DSM/IRFU/SPhN, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L. [IPHC, UMR7178, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Louis Pasteur, BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-09-21

    A new gas-filled operation mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS at GANIL is reported. A beam rejection factor greater than 10{sup 10} is obtained for the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 150}Sm system at 196 MeV. The unprecedented transmission efficiency for the evaporation residues produced in this reaction is estimated to be around 80% for {alpha}x n channels and above 95% for x ny p channels. A detailed study of the performance of the gas-filled VAMOS and future developments are discussed. This new operation mode opens avenues to explore the potential of fusion reactions in various kinematics.

  20. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of electrolyte fill-level on electrode performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitai, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this report, we will exhibit the effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances.

  1. Numerical simulation and analysis of mould filling process in lost foam casting

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Junxia; Wu Zhichao; Chen Liliang

    2008-01-01

    In lost foam casting (LFC) the foam pattern is the key criterion, and the filling process is crucial to ensure the high quality of the foam pattern. Filling which lacks uniformity and denseness will cause various defects and affect the surface quality of the casting. The infl uential factors of the fi lling process are realized in this research. Optimization of the fi lling process, enhancement of effi ciency, decrease of waste, etc., are obtained by the numerical simulation of the fi lling p...

  2. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  3. Research on Measurement Methods of Thyroid Volume and the Impact Factors%甲状腺体积的测量方法及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金超岭; 王猛; 刘杰; 刘晓建; 颜珏

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of thyroid volume plays an important role in treatment of hyperthyroidism by131I. There are many different methods for measurement of thyroid volume, but advantages and disadvantages coexist in every method. In view of this, the measurement methods of thyroid volume, their impact factors and advances in clinical application were reviewed in this paper, including the thyroid palpation, thyroid radionuclide imaging, ultrasound as well as the spiral CT detection method.%准确测量甲状腺体积是131I治疗甲亢的重要环节。目前有多种方法测量甲状腺体积,但每种方法各有优、缺点。本文重点分析了甲状腺触诊法、甲状腺核素显像法、超声测定法和螺旋CT检测法等4种测量方法的特点、影响因素及临床应用进展。

  4. Quality of root fillings performed with two root filling techniques. An in vitro study using micro-CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, L.; Wenzel, A.; Wegge-Larsen, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of voids in root fillings performed in oval and ribbon-shaped canals with two root filling techniques, lateral compaction technique (LCT) or hybrid technique (HT), a combination of a gutta-percha masterpoint and thermoplastic...... gutta-percha. Furthermore, the obturation time for the two techniques was evaluated. Materials and methods. Sixty-seven roots with oval and ribbon-shaped canals were prepared using Profile Ni-Ti rotary files. After preparation, the roots were randomly allocated to two groups according to root filling...... technique. All roots were filled with AH plus and gutta-percha. Group 1 was filled using LCT (n = 34) and group 2 was filled using HT (n = 33). The obturation time was measured in 30 cases evenly distributed between the two techniques. Voids in relation to the root canal fillings were assessed using cross...

  5. 基于地形因子的森林物种多样性与蓄积量分析%Species Diversity and Stand Volume of Forest Based on Topographical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇军; 李超; 张锐; 刘兆刚

    2012-01-01

    以凉水国家级自然保护区为例,在群落尺度上,基于激光雷达数据生成高精度DEM,提取主要地形因子坡度、坡向,并对其进行划分,坡度分3级、坡向分为8个,分析不同地形条件下物种多样性与蓄积量的变化.结果表明,东坡、1级坡度物种多样性最低,平均为20.5个/样方;西坡、2级坡度最高,平均为28个/样方.无坡、3级坡度的平均蓄积量最低,为11.77 m3/样方;东南坡、2级坡度最高,为20.38 m3/样方.2级坡度的物种多样性和蓄积量最高,坡向、坡度过大或过小均可引起物种多样性与蓄积量的下降,自北坡沿东坡到西坡,蓄积量呈先升后降趋势.%In community scale, LiDAR data were used to generate high resolution DEM taking Liangshui National Nature Reserve as an example. And several topographic factors, such as slope, aspect and so on, were extracted. The slope and aspects were classified into 3 classes and 8 classes, respectively. Meanwhile, the changes of stand volume and biodiversity were analyzed under different topographic factors. Results showed that the east aspect with first class slope exhibited the lowest biodiversity, with an average of 20. 5 per sample; whereas, the west aspect with second class slope displayed the highest biodiversity, averaging 28.0 per sample. The highest average stand volume (20.38 m3 per sample) was observed on the southeast aspect with second class slope, while the lowest one (11.77 m~3 per sample) appeared on no aspect with third class slope. The second class slope showed the highest stand volume and biodiversity, which indicates that too small or too large slope and aspect can both result in a decrease in biodiversity and stand volume. The mean stand volume first increased and then decreased from north aspect to east aspect, and then to west aspect.

  6. Does Glass Size and Shape Influence Judgements of the Volume of Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Attwood, Angela S; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Munafò, Marcus R; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Woods, Andy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: 'wider' (20% wider but same capacity); 'larger' (same width but 25% greater capacity); or 'wider-and-larger' (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125 ml, 175 ml and 250 ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller glasses. This hypothesis awaits testing.

  7. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science & Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  8. Molecular and morphological surface analysis: effect of filling pastes and cleaning agents on root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAINEZI, Vanessa Benetello; IWAMOTO, Alexsandra Shizue; MARTIN, Airton Abrahão; SOARES, Luís Eduardo Silva; HOSOYA, Yumiko; PASCON, Fernanda Miori; PUPPIN-RONTANI, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The quality of the dentin root is the most important factor for restoration resin sealing and drives the outcome of endodontic treatment. Objective This study evaluated the effect of different filling pastes and cleaning agents on the root dentin of primary teeth using Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Material and Methods Eighty roots of primary teeth were endodontically prepared and distributed into 4 groups and filled according to the following filling pastes: Control-no filling (CP), Calen®+zinc oxide (CZ), Calcipex II® (CII), Vitapex® (V). After seven days, filling paste groups were distributed to 4 subgroups according to cleaning agents (n=5): Control-no cleaning (C), Ethanol (E), Tergenform® (T), 35% Phosphoric acid (PA). Then, the roots were sectioned and the dentin root sections were internally evaluated by FT-Raman, µ-EDXRF and SEM. Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results Regarding filling pastes, there was no significant difference in organic content. CP provided the lowest calcium values and, calcium/phosphoric ratio (Ca/P), and the highest phosphoric values. For cleaning agents there was no difference in organic content when compared to the C; however, T showed significantly higher calcium and Ca/P than PA. All groups showed similar results for phosphorus. The dentin smear layer was present after use of the cleaning agents, except PA. Conclusion The filling pastes changed the inorganic content, however they did not change the organic content. Cleaning agents did not alter the inorganic and organic content. PA cleaned and opened dentin tubules. PMID:28198982

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 6, Physical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for physical testing. Covered are: properties of solutions, slurries, and sludges; rheological measurement with cone/plate viscometer; % solids determination; particle size distribution by laser scanning; penetration resistance of radioactive waste; operation of differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer, and high temperature DTA and DSC; sodium rod for sodium bonded fuel; filling SP-100 fuel capsules; sodium filling of BEATRIX-II type capsules; removal of alkali metals with ammonia; specific gravity of highly radioactive solutions; bulk density of radioactive granular solids; purification of Li by hot gettering/filtration; and Li filling of MOTA capsules.

  10. [The developmental history of the dental filling materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi

    2008-10-01

    Caries may cause substantial defects in the hard tissue of teeth. The dental filling for defects is an effective method to resume teeth complete form and masticatory function as well as aesthetic effects. The filling material is artificial restorative material to fill the dental defects. Tracing back the developing process of dental filling materials, we can see the advancement of stomotology of human beings. There was a revolutionary change in the filling materials from filling dental cavity with Chinese medicinal herbs to silver paste, from establishing the composition and proportion standardization of the silver amalgam filling materials to the application of new macromolecule compound resin. This is a continuous improvement and renewal in the idea and technology of dental filling treatment so that perfects the dental filling method and enables the retention of more healthy dental tissue. In addition, it pushes the development of dental aesthetics, adhesives and technology. With the improvement of people's health standard, aesthetic demands and environmental awareness, compound resin restorative materials has become clinically preferred dental filling materials of doctors and patients in clinic.

  11. Volume increment in dragon spruce trees in western Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang and its impact factors%新疆天山西部云杉生长量变化及其影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 陈蜀江

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The present study was aimed to observe the volume increment in dragon spruce trees in western Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang, and to analyze the correlations between the volume increment and its impact factors in order to monitor its growth and study the forest ecological system of Tianshan Mountain. [ Method ] Empirical volume equation and single entry volume table were worked out using the diameter data of 5682 dragon spruces trees at 218 sample locations belonging to 8 forest farms in 1996. The GIS and SPSS software were used to analyze the correlations between the volume increment and its impact factors. [ Result ]The periodic increment of dragon spruce trees was recorded as 20.487482 m3 from 1996-2006 and its average periodic increment was 2.048748 m3. The volume increment of dragon spruce was found significantly correlated with red band, near-infrared wave band and green band, and found to be followed by elevation, NDVI and slope. The weakest impact faetors were found to be blue band, short-infrared wave band and graclient. [Conclusion]In future, the growth of dragon spruce trees in Tianshan Mountain may be dynamically monitored according to the dominant factors affecting its volume increment using GIS in order to protect dragon spruce trees better.%[目的]计算新疆天山西部云杉生长量,对云杉生长量影响因子进行相关性分析,为监测云杉生长和研究天山森林生态系统提供参考.[方法]根据1996年天山西部8个林场218个样地5682株云杉的实地测量值推算出天山西部云杉的材积经验式和一元材积表;利用GIS和SPSS软件对利用遥感手段提取的生长量影响因子进行相关性分析.[结果]1996~2006年,天山云杉定期生长量为20.487482m3,1996~2006年定期平均生长量为2.048748m3.生长量影响因子相关性分析表明灰度值中的红光波段、近红外波段、绿光波段与云杉生长量显著相关,其次是海拔、NDVI和坡向,相关性最弱的为

  12. An empirical correlation for isothermal parallel plate channel completely filled with porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Mohammad O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a simple empirical correlation for friction factor and Nusselt number for laminar, steady state, hydraulically and thermally fully developed flow in isothermal parallel plate channel completely filled with porous media. The study is carried out using a finite difference numerical analysis. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is used to model the flow inside the porous media. The empirical correlations are developed to relate friction factor and Nusselt number to Darcy and Forchheimer coefficient.

  13. Vision-based level control for beverage-filling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Dietmar; Braune, Ingolf

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a vision-based on-line level control system which is used in beverage filling machines. Motivation for the development of this sensor system was the need for an intelligent filling valve, which can provide constant filling levels for all container/product combinations (i.e. juice, milk, beer, water, etc. in glass or PET bottles with various transparency and shape) by using a non-tactile and completely sterile measurement method. The sensor concept being presented in this paper is based on several CCD-cameras imaging the moving containers from the outside. The stationary lighting system illuminating the bottles is located within the filler circle. The field of view covers between 5 and 8 bottles depending on the bottle diameter and the filler partitioning. Each filling element's number is identified by the signals of an angular encoder. The electro-pneumatic filling valves can be opened and closed by computer control The cameras continuously monitor the final stages of the filling process, i.e. after the filling height has reached the upper half of the bottle. The sensor system measures the current filling height and derives the filling speed. Based on static a priori- knowledge and dynamic process knowledge the sensor system generates a best estimate of the particular time when the single valve is to be closed. After every new level measurement the system updates the closing time. The measurement process continues until the result of the next level calculation would be available after the estimated closing time would have been passed. The vision-based filling valve control enables the filling machine to adapt the filling time of each valve to the individual bottle shape. Herewith a standard deviation between 2 and 4 mm (depending on the slew rate in the bottle neck) can be accomplished, even at filling speed > 70.000 bottles per hour. 0

  14. Transient Flow in Rapidly Filling Air-Entrapped Pipelines with Moving Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongliang; K. Vairavamoorthy

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for transient flow in a rapidly filling pipeline with an entrapped air pocket. The influence of transient shear stress between the pipe wall and the flowing fluid is taken into account. A coordinate transformation technique is employed to generate adaptive moving meshes for the multiphase flow system as images of the time-independent computational meshes in auxiliary domains. The method of characteristics is used to reduce the coupled nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations governing the motion of the filling fluid, entrapped air, and blocking fluid to ordinary differential equations.Numerical solution of resulting equations shows that the transient shear stresses have only a small damping effect on the pressure fluctuations. The peak pressure in the entrapped air pocket decreases significantly with increasing initial entrapped air volume, but decreases slightly with increasing initial entrapped air pressure.

  15. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  16. Fracture behavior of silica nanoparticle filled epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittanet, Peerapan

    , matrix void growth, and matrix shear banding, which are credited for the increases in toughness for nanosilica-filled epoxy systems. Epoxy containing mixtures of two different size distributions of silica particles (42 micrometer and 23 nm-170nm particles) was explored for possible multiplicative toughening effect and to further understand the particle-epoxy interactions and toughening mechanisms of bimodal particle size distribution systems. The fracture toughness was improved by approximately 30% compared to that of the epoxy containing only one particle size of silica particles. The toughness improvement from the interaction of particle debonding from large particles and plastic void growth from small particles was clearly observed. The improvement in toughness occurred when the volume fraction ratio of the large and small particles was more than 50:50 ratios. The increased toughness was found to be additive not multiplicative effect.

  17. Measurement of pleural pressure swings with a fluid-filled esophageal catheter vs pulmonary artery occlusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verscheure, S; Massion, P B; Gottfried, S; Goldberg, P; Samy, L; Damas, P; Magder, S

    2017-02-01

    Pleural pressure measured with esophageal balloon catheters (Peso) can guide ventilator management and help with the interpretation of hemodynamic measurements, but these catheters are not readily available or easy to use. We tested the utility of an inexpensive, fluid-filled esophageal catheter (Peso) by comparing respiratory-induced changes in pulmonary artery occlusion (Ppao), central venous (CVP), and Peso pressures. We studied 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery who had pulmonary artery and esophageal catheters in place. Proper placement was confirmed by chest compression with airway occlusion. Measurements were made during pressure-regulated volume control (VC) and pressure support (PS) ventilation. The fluid-filled esophageal catheter provided a high-quality signal. During VC and PS, change in Ppao (∆Ppao) was greater than ∆Peso (bias = -2 mm Hg) indicating an inspiratory increase in cardiac filling. During VC, ∆CVP bias was 0 indicating no change in right heart filling, but during PS, CVP fell less than Peso indicating an inspiratory increase in filling. Peso measurements detected activation of expiratory muscles, development of non-west zone 3 lung conditions during inspiration, and ventilator-triggered inspiratory efforts. A fluid-filled esophageal catheter provides a high-quality, easily accessible, and inexpensive measure of change in pleural pressure and provided insights into patient-ventilator interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a 3D Filling Model of Low-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloy Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianglan; Maijer, Daan; Cockcroft, Steve; Reilly, Carl

    2013-12-01

    A two-phase computational fluid dynamics model of the low-pressure die-cast process for the production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels has been developed to predict the flow conditions during die filling. The filling model represents a 36-deg section of a production wheel, and was developed within the commercial finite-volume package, ANSYS CFX, assuming isothermal conditions. To fully understand the behavior of the free surface, a novel technique was developed to approximate the vent resistances as they impact on the development of a backpressure within the die cavity. The filling model was first validated against experimental data, and then was used to investigate the effects of venting conditions and pressure curves during die filling. It was found that vent resistance and vent location strongly affected die filling time, free surface topography, and air entrainment for a given pressure fill-curve. With regard to the pressure curve, the model revealed a strong relation between the pressure curve and the flow behavior in the hub, which is an area prone to defect formation.

  19. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  20. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  1. Technical quality of root canal fillings performed in a dental school and the associated retention of root-filled teeth: a clinical follow-up study over a 5-year period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the technical quality of root canal fillings performed in a dental school and to investigate the associated effect on the survival\\/retention of root-filled teeth. A review of case notes of patients who had root canal treatment performed in the department of Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland was carried out. The technical quality of the root canal filling was described according to its relationship with the radiographic apex on a post-treatment radiograph. Tooth status at review was defined as \\'tooth present\\' or \\'tooth absent\\' based on the presence or absence of the root-filled tooth recorded in the treatment records at a review appointment following placement of the root canal filling. One hundred and forty-eight teeth (129 patients) were considered. Of these, 69.6% (n = 103) were of acceptable technical quality, 23.6% (n = 35) were under-extended, and 6.8% (n = 10) were overextended. An increased number of intra-treatment radiographs to confirm the relationship of the canal preparation to the radiographic apex and operator experience were significant predictors of adequate root canal fillings (P < 0.05). Eighty-three per cent (n = 123) of teeth were present at a review appointment held an average of 40 months following completion of treatment (12-60 months). The technical quality of the root canal filling was the only significant factor in predicting tooth survival (P < 0.05), while the presence of pre-treatment periapical pathology had no significant effect on survival of the root-filled tooth. Determination and maintenance of the working length of the canal system is an important feature in producing good quality root canal fillings, which in turn, is associated with increased likelihood of survival\\/retention of root-filled teeth.

  2. Effect of adding Ar gas on the pulse height distribution of BF3-filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Padalakshmi; A M Shaikh

    2008-11-01

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter gas. Worsening of plateau characteristics is observed with increasing radius due to impurities in gas. To overcome this problem, counters are filled with BF3 with an admixture of a more suitable gas such as argon. The dilution of BF3 with argon causes a decrease in detection efficiency, but the pulse height spectrum shows sharper peaks and more stable plateau characteristics than counters filled with pure BF3. The present investigations are under-taken to study the pulse height distribution and other important factors in BF3+Ar filled signal counters for neutron beam applications. Tests are performed with detectors with cylindrical geometry filled with BF3 gas enriched in 10B to 90%, and high purity Ar in different proportions. By analysing pulse height spectra, a value of 6.1 ± 0.2 has been obtained for the branching ratio of the 10B(,) reaction.

  3. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Toohey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8 or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8 group for 36 sessions (12 weeks of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05. An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01 with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT; it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  4. Inequivalent models of irreversible dimer filling: ``Transition state'' dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, R. S.; Evans, J. W.

    1990-12-01

    Irreversible adsorption of diatomics on crystalline surfaces is sometimes modeled as random dimer filling of adjacent pairs of sites on a lattice. We note that this process can be implemented in two distinct ways: (i) randomly pick adjacent pairs of sites, jj', and fill jj' only if both are empty (horizontal transition state); or (ii) randomly pick a single site, j, and if j and at least one neighbor are empty, then fill j and a randomly chosen empty neighbor (vertical transition state). Here it is instructive to consider processes which also include competitive random monomer filling of single sites. We find that although saturation (partial) coverages differ little between the models for pure dimer filling, there is a significant difference for comparable monomer and dimer filling rates. We present exact results for saturation coverage behavior for a linear lattice, and estimates for a square lattice. Ramifications for simple models of CO oxidation on surfaces are indicated.

  5. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  6. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science and Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error.

  7. A Filled Function with Adjustable Parameters for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGYou-lin; LIXiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    A filled function with adjustable parameters is suggested in this paper for finding a global minimum point of a general class of nonlinear programming problems with a bounded and closed domain. This function has two adjustable parameters. We will discuss the properties of the proposed filled function. Conditions on this function and on the values of parameters are given so that the constructed function has the desired properties of traditional filled function.

  8. Modified Filled Function to Solve NonlinearProgramming Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Filled function method is an approach to find the global minimum of nonlinear functions. Many Problems, such as computing,communication control, and management, in real applications naturally result in global optimization formulations in a form ofnonlinear global integer programming. This paper gives a modified filled function method to solve the nonlinear global integerprogramming problem. The properties of the proposed modified filled function are also discussed in this paper. The results ofpreliminary numerical experiments are also reported.

  9. Unification of Filled Function and Tunnelling Function in Global Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Yong-jian Yang; Lian-sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two auxiliary functions for global optimization are proposed. These two auxiliary functions possess all characters of tunnelling functions and filled functions under certain general assumptions.Thus, they can be considered as the unification of filled function and tunnelling function. Moreover, the process of tunneling or filling for global optimization can be unified as the minimization of such auxiliary functions.Result of numerical experiments shows that such two auxiliary functions are effective.

  10. Research on Technology of Filling Sodium into Fuel Test Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Chi; XIE; Chun; WANG; Shu-xing; MI; Zheng-feng; YU; Tuan-jie; CUI; Chao; WANG; Ming-zheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a high pure sodium environment for properties testing in the fuel research for fast reactor,it is essential to fill sodium into fuel testing capsules.By the method of vacuum,temperature-controlling and inert gas protection,quantificational sodium had been filled into the fuel testing capsules.Fig.1shows the schematic diagram of sodium filling device.Table 1shows

  11. Clinical evaluation of two different materials for retrograde root filling

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Kovacevska, Ivona; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Georgiev, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Retrograde root filling is indicated when periapical inflammation cannot be resolved by conventional endodontic therapy. A retrograde filling should prevent flow of microorganisms and bacterial endotoxins from the root canal into periapical tissues. The aim was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic treatment outcome of two different materials for retrograde root filling (dentin-bonded resin nano composite and glass ionomer cement) using special preparation performance of re...

  12. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-02-15

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25 % and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  13. Global end-diastolic volume increases to maintain fluid responsiveness in sepsis-induced systolic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Trof (R.); I. Danad (Ibrahim); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction may limit fluid responsiveness and the mechanism thereof remains unclear. Since cardiac function may affect the relative value of cardiac filling pressures, such as the recommended central venous pressure (CVP), versus filling volumes in gui

  14. A re-appraisal of volume status and renal function impairment in chronic heart failure: combined effects of pre-renal failure and venous congestion on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkeler, Steef J; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-03-01

    The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal impairment in chronic heart failure is traditionally assumed to be mainly due to a decrease in cardiac output and a subsequent decrease in renal perfusion. This will lead to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and a compensatory increase in tubular sodium retention. The latter is a physiological renal response aimed at retaining fluids in order to increase cardiac filling pressure and thus renal perfusion. In heart failure, however, larger increases in cardiac filling pressure are needed to restore renal perfusion and thus more volume retention. In this concept, in chronic heart failure, an equilibrium exists where a certain degree of congestion is the price to be paid to maintain adequate renal perfusion and function. Recently, this hypothesis was challenged by new studies, wherein it was found that the association between right-sided cardiac filling pressures and renal function is bimodal, with worse renal function at the highest filling pressures, reflecting a severely congested state. Renal hemodynamic studies suggest that congestion negatively affects renal function in particular in patients in whom renal perfusion is also compromised. Thus, an interplay between cardiac forward failure and backward failure is involved in the renal function impairment in the congestive state, presumably along with other factors. Only few data are available on the impact of intervention in volume status on the cardio-renal interaction. Sparse data in cardiac patients as well as evidence from cohorts with primary renal disease suggest that specific targeting of volume overload may be beneficial for long-term outcome, in spite of a certain further decrease in renal function, at least

  15. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m(3) and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  16. Theoretical distribution of gutta-percha within root canals filled using cold lateral compaction based on numeric calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yi; Song, Ying; Gao, Yuan; Dummer, Paul M H

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to present a new method based on numeric calculus to provide data on the theoretical volume ratio of voids when using the cold lateral compaction technique in canals with various diameters and tapers. Twenty-one simulated mathematical root canal models were created with different tapers and sizes of apical diameter, and were filled with defined sizes of standardized accessory gutta-percha cones. The areas of each master and accessory gutta-percha cone as well as the depth of their insertion into the canals were determined mathematically in Microsoft Excel. When the first accessory gutta-percha cone had been positioned, the residual area of void was measured. The areas of the residual voids were then measured repeatedly upon insertion of additional accessary cones until no more could be inserted in the canal. The volume ratio of voids was calculated through measurement of the volume of the root canal and mass of gutta-percha cones. The theoretical volume ratio of voids was influenced by the taper of canal, the size of apical preparation and the size of accessory gutta-percha cones. Greater apical preparation size and larger taper together with the use of smaller accessory cones reduced the volume ratio of voids in the apical third. The mathematical model provided a precise method to determine the theoretical volume ratio of voids in root-filled canals when using cold lateral compaction.

  17. Study on new technique of rapidly following curtain filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余健; 张爱兰

    2002-01-01

    The present problem of mining of narrow and gentle dip vein was analyzed. A new technique of rapidly following curtain filling was put forward. The results show that the new technique is feasible, has the characteristic to make the whole curtain wall filter, makes relative density of the filling tailings slurry reach saturation of 78.0%-80.0% in 25 min, and keeps the roof of mined-out space stable in 60 min. The new technique of the rapidly following curtain filling has solved the difficult problem of the filling body filtering slowly and promptly controlling underground pressure, which cannot be solved in traditional ways.

  18. Relationship between stroke volume, cardiac output and filling of the heart during tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M.; Sorensen, H.; Dalsgaard, M.;

    2009-01-01

    %) in LVEDV because HR increased 3 bpm and CO decreased 0.5 l/min (ns). CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that SV and CO are maximal in resting, supine, healthy humans and decrease during HUT. However, 90 degrees HDT was associated with increased LVEDV and induced a reduction in SV Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  19. The inter-annual variability in the volume transport through Bering Strait and its related factors%白令海峡夏季流量的年际变化及其成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 苏洁

    2012-01-01

    Bering Strait is the only channel connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific water through the strait is mainly driven by the meridional sea level slop and its inter-annual variation has great influence on the Arctic Ocean. In this study SODA data is applied to the calculation of the monthly mean volume transport through Bering Strait. The factors related to the inter-annual variability of summer volume transport are discussed. The results show that the SSH in the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, the Chukchi Sea, south of the Beaufort Sea is negatively correlated to the volume transport of Bering Strait in inter-annual scale while the situation is opposite in the eastern shelf of Bering Sea. After analyzing the correlation of the volume flux with the Ekman transport, pumping rate, upper layer salinity, temperature and density, the paper find that the Ekman transport anomaly should be responsible for the relationship between the sea surface height and the volume flux of Bering Strait. When the SLP is positive anomaly o-ver central part of the Arctic Ocean and negative anomaly over Bering Sea basin, the volume transport through Bering Strait will be enlarged. Such SLP anomaly would explain the relationship between the Bering Strait volume transport and the Ekman transport, pumping rate and upper layer water properties to some extend. The paper reveals that the summer SLP's inter-annual variation can change SSH via Ekman transport and finally dominant the volume transport through Bering Strait.%白令海峡是连接太平洋和北冰洋的唯一通道,穿过海峡的海水体积通量在年际尺度上的变化主要取决于海峡南北两侧的海面高度差,白令海峡的入流对北冰洋海洋过程有重要的意义.利用SODA资料计算夏季白令海峡海水体积通量,对其年际变化及成因进行分析.结果表明夏季白令海峡的体积通量主要是正压地转的;当体积通量为正距平时,楚科奇海、东西

  20. Dielectric properties of agricultural products – fundamental principles, influencing factors, and measurement technirques. Chapter 4. Electrotechnologies for Food Processing: Book Series. Volume 3. Radio-Frequency Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, definitions of dielectric properties, or permittivity, of materials and a brief discussion of the fundamental principles governing their behavior with respect to influencing factors are presented. The basic physics of the influence of frequency of the electric fields and temperatur...