WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume edv end-systolic

  1. Left ventricular pressure-volume diagrams and end-systolic pressure-volume relations in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R G; Aroesty, J M; Heller, G V; Royal, H; Parker, J A; Silverman, K J; Kolodny, G M; Grossman, W

    1984-02-01

    Assessment of left ventricular pressure-volume relations serially in response to altered loading conditions and heart rate has been difficult to achieve with contrast ventriculography. Accordingly, to study changing pressure-volume relations during altered loading and heart rate, left ventricular pressure and radionuclide absolute volume curves (obtained using a counts-based method with attenuation factor corrections) were recorded in 20 patients. Ventricular pressure and radionuclide volume curves were digitized and synchronized to end-diastole, and pressure-volume plots were subsequently constructed from 32 pressure-volume coordinates throughout the cardiac cycle. In all patients, the correlation between radionuclide absolute volumes and angiographic ventricular volumes was r = 0.92. In 10 patients in whom both radionuclide and angiographic pressure-volume diagrams were constructed, the agreement between the two methods was excellent. With this method, end-systolic pressure-volume relations were examined during altered left ventricular loading conditions, pacing-induced incremental increases in heart rate and pacing-induced ischemia. Using pharmacologically induced changes in left ventricular loading conditions, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated as a means of assessing basal contractility. During pacing-induced tachycardia, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated to quantify the Treppe effect and assess negative inotropic changes secondary to ischemia. This study supports the validity of using serial recordings of left ventricular pressure and radionuclide volumes to assess left ventricular pressure-volume relations, and indicates that this approach may be useful in the analysis of end-systolic pressure-volume relations in patients.

  2. Left ventricular pressure-volume diagrams and end-systolic pressure-volume relations in human beings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Royal, H.; Parker, J.A.; Silverman, K.J.; Kolodny, G.M.; Grossman, W.

    1984-02-01

    Assessment of left ventricular pressure-volume relations serially in response to altered loading conditions and heart rate has been difficult to achieve with contrast ventriculography. Accordingly, to study changing pressure-volume relations during altered loading and heart rate, left ventricular pressure and radionuclide absolute volume curves (obtained using a counts-based method with attenuation factor corrections) were recorded in 20 patients. Ventricular pressure and radionuclide volume curves were digitized and synchronized to end-diastole, and pressure-volume plots were subsequently constructed from 32 pressure-volume coordinates throughout the cardiac cycle. In all patients, the correlation between radionuclide absolute volumes and angiographic ventricular volumes was r . 0.92. In 10 patients in whom both radionuclide and angiographic pressure-volume diagrams were constructed, the agreement between the two methods was excellent. With this method, end-systolic pressure-volume relations were examined during altered left ventricular loading conditions, pacing-induced incremental increases in heart rate and pacing-induced ischemia. Using pharmacologically induced changes in left ventricular loading conditions, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated as a means of assessing basal contractility. During pacing-induced tachycardia, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated to quantify the Treppe effect and assess negative inotropic changes secondary to ischemia. This study supports the validity of using serial recordings of left ventricular pressure and radionuclide volumes to assess left ventricular pressure-volume relations, and indicates that this approach may be useful in the analysis of end-systolic pressure-volume relations in patients.

  3. Improved Cardiac MRI Volume Measurements in Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot by Independent End-Systolic and End-Diastolic Phase Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freling, Hendrik G.; Pieper, Petronella G.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van Swieten, Jeroen M.; Sijens, Paul E.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Willems, Tineke P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent cardiac MRI derived measurements of right ventricular (RV) volumes using the left ventricular (LV) end-systolic and end-diastolic frame misrepresent RV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) and a right bundle

  4. Improved cardiac MRI volume measurements in patients with tetralogy of Fallot by independent end-systolic and end-diastolic phase selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik G Freling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent cardiac MRI derived measurements of right ventricular (RV volumes using the left ventricular (LV end-systolic and end-diastolic frame misrepresent RV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF and a right bundle branch block. METHODS: Sixty-five cardiac MRI scans of patients with ToF and a right bundle branch block, and 50 cardiac MRI scans of control subjects were analyzed. RV volumes and function using the end-systolic and end-diastolic frame of the RV were compared to using the end-systolic and end-diastolic frame of the LV. RESULTS: Timing of the RV end-systolic frame was delayed compared to the LV end-systolic frame in 94% of patients with ToF and in 50% of control subjects. RV end-systolic volume using the RV end-systolic instead of LV end-systolic frame was smaller in ToF (median -3.3 ml/m(2, interquartile range -1.9 to -5.6 ml/m(2; p<0.001 and close to unchanged in control subjects. Using the RV instead of LV end-systolic and end-diastolic frame hardly affected RV end-diastolic volumes in both groups and ejection fraction in control subjects (54±4%, both methods, while increasing ejection fraction from 45±7% to 48±7% for patients with ToF (p<0.001. QRS duration correlated positively with the changes in the RV end-systolic volume (p<0.001 and RV ejection fraction obtained in ToF patients when using the RV instead of the LV end-systolic and end-diastolic frame (p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: For clinical decision making in ToF patients RV volumes derived from cardiac MRI should be measured in the end-systolic frame of the RV instead of the LV.

  5. Automatic detection of end-diastole and end-systole from echocardiography images using manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Shalbaf, Ahmad; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh

    2010-09-01

    The automatic detection of end-diastole and end-systole frames of echocardiography images is the first step for calculation of the ejection fraction, stroke volume and some other features related to heart motion abnormalities. In this paper, the manifold learning algorithm is applied on 2D echocardiography images to find out the relationship between the frames of one cycle of heart motion. By this approach the nonlinear embedded information in sequential images is represented in a two-dimensional manifold by the LLE algorithm and each image is depicted by a point on reconstructed manifold. There are three dense regions on the manifold which correspond to the three phases of cardiac cycle ('isovolumetric contraction', 'isovolumetric relaxation', 'reduced filling'), wherein there is no prominent change in ventricular volume. By the fact that the end-systolic and end-diastolic frames are in isovolumic phases of the cardiac cycle, the dense regions can be used to find these frames. By calculating the distance between consecutive points in the manifold, the isovolumic frames are mapped on the three minimums of the distance diagrams which were used to select the corresponding images. The minimum correlation between these images leads to detection of end-systole and end-diastole frames. The results on six healthy volunteers have been validated by an experienced echo cardiologist and depict the usefulness of the presented method.

  6. Quantitative analysis of cardiac function: Comparison of electrocardiogram dual gated single photon emission tomography, planar radionuclide ventriculogram and contrast ventriculography in the determination of LV volume and ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, G.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Higazy, E.; Mohamed, M.M.; Bahar, R.; Hayat, N.; Yousof, A.M.

    1987-03-01

    A dual gated tomography (DGT) program for end systolic and end diastolic acquisition and subsequent processing for calculation of LVEF, end diastolic and end systolic volumes (EDV, ESV) has been evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers (25 years-40 years) and 45 patients (25 years-60 years): 20 with ischaemic heart disease and 25 with valvular heart disease (VHD). All had biplane multigated blood pool (MUGA) studies in the 40/sup 0/ LAO projection using in vivo /sup 99m/Tc-R BCs, immediately followed by DG. The results in the patients group were correlated with contrast ventriculography (CV). In the volunteer group, the normal values for LVEF, EDV and ESV measured with DGT were found to be 63%+10%, 91 ml + 6 ml and 30 ml + 6ml and r value for the LVEF=0.91 compared with MUGA. In the IHD group, r values compared with CV were 0.915 and 0.97 for the EDV and ESV and 0.934 for the LVEF. Compared with the MUGA, the r value for LVEF was 0.883. In the VHD group, r values were 0.98 for both the EDV and ESV and 0.948 for the LVEF (P<0.002) compared with CV and 0.789 for the LVEF compared with the MUGA. We feel that DGT is an accurate and reproducible technique for LV function measurements.

  7. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S; Petersen, C L; Mehlsen, J; Holmquist, N; Larsson, B; Kjaer, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing) three times 30 min/week for 8 weeks at a relative intensity of 72+/-8% of their maximal heart rate response (mean+/-SD). Before and after 8 weeks of endurance training, the left and the right end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; Pright side of the heart showed significant changes in SV, EDV and VM with increase of 4%, 4% and 12%, respectively (Pright ventricular SV, due to an increase in left ventricular EDV and right ventricular EDV. Furthermore, left VM and right VM increased. We conclude that using MRI and a longitudinal design it was possible to demonstrate similar and balanced changes in the right and left ventricle in response to training.

  8. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  9. [Changes in the morphology of the normal left ventricle during the phases of isovolumic contraction and relaxation. Consequences on the calculation of the volume and cardiac output by cineangiocardiographic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, A; Geschwind, H; Herreman, F

    1976-04-01

    It is well known that the left ventricular volume, as measured by the cineangiographic method, decreases during the phase of isometric contraction. What is more, the cardiac index and the ejection fraction measured by this method are definitely larger than those derived from dilution methods. These discrepancies can be explained by movements of the mitral valve during the phases of isometric contraction and relaxation. The systolic ejection volume (SEV) was measured by three different methods: 1. End-diastolic volume (EDV) -end-systolic volume (ESV) ; 2. EDV - pre-filling volume (PFV) ; 3. Pre-ejection volume (PEV) - ESV. It has emerged that the results given by the methods (2) and (3) correspond closely, and differ significantly from those given by method (1); they are also close to those obtained by the dilution method. This difference seems to arise from the fact that the movements of the mitral valve during the phase of isometric relaxation are diametrically opposite to those which occur during isometric contraction; thus, when the values EDV-ESV are used in the calculation of SEV, an overestimate is made because the mitral valve is not to be found in the same position within the ventricular cavity for both values.

  10. Agreement of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes between adenosine stress TL-201 gated SPECT and echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, M. S. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ewha, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yang, Y. J.; Kang, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated TI-201 SPECT measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) have shown high correlation with conventional methods. However, how much these parameters measured by TI-201 gated SPECT differ from those by echocardiography has not been assessed. Adenosine stress (Ad-G) and redistribution TI-201 gated SPECT (Re-G) and resting echocardiography were conducted in 337 patients (184 male, 153 female). EDV, ESV and LVEF measured by QGS software were compared with the results by echocardiography. Patients with arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation or frequent premature contractions) or evidence of fixed or reversible perfusion defects on TI-201 SPECT were excluded. EF, EDV and ESV measured by Ad-G (63.3{+-}9.8,73.8{+-}30.2,29.1{+-}20.1) and Re-G (65.2{+-}11.6,69.1{+-}30.1,26.5{+-}20.3) correlated well with those by Echo (61.4{+-}7.9,78.3{+-}2.7, 30.7{+-} 17.5 ; r of Ad-G=0.547, 0.850, 0.827, p<0.001 ; r of Re-G=0.585, 0.838, 0.819, p<0.001). However the difference (mean, SD, SEE of Echo - gated SPECT) was statistically significant (EF: Ad-G=1.71, 8.92, 0.48, Re-G=3.59, 10.39, 0.56, p<0.001 ; EDV: Ad-G=4.75, 16.21, 0.88, Re-G=9.53, 16.77, 0.91, p<0.001 ; ESV: Ad-G=1.75, 11.35, 0.61, p<0.05, Re-G=4.29, 11.7, 0.63, p<0.001). Bland-Altman plots showed that the difference of EDV and ESV did not vary in any systematic way over the range of measurement, whereas the difference of EF increased with increasing average EF by Echo and gated-SPECT. The difference of EF, EDV, and ESV between Ad-G and Echo was significantly smaller than those between Re-G and Echo (p<0.001). Gated TI-201 SPECT underestimates EDV and ESV over a wide range of volume. As a result, EF by gated TI-201 SPECT is overestimated especially in patients with small LV volume. Ad-G is preferable to Re-G in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction and volume in place of Echo because of smaller bias.

  11. Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Sweatt, Andrew J; Aymami, Marie C; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Selej, Mona; Lu, HongQuan; Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Schnittger, Ingela; McConnell, Michael V; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T; Haddad, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ(2), 62.2; Pright heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Multi-detector row computed tomography of the heart: does a multi-segment reconstruction algorithm improve left ventricular volume measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergens, Kai Uwe; Maintz, David; Heimes, Britta; Fallenberg, Eva Maria; Heindel, Walter; Fischbach, Roman [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Grude, Matthias [University of Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Boese, Jan M. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-segment cardiac image reconstruction algorithm in multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) was evaluated regarding temporal resolution and determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes and global LV function. MDCT and cine magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging were performed in 12 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Patients gave informed written consent for the MDCT and the CMR exam. MDCT data were reconstructed using the standard adaptive cardiac volume (ACV) algorithm as well as a multi-segment algorithm utilizing data from three, five and seven rotations. LV end-diastolic (LV-EDV) and end-systolic volumes and ejection fraction (LV-EF) were determined from short-axis image reformations and compared to CMR data. Mean temporal resolution achieved was 192{+-}24 ms using the ACV algorithm and improved significantly utilizing the three, five and seven data segments to 139{+-}12, 113{+-}13 and 96{+-}11 ms (P<0.001 for each). Mean LV-EDV was without significant differences using the ACV algorithm, the multi-segment approach and CMR imaging. Despite improved temporal resolution with multi-segment image reconstruction, end-systolic volumes were less accurately measured (mean differences 3.9{+-}11.8 ml to 8.1{+-}13.9 ml), resulting in a consistent underestimation of LV-EF by 2.3-5.4% in comparison to CMR imaging (Bland-Altman analysis). Multi-segment image reconstruction improves temporal resolution compared to the standard ACV algorithm, but this does not result in a benefit for determination of LV volume and function. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary Clinical Study of Real-time Three-dimensional Echocardiographic Volume-time Curve in Evaluating Left Ventricular Diastolic Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hongwen; HE Yale; HOU Yueshuang; XU Yan; HUANG Xinsheng; FENG Bixia

    2007-01-01

    The volume-time curve change in patients with normal left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and diastolic dysfunction was evaluated by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). LV diastolic dysfunction was defined by E'<A' in pulse-wave tissue Doppler for inter-ventricular septal (IVS) of mitral annulus. In 24 patients with LV diastolic dysfunction, including 12 patients with delayed relaxation (delayed relaxation group) and 12 patients with pseudo-normal function (pseudo-normal group) and 24 normal volunteers (control group), data of full-volume image were acquired by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and subjected to volume-time curve analysis. EDV (end-diastolic volume), ESV (end-systolic volume), LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction), PER (peak ejection rate), PFR (peak filling rate) from RT3DE were examined in the three groups. Compared to the control group, PFR (diastolic filling index of RT3DE) was significantly reduced in the delayed relaxation group and pseudo-normal group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in EDV, ESV, LVEF, PER (P>0.05). It is concluded that PFR, as a diastolic filling index of RT3DE, can reflect the early diastolic function and serve as a new non-invasive, quick and accurate tool for clinical assessment of LV diastolic function.

  14. Distribution of normal human left ventricular myofiber stress at end diastole and end systole: a target for in silico design of heart failure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Martin; Lee, Lik Chuan; Nguyen, Rebecca; Haraldsson, Henrik; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Zhang, Zhihong; Ge, Liang; Ordovas, Karen; Kozerke, Sebastian; Guccione, Julius M

    2014-07-15

    Ventricular wall stress is believed to be responsible for many physical mechanisms taking place in the human heart, including ventricular remodeling, which is frequently associated with heart failure. Therefore, normalization of ventricular wall stress is the cornerstone of many existing and new treatments for heart failure. In this paper, we sought to construct reference maps of normal ventricular wall stress in humans that could be used as a target for in silico optimization studies of existing and potential new treatments for heart failure. To do so, we constructed personalized computational models of the left ventricles of five normal human subjects using magnetic resonance images and the finite-element method. These models were calibrated using left ventricular volume data extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated through comparison with strain measurements from tagged MRI (950 ± 170 strain comparisons/subject). The calibrated passive material parameter values were C0 = 0.115 ± 0.008 kPa and B0 = 14.4 ± 3.18; the active material parameter value was Tmax = 143 ± 11.1 kPa. These values could serve as a reference for future construction of normal human left ventricular computational models. The differences between the predicted and the measured circumferential and longitudinal strains in each subject were 3.4 ± 6.3 and 0.5 ± 5.9%, respectively. The predicted end-diastolic and end-systolic myofiber stress fields for the five subjects were 2.21 ± 0.58 and 16.54 ± 4.73 kPa, respectively. Thus these stresses could serve as targets for in silico design of heart failure treatments.

  15. Assessment of left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function using volume-time curves by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography%实时三维超声心动图容积时间曲线评价左心室整体收缩和舒张功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏常华; 袁建军; 苑淑姣

    2008-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function using volume-time curves (VTC) by real-time three-dimensional echoeardiography(RT-3DE).Methods Ninty-eight subjects were divided into four groups.Group A consisted of twenty-eight normal subject,group B included twenty-four patients with hypertensive(HTN), group C consisted of twenty-four patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) and group D of twenty-two patients having dilated cordiomyopathy (DCM).Participants were selected undergoing full volume RT-3DE.The global and 17-segmental VTCs were obtained by the off-line Qlab software.The end-diastolic volume(EDV), end-systolic volume(ESV) and ejection fraction(EF) were derived from VTCs.The peak ejection rate(PER),peak early filling rate (PFR),PER/EDV and PFR/EDV were calculted.Results EDV and ESV of group B,C and D was significantly larger than that of group A(all P < 0.05), EF and PER/EDV of group C and D significantly lower than those of group A.There were close correlation between PER/EDV and EF ( r=0.694, P<0.05).Comparison of VTC pattern of HTN,CAD and DCM with that of healthy participants revealed the loss of symmetry of systolic and diastolic pattern.Conclusions Generation of VTCs by RT3DE is a promising approach to evaluate left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function.PER/EDV and PFR/EDV may be potential parameters for assessing left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function.%目的 应用实时三维超声心动图(RT-3DE)容积-时间曲线(VTC)定量评价左心室整体收缩和舒张功能.方法 98例研究对象分为4组:A组,正常人28例;B组,高血压病患者24例;C组,冠心病患者24例;D组,扩张性心肌病22例.对所有研究对象进行RT-3DE检查,采集全容积三维图像,应用Qlab分析软件对三维数据库进行分析,得到左室整体和17节段容积时间曲线,测量舒张末容积(EDV)、收缩末容积(ESV)和左室射血分数(EF),并计算峰值射血

  16. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects leads to normalisation of atrial and ventricular volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthley Matthew I

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs should potentially reduce right heart volumes by removing left-to-right shunting. Due to ventricular interdependence, this may be associated with impaired left ventricular filling and potentially function. Furthermore, atrial changes post-ASD closure have been poorly understood and may be important for understanding risk of atrial arrhythmia post-ASD closure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is an accurate and reproducible imaging modality for the assessment of cardiac function and volumes. We assessed cardiac volumes pre- and post-percutaneous ASD closure using CMR. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 23 underwent CMR pre- and 6 months post-ASD closure. Steady state free precession cine CMR was performed using contiguous slices in both short and long axis views through the ASD. Data was collected for assessment of left and right atrial, ventricular end diastolic volumes (EDV and end systolic volumes (ESV. Data is presented as mean ± SD, volumes as mL, and paired t-testing performed between groups. Statistical significance was taken as p Results There was a significant reduction in right ventricular volumes at 6 months post-ASD closure (RVEDV: 208.7 ± 76.7 vs. 140.6 ± 60.4 mL, p Conclusion ASD closure leads to normalisation of ventricular volumes and also a reduction in right atrial volume. Further follow-up is required to assess how this predicts outcomes such as risk of atrial arrhythmias after such procedures.

  17. Effects of Propranolol on the Left Ventricular Volume of Normal Subjects During CT Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yung Cheng; Jeng, Chin Ming [Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shinn Forng [National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (CN)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of propranolol on the left ventricular (LV) volume during CT coronary angiography. The LV volume of 252 normal Chinese subjects (126 subjects with propranolol medication and 126 age- and gender-matched Chinese subjects without medication) was estimated using 64 slices multi-detector CT (MDCT). The heart rate difference was analyzed by the logistic linear regression model with variables that included gender, age, body height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the dosage of propranolol. The following global LV functional parameters were calculated: the real-end diastolic volume (EDV), the real-end systolic volume (ESV) and the real-ejection fraction (EF). The female subjects had a greater decrease of heart rate after taking propranolol. The difference of heart rate was negatively correlated with the dosage of propranolol. The real-EDV, the real-ESV and the real-EF ranged from 48.1 to 109 mL/m2, 6.1 to 57.1 mL/m2 and 41% to 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication (123 {+-} 17 and 80 {+-} 10 mmHg; 120 {+-} 14 and 80 {+-} 11 mmHg, respectively). The real-EDV showed no significant difference between these two groups, but the real-ESV and real-EF showed significant differences between these two groups (69.4 {+-} 9.3 and 70.6 {+-} 8.9 mL/m2; 23.5 {+-} 5.7 and 25.6 {+-} 3.7 mL/m2, 66.5 {+-} 5.1% and 63.5 {+-} 4.6%, respectively). The difference of heart rate is significantly influenced by gender and the dosage of propranolol. Propranolol will also increase the ESV, which contributes to a decreased EF, while the SBP, DBP and EDV are not statistically changed.

  18. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammon, Matthias; Janka, Rolf; Dankerl, Peter; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Uder, Michael; Rompel, Oliver [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Gloeckler, Martin; Dittrich, Sven [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  19. Electronic data processing for personal radiation dose monitoring in Switzerland; EDV bei der Personendosis-Ueberwachung in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M. [BAG Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit, Bern (Switzerland). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    1998-12-31

    The contribution summarizes the history of development of the monitoring system in Switzerland and the current situation, referring to the EDP applications currently in use. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Schon in den 50er Jahren, mit der Einfuehrung der Dosislimits fuer beruflich strahlenexponierte Personen, mussten Personendosen individuell gemessen, registriert und aufbewahrt werden. Es entstanden die ersten Dosiskarteien, welche mit der Zeit, in den meisten Faellen Ende der 70er Jahre, auf EDV umgestellt und 1990 im zentralen Schweizerischen Dosisregister (ZDR) zusammengefasst wurden. Die ersten EDV-Anwendungen in der Personendosis-Ueberwachung hatten eine zuverlaessige, langfristige Aufbewahrung der Dosisdaten zum Ziel. Dies war auch fuer die Ermittlung der Lebensalterdosis notwendig. Heute ist vor allem eine gute Datenkommunikation gefragt: Ein schneller und direkter Zugriff zu den Daten, kurze Bearbeitungszeiten, Aktualitaet und gute Vernetzung. Auch die Probleme der EDV-Anwendungen haben sich verlagert: War frueher die Speicherkapazitaet der Stolperstein, ist es heute eher der Datenschutz. (orig.)

  20. Performance of new automated transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiographic software for left ventricular volumes and function assessment in routine clinical practice: Comparison with 3 Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Franck; Dan Schouver, Elie; Iacuzio, Laura; Civaia, Filippo; Rusek, Stephane; Dommerc, Carinne; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2017-05-26

    Three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is superior to two-dimensional Simpson's method for assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Nevertheless, 3D TTE is not incorporated into everyday practice, as current LV chamber quantification software products are time-consuming. To evaluate the feasibility, accuracy and reproducibility of new fully automated fast 3D TTE software (HeartModel(A.I.); Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA) for quantification of LV volumes and LVEF in routine practice; to compare the 3D LV volumes and LVEF obtained with a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference; and to optimize automated default border settings with CMR as reference. Sixty-three consecutive patients, who had comprehensive 3D TTE and CMR examinations within 24hours, were eligible for inclusion. Nine patients (14%) were excluded because of insufficient echogenicity in the 3D TTE. Thus, 54 patients (40 men; mean age 63±13 years) were prospectively included into the study. The inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities of 3D TTE were excellent (coefficient of variation<10%) for end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and LVEF. Despite a slight underestimation of EDV using 3D TTE compared with CMR (bias=-22±34mL; P<0.0001), a significant correlation was found between the two measurements (r=0.93; P=0.0001). Enlarging default border detection settings leads to frequent volume overestimation in the general population, but improved agreement with CMR in patients with LVEF≤50%. Correlations between 3D TTE and CMR for ESV and LVEF were excellent (r=0.93 and r=0.91, respectively; P<0.0001). 3D TTE using new-generation fully automated software is a feasible, fast, reproducible and accurate imaging modality for LV volumetric quantification in routine practice. Optimization of border detection settings may increase agreement with CMR for EDV assessment in dilated ventricles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson

  1. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompel, O.; Janka, R.; May, M.S.; Lell, M.M.; Uder, M.; Hammon, M. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gloeckler, M.; Dittrich, S. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology; Cesnjevar, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  2. 单心动周期全容积成像对右心室流出道起源室性期前收缩患者左心室容积及收缩同步性的研究%Study of left ventricular systolic volume and synchrony in patients with premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract by instantaneous full-volume imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 许迪; 陆凤翔; 雍永宏; 吴红平; 陆美娟; 洪牮; 徐亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess alternations in left ventricular volume and systolic synchrony in patients with frequent premature ventricular complexes(PVCs) from the right ventricular outflow tract(RVOT).Methods Twenty-nine patients with frequent isolated PVCs from RVOT were included and 30 healthy subjects as control.Instantaneous full-volume imaging(IFI) was performed to evaluate left ventricle volumetric parameters,including end-systolic volume (ESV),end-diastolic volume (EDV),stroke volume (SV),ejection fraction (EF),and systolic synchrony parameters,including systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI),dispersion end-systole (DISPES),mean end-systolic time (MES),pre-contraction time volume (PreContr) and post-contraction time volume (PostContr).Contraction front mapping was performed to visualize volumetric contraction sequence.All values of patients with PVCs were recorded during sinus beats (PVC-S) and premature ventricular beats (PVC-V) respectively.Results Significant differences were observed in left ventricular systolic volumetric and synchrony parameters between PVC-V and control subjects (P<0.01),as well as in MES and PreContr between PVC-S and control subjects (P<0.01).Conclusions Left ventricular systolic dysynchrony was demonstrated in patients with PVCs from RVOT.IFI was a novel tool to analyze left ventricular global and regional volumetric alternations.%目的 探讨正常人及频发右室流出道(right ventricular outflow tract,RVOT)起源室性期前收缩患者左室容积改变模式.方法 应用单心动周期全容积成像(instantaneous full-volume imaging,IFI)技术分析29例RVOT起源室性期前收缩患者在室性期前收缩、窦性心搏时以及30例正常人左室容积参数[收缩末容积(ESV)、舒张末容积(EDV)、每搏量(SV)、射血分数(EF)]和左室收缩期节段容积变化同步性参数[收缩失同步性指数(SDI)、收缩末离散度(DISPES)、平均收缩末时间(MES)、收缩前时间容积(PreContr)、收缩后时

  3. 新加坡南洋理工大学的elearning系统——edveNTUre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇继虹

    2008-01-01

    网络时代elearning观念已深入人心。论文以新加坡南洋理工大学独具特色的elearning系统—edveNTUre为研究对象,对其发展历程、实施策略、系统主要组成和特色以及正在实验实施的在线学习周进行了系统地介绍和探讨,以期对国内高校成功实施elearning提供经验借鉴。

  4. Fully-automated left ventricular mass and volume MRI analysis in the UK Biobank population cohort: evaluation of initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Sanghvi, Mihir M; Aung, Nay; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Francis, Jane; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan; Greiser, Andreas; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Hayes, Carmel; Young, Alistair A; Petersen, Steffen E

    2017-08-23

    UK Biobank, a large cohort study, plans to acquire 100,000 cardiac MRI studies by 2020. Although fully-automated left ventricular (LV) analysis was performed in the original acquisition, this was not designed for unsupervised incorporation into epidemiological studies. We sought to evaluate automated LV mass and volume (Siemens syngo InlineVF versions D13A and E11C), against manual analysis in a substantial sub-cohort of UK Biobank participants. Eight readers from two centers, trained to give consistent results, manually analyzed 4874 UK Biobank cases for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass (LVM). Agreement between manual and InlineVF automated analyses were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Tenfold cross-validation was used to establish a linear regression calibration between manual and InlineVF results. InlineVF D13A returned results in 4423 cases, whereas InlineVF E11C returned results in 4775 cases and also reported LVM. Rapid visual assessment of the E11C results found 178 cases (3.7%) with grossly misplaced contours or landmarks. In the remaining 4597 cases, LV function showed good agreement: ESV -6.4 ± 9.0 ml, 0.853 (mean ± SD of the differences, ICC) EDV -3.0 ± 11.6 ml, 0.937; SV 3.4 ± 9.8 ml, 0.855; and EF 3.5 ± 5.1%, 0.586. Although LV mass was consistently overestimated (29.9 ± 17.0 g, 0.534) due to larger epicardial contours on all slices, linear regression could be used to correct the bias and improve accuracy. Automated InlineVF results can be used for case-control studies in UK Biobank, provided visual quality control and linear bias correction are performed. Improvements between InlineVF D13A and InlineVF E11C show the field is rapidly advancing, with further improvements expected in the near future.

  5. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one cardiac cycle with high temporal and spatial resolution. Application of these algorithms has required significant additional reconstruction time. The use of distributed computing was recently proposed as a way to improve clinical workflow with such algorithms. In this study, we have deployed a distributed computing version of motion corrected re-binning reconstruction for free-breathing evaluation of cardiac function. Twenty five patients and 25 volunteers underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for evaluation of left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic mass. Measurements using motion corrected re-binning were compared to those using breath-held SSFP and to free-breathing SSFP with multiple averages, and were performed by two independent observers. Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots tested agreement across techniques. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis tested inter-observer variability. Total scan plus reconstruction times were tested for significant differences using paired t-test. Measured volumes and mass obtained by motion corrected re-binning and by averaged free-breathing SSFP compared favorably to those obtained by breath-held SSFP (r = 0.9863/0.9813 for EDV, 0.9550/0.9685 for ESV, 0.9952/0.9771 for mass). Inter-observer variability was good with concordance correlation coefficients between observers across all acquisition types suggesting substantial agreement. Both motion

  6. Strain and strain rate by speckle-tracking echocardiography correlate with pressure-volume loop-derived contractility indices in a rat model of athlete's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Attila; Oláh, Attila; Lux, Árpád; Mátyás, Csaba; Németh, Balázs Tamás; Kellermayer, Dalma; Ruppert, Mihály; Török, Marianna; Szabó, Lilla; Meltzer, Anna; Assabiny, Alexandra; Birtalan, Ede; Merkely, Béla; Radovits, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Contractile function is considered to be precisely measurable only by invasive hemodynamics. We aimed to correlate strain values measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) with sensitive contractility parameters of pressure-volume (P-V) analysis in a rat model of exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy was induced in rats by swim training and was compared with untrained controls. Echocardiography was performed using a 13-MHz linear transducer to obtain LV long- and short-axis recordings for STE analysis (GE EchoPAC). Global longitudinal (GLS) and circumferential strain (GCS) and longitudinal (LSr) and circumferential systolic strain rate (CSr) were measured. LV P-V analysis was performed using a pressure-conductance microcatheter, and load-independent contractility indices [slope of the end-systolic P-V relationship (ESPVR), preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), and maximal dP/dt-end-diastolic volume relationship (dP/dtmax-EDV)] were calculated. Trained rats had increased LV mass index (trained vs. control; 2.76 ± 0.07 vs. 2.14 ± 0.05 g/kg, P rats (GLS: -18.8 ± 0.3 vs. -15.8 ± 0.4%; LSr: -5.0 ± 0.2 vs. -4.1 ± 0.1 Hz; GCS: -18.9 ± 0.8 vs. -14.9 ± 0.6%; CSr: -4.9 ± 0.2 vs. -3.8 ± 0.2 Hz, P rat model, strain and strain rate parameters closely reflected the improvement in intrinsic contractile function induced by exercise training.

  7. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  8. 实时三维超声心动图容积-时间曲线评价心脏再同步化术后左心室舒张早期同步性%Assessment of the left ventricular early diastolic synchrony of cardiac resynchronization therapy by real time three-dimensional echocardiographic volume-time curves in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海兰; 叶雪存; 崔亮; 王卫真; 袁高乐

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diastolic function and relationship between diastolic function and early diastolic synchrony in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) volume-time curves (VTC) after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).Methods Thirty-nine patients with DCM were enrolled by RT-3DE VTC before and 1 week,6 months,12 months after CRT,draw the left ventricular (LV) 16,12,6 segments LV diastolic early volume standard deviation of the time (Tedv-SD),and with the R-R interval normalized as early diastolic unsynchronized index (DDI) ;draw end-systolic volume (LVESV),LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV),LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ;and calculate the diastolic peak filling rate(PFR),the ratio of early diastolic volume and enddiastolic volume(EDVearly/EDV).Results LVEDV,LVESV had no significant improvement.Compared with the before and 1 week after CRT,but the improvement was statistically significant after 6 months and 12 months (P <0.05,P <0.01); LVEF after 1 week,6 months and 12 months were statistically significant (P <0.05) ;Compared with before,PFR after 6 months was significantly increased (P <0.05),EDVearly/EDV at 12 months after CRT was significantly reduced (P < 0.01); There was a significantly shortened in each segment (Tedv-SD)/R-R 1 week after CRT (P <0.01),but the parameters had no obvious improvement later.Correlation analysis:△ DDI and △ EDVearly/EDV reduction was significant positive correlation (r =0.52,P <0.01),△DDI and PFR has negative correlation (r =-0.40,P < 0.05),△ EDVearly/EDV and △PFR also had a good relationship (r =-0.56,P <0.01).Conclusions The LV synchrony and diastolic function were improved after CRT in patients with DCM; PFR,EDVearly/EDV can be used as evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function effectively targets.%目的 应用实时三维超声心动图(RT-3DE)容积-时间曲线评价扩张型心肌病(DCM)患者心脏同步化(CRT)术后

  9. Left-sided cardiac chamber evaluation using single-phase mid-diastolic coronary computed tomography angiography: derivation of normal values and comparison with conventional end-diastolic and end-systolic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jonathan R. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Abadi, Sobhi [Rambam Health Care Campus, Medical Imaging Department, Haifa (Israel); Solomonica, Amir [Rambam Health Care Campus, Cardiology Department, Haifa (Israel); Mutlak, Diab; Aronson, Doron; Agmon, Yoram; Lessick, Jonathan [Rambam Health Care Campus, Cardiology Department, Haifa (Israel); Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2016-10-15

    With increasing use of prospective scanning techniques for cardiac computed tomography (CT), meaningful evaluation of chamber volumes is no longer possible due to lack of normal values. We aimed to define normal values for mid-diastolic (MD) chamber volumes and to determine their significance in comparison to maximum volumes. Normal ranges at MD for left ventricular (LV) volume and mass and left atrial (LA) volume were determined from 101 normal controls. Thereafter, 109 consecutive CT scans, as well as 21 post-myocardial infarction patients, were analysed to determine the relationship between MD and maximum volumes. MD volumes correlated closely with maximal volumes (r = 0.99) for both LV and LA, and could estimate maximum volumes accurately. LV mass, measured at ED or MD, were very similar (r = 0.99). Abnormal MD volumes had excellent sensitivity and specificity to detect chamber enlargement based on maximal volumes (LV 86 %, 100 %, respectively; LA 100 %, 92 %, respectively). A single MD phase can identify patients with cardiomegaly or LV hypertrophy with a high degree of accuracy and MD volumes can give an accurate estimate of maximum LV and LA volumes. circle Traditionally, helical cardiac CT provided clinically important information from chamber volume analysis. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of fetal left ventricular volume with spatiotemporal image correlation(STIC)%时间-空间相关成像技术定量评价胎儿左心室容积的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云姣; 赵博文; 潘美; 杨园; 黎鹏; 唐海林; 徐海珊; 王蓓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of spatiotemporal image correlation(STIC)to assess left ventricular volume in normal fetuses.Methods The volume data acquisition of 162 normal fetuses ranging between 22 and 38 weeks of gestation was achieved by automatic sweep scan.The virtual organ computer-aided analysis(VOCAL Ⅱ)was then used to evaluate end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes of left ventricle and compared with that obtained by M-mode Teichholz formula and 2D biplane Simpson's method.Results Twenty-six fetuses with poor STIC image and 2 twin pregnancies were excluded,the study subjects consisted of 134 singleton fetuses.The highest concordance correlation(r =0.968,for EDV,r =0.956 for ESV;P =0.000)was noted between 2D biplane Simpson' s and STIC VOCAL Ⅱ values with a small bias(0.282 ml for EDV,0.117 ml for ESV).The Bland-Altman analysis showed that STIC VOCAL Ⅱ had the best agreement than M-mode Teichholz formula and 2D biplane Simpson's method.The result showed that there were significant difference between Mmode Teichholz formula and Simpson's method in EDV and ESV(P<0.05).There were significant differences between M-mode Teichholz formula and STIC VOCAL Ⅱ(P<0.05).There were no significant differences between STIC VOCAL Ⅱ and Simpson' s method in EDV and ESV.Conclusions There is a good agreement between left ventricular volumes measured either by STIC VOCAL Ⅱ or by 2D biplane Simpson's method.STIC is a novel technique that can be more accurate than conventional Methods in quantification of fetal left ventricular volumes.All the volume data acquisition is achieved by postprocessing facilities.STIC promises to become a new method for left ventricular volume quantification.%目的 探讨时间-空间相关成像技术(spatiotemporal image correlation,STIC)在定量胎儿左心室容积中的价值.方法 通过三维容积探头获得162例孕龄22~38周胎儿的心脏三维数据,应用STIC对容积数据处理并获得胎儿心脏形

  11. Left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic volume in patients with diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovin, Ion S; Ebisu, Keita; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Finta, Laurie A; Oprea, Adriana D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Dziura, James; Wackers, Frans J

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction can be diagnosed on equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) by a low peak filling rate (PFR) in the setting of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The authors evaluated the relationship between diastolic dysfunction, LVEF, and end-diastolic volume (EDV). A total of 408 predominantly asymptomatic patients with an LVEF ≥50% by ERNA were studied. LVEF of patients with a low PFR was compared with the LVEF of patients with a normal PFR. Correlation analyses to evaluate the association between PFR and EDV were also performed. The LVEF of patients with a low PFR was lower than the LVEF of patients with normal PFR (59±7 vs 63%±7%; PPFR (r=-0.04; P=.32). The results did not change when the EDV indices were used. In patients who had repeat scans, there was no correlation between the change in EDV and the change in PFR (r=0.16; P=.2). In asymptomatic patients undergoing ERNA who have normal systolic function, a low PFR can be associated with a lower LVEF, but it is not associated with changes in EDV. This suggests that diastolic dysfunction is associated with mild systolic dysfunction.

  12. Comparison of left and right ventricular ejection and filling parameters by fast cine MR imaging in breath-hold technique: clinical study of 42 patients with cardiomyopathy and coronary heart disease; Vergleich links- und rechtsventrikulaerer Auswurf- und Fuellungsparameter des Herzens mittels Cine MRT in Atemanhaltetechnik: klinische Studie an 42 Patienten mit Kardiomyopathie und koronarer Herzerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rominger, M.B.; Bachmann, G.F.; Geuer, M.; Puzik, M.; Rau, W.S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostische Radiologie; Ricken, W.W. [Kerckhoff-Klinik GmbH, Bad Nauheim (Germany). Abt. Kardiologie

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: Quantification of left and right ventricular filling and ejection of localized and diffuse heart diseases with fast cine MR imaging in breath-hold technique. Methods: 42 patients (14 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM), 13 hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (HCM) and 15 coronary artery diseases (CAD)) and 10 healthy volunteers were examined. Time-volume-curves of three left ventricular and one right ventricular slices were evaluated and peak ejection and filling rates (PER, PFR end-diastolic volume (EDV)/s) time to PER and PFR (TPER, TPFR ms) and time of end-systole (TSYS in % RR-intervall) were calculated. Results: There were significant regional and left-/right-sided differences of the filling and ejection of both ventricles within and between the different groups. In DCM the left ventricular PFR was reduced (DCM 3.1 EDV/s; volunteers 4.9 EDV/s) and Z-SYS prolonged (DCM 50.1%; volunteers 35.4%). In CAD there were localized decreased filling rates in comparison to the normal volunteer group (left ventricle: basal: 2.9 and 6.3 EDV/s, apical: 4.4 and 6.3 EDV/s; right ventricle: 3.6 and 5.7 EDV/s). HCM typically showed an isovolumetric lengthening of the endsystole. Conclusions: Cardiac MR imaging in breath-hold technique is suitable for measuring contraction and relaxation disturbances of localized and diffuse heart diseases by means of ejection and filling volume indices. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Quantifizierung der links- und rechtsventrikulaeren Fuellung und des Auswurfs bei umschriebenen und diffusen Herzerkrankungen mittels schneller Cine MR Bildgebung in Atemanhaltetechnik. Methoden: Untersucht wurden 42 Patienten (14 dilatative Kardiomyopathien (DCM), 13 hypertrophe obstruktive Kardiomyopathien (HCM) und 15 koronare Herzerkrankungen (KHK)) und 10 Probanden. Von drei linksventrikulaeren und einer rechtsventrikulaeren Einzelschicht wurden Zeit-Volumen-Kurven erstellt, aus denen die maximale Auswurf- und Fuellrate (MAR) (MFR eddiastolisches Volumen (EDV)/s

  13. Evaluation of right ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Stubgaard, M; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    Right ventricular volumes were determined in 12 patients with different levels of right and left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an ECG gated multisection technique in planes perpendicular to the diastolic position of the interventricular septum. Right ventricular...... stroke volume was calculated as the difference between end-diastolic and end-systolic volume and compared to left ventricular stroke volume and to stroke volume determined simultaneously by a classical indicator dilution technique. There was good agreement between right ventricular stroke volume...... determined by MRI and by the indicator dilution method and between right and left ventricular stroke volume determined by MRI. Thus, MRI gives reliable values not only for left ventricular volumes, but also for right ventricular volumes. By MRI it is possible to obtain volumes from both ventricles...

  14. Semiautomatic three-dimensional CT ventricular volumetry in patients with congenital heart disease: agreement between two methods with different user interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang-Hyub

    2015-12-01

    To assess agreement between two semi-automatic, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) ventricular volumetry methods with different user interactions in patients with congenital heart disease. In 30 patients with congenital heart disease (median age 8 years, range 5 days-33 years; 20 men), dual-source, multi-section, electrocardiography-synchronized cardiac CT was obtained at the end-systolic (n = 22) and/or end-diastolic (n = 28) phase. Nineteen left ventricle end-systolic (LV ESV), 28 left ventricle end-diastolic (LV EDV), 22 right ventricle end-systolic (RV ESV), and 28 right ventricle end-diastolic volumes (RV EDV) were successfully calculated using two semi-automatic, 3D segmentation methods with different user interactions (high in method 1, low in method 2). The calculated ventricular volumes of the two methods were compared and correlated. A P value volumetry shows good agreement and high correlation between the two methods, but method 2 tends to slightly underestimate LV ESV, LV EDV, and RV ESV.

  15. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  16. Evaluation of right ventricular volume and mass using retrospective ECG-gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: comparison with first-pass radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yongdong Severance Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Ryu, Young Hoon; Hur, Jin; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Young; Kim, Hyung Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pulmonology, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the right ventricular (RV) volume and mass using cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to compare the cardiac MDCT results with those from first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRA). Twenty patients were evaluated for the RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), the RV end-systolic volume (RVESV), the RV ejection fraction (RVEF), and RV mass using cardiac MDCT with a two-phase reconstruction method based on ECG. The end-diastolic phase was reconstructed at the starting point of the QRS complex on ECG, and the end-systolic phase was reconstructed at the halfway point of the ascending T-wave on ECG. The RV mass was measured for the end-systole. The RVEF was also obtained by FPRA. The mean RVEF (47{+-}7%) measured by cardiac MDCT was well correlated with that (44{+-}6%) measured by FPRA (r=0.854). A significant difference in the mean RVEF was found between cardiac MDCT and FPRA (p=0.001), with an overestimation of 2.9{+-}5.3% by cardiac MDCT versus FPRA. The interobserver variability was 4.4% for the RVEDV, 6.8% for the RVESV, and 7.9% for the RV mass, respectively. Cardiac MDCT is relatively simple and allows the RV volume and mass to be assessed, and the RVEF obtained by cardiac MDCT correlates well with that measured by FPRA. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mahidol University, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  18. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.; Isaacs, S.; Fraser, R.C.; Commerford, P.J.; Uys, C.J.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Barnard, C.N.

    1985-02-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts.

  19. Left atrial volume in patients with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Egstrup, K.; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with persistently increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We therefore hypothesized that LA volume might reflect the severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 1,758 patients with asymptomatic...... AS (transaortic Doppler velocity > or =2.5 and Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. LA volume was measured in end-systole in the apical 4-chamber view in 1,503 patients (85%), and aortic valve area (AVA) was estimated by the continuity equation and indexed by body surface...

  20. Effects of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on systolic and diastolic left ventricular function assessed by pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliga, Emanuele; Steendijk, Paul; Valgimigli, Marco; Ten Cate, Folkert J; Serruys, Patrick W

    2008-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) on systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) functions in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Ten consecutive patients with symptomatic HC despite optimal medical treatment were referred for PTSMA at our center. LV systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by online LV pressure-volume loops obtained by conductance catheter at baseline and at 6 months after the procedure. At follow-up, the mean gradients at rest and after extrasystole were significantly decreased compared with baseline (88 +/- 29 to 21 +/- 11 mm Hg and 130 +/- 50 to 35 +/- 22 mm Hg, respectively, p <0.01 for the 2 comparisons). End-systolic and end-diastolic pressures significantly decreased (p <0.01), whereas end-systolic and end-diastolic LV volumes significantly increased (p <0.01 for the 2 comparisons). Cardiac output and stroke volume were unchanged, as were ejection fraction (p = 0.25) and maximum dP/dt (p = 0.13). The slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation was not decreased, indicating a preserved contractility. The relaxation constant time, end-diastolic stiffness, projected volume of the end-diastolic pressure-volume relation at 30 mm Hg, and diastolic stiffness constant showed a significant improvement of active and passive myocardial diastolic properties. In conclusion, PTSMA is an effective method in the treatment of symptomatic patients with HC. At 6-month follow-up, the LV-aortic gradient was decreased and active and passive LV diastolic properties were increased. Myocardial contractility was not decreased and general hemodynamics was maintained.

  1. Feasibility of the left ventricular volume measurement by acoustic quantification method. Comparison with ultrafast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimoto, Shigehiro; Nakatani, Satoshi; Tanaka, Norio; Uematsu, Masaaki; Beppu, Shintaro; Nagata, Seiki; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Miyatake, Kunio [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic quantification (AQ: the real-time automated boundary detection system) allows instantaneous measurement of cardiac chamber volumes. The feasibility of this method was evaluated by comparing the left ventricular (LV) volumes obtained with AQ to those derived from ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT), which enables accurate measurements of LV volumes even in the presence of LV asynergy, in 23 patients (8 with ischemic heart disease, 5 with cardiomyopathy, 3 with valvular heart disease). Both LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes obtained with the AQ method were in good agreement with those obtained with UFCT (y=1.04{chi}-16.9, r=0.95; y=0.87{chi}+15.7, r=0.91; respectively). AQ was reliable even in the presence of LV asynergy. Interobserver variability for the AQ measurement was 10.2%. AQ provides a new, clinically useful method for real-time accurate estimation of the left ventricular volume. (author).

  2. Value of radionuclide angiocardiography for determination of left ventricular volume in patients with valvular heart disease; Wartosc angiokardiografii radioizotopowej dla oznaczania objetosci lewej komory u chorych z zastawkowymi wadami serca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konieczna, S.; Madeja, G.; Gosiewska-Marcinkowska, E.; Szumilak, B.; Brodzki, L.M.; Leszek, P. [Instytut Kardiologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate usability of the Massardo method in calculating the left ventricular volume in patients with valvular defect. The group consisted of 21 patients with mitral defect. Left ventricular volumes obtained by contrast ventriculography were used for reference. The correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.94, SEE=29 ml, V{sub nucl}=0.94 V{sub c.vent}+11. The end-systolic and end-diastolic outlines were marked manually. We concluded that the Massardo methods is an effective method of calculating the left ventricular volume also in group of patients with mitral defect. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  3. Effect of oral alcohol on left ventricular ejection fraction, volumes, and segmental wall motion in normals and in patients with recent myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Yang, D; Patel, D; Kim, B S; Patel, C; Becker, W H

    1985-11-01

    A first-pass nuclear angiogram and a multiple-gated acquisition study were obtained in 10 normal physicians and in 10 patients with a 7-to-10 day old transmural myocardial infarction. After the scan the subjects drank 2 oz. of whiskey. After 60 minutes, the multiple-gated acquisition study was repeated. In the normal group the left ventricular ejection fraction was 68% before and 72% after alcohol. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from 89 to 97 ml while the left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased from 29 to 27 ml. The stroke volume rose from 61 to 70 ml/beat (p less than 0.05). The cardiac output increased from 4.0 to 5.0 l/min (p less than 0.05). In the infarction group, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 58% before and 56% after alcohol administration. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume fell from 111 to 96 ml, while the left ventricular end-systolic volume declined from 50 to 44 ml. The stroke volume fell from 61 to 52 ml/beat, while the cardiac output fell from 4.5 to 3.8 l/min. In the left ventricular infarction zones, alcohol produced in 9 of the 10 cardiac patients a decline in the left ventricular regional ejection fraction. In the normal group, alcohol produced no significant changes in the regional ejection fraction. The normal and the postinfarction patients responded differently to alcohol.

  4. Automated Assessment of Right Ventricular Volumes and Function Using Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, Maartje M; van Dijk, Arie P J; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Thijssen, Johan M; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is known to be of diagnostic value in patients with RV dysfunction. Because of its complex anatomic shape, automated determination of the RV volume is difficult and strong reliance on geometric assumptions is not desired. A method for automated RV assessment was developed using three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography without relying on a priori knowledge of the cardiac anatomy. A 3-D adaptive filtering technique that optimizes the discrimination between blood and myocardium was applied to facilitate endocardial border detection. Filtered image data were incorporated in a segmentation model to automatically detect the endocardial RV border. End-systolic and end-diastolic RV volumes, as well as ejection fraction, were computed from the automatically segmented endocardial surfaces and compared against reference volumes manually delineated by two expert cardiologists. The results reported good performance in terms of correlation and agreement with the results from the reference volumes.

  5. [Acute response of right ventricular function to iloprost inhalations in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: preliminary evaluation 
with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingqing; Li, Dong; Yang, Zhenwen; Han, Yan; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Tielian

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally elevated blood pressure of the pulmonary circulation. Without treatment, PAH progresses rapidly to right ventricular (RV) failure and even death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has been an accurate and reproducible tool to assessment of RV morphology and function, which are important factors in the prognosis of patients with PAH. The aim of this study is to investigate acute RV response to inhalation of aerosolized iloprost in patients with PAH using CMRI. From March 2012 to March 2014, 48 patients with PAH underwent CMRI before and immediately after inhalation of iloprost with a single dose of 20 μg over 15 min-20 min. RV function parameters derived from CMRI images were analyzed before and after iloprost inhalation, including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-diastolic area (EDA), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-systolic area (ESA), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO). Percentage of RV area change was also calculated [%RVAC=(EDA-ESA)/EDA×100%]. Wilcoxon's Sign Rank Test or Paired Samples t-Test was used to compare the differences of RV function parameters before and after inhalation. After iloprost inhalation, all patients showed significant decrease in RV EDV and RV ESV (P=0.007, Piloprost can immediately improve RV function in patients with PAH, and noninvasive evaluation of the acute response with CMRI is feasibility.

  6. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS MODFLING OF MECHANICAL PERIODICITY OF END DIASTOLIC VOLUME OF LEFT VENTRICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世雄; 毛晓春

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular system with a lumped parameter model is treated, in which the Starling model is used to simulate left ventricle and the four-element Burattini & Gnudi model is used in the description of arterial system. Moreover, the feedback action of arterial pressure on cardiac cycle is taken into account. The phenomenon of mechanical periodicity (MP) of end diastolic volume (EDV) of left ventricle is successfully simulated by solving a series of one-dimensional discrete nonlinear dynamical equations. The effects of cardiovascular parameters on MP is also discussed.

  7. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of right atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P

    1983-09-01

    Contrast echocardiography and inferior vena cava ultrasonography are useful techniques in diagnosing tricuspid regurgitation (TR) but are not helpful in estimating the severity. Using a computerized light-pen method for tracing the right atrial (RA) border during systole and diastole in the apical 4-chamber view, single-plane volume determinations were calculated in 10 normal subjects (Group I), 18 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and no TR (Group II), 14 patients with mitral stenosis and mild TR (Group IIIa), and 8 patients with mitral stenosis and severe TR (Group IIIb). TR was quantitated as absent, mild or severe by contrast right ventriculography. The RA end-systolic volume was 36.4 +/- 13.1 ml in Group I patients, 59.1 +/- 16.8 ml in Group II patients, 76.9 +/- 55.4 ml in Group IIIa patients, and 154.6 +/- 57.3 ml in Group IIIb patients (all Groups versus Group I, p less than 0.001). The mean RA emptying volume, which equals RA end-systolic volume--RA end-diastolic volume, was 15.3 +/- 5.0 for Group I, 17.7 +/- 3.0 for Group II, 30.4 +/- 8.0 for Group IIIa, and 71.6 +/- 25.4 for Group IIIb. All 8 patients with severe TR but none of the 14 patients with mild TR had an RA emptying volume greater than 40 ml (p less than 0.001). In addition, all 28 patients in Groups I and II but only 4 of 14 patients in Group III had an RA emptying volume less than 26 ml (p less than 0.01). The mean RA pressure measured at cardiac catheterization correlated with RA emptying volume (r = 0.71, p less than 0.001). Thus, RA emptying volume is useful for separating severe TR from mild TR in patients with mitral stenosis.

  8. Factors influencing the variations of ejection fraction during exercise in chronic aortic regurgitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassand, J.P.; Faivre, R.; Berthout, P.; Maurat, J.P.; Cardot, J.C.; Verdenet, J.; Bidet, R.

    1987-11-01

    The influence of left ventricular volume variations and regurgitant fraction variations upon left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise was examined using equilibrium radionuclide angiography in patients suffering from aortic regurgitation. Ejection fraction (EF), regurgitant fraction (RF), end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) variations from rest to peak exercise were determined in 44 patients suffering from chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) and in 8 healthy volunteers (C). In C, EF increased (+0.10+-0.03, P<0.01) and ESV decreased significantly (-23%+-12%, P<0.01), RF and EDV did not vary significantly. In AR patients, EF, EDV and ESV did not vary significantly because of important scattering of individual values. Changes in EF and ESV were inversely correlated (r=-0.79, P<0.01) and RF decreased significantly (-0.12+-0.10, P<0.01). Volumes and EF changes during exercise occurred in three different ways. In a 1st subgroup of 7 patients, EF increased (+0.09+-0.03, P<0.05) in conjunction with a reduction of ESV (-24%+-12%, P<0.05) without a significant change in EDV. In a 2nd group of 22 patients, EF decreased (-0.04+-0.07, P<0.01) in association with an increase in ESV (+17%+-16%, P<0.01) and no changes in EDV. In a 3rd subgroup of 15 patients, EF decreased (-0.02+-0.06, P<0.01) despite a reduction in ESV (-7%+-6%, P<0.01) because of a dramatic EDV decrease (-10%+-6%, P<0.05). In this subgroup, changes in EF were inversely correlated with changes in ESV (r=-0.55, P<0.01) and positively related to EDV variations (r=0.42, P=0.02). EDV changes were weakly, but significantly, correlated to RF decrease (r=0.39, P<0.05). We conclude that changes in left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation are significantly related in some patients to changes in ventricular loading conditions as well as contractile state.

  9. Right ventricular involvement in patients with Fabry's disease and the effect of enzyme replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.; Machann, W.; Koestler, H.; Hahn, D.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Breunig, F.; Weidemann, F.; Wanner, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Medizinische Klinik I

    2011-11-15

    According to echocardiography reports, Fabry cardiomyopathy not only affects the left ventricle (LV) but also the right ventricle (RV). Until now no MRI studies about the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the RV are available. We evaluated the effect of ERT on the RV. In this prospective trial 14 patients with genetically proven Fabry's disease were examined using a 1.5 T MR scanner before ERT and after 13 {+-} 1 months of ERT. All patients underwent cardiac MR imaging and the RV/LV cardiac morphology and function were analyzed. At baseline examination the values were as follows: RV mass 31 {+-} 6 g/m{sup 2}, end-diastolic volume (EDV) 88 {+-} 13 ml/m{sup 2}, end-systolic volume (ESV) 39 {+-} 9 ml/m{sup 2}, stroke volume (SV) 49 {+-} 7 ml/m{sup 2} and ejection fraction (EF) 56 {+-} 5 %. The RV mass and EDV decreased significantly after 13 {+-} 1 months on ERT (mass 27 {+-} 7 g/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05, EDV 76 {+-} 24 ml/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05), with no significant change of ESV (33 {+-} 13 ml/m{sup 2}), SV (43 {+-} 12 ml/m{sup 2}) and EF (57 {+-} 7 %). The LV mass (102 {+-} 26 g/m{sup 2} vs. 94 {+-} 27 g/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05), EDV (76 {+-} 13 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 66 {+-} 22 ml/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05) and ESV (29 {+-} 9 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 23 {+-} 9 ml/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05) decreased significantly while the EF (64 {+-} 7 % vs. 66 {+-} 5 %; p < 0.05) increased significantly. Besides the known beneficial effect on the LV, ERT improves RV mass and EDV. (orig.)

  10. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil

    2016-01-01

    to calculate left ventricular wall stress. Cardiac output was also determined by inert gas rebreathing to provide an additional and independent estimate of stroke volume. Echocardiography and inert gas-rebreathing yielded similar cardiac outputs of 16.1±2.5 and 16.4±1.4 l min(-1), respectively. End......-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 521±61 ml and 228±42 ml, respectively, yielding an ejection fraction of 56±4% and a stroke volume of 0.59 ml kg(-1). Left ventricular circumferential wall stress was 7.83±1.76 kPa. We conclude that, relative to body mass, a small left ventricular cavity and a low stroke...

  11. A self-calibrating telemetry system for measurement of ventricular pressure-volume relations in conscious, freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru; Zheng, Can; Kashihara, Koji; Sato, Takayuki; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-12-01

    Using Bluetooth wireless technology, we developed an implantable telemetry system for measurement of the left ventricular pressure-volume relation in conscious, freely moving rats. The telemetry system consisted of a pressure-conductance catheter (1.8-Fr) connected to a small (14-g) fully implantable signal transmitter. To make the system fully telemetric, calibrations such as blood resistivity and parallel conductance were also conducted telemetrically. To estimate blood resistivity, we used four electrodes arranged 0.2 mm apart on the pressure-conductance catheter. To estimate parallel conductance, we used a dual-frequency method. We examined the accuracy of calibrations, stroke volume (SV) measurements, and the reproducibility of the telemetry. The blood resistivity estimated telemetrically agreed with that measured using an ex vivo cuvette method (y=1.09x - 11.9, r2= 0.88, n=10). Parallel conductance estimated by the dual-frequency (2 and 20 kHz) method correlated well with that measured by a conventional saline injection method (y=1.59x - 1.77, r2= 0.87, n=13). The telemetric SV closely correlated with the flowmetric SV during inferior vena cava occlusions (y=0.96x + 7.5, r2=0.96, n=4). In six conscious rats, differences between the repeated telemetries on different days (3 days apart on average) were reasonably small: 13% for end-diastolic volume, 20% for end-systolic volume, 28% for end-diastolic pressure, and 6% for end-systolic pressure. We conclude that the developed telemetry system enables us to estimate the pressure-volume relation with reasonable accuracy and reproducibility in conscious, untethered rats.

  12. Influence of Respiratory Gating, Image Filtering, and Animal Positioning on High-Resolution Electrocardiography-Gated Murine Cardiac Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were injected with 99m technetium (99mTc-tetrofosmin, and each was scanned in supine and prone positions in a U-SPECT-II scanner with respiratory and electrocardiographic (ECG gating. ECG-gated SPECT images were created without applying respiratory motion correction or with two different respiratory motion correction strategies. The images were filtered with a range of three-dimensional gaussian kernels, after which end-diastolic volumes (EDVs, end-systolic volumes (ESVs, and left ventricular ejection fractions were calculated. No significant differences in the measured cardiac parameters were detected when any strategy to reduce or correct for respiratory motion was applied, whereas big differences (> 5% in EDV and ESV were found with regard to different positioning of animals. A linear relationship (p < .001 was found between the EDV or ESV and the kernel size of the gaussian filter. In short, respiratory gating did not significantly affect the cardiac parameters of mice obtained with ultra-high-resolution SPECT, whereas the position of the animals and the image filters should be the same in a comparative study with multiple scans to avoid systematic differences in measured cardiac parameters.

  13. New speckle-tracking algorithm for right ventricular volume analysis from three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets: validation with cardiac magnetic resonance and comparison with the previous analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraru, Denisa; Spadotto, Veronica; Cecchetto, Antonella; Romeo, Gabriella; Aruta, Patrizia; Ermacora, Davide; Jenei, Csaba; Cucchini, Umberto; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P

    2016-11-01

    (i) To validate a new software for right ventricular (RV) analysis by 3D echocardiography (3DE) against cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR); (ii) to assess the accuracy of different measurement approaches; and (iii) to explore any benefits vs. the previous software. We prospectively studied with 3DE and CMR 47 patients (14-82 years, 28 men) having a wide range of RV end-diastolic volumes (EDV 82-354 mL at CMR) and ejection fractions (EF 34-81%). Multi-beat RV 3DE data sets were independently analysed with the new software using both automated and manual editing options, as well as with the previous software. RV volume reproducibility was tested in 15 random patients. RV volumes and EF measurements by the new software had an excellent accuracy (bias ± SD: -15 ± 24 mL for EDV; 1.4 ± 4.9% for EF) and reproducibility compared with CMR, provided that the RV borders automatically tracked by software were systematically edited by operator. The automated analysis option underestimated the EDV, overestimated the ESV, and largely underestimated the EF (bias ± SD: -17 ± 10%). RV volumes measured with the new software using manual editing showed similar accuracy, but lower inter-observer variability and shorter analysis time (3-5') in comparison with the previous software. Novel vendor-independent 3DE software enables an accurate, reproducible and faster quantitation of RV volumes and ejection fraction. Rather than optional, systematic verification of border tracking quality and manual editing are mandatory to ensure accurate 3DE measurements. These findings are relevant for echocardiography laboratories aiming to implement 3DE for RV analysis for both research and clinical purposes. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Respiratory-gated electrical impedance tomography: a potential technique for quantifying stroke volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saaid H.; Murphy, Ethan K.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2016-03-01

    Telemonitoring is becoming increasingly important as the proportion of the population living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases. Currently used health parameters in the suite of telemonitoring tools lack the sensitivity and specificity to accurately predict heart failure events, forcing physicians to play a reactive versus proactive role in patient care. A novel cardiac output (CO) monitoring device is proposed that leverages a custom smart phone application and a wearable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of using respiratory-gated EIT to quantify stroke volume (SV) and assess its feasibility using real data. Simulations were carried out using the 4D XCAT model to create anatomically realistic meshes and electrical conductivity profiles representing the human thorax and the intrathoracic tissue. A single 5-second period respiration cycle with chest/lung expansion was modeled with end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart volumes to evaluate how effective EIT-based conductivity changes represent clinically significant differences in SV. After establishing a correlation between conductivity changes and SV, the applicability of the respiratory-gated EIT was refined using data from the PhysioNet database to estimate the number of useful end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart events attained over a 3.3 minute period. The area associated with conductivity changes was found to correlate to SV with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. A window of 12.5% around peak exhalation was found to be the optimal phase of the respiratory cycle from which to record EIT data. Within this window, ~47 useable ED and ES were found with a standard deviation of 28 using 3.3 minutes of data for 20 patients.

  15. Left ventricular function in response to dipyridamole stress: head-to-head comparison between {sup 82}Rubidium PET and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT ECG-gated myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio; Soares, Jose; Izaki, Marisa; Falcao, Andrea; Imada, Rodrigo; Chalela, William; Oliveira, Marco Antonio de; Nomura, Cesar [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Service - Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (sestamibi) SPECT and rubidium-82 ({sup 82}Rb) PET both allow for combined assessment of perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function. We sought to compare parameters of LV function obtained with both methods using a single dipyridamole stress dose. A group of 221 consecutive patients (65.2 ± 10.4 years, 52.9% male) underwent consecutive sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb MPI after a single dipyridamole stress dose. Sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb summed rest (SRS), stress (SSS) and difference (SDS) scores, and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed that with increasing ESV and EDV the difference between the two perfusion tracers increased both at rest and post-stress. The mean difference in EDV and ESV between the two perfusion tracers at rest could both be independently explained by the {sup 82}Rb SDS and the sestamibi SRS. The combined models explained approximately 30% of the variation in these volumes between the two perfusion tracers (R{sup 2} = 0.261, p = 0.005; R{sup 2} = 0.296, p < 0.001, for EDV and ESV respectively). However, the mean difference in LVEF between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb showed no significant trend post-stress (R{sup 2} = 0.001, p = 0.70) and only a modest linear increase with increasing LVEF values at rest (R{sup 2} = 0.032, p = 0.009). Differences in left ventricular volumes between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb MPI increase with increasing volumes. However, these differences did only marginally affect LVEF between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb. In clinical practice these results should be taken into account when comparing functional derived parameters between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb MPI. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of automatic quantification of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function derived from ECG gated myocardial SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Mitsunori; Habara, Hirokazu; Tatsuno, Hironari; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hamada, Noriko; Kazatani, Yukio [Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Non-invasive assessment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) requires information of both myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function. Recently, automatic quantification of ECG-gated myocardial scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (QGS) can provide both of them. QGS, coronary angiograms (CAG) and left venticulograms (LVG) were performed in 83 patients with severe IHD in same period. Significant stenosis of coronary artery in CAG were assessed by QGS. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of significant stenosis by QGS was excellent (85%, 93% and 88%). The LV end-distolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV and ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF) and regional LV wall motion determined by QGS were compared to LVG. There was a good correlation between the values obtained from QGS and LVG (EDV: r=0.86, ESV: r=0.94, EF: r=0.84, p<0.0001), but QGS tended to underestimate EDV and EF. High complete agreement of regional LV wall motion was gained with 427 (74.0%) out of total 581 segments. In conclusion, QGS data was considered to be useful for assessment of determine significant stenosis and LV function in severe IHD. (author)

  17. Single breath-hold magnetic resonance cine imaging for fast assessment of global and regional left ventricular function in clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Heilmaier, Christina; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Eberle, Holger; Jensen, Christoph J.; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Maderwald, Stefan [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate a TGRAPPA (temporal parallel acquisition technique)-accelerated, single breath-hold multi-slice cine imaging approach for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. One hundred eleven patients were examined at 1.5 T. Cine imaging was performed with single-slice breath-hold acquisitions in short-axis orientation using a SSFP (TR 2.63 ms, TE 1.12 ms, FA 72 ) sequence and a TGRAPPA SSFP (TR 2.66 ms, TE 1.11 ms, FA 72 , AF 3) sequence, which covered the entire LV in multiple short-axis slices during a single breath-hold. End-diastolic (EDV), end-systolic (ESV), stroke volumes (SV), ejection fraction (EF), muscle mass (MM) and regional wall motion were assessed for both data sets. Single breath-hold imaging was feasible in 108 patients. Excellent correlations were observed for all volumetric parameters derived from both data sets (all r > 0.97). While EDV and ESV showed marginally lower values for single breath-hold imaging (EDV: -1.6 {+-} 7.9 ml; ESV: -1.8 {+-} 6.0 ml, p < 0.05), no differences were observed for SV, EF, MM and regional wall motion assessment. Single breath-hold imaging required significant shorter acquisition times (28 {+-} 6 s vs. 335 {+-} 87 s). TGRAPPA-accelerated multi-slice SSPF imaging allows for fast and accurate assessment of regional and global LV function within a single breath-hold. (orig.)

  18. Saline volume expansion and cardiovascular physiology: novel observations, old explanations, and new questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, James L

    2004-10-01

    In a clinical investigation, Kumar and coworkers reported the hemodynamic events that accompany plasma volume expansion over 3 hours in healthy adult volunteers, and found that increases in stroke volume (SV) may be related to increases in left ventricular (LV)/right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume, as they expected, but also to decreases in LV/RV end-systolic volume. The latter finding suggests increased contractility and/or decreased afterload, which do not fit with their perception that clinicians ascribe increases in SV to increases in end-diastolic volume based on Starling's work. Increased ejection fraction and decreased vascular resistances were also observed. The same authors recently reported novel data suggesting that reduced blood viscosity may account for the observed reduction in vascular resistances with saline volume expansion. However, the variances in preload and afterload, along with uncertainty in estimates of contractility, substantially limit their ability to define a primary mechanism to explain decreases in LV end-systolic volume. A focus on using ejection fraction to evaluate the integrated performance of the cardiovascular system is provided to broaden this analytic perspective. Sagawa and colleagues described an approach to estimate the relationship, under clinical conditions, between ventricular and arterial bed elastances (i.e. maximal ventricular systolic elastance [Emax] and maximal arterial systolic elastance [Ea]), reflecting ventricular-arterial coupling. I used the mean data provided in one of the reports from Kumar and coworkers to calculate that LV Emax decreased from 1.09 to 0.96 mmHg/ml with saline volume expansion, while Ea decreased from 1.1 to 0.97 mmHg/ml and the SV increased (i.e. the increase in mean SV was associated with a decrease in mean afterload while the mean contractility decreased). The results reported by Kumar and coworkers invite further studies in normal and critically ill patients during acute saline

  19. EDP database aided marketing. EDV-Datenbank-gestuetztes Marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzesko, G. (Energieversorgung Offenbach AG (Germany). Fernwaermeakquisition und Auftragsabwicklung); Vogel, B. (BPI-Buero fuer Planung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany))

    1992-11-01

    The consistent use of an EDP database in acquisition processing as described here, has shown to be highly beneficial for the energy utility in Offenbach. The connected value since the year 1986 (210 MW) has risen to a total of 273 MW. As temporary activity (extension programme over 5 years), it was more advantageous for the EVO (Offenbach utility) not to increase the workforce, but to commission an engineering consultant with the work. The expertise, organizational consultation and personnel support of the engineering company BPI, proved an ideal accompaniment to the marketing activities of the utility. The high acceptance of this procedure by house owners confirmed the wisdom of this choice. (orig.).

  20. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, S.; Johnson, T.R.C.; Wintersperger, B.J.; Minaifar, N.; Bhargava, A.; Rist, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.; Nikolaou, K. [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT), the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the assessment of left ventricular functional parameters with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Fifteen patients (two female, 13 male; mean age 50.8 {+-} 19.2 years) underwent CT and MRI examinations on a DSCT (Somatom Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions), respectively. Multiphase axial CT images were analysed with a semiautomatic region growing algorithms (Syngo Circulation; Siemens Medical Solutions) by two independent blinded observers. In MRI, dynamic cine loops of short axis slices were evaluated with semiautomatic contour detection software (ARGUS; Siemens Medical Solutions) independently by two readers. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) were determined for both modalities, and correlation coefficient, systematic error, limits of agreement and inter-observer variability were assessed. In DSCT, EDV and ESV were 135.8 {+-} 41.9 ml and 54.9 {+-} 29.6 ml, respectively, compared with 132.1 {+-} 40.8 ml EDV and 57.6 {+-} 27.3 ml ESV in MRI. Thus, EDV was overestimated by 3.7 ml (limits of agreement -46.1/+53.6), while ESV was underestimated by 2.6 ml (-36.6/+31.4). Mean EF was 61.6 {+-} 12.4% in DSCT and 57.9 {+-} 9.0% in MRI, resulting in an overestimation of EF by 3.8% with limits of agreement at -14.7 and +22.2%. Rank correlation rho values were 0.81 for EDV (P = 0.0024), 0.79 for ESV (P = 0.0031) and 0.64 for EF (P = 0.0168). The kappa value of inter

  1. Ventricular function following coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison between Gated SPECT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pessoa, Maria Carolina Pinheiro [Pro-Echo Hospital Samaritano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Paulo Pontes [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Junior, Amarino Carvalho [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Dohmann, Hans Fernando Rocha [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Reis, Adair Gomes dos [Nuclear Diagnosticos, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Pro-Echo Hospital Samaritano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    Background: The assessment of left ventricular function may be impaired by the abnormal interventricular septal motion frequently found after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Studies on the validation of gated SPECT as a tool for the assessment of left ventricular function in this patient group are scarce. Objective: We investigated the agreement and correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) as obtained using electrocardiogram-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (gated SPECT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Correlation was measured using Spearman's correlation coefficient ({rho}). Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A good correlation was found between gated SPECT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients after CABG with regard to left ventricular ejection fraction ({rho} = 0.85; p =0.0001), moderate correlation for end-diastolic volume ({rho} = 0.51; p = 0.02), and non-significant correlation for end-diastolic volume ({rho} = 0.13; p = 0.5). Agreement ranges for LVEF, ESV and EDV were: -20% to 12%; -38 to 54 ml and; -96 to 100 ml, respectively. Conclusion: A reliable correlation was found for left ventricular ejection fraction as obtained by gated SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging in patients undergoing CABG. For ventricular volumes, however, the correlation is not adequate. (author)

  2. Acute Response of Right Ventricular Function to Iloprost Inhalations in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Preliminary Evaluation 
with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing LU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally elevated blood pressure of the pulmonary circulation. Without treatment, PAH progresses rapidly to right ventricular (RV failure and even death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI has been an accurate and reproducible tool to assessment of RV morphology and function, which are important factors in the prognosis of patients with PAH. The aim of this study is to investigate acute RV response to inhalation of aerosolized iloprost in patients with PAH using CMRI. Method From March 2012 to March 2014, 48 patients with PAH underwent CMRI before and immediately after inhalation of iloprost with a single dose of 20 μg over 15 min-20 min. RV function parameters derived from CMRI images were analyzed before and after iloprost inhalation, including end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-diastolic area (EDA, end-systolic volume (ESV, end-systolic area (ESA, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and cardiac output (CO. Percentage of RV area change was also calculated [%RVAC=(EDA-ESA/EDA×100%]. Wilcoxon's Sign Rank Test or Paired Samples t-Test was used to compare the differences of RV function parameters before and after inhalation. Results After iloprost inhalation, all patients showed significant decrease in RV EDV and RV ESV (P=0.007, P<0.001 respectively. Whereas, there were significant increase in RV SV (P=0.014, RV EF (P=0.009 and %RVAC (P=0.006. RV CO had no significant difference before and after inhalation (P=0.851. Conclusions Inhalation of iloprost can immediately improve RV function in patients with PAH, and noninvasive evaluation of the acute response with CMRI is feasibility.

  3. [Volume and function of the right ventricle before and after intraluminal pulmonary valvuloplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, A; López, H; Badui, E; Martínez-Becerril, A

    1991-01-01

    With the purpose of studying the right ventricular infundibulum response to the obstruction of the pulmonary blood flow, the authors inform the results of the right ventricular volumes, and function changes before and after pulmonary intraluminal valvuloplasty performed in six adult patients with congenital stenosis of the pulmonary valve. After the valvuloplasty, all right ventricular volumes increased but only slightly, except for the end systolic volume at the right infundibulum, which decreased after valvuloplasty (for alpha = 0.10, p less than 0.10). The ejection fraction of this infundibulum increased after valvuloplasty (for alpha = 0.05 p less than 0.03), while the ejection fraction of the inflow chamber remained unaltered. In the same way decreased the work and power of the inflow tract of the right ventricle, regardless the decreased in the ventricular overload post-valvuloplasty; however, the ratio work vs. end diastolic volume of the right ventricle decreased (for alpha = 0.05, p less than 0.03). The authors discuss these results in relation with the changes produced by the obstruction, acute or chronic, of the pulmonary blood flow on the infundibular wall tension and contractility, whose structure and behavior allow to propose that the function of the infundibulum by means of contraction protects the pulmonary vasculature, against right ventricle hypertension.

  4. Left ventricular volume measurements with free breathing respiratory self-gated 3-dimensional golden angle radial whole-heart cine imaging - Feasibility and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Karen; Ugander, Martin; Sigfridsson, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    To develop and evaluate a free breathing respiratory self-gated isotropic resolution technique for left ventricular (LV) volume measurements. A 3D radial trajectory with double golden-angle ordering was used for free-running data acquisition during free breathing in 9 healthy volunteers. A respiratory self-gating signal was extracted from the center of k-space and used with the electrocardiogram to bin all data into 3 respiratory and 25 cardiac phases. 3D image volumes were reconstructed and the LV endocardial border was segmented. LV volume measurements and reproducibility from 3D free breathing cine were compared to conventional 2D breath-held cine. No difference was found between 3D free breathing cine and 2D breath-held cine with regards to LV ejection fraction, stroke volume, end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume (Pcine and 2D breath-held cine (Pcine and conventional 2D breath-held cine showed similar values and test-retest repeatability for LV volumes in healthy volunteers. 3D free breathing cine enabled retrospective sorting and arbitrary angulation of isotropic data, and could correctly measure LV volumes during free breathing acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of left atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; DePace, N L; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P; Ross, J

    1983-10-01

    Several noninvasive techniques, including radionuclide angiography and Doppler echocardiography, have attempted to measure the regurgitant volume in patients with mitral regurgitation; however, none of these techniques are entirely satisfactory. Utilizing a computerized light pen method for tracing the left atrial endocardial border during systole and diastole in two orthogonal planes (apical four and two chamber views), biplane volume determinations were calculated in 12 normal subjects and 30 patients with nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation. Left atrial emptying volume determinations were performed by subtracting the left atrial end-diastolic volume from the left atrial end-systolic volume. The degree of mitral regurgitation was visually assessed as normal (0, trivial, Group I, 12 patients), mild (1+, Group II, 4 patients), moderate (2+, Group III, 8 patients), moderately severe (3+, Group IV, 12 patients) and severe (4+, Group V, 6 patients) by contrast left ventricular angiography and also quantitatively by regurgitant fraction at cardiac catheterization. All 18 patients with moderately severe (Group IV) and severe (Group V) mitral regurgitation had a left atrial emptying volume greater than 40 ml compared with none of the normal subjects and patients with mild (Group II) or moderate (Group III) mitral regurgitation. There was good correlation between left atrial emptying volume and mitral regurgitant fraction (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01). Thus, in patients with nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation, left atrial emptying volume is useful in separating mild from severe mitral regurgitation.

  6. Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function obtained by quantitative gated SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin for left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Kazunobu; Nakajima, Tohru; Iseki, Harukazu; Abe, Sumihisa; Handa, Shunnosuke; Suzuki, Yutaka [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    The quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software is able to calculate LV volumes and visualize LV wall motion and perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle using an automatic edge detection algorithm of the left ventricle. We evaluated the reliability of global and regional LV function assessment derived from QGS by comparing it with the results from left ventriculo-cineangiography (LVG). In 20 patients with left ventricular dysfunction who underwent ECG gated {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT, the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated. The QGS-assessed regional wall motion was determined using the cinematic display. QGS-derived EDV, ESV and LVEF correlated well with those by LVG (p<0.001 for each). There was a good correlation between wall motion score (WMS) derived from the QGS and the LVG (r=0.40, p<0.05). In some patients with extensive myocardial infarction, there was a discrepancy in the regional wall motion results between QGS and LVG. The ECG-gated SPECT using QGS is useful to evaluate global and regional LV functions in left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  7. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi; Subgang, Anne; Abaei, Alireza; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Stiller, Detlef; Ma, Genshan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice (n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters. PMID:28321415

  8. Are biventricular systolic functions impaired in patient with coronoray slow flow? A prospective study with three dimensional speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemaloğlu Öz, Tuğba; Eren, Mehmet; Atasoy, Işıl; Gürol, Tayfun; Soylu, Özer; Dağdeviren, Bahadır

    2017-05-01

    The newly developed three dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) technology provides quick and comprehensive quantitative assessment of biventricular myocardial dynamics. The impact of coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) on biventricular functions has not been comprehensively evaluated using this new technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CSFP on biventricular systolic functions using 3D-STE. Forty patients with CSFP and otherwise normal coronary arteries (NCAs) and 40 age- and sex-matched controls with normal coronary angiograms (CAGs) were prospectively enrolled. Biventricular systolic function was evaluated by 3D-STE. Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal, circumferential and radial strains, ejection fraction (EF) were significantly lower and LV end-systolic volume (ESV) was significantly higher in the CSFP group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) or LV stroke volume (SV). Additionally, Right ventricular (RV) free wall, septal wall and global longitudinal strains, and RV EF were significantly lower in the CSFP group, but there were no significant differences in RV EDV, ESV and RV SV. The present study demonstrated that CSFP has a notable negative effect on not only 3D strain parameters but also biventricular EF. There was a strong correlation between the strain parameters of the affected vessel's myocardial area and the TIMI frame count of same vessel.

  9. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Jena University Hospital, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I{sup 2} statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi; Subgang, Anne; Abaei, Alireza; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Stiller, Detlef; Ma, Genshan; Rasche, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice (n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters.

  11. Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Cardiac Morphology and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatnia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT is a time-efficient alternative to traditional prolonged training. In contrast to ample evidence describing the effects of prolonged training, there are few data describing cardiovascular adaptations arising from HIIT interventions. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIIT on heart morphology and function in untrained male subjects. Patients and Methods Twenty-two young men (age = 23.34 ± 2.56 years, weight = 72.47 ± 12.01 kg, and height = 174.10 ± 5.75 cm were recruited and randomly assigned into control (n = 10 and HIIT (n = 12 groups. Echocardiography was used to evaluate left ventricular mass (LVM, end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, interventricular septal wall thickness (IVSWT, stroke volume, and ejection fraction (EF. Also, the Bruce treadmill test was employed to estimate VO2max. Results The HIIT subjects showed a significant increase in EDV (P = 0.001, LVM (P = 0.002, stroke volume (P = 0.003, and EF (P = 0.001. However, there was no change in ESV due to HIIT (P = 0.916. Additionally, following HIIT, IVSWT (P = 0.227, despite exhibiting a slight increase, was not significantly different from pre-training levels. Conclusions HIIT in previously untrained subjects led to a significant change in left ventricle (LV morphology, correlating with improvement in aerobic power (VO2max. Cardiac remodeling was characterized by an increased EDV and a similar increase in LVM.

  12. Evaluation of Right Ventricular Volume and Systolic Function by Real-time Three-dimensional Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; WANG Xinfang; XIE Mingxing; YANG Ya; LV Qing; YANG Ying; WANG Liangyu

    2005-01-01

    The optimal plane for measurement of the right ventricular (RV) volumes by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) was determined and the feasibility and accuracy of RT3DE in studying RV systolic function was assessed. RV "Full volume" images were acquired by RT3DE in 22 healthy subjects. RV end-diastolic volumes (RVEDV) and end-systolic volumes (RVESV) were outlined using apical biplane, 4-plane, 8-plane, 16-plane offline separately. RVSV and RVEF were calculated. Meanwhile tricuspid annual systolic excursion (TASE) was measured by M-mode echo. LVSV was outlined by 2-D echo according to the biplane Simpsons rule. The results showed: (1) There was a good correlation between RVSV measured from series planes and LVSV from 2-D echo (r=0.73; r=0.69; r=0.63; r=0.66, P<0.25-0. 0025); (2) There were significant differences between RVEDV in biplane and those in 4-, 8-, 16-plane (P<0. 001). There was also difference between RV volume in 4-plane and that in 8-plane (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between RV volume in 8-plane and that in 16-plane (P>0.05); (3) Inter-observers and intro-observers variability analysis showed that there were close agreements and relations for RV volumes (r=0. 986, P<0. 001; r=0.93, P<0. 001); (4) There was a significantly positive correlation of TASE to RVSV and RVEF from RT3DE (r=0.83; r=0.90). So RV volume measures with RT3DE are rapid, accurate and reproducible. In view of RVs complex shape,apical 8-plane method is better in clinical use. It may allow early detection of RV systolic function.

  13. Effect of pericardiocentesis on right and left ventricular function and volumes in pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyari, D E; Kostuk, W J; Purves, P

    1983-07-01

    To assess the effects of pericardial effusion on ventricular performance and volumes, electrocardiographically gated blood pool cardiac scintigraphy was performed immediately before and after 14 pericardiocenteses in 10 patients, 7 men and 3 women, aged 28 to 73 years (mean 50). Cardiac tamponade was present in 5 patients. After removal of 140 to 1,100 ml of pericardial fluid (527 +/- 305 ml [mean +/- standard deviation]), left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction increased from 63 +/- 5 to 64 +/- 4% (p greater than 0.05) and right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction decreased from 47 +/- 4 to 46 +/- 2% (p greater than 0.05). LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes increased (p less than 0.01) by 28 and 33%, and RV volumes by 40 and 43%, respectively. There were 8 patients with normal LV function (ejection fraction greater than 60%) and 6 patients with subnormal LV function. Changes in ejection fraction were nonsignificant in the 4 subgroups. LV end-diastolic volume changes were more marked (p less than 0.01) in patients with cardiac tamponade (+ 56%) than in those without tamponade (+ 17%), and in those with normal LV function (+ 36%) than in those with subnormal LV function (+ 21%). RV end-diastolic volume increased more markedly (p less than 0.05) in patients with tamponade (+ 72%) than in those without tamponade (+ 23%), but were similar in patients with normal (+ 38%) and abnormal (+ 43%) LV function. After pericardiocentesis, RV volume increased more markedly than did LV volume. Thus, hemodynamic and clinical improvement after pericardiocentesis may be related only to an increase in stroke volume. RV and LV ejection fraction, a measure of myocardial contractility, was not affected significantly by the presence of pericardial effusion, even in those patients who had cardiac tamponade.

  14. Long-Term Left Ventricular Remodelling in Rat Model of Nonreperfused Myocardial Infarction: Sequential MR Imaging Using a 3T Clinical Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad G. Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate whether 3T clinical MRI with a small-animal coil and gradient-echo (GE sequence could be used to characterize long-term left ventricular remodelling (LVR following nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI using semi-automatic segmentation software (SASS in a rat model. Materials and Methods. 5 healthy rats were used to validate left ventricular mass (LVM measured by MRI with postmortem values. 5 sham and 7 infarcted rats were scanned at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery to allow for functional and structural analysis of the heart. Measurements included ejection fraction (EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, and LVM. Changes in different regions of the heart were quantified using wall thickness analyses. Results. LVM validation in healthy rats demonstrated high correlation between MR and postmortem values. Functional assessment at 4 weeks after MI revealed considerable reduction in EF, increases in ESV, EDV, and LVM, and contractile dysfunction in infarcted and noninfarcted regions. Conclusion. Clinical 3T MRI with a small animal coil and GE sequence generated images in a rat heart with adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for successful semiautomatic segmentation to accurately and rapidly evaluate long-term LVR after MI.

  15. Evaluation of passive cardiomyoplasty using left- and right-ventricular volume measurements by EBCT and MRI in patients with chronic congestive heart failure; Evaluierung der passiven Kardiomyoplastie mittels links- und rechtsventrikulaerer EBCT- und MRT-Volumetrie bei Patienten mit chronischer Herzinsuffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, A.; Enzweiler, C.N.H.; Wiese, T.H.; Kivelitz, D.E.; Rogalla, P.; Hamm, B. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Charite Mitte, Humboldt Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Hotz, H.; Dushe, S.; Konertz, W. [Klinik fuer Kardiovaskulaere Chirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Charite Mitte, Humboldt Univ. zu Berlin (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of passive cardiomyoplasty with the determination of biventricular volumes, global systolic function as well as left-ventricular muscle mass. Materials and Methods: In 19 patients with congestive heart failure of idiopathic or ischemic origin, a polyester mesh-graft was implanted around both ventricles for stabilization and functional support. Before and three months after surgery, 15 patients underwent EBCT and 4 patients with impaired renal function underwent MRI, for the evaluation of the volume and ejection fraction of both ventricles. Results: EBCT demonstrated a decrease from 385 to 310 ml in LV-EDV, from 312 to 242 ml in LV-ESV, from 209 to 160 ml in RV-EDV and from 149 to 87 ml in RV-ESV, and an increase from 20 to 26% in LV-EF and from 37 to 50% in RV-EF as well as a reduction of LV-MM from 300 to 274 g (p < 0.05 each). Similar results were obtained by MRI. Conclusion: Following passive cardiomyoplasty, EBCT and MRI revealed an improvement of the global systolic function as well as a reduction of biventricular volumes and left-ventricular muscle mass. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Evaluierung des Therapieerfolges der passiven Kardiomyoplastie durch Bestimmung der biventrikulaeren Volumina und global systolischen Funktion sowie der linksventrikulaeren Muskelmasse. Methoden: Bei 19 Patienten mit idiopathisch und ischaemisch bedingter Herzinsuffizienz erfolgte die Implantation eines Polyesternetzes um die Ventrikel zu deren Stabilisierung und funktioneller Unterstuetzung. Praeoperativ sowie drei Monate postoperativ wurden bei 15 Patienten durch EBCT und bei 4 Patienten mit eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion durch MRT die Volumina und Ejektionsfraktion beider Ventrikel sowie die linksventrikulaere Muskelmasse bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Die EBCT zeigte eine Abnahme des LV-EDV von 385 auf 310 ml, des LV-ESV von 312 auf 242 ml, des RV-EDV von 209 auf 160 ml und des RV-ESV von 149 auf 87 ml, eine Zunahme der LV-EF von 20 auf 26% und der RV

  16. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  17. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Meike [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele A.; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas [Chair of Structural Statics and Dynamics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Utting, Jane F. [MRI, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Humboldt-University, Working Group Cardiovascular MR, Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Department of Cardiology, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch and Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects - even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (56 {+-} 17) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (97 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (94 {+-} 19) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (63 {+-} 5)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (56 {+-} 18) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (147 {+-} 36) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (102 {+-} 29) g, SV{sub ACT} = (91 {+-} 22) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (62 {+-} 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (55 {+-} 21) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (101 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (96 {+-} 15) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (65 {+-} 7)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (54 {+-} 20) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (146 {+-} 35) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (101 {+-} 30) g, SV{sub ACT} = (92 {+-} 17) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (64 {+-} 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR. (orig.)

  18. Dual-source computed tomography. Effect on regional and global left ventricular function assessment compared to magnetic resonance imaging; Untersuchung der regionalen und globalen linksventrikulaeren Funktion mit der Dual-Source-Computertomografie im Vergleich zur Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, F.; Seifarth, H.; Wessling, J.; Heindel, W.; Juergens, Kai Uwe [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Fischbach, R. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Neuroradiologie, Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to determine regional and global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters and to perform segmental wall thickness (SWT) and motion (WM) analysis of dual source CT (DSCT) with optimized temporal resolution versus MRI. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with known or suspected CAD, non-obstructive HCM, DCM, ARVCM, Fallot Tetralogy, cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac metastasis underwent DSCT and MRI. The DSCT and MR images were evaluated: end-systolic (ESV), end-diastolic LV (EDV) volumes, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and myocardial mass (MM) as well as LV wall thickening and segmental WM applying the AHA model were obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean LV-EDV (r = 0.96) and ESV (r = 0.98) as well as LV-EF (r = 0.97), SV (r = 0.83), and MM (r = 0.95) correlated well. Bland Altman analysis revealed little systematic underestimation of LV-EF (-1.1 {+-} 7.8%), EDV (-0.3 {+-} 18.2 ml), SV (-1.3 {+-} 16.7 ml) and little overestimation of ESV (1.1 {+-} 7.8 ml) and MM (12.8 {+-} 14.4 g) determined by DSCT. Systolic reconstruction time points correlated well (DSCT 32.2 {+-} 6.7 vs. MRI 35.6 {+-} 4.4% RR-interval). The LV wall thickness obtained by DSCT and MRI showed close correlation in all segments (diameter diff 0.42 {+-} 1 mm). In 413 segments (89%) WM abnormalities were equally rated, whereas DSCT tended to underestimate the degree of wall motion impairment. Conclusion: DSCT with optimized temporal resolution enables regional and global LV function analysis as well as segmental WM analysis in good correlation with MRI. However, the degree of WM impairment is slightly underestimated by DSCT. (orig.)

  19. The effects of long-term aerobic exercise on cardiac structure, stroke volume of the left ventricle, and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the long-term aerobic exercises on cardiac structure, left ventricular stroke volume, and cardiac output. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 22 volunteers-including 10 people who have continued regular exercises and 12 people as the control group-were selected as subjects. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation, and the difference of the means between the groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences between groups in the left ventricular end-diastolic internal dimension, left ventricular end-systolic internal dimension, left ventricular end-diastolic septum thickness. There were significant differences between groups in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular mass, and left ventricular mass index per body surface area. However, in cardiac function, only left ventricular stroke volume showed a significant difference between groups.

  20. Influence of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging on the ventricular remodeling after ischemic post-conditioning ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction%心脏核磁共振成像对缺血后处理急性 ST 段抬高型心肌梗死后心室重塑的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德华; 郑仕杰; 周敬群; 向常清

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨心脏核磁共振成像(CMR)对缺血后处理急性 ST 段抬高型心肌梗死(STEMI)后心室重塑的影响。方法选择32例12 h 内行缺血后处理的 STEMI 患者作为实验组及12例健康志愿者作为对照组。2组均于术后6个月行 CMR检查,测量左室心功能指标及梗死心肌面积所占百分比,并以24%为分界值,将实验组又分为无重塑组和重塑组。分析各组间的心功能参数差异,并进行受试者工作特征(ROC)分析。结果与对照组比较,无重塑组与重塑组患者的舒张末期容积(EDV)、收缩末期容积(ESV)和每搏输出量(SV)均明显增加,而射血分数(EF)、PER 和 PFR 均有不同程度的下降,其中重塑组下降的幅度更为显著。ESV 与 EDV 的增大呈线性关系;PFR、PER 和 EF 均随 EDV 的增大而呈线性下降趋势。ROC 分析结果显示,EDV、ESV、EF 和 PFR 的曲线下面积分别为0.741、0.764、0.713和0.743。结论CMR 对预测心室重塑有重要作用,其中 PFR、ESV 和 EDV 可作为独立因子预测心室重塑。%Objective To explore the influence of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)on the ventricular remodeling after ischemic post-conditioning ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Methods 32 STEMI patients treated with ischemic post-conditioning in 12 hours were designed as experimental group,and 12 healthy volunteers were designed as control group.The patients in both groups were given CMR 6 months after surgery,and the left ventricular functional in-dexes and percentage of infarction size were measured.With 24% as the limit value,the experiment group was divided into remodeling and non-remodeling groups.Differences of cardiac functional param-eters and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)were analyzed among groups.Results Compared with control group,end-diastolic volume (EDV),end-systolic volume (ESV)and stroke volume (SV)in remodeling and

  1. Measurement of four chambers' volumes and ventricular masses by cardiac CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Motomasa; Naito, Hiroaki; Ohta, Mitsushige; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kito, Yoshitsugu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Using cardiac computed tomography (CT), the ''mean'' volume of each cardiac chamber and both ventricular masses were calculated from summation of a sliced volume by ungated scans obtained using rapid sequential scanning covering the whole heart. 1. Estimation of a normal value of each chamber's volume was attempted in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease and with normal heart function. The ''mean'' volume of the right atrium (RAMV), right ventricle (RVMV), and left atrium (LAMV) was 22.3 +- 6.5, 40.3 +- 6.5 and 28.7 +- 8.2ml/m/sup 2/, respectively. 2. In 54 patients with valvular heart diseases, each chamber's volume obrained by CT was compared with the grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) estimated by ultrasonic Doppler technique or the grade of mitral regurgitation (MR) by left ventriculography (LVG). The RAMV (234 +- 119 ml/m/sup 2/) and the RVMV (101 +- 39 ml/m/sup 2/) were markedly increased in patients with severe TR (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). The LAMV (487 +- 231 ml/m/sup 2/) was also increased in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). 3. In 46 patients with valvular heart diseases, the LVMV by CT was well correlated with end-diastolic volume (EDV) obtained by LVG (r=0.92), and the LVEDVs by ECG gated CT and by LVG showed a fairly good correlation (r=0.95). 4. CT examination was performed before and after surgery in 17 patients with MR or TR for evaluation of the change of chamber volumes. The mean reduction ratio (MRR) of the RAMV after tricuspid annuloplasty, the LVMV after mitral valve plasty, and the LAMV after left atrial plication was 44%, 41%, and 60%, respectively.

  2. Effect of sample volume size and sampling method on feline longitudinal myocardial velocity profiles from color tissue Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granström, Sara; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren; Koch, Jørgen

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effect of sample volume (SV) size settings and sampling method on measurement variability and peak systolic (s'), and early (e') and late (a') diastolic longitudinal myocardial velocities using color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) in cats. Twenty cats with normal echocardiograms and 20 cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We quantified and compared empirical variance and average absolute values of s', e' and a' for three cardiac cycles using eight different SV settings (length 1,2,3 and 5 mm; width 1 and 2 mm) and three methods of sampling (end-diastolic sampling with manual tracking of the SV, end-systolic sampling without tracking, and random-frame sampling without tracking). No significant difference in empirical variance could be demonstrated between most of the tested SVs. However, the two settings with a length of 1 mm resulted in a significantly higher variance compared with all settings where the SV length exceeded 2 mm (p sampling method on the variability of measurements (p = 0.003) and manual tracking obtained the lowest variance. No difference in average values of s', e' or a' could be found between any of the SV settings or sampling methods. Within the tested range of SV settings, an SV length of 1 mm resulted in higher measurement variability compared with an SV length of 3 and 5 mm, and should therefore be avoided. Manual tracking of the sample volume is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effect of static exercise in patients with aortic regurgitation assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: role of left ventricular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Josep M; Martinez-Micaelo, Neus; La Gerche, Andre; Franco-Bonafonte, Luis; Rubio-Pérez, Francisco; Calvo, Nahum; Montero, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), the effect of static exercise (SE) on global ventricular function and AR severity has not been previously studied. Resting and SE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were prospectively performed in 23 asymptomatic patients with AR. During SE, we observed a decrease in regurgitant volume in both end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volume in both ventricles, as well as a slight decrease in LV ejection fraction (EF). Interestingly, responses varied depending on the degree of LV remodelling. Among patients with a greater degree of LV remodelling, we observed a decrease in LVEF (56 ± 4 % at rest vs 48 ± 7 % during SE, p = 0.001) as a result of a lower decrease in LVESV (with respect to LVEDV. Among patients with a lower degree of LV remodelling, LVEF remained unchanged. RVEF remained unchanged in both groups. In patients with AR, SE provoked a reduction in preload, LV stroke volume, and regurgitant volume. In those patients with higher LV remodelling, we observed a decrease in LVEF, suggesting a lower LV contractile reserve. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced preload volume. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced stroke volume. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced regurgitant volume. • In patients with greater remodelling, static exercise unmasked a lower contractile reserve. • Effect of static exercise on aortic regurgitation was assessed by cardiac MR.

  4. Impact of epoetin alfa on left ventricular structure, function, and pressure volume relations as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance: the heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) anemia trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Philip; Babu, Benson A; Teruya, Sergio; Helmke, Stephen; Prince, Martin; Maurer, Mathew S

    2013-01-01

    Anemia, a common comorbidity in older adults with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is associated with worse outcomes. The authors quantified the effect of anemia treatment on left ventricular (LV) structure and function as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. A prospective, randomized single-blind clinical trial (NCT NCT00286182) comparing the safety and efficacy of epoetin alfa vs placebo for 24 weeks in which a subgroup (n=22) had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and after 3 and 6 months to evaluate changes in cardiac structure and function. Pressure volume (PV) indices were derived from MRI measures of ventricular volume coupled with sphygmomanometer-measured pressure and Doppler estimates of filling pressure. The end-systolic and end-diastolic PV relations and the area between them as a function of end-diastolic pressure, the isovolumic PV area (PVAiso), were calculated. Patients (75±10 years, 64% women) with HFPEF (EF=63%±15%) with an average hemoglobin of 10.3±1.1 gm/dL were treated with epoetin alfa using a dose-adjusted algorithm that increased hemoglobin compared with placebo (PHFPEF resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin, without evident change in LV structure, function, or pressure volume relationships as measured quantitatively using CMR imaging.

  5. Assessment of global und regional left ventricular function with a 16-slice spiral-CT using two different software tools for quantitative functional analysis and qualitative evaluation of wall motion changes in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging; Moeglichkeiten der 16-Schicht-CT bei der linksventrikulaeren Funktionsbestimmung: Beurteilung zweier unterschiedlicher Software-Tools zur quantitativen Funktionsanalyse sowie qualitative Bewertung von Wandbewegungsstoerungen im Vergleich zur Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, K.; Oellig, F.; Kunz, P.; Bender, P.; Oberholzer, K.; Mildenberger, P.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Hake, U. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To determine global and regional left ventricular (LV) function from retrospectively gated multidetector row computed tomography (CT) by using two different semiautomated analysis tools and to correlate the results with those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients (5 females, 14males, mean age 69 years) underwent 16-slice spiral-CT (MS-CT) with standard technique without administration of {beta}-blockers for a decrease in the cardiac rate. Ten series of images were reconstructed at every 10% of the RR-interval. With commercially available software capable of semiautomated contour detection, end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes (EDV and ESV) were determined from short-axis multiplanar CT reformations (MPR). Axial images of the end-systolic and end-diastolic cardiac phase were transformed to 3D volumes (3D) to determine EDV and ESV by using a threshold-supported reconstruction algorithm dependent on the contrast enhancement of the left ventricle. Steady-state free-precession cine MR images were acquired in short-axis orientation on the same day in all but one patient. Regional wall motion was assessed qualitatively in 17 left ventricular segments and classified as normo-, hypo-, a- or dyskinetic. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate limits of agreement and systematic errors between CT and MRI. Results: For MPR/3D, mean end-diastolic (144.4/142.8 mL {+-} 67.5/67.1) and end-systolic (66.4/68.7 mL {+-} 52.1/49.9) LV volumes as determined with MS-CT correlated well with MRI measurements (147.6 mL {+-} 67.6 [r = 0.98/0.96] and 73.3 mL {+-} 55.5 [r = 0.98/0.98], respectively [p <.001]). LV stroke volume (77.6/74.1 {+-} 19.2/23.4 mL for CT vs. 74.4 mL {+-} 13.4 for MRI, r = 0.92/0.74) and LV ejection fraction (58.6/55.9% {+-} 13.5/13.7 for CT vs. 55.6% {+-} 13.5 for MRI, r = 0.95/0.91) also showed good correlation (p<.001). Regional wall motion analysis revealed agreement between CT and MRI in 316/323 (97

  6. Ejection fractions and pressure-heart rate product to evaluate cardiac efficiency. Continuous, real-time diagnosis using blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunig, H; Tassani-Prell, P; Engelmann, L

    2014-04-01

    Ejection fractions, derived from ventricular volumes, and double product, related to myocardial oxygen consumption, are important diagnostic parameters, as they describe the efficiency with which oxygen is consumed. Present technology often allows only intermittent determination of physiological status. This deficiency may be overcome if ejection fractions and myocardial oxygen consumption could be determined from continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements. The purpose of this study is to determine the viability of pressure-derived ejection fractions and pressure-heart rate data in a diverse patient population and the use of ejection fractions to monitor patient safety. Volume ejection fractions, derived from ventricular volumes, EF(V), are defined by the ratio of the difference of end-diastolic volume, EDV, and end-systolic volume, ESV, to EDV. In analogy, pressure ejection fraction, EF(P), may be defined by the ratio of the difference of systolic arterial pressure, SBP, and diastolic arterial pressure, DBP, to SBP. The pressure-heart rate (heart rate: HR) is given by the product of systolic pressure and heart rate, SBP × HR. EF(P) and SBP × HR data were derived for all patients (n = 824) who were admitted in 2008 to the ICU of a university hospital at the specific time 30 min prior to leaving the ICU whether as survivors or non-survivors. The results are displayed in an efficiency/pressure-heart rate diagram. The efficiency/pressure-heart rate diagram reveals one subarea populated exclusively by survivors, another subarea populated statistically significant by non-survivors, and a third area shared by survivors and non-survivors. The efficiency/pressure-heart rate product relationship may be used as an outcome criterion to assess survival and to noninvasively monitor improvement or deterioration in real time to improve safety in patients with diverse dysfunctions.

  7. Cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiograph in pediatric heart disease: How does it correlate with heart volumes at magnetic resonance imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Zhou, Cheng; Isaac, Kathryn V. [The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Tomlinson, George [University of Toronto, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital and Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The cardiothoracic ratio by chest radiograph is widely used as a marker of cardiac size. The purpose of this study is to correlate cardiothoracic ratio and cardiac volumes as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) in common structural and myopathic heart disease with increased cardiac size due to volume overload or hypertrophy. A retrospective single center study was performed in all patients between 2007 and 2013 with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), aortic regurgitation, isolated left-to-right shunt and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who underwent cardiovascular MR and chest radiograph within 6 months of each other. Cardiothoracic ratios by chest radiograph (frontal and lateral) were compared to cardiac volumes (indexed for body surface area) by cardiovascular MR. One hundred twenty-seven patients (mean age: 11.2 ± 5.5 years) were included in this study (76 with TOF, 23 with isolated left-to-right shunt, 16 with aortic regurgitation and 12 with HCM). Frontal cardiothoracic ratio of all groups correlated with indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDVI) (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) and indexed total heart volume (THVI) (r = 0.27, P < 0.01). In TOF patients, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with RVEDVI (r = 0.34, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 27.6%), indexed RV end-systolic volume (ESVI) (r = 0.44, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 33.3%) and THVI (r = 0.35, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 19.6%), although RV volumes and THVI showed widespread variation given the high coefficients of variation. In patients with aortic regurgitation, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with left ventricular (LV) EDVI (r = 0.50, P = 0.047), but not with THVI and aortic regurgitant fraction, and widespread variation for LV EDVI (coefficient of variation = 19.2%), LV ESVI (coefficient of variation = 32.5%) and THVI (coefficient of variation = 13.6%) was also observed. Frontal cardiothoracic ratio was not correlated with cardiac volumes

  8. Dynamic changes of left ventricular performance and left atrial volume induced by the mueller maneuver in healthy young adults and implications for obstructive sleep apnea, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Marek; Bruce, Charles J; Pressman, Gregg S; Leinveber, Pavel; Romero-Corral, Abel; Korinek, Josef; Konecny, Tomas; Villarraga, Hector R; Kara, Tomas; Caples, Sean M; Somers, Virend K

    2008-12-01

    Using the Mueller maneuver (MM) to simulate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), our aim was to investigate acute changes in left-sided cardiac morphologic characteristics and function which might develop with apneas occurring during sleep. Strong evidence supports a relation between OSA and both atrial fibrillation and heart failure. However, acute effects of airway obstruction on cardiac structure and function have not been well defined. In addition, it is unclear how OSA might contribute to the development of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Echocardiography was used in healthy young adults to measure various parameters of cardiac structure and function. Subjects were studied at baseline, during, and immediately after performance of the MM and after a 10-minute recovery. Continuous heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse oximetry measurements were made. During the MM, left atrial (LA) volume index markedly decreased. Left ventricular (LV) end-systolic dimension increased in association with a decrease in LV ejection fraction. On release of the maneuver, there was a compensatory increase in blood flow to the left side of the heart, with stroke volume, ejection fraction, and cardiac output exceeding baseline. After 10 minutes of recovery, all parameters returned to baseline. In conclusion, sudden imposition of severe negative intrathoracic pressure led to an abrupt decrease in LA volume and a decrease in LV systolic performance. These changes reflected an increase in LV afterload. Repeated swings in afterload burden and chamber volumes may have implications for the future development of atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

  9. Left and right ventricle assessment with Cardiac CT: validation study vs. Cardiac MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Seitun, Sara [Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Cardiovascular Radiology Unit, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Messalli, Giancarlo; Catalano, Onofrio [SDN Foundation - IRCCS, Naples (Italy); Martini, Chiara; Cademartiri, Filippo [Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Cardiovascular Radiology Unit, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nieman, Koen; Rossi, Alexia; Mollet, Nico R. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Guaricci, Andrea I. [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Foggia, Department of Cardiology, Foggia (Italy); Tedeschi, Carlo [Ospedale San Gennaro, Department of Cardiology, Naples (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To compare Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Computed Tomography (CT) for the assessment of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular functional parameters. Seventy nine patients underwent both Cardiac CT and Cardiac MR. Images were acquired using short axis (SAX) reconstructions for CT and 2D cine b-SSFP (balanced-steady state free precession) SAX sequence for MR, and evaluated using dedicated software. CT and MR images showed good agreement: LV EF (Ejection Fraction) (52 {+-} 14% for CT vs. 52 {+-} 14% for MR; r = 0.73; p > 0.05); RV EF (47 {+-} 12% for CT vs. 47 {+-} 12% for MR; r = 0.74; p > 0.05); LV EDV (End Diastolic Volume) (74 {+-} 21 ml/m{sup 2} for CT vs. 76 {+-} 25 ml/m{sup 2} for MR; r = 0.59; p > 0.05); RV EDV (84 {+-} 25 ml/m{sup 2} for CT vs. 80 {+-} 23 ml/m{sup 2} for MR; r = 0.58; p > 0.05); LV ESV (End Systolic Volume)(37 {+-} 19 ml/m{sup 2} for CT vs. 38 {+-} 23 ml/m{sup 2} for MR; r = 0.76; p > 0.05); RV ESV (46 {+-} 21 ml/m{sup 2} for CT vs. 43 {+-} 18 ml/m{sup 2} for MR; r = 0.70; p > 0.05). Intra- and inter-observer variability were good, and the performance of CT was maintained for different EF subgroups. Cardiac CT provides accurate and reproducible LV and RV volume parameters compared with MR, and can be considered as a reliable alternative for patients who are not suitable to undergo MR. circle Cardiac-CT is able to provide Left and Right Ventricular function. circle Cardiac-CT is accurate as MR for LV and RV volume assessment. (orig.)

  10. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, W. Paul; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-01

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  11. Clinical feasibility of a myocardial signal intensity threshold-based semi-automated cardiac magnetic resonance segmentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U.J.; Suranyi, Pal; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Muscogiuri, Giuseppe [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Rome (Italy); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Cannao, Paola M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ruzsics, Balazs [Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals, Department of Cardiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the accuracy and efficiency of a threshold-based, semi-automated cardiac MRI segmentation algorithm in comparison with conventional contour-based segmentation and aortic flow measurements. Short-axis cine images of 148 patients (55 ± 18 years, 81 men) were used to evaluate left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass (LVM) using conventional and threshold-based segmentations. Phase-contrast images were used to independently measure stroke volume (SV). LV parameters were evaluated by two independent readers. Evaluation times using the conventional and threshold-based methods were 8.4 ± 1.9 and 4.2 ± 1.3 min, respectively (P < 0.0001). LV parameters measured by the conventional and threshold-based methods, respectively, were end-diastolic volume (EDV) 146 ± 59 and 134 ± 53 ml; end-systolic volume (ESV) 64 ± 47 and 59 ± 46 ml; SV 82 ± 29 and 74 ± 28 ml (flow-based 74 ± 30 ml); ejection fraction (EF) 59 ± 16 and 58 ± 17 %; and LVM 141 ± 55 and 159 ± 58 g. Significant differences between the conventional and threshold-based methods were observed in EDV, ESV, and LVM measurements; SV from threshold-based and flow-based measurements were in agreement (P > 0.05) but were significantly different from conventional analysis (P < 0.05). Excellent inter-observer agreement was observed. Threshold-based LV segmentation provides improved accuracy and faster assessment compared to conventional contour-based methods. (orig.)

  12. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  13. Assessment of left ventricular performance by ECG-gated SPECT. Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadamura, Eiji; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    In the measurement of a left ventricular volume, MIBI-QGS was compared with MRI. Because it became clear by the experiment using phantom that a volume calculated with QGS was smaller than the actual volume, data of clinical study were corrected. Subjects were 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen patients had anamnesis of myocardial infarct. ECG-gated SPECT was performed one hour after intravenous injection of MIBI (600 MBq) in rest. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated using QGS. Cine-MR image was obtained by using MR system of 1.5 Tesla within 1 week after SPECT. A condition was as follows; segmented k-space gradient echo with view sharing, TR=11 ms, TE=1.4 ms, flip angle 20 degree, field of view 32 cm, matrix 256 x 196, 8 lines per segment. LVEF, ESV and EF were analysed by Bland-Altman method, and the difference between MIBI-gated-SPECT and MRI was no problem. Horizontal dislocation image and vertical major axis dislocation image were provided. Minor axis crossing images of 10-12 slice were also filmed in order to cover all left ventricles. As a result, availability of MIBI-QGS became clear. Some factors which produces the measurement error are examined. (K.H.)

  14. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerup, Morten; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil; Baandrup, Ulrik T; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Nygaard, Hans; Funder, Jonas; Aalkjær, Christian; Sauer, Cathrine; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Østergaard, Kristine; Grøndahl, Carsten; Candy, Geoffrey; Hasenkam, J Michael; Secher, Niels H; Bie, Peter; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Giraffes--the tallest extant animals on Earth--are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. Arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmHg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures. We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small intraventricular cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic pressures to calculate left ventricular wall stress. Cardiac output was also determined by inert gas rebreathing to provide an additional and independent estimate of stroke volume. Echocardiography and inert gas-rebreathing yielded similar cardiac outputs of 16.1±2.5 and 16.4±1.4 l min(-1), respectively. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 521±61 ml and 228±42 ml, respectively, yielding an ejection fraction of 56±4% and a stroke volume of 0.59 ml kg(-1). Left ventricular circumferential wall stress was 7.83±1.76 kPa. We conclude that, relative to body mass, a small left ventricular cavity and a low stroke volume characterizes the giraffe heart. The adaptations result in typical mammalian left ventricular wall tensions, but produce a lowered cardiac output.

  15. Validation of admittance computed left ventricular volumes against real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Kottam, Anil T; Padiyath, Asif; Bidasee, Keshore R; Li, Ling; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Danford, David A; Kuehne, Titus

    2013-06-01

    The admittance and Wei's equation is a new technique for ventricular volumetry to determine pressure-volume relations that addresses traditional conductance-related issues of parallel conductance and field correction factor. These issues with conductance have prevented researchers from obtaining real-time absolute ventricular volumes. Moreover, the time-consuming steps involved in processing conductance catheter data warrant the need for a better catheter-based technique for ventricular volumetry. We aimed to compare the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) volumetry between the new admittance catheterization technique and transoesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in a large-animal model. Eight anaesthetized pigs were used. A 7 French admittance catheter was positioned in the LV via the right carotid artery. The catheter was connected to an admittance control unit (ADVantage; Transonic Scisense Inc.), and data were recorded on a four-channel acquisition system (FA404; iWorx Systems). Admittance catheterization data and transoesophageal RT3DE (X7-2; Philips) data were simultaneously obtained with the animal ventilated, under neuromuscular blockade and monitored in baseline conditions and during dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular volumes measured from admittance catheterization (Labscribe; iWorx Systems) and RT3DE (Qlab; Philips) were compared. In a subset of four animals, admittance volumes were compared with those obtained from traditional conductance catheterization (MPVS Ultra; Millar Instruments). Of 37 sets of measurements compared, admittance- and RT3DE-derived LV volumes and ejection fractions at baseline and in the presence of dobutamine exhibited general agreement, with mean percentage intermethod differences of 10% for end-diastolic volumes, 14% for end-systolic volumes and 9% for ejection fraction; the respective intermethod differences between admittance and conductance in eight data sets compared were 11, 11 and 12

  16. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M; Willun, Steffen; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2017-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I(2) statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. • CT helps to assess patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). • MRI is the reference standard for evaluation of left ventricular function. • CT provides accurate assessment of global left ventricular function.

  17. Cardiac MRI: evaluation of phonocardiogram-gated cine imaging for the assessment of global und regional left ventricular function in clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Orzada, Stephan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Communication Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Zenge, Michael; Mueller, Edgar [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Eberle, Holger; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To validate a phonocardiogram (PCG)-gated cine imaging approach for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. In this prospective study, cine MR imaging of the LV was performed twice in 79 patients by using retrospectively PCG- and retrospectively ECG-gated cine SSFP sequences at 1.5 T. End-diastolic volumes (EDV), end-systolic volumes (ESV), stroke volumes (SV), ejection fraction (EF), muscle mass (MM), as well as regional wall motion were assessed. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with valvular defects and for patients with dysrhythmia. PCG-gated imaging was feasible in 75 (95%) patients, ECG-gating in all patients. Excellent correlations were observed for all volumetric parameters (r > 0.98 for all variables analysed). No significant differences were observed for EDV (-0.24 {+-} 3.14 mL, P = 0.5133), ESV (-0.04 {+-} 2.36 mL, P = 0.8951), SV (-0.20 {+-} 3.41 mL, P = 0.6083), EF (-0.16 {+-} 1.98%, P = 0.4910), or MM (0.31 {+-} 4.2 g, P = 0.7067) for the entire study cohort, nor for either of the subgroups. PCG- and ECG-gated cine imaging revealed similar results for regional wall motion analyses (115 vs. 119 segments with wall motion abnormalities, P = 0.3652). The present study demonstrates that PCG-gated cine imaging enables accurate assessment of global and regional LV function in the vast majority of patients in clinical routine. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Masato; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Higuchi, Ko; Honda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Pediatrics, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yuichi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  19. 肺心病患者左右心功能的MRI研究%Assessment of the Right and Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Cor Pulmonale Using MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 李坤成; 秦俭; 杜祥颖; 尹建国; 杨旗

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨MRI评价肺心病患者左、右心功能的应用价值.资料与方法 前瞻性研究18例经肺功能实验、临床检查、X线、心电图、超声心动图等影像学检查证实为合并慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)的肺心病患者,另选取18名健康志愿者作为对照组.采用1.5 T MRI仪测量两组左、右室心功能及右室心肌质量.采用独立样本t检验测量两组间差异是否有统计学意义.结果 2例肺心病患者MRI检查时由于屏气时间长、不能配合而排除.与对照组比较,16例肺心病患者右室(right ventricle,RV)舒张末期容积(end-diastolic volume,EDV)、右室收缩末期容积( end-systolic volume,ESV)及右室心肌质量(myocardial mass,MM)明显增加(P<0.05),而右室射血分数(ejection fraction,EF)明显减低(P<0.01).左室EDV及EF显著减低(P<0.01).结论 肺心病患者随着肺动脉压升高,超过右心室的代偿能力,促使右心室扩大和右心功能衰竭,同时左心功能损伤.MRI左右心功能的测量可以评价肺心病的严重程度,为临床提供治疗的客观依据.%Objective To assess the left and right ventricular ( RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale using Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Eighteen cor pulmonale patients determined by the pulmonary function test, clinical examination, chest radiographs, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram were prospectively studied. The control group consisted of 18 age-matched, healthy, nonsmoking subjects. The RV and LV function and RV myocardial mass (MM) were obtained by 1.5 T cardiac MRI in two groups. The results between the two groups were compared using the independent sample t test. Results Two patients who were unable to perform repeated breath holding during MRI acquisition were excluded from the study. The RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) , RV end-systolic volume (ESV) and RV myocardial mass (MM) were significantly larger in 16 cor pulmonale patients than in control

  20. Assessment of the right and left ventricular function in patients with cor pulmonale using high-definition CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan; QIN Jian; DU Xiang-ying; YANG Jing; LI Kun-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Cor pulmonale is often associated with changes of structure and function of the right ventricle (RV) and thus further affects functional changes of the left heart.Our study aimed to assess the left ventricular (LV) and RV function in patients with cor pulmonale using high-definition CT (HDCT).Methods We prospectively studied 18 cor pulmonale patients determined by the pulmonary function test,clinical examination,chest radiograph,electrocardiogram,and echocardiogram.The subject group was compared to a control group consisting of 18 subjects.The RV and LV functions and RV myocardial mass (MM) were obtained by HDCT in the two groups.The results were compared between the two groups using the independent sample t test.Echocardiographic examination for cardiac function analysis was performed on the same day.Results The RV end-diastolic volume (EDV),RV end-systolic volume (ESV) and RV myocardial mass were significantly larger in the 18 cor pulmonale patients than in the control group (P<0.05).The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was significantly lower in the 18 cor pulmonale patients than in controls (P<0.01).The left ventricular EDV (LVEDV) and LVEF were significantly lower in cor pulmonale patients than in controls (P<0.01).There were strong correlations between MDCT and echocardiography,rRVEF=0.839 and rLVEF=0.916,respectively.Conclusions HDCT can accurately quantify RV and LV function.The right ventricular function is impaired in patients with cor pulmonale,while at the same time the left ventricular function is also impaired.

  1. Accuracy of accelerated cine MR imaging at 3 Tesla in longitudinal follow-up of cardiac function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandner, Torleif A.; Huber, Armin M.; Theisen, Daniel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Wintersperger, Bernd J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Houck, Philip [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Cardiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital, Temple, TX (United States); Runge, Val M.; Sincleair, Spencer [Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Scott and White Clinic and Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The ability of fast, parallel-imaging-based cine magnetic resonance (MR) to monitor global cardiac function in longitudinal exams at 3 Tesla was evaluated. Seventeen patients with chronic cardiac disease underwent serial cine MR imaging exams (n=3) at 3 Tesla. Data were acquired in short-axis orientation using cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) with a spatial resolution of 2.5 x 1.9 mm{sup 2} at 45 ms temporal resolution. Multislice imaging (three slices/breath-hold) was performed using TSENSE acceleration (R=3) and standard single-slice cine (non-TSENSE) was performed at identical locations in consecutive breath-holds. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF) and myocardial mass (MM) of both cine approaches were compared for individual time-points as well as for longitudinal comparison. TSENSE-cine did not show significant differences for EDV (2.6 ml; P=.79), ESV (2.2 ml; P=0.81), EF (-0.3%; P=0.95) and MM (2.4 g; P=0.72) in comparison with non-TSENSE. Longitudinal ANOVA analysis did not reveal significant differences for any parameter, neither for non-TSENSE data (all P>0.7) nor for TSENSE data (all P>0.9). Multifactorial ANOVA showed non-significant differences (all P>0.7) at comparable data variances. Data acquisition was significantly shortened using TSENSE. Threefold accelerated multislice cine at 3 Tesla allows accurate assessment of volumetric LV data and accurate longitudinal monitoring of global LV function at a substantially shorter overall examination time. (orig.)

  2. Right ventricular septal pacing: Safety and efficacy in a long term follow up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eraldo; Occhetta; Gianluca; Quirino; Lara; Baduena; Rosaria; Nappo; Chiara; Cavallino; Emanuela; Facchini; Paolo; Pistelli; Andrea; Magnani; Miriam; Bortnik; Gabriella; Francalacci; Gabriele; Dell’Era; Laura; Plebani; Paolo; Marino

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the permanent high interventricular septal pacing in a long term follow up, as alternative to right ventricular apical pacing. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated:(1) 244 patients(74 ± 8 years; 169 men, 75 women) implanted with a single(132 pts) or dual chamber(112 pts) pacemaker(PM) with ventricular screw-in lead placed at the right ventricular high septal parahisian site(SEPTAL pacing);(2) 22 patients with permanent pacemaker and low percentage of pacing(< 20%)(NO pacing);(3) 33 patients with high percentage(> 80%) right ventricular apical pacing(RVA). All patients had a narrow spontaneous QRS(101 ± 14 ms). We evaluated New York Heart Association(NYHA) class, quality of life(Qo L), 6 min walking test(6MWT) and left ventricular function(end-diastolic volume, LV-EDV; end-systolic volume, LVESV; ejection fraction, LV-EF) with 2D-echocardiography. RESULTS: Pacing parameters were stable duringfollow up(21 mo/patient). In SEPTAL pacing group we observed an improvement in NYHA class, Qo L score and 6MWT. While LV-EDV didn’t significantly increase(104 ± 40 m L vs 100 ± 37 m L; P = 0.35), LV-ESV slightly increased(55 ± 31 m L vs 49 ± 27 m L; P = 0.05) and LV-EF slightly decreased(49% ± 11% vs 53% ± 11%; P = 0.001) but never falling < 45%. In the RVA pacing control group we observed a worsening of NYHA class and an important reduction of LV-EF(from 56% ± 6% to 43% ± 9%, P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: Right ventricular permanent high septal pacing is safe and effective in a long term follow up evaluation; it could be a good alternative to the conventional RVA pacing in order to avoid its deleterious effects.

  3. Does left ventricular function improve with L-carnitine after acute myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of L-carnitine in patients suffering from acute anterior wall myocardial infarction with respect to left ventricular function. Sixty patients (34 men, 26 women, mean age 56+11 yr. with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction were randomized to placebo and L-carnitine. All the patients were given intravenous L-carnitine / placebo in the dose of 6gm/day for the first seven days followed by oral L-carnitine / placebo 3 gm/day in three divided doses for a period of three months. Echocardiography was performed for regional wall motion abnormality, left ventricular end systolic volume (ESV, end diastolic volume (EDV and ejection fraction (EF on admission, after seven days and after three months of the infarction. Forty-four patients completed the study. There were three deaths, two in the placebo and one in the L-carnitine group (p>0.05. Thirteen patients were lost to follow up. Echo parameters in both groups were comparable (p>0.05. The duration of chest pain prior to initiation of the I.V. L-carnitine was 7.5 + 5.2 hrs in the L-carnitine group and 7 + 4 hrs in the placebo group (p>0.05. There was no statistical difference in the EF, ESV and EDV on admission, at discharge and after three months in the L-carnitine and the placebo groups (p>0.05. No significant adverse effects were noted. L-carnitine, though a safe drug, does not affect the left ventricular function in patients with myocardial infarction.

  4. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  5. Knowledge-based reconstruction for measurement of right ventricular volumes on cardiovascular magnetic resonance images in a mixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterman, Elise D; Budde, Ricardo P J; Robbers-Visser, Daniëlle; van Domburg, Ron T; Helbing, Willem A

    2017-06-05

    Follow-up of right ventricular performance is important for patients with congenital heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is optimal for this purpose. However, observer-dependency of manual analysis of right ventricular volumes limit its use. Knowledge-based reconstruction is a new semiautomatic analysis tool that uses a database including knowledge of right ventricular shape in various congenital heart diseases. We evaluated whether knowledge-based reconstruction is a good alternative for conventional analysis. To assess the inter- and intra-observer variability and agreement of knowledge-based versus conventional analysis of magnetic resonance right ventricular volumes, analysis was done by two observers in a mixed group of 22 patients with congenital heart disease affecting right ventricular loading conditions (dextro-transposition of the great arteries and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit) and a group of 17 healthy children. We used Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of variation. Comparison between the conventional method and the knowledge-based method showed a systematically higher volume for the latter group. We found an overestimation for end-diastolic volume (bias -40 ± 24 mL, r = .956), end-systolic volume (bias -34 ± 24 mL, r = .943), stroke volume (bias -6 ± 17 mL, r = .735) and an underestimation of ejection fraction (bias 7 ± 7%, r = .671) by knowledge-based reconstruction. The intra-observer variability of knowledge-based reconstruction varied with a coefficient of variation of 9% for end-diastolic volume and 22% for stroke volume. The same trend was noted for inter-observer variability. A systematic difference (overestimation) was noted for right ventricular size as assessed with knowledge-based reconstruction compared with conventional methods for analysis. Observer variability for the new method was comparable to what has been reported for the right ventricle in children and congenital

  6. Cardiac energetics: from E(max) to pressure-volume area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hiroyuki

    2003-08-01

    1. To celebrate this Festschrift for Professor Colin Gibbs, as an invited speaker, I would like to review briefly my 35 year research career in cardiac physiology. 2. My career started in the late 1960s in Tokyo with my serendipitous discovery of Emax (ventricular end-systolic maximum elastance) as a load-independent contractility index based on the time-varying elastance (E(t)) model of the ventricle. Professor K Sagawa at the Johns Hopkins University, USA, whom I joined in 1971, encouraged me to go further. 3. The next serendipitous event in my career was the discovery of ventricular pressure-volume area (PVA) as a measure of total mechanical energy of ventricular contraction in the late 1970s. The PVA concept was theoretically deducible from the E(t) and Emax concept and correlated surprisingly well with ventricular O2 consumption (Vo2). 4. Professor Gibbs' intuitive recognition of the significance of PVA in myocardial energetics in the 1980-1990s greatly encouraged me thereafter. The third serendipitous event in my career occurred in the mid 1990s and was my discovery of a novel integrative analysis method to assess the total amount of Ca2+ recruited in each excitation-contraction coupling from the decay rate of postextrasystolic potentiation, taking advantage of the Emax-PVA-Vo2 framework. 5. I am now hoping to experience one more serendipitous experience by developing an integrative analysis method of cross-bridge cycling in a beating heart using the Emax and PVA concepts.

  7. Effect of Sildenafil on Pressure–Volume Loop Measures of Ventricular Function in Fontan Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J.; Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Baker, George H.; Bandisode, Varsha; Savage, Andrew J.; Atz, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Sildenafil has been reported to improve exercise capacity in Fontan patients, but the physiologic mechanisms behind these findings are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to study the acute effect of sildenafil on pressure–volume loop (PVL) measures of ventricular function in Fontan patients. Patients after Fontan operation who were presenting for a clinically indicated catheterization were enrolled. Patients were randomized in a double-blinded fashion to receive placebo (n = 9) or sildenafil (n = 10) 30–90 min prior to catheterization. PVLs were recorded using microconductance catheters at baseline and after infusion of dobutamine (10 mcg/kg/min). The primary outcome was change in ventriculoarterial (VA) coupling. For the entire cohort, VA coupling trended toward improvement with dobutamine (1.4 ± 0.4 to 1.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.07). End-systolic elastance showed improvement (2.6 ± 0.9 to 3.8 ± 1.4 mmHg m2/ml, p sildenafil cohort trended toward having less of an improvement in VA coupling with dobutamine stress (p = 0.06). There were no differences between PVL measures of systolic or diastolic function between treatment groups, both at baseline and after dobutamine infusion. Patients with Fontan circulation had improved contractility and trended toward improvement in VA coupling with dobutamine stress. Acute sildenafil administration was not associated with improved PVL measurements of ventricular function in this population. These results suggest that clinical improvements seen with administration of sildenafil in Fontan patients are not associated with an acute improvement in ventricular function. PMID:26409473

  8. Effects of slice orientation on reproducibility of sequential assessment of right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction: short-axis vs transverse SSFP cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Luigia; Lamacie, Mariana M; Jimenez Juan, Laura; Deva, Djeven; Wald, Rachel M; Ley, Sebastian; Hanneman, Kate; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2016-09-22

    Test-retest reproducibility is of utmost importance in follow-up of right ventricular (RV) volumes and function; optimal slice orientation though is not yet known. We compared test-retest reproducibility and intra-/inter-observer variability of right ventricular (RV) volumes and function assessed with short-axis and transverse cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Eighteen volunteers underwent cine CMR for RV assessment obtaining ventricular coverage in short-axis and transverse slice orientation. Additional 2D phase contrast flow imaging of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) was performed. After complete repositioning repeat acquisitions were performed. Data sets were contoured by two blinded observers. Statistical analysis included Student's t-test, Bland-Altman plots, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 2-way ANOVA, SEM and minimal detectable difference calculations. Heart rates (65.0 ± 7.4 vs. 67.6 ± 9.9 bpm; P = 0.1) and MPA flow (89.8 ± 16.6 vs. 87.2 ± 14.9 mL; P = 0.1) did not differ between imaging sessions. EDV and ESV demonstrated an inter-study bias of 0.4 %[-9.5 %,10.3 %] and 2.1 %[-12.3 %,16.4 %] for short-axis and 1.1 %[-7.3 %,9.4 %] and 0.8 %[-16.0 %,17.6 %] for transverse orientation, respectively. There was no significant interaction between imaging orientation and interstudy reproducibility (p = 0.395-0.824), intra-observer variability (p = 0.726-0.862) or inter-observer variability (p = 0.447-0.706) by 2-way ANOVA. Inter-observer agreement by ICC was greater for short axis versus transverse orientation for all parameters (0.769-0.986 vs. 0.625-0.983, respectively). Minimal detectable differences for short axis and transverse orientations were 10.1 mL/11.5 mL for EDV, 8.3 mL/8.4 mL for ESV and 4.1 % vs. 4.7 % for EF, respectively. Short-axis and transverse orientation both provide reliable and reproducible measures for follow-up of RV volumes and global function. Therefore

  9. Increasing EDV Range through Intelligent Cabin Air Handling Strategies: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Ford Focus Electric demonstrated that a split flow heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system with rear recirculation ducts can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 57.4% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Simulations also showed that implementing a continuous recirculation fraction control system into the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) HVAC system can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 50.0% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Identified that continuous fractional recirculation control of the OEM system can provide significant energy savings for EVs at minimal additional cost, while a split flow HVAC system with rear recirculation ducts only provides minimal additional improvement at significant additional cost.

  10. A Meta-analysis of the effects of Exercise Training on Left Ventricular Remodeling Following Myocardial Infarction: Start early and go longer for greatest exercise benefits on remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Darren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of variations in exercise training on Left ventricular (LV remodeling in patients shortly after Myocardial Infarction (MI are important but poorly understood. Methods Systematic review incorporating meta-analysis using meta-regression. Studies were identified via systematic searches of: OVID MEDLINE (1950 to 2009, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991 to 2009, AMED (1985 to 2009, EMBASE (1988 to 2009, PUBMED (1966 to 2009, SPORT DISCUS (1975 to 2009, SCOPUS (1950 to 2009 and WEB OF SCIENCE (1950 to 2009 using the medical subject headings: myocardial infarction, post myocardial infarction, post infarction, heart attack, ventricular remodeling, ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, left ventricular function, exercise, exercise therapy, kinesiotherapy, exercise training. Reference lists of all identified studies were also manually searched for further relevant studies. Studies selected were randomized controlled trials of exercise training interventions reporting ejection fraction (EF and/or ventricular volumes in patients following recent MI (≤ 3 months post-MI patients involving control groups. Studies were excluded if they were not randomized, did not have a 'usual-care' control (involving no exercise, evaluated a non-exercise intervention, or did not involve human subjects. Non-English studies were also excluded. Results After screening of 1029 trials, trials were identified that reported EF (12 trials, n = 647, End Systolic Volumes (ESV (9 trials, n = 475 and End Diastolic Volumes (EDV (10 trials, n = 512. Meta-regression identified that changes in EF effect size difference decreased as the time between MI and initiation of the exercise program lengthened, and increased as the duration of the program increased (Q = 25.48, df = 2, p 2 = 0.76. Greater reductions in ESV and EDV (as indicated by effect size decreases occurred with earlier initiation of exercise training and with longer training

  11. Left Ventricular function during episodes of silent and symptomatic myocardial ischemia; Linksventrikulaere Funktion waehrend symptomatischer und asymptomatischer Myokardischaemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A. [Abt. fuer Kardiologie, Zentrum der Inneren Medizin, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Maul, F.D. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Zentrum der Radiologie, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Zimny, M. [Abt. fuer Kardiologie, Zentrum der Inneren Medizin, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Klepzig, H. [Abt. fuer Kardiologie, Zentrum der Inneren Medizin, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Hoer, G. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Zentrum der Radiologie, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    1993-12-01

    Transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) causes transient occlusion of the coronary artery and temporary ischemia of the left ventricle. Left ventricular dysfunction during silent and symptomatic episodes of myocardial ischemia during PTCA was evaluated continuously with a newly developed miniature, non-imaging scintillation probe. Parameters of left ventricular function were compared before and during balloon inflations of 60 s duration: Ejection fraction (EF), indices of end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (ESV, EDV), peak ejection and peak filling rates (PER, PFR). 13 patients (age 54{+-}7.4 years) were symptomatic, 10 patients (age 61{+-}8 years) were asymptomatic. Impairment of left ventricular function during ischemia did not show any significant differences between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. It is therefore concluded that symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes of myocardial ischemia during PTCA cause similar impairment of systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. The degree of left ventricular dysfunction during PTCA cannot be estimated on the basis of clinical symptoms. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um zu untersuchen, ob sich Episoden stummer und symptomatischer Myokardischaemie waehrend transluminaler koronarer Angioplastie (PTCA) im Ausmass der linksventrikulaeren (LV) Funktionsbeeintraechtigung unterscheiden, wurden Auswurffraktion (EF), Indices des endsystolischen und enddiastolischen Volumens (ESV, EDV) sowie maximale Auswurf- (PER) und maximale Fuellungsgeschwindigkeiten (PFR) vor aund waehrend PTCA kontinuierlich on-line mit einer nicht-bildgebenden CsI-Szintillationssonde bestimmt. 13 Patienten (Alter 54{+-}7,4 Jahre) waren symptomatisch, 10 Patienten (Alter 61{+-}8 Jahre) waren asymptomatisch. Die linksventrikulaeren Funktionsparameter zeigten keine signifkanten Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Patientengruppen. Es wird daher gefolgert, dass symptomatische und stumme Ischaemieepisoden waehrend PTCA zu einer gleichartigen

  12. Pre-implant right ventricular function might be an important predictor of the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Margareta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Cardiac resynchronization therapy is proven efficacious in patients with heart failure (HF. Presence of biventricular HF is associated with a worse prognosis than having only left ventricular (LV HF and pacing might deteriorate heart function. The aim of the study was to assess a possible significance of right ventricular (RV pre-implant systolic function to predict response to CRT. Design We studied 22 HF-patients aged 72 ± 11 years, QRS-duration 155 ± 20 ms and with an LV ejection fraction (EF of 26 ± 6% before and four weeks after receiving a CRT-device. Results There were no changes in LV diameters or end systolic volume (ESV during the study. However, end diastolic volume (EDV decreased from 226 ± 71 to 211 ± 64 ml (p = 0.02 and systolic maximal velocities (SMV increased from 2.2 ± 0.4 to 2.6 ± 0.9 cm/s (p = 0.04. Pre-implant RV-SMV (6.2 ± 2.6 cm/s predicted postoperative increase in LV contractility, p = 0.032. Conclusions Pre-implant decreased RV systolic function might be an important way to predict a poor response to CRT implicating that other treatments should be considered. Furthermore we found that 3D- echocardiography and Tissue Doppler Imaging were feasible to detect short-term changes in LV function.

  13. Quantification of Right and Left Ventricular Function in Cardiac MR Imaging: Comparison of Semiautomatic and Manual Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin Carreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a semiautomatic segmentation method for the anatomical and functional assessment of both ventricles from cardiac cine magnetic resonance (MR examinations, reducing user interaction to a “mouse-click”. Fifty-two patients with cardiovascular diseases were examined using a 1.5-T MR imaging unit. Several parameters of both ventricles, such as end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV and ejection fraction (EF, were quantified by an experienced operator using the conventional method based on manually-defined contours, as the standard of reference; and a novel semiautomatic segmentation method based on edge detection, iterative thresholding and region growing techniques, for evaluation purposes. No statistically significant differences were found between the two measurement values obtained for each parameter (p > 0.05. Correlation to estimate right ventricular function was good (r > 0.8 and turned out to be excellent (r > 0.9 for the left ventricle (LV. Bland-Altman plots revealed acceptable limits of agreement between the two methods (95%. Our study findings indicate that the proposed technique allows a fast and accurate assessment of both ventricles. However, further improvements are needed to equal results achieved for the right ventricle (RV using the conventional methodology.

  14. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces cardiac inflammation and dysfunction in a rat obstructive sleep apnea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Bian, Yeping; Yu, Fuchao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guanghao; Li, Yang; Song, Songsong; Ren, Xiaomei; Tong, Jiayi

    2016-11-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound. The cardiac pathology, apoptosis, and fibrosis were analyzed by H&E staining, TUNNEL assay, and picosirius staining, respectively. The expression of inflammation and fibrosis marker genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Chronic intermittent hypoxia/low pressure resulted in significant increase of left ventricular internal diameters (LVIDs), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and blood lactate level and marked reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increased TUNNEL-positive myocytes, disrupted normal arrangement of cardiac fibers, and increased Sirius stained collagen fibers. The expression levels of hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, NF-kB, IL-6, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly increased in the heart of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. In conclusion, the left ventricular function was adversely affected by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which is associated with increased expression of HIF-1α and NF-kB signaling molecules and development of cardiac inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis.

  15. Dynamic heart model for the mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom to represent the invariant total heart volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, P. H.; King, Michael A.; Tsui, Benjamin M.; LaCroix, Karen; Xia, Weishi

    1998-07-01

    This manuscript documents the alteration of the heart model of the MCAT phantom to better represent cardiac motion. The objective of the inclusion of motion was to develop a digital simulation of the heart such that the impact of cardiac motion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging could be assessed and methods of quantitating cardiac function could be investigated. The motion of the dynamic MCAT's heart is modeled by a 128 time frame volume curve. Eight time frames are averaged together to obtain a gated perfusion acquisition of 16 time frames and ensure motion within every time frame. The position of the MCAT heart was changed during contraction to rotate back and forth around the long axis through the center of the left ventricle (LV) using the end systolic time frame as turning point. Simple respiratory motion was also introduced by changing the orientation of the heart model in a 2 dimensional (2D) plane with every time frame. The averaging effect of respiratory motion in a specific time frame was modeled by randomly selecting multiple heart locations between two extreme orientations. Non-gated perfusion phantoms were also generated by averaging over all time frames. Maximal chamber volumes were selected to fit a profile of a normal healthy person. These volumes were changed during contraction of the ventricles such that the increase in volume in the atria compensated for the decrease in volume in the ventricles. The myocardium were modeled to represent shortening of muscle fibers during contraction with the base of the ventricles moving towards a static apex. The apical region was modeled with moderate wall thinning present while myocardial mass was conserved. To test the applicability of the dynamic heart model, myocardial wall thickening was measured using maximum counts and full width half maximum measurements, and compared with published trends. An analytical 3D projector, with attenuation and detector response included, was used

  16. Effect of Different Styles of Coronary Heart Disease and Its Risk Factors on Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuelihong; Guo Xuewei; Ma Yushan; Su Shuangshan; Guo Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of different styles of coronary heart disease (CHD),different regions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI),its risk factors and branches of coronary stenosis on left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction by applying echocardiography. Methods 251 patients with CHD and 96 patients without CHD (NoCHD) were verified by selective coronary angiography. CHD patients were divided into stable angina pectoris(SAP) 26, unstable angina pectoris(UAP) 53, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) 140 and old myocardial infarction (OMI) 30 based on clinical situation, cTnT, cardiac enzyme and ECG. AMI patients were further divided into subgroups including acute anterior myocardial infarct (Aa,n =53), acute inferior myocardial infarction(Ai, n=54)and Aa+Ai(n=33) based on ECG. Cardiac parameters:end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness (IVSd),end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter(LVd ),left ventricular mass (LM), end-diastolic left ventricular volume (EDV), end-systolic left ventricular volume (ESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) were measured by ACUSON 128XP/10 echocardiography.Multiples linear regression analyses were performed to test statistical associations between LVEF and the involved branches of coronary stenosis, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and etc after onset of myocardial infarction. Results EDV and ESV were increased and LVEF decreased on patients with AMI,OMI and UAP (P<0.05-0.0001). LM was mainly increased in patients with OMI (P<0.01) and LVd was mainly enlarged in patients with AMI. EF was significantly decreased and EDV, ESV, LM and LVd were remarkably increased in AMI patients with Aa and Aa+Ai. With the multiple linear regression analyses by SPSS software, we found that LVEF was negatively correlated to the involved branches of coronary stenosis as well as to systolic blood pressure after onset of myocardial infarction while there was no significant correlation between LVEF and other factors. LVEF

  17. Assessment of global left ventricular function with dual-source computed tomography in patients with valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, So Hyeon; Jeon, Hae Jeong (Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Ko, Sung Min (Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Inst. of Medical Science, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), Email: 20070437@kuh.ac.kr; Yang, Hyun Suk; Hwang, Hweung Kon (Dept. of Cardiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Song, Meong Gun (Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) function is a vital parameter for prognosis, therapy guidance, and follow-up of cardiovascular disease. Dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) provides an accurate analysis of global LV function. Purpose: To assess the performance of DSCT in the determination of global LV functional parameters in comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Material and Methods: A total of 111 patients (58 men, mean age 49.9 years) with known VHD and who underwent DSCT, 2D-TTE, and CMR a period of 2 weeks before undergoing valve surgery were included in this study. LV end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated by DSCT using the threshold-based technique, by 2D-TTE using a modified Simpson's method, and by CMR using Simpson's method. Agreement for parameters of LV global function was determined with the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman analysis. All the DSCT and CMR data-sets were assessed independently by two readers. Results: Fifty of the total 111 patients had aortic VHD, 29 patients had mitral VHD, and 32 patients had mixed aortic and mitral VHD. An excellent inter-observer agreement was seen for the assessment of global LV function using DSCT (r 0.910-0.983) and CMR (r = 0.854-0.965). An excellent or good correlation (r 0.93, 0.95, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively, P < 0.001) was noted between the DSCT and 2D-TTE values for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF. EDV (33.7 mL, P < 0.001), ESV (12.1 mL, P < 0.001), SV (21.2 mL, P < 0.001), and EF (1.6%, P = 0.019) were significantly overestimated by DSCT when compared with 2D-TTE. An excellent correlation (r = 0.96, 0.97, 0.91, and 0.94, respectively, P < 0.001) between DSCT and CMR was seen in the evaluation of EDV, ESV, SV, and EF. EDV (15.9 mL, P < 0.001), ESV (7.3 mL, P < 0.001), and SV

  18. The number of circulating CD14+ cells is related to infarct size and postinfarct volumes in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction but not non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montange, Damien; Davani, Siamak; Deschaseaux, Frédéric; Séronde, Marie France; Chopard, Romain; Schiele, François; Jehl, Jérome; Bassand, Jean Pierre; Kantelip, Jean-Pierre; Meneveau, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the number of CD14+ cells, myocardial infarct (MI) size and left ventricular (LV) volumes in ST segment elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) patients. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with STEMI (n=34) or NSTEMI (n=28) were enrolled. The number of CD14+ cells was assessed at admission. Infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging five days after MI and six months after MI. Results: In STEMI patients, the number of CD14+ cells was positively and significantly correlated with infarct size at day 5 (r=0.40; P=0.016) and after six months (r=0.34; P=0.047), negatively correlated with LVEF at day 5 (r=−0.50; P=0.002) and after six months (r=−0.46; P=0.005) and positively correlated with end-diastolic (r=0.38; P=0.02) and end-systolic (r=0.49; P=0.002) volumes after six months. In NSTEMI patients, no significant correlation was found between the number of CD14+ cells and infarct size, LVEF or LV volumes at day 5 or after six months. CONCLUSIONS: The number of CD14+ cells at admission was associated with infarct size and LV remodelling in STEMI patients with large infarct size, whereas in NSTEMI patients, no relationship was observed between numbers of CD14+ cells and LV remodelling. PMID:23620701

  19. Fração de ejeção e volumes do ventrículo esquerdo medidos com eco 3D e com tomografia ultra-rápida Fracción de eyección y volúmenes del ventrículo izquierdo medidos con eco- 3DTR y con tomografía ultrarrápida Left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes as measured by 3d echocardiography and ultrafast computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira

    2009-04-01

    -Echo measurements: LVEF ranged from 56.1 to 78.6 (65.5±5.58%; end-diastolic volume ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (87±27.8 ml; end-systolic volume ranged from 11.4 to 78 (33.1±13.6 ml. CT scan measurements: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86% (67.8±7.78; end-diastolic volume ranged from 51 to 186 (106.5±30.3 ml; end-systolic volume ranged from 7 to 72 (35.5±13.4ml. Correlations between RT-3D-Echo and CT were: LVEF (r: 0.7888, p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.6301 to 0.8843; end-diastolic volume (r: 0.7695, p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.5995 to 0.8730; end-systolic volume (r: 0.8119, p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.6673 to 0.8975. CONCLUSION: Good correlation between LVEF and ventricular volume parameters as measured by RT-3D-Echo and 64-slice ultrafast CT was found in the present case series.

  20. Gated SPECT evaluation of left ventricular function using a CZT camera and a fast low-dose clinical protocol: comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Marras, Gavino; Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Lombardi, Massimo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Pisa (Italy); Rustamova, Yasmine K. [Azerbaijan Medical University, Department of internal medicine Central Customs Hospital, Baku (Azerbaijan); Marzullo, Paolo [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    CZT technology allows ultrafast low-dose myocardial scintigraphy but its accuracy in assessing left ventricular function is still to be defined. The study group comprised 55 patients (23 women, mean age 63 {+-} 9 years) referred for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patients were studied at rest using a CZT camera (Discovery NM530c; GE Healthcare) and a low-dose {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin clinical protocol (mean dose 264 {+-} 38 MBq). Gated SPECT imaging was performed as a 6-min list-mode acquisition, 15 min after radiotracer injection. Images were reformatted (8-frame to 16-frame) using Lister software on a Xeleris workstation (GE Healthcare) and then reconstructed with a dedicated iterative algorithm. Analysis was performed using Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) software. Within 2 weeks patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI, 1.5-T unit CVi; GE Healthcare) using a 30-frame acquisition protocol and dedicated software for analysis (MASS 6.1; Medis). The ventricular volumes obtained with 8-frame QGS showed excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (end-diastolic volume (EDV), r = 0.90; end-systolic volume (ESV), r = 0.94; p < 0.001). However, QGS significantly underestimated the ventricular volumes (mean differences: EDV, -39.5 {+-} 29 mL; ESV, -15.4 {+-} 22 mL; p < 0.001). Similarly, the ventricular volumes obtained with 16-frame QGS showed an excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (EDV, r = 0.92; ESV, r = 0.95; p < 0.001) but with significant underestimations (mean differences: EDV, -33.2 {+-} 26 mL; ESV, -17.9 {+-} 20 mL; p < 0.001). Despite significantly lower values (47.9 {+-} 16 % vs. 51.2 {+-} 15 %, p < 0.008), 8-frame QGS mean ejection fraction (EF) was closely correlated with the cMRI values (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). The mean EF with 16-frame QGS showed the best correlation with the cMRI values (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) and was similar to the mean cMRI value (49.6 {+-} 16 %, p not significant). Regional analysis showed a good

  1. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  2. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  3. Reliability and reproducibility of quantitative assessment of left ventricular function and volumes with 3-slice segmentation of cine steady-state free precession short axis images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Christopher, E-mail: cnguye38@uci.edu [School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Kuoy, Edward, E-mail: ekuoy@uci.edu [School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Ruehm, Stefan, E-mail: sruehm@mednet.ucla.edu [Diagnostic Cardiovascular Imaging, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Krishnam, Mayil, E-mail: mskrishn@uci.edu [Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging, Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative LV assessment in CMR requires contour tracing of multiple SA images. • Conventional multi-slice method for LV assessment is tedious and time-consuming. • 3-slice segmentation is comparable to multi-slice method in determining LVEF. • 3-slice method is reliable and reproducible in determining LV volumes and mass. • 3-slice method reduces post-processing time compared to multi-slice method. - Abstract: Objectives: Quantitative assessment of left ventricular (LV) functional parameters in cardiac MR requires time-consuming contour tracing across multiple short axis images. This study assesses global LV functional parameters using 3-slice segmentation on steady state free precision (SSFP) cine short axis images and compares the results with conventional multi-slice segmentation of LV. Methods: Data were collected from 61 patients who underwent cardiac MRI for various clinical indications. Semi-automated cardiac MR software was used to trace LV contours both at multiple slices from base to apex as well as just 3 slices (base, mid, and apical) by two readers. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV volumes, and LV mass were calculated using both methods. Results: Bland–Altman plot revealed narrow limits of agreement (−4.4% to 5.1%) between LVEF obtained by the two methods. Bland–Altman analysis showed slightly wider limits of agreement between end-diastolic volumes (−5.0 to 12.0%; −3.9 to 8.5 ml/m{sup 2}), end-systolic volumes (−10.9 to 14.7%; −4.1 to 6.5 ml/m{sup 2}), and LV mass (−5.2 to 12.7%; −4.8 to 10.2 g/m{sup 2}) obtained by the two methods. There was a small mean difference between LV volumes and LV mass obtained using multi-slice and 3-slice segmentation. No statistically significant difference existed between the LV parameters obtained by the two readers using 3-slice segmentation (p > 0.05). Multi-slice assessment required approximately 15 min per study while 3-slice assessment required less than 5

  4. SPECT心肌灌注显像和超声心动图对糖尿病性心肌病心功能的评估价值%The role of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiography in assessing cardiac function of patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 严金川; 陈小节; 梁仪; 赵建伟; 张朝普; 李璇

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究单光子发射计算机断层(SPECT)心肌灌注显像和二维超声心动图(2DE)对糖尿病性心肌病(DCM)心功能的评估价值.方法 使用SPECT心肌灌注显像与2DE对56例DCM患者分别进行左心室容积及功能检查,其中纽约心脏病学会(NYHA)心功能分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级21例,Ⅲ级17例,Ⅳ级18例.SPECT心肌灌注显像采用QGS软件处理,2DE采用Simpson法测算.结果 两种检查方法的舒张末期容量(EDV)、收缩末期容量(ESV)和射血分数(EF)值差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),对三项指标测值的相关性较好(r值分别为0.892、0.732、0.856,P<0.01),两种检查方法均显示心功能Ⅲ、Ⅳ级EDV、ESV和EF值与心功能Ⅰ~Ⅱ级者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 SPECT心肌灌注显像能较好的评估心功能指标,2DE低估了左心室容积;两种检查方法均能较好的反映NYHA心功能分级.%Objective To study the significance of single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography(2DE) in assessing cardiac function of patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy ( DCM). Methods SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and 2DE were performed in 56 patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy, who were NYHA class I-II in 21 cases,class III in 17 cases and class ]V in 18 cases. Left ventricular (LV) volumes and function were measured using QGS software for SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and Simpson's method for 2DE. Results There was a significant difference between SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and 2DE in the estimation of end diastolic volume ( EDV), end systolic volume(ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) (P<0. 05). The correlation between SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and 2DE was good for the assessment of EDV, ESV and EF (r=0. 892, 0. 732, 0. 856, respectively, P<0. 01). EDV.ESV and EF were significantly different among NYHA class III, IV and I - II graded by two methods(P<0. 01). Conclusion SPECT

  5. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  7. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  8. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  9. Fetal cardiac ventricular volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Neil; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Lee, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify fetal cardiovascular parameters with Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) utilizing the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”. Study Design A cross-sectional study was designed consisting of patients with normal pregnancies between 19 and 40 weeks of gestation. After STIC datasets were acquired, analysis was performed offline (4DView) and the following cardiovascular parameters were evaluated: ventricular volume in end systole and end diastole, stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction. To account for fetal size, cardiac output was also expressed as a function of head circumference, abdominal circumference, or femoral diaphysis length. Regression models were fitted for each cardiovascular parameter to assess the effect of gestational age and paired comparisons were made between the left and right ventricles. Results 1) Two hundred and seventeen patients were retrospectively identified, of whom 184 had adequate STIC datasets (85% acceptance); 2) ventricular volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, and adjusted cardiac output increased with gestational age; whereas, the ejection fraction decreased as gestation advanced; 3) the right ventricle was larger than the left in both systole (Right: 0.50 ml, IQR: 0.2 – 0.9; vs. Left: 0.27 ml, IQR: 0.1 – 0.5; p<0.001) and diastole (Right: 1.20 ml, IQR: 0.7 – 2.2; vs. Left: 1.03 ml, IQR: 0.5 – 1.7; p<0.001); 4) there were no differences between the left and right ventricle with respect to stroke volume, cardiac output, or adjusted cardiac output; and 5) the left ventricular ejection fraction was greater than the right (Left: 72.2%, IQR: 64 – 78; vs. Right: 62.4%, IQR: 56 – 69; p<0.001). Conclusion Fetal echocardiography, utilizing STIC and VOCAL™ with the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”, allows assessment of fetal cardiovascular parameters. Normal fetal cardiovascular physiology is characterized by ventricular

  10. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  11. 应用三维超声建立正常胎儿心功能指标z-score数据模型%Development of Z-scores for Normal Fetal Cardiac Functional Indices with Three-dimensional Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美芳; 谢红宁; 郑菊; 朱云晓; 李丽娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop z-scores for normal fetal cardiac functional indices measured by three dimensional ultrasonography, and so to assess the fetal cardiac function quantificationally. Methods Spatio-temporal Image Correlation (STIC) technology combined with Virtual Organ Computed-Aided Analysis (VOCAL) was applied to measure the left and right ventricular end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volume as well as to calculate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) calculation subsequently, z-score models for these cardiac functional indices were then developed by regression analysis using gestation age (GA) as independent variable. Results A total of 293 STIC volume datasets were included. Left and right ventricular EDV, ESV, SV, CO were all increased exponentially with GA. Based on the predict mean and SD related to GA, z-score for specific cardiac functional index could be calculated from knowledge of the GA. Conclusions By using STIC combining VOCAL, this study established z-score models for fetus at gestation age 17 ~ 32 weeks of cardiac left and right ventricular EDV, ESV, SV and CO. Through computing the z-score, fetal cardiac functional indices could be evaluated quantificationally.%目的 建立正常胎儿心功能指标随孕周变化的z-score数据模型,定量评估胎儿心功能.方法 应用三维超声时间空间关联成像技术(STIC)联合虚拟器官计算机辅助分析法(VOCAL)测量和计算胎儿心功能指标,包括左、右心室舒张末期(EDV)、收缩末期(ESV)容积、心搏出量(SV)及心输出量(CO).以孕周(GA)为自变量对所测的心功能指标进行回归分析,并校正标准差(SD),建立各心功能指标的z-score模型.结果 共获293例17~32孕周正常胎儿心脏STIC容积数据以建立模型,胎儿左、右心室EDV、 ESV、 SV、 CO随GA的增加呈指数增长.由各心功能指标的预测平均值及SD,计算出心功能指标任一测值的z-score.结论 运用三维超声STIC技术

  12. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  13. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  14. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  15. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  16. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  17. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  18. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  19. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  20. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  1. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  2. 实时三维超声测量右心室容积及收缩功能的可行性研究%Feasibility of real time-three dimensional echocardiography for measuring volume and systolic function of right venticle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景宏; 乔彦; 唐红; 赵超美

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of real time-three dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) for measuring right ventricular volume and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF). Correlations of right ventricular volume, RVEF, right ventricular area and right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) measured by RT-3DE and two dimensional echocardiography were analyzed. Methods Eighty five patients with rheumatic heart disease who had undergone valvular replacement operation were enrolled in this study. Right ventricular volume and related values of right ventricle measured by RT-3DE, two dimensional echocardiography were imported to Tomtec 4D Cardio View software and manually adjusted. After endocardial boundary tracing, right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV), RVEF were automatically calculated by software, and right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV) was manually calculated. Correlation analysis, in retative values of right ventricle measured with RT-3DE and two dimensional echocardiography were applied. Results RVEDV,RVESV, RVSV measured with RT-3DE were significantly higher than those measrued with two dimensional echocardiography (P0.05). RVEDV,RVESV,RVSV and RVEF measured with RT-3DE and two dimensional echocardiography were positively correlated (r=0.79, 0.82, 0.68, 0.64; P<0.05). RVEDV, RVESV, RVEF measured with RT-3DE were positively correlated (r=0.76, 0.79, 0.56; P<0.05) with right ventricular end diastolic area, right ventricular end-systolic area and RVFAC measured with two dimensional echocardiography. Conclusions Right ventricular volume and RVEF measured with RT-3DE are feasible, which are positively correlated with those measured with two dimensional echocardiography. RT-3DE is better for evaluating the systolic function of right ventricle.%目的 分析实时三维超声心动图(RT-3DE)定量测量右心室容积和右心室射血分数(right ventricular ejection fraction,RVEF)的可行

  3. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  4. 声学定量技术评价缺血性心肌病患者左心功能%Evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy by acoustic quantification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张棣; 李智贤; 朱性威; 龙伟吟; 郭盛兰

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨声学定量(AQ)技术在测定缺血性心肌病(ICM)患者左心功能中的临床应用价值。方法 测量24例ICM患者和30例正常人的左室舒张末期容积(EDV)、收缩末期容积(ESV)、射血分数(EF)、峰值充盈率(PFR)、峰值排空率(PER)、峰值充盈时间(TPFR)。结果 ICM组左室EDV为(120.08±24.50)ml,ESV为(79.78±17.38)ml,明显高于正常组(P<0.001),ICM组左室收缩功能指标EF为(33.19±8.50)%,PER为(2.59±0.63)ml/s,较正常组明显降低(P<0.001)。ICM组的左室舒张功能指标PFR为(2.62±0.52)ml/s,较正常组明显降低;TPFR为(207.63±45.76)ms,较正常组明显延长(P<0.001 )。结论 AQ技术是测定ICM患者左心功能的一项简便实用的新方法。%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of acoustic quantification for detecting the left ventricular function in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM).Methods The left ventricular function was detected in 24 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and 30 normal subjects.Left ventricular end diastolic volume(EDV),end systolic volume (ESV),ejection fraction (EF),peak filling rate (PFR),peak ejection rate (PER),time of peak filling rate (TPFR) were measured.Results In ICM group , EDV was (120.08±24.50)ml,ESV was (79.78±17.38)ml, EDV and ESV were markedly higher than those in normal group (P<0.001). Left ventricular systolic function indexes in ICM group: EF was (33.19±8.50)%, PER was (2.59±0.63)ml/s, EF and PER were obviously lower than those in normal group (P<0.001). Left ventricular diastolic function indexes in ICM group: PFR was (2.62±0.52)ml/s and TPFR was (207.63±45.76)ms, PFR was obviously lower than that in normal group ,TPFR was significantly longer than that in normal group (P<0.001).Conclusions Acoustic quantification is a new, simple, and useful method for the assessment of the left ventricular function in ICM patients.

  5. Frank-Starling心脏定律探讨—Frank-Starling定律并非定律%To Investigate the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart——the Frank-Starling law is not a law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何川; 何培芳

    2012-01-01

    The law of the heart,Frank-Starling Law of the Heart (FSLH),says that the energy of cardiac contraction (cardiac work) is a function of the length of the muscle fiber (MFL)/the end-diastolic volume (EDV).The authors of this paper investigate into the FSLH via multidisciplinary knowledge from various angles and hold that:1)In the heart-lung preparation devised by Starling and his colleagues,which was aimed at studying the relationship between the inflow and cardiac work,the dog heart being put beneath the venous reservoir,relying on its own gravity,the blood in the venous reservoir flows into the right ventricle.That experimental condition is far from the physiological reality of human body vein hemodynamics.Therefore,the authors of this paper do not consider that the Frank-Starling phenomenon (the outflow increased with the rising of the filling pressure) observed in their experiments is a law of the heart working.2)The FSLH emphasizes the MFL/EDV,but it neglects the change in the MFL (e.g.,neglecting the end-systolic volume,ESV,i.e.,the end-point of the ventricular wall movement during the contraction).Lacking the ESV,the cardiac work (W) can not be calculated——the FSLH expression in the law of the heart working does not correspond to the basic principle of the “work” in physics.3)The mathematical relationship in the accepted formula for calculating the cardiac work “Stroke work =P × (EDV-ESV) ” shows that the stroke work does not always increase with the advent of the increased EDV,and does not always decrease with the advent of the decreased EDV either——there is no functional relation between the W and the EDV.Therefore,the authors of this paper hold that the FSLH expressing the fundamental principle of the heart working is a failure,and it is not a true law.%心脏搏动作功的规律:心脏收缩释放的能量(作功)是心肌纤维长度/心室舒张末期容积(EDV)的函数,即Frank-Starling心脏定律(简称“定律”),被誉为心

  6. Remodelação miocárdica na sobrecarga crônica de pressão ou de volume no coração de ratos Myocardial remodeling in chronic pressure or volume overload in the rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Shiguero Matsubara

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as alterações estruturais cardíacas em modelos experimentais de sobrecarga de pressão e de volume. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados ratos com hipertensão renovascular (HRV, n = 8, normotensos com sobrecarga de volume por fístula aortocava (FAV, n = 10 e animais controles (CONT, n = 8. Após quatro semanas, registrou-se a pressão arterial caudal (PAS e obtiveram-se os pesos dos ventrículos direito (PVD e esquerdo (PVE. Em cortes histológicos, foram medidas as áreas seccionais dos miócitos (AM, a espessura da parede do VE (E, o diâmetro da cavidade (DVE, a relação E/DVE, e a fração de colágeno (CVF. As comparações foram feitas pela ANOVA e teste de Tukey para nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A PAS (mmHg foi maior no grupo HRV (HRV = 187 ± 22; CONT = 125 ± 10; FAV = 122 ± 6, p OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiac structural changes in experimental pressure and volume overload models. METHODS: The study analysis included renovascular hypertensive rats (RVH, n=8, normotensive rats with volume overload caused by an aortocaval fistula (ACF, n=10 and control rats (CONT, n=8. After four weeks, tail cuff blood pressure (SBP was recorded. Rats were killed, the hearts were excised and the right and left ventricles (RV&LV were weighed (RVW&LVW. Using histological sections, myocyte cross sectional areas (MA. LV wall thickness (LVWT LV cavity diameter (LVD, normalized LVWT (LVWT/LVD and collagen volume fraction (CVF were measured. The comparisons were made using the ANOVA and Tukey test for a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Tail cuff blood pressure (mmHg was higher in the RVH group (RVH = 187 ± 22; CONT = 125 ± 10; ACF = 122 ± 6, p<0.05. LV hypertrophy was observed in the RVH and ACF groups. The ACF group presented a significant increase in size of LVD, compared to CONT and RVH. The absolute and normalized ventricular wall thickness were similar among the groups. The RVH group presented a significant increase in CVF

  7. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  8. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  9. Geometric and muscle physiological factors of the Frank-Starling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Dierberger, B; Gülch, R W; Kissling, G

    1993-01-01

    The relation between left-ventricular stroke volume (SV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) was determined based on angiocardiographic measurements in 10 open-chest minipigs under varying filling conditions (blood letting or infusions). The results were compared with a theoretical relation calculated under the assumption of varying EDV but constancy of myocardial properties. In contrast to the linear increase of SV as a function of EDV as found in the animal experiments, the calculated curve reveals a maximum near the normal operating point with a decrease in the range of higher EDV. It can be concluded that the well-known increase of SV with increasing ventricular filling, beyond the normal EDV, is almost completely due to muscle physiological factors (mainly increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus), whereas the decrease of SV in the range of low filling pressure is mainly due to the geometrical conditions.

  10. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  11. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  12. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  13. Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypertension with CMR: Pulmonary Hypertension 
Patients and Healthy Volunteers Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng WANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The clinical course of pulmonary hypertension (PH is one of progressive deterioration interspersed with episodes of acute decompensation. It is difficult to predict when patients will die because death may come either suddenly or slowly due to progressive heart failure. The aim of this study is to investigate morphology, function and hemodynamics in PH, compared with healthy people, and to investigate the clinical value of detection of PH by use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR parameters. Methods CMR was performed in 56 PH patients collected from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 and 22 healthy controls. The following parameters were calculated: right ventricle (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, ejection fraction (EF, myocardial mass (MM, RV fractional area change (RVFAC, interventricular septal curvature (CIVS, left ventricular free wall curvature (CFW, and CIVS/CFW, main pulmonary artery (MPA positive peak velocity, maximal area, minimal area and distensibility. Comparisons of CMR measurements between PH patients and controls were analyzed by using the student t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to compare the PH diagnostic abilities for four parameters (MPA positive peak velocity, distensibility, curvature ratio, and RVFAC and combined CMR parameter. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Compared with healthy controls, RV morphology, function and hemodynamics of PH group declined and deteriorate obviously. The ROC curve analysis showed that among the four parameters distensibility of MPA had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.95. Additionally, combined CMR parameter (positive peak velocity+distensibility+curvature ratio+RVFAC had even higher AUC (AUC=0.988. Conclusion Comprehensive CMR parameters is conducive to accurately reflect the overall state RV-pulmonary circulation in patients with PH.

  14. Right ventricle-pulmonary circulation dysfunction: a review of energy-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namheon; Taylor, Michael D; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2015-01-01

    Patients with repaired or palliated right heart congenital heart disease (CHD) are often left with residual lesions that progress and can result in significant morbidity. However, right ventricular-pulmonary arterial evaluation and the timing of reintvervention is still subjective. Currently, it relies on symptomology, or RV imaging-based metrics from echocardiography or MR derived parameters including right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic pressure (ESP), and end-diastolic volume (EDV). However, the RV is coupled to the pulmonary vasculature, and they are not typically evaluated together. For example, the dysfunctional right ventricular-pulmonary circulation (RV-PC) adversely affects the RV myocardial performance resulting in decreased efficiency. Therefore, comprehensive hemodynamic assessment should incorporate changes in RV-PC and energy efficiency for CHD patients. The ventricular pressure-volume relationship (PVR) and other energy-based endpoints derived from PVR, such as stroke work (SW) and ventricular elastance (Ees), can provide a measure of RV performance. However, a detailed explanation of the relationship between RV performance and pulmonary arterial hemodynamics is lacking. More importantly, PVR is impractical for routine longitudinal evaluation in a clinical setting, because it requires invasive catheterization. As an alternative, analytical methods and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to compute energy endpoints, such as power loss or energy dissipation, in abnormal physiologies. In this review, we review the causes of RV-PA failure and the limitation of current clinical parameters to quantify RV-PC dysfunction. Then, we describe the advantage of currently available energy-based endpoints and emerging energy endpoints, such as energy loss in the Pas or kinetic energy, obtained from a new non-invasive imaging technique, i.e. 4D phase contrast MRI.

  15. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  16. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  17. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  18. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  19. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  20. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  1. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  2. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  3. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  4. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  5. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  6. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  7. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  8. Assessment of left ventricular segmental function after autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction by tissue tracking and strain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wen; PAN Cui-zhen; HUANG Guo-qian; LI Yan-lin; GE Jun-bo; SHU Xian-hong

    2005-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that stem cells can be used to improve cardiac function in patients after acute myocardial infarction. In this randomized trial, we aimed to use Doppler tissue tracking and strain imaging to assess left ventricular segmental function after intracoronary transfer of autologous bone-marrow stem cells (BMCs) for 6 months' follow up. Methods Twenty patients with acute myocardial infarction and anterior descending coronary artery occlusion proven by angiography were double-blindedly randomized into intracoronary injection of bone-marrow cell (treated, n=9) or diluted serum (control, n=11) groups. GE vivid 7 and Q-analyze software were used to perform echocardiogram in both groups 1 week, 3 months and 6 months after treatment. Three apical views of tissue Doppler imaging were acquired to measure peak systolic displacement (Ds) and peak systolic strain (εpeak) from 12 segments of LV walls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were obtained by Simposon's biplane method. Results (1) 3 months later, Ds and εpeak over the infract-related region clearly increased in the BMCs group [Ds: (4.49±2.71) mm vs (7.56±2.95) mm, P0.05; εpeak : (-13.84±6.05)% vs (-15.04±6.75)%, P>0.05]. At the same time, Ds over the normal region also increased, but the Ds enhancement was markedly higher in the BMCs group than that in the control group [(3.21±3.17) mm vs (0.76±1.94) mm, P0.05). (2) LVEF in treated and control groups were almost the same at baseline (1st week after PCI) [(53.37±8.92)% vs (53.51±5.84)%, P>0.05]. But 6 months later, LVEF in the BMCs group were clearly higher than that in the control group [(59.33±12.91)% vs (50.30±8.30)%, P0.05; ESV: (57.12±18.66) ml vs (62.09±17.68) ml, P>0.05]. Three months later, EDV and ESV in the control group were markedly greater than those in the BMCs group [EDV: (154.89±46.34) ml vs (104.85±33.21) ml, P0.05). Conclusions Emergency

  9. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  10. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... sleep. There was also increase in both frequency of uri- nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to ... phagia, fever, head trauma, chronic cough, weight loss, ... water deprivation at 15Kg. Total volume of urine voided.

  11. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...

  12. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  13. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  14. Animation framework using volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  15. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  16. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  17. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  18. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  19. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  20. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  1. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  2. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  3. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  4. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  5. Volume inside old black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  6. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  7. Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0005 Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness Sarah B. Murthi, MD February 2017...use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense Technical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-2-6D10 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Volumes of Polytopes Without Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Enciso, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new formalism for defining and computing the volumes of completely general polytopes in any dimension. The expressions that we obtain for these volumes are independent of any triangulation, and manifestly depend only on the vertices of the underlying polytope. As one application of this formalism, we obtain new expressions for tree-level, n-point NMHV amplitudes in N=4 Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory.

  9. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  10. PECULIARITIES OF PARAMETERS OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES WITH COMORBID ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Shimohina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has assessed the functional parameters of the cardiovascular system by echocardiography in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS in combination with anxiety and depressive disorders (ADD. Were examined 152 patients in the first 24 hours after the onset of ACS. All patients in the first 48 hours after hospitalization was performed transthoracic echocardiography (EchoCG on the apparatus Vivid E9 (General Electric, USA. These echocardiographic indices were analyzed: stroke volume (SV of left ventricular (LV, minute volume of heart (MVH, ejection fraction (EF, determined by the method Teicholz, end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, thickness of interventricular septum in diastole (TISD, thickness of posterior wall the LV in diastole (TPWLD, anteroposterior size of the left atrium (LA. Local contractility of LV assessed by the presence of hypo- or akinesia and dyskinesia zones. Diastolic function of LV was assessed by transmitral blood Dopplerograms, noted the presence of valvular cardiac pathology. In the first 72 hours after being transferred from emergency rooms all patients were tested of test of Spielberg–Hanin, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Beck questionnaire and depression scale epidemiological studies Center USA for determine the presence or not ADD.A result of study patients with ACS in conjunction with ADD have significant excess volume indices of LV in comparison with patients without ADD, in addition, this group have an increase in the size of the LA, MVH and left ventricular has hypertrophy in terms TISD comparison with the group. According to data EchoCG in patients with ACS and ADD very often visualized local contractility disturbances LV, zone of dyskinesia and defeat sclerotic of the aortic and mitral valves and diastolic dysfunction of LV in the type “slow relaxation” in comparison with patients with ACS without ADD.In patients with ACS concomitant ADD has a negative effect on the

  11. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  12. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  13. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  14. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during submaximal versus maximal upright exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, G D; Becker, L C; Fisher, M L; Gerstenblith, G; Renlund, D G; Fleg, J L; Weisfeldt, M L; Lakatta, E G

    1986-12-01

    To evaluate the extent to which the Frank-Starling mechanism is utilized during successive stages of vigorous upright exercise, absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction were determined by gated blood pool scintigraphy at rest and during multilevel maximal upright bicycle exercise in 30 normal males aged 26-50 yr, who were able to exercise to 125 W or greater. Left ventricular end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output were calculated at rest and during each successive 3-min stage of exercise [25, 50, 75, 100, and 125-225 W (peak)]. During early exercise (25 W), end-diastolic and stroke volumes increased (+17 +/- 1 and +31 +/- 4%, respectively), with no change in end-systolic volume. With further exercise (50-75 W) end-diastolic volume remained unchanged as end-systolic volume decreased (-12 +/- 4 and -24 + 5%, respectively). At peak exercise end-diastolic volume decreased to resting level, stroke volume remained at a plateau, and end-systolic volume further decreased (-48 +/- 7%). Thus the Frank-Starling mechanism is used early in exercise, perhaps because of a delay in sympathetic mobilization, and does not appear to play a role in the later stages of vigorous exercise.

  15. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J., E-mail: c.jensen@contilia.d [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Jochims, Markus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Hunold, Peter; Forsting, Michael; Barkhausen, Joerg [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany); Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Schlosser, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular (LV) function and mass (LVM) derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of beta-blocker administration compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR were included, where of fifteen received metoprolol intravenously before DSCT. LV parameters were calculated by the disc-summation method (DSM) and by a segmented region-growing algorithm (RGA). All data sets were analyzed by two blinded observers. Interobserver agreement was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results.: 1. Using DSM LV parameters were not statistically different between DSCT and CMR in all patients (DSCT vs. CMR: EF 63 {+-} 8% vs. 64 {+-} 8%, p = 0.47; EDV 136 {+-} 36 ml vs. 138 {+-} 35 ml, p = 0.66; ESV 52 {+-} 21 ml vs. 52 {+-} 22 ml, p = 0.61; SV 83 {+-} 22 ml vs. 87 {+-} 19 ml, p = 0.22; CO 5.4 {+-} 0.9 l/min vs. 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min, p = 0.09, LVM 132 {+-} 33 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p = 0.99). 2. In a subgroup of 15 patients beta-blockade prior to DSCT resulted in a lower ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and increase in end systolic volume (ESV) in DSCT (EF 59 {+-} 8% vs. 62 {+-} 9%; SV 73 {+-} 17 ml vs. 81 {+-} 15 ml; CO 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min vs. 5.0 {+-} 0.8 l/min; ESV 52 {+-} 27 ml vs. 57 {+-} 24 ml, all p < 0.05). 3. Analyzing the RGA parameters LV volumes were not significantly different compared to DSM, whereas LVM was higher using RGA (177 {+-} 31 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p < 0.05). Interobserver agreement was excellent comparing DSM values with best agreement between RGA calculations. Conclusion: Left ventricular volumes and mass can reliably be assessed by DSCT compared to CMR. However, beta-blocker administration leads to statistically significant reduced EF, SV and CO, whereas ESV significantly increases. DSCT RGA reliably analyzes LV function, whereas LVM is overestimated compared to DSM.

  16. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  17. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  18. Thermodynamic Volume of Cosmological Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Saoussen

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter $a$, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass $M_{out}$ satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring $M_{out}$ to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  19. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  20. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  1. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  2. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  3. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  4. Foaming volume and foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  5. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  6. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...

  7. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include amounts...

  8. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  9. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  10. Moment Maps and Equivariant Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto DELLA VEDOVA; Roberto PAOLETTI

    2007-01-01

    The study of the volume of big line bundles on a complex projective manifold M has been one of the main veins in the recent interest in the asymptotic properties of linear series. In this article,we consider an equivariant version of this problem, in the presence of a linear action of a reductive group on M.

  11. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  12. Octree-based Volume Sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A volume sculpting system is presented. The system provides tools for interactive editing of a voxel raster that is stored in an octree data structure. Two different modes of sculpting are supported: Sculpting by adding and subtracting solids, and sculpting with tools that are based on a spray ca...... metaphor. The possibility of extending the method to support multiresolution sculpting is discussed....

  13. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  14. Archives of ALGA. Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Volume 2 contains 3 articles: Ilir Berisha, Translation of Bäcklunds paper ”Surfaces of constant negative curvature”; Johan Erlandsson, "Survey of mathematical models in biology from point of view of Lie group analysis"; Niklas Säfström, "Group analysis of a tumour growth model"

  15. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  16. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  17. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  18. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  19. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  20. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  1. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  2. TrueFISP MR imaging to determine the influence of hemodialysis on the myocardial functional parameters in patients with terminal renal insufficiency; TrueFISP-MR-Bildgebung zur Bestimmung des Einflusses der Haemodialyse auf myokardiale Funktionsparameter bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, U.; Fenchel, M.; Kraft, A.; Tomaschko, K.; Stauder, N.; Claussen, C.D.; Miller, S. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Wolf, S.; Risler, T. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik

    2004-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the characteristic signs of uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) in comparison with healthy volunteers and to determine changes of left ventricular (LV) functional parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Methods and Materials: Using a 1.5 T Magnetron Sonata system (Siemens, Erlangen), cardiac MR imaging was performed on 26 patients (20 men, 6 women, mean age 54.7 years) and 14 volunteers (8 men, 6 women, mean age 27.7 years). Single-slice true FISP sequences (TR 3.2 ms, TE 1.6 ms, flip angel 58 , matrix 256 x 208, slice thickness 5 mm) were used to obtain contiguous short axis slices covering the whole left ventricle. Patients were examined before and immediately afte HD. Cardiodynamic parameters end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), myocardial mass (MM), cardiac output (CO) were calculated using the modified Simpson's rule (Argus Software, Siemens). Patient data were compared to reference values taken from healthy volunteers. Results: As a consequence of HD, significant differences (p<0.01) were observed for EDV (150+47 ml/114+49 ml), ESV (71+46 ml/60+56 ml), SV (79+25 ml/57+27 ml) and CO (3.6+1.0 l/min x m{sup 2}/2.6+1.1 l/min x m{sup 2}). Although EF (56+15%/53+18%) was decreased after HD, values did not differ significantly (p>0.05). MM (148+47 g/148+52 g) and myocardial mass index (80.7{+-}27.4 g/m{sup 2}/80.1{+-}9.1 g/m{sup 2}) did not change before and after HD. In all patients, signs of LV-hypertrophy (LVH) and increased CO were diagnosed compared to reference values. In 8 of 26 patients, additional pathology, such as valvular dysfunction or global cardiac insufficiency, was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI is an accurate tool to identify uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing HD. LV functional parameters could be monitored reliably. [German] Zielsetzung: Die vorliegende Studie an Patienten mit

  3. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    , the peak ejection rate and changes in end-systolic volume. Also the diastolic function evaluated by the peak filling rate remained normal. Furthermore, no sign of backward failure could be demonstrated since the central blood volume was not significantly increased. Both systolic and diastolic blood...

  4. Preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics are associated with postoperative vasoactive support in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Margaret A; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2017-07-05

    Preoperative risk factors associated with poor outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the association between preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics and postoperative clinical outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Preterm infants less than 90 days of age with no other significant congenital anomalies who underwent patent ductus arteriosus ligation between 2007 and 2015 were considered for retrospective analysis. The primary outcome was peak postoperative vasoactive inotropic score. Conventional echocardiographic measures of ventricular size, function, and patent ductus arteriosus size were performed. Echocardiographic single-beat, pressure-volume loop analysis estimates of contractility (end-systolic elastance) and afterload (arterial elastance) were calculated. Ventriculoarterial coupling was assessed using the arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance ratio. Multivariable linear regression was performed using clinical and echocardiographic data. Echocardiograms from 101 patients (42.5% male) were analyzed. We found a statistically significant association between vasoactive inotropic score and both end-systolic elastance and arterial elastance. No patient with arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance greater than 0.78 (n = 32) had a vasoactive inotropic score 20 or greater. Analysis of our secondary outcomes found associations between preoperative end-systolic elastance and postoperative urine output less than 1 mL/kg/h at 24 hours, creatinine change greater than 0.5 mg/dL, and time to first extubation. End-systolic elastance and arterial elastance were the only predictors of postoperative vasoactive inotropic score after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants. Those neonates with increased contractility and low afterload were at highest risk for elevated inotropic support. These findings suggest a role

  5. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  6. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  7. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  8. Prices Up and Volumes Stable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 First Half China Garment Industry Report Exports Grew at a Slower Pace China Customs reported the garment & accessories export value of $51.286 billion for the first five months of this year, up 23.12% y/y, accounting for 56.28 percent of the total, 5% lower than the previous year’s points.Despite sales prices increase, sales volume remain stable. From Jan. to May

  9. Volume 7, Issue 1 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Creagh; John Clarke; Karen Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to Volume 7 of Student Success.  This editorial has two parts: The first part maintains the “doing things differently” tradition, making readers aware by chronicling the publishing of the journal in an open access (OA) forum.  Future editorials will briefly discuss other aspects and issues pertaining to the new scholarly publishing landscape that this journal adheres to, such as:  Creative Commons Licencing; ORCID IDs; considerations of new peer review models and importantly; measurin...

  10. Analytic torsion and symplectic volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the abelian analytic torsion on a closed, oriented, quasi-regular Sasakian three-manifold and identifies this quantity as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections. This identification effectively computes...... the analytic torsion explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given quasi-regular Sasakian structure on a three-manifold....

  11. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  12. β受体阻滞剂对健康成人64层螺旋 CT冠状动脉造影左心室功能的影响%The effects of propranolol on the left ventricular function by 64-slice multi-slice computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春红; 刘军; 梁立华; 彭述平

    2014-01-01

    blood pressure (DBP)before and after the administration of propranolol and the dosage of propranolol were recorded.The left ventricular function was calculated by parameters of end-diastolic volume(EDV),end systolic volume (ESV)and ejection fraction (EF).The paired-t test was used to compare the left ventricular function between the two groups (no taking and taking propranolol).Results There were no significant differences in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication [(124 ±14)mmHg and (81 ±9)mmHg;(121 ±1 3)mmHg and (79 ±10)mmHg,respectively)].The EDV showed no significant differences between the two groups,but the ESV and EF showed significant differences between the two groups[(44.7 ±1 2.3)mL and (47.3 ±1 3.4)mL;(65.1 ±8.4)% and (62.0 ±7.8)%,respectively)]. Conclusions Taking propranolol increases ESV and decreases EF,while the SBP,DBP and EDV don′t change.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  14. On the volume of cremated remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722.......Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722....

  15. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  16. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  17. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  18. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  19. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The final volume of this 4-volume report contains further selections from "Anthropological Perspectives on Education," a monograph to be published by Basic Books of New York. (Other selections are in Vol. III, SP 003 902.) Monograph selections appearing in this volume are: "Great Tradition, Little Tradition, and Formal Education;""Indians,…

  20. Volume control device for digital signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    A digital volume control device comprises a logic unit for volume control of digital input signals. Successively supplied m-bits words with maximally k bits active, derived from the output signals of or supplied by a volume control (4) with a quantizer (5) element the filtered m-bits workds are

  1. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however, in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Water flux across biologic membranes may be driven by osmotic or hydrostatic forces; existing data suggest that intramembranous flow in humans is driven by the osmotic difference between the amniotic fluid and the fetal serum. The driving force for placental flow is more controversial, and both forces may be in effect. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating water flow to and from the amniotic fluid is unknown. In other parts of the body, notably the kidney, water flux is regulated by the expression of aquaporin water channels on the cell membrane. We hypothesize that aquaporins have a role in regulating water flux across both the amnion and the placenta, and present evidence in support of this theory. Current knowledge of gestational water flow is sufficient to allow prediction of fetal outcome when water flow is abnormal, as in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Further insight into these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  2. INFLUENCE OF COMPLETENESS HEART REVASCULARIZATION ON A FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF MYOCARDIUM AT ISCHEMIC CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chestukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define influence of completeness heart revascularization on a functional condition of myocardium at ischemic cardiomyopathy. Materials and methods. 61 men and 5 women aged from 46 till 73 years with the diagnosis an ischemic cardiomyopathy were investigated before and after coronary angioplasty (EDV LV – 256,1 ± 7,4 ml, EF LV – 36,1 ± 1,1%. 46 patients had at receipt CHF with NYHA functional class 4, 20 – CHF with NYHA functional class 3. Functional status (6-minute walking test – 109,7 ± 20,5 m. Chronic total occlusion was the major type of coronary artery disease (92 of 176 epicardial branches. By means of echocardiography and quantitative gated SPECT estimated dynamics of systolic and diastolic function, change of perfusion, thickening and myocardial movement. Results. The full revascularization managed to be executed to 32 patients, incomplete – to 34 patients (34 occluded arteries didn't manage to be opened. In the whole group the 6-minute walking test incre- ased to 268,2 ± 19,9 m (p < 0,001, EF LV grew to 39,9±1,1% (p < 0,01 due to reduction of end systolic volume, degree of mitral regurgitation decreased from 1,6 ± 0,1 to 1,2 ± 0,1 (p < 0,007, pulmonary artery pressure decreased from 39,1 ± 1,7 to 32,1 ± 1,2 mm Hg (p < 0,01. Distinctions in dynamics of the main functional indicators between groups of complete and incomplete revascularization it isn't revealed. The factor of expressiveness of collateral blood flow in the region of occluded arteries probably compensates violation of an antegrade blood flow and defines a myocardial condition. Conclusion. The volume of myocardial revascularization at patients with ischemic cardio- myopathy isn't defining factor in a clinical condition of them after executed percutaneous coronary intervention. 

  3. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  4. Einstein equations with fluctuating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-07-01

    We develop a simple model to study classical fields on the background of a fluctuating spacetime volume. It is applied to formulate the stochastic Einstein equations with a perfect-fluid source. We investigate the particular case of a stochastic Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show that the resulting field equations can lead to solutions which avoid the initial big bang singularity. By interpreting the fluctuations as the result of the presence of a quantum spacetime, we conclude that classical singularities can be avoided even within a stochastic model that include quantum effects in a very simple manner.

  5. BOX: One Minute Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Rose

    2009-01-01

    BOX is a digital short originally developed in 2004 documented on a 1920’s box camera. This early moving image work formed the basis of a practice which interrogates our experience of moving image through the remediation of analogue technology with new media. In 2009 it was included in One Minute Volume 3; a programme of artists moving image curated by Kerry Baldry including work by: Tony Hill, Tina Keane, Katherine Meynell, Kayla Parker and Stuart Moore, Dave Griffiths, Marty St Jam...

  6. Left ventricular diastolic filling improvement obtained by intravenous verapamil in mild to moderate essential hypertension: a complex effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, F; Fabbri, G; Monopoli, A; Rossi, D; Matassi, L; Strazzulla, G; Bisi, G

    1989-01-01

    In order to try and evaluate through what prevailing mechanism verapamil (V) can induce an improvement in left ventricular (LV) diastolic early filling in mild to moderate essential hypertension, 43 properly classified essential hypertensives, aged 41-74 years (mean age 58.1 +/- 10.3), and 20 age-matched normotensives were studied. All subjects underwent both echocardiographic evaluation and 99mTc radionuclide angiocardiography in basal conditions between 8.00 a.m. and noon, after an overnight rest. In essential hypertensives gated equilibrium angiocardiography was repeated 3 and 30 min after i.v. V (0.1-mg/kg bolus, followed by 0.005 mg/kg/min for the period of radionuclide data acquisition). Simultaneously, supine arterial pressure was measured with a cuff manometer. In 36 essential hypertensives a phono-echo evaluation was obtained, both at 3 and 30 min after V, deriving a LV isovolumetric relaxation index (IRTI). Among diastolic early filling indices, we particularly considered the ratio of peak filling rate (PFR) to peak ejection rate (PER) in order to take into account the interaction of systolic performance with LV relaxation and diastolic early filling. Three minutes after V the increase in PFR (from 2.47 +/- 0.5 to 3.04 +/- 0.8 EDV/s, p less than 0.001) and the upwards tendency of PFR/PER were coupled with the enhancement in ejection fraction (from 61.1 +/- 13.3 to 63.9 +/- 13.8%, p less than 0.001) and heart rate (from 70.3 +/- 12.6 to 77.7 +/- 12.2 b/min, p less than 0.001) and with the reduction in mean arterial pressure (from 122 +/- 16 to 107 +/- 14 mm Hg, p less than 0.001), systemic arterial resistance index (from 3,234 +/- 968 to 2,432 +/- 678 dyn s cm-5 m2, p less than 0.001) and end-systolic volume index (from 32.9 +/- 17.1 to 31.5 +/- 18.3 ml/m2, p less than 0.02). On the contrary, 30 min after V, when systolic indices, heart rate, mean arterial pressure and systemic arterial resistance index had returned towards baseline values, PFR/PER showed

  7. THE RESULTS OF MECHANICAL HEART SUPPORT SYSTEMS «INCOR» IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cherniavskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation isestimation of mechanical heart support system «INCOR» implantation efficacy. Materials and methods. The Institute of Circulation Pathology has clinical experience of mechanical circulatory support systems «INCOR» (Berlin Heart AG implantation in 12 patients (10 men and 2 women with severe heart failure during the period from November 2006 to October 2012. The main indication for the use of mechanical support of the left ventricle was a left ventricular failure with marked dilatation of the left heart: end-diastolic volume (EDV, LV – 283 ± 58 ml, end-systolic volume (ESV – 233 ± 57 ml, ejection fraction (EF – 16 ± 7%, with preserved function of the right ventricle (RV (RV ejection fraction 35 ± 12%. Results. All patients showed a significant improvement in central hemodynamics in early postoperative period, reducing the volume of the heart chambers: LV EDV from 283 ± 58 to 183 ± 94 ml; LV ESV with 234 ± 57 to 157 ± 65 ml, increased right ventricular ejection fraction (RV EF (from 35 ± 12 to 43 ± 17%. Improve the function of the right ventricle oc- curred mainly due to the expense of left ventricular unloading and pulmonary circulation. In addition, there was a significant improvement in clinical status of patients – regression of symptoms of heart failure, a recovery of the liver and kidney function. Despite the ongoing anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy under constant parameters of coagulation, there was some complications. Uterine bleeding occurred in 1 patient (16.6%, which required the abolition of anticoagulants and antiplatelet, uterine artery embolization, and as a result has led to thrombosis and stop system «INCOR». Four patients (33.3% had severe thromboembolic complications – acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA. In 1 patient (8% there was a hemorrhagic stroke due to rupture of intracerebral aneurysms with a breakthrough into the lateral ventricle of the brain. In 3 patients (25

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  10. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  11. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage......, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways...... and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  12. Taurine Homeostasis and Volume Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema. Together with other osmolytes, taurine corrects cell shrinkage, preventing mysfunction of organelles and apoptosis. Swelling corrective taurine efflux occurs through a leak pathway, likely formed by LCRR8 protein isoforms. Shrinkage-activated influx comes largely by the increased activity of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter. The brain taurine pool results from the equilibrium between (i) dietary intake and active transport into the cell, (ii) synthesis in the brain itself or import of that synthesized elsewhere, and (iii) leak and posterior excretion. The interplay between these elements preserves brain taurine homeostasis in physiological conditions and permits the proper adjustments upon deviations of normal in the internal/external environment.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  14. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  15. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  16. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; /Daresbury; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; /Cockcroft Inst.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  17. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  18. 实时三维超声心动图评价冠心病患者PCI术前后左室功能及收缩同步性的研究%Study of left ventricular function and systolic synchrony assessed by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography before and after PCI in coronary heart disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏博; 刘和俊; 汪太平; 史学功; 金朝龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence left ventricular function and systolic synchrony assessed by realtime three-dimensional echocardiography( RT-3DE ) before and after percutaneous coronary intervention therapy ( PCI ) in coronary heart disease patients. Methods By using RT-3DE, the three-dimensional parameters were repeatedly measured in thirty-eight patients with PCI treatment as CHD group before operation, 1st week and 3rd month after operation. Twenty-eight nomal subjects were enrolled as control group. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume( LVEDV ), left ventricular end-systolic volume( LVESV ), left ventricular ejection fraction( LVEF ), left ventricular stroke volume ( LVSV ), left ventricular peak ejection rate( PER ), left ventricular peak filling rate ( PFR), the time of minimal systolic volume of 16-segmental standard deviation( Tmsvl6-SD% ) and maximum difference ( Tmsvl6-Dif% ) were analyzed with software. Results Compared with the control group, LVEDV, LVESV,Tmsvl6-SD% ,Tmsvl6-Dif% were significantly higher ( P <0. 01 ), while LVEF, PER/EDV, PFR/EDV were lower ( P < 0. 01 ) in study group befroe operation. Compared with the preoperative group, LVEDV, LVESV, Tmsvl6-SD% , Tmsvl6-Dif% reduced significantly ( P < 0. 05,P < 0. 01 ), while LVEF, PER/EDV, PFR/EDV increased ( P <0. 05 ,P < 0. 01 ) in postoperative group. The bull-eye diagram showed that systolic timing delayed and systolic excursion attenuated in segments reduced significantly with CHD group after the operation. Conclusion Left ventricular remodeling could be found in patients with coronary heart dease and PCI might reverse the left ventricular remodeling somewhat. RT-3DE could be a new corrected valuable method of evaluating left ventricular function and systolic synchrony in patients with CHD before and after PCI.%目的 应用实时三维超声心动图(RT-3DE)评价冠心病患者经皮冠状动脉介入(PCI)治疗术前后左室功能及收缩同步性的影响.方法

  19. Volume-effect in radiation therapy part one: volume-effect and tumour; L'effet volume en radiotherapie premiere partie: effet volume et tumeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Wu, J. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou (AP-HP), Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Dahan, O.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2003-04-01

    Volume is an important parameter of radiation therapy. Local control is inversely related to tumor size and the complication rate increases with the importance of the irradiated volume. Although the effect of irradiated volume has been widely reported since the beginning of radiotherapy, it has been less studied than other radiation parameters such as dose, fractionation, or treatment duration. One of the first organ system in which the adverse effect of increased volume was well defined is the skin. Over the last twenty years, numerous mathematical models have been developed for different organs. In this report we will discuss the relation between irradiated volume and tumor control. In a second article we will study the impact of irradiated volume on radiation adverse effects. (authors)

  20. An estimate of global glacier volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grinsted

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess the feasibility of using multivariate scaling relationships to estimate glacier volume from glacier inventory data. Scaling laws are calibrated against volume observations optimized for the specific purpose of estimating total global glacier ice volume. I find that adjustments for continentality and elevation range improve skill of area–volume scaling. These scaling relationships are applied to each record in the Randolph Glacier Inventory, which is the first globally complete inventory of glaciers and ice caps. I estimate that the total volume of all glaciers in the world is 0.35 ± 0.07 m sea level equivalent, including ice sheet peripheral glaciers. This is substantially less than a recent state-of-the-art estimate. Area–volume scaling bias issues for large ice masses, and incomplete inventory data are offered as explanations for the difference.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  2. Three particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Polejaeva, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Within the non-relativistic potential scattering theory, we derive a generalized version of the L\\"uscher formula, which includes three-particle inelastic channels. Faddeev equations in a finite volume are discussed in detail. It is proved that, even in the presence of the three-particle intermediate states, the discrete spectrum in a finite box is determined by the infinite-volume elements of the scattering S-matrix up to corrections, exponentially suppressed at large volumes.

  3. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  4. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mix, Michael; Müller, Frank; Merk, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81+/-15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV(LBM)).

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  7. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  8. Volume-effect and radiotherapy [2]. Part 2: volume-effect and normal tissue; Effet volume en radiotherapie [2]. Deuxieme partie: volume et tolerance des tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Atlan, D. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    The first part of our work has focused on the relationship bet men tumor Volume and tumor control. Indeed, it is well known that the importance of irradiated volume could be a main parameter of radiation-induced complications. Numerous mathematical models have described the correlation between the irradiated volume and the risk of adverse effects. These models should predict the complication rate of each treatment planning. At the present time late effects have been the most studied. In this report we firstly propose a review of different mathematical models described for volume effect. Secondly, we will discuss whether these theoretical considerations can influence our view of radiation treatment planning optimization. (authors)

  9. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Issa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP, composite nodal volumes (GTVN and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance.

  10. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  11. The average free volume model for liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  12. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... flow, or sequestration of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, or any combination thereof. The present results indicate that central circulatory underfilling is an integral part of the hemodynamic and homeostatic derangement observed in cirrhosis....

  13. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  14. Predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy with cross-correlation analysis of myocardial systolic acceleration: a new approach to echocardiographic dyssynchrony evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Jons, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    ventricular end-systolic volume > 15%). Dyssynchrony findings were compared between CRT responders and 83 age-matched control patients with narrow QRS complexes and different levels of systolic cardiac dysfunction. XCA was compared with conventional dyssynchrony analysis based on differences in time...

  15. Arterial elastance and heart-arterial coupling in aortic regurgitation are determined by aortic leak severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P; Morimont, P; Kolh, P; Stergiopulos, N; Westerhof, N; Verdonck, P

    2002-01-01

    Background In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), aortic leak severity modulates left ventricle (LV) arterial system interaction. The aim of this study was to assess (1) how arterial elastance (E-a), calculated as the ratio of LV end-systolic pressure and stroke volume, relates to arterial properties a

  16. Longitudinal echocardiographic follow-up in children with congenital complete atrioventricular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort-Krol, Gertie C. M.; Leeuwen, Miek J. M. Schasfoort-Van; Stienstra, Ymkje; Bink-Boelkens, Margreet Th. E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Due to a low heart rate (HR) in children with congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB), a larger stroke volume of the left ventricle (LV) may be expected. If so, end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic (LVESD) diameters may be enlarged and even dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) may o

  17. 彩超测定心脏瓣膜置换术前后左室壁应力的临床价值%Clinical value of color doppler ultrasound in detecting left ventricular wall stress pre-cardiac and post-cardiac valve replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷文营; 孙秀英

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨风湿性心脏瓣膜病换瓣术前后室壁应力的变化及其与左心室功能的关系。方法:应用Grossman左室壁应力公式计算收缩期最大径线左室壁应力(EdσM)、收缩末期径线左室壁应力(EsσM);应用M型图像测量和Teichholz方法计算左室收缩功能:左室短轴缩短率(FS)和左室射血分数(EF)。结果:置换术前后对照EdσM、EsσM、左室舒张末期容积(EDV)有不同程度减少和缩小;心功能不全时,EdσM、EsσM显著增加。结论:EdσM、EsσM指标可为临床术前适应证选择和术后恢复状况评价提供一定的参考价值。%Objective: To investigate the change of left ventricular wall stress and the relationship with left ventricular function pre- and post-cardiac valve replacement in patients with rheumatic valve heart disease.Methods:Left ventricular wall stress of systole maximam dimension (EdσM) and end-systole dimension (EsσM) was calculate by Grossman's formula of left ventricular stress and left ventricular systolic function (left ventricle minor axis shorten fraction and ejection fraction) was evaluated by M mode image measurement and Teichholz's method.Results: EdσM , EsσM and left ventricle end-diastolic volume (EDV) reduced in different degree pre-and post-replacement. EdσM, and EsσM increased distinctly when cardiac function was insufficient.Conclusion: The quota of EdσM and EsσM can offer reference for the choice of operation indications and evaluation of recovery effect after operation.

  18. Pre- and postconditioning effect of Sevoflurane on myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jürgen; Bergmann, Greta; Bruckner, Thomas; Russ, Nicolai; Böttiger, Bernd W; Popp, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction is an important cause of death in the intensive care unit after initially successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of pre-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) patients. Volatile anaesthetics reduce ischaemic-reperfusion injury in regional ischaemia in beating hearts. This effect, called anaesthetic-induced pre- or postconditioning, can be shown when the volatile anaesthetic is given either before regional ischaemia or in the reperfusion phase. However, up to now, little data exist for volatile anaesthetics after global ischaemia due to CA. Therefore, the goal of this study was to clarify whether Sevoflurane improves post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction after CA in rats. Following institutional approval by the Governmental Animal Care Committee, 144 male Wistar rats (341±19g) were randomized either to a control group or to one of the 9 interventional groups receiving 0.25 MAC, 0.5 MAC or 1 MAC of Sevoflurane for 5min either before resuscitation (SBR), during resuscitation (SDR) or after resuscitation (SAR). After 6min of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation CPR was performed. Before CA (baseline) as well as 1h and 24h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), continuous measurement of ejection fraction (EF), and preload adjusted maximum power (PAMP) as primary outcome parameters and end systolic pressure (ESP), end diastolic volume (EDV) and maximal slope of systolic pressure increment (dP/dtmax) as secondary outcome parameters was performed using a conductance catheter. EF was improved in all Sevoflurane treated groups 1h after ROSC in comparison to control, except for the 0.25 MAC SDR and 0.25 MAC SAR group (0.25 MAC SBR: 38±8, p=0.02; 0.5 MAC SBR: 39±7, p=0.04; 1 MAC SBR: 40±6, p=0.007; 0.5 MAC SDR: 38±7, p=0.02; 1 MAC SDR: 40±6, p=0.006; 0.5 MAC SAR: 39±6, p=0.01; 1 MAC SAR: 39±6, p=0.002, vs. 30±7%). Twenty-four hours after ROSC, EF was higher than control in all interventional groups

  19. Circulating NOS3 modulates left ventricular remodeling following reperfused myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gorressen

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is constitutively produced and released from the endothelium and several blood cell types by the isoform 3 of the NO synthase (NOS3. We have shown that NO protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury and that depletion of circulating NOS3 increases within 24 h of ischemia/reperfusion the size of myocardial infarction (MI in chimeric mice devoid of circulating NOS3. In the current study we hypothesized that circulating NOS3 also affects remodeling of the left ventricle following reperfused MI.To analyze the role of circulating NOS3 we transplanted bone marrow of NOS3-/- and wild type (WT mice into WT mice, producing chimerae expressing NOS3 only in vascular endothelium (BC-/EC+ or in both, blood cells and vascular endothelium (BC+/EC+. Both groups underwent 60 min of coronary occlusion in a closed-chest model of reperfused MI. During the 3 weeks post MI, structural and functional LV remodeling was serially assessed (24 h, 4 d, 1 w, 2 w and 3 w by echocardiography. At 72 hours post MI, gene expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM modifying molecules was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. At 3 weeks post MI, hemodynamics were obtained by pressure catheter, scar size and collagen content were quantified post mortem by Gomori's One-step trichrome staining.Three weeks post MI, LV end-systolic (53.2±5.9 μl; ***p≤0.001; n = 5 and end-diastolic volumes (82.7±5.6 μl; *p<0.05; n = 5 were significantly increased in BC-/EC+, along with decreased LV developed pressure (67.5±1.8 mm Hg; n = 18; ***p≤0.001 and increased scar size/left ventricle (19.5±1.5%; n = 13; **p≤0.01 compared to BC+/EC+ (ESV: 35.6±2.2 μl; EDV: 69.1±2.6 μl n = 8; LVDP: 83.2±3.2 mm Hg; n = 24; scar size/LV13.8±0.7%; n = 16. Myocardial scar of BC-/EC+ was characterized by increased total collagen content (20.2±0.8%; n = 13; ***p≤0.001 compared to BC+/EC+ (15.9±0.5; n = 16, and increased collagen type I and III subtypes

  20. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J;

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV...

  1. Seeing and feeling volumes: The influence of shape on volume perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrimanovic, Mirela; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2010-07-01

    The volume of common objects can be perceived visually, haptically or by a combination of both senses. The present study shows large effects of the object's shape on volume perception within all these modalities, with an average bias of 36%. In all conditions, the volume of a tetrahedron was overestimated compared to that of a cube or a sphere, and the volume of a cube was overestimated compared to that of a sphere. Additional analyses revealed that the biases could be explained by the dependence of the volume judgment on different geometric properties. During visual volume perception, the strategies depended on the objects that were compared and they were also subject-dependent. However, analysis of the haptic and bimodal data showed more consistent results and revealed that surface area of the stimuli influenced haptic as well as bimodal volume perception. This suggests that bimodal volume perception is more influenced by haptic input than by visual information.

  2. Extinction-Optimized Volume Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Marco; Zirr, Tobias; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-05-16

    We present a novel method to optimize the attenuation of light for the single scattering model in direct volume rendering. A common problem of single scattering is the high dynamic range between lit and shadowed regions due to the exponential attenuation of light along a ray. Moreover, light is often attenuated too strong between a sample point and the camera, hampering the visibility of important features. Our algorithm employs an importance function to selectively illuminate important structures and make them visible from the camera. With the importance function, more light can be transmitted to the features of interest, while contextual structures cast shadows which provide visual cues for perception of depth. At the same time, more scattered light is transmitted from the sample point to the camera to improve the primary visibility of important features. We formulate a minimization problem that automatically determines the extinction along a view or shadow ray to obtain a good balance between sufficient transmittance and attenuation. In contrast to previous approaches, we do not require a computationally expensive solution of a global optimization, but instead provide a closed-form solution for each sampled extinction value along a view or shadow ray and thus achieve interactive performance.

  3. Volume Renormalization and the Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Quantum Field Theory (QFT) treats particle excitations as point-like objects, which is the source of ubiquitous divergences. We demonstrate that a minimal modification of QFT with finite volume particles may cure QFT of divergences and illuminate the physics behind the mathematical construct of our theories. The method allows for a non-perturbative treatment of the free field and self-interacting theories (though extensions to all interacting field theories might be possible). In particular, non-perturbatively defined mass is finite. When applied to the standard model Higgs mechanism, the method implies that a finite range of parameters allows for creation of a well defined Higgs particle, whose Compton wavelength is larger than its physical size, in the broken symmetry phase (as small oscillations around the vacuum). This has profound consequences for Higgs production at the LHC. The parameter range in which the Higgs excitation with the mass of 125 GeV behaves as a proper particle is very res...

  4. Volume-Enclosing Surface Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schlei, B R

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented here, which allows one to construct triangular surfaces from three-dimensional data sets, such as 3D image data and/or numerical simulation data that are based on regularly shaped, cubic lattices. This novel volume-enclosing surface extraction technique, which has been named VESTA, is guaranteed to always produce surfaces that do not contain any holes, e.g., in contrast to the well-known and very popular Marching Cubes algorithm, which has been developed by W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline in the mid-1980s. VESTA is not template based. In fact, the surface tiles are determined with a fast and robust construction technique. Among other things, VESTA's relationship to the DICONEX algorithm is explained, which -- in a lower-dimensional analogy -- produces contours from two-dimensional data sets, such as 2D gray-level images. In particular, the generation of isosurfaces from initially created VESTA surfaces is demonstrated here for the very first time. A few examples are provided, namely in ...

  5. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  6. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  7. Multi-Volume High Resolution RGB-D Mapping with Dynamic Volume Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, Michael; Finman, Ross; Leonard, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel RGB-D mapping system for generating 3D maps over spatially extended regions with higher resolution than current methods using multiple, dynamically placed mapping volumes. Our method takes in RGB-D frames and dynamically assigns multiple mapping volumes to the environment, exchanging mapping volumes between the CPU and GPU. Mapping volumes are added or removed as needed to allow for spatially extended, high resolution mapping. Our system is designed to maximize the resoluti...

  8. A note on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that for a variety of biological particle shapes, the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume can be estimated stereologically using only the areas of particle transects, which can be estimated manually by point-counting.......It is shown that for a variety of biological particle shapes, the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume can be estimated stereologically using only the areas of particle transects, which can be estimated manually by point-counting....

  9. On pressure: volume relations in hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.Y. Ie (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1 is a brief introduction to several aspects of cardiovascular pressure-volume relations in dialysis patients. The aims of the thesis are presented. In Chapter 2, an overview is presented of circulatory physiology in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Volume withdrawal by ultrafiltrati

  10. 3-Dimensional Right Ventricular Volume Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jainandunsing, Jayant S.; Matyal, Robina; Shahul, Sajid S.; Wang, Angela; Woltersom, Bozena; Mahmood, Feroze

    Purpose: The purpose of this review was to evaluate new computer software available for 3-dimensional right ventricular (RV) volume estimation. Description: Based on 2-dimensional echocardiography, various algorithms have been used for RV volume estimation. These are complex, time-consuming

  11. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  12. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m(3) and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  13. Rotational Crofton formulae for flagged intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    , and the integration is over all sections containing the fixed point origo. Our main result is a local stereological analogue to the well-known Crofton formula. More precisely, we derive geometric formulae that relate new flagged intrinsic volumes of a set with the flagged intrinsic volumes of its sections...

  14. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  15. Developmental Physical Education Accountability; Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Barbara; Sandeen, Cecile

    Presented in the first of a two volume series is a developmental physical education checklist which provides teachers of trainable mentally retarded students with a permanent and accountable record of pupil progress and needs. The checklist is intended to be used with the accompanying volume of curricular activities in a nongraded enviroment for…

  16. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  17. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I

    1991-01-01

    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  18. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  19. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The third volume of this 4-volume report contains the last two speeches, on educational philosophy and the role of reason in society, from the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research (preceding speeches are in Vol. II, SP 003 901), reports on conferences on the culture of schools held in Pittsburgh and…

  20. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The first volume of this 4-volume report presents the basic rationale for an anthropological and cross-cultural approach to education, abstracts of 14 research projects sponsored by the American Anthropological Association, a proposal for the establishment of a Research Center for Anthropology and Education to be coordinated by the Association, a…

  1. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.;

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  2. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  3. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  4. New Trends in Mathematics Teaching, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H. G., Ed.; Christiansen, Bent, Ed.

    This volume is largely based upon the preparation for and proceedings of the Third International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME) held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, in August 1976. The volume deals with 13 broad themes of general educational interest for mathematics teachers and educators. Six of these themes divided the…

  5. Volume of a doubly truncated hyperbolic tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Kolpakov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The present paper regards the volume function of a doubly truncated hyperbolic tetrahedron. Starting from the previous results of J. Murakami, U. Yano and A. Ushijima, we have developed a unified approach to expressing the volume in different geometric cases by dilogarithm functions and to treat properly the many analytic strata of the latter. Finally, several numeric examples are given.

  6. Simultaneous determination of extracellular volume and blood volume with the Volemetron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, B.A. de; Geyskes, C.G.; Dongen, R. van; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    A new instrument, the “Volemetron”***, constructed to measure blood volume with radioactive isotopes, was adapted to determine 82Br distribution volume. Details of the technique arc given. Mean values of both RISA and 82Br distribution volume in normal men and women were determined. They were in

  7. Assessment of liver volume with spiral computerized tomography scanning: predicting liver volume by age and height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Liver volume is a reliable index of liver size and measurement of liver volume with spiral CT is useful method. Spiral CT can be utilized for measurement of liver volume for such purpose. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3020-3023

  8. Blunted autonomic response to volume expansion in formerly preeclamptic women with low plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, I.; Courtar, D.A.; Janssen, B.J.; Aardenburg, R.; Peeters, L.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women reflects reduced venous storage capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared circulatory and autonomic responses to acute volume loading between women with low and those with normal plasma volume. METHODS:

  9. [Volume replenishment in haemorrhage: caution advised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooter, Albertus J; Zweegman, Sonja; Smulders, Yvo M

    2011-01-01

    Acute haemorrhage is a frequent problem in medicine. Patients with acute bleeding may present with signs of hypotension and reduced organ perfusion. The physician's reflex action is often to treat such patients with intravenous volume replenishment using colloid or cristalloid liquids. Intravenous volume replenishment has, however, a downside: it increases the tendency to bleed and therefore can increase blood loss. Previous clinical observations and experimental animal and human studies addressing volume replenishment in haemorrhagic shock have repeatedly shown that accepting hypotension favourably affects prognosis. However, relevant practice guidelines, such as for gastrointestinal bleeding, usually advise liberal intravenous volume replenishment if hypotension is present. In this article we advocate caution when considering intravenous blood volume adjustment in haemorrhage.

  10. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  11. Development of limb volume measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  12. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  13. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  14. Lake volume monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétaux, Jean-Francois; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Arsen, Adalbert; Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are integrator of environmental changes occurring at regional to global scale and present a high variety of behaviors on a variety of time scales (cyclic and secular) depending on the climate conditions and their morphology. In addition their crucial importance as water stocks and retaining, given the significant environment changes occurring worldwide at many anthropocentric levels, has increased the necessity of monitoring all its morphodynamics characteristics, say water level, surface (water contour) and volume. The satellite altimetry and satellite imagery together are now widely used for the calculation of lakes and reservoirs water storage changes worldwide. However strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward and need development of specific approaches. We intend to present a review of some of these methodologies by using the lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked with the survey of climate changes impacts on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variations using the short period of remote sensing measurements available, although time series are probably too short to lead to definitive conclusions to link these results directly with the framework of climate changes. Indeed, many processes beyond the observations are still uncertain, for example the influence of morphology of the lakes. The time response for a lake to reach new state of equilibrium is one of the key aspects often neglected in the current literature. Observations over long period of time, therein maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with a continuity of services over decades, especially when ground gauges network is too limited is therefore a necessity. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g. SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) is

  15. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  16. Pituitary volume in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalci, Sukru; Dogan, Metin; Unal, Suheyla; Ozcan, A Cemal; Ozdemir, Serdal; Atmaca, Murad

    2011-01-15

    Panic patients have many functional deficiencies in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have shown changed pituitary gland volume in some psychiatric disorders that have functional deficiencies in the HPA axis. However, to date no study has evaluated the pituitary gland volume in patients with panic disorder (PD). We investigated the pituitary gland volume in patients with PD (n=27) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27), using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging in this study. Analysis showed that patients with PD had significantly smaller pituitary volume compared to healthy subjects. Patients with agoraphobia especially had a significantly smaller pituitary volume than patients without agoraphobia. There was a significant relationship between the pituitary volume and both the severity of symptoms and the illness duration in the patient group. The results show that patients with PD have reduced pituitary volume, which may reflect the functional abnormalities seen in this disorder. These findings may help us better understand the pathology of PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Volume of intersection of two cones

    CERN Document Server

    Balogun, F A; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    Radiation measurements utilising collimated source and detector systems invariably result in a target volume described by the overlap of their fields of view. When these collimators are cylindrical, this is derived from the volume of intersection of two cones. In general, analysis of this volume does not lend itself to a direct analytical process. Here, numerical methods of estimating the common volume of two intersecting right cones are presented. These include methods which employ, (a) a sequential scanning of an elemental volume with a predetermined size across a defined space containing the volume of interest and (b) a Monte Carlo technique. The accuracy obtainable and the execution time in the first type of algorithm depend on the size of the elemental volume (bin-size). On the other hand, these two parameters are independent of the bin-size but dependent on the number of histories sampled, for the Monte Carlo technique. At 0 deg. angle of inclination, where an analytical estimation is easily obtained, t...

  18. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  19. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  20. Computer-assisted venous thrombosis volume quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Dhibi, Mounir; Bressollette, Luc; Guias, Bruno; Solaiman, Basel

    2009-03-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) volume assessment, by verifying its risk of progression when anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapies are prescribed, is often necessary to screen life-threatening complications. Commonly, VT volume estimation is done by manual delineation of few contours in the ultrasound (US) image sequence, assuming that the VT has a regular shape and constant radius, thus producing significant errors. This paper presents and evaluates a comprehensive functional approach based on the combination of robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contours to calculate VT volume in a more accurate manner when applied to freehand 2-D US image sequences. Robust anisotropic filtering reduces image speckle noise without generating incoherent edge discontinuities. Prior knowledge of the VT shape allows initializing the deformable contour, which is then guided by the noise-filtering outcome. Segmented contours are subsequently used to calculate VT volume. The proposed approach is integrated into a system prototype compatible with existing clinical US machines that additionally tracks the acquired images 3-D position and provides a dense Delaunay triangulation required for volume calculation. A predefined robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contour parameter set enhances the system usability. Experimental results pertinence is assessed by comparison with manual and tetrahedron-based volume computations, using images acquired by two medical experts of eight plastic phantoms and eight in vitro VTs, whose independently measured volume is the reference ground truth. Results show a mean difference between 16 and 35 mm(3) for volumes that vary from 655 to 2826 mm(3). Two in vivo VT volumes are also calculated to illustrate how this approach could be applied in clinical conditions when the real value is unknown. Comparative results for the two experts differ from 1.2% to 10.08% of the smallest estimated value when the image acquisition cadences are similar.

  1. Areas and volumes for null cones

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, James D E

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent work of Choquet-Bruhat, Chrusciel, and Martin-Garcia, we prove monotonicity properties and comparison results for the area of slices of the null cone of a point in a Lorentzian manifold. We also prove volume comparison results for subsets of the null cone analogous to the Bishop-Gromov relative volume monotonicity theorem and Guenther's volume comparison theorem. We briefly discuss how these estimates may be used to control the null second fundamental form of slices of the null cone in Ricci-flat Lorentzian four-manifolds with null curvature bounded above.

  2. Swept Volume Parameterization for Isogeometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, M.; Heinrich, C.; Jüttler, B.; Pilgerstorfer, E.; Simeon, B.; Vuong, A.-V.

    Isogeometric Analysis uses NURBS representations of the domain for performing numerical simulations. The first part of this paper presents a variational framework for generating NURBS parameterizations of swept volumes. The class of these volumes covers a number of interesting free-form shapes, such as blades of turbines and propellers, ship hulls or wings of airplanes. The second part of the paper reports the results of isogeometric analysis which were obtained with the help of the generated NURBS volume parameterizations. In particular we discuss the influence of the chosen parameterization and the incorporation of boundary conditions.

  3. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  4. Quantum mechanics two volumes bound as one

    CERN Document Server

    Messiah, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ""Strongly recommended"" by the American Journal of Physics, this volume serves as a text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics as well as a reference for professionals. Clear in its presentation and scrupulous in its attention to detail, the treatment originally appeared in a two-volume French edition. This convenient single-volume translation begins with formalism and its interpretation, starting with the origins of quantum theory and examinations of matter waves and the Schrödinger equation, one-dimensional quantized systems, the uncertainty relations, and the mathema

  5. Sandia Software Guidelines, Volume 2. Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standards for software documentation, this volume provides guidance in the selection of an adequate document set for a software project and example formats for many types of software documentation. A tutorial on life cycle documentation is also provided. Extended document thematic outlines and working examples of software documents are available on electronic media as an extension of this volume.

  6. Enhanced performance large volume dissolution-DNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the performance of the dissolution process in dissolution-DNP is presented. A relatively simple set of modifications is made to the standard Hypersense dissolution system to enable polarization of large volume samples. These consist of a large volume sample cup along...... with supporting modifications to the dissolution head and related components. Additional modifications were made to support the mapping of the temperature/pressure space of the dissolution process as well as enabling the use of large volumes of solvent and improving the robustness of the system. No loss...

  7. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  8. Combinatorics of Link Diagrams and Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Giambrone, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We show that the volumes of certain hyperbolic A-adequate links can be bounded (above and) below in terms of two diagrammatic quantities: the twist number and the number of certain alternating tangles in an A-adequate diagram. We then restrict our attention to plat closures of certain braids, a rich family of links whose volumes can be bounded in terms of the twist number alone. Furthermore, in the absence of special tangles, our volume bounds can be expressed in terms of a single stable coef...

  9. Perennial snow and ice volumes on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, estimated with ice radar and volume modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, Dennis C.

    1999-01-01

    The volume of four of the largest glaciers on Iliamna Volcano was estimated using the volume model developed for evaluating glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano. The volume model is controlled by simulated valley cross sections that are constructed by fitting third-order polynomials to the shape of the valley walls exposed above the glacier surface. Critical cross sections were field checked by sounding with ice-penetrating radar during July 1998. The estimated volumes of perennial snow and glacier ice for Tuxedni, Lateral, Red, and Umbrella Glaciers are 8.6, 0.85, 4.7, and 0.60 cubic kilometers respectively. The estimated volume of snow and ice on the upper 1,000 meters of the volcano is about 1 cubic kilometer. The volume estimates are thought to have errors of no more than ?25 percent. The volumes estimated for the four largest glaciers are more than three times the total volume of snow and ice on Mount Rainier and about 82 times the total volume of snow and ice that was on Mount St. Helens before its May 18, 1980 eruption. Volcanoes mantled by substantial snow and ice covers have produced the largest and most catastrophic lahars and floods. Therefore, it is prudent to expect that, during an eruptive episode, flooding and lahars threaten all of the drainages heading on Iliamna Volcano. On the other hand, debris avalanches can happen any time. Fortunately, their influence is generally limited to the area within a few kilometers of the summit.

  10. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  11. Front Matter: Volume 1 (Proceedings of CBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  12. Front Matter: Volume 3 (Proceedings of CBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  13. Slurry combustion. Volume 2: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: coal analyses and slurryability characteristics; listings of programs used to call and file experimental data, and to reduce data in enthalpy and efficiency calculations; and tabulated data sets.

  14. Measured and Calculated Volumes of Wetland Depressions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Measured and calculated volumes of wetland depressions This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, Q., and C. Lane. Delineation and quantification...

  15. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-12

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  18. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  19. Visibility-Aware Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai-Ho Mak; Yingcai Wu; Ming-Yuen Chan; Huamin Qu

    2011-01-01

    Direct volume rendering (DVR) is a powerful visualization technique which allows users to effectively explore and study volumetric datasets. Different transparency settings can be flexibly assigned to different structures such that some valuable information can be revealed in direct volume rendered images (DVRIs). However, end-users often feel that some risks are always associated with DVR because they do not know whether any important information is missing from the transparent regions of DVRIs. In this paper, we investigate how to semi-automatically generate a set of DVRIs and also an animation which can reveal information missed in the original DVRIs and meanwhile satisfy some image quality criteria such as coherence. A complete framework is developed to tackle various problems related to the generation and quality evaluation of visibility-aware DVRIs and animations. Our technique can reduce the risk of using direct volume rendering and thus boost the confidence of users in volume rendering systems.

  20. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  1. On the volume inside old black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1+1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  2. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic; S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker; D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn; Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpi

  3. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34549072X; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/286852071; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344497569; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811432; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250566370; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142348228; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271562161; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hi

  4. Machine learning of Calabi-Yau volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefl, Daniel; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2017-09-01

    We employ machine learning techniques to investigate the volume minimum of Sasaki-Einstein base manifolds of noncompact toric Calabi-Yau three-folds. We find that the minimum volume can be approximated via a second-order multiple linear regression on standard topological quantities obtained from the corresponding toric diagram. The approximation improves further after invoking a convolutional neural network with the full toric diagram of the Calabi-Yau three-folds as the input. We are thereby able to circumvent any minimization procedure that was previously necessary and find an explicit mapping between the minimum volume and the topological quantities of the toric diagram. Under the AdS/CFT correspondence, the minimum volumes of Sasaki-Einstein manifolds correspond to central charges of a class of 4 d N =1 superconformal field theories. We therefore find empirical evidence for a function that gives values of central charges without the usual extremization procedure.

  5. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic; S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker; D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn; Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpi

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  7. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  8. Influence of Bulla Volume on Postbullectomy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the contribution of the resected volume and the presence of associated, functionally significant emphysema to the postoperative improvement of pulmonary function after resection of giant lung bullae.

  9. USCIS National Processing Volumes and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset provides the public with a comparison of form processing volumes and trend data for specific form types and offices with national levels. This gives the...

  10. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    6 pages, 2 figures, 18 references. Published in proceedings of Colloque EDP-Normandie held at Caen (France), on 28 & 29 October 2010. Other author papers can be dowloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh/; Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the m...

  11. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the method to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given to important nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves interactions.

  12. Prediction of Overpressure from Finite Volume Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramamurthi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tri-nitro toluene (TNT equivalence is not a good criterion for evaluating the practically encounted nonideal blast waves during ignition and in explosion-safety problems. A theoretical model which shows the trends related to the effects of source volume and energy time release on blast wave strength is discussed. A slower energy release and a larger source volume are shown to be necessary to reduce the blast effects.

  13. Nuclear Employment Planning. Volume 4. Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    3398 t• DNA-TR-90-33-V4 Nuclear Employment Planning OIPU EWE COPY Volume IV-Data Dictionary Donald W. Doerfler D TIC Lowry A. West ELECTE Debora R...DNA 001 -88-C-0068 Volume IV--Data Dictionary PE 62715HPR - RW 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - RN Donald W. Doerfler , Lowry A. West, WU - DH042980 Debora R. Gleason

  14. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    Volume II of this 4-volume report contains the second half of a report on the Conference on the Culture of Schools held at Greystone, New York, (the first half of the conference report appears in Vol. I, SP 003 900), and the first part of a report on the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research in 1966. (The…

  15. Optimizing Crystal Volume for Neutron Diffraction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    For structural studies with neutron diffraction more intense neutron sources, improved sensitivity detector and larger volume crystals are all means by which the science is being advanced to enable studies on a wider range of samples. We have chosen a simplistic approach using a well understood crystallization method, with minimal amounts of sample and using design of experiment techniques to maximize the crystal volume all for minimum effort. Examples of the application are given.

  16. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  17. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  18. Product formulas for volumes of flow polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Meszaros, Karola

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the product formula prod_{i=1}^{n-2} C_i for the volume of the Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytope CRY_n, where C_i is the ith Catalan number, we construct a family of polytopes P_{m,n}, whose volumes are given by the product \\prod_{i=m+1}^{m+n-2}\\frac{1}{2i+1}{{m+n+i} \\choose {2i}}. The Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytope CRY_n coincides with P_{0,n-1}. Our construction of the polytopes P_{m,n} is an application of a systematic method we develop for expressing volumes of a class of flow polytopes as the number of certain triangular arrays. This method can also be used as a heuristic technique for constructing polytopes with combinatorial volumes. As an illustration of this we construct polytopes whose volumes equal the number of r-ary trees on n internal nodes, \\frac{1}{(r-1)n+1} {{rn} \\choose n}. Using triangular arrays we also express the volumes of flow polytopes as constant terms of formal Laurent series.

  19. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  1. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  2. Data collection system. Volume 1, Overview and operators manual; Volume 2, Maintenance manual; Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, R.B.; Bauder, M.E.; Boyer, W.B.; French, R.E.; Isidoro, R.J.; Kaestner, P.C.; Perkins, W.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Instrumentation Development Department was tasked by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) to record data on Tektronix RTD720 Digitizers on the HUNTERS TROPHY field test conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on September 18, 1992. This report contains a overview and description of the computer hardware and software that was used to acquire, reduce, and display the data. The document is divided into two volumes: an overview and operators manual (Volume 1) and a maintenance manual (Volume 2).

  3. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  4. Accurate monitoring of intravascular fluid volume: A novel application of intrathoracic impedance measures for the guidance of volume reduction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Lara

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Impedance vectors derived from a multivector monitoring system reflect changes in intravascular plasma volume. Two of these vectors most closely track changes in plasma volume and may be used to more accurately guide and optimize volume reduction therapy.

  5. Hippocampal subfield volumes in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B; Passos, I C; Mwangi, B; Amaral-Silva, H; Tannous, J; Wu, M-J; Zunta-Soares, G B; Soares, J C

    2017-01-24

    Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the link between the in vivo hippocampal subfield volumes and specific mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we used a state-of-the-art hippocampal segmentation approach, and we found that patients with BD had reduced volumes of hippocampal subfields, specifically in the left CA4, GCL, ML and both sides of the hippocampal tail, compared with healthy subjects and patients with MDD. The volume reduction was especially severe in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). We also demonstrated that hippocampal subfield volume reduction was associated with the progression of the illness. For patients with BD-I, the volumes of the right CA1, ML and Sub decreased as the illness duration increased, and the volumes of both sides of the CA2/3, CA4 and hippocampal tail had negative correlations with the number of manic episodes. These results indicated that among the mood disorders the hippocampal subfields were more affected in BD-I compared with BD-II and MDD, and manic episodes had focused progressive effect on the CA2/3 and CA4 and hippocampal tail.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.262.

  6. Compressed sensing real-time cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance: accurate assessment of left ventricular function in a single-breath-hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Tomoyuki; Kido, Teruhito; Nakamura, Masashi; Watanabe, Kouki; Schmidt, Michaela; Forman, Christoph; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2016-08-24

    Cardiovascular cine magnetic resonance (CMR) accelerated by compressed sensing (CS) is used to assess left ventricular (LV) function. However, it is difficult for prospective CS cine CMR to capture the complete end-diastolic phase, which can lead to underestimation of the end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF), compared to retrospective standard cine CMR. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic quality and accuracy of single-breath-hold full cardiac cycle CS cine CMR, acquired over two heart beats, to quantify LV volume in comparison to multi-breath-hold standard cine CMR. Eighty-one participants underwent standard segmented breath-hold cine and CS real-time cine CMR examinations to obtain a stack of eight contiguous short-axis images with same high spatial (1.7 × 1.7 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (41 ms). Two radiologists independently performed qualitative analysis of image quality (score, 1 [i.e., "nondiagnostic"] to 5 [i.e., "excellent"]) and quantitative analysis of the LV volume measurements. The total examination time was 113 ± 7 s for standard cine CMR and 24 ± 4 s for CS cine CMR (p cine image quality was slightly lower than standard cine (4.8 ± 0.5 for standard vs. 4.4 ± 0.5 for CS; p cine were above 4 (i.e., good). No significant differences existed between standard and CS cine MR for all quantitative LV measurements. The mean differences with 95 % confidence interval (CI), based on Bland-Altman analysis, were 1.3 mL (95 % CI, -14.6 - 17.2) for LV end-diastolic volume, 0.2 mL (95 % CI, -9.8 to10.3) for LV end-systolic volume, 1.1 mL (95 % CI, -10.5 to 12.7) for LV stroke volume, 1.0 g (95 % CI, -11.2 to 13.3) for LV mass, and 0.4 % (95 % CI, -4.8 - 5.6) for LV ejection fraction. The interobserver and intraobserver variability for CS cine MR ranged from -4.8 - 1.6 % and from -7.3 - 9.3 %, respectively, with slopes of the regressions ranging 0.88-1.0 and 0

  7. Photoexcitation of volume plasmons in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhold, Katja; Goesele, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Christiansen, Silke [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It has long been known that a vanishing permittivity enables longitudinal electromagnetic waves. The corresponding collective eigenmodes called volume plasmons should not be dipole excitable in classical electrodynamics. Thus, the typical volume modes are known to be excitable via particle beams solely. We investigated typical scattering problems for an incident plane wave determined via the Helmholtz-equation which can be solved analytically for special geometries. The analytical solution for a spherical scatterer by Gustav Mie was extended to spherical core-shell structures by Aden. Remarkably, in the case of metallic nanoshell structures the Mie extinction efficiencies have a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency corresponding to the photoexcitation of a volume plasmon. This volume mode is independent of both the shell's aspect ratio and the core material. For explanation we present a simple physical picture which is supported by analytical examples on silver and gold shells. Additionally we use finite element simulations to show a potpourri of particles which likewise enable the photoexcitation of volume modes.

  8. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Partial Volume Correction in Quantitative Amyloid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Aldea, Patricia; Cash, Lisa; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam M.; Klunk, William; Price, Julie C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Schofield, Peter R.; Buckles, Virginia; Morris, John C.; Benzinger, Tammie. LS.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in dementing disorders. As positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have limited spatial resolution, measured signals are distorted by partial volume effects. Various techniques have been proposed for correcting partial volume effects, but there is no consensus as to whether these techniques are necessary in amyloid imaging, and, if so, how they should be implemented. We evaluated a two-component partial volume correction technique and a regional spread function technique using both simulated and human Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging data. Both correction techniques compensated for partial volume effects and yielded improved detection of subtle changes in PiB retention. However, the regional spread function technique was more accurate in application to simulated data. Because PiB retention estimates depend on the correction technique, standardization is necessary to compare results across groups. Partial volume correction has sometimes been avoided because it increases the sensitivity to inaccuracy in image registration and segmentation. However, our results indicate that appropriate PVC may enhance our ability to detect changes in amyloid deposition. PMID:25485714

  10. Morphological and Functional Measurements of the Heart Obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Brazilians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Robson, E-mail: robmacedo@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Fernandes, Juliano Lara [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Solange Souza; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, Kênio Costa; Maciel, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Maciel, Fernanda Cunha; Alves, Geraldo Souza Pinho [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil); Coelho, Otávio Rizzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Rosiane Viana Zuza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Still today, measurements used as a reference in the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have been obtained mainly from studies carried out in North-American and European populations. To obtain measurements of the diastolic diameter, systolic diameter, end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass of the left and right ventricles in Brazilians. 54 men and 53 women, with mean age of 43.4 ± 13.1 years, asymptomatic, with no cardiomyopathies, have been subjected to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, using a balanced steady state free precession technique. The averages and the standard deviations of the parameters for the left ventricle have been: diastolic diameter =4.8 ± 0.5 cm; systolic diameter = 3.0 ± 0.6 cm; end diastolic volume = 128.4 ± 29.6 mL; end systolic volume = 45.2 ± 16.6 mL; ejection fraction = 65.5 ± 6.3%; mass = 95.2 ± 30.8 g. For the right ventricle, they have been: diastolic diameter = 3.9 ± 1.3 cm; systolic diameter = 2.5 ± 0.5 cm; end diastolic volume = 126.5 ± 30.7 mL; end systolic volume = 53.6 ± 18.4 mL; ejection fraction = 58.3 ± 8.0%, and mass = 26.1 ± 6.1 g. The masses and the volumes were significantly greater in the men, except for the end systolic volume of the left ventricle. The ejection fraction of the right ventricle has been significantly greater in the women. There has been a significant and inverted correlation of the systolic volume of the right volume with the progression of the age. This study has described, for the first time, cardiac measurements obtained through the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Brazilians, asymptomatic, with no cardiomyopathies, showing differences in accordance with gender and age.

  11. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at...

  12. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model Description. Volume II. User Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    TESI CHART NATIONAI RUREAt (F ANDA[)Rt 1V4 A NATIONAL. AVIATION ~ FUEL SCENARIO.. ANALYSIS PROGRAM 49!! VOLUM I: MODEL DESCRIA~v 4<C VOLUME II: tr)ER...executes post processor which translates results of the graphics program to machine readable code used by the pen plotter) cr (depressing the carriage

  13. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...

  14. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information…

  15. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    not only under physiological conditions, e.g. following accumulation of nutrients, during epithelial absorption/secretion processes, following hormonal/autocrine stimulation, and during induction of apoptosis, but also under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. hypoxia, ischaemia and hyponatremia....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...... are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize...

  16. Noether charge, black hole volume and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Couch, Josiah; Nguyen, Phuc H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the physical significance of the thermodynamic volumes of black holes along two different, but complementary, directions. In the first half of the paper, we make use of the Iyer-Wald charge formalism to compute the volume of a particularly hairy black hole. Our computation clarifies and explains existing results, and serves as a prototype for computations of this kind for complicated black hole solutions. In the second half of the paper, we establish a connection between the extended thermodynamics and the Brown et al's "complexity=action" proposal. We show that, in a broad class of AdS black holes, the thermodynamic volume arises as the late-time rate of growth of the bulk action evaluated on the Wheeler-deWitt patch.

  17. CMH-17 Volume 5 Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrulonis, Rachael; Kiser, J. Douglas; David, Kaia E.; Davies, Curtis; Ashforth, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of issues must be addressed during the process of certifying CMC (ceramic matrix composite) components for use in commercial aircraft. The Composite Materials Handbook-17, Volume 5, Revision A on ceramic matrix composites has just been revised to help support FAA certification of CMCs for elevated temperature applications. The handbook supports the development and use of CMCs through publishing and maintaining proven, reliable engineering information and standards that have been thoroughly reviewed. Volume 5 contains detailed sections describing CMC materials processing, design analysis guidelines, testing procedures, and data analysis and acceptance. A review of the content of this latest revision will be presented along with a description of how CMH-17, Volume 5 could be used by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and others in the future.

  18. Transformation Volume Effects on Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kosogor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the martensitic transformations (MTs in the shape memory alloys (SMAs are mainly characterized by the shear deformation of the crystal lattice that arises in the course of MT, while a comparatively small volume change during MT is considered as the secondary effect, which can be disregarded when the basic characteristics of MTs and functional properties of SMAs are analyzed. This point of view is a subject to change nowadays due to the new experimental and theoretical findings. The present article elucidates (i the newly observed physical phenomena in different SMAs in their relation to the volume effect of MT; (ii the theoretical analysis of the aforementioned volume-related phenomena.

  19. Volume Hologram Formation in SU-8 Photoresist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the mechanism of volume hologram formation in photosensitive polymers, light-induced material response is analyzed in commonly used epoxy-based negative photoresist Epon SU-8. For this purpose, time-resolved investigation of volume holographic grating growth is performed in the SU-8 based host–guest system and in the pure SU-8 material, respectively. The comparison of grating growth curves from doped and undoped system allows us to draw conclusions on the impact of individual components on the grating formation process. The successive formation of transient absorption as well as phase gratings in SU-8 is observed. Influence of exposure duration and UV flood cure on the grating growth are investigated. Observed volume holographic grating formation in SU-8 can be explained based on the generation and subsequent diffusion of photoacid as well as time-delayed polymerization of exposed and unexposed areas.

  20. Mass and Thermodynamic Volume in Lifshitz Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Wilson G; Park, Miok

    2015-01-01

    We examine the concept of black hole thermodynamic volume and its consistency with thermodynamic mass in spacetimes that are not asymptotically flat but instead have anisotropic Lifshitz scaling symmetry. We find that the generalized Smarr relation in anti de Sitter space -- extended to include a pressure-volume term -- holds here as well, and that there exists a definition of thermodynamic mass and thermodynamic volume that satisfy both this relation and the $1^{st}$ law of thermodynamics. We compare the thermodynamic mass with other known quantities such as ADM, Brown-York and Hollands-Ishibashi-Marolf masses. We also conjecture methods for obtaining a thermodynamic mass where there is ambiguity due to the cosmological constant lengthscale depending on the horizon radius lengthscale.

  1. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to diagnose and distinguish from each other. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Patients with PD and MSA and controls were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tissue...... segmentation and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases. RESULTS: Patients with PD had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICVs) and significantly smaller putaminal and sustantia nigra volumes than controls. MSA...... or compensatory responses to early CNS damage. Atrophy of the amygdala in MSA patients has not been demonstrated with MR before. It might explain why these patients can have hyposmia. The putaminal atrophy found in the PD group may be a trait of the later stages of PD. Segmentation of the substantia nigra can...

  2. Eight light flavors on large lattice volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Schaich, David

    2013-01-01

    I present first results from large-scale lattice investigations of SU(3) gauge theory with eight light flavors in the fundamental representation. Using leadership computing resources at Argonne, we are generating gauge configurations with lattice volumes up to $64^3\\times128$ at relatively strong coupling, in an attempt to access the chiral regime. We use nHYP-improved staggered fermions, carefully monitoring finite-volume effects and other systematics. Here I focus on analyses of the light hadron spectrum and chiral condensate, measured on lattice volumes up to $48^3\\times96$ with fermion masses as light as m=0.004 in lattice units. We find no clear indication of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in these observables. I discuss the implications of these initial results, and prospects for further physics projects employing these ensembles of gauge configurations.

  3. Analysis of Partial Volume Effects on Accurate Measurement of the Hippocampus Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam Hajiesmaeili; Jamshid Dehmeshki; Tim Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal volume loss is an important biomarker in distinguishing subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its measurement in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This paper describes a post-processing approach to quantify PVE for correction of the hippocampal volume by using a spatial fuzzyC-means (SFCM) method. The algorithm is evaluated on a dataset of 20 T1-weighted MRI scans sampled at two different resolutions. The corrected volumes for left and right hippocampus (HC) which are 23% and 18% for the low resolution and 6% and 5% for the high resolution datasets, respectively are lower than hippocampal volume results from manual segmentation. Results show the importance of applying this technique in AD detection with low resolution datasets.

  4. Estimating the volume of Alpine glacial lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.; Quincey, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Supraglacial, moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes represent a potential glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) threat to downstream communities in many mountain regions. This has motivated the development of empirical relationships to predict lake volume given a measurement of lake surface area obtained from satellite imagery. Such relationships are based on the notion that lake depth, area and volume scale predictably. We critically evaluate the performance of these existing empirical relationships by examining a global database of glacial lake depths, areas and volumes. Results show that lake area and depth are not always well correlated (r2 = 0.38) and that although lake volume and area are well correlated (r2 = 0.91), and indeed are auto-correlated, there are distinct outliers in the data set. These outliers represent situations where it may not be appropriate to apply existing empirical relationships to predict lake volume and include growing supraglacial lakes, glaciers that recede into basins with complex overdeepened morphologies or that have been deepened by intense erosion and lakes formed where glaciers advance across and block a main trunk valley. We use the compiled data set to develop a conceptual model of how the volumes of supraglacial ponds and lakes, moraine-dammed lakes and ice-dammed lakes should be expected to evolve with increasing area. Although a large amount of bathymetric data exist for moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes, we suggest that further measurements of growing supraglacial ponds and lakes are needed to better understand their development.

  5. Volume strain within the Geysers geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossop, Antony [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Segall, Paul [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    1999-12-10

    During the 1970s and 1980s. The Geysers geothermal region was rapidly developed as a site of geothermal power production. The likelihood that this could cause significant strain within the reservoir, with corresponding surface displacements, led to a series of deformation monitoring surveys. In 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1980, The Geysers region was surveyed using first-order, class I, spirit leveling. In 1994, 1995, and 1996, many of the leveling control monuments were resurveyed using high-precision Global Positioning System receivers. The two survey methods are reconciled using the GEOID96 geoid model. The displacements are inverted to determine volume strain within the reservoir. For the period 1980-1994, peak volume strains in excess of 5x10{sup -4} are imaged. There is an excellent correlation between the observed changes in reservoir steam pressures and the imaged volume strain. If reservoir pressure changes are inducing volume strain, then the reservoir quasi-static bulk modulus K must be <4.6x10{sup 9} Pa. However, seismic velocities indicate a much stiffer reservoir with K=3.4x10{sup 10} Pa. This apparent discrepancy is shown to be consistent with predicted frequency dependence in K for fractured and water-saturated rock. Inversion of surface deformation data therefore appears to be a powerful method for imaging pressure change within the body of the reservoir. Correlation between induced seismicity at The Geysers and volume strain is observed. However, earthquake distribution does not appear to have a simple relationship with volume strain rate. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  6. Computer vision technology in log volume inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Log volume inspection is very important in forestry research and paper making engineering. This paper proposed a novel approach based on computer vision technology to cope with log volume inspection. The needed hardware system was analyzed and the details of the inspection algorithms were given. A fuzzy entropy based on image enhancement algorithm was presented for enhancing the image of the cross-section of log. In many practical applications the cross-section is often partially invisible, and this is the major obstacle for correct inspection. To solve this problem, a robust Hausdorff distance method was proposed to recover the whole cross-section. Experiment results showed that this method was efficient.

  7. PROMIS series. Volume 8: Midlatitude ground magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    This is the eighth in a series of volumes pertaining to the Polar Region Outer Magnetosphere International Study (PROMIS). This volume contains 24 hour stack plots of 1-minute average, H and D component, ground magnetograms for the period March 10 through June 16, 1986. Nine midlatitude ground stations were selected from the UCLA magnetogram data base that was constructed from all available digitized magnetogram stations. The primary purpose of this publication is to allow users to define universal times and onset longitudes of magnetospheric substorms.

  8. A volume scanner for diffuse imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Elham; Roberts, Nicolas; Sharafutdinova, Galiya; Holdsworth, John

    2016-11-01

    Non-invasive optical screening mammography has a significant barrier in the extreme scatter of human tissue at optical wavelengths. A volume scanner suited for high numerical aperture capture of scattered light from diffuse media has been designed, modelled using Trace Pro software and experimentally constructed. Modelling results indicate the presence of an embedded volume with different scatter properties from the bulk yields a measurable difference in the overall scatter pattern and intensity recorded. Work towards a full tomographic reconstruction from scattered light recorded on the two dimensional array detector is currently underway.

  9. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus release within the soil matrix caused by the changed redox conditions due to re-establishment of a riparian wetland can be critical for the aquatic environment. However, phosphorous released in the soil will not always result in an immediate contribution to this loss to the aquatic...... is not actively transported out of the system, but is only transported via diffusion, which is a very slow process. Thus it is interesting to investigate the size of the active pore volume in peat soils. The hypothesis of this study is that the active pores volume of a peat soil can be expressed using bulk...

  10. Superstring Theory 2 Volume Hardback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael B.; Schwarz, John H.; Witten, Edward

    2012-07-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Free bosonic strings; 3. Modern covariant quantization; 4. World-sheet supersymmetry in string theory; 5. Space-time supersymmetry in string theory; 6. Nonabelian gauge symmetry; 7. Tree amplitudes; Bibliography; Index; Volume 2: Preface; 8. One-loop diagrams in the bosonic string theory; 9. One-loop diagrams in superstring theory; 10. The gauge anomaly in type I superstring theory; 11. Functional methods in the light-cone gauge; 12. Some differential geometry; 13. Low-energy effective action; 14. Compactification of higher dimensions; 15. Some algebraic geometry; 16. Models of low-energy supersymmetry; Bibliography; Index.

  11. Excluded-Volume Approximation for Supernova Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yudin, A V

    2014-01-01

    A general scheme of the excluded-volume approximation as applied to multicomponent systems with an arbitrary degree of degeneracy has been developed. This scheme also admits an allowance for additional interactions between the components of a system. A specific form of the excluded-volume approximation for investigating supernova matter at subnuclear densities has been found from comparison with the hard-sphere model. The possibility of describing the phase transition to uniform nuclear matter in terms of the formalism under consideration is discussed.

  12. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  13. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  14. Generalized functions, volume 1 properties and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Gel′fand, I M

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. Volume 1

  15. Account of Nuclear Scattering at Volume Reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenco, M V

    2011-01-01

    For a particle traversing a bent crystal in the regime of volume reflection we evaluate the probability of interaction with atomic nuclei. Regardless of the continuous potential shape, this probability is found to differ from the corresponding value in an amorphous target by an amount proportional to the crystal bending radius, and the particle deflection angle. Based on this result, we evaluate the rate of inelastic nuclear interactions, and the final beam angular dispersion due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experiments. The impact of multiple Coulomb scattering on the mean volume reflection angle is also discussed.

  16. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  17. Verification of aerial photo stand volume tables for southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore S. Setzer; Bert R. Mead

    1988-01-01

    Aerial photo volume tables are used in the multilevel sampling system of Alaska Forest Inventory and Analysis. These volume tables are presented with a description of the data base and methods used to construct the tables. Volume estimates compiled from the aerial photo stand volume tables and associated ground-measured values are compared and evaluated.

  18. The Differential Equation Algorithm for General Deformed Swept Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪国平; 华宣积; 孙家广

    2000-01-01

    The differential equation approach for characterizing swept volume boundaries is extended to include objects experiencing deformation. For deformed swept volume, it is found that the structure and algorithm of sweep-envelope differential equation (SEDE) are similar between the deformed and the rigid swept volumes. The efficiency of SEDE approach for deformed swept volume is proved with an example.

  19. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a representative volume? 197... a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from... Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume. The DOE must then use...

  20. Surface and Volume Grid Generation in Parametric Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzuyi; Soni, Bharat K.; Benjamin, Ted; Williams, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The algorithm for surface modeling and volume grid generation using parametric Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) geometric representation are presented. The enhanced re-parameterization algorithm which can yield a desired physical distribution on the curve, surface, and volume is also presented. This approach bridges the gap between computer aided design surface/volume definition and surface/volume grid generation.

  1. Exponential reduction of finite volume effects with twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Cherman, Aleksey; Wagman, Michael L; Yaffe, Laurence G

    2016-01-01

    Flavor-twisted boundary conditions can be used for exponential reduction of finite volume artifacts in flavor-averaged observables in lattice QCD calculations with $SU(N_f)$ light quark flavor symmetry. Finite volume artifact reduction arises from destructive interference effects in a manner closely related to the phase averaging which leads to large $N_c$ volume independence. With a particular choice of flavor-twisted boundary conditions, finite volume artifacts for flavor-singlet observables in a hypercubic spacetime volume are reduced to the size of finite volume artifacts in a spacetime volume with periodic boundary conditions that is four times larger.

  2. Federal Logistics Information System. FLIS Procedures Manual Publications. Volume 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    4,5,7,15 dress Code DEMIL Demilitarization 4,15 DoDAAD Department of De- fense Activity Ad- DESC Defense Electronics 2,14 dress Dictionary Supply Center...Supply 2.14 DoDAAC Department of De- Center fense Activity Ad- dress Code iv CH 2 DoD 4100.39-M Volume 15 Volume(s) Volume(s) DoDAAD Department of De

  3. COMPUTERS IN INFORMATION SCIENCES, VOLUME 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unclassified and unlimited bibliography compiles references dealing specifically with the role of computers in information sciences . The volume contains 239 annotated references grouped under three major headings: Artificial and Programming Languages, Computer Processing of Analog Data, and Computer Processing of Digital Data. The references

  4. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  5. Equipment for the Disabled. Volumes 1 - 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshere, E. Rosamond, Comp.

    Four volumes of equipment for the disabled which can simplify their lives and those who live with them are presented. The authors have not included surgical, medical, therapeutic, corrective or gymnastic equipment in the publication. Voume one includes house adaptations and planning, beds and bed accessories, chairs, and wheelchairs and…

  6. Vector Volume Flow in Arteriovenous Fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Heerwagen, Søren; Pedersen, Mads Møller;

    2013-01-01

    , but is very challenging due to the angle dependency of the Doppler technique and the anatomy of the fistula. The angle independent vector ultrasound technique Transverse Oscillation provides a new and more intuitive way to measure volume flow in an arteriovenous fistula. In this paper the Transverse...

  7. Jail Removal Cost Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    This second volume of the jail removal cost study provides a detailed report of the study findings which examine the costs, experiences, and ramifications of removing children from adult jails and lockups. The foreword supplies background information and hypothetical removal cost estimates. The approach used to conduct the jail removal cost study…

  8. Droplets for ultrasmall-volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Daniel T; Lorenz, Robert M; Jeffries, Gavin D M

    2009-07-01

    By using methods that permit the generation and manipulation of ultrasmall-volume droplets, researchers are pushing the boundaries of ultrasensitive chemical analyses. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry Web site at pubs.acs.org/ancham.).

  9. Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.

  10. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  11. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  12. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wyrick, Steve

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report for 2007 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  13. Control-volume representation of molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Heyes, D M; Dini, D; Zaki, T A

    2012-05-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) parallel to the control volume (CV) formulation of fluid mechanics is developed by integrating the formulas of Irving and Kirkwood [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 817 (1950)] over a finite cubic volume of molecular dimensions. The Lagrangian molecular system is expressed in terms of an Eulerian CV, which yields an equivalent to Reynolds' transport theorem for the discrete system. This approach casts the dynamics of the molecular system into a form that can be readily compared to the continuum equations. The MD equations of motion are reinterpreted in terms of a Lagrangian-to-control-volume (LCV) conversion function ϑ(i) for each molecule i. The LCV function and its spatial derivatives are used to express fluxes and relevant forces across the control surfaces. The relationship between the local pressures computed using the volume average [Lutsko, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1152 (1988)] techniques and the method of planes [Todd et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 1627 (1995)] emerges naturally from the treatment. Numerical experiments using the MD CV method are reported for equilibrium and nonequilibrium (start-up Couette flow) model liquids, which demonstrate the advantages of the formulation. The CV formulation of the MD is shown to be exactly conservative and is, therefore, ideally suited to obtain macroscopic properties from a discrete system.

  14. Speech Understanding Systems. Volume 5. Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    modeling, parsing, pattern recognition, phonetic labeling, phonetic segmentation, phonological rules, phonology , pragmatic grammar, pragmatics...extraction, acoustic- phonetic analysis of the signal, phonological expansion of the lexicon, lexical matching and retrieval, syntactic analysis and...used by the assistant. Because acoustic, phonetic or phonological knowledge have been covered elsewhere (Volumes 1-3), we will be focusing on so-called

  15. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  16. MITA Working Papers in Psycholinguistics, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsu, Yukio, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of working papers in psycholinguistics, from the "MITA Psycholinguistics Circle", contains the following articles: "Some Problems in the Acquisition of Derived Nouns" (Mika Endo); "World Knowledge in Children's Sentence Comprehension" (Yuki Hirose); "Examining the Including and Excluding Roles of Positive Evidence: A Study of a Case…

  17. Volume reduction through perturbative Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Margarita Garcia; Okawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    We derive the perturbative expansion of Wilson loops to order g^4 in a SU(N) lattice gauge theory with twisted boundary conditions. Our expressions show that the thermodynamic limit is attained at infinite N for any number of lattice sites and allow to quantify the deviations from volume independence at finite large N as a function of the twist.

  18. Transportation Cluster Volume 3 [Small Power Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is one of seven volumes of instructional materials developed around a cluster of Transportation Industries. Primarily technical in focus, they are designed to be used in a cluster-concept program and to integrate with a regular General Education Development (G.E.D.) program so that students may attain an employable skill level and a…

  19. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  20. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  1. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  2. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  3. Reading and Teaching the Novel, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Roslyn M., Ed.

    This volume on reading and teaching the novel contains six articles: "Close Reading: The Novel in the Senior School" by S. E. Lee discusses the advantages of rereading and analytical reading in high school; "Teaching 'The Great Gatsby'" by David Mallick discusses the difficulties of teaching this novel and provides a lesson plan; "The Operation of…

  4. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  5. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, H.H. (comp.)

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  6. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  7. Papers, Volume 2 1986-1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this Volume 2 of “Papers”, 20 papers published in 1986 - 1989 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my...

  8. Processes for an Architecture of Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcgee, Wes; Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses both the architectural, conceptual motivations and the tools and techniques necessary for the digital production of an architecture of volume. The robotic manufacturing techniques of shaping volumetric materials by hot wire and abrasive wire cutting are discussed through...

  9. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  10. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  11. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  12. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Van Eijk, Kristel R.; Van Erp, Theo G. M.; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; De Craen, Anton J. M.; De Geus, Eco J. C.; De Jager, Philip L.; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack Jr, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg=−0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:28098162

  13. FLES NEWS, Volume 5, 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLES NEWS, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Articles in the three Volume 5 issues of the National Network for Early Language Learning newsletter include: "Young Authors--A Double Success" (Carolyn Andrade); "Teacher Preparation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs" (Carol Ann Pesola); "Strategies in a Small School Setting: The Filley FLES Program"…

  14. Papers, Volume 1 1962-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this Volume 1 of “Papers”, 20 papers published from 1962 to 1985 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my...

  15. Ways to Environmental Education, Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    Four environmental education booklets presented in this document comprise the fourth volume of the environmental series developed by community groups around the Tallahassee Junior Museum and its pioneer farm. The focus of the document is on ways to environmental education. Part one presents a mini-history of Tallahassee, its origin, inhabitants,…

  16. Ways to Environmental Education, Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    Ten environmental education booklets presented in this document are the third volume of the environmental series developed by community groups around the Tallahassee Junior Museum and its Pioneer Farm. The first three booklets present an overview of the museum and of the various education programs and activities offered for students at the museum…

  17. Small volume hypermethylated DNA enrichment for epigenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Arpita; Sparreboom, Wouter; de Vreede, Lennart; de Vreede, L.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a small volume microfluidic chip for low concentration capture and elution of hypermethylated DNA (hmDNA) using solid-phase extraction. All steps of the assay have been qualitatively characterized using a real-time surface plasmon resoncance bionsensor. A caputre/elution effiency of 84%

  18. Resource Guide for Emotional Disabilities. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keystone Area Education, Elkader, IA.

    The first of a two volume series designed for teachers of students with emotional disabilities, this guide provides information on practical classroom techniques. The following topics are examined through article reprints, checklists, and discussion overviews (sample subtopics in parentheses): behavior management (management plans, intervention…

  19. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  20. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  1. Papers, Volume 1 1962-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this Volume 1 of “Papers”, 20 papers published from 1962 to 1985 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my...

  2. Papers, Volume 2 1986-1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this Volume 2 of “Papers”, 20 papers published in 1986 - 1989 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my re...

  3. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    .3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  4. 2013 BNL Site Environmental Report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.; Remien, J.; Pohlot, P.; Williams, J.; Green, T.; Paquette, P.; Dorsch, W.; Welty, T.; Burke, J.

    2014-10-01

    A summary of Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL) Site Environmental Report, meant to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance in the lab’s surrounding area during the calendar year. The review is comprised of multiple volumes relevant to environmental data/environmental management performance and groundwater status report.

  5. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  6. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, H.H. (comp.)

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  7. 7 CFR 984.49 - Volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 984.49 Volume regulation. (a) Free, reserve, and export percentages... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... during a marketing year will tend to effectuate the declared policy of the act, he shall establish a...

  8. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  9. Volume and its relationship to cardiac output and venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, S

    2016-09-10

    Volume infusions are one of the commonest clinical interventions in critically ill patients yet the relationship of volume to cardiac output is not well understood. Blood volume has a stressed and unstressed component but only the stressed component determines flow. It is usually about 30 % of total volume. Stressed volume is relatively constant under steady state conditions. It creates an elastic recoil pressure that is an important factor in the generation of blood flow. The heart creates circulatory flow by lowering the right atrial pressure and allowing the recoil pressure in veins and venules to drain blood back to the heart. The heart then puts the volume back into the systemic circulation so that stroke return equals stroke volume. The heart cannot pump out more volume than comes back. Changes in cardiac output without changes in stressed volume occur because of changes in arterial and venous resistances which redistribute blood volume and change pressure gradients throughout the vasculature. Stressed volume also can be increased by decreasing vascular capacitance, which means recruiting unstressed volume into stressed volume. This is the equivalent of an auto-transfusion. It is worth noting that during exercise in normal young males, cardiac output can increase five-fold with only small changes in stressed blood volume. The mechanical characteristics of the cardiac chambers and the circulation thus ultimately determine the relationship between volume and cardiac output and are the subject of this review.

  10. Comparison of actual tidal volume in neonatal lung model volume control ventilation using three ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, H; Endo, Y; Ejima, Y; Matsubara, M; Kurosawa, S

    2011-07-01

    In neonates, small changes in tidal volumes (V(T)) may lead to complications. Previous studies have shown a significant difference between ventilator-measured tidal volume and tidal volume delivered (actual V(T)). We evaluated the accuracy of three different ventilators to deliver small V(T) during volume-controlled ventilation. We tested Servo 300, 840 ventilator and Evita 4 Neoflow ventilators with lung models simulating normal and injured neonatal lung compliance models. Gas volume delivered from the ventilator into the test circuit (V(TV)) and actual V(T) to the test lung were measured using Ventrak respiration monitors at set V(T) (30 ml). The gas volume increase of the breathing circuit was then calculated. Tidal volumes of the SV300 and PB840 in both lung models were similar to the set V(T) and the actual tidal volumes in the injured model (20.7 ml and 19.8 ml, respectively) were significantly less than that in the normal model (27.4 ml and 23.4 ml). PB840 with circuit compliance compensation could not improve the actual V(T). V(TV) of the EV4N in the normal and the injured models (37.8 ml and 46.6 ml) were markedly increased compared with set V(T), and actual V(T) were similar to set V(T) in the normal and injured model (30.2 ml and 31.9 ml, respectively). EV4N measuring V(T) close to the lung could match actual V(T) to almost the same value as the set V(T) however the gas volume of the breathing circuit was increased. If an accurate value for the patient's actual V(T) is needed, this V(T) must be measured by a sensor located between the Y-piece and the tracheal tube.

  11. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  12. Exhaustion of Frank-Starling mechanism in conscious dogs with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komamura, K; Shannon, R P; Ihara, T; Shen, Y T; Mirsky, I; Bishop, S P; Vatner, S F

    1993-10-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the ability of the left ventricle to accommodate an increase in preload (Frank-Starling mechanism) in the presence of congestive heart failure (CHF) but in the absence of the complicating effects of hypertrophy and fibrosis. To accomplish this, the effects of volume loading were examined in eight conscious dogs during the control state and after 3 wk of right ventricular pacing (240 beats/min). CHF increased heart rate (by 16 +/- 5 from 92 +/- 5 beats/min), left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (by 17 +/- 2 from 10 +/- 1 mmHg), and LV end-diastolic volume (EDV; by 23 +/- 4 from 57 +/- 3 ml). Despite reduced LV ejection fraction (from 54 +/- 3 to 31 +/- 3%), there was no significant change in cardiac output (2.5 +/- 0.3 l/min) compared with control (2.7 +/- 0.2 l/min). Stroke volume was preserved (control 19 +/- 2 ml; CHF 18 +/- 2 ml) at a constant heart rate by a shift to the right in the relationship between LV stroke volume and EDV, indicating the importance of chronic ventricular dilatation in maintaining pump performance. In the control state, acute volume load increased LV EDV (by 17 +/- 2 ml) and stroke volume (by 11 +/- 2 ml), whereas in CHF it did not increase LV EDV or stroke volume. Scanning electron microscopy revealed areas of reduced collagen weave pattern surrounding myofibers. Myocyte cross-sectional area by transmission electron microscopy was significantly reduced, and there were multiple electron-dense expansions of the Z lines with disruption of the normal lateral sarcomere alignment. These morphological findings suggest that chronic ventricular dilatation utilized in CHF results from myocyte stretch and morphological intracellular rearrangement. Furthermore, the failing heart cannot further augment stroke volume by acutely increasing EDV in CHF, suggesting that the Frank-Starling reserve is essentially exhausted.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 2002, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ron

    2003-07-01

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2002'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterizes environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlights significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2002. Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab,'' ''the Laboratory,'' ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,'' and ''LBNL.'' The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from the monitoring programs. This year, the ''Site Environmental Report'' was distributed on a CD in PDF format that includes Volume I, Volume II, and related documents. The report is also available on the Web at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are additionally reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Facilitating cartilage volume measurement using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maataoui, Adel, E-mail: adel.maataoui@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gurung, Jessen, E-mail: jessen.gurung@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns, E-mail: h.ackermann@add.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Abolmaali, Nasreddin [Biological and Molecular Imaging, ZIK OncoRay - Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Khan, M. Fawad, E-mail: fawad@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare quantitative cartilage volume measurement (CVM) using different slice thicknesses. Materials and methods: Ten knees were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI (Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 3D gradient echo sequence (FLASH, fast low-angle shot). Cartilage volume of the medial and lateral tibial plateau was measured by two independent readers in 1.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm slices using the Argus software application. Accuracy and time effectiveness served as control parameters. Results: Determining cartilage volume, time for calculation diminished for the lateral tibial plateau from 384.6 {+-} 127.7 s and 379.1 {+-} 117.6 s to 214.9 {+-} 109.9 s and 213.9 {+-} 102.2 s to 122.1 {+-} 60.1 s and 126.8 {+-} 56.2 s and for the medial tibial plateau from 465.0 {+-} 147.7 s and 461.8 {+-} 142.7 s to 214.0 {+-} 67.9 s and 208.9 {+-} 66.2 s to 132.6 {+-} 41.5 s and 130.6 {+-} 42.0 s measuring 1.5 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm slices, respectively. No statistically significant difference between cartilage volume measurements was observed (p > 0.05) while very good inter-reader correlation was evaluated. Conclusion: CVM using 1.5 mm slices provides no higher accuracy than cartilage volume measurement in 5 mm slices while an overall time saving up to 70% is possible.

  16. Volume calculations of coarse woody debris; evaluation of coarse woody debris volume calculations and consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates in forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Vaessen, O.H.B.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Olsthoorn, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dead wood is recognized as one of the key indicators for sustainable forest management and biodiversity. Accurate assessments of dead wood volume are thus necessary. In this study New volume models were designed based on actual volume measurements of coarse woody debris. The New generic model accura

  17. Impact of varied center volume categories on volume-outcome relationship in children receiving ECMO for heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Seib, Paul M; Robertson, Michael J; Wilcox, Andrew; Gupta, Punkaj

    2016-09-01

    To study the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), different studies from different databases use different volume categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate if different center volume categories impact the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving ECMO for heart operations. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from an existing national database, the Pediatric Health Information System. Centers were classified into five different volume categories using different cut-offs and different variables. Mortality rates were compared between the varied volume categories using a mixed effects logistic regression model after adjusting for patient- and center-level risk factors. Data collection included demographic information, baseline characteristics, pre-ECMO risk factors, operation details, patient diagnoses, and center data. In unadjusted analysis, there was a significant relationship between center volume and mortality, with low-and medium-volume centers associated with higher mortality rates compared to high-volume centers in all volume categories, except the hierarchical clustering volume category. In contrast, there was no significant association between center-volume and mortality among all volume categories in adjusted analysis. We concluded that high-volume centers were not associated with improved outcomes for the majority of the categorization schemes despite using different cut-offs and different variables for volume categorization.

  18. MANAJEMEN KULTUR ROTIFER DENGAN TANGKI VOLUME KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan pembenihan ikan sangat dipengaruhi keberhasilan produksi jasad pakan rotifer secara tepat dan efisien. Penelitian kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil bertujuan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi produksi yang paling optimal dan memenuhi prinsip dasar akuakultur low volume high density. Penelitian menggunakan tangki polyethylene dengan volume 500 L dan volume media awal 100 L, padat tebar awal 200 ind. rotifer per mL dengan sediaan pakan dasar fitoplankton Nannocloropsis occulata, ragi roti (0,05 g/mio.rot./feeding dan suplemen Scott emulsion (0,005 g/mio.rot./feeding. Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap; tahap pertama (I tanpa penambahan air laut, peningkatan volume hanya dari penambahan 15 L Nannochloropsis tiap hari sampai hari kelima, tahap kedua (II dengan penambahan alga 40 L dan air laut 40 L; serta tahap ketiga (III dengan menggandakan pemberian ragi roti. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada percobaan tahap I: total produksi rata-rata 122,37 x 106 ind. rotifer, pada tahap II: 97,67 x 106 ind. rotifer, dan pada tahap III: dicapai rata-rata total produksi tertinggi dengan 187,17 x 106 ind. rotifer per tanki kultur 500 L. Pengelolaan kultur pada tahap III memberikan hasil terbaik dengan simpangan terkecil antar tangki kultur ulangan, dan membuktikan sebagai pengelolaan terbaik untuk kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil.  Success of marine seed production is highly influenced by effective and efficient production performance of life food rotifer. Observation on rotifer culture using small volume tank was aimed to get the optimum production and efficiency, to fulfill the basic principle of aquaculture “low volume high density”. Polyethylene tanks of 500 L. were used as culture container, with initial 100 liter sea water as culture medium and initial density of 200 ind. rotifer per mL. N. occulata, baker yeast (0.05 g/mio.rotifer/feeding and Scott emulsion (0.005 g/mio.rotifer/feeding were used as basic feed, and

  19. Mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amira M. Elsayed

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Abstract The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a laboratory marker associated with platelet func- tion and activity. .... the first 24 h of presentation to the emergency department. Severity of ..... J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.

  20. Cell Volume Regulation and Apoptotic Volume Decrease in Rat Distal Colon Superficial Enterocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Antico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The colon epithelium is physiologically exposed to osmotic stress, and the activation of cell volume regulation mechanisms is essential in colonocyte physiology. Moreover, colon is characterized by a high apoptotic rate of mature cells balancing the high division rate of stem cells. Aim: The aim of the present work was to investigate the main cell volume regulation mechanisms in rat colon surface colonocytes and their role in apoptosis. Methods: Cell volume changes were measured by light microscopy and video imaging on colon explants; apoptosis sign appearance was monitored by confocal microscopy on annexin V/propidium iodide labeled explants. Results: Superficial colonocytes showed a dynamic regulation of their cell volume during anisosmotic conditions with a Regulatory Volume Increase (RVI response following hypertonic shrinkage and Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD response following hypotonic swelling. RVI was completely inhibited by bumetanide, while RVD was completely abolished by high K+ or iberiotoxin treatment and by extracellular Ca2+ removal. DIDS incubation was also able to affect the RVD response. When colon explants were exposed to H2O2 as apoptotic inducer, colonocytes underwent an isotonic volume decrease ascribable to Apoptotic Volume Decrease (AVD within about four hours of exposure. AVD was shown to precede annexin V positivity. It was also inhibited by high K+ or iberiotoxin treatment. Interestingly, treatment with iberiotoxin significantly inhibited apoptosis progression. Conclusions: In rat superficial colonocytes K+ efflux through high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK channels was demonstrated to be the main mechanism of RVD and to plays also a crucial role in the AVD process and in the progression of apoptosis.

  1. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  2. The Combination of Tissue Dissection and External Volume Expansion Generates Large Volumes of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Dong, Ziqing; Xie, Gan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue. In vitro, various densities of adipose-derived stem cells were prepared to evaluate relations between cell contacts and cell proliferation. In vivo, dorsal adipose tissue of rabbits was thoroughly dissected and the external volume expansion device was applied to maintain the released state. External volume expansion without tissue dissection served as the control. In the dissection group, the generated adipose tissue volume was much larger than that in the control group at all time points. A larger number of proliferating cells appeared in the dissection samples than in the control samples at the early stage after tissue dissection. At low cell density, adipose-derived stem cells displayed an increasing proliferation rate compared to high cell density. Protein expression analysis revealed that cell proliferation was mediated by a similar mechanism both in vivo and in vitro, involving the release of cell contact inhibition and Hippo/Yes-associated protein pathway activation. Adipose tissue dissection releases cell-to-cell contacts and induces adipose-derived stem cell proliferation. Preexpanded adipose-derived stem cells undergo adipogenesis under the adipogenic environment created by external volume expansion, leading to better adipose regeneration compared with the control.

  3. Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...

  4. Replication Regulates Volume Weighting in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James

    2009-01-01

    Probabilities for observations in cosmology are conditioned both on the universe's quantum state and on local data specifying the observational situation. We show the quantum state defines a measure for prediction through such conditional probabilities that is well behaved for spatially large or infinite universes when the probabilities that our data is replicated are taken into account. In histories where our data are rare volume weighting connects top-down probabilities conditioned on both the data and the quantum state to the bottom-up probabilities conditioned on the quantum state alone. We apply these principles to a calculation of the number of inflationary e-folds in a homogeneous, isotropic minisuperspace model with a single scalar field moving in a quadratic potential. We find that volume weighting is justified and the top-down probabilities favor a large number of e-folds.

  5. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  6. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Pedro, Francisco Gil [Departamento de Fisica Teórica UAM and Instituto de Fisica Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-21

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  7. Microscopic Origin of Volume Modulus Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco Gil

    2015-01-01

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  8. Enzyme Reactions in Nanoporous, Picoliter Volume Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Choi, Chang Kyoung [Michigan Technological University; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale fabrication allow creation of small volume reaction containers that can facilitate the screening and characterization of enzymes. A porous, ~19 pL volume vessel has been used in this work to carry out enzyme reactions under varying substrate concentrations. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be contained in these structures and diffusively fed with a solution containing glucose and the fluorogenic substrate Amplex Red through the engineered nanoscale pore structure. Fluorescent microscopy was used to monitor the reaction, which was carried out under microfluidic control. Kinetic characteristics of the enzyme were evaluated and compared with results from conventional scale reactions. These picoliter, nanoporous containers can facilitate quick determination of enzyme kinetics in microfluidic systems without the requirement of surface tethering and can be used for applications in drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and high-throughput screening.

  9. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

  10. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  11. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  12. Radcalc for Windows. Volume 2: Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows

  13. Volume conjecture for $SU(n)$-invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qingtao; Zhu, Shengmao

    2015-01-01

    This paper discuss an intrinsic relation among congruent relations \\cite{CLPZ}, cyclotomic expansion and Volume Conjecture for $SU(n)$ invariants. Motivated by the congruent relations for $SU(n)$ invariants obtained in our previous work \\cite{CLPZ}, we study certain limits of the $SU(n)$ invariants at various roots of unit. First, we prove a new symmetry property for the $SU(n)$ invariants by using a symmetry of colored HOMFLYPT invariants. Then we propose some conjectural formulas including the cyclotomic expansion conjecture and volume conjecture for $SU(n)$ invariants (specialization of colored HOMFLYPT invariants). We also give the proofs of these conjectural formulas for the case of figure-eight knot.

  14. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  15. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

  16. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  17. Computing the partial volume of pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiencke, Bent [Nestle USA, Corporate Engineering, 800 N. Brand Blvd, Glendale, CA 91203 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The computation of the partial and total volume of pressure vessels with various type of head profiles requires detailed knowledge of the head profile geometry. Depending on the type of head profile the derivation of the equations can become very complex and the calculation process cumbersome. Certain head profiles require numerical methods to obtain the partial volume, which for most application is beyond the scope of practicability. This paper suggests a unique method that simplifies the calculation procedure for the various types of head profiles by using one common set of equations without the need for numerical or complex computation methods. For ease of use, all equations presented in this paper are summarized in a single table format for horizontal and vertical vessels. (author)

  18. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies.

  19. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  20. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  1. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  2. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

  3. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, M.P.; Sigmund, O. 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, H. K.; W. Malalasekera 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...

  4. Volume versus surface nucleation in freezing aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, Ómar F.; Signorell, Ruth

    2008-05-01

    The present study puts an end to the ongoing controversy regarding volume versus surface nucleation in freezing aerosols: Our study on nanosized aerosol particles demonstrates that current state of the art measurements of droplet ensembles cannot distinguish between the two mechanisms. The reasons are inherent experimental uncertainties as well as approximations used to analyze the kinetics. The combination of both can lead to uncertainties in the rate constants of two orders of magnitude, with important consequences for the modeling of atmospheric processes.

  5. The Gigaton Volume Detector in Lake Baikal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.r [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Berezhnev, S. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.; Budnev, N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.; Domogatsky, G.; Doroshenko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Ermakov, G. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gres' , O.; Gres' , T. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Grishin, N. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grishin, O. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Klabukov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-21

    The objective of the Baikal Project is the creation of a kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino observatory: the Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD) in Lake Baikal. Basic elements of the GVD - new optical modules, FADC readout units, and underwater communication systems - were investigated and tested in Lake Baikal with prototype strings in 2008-2010. We describe the results of prototype strings operation and review the preliminary design and expected sensitivity of the GVD telescope.

  6. F-15E Availability Model. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    model output to actual field performance of the F-15C/1 MSIP aircraft. Volume I includes the background, scenarios, computer language, description...Improveamnt Program ( MS P) NMIS rate. However, spares which need to be increased to maintain the "normal" NMCS rate are documented and briefed with model...the basic F-15C MSIP capability for the air-to-air role; however, air-to-air performance characteristics may be limited by the increased basic aircraft

  7. Volume Integral Theorem for Exotic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Kumar, K. B. Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported ...

  8. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  9. An Introduction to the Special Volume on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Altman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of the Journal of Statistical Software on political methodology includes 14 papers, with wide-ranging software contributions of political scientists to their own field, and more generally to statistical data analysis in the the social sciences and beyond. Special emphasis is given to software that is written in or can cooperate with the R system for statistical computing.

  10. What makes a successful volume crime investigator?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to understand the role of volume crime investigators in the modern era. It attempted to gain officers` perceptions on the attributes required to be a successful at the role. In addition, the research sought to understand how modern investigators thought success should be defined and measured in relation to individual investigator performance. Chapter One explored previous research relating to police investigators and success, and identified the main research que...

  11. Weapons Effects in Cities. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    Volume III. Moscow: Military Publishing House, 1961. 20. Korbonski, S. Fighting Warsaw. New York: Funk and Wagnalls , 1956. 21. Losch, A. The...Cowle’s Encyclopedia of Science, Industry, and Technology. New York: Cowles Publishing Co., 1967. H-2 13. Cralg, W. Enemy at the Gates; The...City in History; Its Origins. Its Transforma- tions, and Its Prospects. New York; Harcourt, Brace and World , Inc., 1961. 25. Patton, George S

  12. Seamounts, Direct Blast and Volume Reverberation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    Highway. Suits 1204. Arlington, VA 22202-4302. "n to the Office of Management and Budget. Peperworik Reduction Project (0704-0188). Washington. DC 2050M. 1...Subtitle. 5. Funding Numbers. Seamounts, Direct Blast And Volume Reverberation Upgrades proram Eemen No 3 7 85N Project No R02017 6. Author(s). L...Section Pae 1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 1-1 2 ASERT: DATA PREPARATION FOR ASTRAL ........... 2-1 2.1 Overview and Purpose of

  13. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A

    1993-01-01

    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  14. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, E.; Lizio, D.; Baldari, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as 90Y and to 131I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  15. The RAAF Logistics Study. Volume 4,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Use of Issue-Based Root Definitions Application of Soft Systems Methodology to 27 Information Systems Analysis Conclusion 30 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 58 k...Management Control Systems’, Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Volume 6, 1979, pages 51 to 67. 5. The soft systems methodology was developed to tackle...the soft systems methodology has many advantages whi-h recmmenrl it to this type of study area, it does not mcklel the timo ev, lut i, n :-f a system

  16. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, K.S. [ed.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.

  17. Hydrophobic Volume Effects in Albumin Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, P.; Klein, H.; Egry, I.; Ademovic, Z.; Klee, D.

    2001-02-15

    Density measurements of aqueous albumin solutions as a function of concentration and temperature are reported. The solvents were H(2)O, D(2)O, and a physiological H(2)O-based buffer. An anomaly of the density at very small concentrations of albumin in D(2)O was found. Furthermore, the partial specific volume of albumin is remarkably different in D(2)O and H(2)O. We attribute both effects to structural differences of the solvents. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. It contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of the ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of the programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  19. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. The document contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  20. Uncertainty-aware guided volume segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassni, Jörg-Stefan; Ropinski, Timo; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Although direct volume rendering is established as a powerful tool for the visualization of volumetric data, efficient and reliable feature detection is still an open topic. Usually, a tradeoff between fast but imprecise classification schemes and accurate but time-consuming segmentation techniques has to be made. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty introduced with the feature detection process is completely neglected by the majority of existing approaches.In this paper we propose a guided probabilistic volume segmentation approach that focuses on the minimization of uncertainty. In an iterative process, our system continuously assesses uncertainty of a random walker-based segmentation in order to detect regions with high ambiguity, to which the user's attention is directed to support the correction of potential misclassifications. This reduces the risk of critical segmentation errors and ensures that information about the segmentation's reliability is conveyed to the user in a dependable way. In order to improve the efficiency of the segmentation process, our technique does not only take into account the volume data to be segmented, but also enables the user to incorporate classification information. An interactive workflow has been achieved by implementing the presented system on the GPU using the OpenCL API. Our results obtained for several medical data sets of different modalities, including brain MRI and abdominal CT, demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of our approach.