Sample records for volume discharge initiated

  1. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.


    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  2. An initiative to improve patient discharge satisfaction. (United States)

    Strong, Sally; Bettin, Arlene


    To provide patients with knowledge needed to make a smoother transition from inpatient rehabilitation to the community or another level of care. The Journey to Discharge concept developed from efforts to clearly communicate the stages a patient travels through on the path to discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The creation and implementation of this concept led to marked improvement in patient satisfaction scores as measured by Press Ganey Associates. Specifically, measures of discharge-specific questions increased from the 39th percentile in fiscal year (FY) 2009 to the 84th percentile in FY 2011 and gains were maintained through FY 2012 and into this year. The Journey to Discharge guides Marianjoy Rehabilitation Hospital associates in helping patients understand expectations for their inpatient rehabilitation stay. This patient-centered initiative demonstrates an innovate approach to better understanding of the rehabilitation process and to easing the patient's transition across the continuum of care (Brady, 2013). The concept includes a post discharge follow-up component designed to ensure patients are following instructions, thereby potentially lowering the incidence of readmission following discharge. Optimizing patient discharge preparation can lead to improvement in satisfaction scores. Discharging well-prepared patients, coupled with proactive post discharge follow-up has the potential to lower the incidence of readmissions. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  3. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V


    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  4. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.


    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  5. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges (United States)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai


    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  6. How simultaneous occurrence of heavy rainfall and wet initial conditions leads to peak discharges (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Imhoff, Ruben; Heuvelink, Danny; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    The severity of pluvial floods is determined by both the rainfall event and the initial catchment wetness. In this study, we investigate which combinations of rainfall sum and initial groundwater level lead to high discharges and how the occurrence probabilities of the two factors and the resulting discharge are affected by climate change. We used the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) to simulate discharge in eight Dutch lowland catchments. As forcing, we used 109-year time series of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration from the current climate (de-trended observations) and eight climate scenarios (four KNMI'14 scenarios for 2050 and 2085). For each discharge peak, we computed the precipitation surplus (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) of the preceding 48 hours and the groundwater level 48 hours before the peak and several metrics to quantify the peak discharge (e.g. peak height and volume). Despite large differences in catchment characteristics (size, soil, slope), the annual distributions of discharge and groundwater levels were comparable, and all catchments showed a similar relation between 48-hour sum of precipitation surplus, initial groundwater level and peak discharge. Peak discharges can be predicted well from the combination of 48-hour precipitation surpluses and initial groundwater levels. This provides opportunities for water managers who are facing a heavy rainfall event and want to make a quick estimate of the expected flood peak. With climate change, extreme precipitation events and wet initial soil conditions will occur more often simultaneously, leading to higher peak discharges. Of all results, the most extreme KNMI'14 climate scenario, the 2085 WH scenario, led to an increase in discharge peaks of up to 30%. In addition, the timing of the floods will change: winter and spring will be wetter, resulting in higher and more frequent floods, while in summer and the beginning of autumn the conditions will be drier, resulting in

  7. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.


    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  8. Apparatus and method for initiating electrical discharge in a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressley, R.J.; Fahlen, T.S.


    The invention discloses an appartus for initiating electrical discharge in a gas transport laser having two or more sets of electrodes comprising a pulse generator connected to both sets of electrodes. The pulse generator comprises an alternating current (ac) source connected to the primary windings of two transformers having secondaries connected to the sets, respectively of electrodes. By energizing the transformers after the application of a direct current (dc) voltage across the electrodes of each set, a discharge across the sets of electrodes occurs simultaneously for a balanced starting of the lasing action. The invention also comprehends the method of starting a laser having a plurality of sets of electrodes consisting of the steps of applying a dc potential across each set of electrodes and transmitting at least one voltage pulse simultaneously to one of the electrodes of each set to produce simultaneously an electrical discharge between all sets of electrodes.

  9. Advanced ponderomotive description of electron acceleration in ICRF discharge initiation (United States)

    Wauters, Tom; Tripský, Matej; Lyssoivan, Anatoli; Louche, Fabrice; Möller, Sören; Ragona, Riccardo; Van Eester, Dirk


    This contribution proposes a new approach for the ponderomotive description of electron acceleration in ICRF discharge initiation. The motion of electrons in the parallel electric field Ez is separated into a fast oscillation and a slower drift around the oscillation centre. Three terms are maintained in the Taylor expansion of the electric field (0th , 1st and 2nd order). The efficiency for electron acceleration by Ez (z, t) is then assessed by comparing the values of these terms at the slow varying coordinate z0 . When (i) the 0th order term is not significantly larger than 1st order term at the reflection point, or when (ii) the 2nd order term is negative and not sufficiently small compared to the 1st order term at the reflection point, then the electron will gain energy in the reflection. An example for plasma production by the TOMAS ICRF system is given. Following the described conditions it can be derived that plasma production is (i) most efficient close to the antenna straps (few cm's) where the field gradient and amplitude are large, and (ii) that the lower frequency field accelerates electrons more easily for a given antenna voltage.

  10. The influence of artificial-thunderstorm cell polarity on discharge initiation by model hydrometeor arrays (United States)

    Temnikov, A. G.; Chernenskii, L. L.; Orlov, A. V.; Lysov, N. Yu.; Belova, O. S.; Kalugina, I. E.; Gerastenok, T. K.; Zhuravkova, D. S.


    The initiation of discharge by model hydrometeors between an artificial-thunderstorm cell (aerosol cloud) of negative or positive polarity and ground has been experimentally studied. It is established for the first time that the conditions of cloud-ground spark discharge initiation by hydrometeors, as well as the characteristics of discharge significantly depend on the polarity of charged cloud. The effect of hydrometeor arrays can be manifested by the cloud-ground lightning initiated in a thundercloud and used for developing scientific principles of artificial lightning discharge.

  11. Relative Contribution of Volume and Surface-Plasma Generation of Negative Ions in Gas Discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Dudnikov, Vadim


    The relative contribution of volume and surface-plasma generation of extracted ?- ions in gas discharge sources will be analyzed. At the present time, it is well known that surface-plasma generation of extracted ?- ion is dominate above volume processes in discharges with admixture of cesium or other catalysts with low ionization potential. We will attract attention to evidences, that surface-plasma generation can be enhanced in high density discharges without cesium after electrode activation by high temperature conditioning in discharge. A diffusion of impurity with a low ionization potential can be a reason of observed enhancement of H-

  12. Association of high-volume hospitals with greater likelihood of discharge to home following colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Balentine, Courtney J; Naik, Aanand D; Robinson, Celia N; Petersen, Nancy J; Chen, G John; Berger, David H; Anaya, Daniel A


    Discharge disposition is a patient-centered quality metric that reflects differences in quality of life and recovery following surgery. The effect of hospital volume on quality of recovery measured by rates of successful discharge to home remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that patients having colorectal surgery at high-volume hospitals would more likely be discharged to home rather than discharged to skilled rehabilitation facilities to complete recovery. Longitudinal analysis of 2008 hospital inpatient data to identify patients undergoing colorectal surgery who survived to discharge. The setting was the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer inpatient care database, containing data from more than 1000 hospitals. Participants were 280,644 patients (≥ 18 years) who underwent colorectal resections for benign or malignant disease and survived to discharge. The primary end point was discharge to home (with or without home health care) vs discharge to skilled facilities (skilled nursing, short-term recovery, or rehabilitation hospitals or other institutions). The secondary end point was discharge to home with home health care rather than to a skilled facility for patients with postdischarge care needs. Multiple logistic regression using robust standard errors was used to compute the odds ratios of each outcome based on hospital volume, while adjusting for other important variables. The odds of discharge to home vs discharge to skilled facilities were significantly greater in high-volume hospitals compared with low-volume hospitals (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.70-2.56), with an absolute increase of 9%. For patients with postdischarge care needs, high-volume hospitals were less likely than low-volume hospitals to use skilled facilities rather than home health care (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.27-0.45), with an absolute difference of 10%. Patients having colorectal surgery at high-volume hospitals are significantly more likely to recover and return home

  13. Varying termiticide application rate and volume affect initial soil penetration (United States)

    Christopher Peterson


    The initial soil penetration of Premise 75 and Termidor SC, containing imidacloprid and fipronil, respectively, were tested in laboratory columns of five different soils. Three combinations of application concentration and volume were used: double the recommended active ingredient concentration at one half the recommended volume (DR), the full concentration and volume...

  14. Initiation of ignition by the action of a high-current pulsed discharge on a gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starikovskii, AY


    The possibility of nonthermal initiation of chemical reactions by a uniform pulsed nanosecond discharge is demonstrated. Dependences of variation of the ignition delay on initial conditions are obtained. It is shown that the main role in combustion initiation under conditions of a pulsed gas

  15. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, C N; Schrock, V E


    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

  16. Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating (United States)

    Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.


    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge.

  17. On the Theory of Fragmentation Process with Initial Particle Volume (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.


    The problem of fragmentation (disintegration) process is theoretically studied with allowance for the initial particle volume. An exact analytical solution of integro-differential model governing the fragmentation phenomenon is obtained. The key role of a finite initial volume of particles leading to substantial changes of the particle-size distribution function is demonstrated. Supported by the Russian Science Foundation under Grant No. 16-11-10095

  18. LOFT reflood as a function of accumulator initial gas volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, H.F.


    The effect of the initial gas volume in the LOFT accumulators on the time to start of core reflood, after a LOCA, has been studied. The bases of the calculations are the data used and results presented in the Safety Analysis Report, Rev.1, August 1977, and the data in the RELAP and TOODEE2 program input and output listings. The results of this study show that an initial nitrogen volume of 12 cu ft, or more (at 600 psig initial pressure), would cause start of core reflood in time to prevent the cladding temperature from reaching 2200/sup 0/F. The 12 cu ft initial volume will expand from 600 psig, initial pressure, to about 10 psig (containment pressure shortly after start of LOCA is approximately 8 psig) when all ECC liquid has been expelled from the accumulator. This pressure margin is considered too small; the ECC flowrate will be zero before the accumulator is empty.

  19. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario. (United States)


    ... discharge scenario is the sum of the following: (1) The maximum capacity of all oil storage tanks and flow... stores, handles, transfers, processes, or transports oil does not fall into the categories listed in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining the volume of oil of your worst...

  20. Initiation of long, free-standing Z-discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Yu, S.S.; Sharp, W.M.


    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore they are considered as an interesting alternative for the final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the GSI accelerator facility, 50 cm long, stable, free-standing discharge channels with currents in excess of 40 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas are investigated for heavy ion beam transport studies. The discharges are initiated by a CO{sub 2} laser pulse along the channel axis before the discharge is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the {nu}{sub 2} vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. This paper describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We report on the channel stability and evolution, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a hydrocode simulation.

  1. Total joint replacement discharge brunch: meeting patient education needs and a hospital initiative of discharge by noon. (United States)

    Goodson, Ann S; DeGuzman, Pamela B; Honeycutt, Angie; Summy, Connie; Manly, Frances


    In 2009, our facility established the goal that 70% of patients with discharge orders would be discharged by noon. The orthopaedic unit was not meeting this goal but saw an opportunity to standardize the discharge process for total joint replacement patients. The purposes of this article were (1) to describe the implementation of a discharge brunch and (2) to determine whether the implementation of this discharge brunch led to an earlier discharge time. A discharge brunch with group discharge instruction was implemented on an inpatient orthopaedic unit for patients who had a total joint replacement. Patient data from our electronic medical record, March-December 2012, were used to compare discharge time of patients who attended the brunch with those who did not. A total of 392 joint replacement patients were discharged between March and December 2012. Of those, 234 attended the discharge brunch. Patients who attended the brunch were discharged by 11:20 a.m., compared with a discharge time of 1:10 p.m. for those who did not attend the brunch, and more patients who attended the brunch were likely to be discharged by noon than those who did not attend the brunch (76% vs. 39%, p discharge teaching should consider implementing a discharge brunch for groups of patients to help achieve goals of discharging patients before noon.

  2. Influence of initiating discharge characteristics on the performance and efficiency of a HF laser - An experimental investigation (United States)

    Atteo, E.; Salvetti, G.; Solimeno, S.


    The performance and efficiency of a pulsed HF laser electrically initiated by transverse multiple-spark discharges are investigated with particular attention given to the influence of discharge parameters on the initiating and pumping reactions. A pin-electrode system consisting of 390 180-ohm resistors as the cathode and a shot-blasted aluminum plate as the anode was used to produce a quasi-uniform volume discharge along the axis of a laser medium consisting of a flowing mixture of SF6 with H2 or C4H10, and output energies and pulse shapes were monitored. When a voltage-doubling circuit configuration was used, maximum pulse energy is found to be relatively insensitive to changes in the hydrogen donor, however to be strongly dependent on the mixing ratio and on total gas pressure. Above the optimum gas pressure, the use of a single-capacitor circuit is observed to lead to a sharp decrease in pulse energy, presumably due to the inability of the driver circuit to sustain an electric field sufficient for the production of fluorine atoms. Conversion efficiencies as high as 4.5 percent are obtained at optimal pressures and mixing ratios in the voltage doubling configuration, although higher overall efficiencies are obtained with a single-capacitor circuit.

  3. Observations of the initial stage of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning discharge (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Weitao; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Liangtao; Huang, Zhigang


    Observations have been obtained of the initial stage of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning flash with a high-resolution broadband VHF interferometer. The discharge produced 54 precursor current pulses (PCPs) over 883 ms during the rocket's ascent. The interferometer observations show that the PCPs were produced by breakdown at the ascending tip of the rocket, and that individual PCPs were produced by weak upward positive breakdown over meters-scale distances, followed by more energetic, fast downward negative breakdown over several tens of meters distance. The average propagation speeds were 5 × 106 m s-1 and 3 × 107 m s-1, respectively. The sustained upward positive leader (UPL) was initiated by a rapid, repetitive burst of 14 precursor pulses. Upon initiation, the VHF radiation abruptly became continuous with time. Significantly, breakdown during the UPL appeared to extend the discharge in a similar manner to that of the precursor pulses.

  4. Streamer-to-spark transition initiated by a nanosecond overvoltage pulsed discharge in air (United States)

    Lo, A.; Cessou, A.; Lacour, C.; Lecordier, B.; Boubert, P.; Xu, D. A.; Laux, C. O.; Vervisch, P.


    This study is focused on the streamer-to-spark transition generated by an overvoltage nanosecond pulsed discharge under atmospheric pressure air in order to provide a quantitative insight into plasma-assisted ignition. The discharge is generated in atmospheric pressure air by the application of a positive high voltage pulse of 35 kV to pin-to-pin electrodes and a rise time of 5 ns. The generated discharge consists of a streamer phase with high voltage and high current followed by a spark phase characterized by a low voltage and a decreasing current in several hundreds of nanosecond. During the streamer phase, the gas temperature measured by optical emission spectroscopy related to the second positive system of nitrogen shows an ultra-fast gas heating up to 1200 K at 15 ns after the current rise. This ultra-fast gas heating, due to the quenching of electronically excited species by oxygen molecules, is followed by a quick dissociation of molecules and then the discharge transition to a spark. At this transition, the discharge contracts toward the channel axis and evolves into a highly conducting thin column. The spark phase is characterized by a high degree of ionization of nitrogen and oxygen atoms shown by the electron number density and temperature measured from optical emission spectroscopy measurements of N+ lines. Schlieren imaging and optical emission spectroscopy techniques provide the time evolution of the spark radius, from which the initial pressure in the spark is estimated. The expansion of the plasma is adiabatic in the early phase. The electronic temperature and density during this phase allows the determination of the isentropic coefficient. The value around 1.2-1.3 is coherent with the high ionization rate of the plasma in the early phase. The results obtained in this study provide a database and the initial conditions for the validation of numerical simulations of the ignition by plasma discharge.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zhekul


    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigations of the characteristics of pressure waves presuppose the registration of the total profile of the pressure wave at a given point in space. For these purposes, various types of «pressure to the electrical signal» transmitters (sensors are used. Most of the common sensors are unsuitable for measuring the pulse pressure in a closed water volume at high hydrostatic pressures, in particular to study the effect of a powerful high-voltage pulse discharge on increasing the inflow of minerals and drinking water in wells. The purpose of the work was to develop antijamming piezoelectric waveguide sensor for measuring pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed volume of a liquid. Methodology. We have applied the calibration method as used as a secondary standard, the theory of electrical circuits. Results. We have selected the design and the circuit solution of the waveguide pressure sensor. We have developed a waveguide pulse-pressure sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop. This sensor makes it possible to study the spectral characteristics of pressure waves of high-voltage pulse discharge in closed volumes of liquid at a hydrostatic pressure of up to 20 MPa and a temperature of up to 80 °C. The sensor can be used to study pressure waves with a maximum amplitude value of up to 150 MPa and duration of up to 80 µs. According to the results of the calibration, the sensitivity of the developed sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop is 0.0346 V/MPa. Originality. We have further developed the theory of designing the waveguide piezoelectric pulse pressure sensors for measuring the pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed fluid volume by controlling the attenuation of the amplitude of the pressure signal. Practical value. We have developed, created, calibrated, used in scientific research waveguide pressure pulse sensors DTX-1. We propose sensors DTX-1 for sale

  6. Lightning-Discharge Initiation as a Noise-Induced Kinetic Transition (United States)

    Iudin, D. I.


    The electric fields observed in thunderclouds have the peak values one order of magnitude smaller than the electric strength of air. This fact renders the issue of the lightning-discharge initiation one of the most intriguing problems of thunderstorm electricity. In this work, the lightning initiation in a thundercloud is considered as a noise-induced kinetic transition. The stochastic electric field of the charged hydrometeors is the noise source. The considered kinetic transition has some features which distinguish it from other lightning-initiation mechanisms. First, the dynamic realization of this transition, which is due to interaction of the electron and ion components, is extended for a time significantly exceeding the spark-discharge development time. In this case, the fast attachment of electrons generated by supercritical bursts of the electric field of hydrometeors is balanced during long-term time intervals by the electron-release processes when the negative ions are destroyed. Second, an important role in the transition kinetics is played by the stochastic drift of electrons and ions caused by the small-scale fluctuations of the field of charged hydrometeors. From the formal mathematical viewpoint, this stochastic drift is indistinguishable from the scalar-impurity advection in a turbulent flow. In this work, it is shown that the efficiency of "advective mixing" is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the ordinary diffusion. Third, the considered transition leads to a sharp increase in the conductivity in the exponentially rare compact regions of space against the background of the vanishingly small variations in the average conductivity of the medium. In turn, the spots with increased conductivity are polarized in the mean field followed by the streamer initiation and discharge contraction.

  7. Mass spectrometric study of the kinetics of chemical reactions in tetrafluoroethylene initiated by a gas discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyn' , V.I.; Oparin, V.B.; Potapov, V.K.; Tuzov, L.S.


    In this investigation of the time dependence of the partial pressures of fluorohydrocarbons synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene in an atypical glow discharge, the mass spectrometric method was used. The product yield sequence in a state reactor was determined: C/sub 4/F/sub 8/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, CF/sub 4/. In the 6-80 Pa range the C/sub 2/F/sub 4/ decomposition rate does not depend on the initial monomer pressure. A kinetic model giving a good description of the experimental results is proposed.

  8. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  9. Flow distributions and discharge coefficient effects for jet array impingement with initial crossflow (United States)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Isoda, Y.


    To model the impingement cooled mid-chord region of gas turbine airfoils in cases where an initial crossflow is present, the paper presents experimentally determined flow distributions for jet arrays with ten spanwise rows of holes, which range from uniform to highly nonuniform. The jet flow after impingement is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the impingement surface. The streamwise distributions and crossflow velocities are presented for ratios of the initial crossflow rate to the total jet flow rate ranging from zero to unity. For crossflow to jet velocity ratios greater than a value somewhat less than unity, jet orifice discharge coefficients do not remain constant, but decrease significantly, showing a secondary dependence on z/d, where z is the channel height and d is the jet hole diameter.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of fiber fuse initiation with exposure to arc discharge provided by a fusion splicer. (United States)

    Todoroki, Shin-Ichi


    The optical communication industry and power-over-fiber applications face a dilemma as a result of the expanding demand of light power delivery and the potential risks of high-power light manipulation including the fiber fuse phenomenon, a continuous destruction of the fiber core pumped by the propagating light and triggered by a heat-induced strong absorption of silica glass. However, we have limited knowledge on its initiation process in the viewpoint of energy flow in the reactive area. Therefore, the conditions required for a fiber fuse initiation in standard single-mode fibers were determined quantitatively, namely the power of a 1480 nm fiber laser and the arc discharge intensity provided by a fusion splicer for one second as an outer heat source. Systematic investigation on the energy flow balance between these energy sources revealed that the initiation process consists of two steps; the generation of a precursor at the heated spot and the transition to a stable fiber fuse. The latter step needs a certain degree of heat accumulation at the core where waveguide deformation is ongoing competitively. This method is useful for comparing the tolerance to fiber fuse initiation among various fibers with a fixed energy amount that was not noticed before.

  11. Deflagration of Energetic Materials Initiated by Electrostatic Discharges and Laser-Induced Plasmas (United States)

    Collins, Eric; Gottfried, Jennifer


    A laser-induced plasma and an electrostatic discharge were used for the ignition of small quantities (5-10 mg) of energetic materials. The laser-induced plasma was generated from a ns-pulsed Nd:YAG laser with energy output of 0.8 J per pulse and the electrostatic discharge was generated from a 0.035 μF capacitor that was charged to energy levels of up to 10 J. Although the durations and energy outputs of these two ignition mechanisms are very different, similarities in the initiation of the energetic materials include particle ejection from the target, heating of particles in the air from the plasma and spark, and a shockwave formation. The shock wave was measured and analyzed at various energy levels using schlieren imaging with a high speed camera. Diagnostics used to measure time-resolved temperatures, energy generation, and emission signatures of the deflagrations were high speed camera pyrometry, visible and infrared photo receivers, and a high-resolution spectrometer, respectively.

  12. Investigation of positive and negative modes of nanosecond pulsed discharge in water and electrostriction model of initiation


    Seepersad, Yohan; Pekker, Mikhail; Shneider, Mikhail; Fridman, Alexander; Dobrynin, Danil


    This work investigates the development of nanosecond pulsed discharges in water ignited with the application of both positive and negative polarity pulses to submerged pin to plane electrodes. Optical diagnostics are used to study two main aspects of these discharges: the initiation phase, and the development phase. Nanosecond pulses up to 24 kV with 4 ns rise time, 10 ns duration and 5 ns fall time are used to ignite discharges in a 1.5 mm gap between a copper plate and a tungsten needle wit...

  13. Fast estimation of lacustrine groundwater discharge volumes based on stable water isotopes (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Gercken, Jasper; Premke, Katrin; Meinikmann, Karin


    Lake eutrophication is still a severe problem in many parts of the world, commonly due to anthropogenic sources of nutrients such as fertilizer, manure or sewage. Improved quantification of nutrient inputs to lakes is required to address this problem. One possible input path for nutrients is lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD). However, LGD has often been disregarded in water and nutrient budgets of lakes although some studies reveal an extraordinary importance of LGD for phosphorus inputs. The aim of the present study is to identify lakes that receive large LGD volumes compared to other input paths. Such lakes are more prone to high groundwater-borne nutrient inputs than lakes with small LGD volumes. . The simple and fast approach used in the present study is based on the fact that evaporation of surface water causes an enrichment of heavier isotopes in lake and river water while precipitation and groundwater are lighter and have similar isotopic signatures. The isotopic signature of lake water depends on a) the isotopic signature of its inputs and b) the lakés residence time (the longer the more enriched with heavier isotopes). In the present study we used the citizen science project "Tatort Gewässer" to let people collect lake water samples all over Germany. Based on additional information we identified lakes without or with small (compared to the lake volume) aboveground inflows. Based on the isotopic signatures of these lakes and additional background information such as the mean depth we could identify lakes in which groundwater is an important component of the water balance. The results will be used as a basis of intense research on groundwater-driven lake eutrophication.

  14. Initial breakdown and fast leaders in lightning discharges producing long-lasting disturbances of the lower ionosphere (United States)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.; Zhu, Y.; Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Pilkey, J. T.; Caicedo, J. A.; Hare, B.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.


    The recent discovery of long recovery, early VLF scattering events (LOREs) indicates that the electric field changes from lightning discharges are capable of producing long-lasting disturbances (up to tens of minutes) in the upper mesosphere and lower ionosphere. Comparison of lightning mapping array, broadband (up to 10 MHz) electric field, and VLF (˜300 Hz to 42 kHz) magnetic field measurements shows that the field changes produced by initial breakdown (IB) processes and the following leaders in natural, cloud-to-ground lightning discharges are detectable in VLF magnetic field measurements at long distances. IB radiation has been detected in VLF for lightning discharges occurring up to 2630 km away from the VLF observing station. Radio atmospherics associated with 52 LOREs, 51 regular recovery events, and 3098 flashes detected by National Lightning Detection Network and/or GLD360 were examined for IB radiation occurring up to 15 ms before the return stroke. Our analysis reveals that in contrast to regular recovery early VLF events, LOREs are strongly associated with lightning discharges which exhibit an intense IB process and a fast first leader (typical duration <4 ms). These experimental results demonstrate that initial breakdown and leader processes are indicators of discharge properties highly relevant to the total energy transfer between lightning discharges and the middle/upper atmosphere.

  15. Large scale Tesla coil guided discharges initiated by femtosecond laser filamentation in air (United States)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Prade, B.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.


    The guiding of meter scale electric discharges produced in air by a Tesla coil is realized in laboratory using a focused terawatt laser pulse undergoing filamentation. The influence of the focus position, the laser arrival time, or the gap length is studied to determine the best conditions for efficient laser guiding. Discharge parameters such as delay, jitter, and resistance are characterized. An increase of the discharge length by a factor 5 has been achieved with the laser filaments, corresponding to a mean breakdown field of 2 kV/cm for a 1.8 m gap length. Consecutive guided discharges at a repetition rate of 10 Hz are also reported.

  16. A volume pulsed corona formed during nanosecond pulsed periodic discharge of negative polarity in narrow gaps with airflow at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Lepekhin, N. M.; Priseko, Yu. S.; Puresev, N. I.; Filippov, V. G.


    A volume mode of spatially homogeneous nanosecond pulsed-periodic corona discharge of negative polarity has been obtained using an edge-to-edge electrode geometry in narrow gaps with airflow at atmospheric pressure and natural humidity. The parameters of discharge are estimated, and a factor limiting the power deposited in discharge is determined.

  17. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics (United States)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  18. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloshenko, I A [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Tsiolko, V V [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Pogulay, S S [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Terent' yeva, A G [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazhenov, V Yu [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Shchedrin, A I [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Ryabtsev, A V [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmichev, A I [National Technical University ' KPI' , 37 Peremogy Avenue, KPI-2230, 03056, Kiev, (Ukraine)


    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} O{sub 5} and NO{sub 3} were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm{sup -3}. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NO{sub 3} for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  19. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: baseline results from a national quality improvement initiative. (United States)

    Wai, A; Pulver, L K; Oliver, K; Thompson, A


    Evidence-practice gaps exist in the continuum of care for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), particularly at hospital discharge. We aimed to describe the methodology and baseline results of the Discharge Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes (DMACS) project, focusing on the prescription of guideline-recommended medications, referral to cardiac rehabilitation and communication between the hospital, patient and their primary healthcare professionals. DMACS employed Drug Use Evaluation methodology involving data collection, evaluation and feedback, and targeted educational interventions. Adult patients with ACS discharged during a 4-month period were eligible to participate. Data were collected (maximum 50 patients) at each site through an inpatient medical record review, a general practitioner (GP) postal/fax survey conducted 14 days post discharge and a patient telephone survey 3 months post discharge. Forty-nine hospitals participated in the audit recruiting 1545 patients. At discharge, 57% of patients were prescribed a combination of antiplatelet agent(s), beta-blocker, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin II-antagonist. At 3 months post discharge, 48% of patients reported using the same combination. Some 67% of patients recalled being referred to cardiac rehabilitation; of these, 33% had completed the programme. In total, 83% of patients had a documented ACS management plan at discharge. Of these, 90% included a medication list, 56% a chest pain action plan and 54% risk factor modification advice. Overall, 65% of GPs rated the quality of information received in the discharge summary as 'very good' to 'excellent'. The findings of our baseline audit showed that despite the robust evidence base and availability of national guidelines, the management of patients with ACS can be improved. These findings will inform a multifaceted intervention strategy to improve adherence to guidelines for the discharge management of

  20. Telephone follow-up initiated by a hospital-based health professional for postdischarge problems in patients discharged from hospital to home. (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistiaen, P.; Poot, E.


    Objectives: To determine the effects of follow-up telephone calls (TFU) in the first month post discharge, initiated by hospital-based health professionals, to patients discharged from hospital to home, with regard to physical and psycho-social outcomes in the first three months post discharge. The

  1. Telephone follow-up initiated by a hospital-based health professional for postdischarge problems in patients discharged from hospital to home.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistiaen, P.; Poot, E.


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of follow-up telephone calls (TFU) in the first month post discharge, initiated by hospital-based health professionals, to patients discharged from hospital to home, with regard to physical and psycho-social outcomes in the first three months post discharge. The


    Luce, J.S.


    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  3. Modification of surface layers of copper under the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Shulepov, M. A.; Akhmadeev, Yu. Kh.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Kolubaeva, Yu. A.; Krysina, O. V.; Kostyrya, I. D.


    The results of experimental investigations of the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the surface of copper specimens are presented. The volumetric (diffuse) discharge in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure was initiated by applying high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration to a tubular foil cathode. It has been found that the treatment of a copper surface by this type of discharge increases the hardness of the surface layer due to oxidation.

  4. Using the Initiation System of Electrical Discharge in the Case of Electrohydraulic Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Coman


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the author experimental research in order to find the influence of exploding wire geometry on the pressure obtained in the discharge chamber, in the case of electrohydroimpulses drawing in the high voltage domain, between 20...50 kV. The fusible was made by Cu, being studied as follows: the influence of the diameter, of the discharge space length, of the developed length of the exploding wire, of the distance between base electrodes and also of the different types and dimensions of the plane or spatial geometrical configuration of the exploding wire.

  5. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 4. (United States)


    mice have been exposed to 10 min sham radiation or 10, 15 and 20 mW/cm! 2450-MHz RFR and sacrificed by cervical dislocation both immediately and 15...than 1 hr as evidenced by reabsorption of sodium and water (ae Lockwood and Bosmann, 1979). Lysosomal degradative enzymes were assayed as previously...Initial sodium reabsorption was 30% less than controls; initial urine flow was correspondingly 30% greater than controls (not shown). A. Mean

  6. Efficacy of a universal smoking cessation intervention initiated in inpatient psychiatry and continued post-discharge: A randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Metse, Alexandra P; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Wolfenden, Luke; Freund, Megan; Clancy, Richard; Stockings, Emily; Terry, Margarett; Allan, John; Colyvas, Kim; Prochaska, Judith J; Bowman, Jenny A


    Interventions are required to redress the disproportionate tobacco-related health burden experienced by persons with a mental illness. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a universal smoking cessation intervention initiated within an acute psychiatric inpatient setting and continued post-discharge in reducing smoking prevalence and increasing quitting behaviours. A randomised controlled trial was undertaken across four psychiatric inpatient facilities in Australia. Participants ( N = 754) were randomised to receive either usual care ( n = 375) or an intervention comprising a brief motivational interview and self-help material while in hospital, followed by a 4-month pharmacological and psychosocial intervention ( n = 379) upon discharge. Primary outcomes assessed at 6 and 12 months post-discharge were 7-day point prevalence and 1-month prolonged smoking abstinence. A number of secondary smoking-related outcomes were also assessed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on psychiatric diagnosis, baseline readiness to quit and nicotine dependence. Seven-day point prevalence abstinence was higher for intervention participants (15.8%) than controls (9.3%) at 6 months post-discharge (odds ratio = 1.07, p = 0.04), but not at 12 months (13.4% and 10.0%, respectively; odds ratio = 1.03, p = 0.25). Significant intervention effects were not found on measures of prolonged abstinence at either 6 or 12 months post-discharge. Differential intervention effects for the primary outcomes were not detected for any subgroups. At both 6 and 12 months post-discharge, intervention group participants were significantly more likely to smoke fewer cigarettes per day, have reduced cigarette consumption by ⩾50% and to have made at least one quit attempt, relative to controls. Universal smoking cessation treatment initiated in inpatient psychiatry and continued post-discharge was efficacious in increasing 7-day point prevalence smoking cessation

  7. Annular Electric Discharge as an Initiator of Combustion in Supersonic Flow (United States)


    an annular multielectrode system placed inside the chamber. This discharger is a system of insulated ring electrodes (titanium, stainless steel...The caloric and thermic equations of state for the mixture are as follows: where T is the mixture temperature, iμ is the molar mass of the ith

  8. Correlated Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and Radar Observations of the Initial Stages of Florida Triggered Lightning Discharges (United States)

    Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Uman, M, A.; Jordan, D. M.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Rison, W.; Blakeslee, R.


    We characterize the geometrical and electrical characteristics of the initial stages of nine Florida triggered lightning discharges using a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), a C-band SMART radar, and measured channel-base currents. We determine initial channel and subsequent branch lengths, average initial channel and branch propagation speeds, and channel-base current at the time of each branch initiation. The channel-base current is found to not change significantly when branching occurs, an unexpected result. The initial stage of Florida triggered lightning typically transitions from vertical to horizontal propagation at altitudes of 3-6 km, near the typical 0 C level of 4-5 km and several kilometers below the expected center of the negative cloud-charge region at 7-8 km. The data presented potentially provide information on thunderstorm electrical and hydrometeor structure and discharge propagation physics. LMA source locations were obtained from VHF sources of positive impulsive currents as small as 10 A, in contrast to expectations found in the literature.

  9. Sea Water Acidification Affects Osmotic Swelling, Regulatory Volume Decrease and Discharge in Nematocytes of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito


    Full Text Available Background: Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP, regulatory volume decrease (RVD and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy, was assessed. Methods: Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. Results: At normal pH (7.65, nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Conclusion: Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment.

  10. Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1986 Technical Report. Volume 3 (United States)


    which the student can achieve some initial success. 3. Utilize the Primacy and Recency Effects Primacy and recency refer to the importance of the first...I00 24 Effects of Exercise and Dobutamine Ms. Beverly Girten on Suspension Hypokinesia/ Hypodunamia Deconditioning in Rats 760-6MG-139 25 An...Arcraft with a Rapidly R6tating Airfoil 760-6MG-071 77 Mission- Effectiveness Afialysis of Dr. Boghos Sivazlian an Aircraft Attacking Pa’ssive fargets

  11. A PIC-MCC code RFdinity1d for simulation of discharge initiation by ICRF antenna (United States)

    Tripský, M.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Bobkov, V.; Schneider, P. A.; Stepanov, I.; Douai, D.; Van Eester, D.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Van Schoor, M.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; EUROfusion MST1 Team


    Discharges produced and sustained by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves in absence of plasma current will be used on ITER for (ion cyclotron-) wall conditioning (ICWC, Te = 3{-}5 eV, ne PIC-MCC) RFdinity1d for the study the breakdown phase of ICRF discharges, and its dependency on the RF discharge parameters (i) antenna input power P i , (ii) RF frequency f, (iii) shape of the electric field and (iv) the neutral gas pressure pH_2 . The code traces the motion of both electrons and ions in a narrow bundle of magnetic field lines close to the antenna straps. The charged particles are accelerated in the parallel direction with respect to the magnetic field B T by two electric fields: (i) the vacuum RF field of the ICRF antenna E_z^RF and (ii) the electrostatic field E_zP determined by the solution of Poisson’s equation. The electron density evolution in simulations follows exponential increase, {\\dot{n_e} ∼ ν_ion t } . The ionization rate varies with increasing electron density as different mechanisms become important. The charged particles are affected solely by the antenna RF field E_z^RF at low electron density ({ne < 1011} m-3 , {≤ft \\vert E_z^RF \\right \\vert \\gg ≤ft \\vert E_zP \\right \\vert } ). At higher densities, when the electrostatic field E_zP is comparable to the antenna RF field E_z^RF , the ionization frequency reaches the maximum. Plasma oscillations propagating toroidally away from the antenna are observed. The simulated energy distributions of ions and electrons at {ne ∼ 1015} m-3 correspond a power-law Kappa energy distribution. This energy distribution was also observed in NPA measurements at ASDEX Upgrade in ICWC experiments.

  12. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Results On discharge from hospital, 50.3% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants out of 96.9% of the mothers who had earlier initiated breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was positively related to vaginal birth, baby's first feed being breast milk, mother living in the suburbs or rural areas, younger age of mother, lower maternal education level and family income. Conclusion The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Zhejiang is only 50.3% on discharge and does not reach Chinese or international targets. A number of behaviours have been identified in the study that could be potentially incorporated into health promotion activities.

  13. Sensitivity of LISEM predicted catchment discharge to initial soil moisture content of soil profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, V.; van Loon, E.; Hessel, R.; Jetten, V.


    This study conducts a broad sensitivity analysis, taking into account the influence of initial soil moisture content in two soil layers, layer depths, event properties, and two infiltration models. A distributed hydrology and soil erosion model (LISEM) is used. Using the terrain data from the Catsop

  14. Discharge instabilities in high-pressure helium-fluorine laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.


    Discharge instabilities in F2 based excimer gas lasers are investigated using a small-scale discharge system. After preionizing the gas volume, a fast rising voltage pulse initiates the discharge. The temporal development of the discharge is monitored via its fluorescence by an intensified CCD

  15. A volume averaged global model for inductively coupled HBr/Ar plasma discharge (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Young; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young


    A global model for inductively coupled HBr/Ar plasma was developed. The model was based on a self-consistent global model had been developed by Kwon et al., and a set of chemical reactions in the HBr/Ar plasma was compiled by surveying theoretical, experimental and evaluative researches. In this model vibrational excitations of bi-atomic molecules and electronic excitations of hydrogen atom were taken into account. Neutralizations by collisions between positive and negative ions were considered with Hakman's approximate formula achieved by fitting of theoretical result. For some reactions that were not supplied from literatures the reaction parameters of Cl2 and HCl were adopted as them Br2 and HBr, respectively. For validation calculation results using this model were compared with experimental results from literatures for various plasma discharge parameters and it showed overall good agreement.

  16. Using SF6 Decomposed Component Analysis for the Diagnosis of Partial Discharge Severity Initiated by Free Metal Particle Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Tang


    Full Text Available The decomposition characteristics of a SF6 gas-insulated medium were used to diagnose the partial discharge (PD severity in DC gas-insulated equipment (DC-GIE. First, the PD characteristics of the whole process were studied from the initial PD to the breakdown initiated by a free metal particle defect. The average discharge magnitude in a second was used to characterize the PD severity and the PD was divided into three levels: mild PD, medium PD, and dangerous PD. Second, two kinds of voltage in each of the above PD levels were selected for the decomposition experiments of SF6. Results show that the negative DC-PD in these six experiments decomposes the SF6 gas and generates five stable decomposed components, namely, CF4, CO2, SO2F2, SOF2, and SO2. The concentrations and concentration ratios of the SF6 decomposed components can be associated with the PD severity. A minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance (mRMR-based feature selection algorithm was used to sort the concentrations and concentration ratios of the SF6 decomposed components. Back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM algorithms were used to diagnose the PD severity. The use of C(CO2/CT1, C(CF4/C(SO2, C(CO2/C(SOF2, and C(CF4/C(CO2 shows good performance in diagnosing PD severity. This finding serves as a foundation in using the SF6 decomposed component analysis (DCA method to diagnose the insulation faults in DC-GIE and assess its insulation status.

  17. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.


    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  18. Impact of particle density and initial volume on mathematical compression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn


    In the calculation of the coefficients of compression models for powders either the initial volume or the particle density is introduced as a normalising factor. The influence of these normalising factors is, however, widely different on coefficients derived from the Kawakita, Walker and Heckel e...

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  20. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume IV. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  1. Mastectomy - discharge (United States)

    Breast removal surgery - discharge; Nipple-sparing mastectomy - discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge; Breast cancer - mastectomy -discharge

  2. Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage. (United States)

    Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri


    The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley.

  3. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  4. Enhancing the Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED): Preliminary Results from Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department, a Novel Multicomponent Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative. (United States)

    Stevens, Melissa B; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Powers, James; Vandenberg, Ann E; Echt, Katharina V; Bryan, William E; Peggs, Kiffany; Markland, Alayne D; Hwang, Ula; Hung, William W; Schmidt, Anita J; McGwin, Gerald; Ikpe-Ekpo, Edidiong; Clevenger, Carolyn; Johnson, Theodore M; Vaughan, Camille P


    Suboptimal medication prescribing for older adults has been described in a number of emergency department (ED) studies. Despite this, few studies have examined ED-targeted interventions aimed at reducing the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the ED (EQUiPPED) is an ongoing multicomponent, interdisciplinary quality improvement initiative in eight Department of Veterans Affairs EDs. The project aims to decrease the use of PIMs, as identified by the Beers criteria, prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older at the time of ED discharge. Interventions include provider education; informatics-based clinical decision support with electronic medical record-embedded geriatric pharmacy order sets and links to online geriatric content; and individual provider education including academic detailing, audit and feedback, and peer benchmarking. Poisson regression was used to compare the number of PIMs that staff providers prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older discharged from the ED before and after the initiation of the EQUiPPED intervention. Initial data from the first implementation site show that the average monthly proportion of PIMs that staff providers prescribed was 9.4±1.5% before the intervention and 4.6±1.0% after the initiation of EQUiPPED (relative risk=0.48, 95% confidence interval=0.40-0.59, PJournal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Simulated impacts of artificial groundwater recharge and discharge of the source area and source volume of an Atlantic Coastal Plain Stream, Delaware, USA (United States)

    Kasper, Joshua W.; Denver, Judish M.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Ullman, William J.


    A numerical groundwater-flow model was used to characterize the source area and volume of Phillips Branch, a baseflow-dominated stream incising a highly permeable unconfined aquifer on the low relief Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Particle-tracking analyses indicate that the source area (5.51 km2) is ~20% smaller than the topographically defined watershed (6.85 km2), and recharge entering ~37% of the surface watershed does not discharge to Phillips Branch. Groundwater residence time within the source volume ranges from a few days to almost 100 years, with 95% of the volume "flushing" within 50 years. Artificial discharge from groundwater pumping alters the shape of the source area and reduces baseflow due to the interception of stream flow paths, but has limited impacts on the residence time of groundwater discharged as baseflow. In contrast, artificial recharge from land-based wastewater disposal substantially reduces the source area, lowers the range in residence time due to the elimination of older flow paths to the stream, and leads to increased discharge to adjacent surface-water bodies. This research suggests that, in this and similar hydrogeologic settings, the "watershed" approach to water-resource management may be limited, particularly where anthropogenic stresses alter the transport of soluble contaminants through highly permeable unconfined aquifers.

  6. Maternal Education Is Associated with Disparities in Breastfeeding at Time of Discharge but Not at Initiation of Enteral Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Herich, Lena Carolin; Cuttini, Marina; Croci, Ileana; Franco, Francesco; Di Lallo, Domenico; Baronciani, Dante; Fares, Katia; Gargano, Giancarlo; Raponi, Massimiliano; Zeitlin, Jennifer


    To investigate the relationship between maternal education and breastfeeding in very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. This prospective, population-based cohort study analyzed the data of all very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care during 1 year in 3 regions in Italy (Lazio, Emilia-Romagna, and Marche). The use of mothers' own milk was recorded at initial enteral feedings and at hospital discharge. We used multilevel logistic analysis to model the association between maternal education and breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for maternal age and country of birth. Region was included as random effect. There were 1047 very preterm infants who received enteral feeding, and 975 were discharged alive. At discharge, the use of mother's own milk, exclusively or not, and feeding directly at the breast were significantly more likely for mothers with an upper secondary education or higher. We found no relationship between maternal education and type of milk at initial enteral feedings. However, the exclusive early use of the mother's own milk at initial feedings was related significantly with receiving any maternal milk and feeding directly at the breast at discharge from hospital, and the association with feeding at the breast was stronger for the least educated mothers. In this population-based cohort of very preterm infants, we found a significant and positive association between maternal education and the likelihood of receiving their mother's own milk at the time of discharge. In light of the proven benefits of maternal milk, strategies to support breastfeeding should be targeted to mothers with less education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting the results of uterine artery embolization: correlation between initial intramural fibroid volume and percentage volume decrease (United States)

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Wrona, Wojciech; Milart, Paweł; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Popajewski, Michał


    Introduction and objective Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive treatment option for symptomatic fibroids. Long-term follow-up studies have shown that at five-year follow-up after UAE, up to 30% of patients required a hysterectomy. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to identify patients, who are unlikely to benefit from UAE. It has been postulated that the percentage volume reduction of fibroids may predict long-term UAE outcome. The results of available studies are equivocal, therefore it seemed of interest to investigate the correlation between the preinterventional intramural fibroid volume and imaging outcome of UAE in premenopausal patients. Material and methods Uterine artery embolization was performed in 65 premenopausal patients with symptomatic, intramural fibroids. Dominant fibroid volume was assessed using an integrated VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) imaging program at baseline and 3 months after UAE. The percentage reduction of fibroid volume was calculated. The association between preinterventional fibroid volumes and percentage volume reductions was determined with the Spearman rank correlation test. Results Before UAE, the median dominant fibroid volume was 101 cm3 (range 23.6-610). At three-month follow-up the median dominant leiomyoma volume decreased to 50.4 cm3 (range 6.9-193.9). Median percentage reduction of fibroid volume three months after UAE was calculated at 50.1% (range 2.7-93.5). The Spearman correlation test between the preinterventional dominant fibroid volume and percentage volume reduction showed a statistically significant, positive correlation (R = 0.33; p = 0.006). Conclusions The percentage volume reduction of intramural leiomyomas after UAE seems to be more pronounced in the case of larger tumors. PMID:26327862

  8. Impact of initial tumor volume on radiotherapy outcome in patients with T2 glottic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, T. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gliwice (Poland)


    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of initial tumor volume (TV) on radiotherapy (RT) outcome in patients with T2 glottic cancer. Initial TV was calculated for 115 consecutive patients with T2 glottic cancer who had been treated with definitive RT alone at a single institution. The results showed strong correlations of TV with 3-year local tumor control (LTC) and disease-free survival (DFS). For TV ≤ 0.7 cm{sup 3}, 3-year LTC was 83 %; for TV 0.7-3.6 cm{sup 3} this was 70 % and for TV 3.6-17 cm{sup 3} 44 %. Analysis of total dose vs. initial TV showed that larger T2 glottic tumors with a TV of around 5 cm{sup 3} (2-2.5 cm in diameter with 10{sup 10} cancer cells) need an extra 6.5 Gy to achieve similar 3-year LTC rates as for small tumors with a TV of 0.5 cm{sup 3} (∝1 cm in diameter with 10{sup 9} cancer cells). Although classification of tumors according to TV cannot replace TNM staging in daily practice, it could represent a valuable numerical supplement for planning the optimal dose fractionation scheme for individual patients. (orig.)

  9. A pilot study to monitor changes in spirometry and lung volume, following an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), as part of a supported discharge program. (United States)

    Cushen, Breda; McCormack, Niamh; Hennigan, Kerrie; Sulaiman, Imran; Costello, Richard W; Deering, Brenda


    One-third of patients with an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) are re-hospitalised at 90 days. Exacerbation recovery is associated with reductions in lung hyperinflation and improvements in symptoms and physical activity. We assessed the feasibility of monitoring these clinical parameters in the home. We hypothesised that the degree of change in spirometry and lung volumes differs between those who had an uneventful recovery and those who experienced a further exacerbation. Hospitalised patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD referred for a supported discharge program participated in the study. Spirometry and Inspiratory Vital Capacity(IVC) were measured in the home at Days 1, 14 and 42 post-discharge. Patients also completed Medical Research Council(MRC), Borg and COPD Assessment Test(CAT) scores and were provided with a tri-axial accelerometer. Any new exacerbation events were recorded. Sixty-five patients with 72 exacerbation episodes were recruited. Fifty percent experienced a second exacerbation. Adequate IVC measurements were achieved by 90%, while only 70% completed spirometry. Uneventful recovery was accompanied by significant improvements in physiological measurements at day14, improved symptom scores and step count, p spirometry, lung volumes, symptoms and step count following a COPD exacerbation may help to identify patients at risk of re-exacerbation. It is feasible to carry out these assessments in the home as part of a supported discharge programme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume. (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan


    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  11. Fundamental studies on initiation and evolution of multi-channel discharges and their application to next generation pulsed power machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Jens; Savage, Mark E.; Lucero, Diego Jose; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Seals, Kelly Gene; Pitts, Todd Alan; Hautzenroeder, Brenna M.; Laine, Mark Richard; Karelitz, David B.; Porter, John L.


    Future pulsed power systems may rely on linear transformer driver (LTD) technology. The LTD's will be the building blocks for a driver that can deliver higher current than the Z-Machine. The LTD's would require tens of thousands of low inductance ( %3C 85nH), high voltage (200 kV DC) switches with high reliability and long lifetime ( 10 4 shots). Sandia's Z-Machine employs 36 megavolt class switches that are laser triggered by a single channel discharge. This is feasible for tens of switches but the high inductance and short switch life- time associated with the single channel discharge are undesirable for future machines. Thus the fundamental problem is how to lower inductance and losses while increasing switch life- time and reliability. These goals can be achieved by increasing the number of current-carrying channels. The rail gap switch is ideal for this purpose. Although those switches have been extensively studied during the past decades, each effort has only characterized a particular switch. There is no comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics that would allow predictive capability for arbitrary switch geometry. We have studied rail gap switches via an extensive suite of advanced diagnostics in synergy with theoretical physics and advanced modeling capability. Design and topology of multichannel switches as they relate to discharge dynamics are investigated. This involves electrically and optically triggered rail gaps, as well as discrete multi-site switch concepts.

  12. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang


    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pancreatitis - discharge (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  14. Security in gas discharge while unsealing a closed stope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong-xiang Li; Ping Sun; Qiang Wu [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Vocation


    Given the problem of harmful gas discharge in unsealing coal mining faces, we numerically simulated the process of change of gas flows and movements. We have pointed out that, at the moment of unsealing a closed stope, the gas discharge is naturally divided into two parts, i.e., the discharge of gas in the working face and that in the goaf, because of the difference in the spatial medium. The absolute volume of gas discharged has a tendency to decrease from its initial peak value to a final stable value. The rate of decrease and the time needed to reach a stable discharge are related to the scale of the mining stope. The discharge of gas from the working face is closely related to the amount of air distributed in the air return way. The most important thing in unsealing a stope is to have the initial peak volume of gas discharged well under control. A commonly used method in solving this problem is at first to use a small amount of air and then increasing it gradually. Our study shows that, by extracting gas from the upper corner, we can use a large volume of air at first in order to shorten considerably the discharge time and improve efficiency, thereby making mining activity safer. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Changes in breastfeeding initiation at hospital discharge between first and second births in Nova Scotia: a population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Nix, Kimberley; Dodds, Linda


    Breastfeeding has well-recognized health benefits for infants and mothers. However, little research has been conducted to investigate changes in breastfeeding from one pregnancy to another. This study was conducted to describe rates of breastfeeding initiation at hospital discharge for women's first and second births and to identify factors associated with changes in initiation at the second birth. We conducted a longitudinal, population-based cohort study involving women residing in Nova Scotia who delivered a first and second live-born singleton between 2007 and 2013. Separate analyses were conducted among women who breastfed their first infant and among women who did not breastfeed their first infant. Of the 9643 (82.6%) mothers who initiated breastfeeding in the first birth, 973 (10.3%) did not initiate breastfeeding in the second birth. Of first-birth noninitiators, 526 (26.3%) initiated breastfeeding in the second birth. With the exception of smoking and cesarean births, factors that were associated with breastfeeding initiation in the second birth depended on breastfeeding initiation status in the first birth. These factors were associated with increased odds of not breastfeeding in the second birth among the subset of mothers who breastfed in the first birth, and decreased odds of breastfeeding in the second birth among the subset of mothers who did not breastfeed in the first birth. Most women continue the same method of infant feeding after their first and second births. Identifying factors associated with change in breastfeeding status between the first and second births may help to inform interventions for optimal breastfeeding initiation in the second birth.

  16. Nucleation and initial growth of atomic layer deposited titanium oxide determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the effect of pretreatment by surface barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, David C., E-mail: [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Krumpolec, Richard, E-mail: [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 4 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ivanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: [ASTRaL team, Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Homola, Tomáš, E-mail: [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko, E-mail: [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows initial nucleation and growth process in atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide. • Quantum confinement effects were used to measure evolution of crystallite size. • Crystallite surface density can be extracted from ellipsometric surface roughness data and crystallite size. • Pretreatment of silicon substrates by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge has only minor effects on titanium dioxide film nucleation and growth. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterise the initial nucleation stage of the atomic layer deposition of the anatase phase of titanium dioxide on silicon substrates. Careful control and analysis of the ellipsometric measurements enables the determination of the evolution of crystallite diameter and surface density in the nucleation stage before a continuous film is formed. This growth behaviour is in line with atomic force microscopy measurements of the crystallite size. The crystallite diameter is a linear function of the number of ALD cycles with a slope of approximately 1.7 Å cycle{sup −1} which is equivalent to a layer growth rate of 0.85 Å cycle{sup −1} consistent with a ripening process which increases the crystallite size while reducing their density. The crystallite density decreases from ∼3 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3} in the initial nucleation stages to ∼3 × 10{sup 15} m{sup −3} before the film becomes continuous. The effect of exposing the substrate to a diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge in an air atmosphere before deposition was measured and only small differences were found: the plasma treated samples were slightly rougher in the initial stages and required a greater number of cycles to form a continuous film (∼80) compared to the untreated films (∼50). A thicker layer of native oxide was found after plasma treatment.

  17. A New Measurement Method of Relative Volume Wear Ratio Based on Discharge Debris Composition Analysis in Micro-EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available In microelectrical discharge machining (micro-EDM milling process, due to the unavoidability of electrode wear, selection of electrode with high electrical erosion resistance and accurate electrode compensation is entitled to be conducted to ensure high precision and high quality. The RVWR is used as criterion for electrode wear characteristics and is fundamental to achieve accurate electrode compensation; however, it is hardly measured accurately with conventional methods. In this paper, firstly, the error of RVWR measured by conventional measurement method is analyzed. Thereafter, for accurately measuring RVWR, a new measurement method is proposed based on electrical debris composition analysis. The RVWR of widely used tungsten, molybdenum, and copper electrode in machining different materials is measured, respectively, and the optimum electrode is selected based on the measuring results. Finally, microgrooves on different materials are machined with tungsten electrode, and the experiment results show that the microstructures have good bottom surface profiles, which indicates that the proposed method is effective to precisely measure the RVWR and guarantee accurate electrode compensation in micro-EDM process.

  18. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  19. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  20. Observations of the initial, upward-propagating, positive leader steps in a rocket-and-wire triggered lightning discharge (United States)

    Biagi, Christopher J.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.


    We present high-speed video images (recorded at 300 kfps) of an upward positive leader developing stepwise from the top of a grounded triggering wire. The leader initiated from the wire top at a height of 123 m, and was imaged over a distance of 11 m in ten discrete steps. Unique current pulses were detected at the wire base corresponding to each optical step. Luminosity waves propagated downward from the leader tip. The step lengths ranged from 0.4 to 2.2 m; the interstep time intervals from 16.6 to 30.4 μs. The leader's upward development speed increased with height, from 5.5 × 104 m s-1 between heights of 123 m and 134 m, the bottom 11 m, to 2.1 × 105 m s-1 at a height of 350 m. The measured wire-base peak currents for the individual steps ranged from 17 to 153 A. After removing from the wire-base current measurements the effect of propagation on the triggering wire and the effect of reflection at the ground connection, we estimate that the peak currents at the wire top, the step current, ranged from 10 to 89 A. The charge lowered to ground following each step ranged from 22 to 107 μC. The leader channel contained, on average, 51 μC m-1 of positive charge, a value that is similar to laboratory measurements of long positive polarity sparks.

  1. Clinical benefits of eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms when initiated shortly after hospital discharge: analysis from the EMPHASIS-HF trial. (United States)

    Girerd, Nicolas; Collier, Tim; Pocock, Stuart; Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J; Swedberg, Karl; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Vincent, John; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez


    Cardiovascular hospitalization (CVH) in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with a high post-discharge rate of early re-admission and CV death. Eplerenone might be effective in reducing the incidence of these adverse clinical outcomes during this period. The EMPHASIS-HF trial compared eplerenone with placebo added to standard therapy in 2737 patients with New York Heart Association class II HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. We conducted a post hoc analysis in the 2338 patients randomized within 180 days of a CVH. The interaction between the time from the qualifying CVH to randomization and the primary outcome of CV death or hospitalization for HF (HHF), as well as other secondary outcomes, was assessed in Cox survival models. Most of the qualifying CVHs were HHF (N = 1496, 64.0%), acute coronary syndromes (N = 390, 16.7%), and arrhythmias (N = 197, 7.2%). The median time of study drug initiation from qualifying CVH was 42 days. The relative rate reductions in CV death/HHF, HHF, and all-cause mortality were similar (P for interaction = 0.65, 0.44, and 0.40, respectively) whether the treatment was initiated HF or acute coronary syndromes in patients with systolic HF and mild symptoms. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:

  2. Activity-based funding of hospitals and its impact on mortality, readmission, discharge destination, severity of illness, and volume of care: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Palmer

    Full Text Available Activity-based funding (ABF of hospitals is a policy intervention intended to re-shape incentives across health systems through the use of diagnosis-related groups. Many countries are adopting or actively promoting ABF. We assessed the effect of ABF on key measures potentially affecting patients and health care systems: mortality (acute and post-acute care; readmission rates; discharge rate to post-acute care following hospitalization; severity of illness; volume of care.We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide evidence produced since 1980. We included all studies reporting original quantitative data comparing the impact of ABF versus alternative funding systems in acute care settings, regardless of language. We searched 9 electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Business Source, hand-searched reference lists, and consulted with experts. Paired reviewers independently screened for eligibility, abstracted data, and assessed study credibility according to a pre-defined scoring system, resolving conflicts by discussion or adjudication.Of 16,565 unique citations, 50 US studies and 15 studies from 9 other countries proved eligible (i.e. Australia, Austria, England, Germany, Israel, Italy, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland. We found consistent and robust differences between ABF and no-ABF in discharge to post-acute care, showing a 24% increase with ABF (pooled relative risk  = 1.24, 95% CI 1.18-1.31. Results also suggested a possible increase in readmission with ABF, and an apparent increase in severity of illness, perhaps reflecting differences in diagnostic coding. Although we found no consistent, systematic differences in mortality rates and volume of care, results varied widely across studies, some suggesting appreciable benefits from ABF, and others suggesting

  3. Restricting volumes of resuscitation fluid in adults with septic shock after initial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortrup, Peter B; Haase, Nicolai; Bundgaard, Helle


    PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of a protocol restricting resuscitation fluid vs. a standard care protocol after initial resuscitation in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock. METHODS: We randomised 151 adult patients with septic shock who had received initial fluid resuscitation...... patients with septic shock. The patient-centred outcomes all pointed towards benefit with fluid restriction, but our trial was not powered to show differences in these exploratory outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02079402....

  4. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume VIII. Responses to comments on AIPA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, P.H.


    The first seven volumes of the report series provide formal documentation of the status of the ERDA-sponsored Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) study as of the end of FY75. That portion of the report was given broad distribution to government agencies, industrial organizations, and academic institutions. Comments on the Status Report have been actively solicited from these and other organizations. The volume presented (the eighth in the AIPA Status Report) documents all of the formal written comments that have been received as of September 30, 1976, together with the responses to those comments. The comments as presented are direct quotations from the manuscripts as submitted by the reviewers; none have been paraphrased. The comments are presented in the same order as submitted by the reviewers and are generally addressed individually.

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.


    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  6. The effects of liquid height/volume, initial concentration of reactant and acoustic power on sonochemical oxidation. (United States)

    Lim, Myunghee; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Son, Younggyu


    Even though much knowledge on acoustic cavitation and its application has been accumulated over the past decades, further research is still required to develop industrial uses of acoustic cavitation. It is because the available information is mainly based on small-scale sonoreactors and the design and optimization of sonoreactors for large-scale applications have not been widely studied. In this study, the effects of liquid height/volume, initial concentration of the reactant and input acoustic power on sonochemical oxidation reactions including iodide ion oxidation, As(III) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide generation were investigated using a 291kHz sonoreactor with various liquid height/volumes (50, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000mL) and input powers (23, 40, and 82W). As the liquid height/volume and the input power changed, the power density varied from 23 to 1640W/L and the maximum cavitation yields of triiodide ion for 23, 40, and 82W were observed at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2/0.3L, respectively. It was found that low power was more effective for the small volume and the large volume required high power level and the moderate power density, approximately 400W/L, was suggested for the sonochemical oxidation of iodide ion in the 291kHz sonoreactor in this study. Similar results were observed in the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the sonochemical oxidation of As(III) to As(V). It was also revealed that KI dosimetry could be applicable for the estimation of the sonochemical reactions of non-volatile compounds such as As(III). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heart bypass surgery - discharge (United States)

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass - discharge; OPCAB - discharge; Beating heart surgery - discharge; Bypass surgery - heart - discharge; CABG - discharge; Coronary artery bypass graft - discharge; Coronary artery ...

  8. Bronchiolitis - discharge (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  9. Angina - discharge (United States)

    ... also learn how to take care of your heart disease . Diet and lifestyle Try to limit how much alcohol ... surgery - discharge Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge Heart disease - risk ... Review Date 8/2/2016 Updated by: Michael ...

  10. Initial experience with a chest pain protocol using 320-slice volume MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Patrick A.; Romano, Valentina C.; Lembcke, Alexander; May, Juliane; Rogalla, Patrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Institut fuer Radiologie, Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany)


    We sought to determine the feasibility and image quality of 320-slice volume computed tomography (CT) angiography for the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain. Thirty consecutive patients (11 female, 19 male, mean age 63.2 {+-} 14.2 years) with noncritical, acute chest pain underwent 320-slice CT using a protocol consisting of a nonspiral, nongated CT of the entire chest, followed by a nonspiral, electrocardiography-gated CT study of the heart. Data were acquired following a biphasic intravenous injection of 90 ml iodinated contrast agent. Vessel attenuation values of different thoracic vascular territories were recorded, and image quality scored on a five-point scale by two readers. Mean attenuation was 467 {+-} 69 HU in the ascending aorta, 334 {+-} 52 HU in the aortic arch, 455 {+-} 71 HU in the descending aorta, 492 {+-} 94 HU in the pulmonary trunk, and 416 {+-} 63 HU and 436 {+-} 62 HU in the right and left coronary artery, respectively. Radiation exposure estimates ranged between 7 and 14 mSv. The CT protocol investigated enabled imaging of the thoracic aorta, coronary and pulmonary arteries with an excellent diagnostic quality for chest pain triage in all patients. This result was achieved with less contrast material and reduced radiation exposure compared with previously investigated imaging protocols. (orig.)

  11. Critical Void Volume Fraction fc at Void Coalescence for S235JR Steel at Low Initial Stress Triaxiality (United States)

    Grzegorz Kossakowski, Paweł; Wciślik, Wiktor


    The paper is concerned with the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microdefects in the form of voids in S235JR steel. The material is known to be one of the basic steel grades commonly used in the construction industry. The theory and methods of damage mechanics were applied to determine and describe the failure mechanisms that occur when the material undergoes deformation. Until now, engineers have generally employed the Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model. This material model based on damage mechanics is well suited to define and analyze failure processes taking place in the microstructure of S235JR steel. It is particularly important to determine the critical void volume fraction fc , which is one of the basic parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman material model. As the critical void volume fraction fc refers to the failure stage, it is determined from the data collected for the void coalescence phase. A case of multi-axial stresses is considered taking into account the effects of spatial stress state. In this study, the parameter of stress triaxiality η was used to describe the failure phenomena. Cylindrical tensile specimens with a circumferential notch were analysed to obtain low values of initial stress triaxiality (η = 0.556 of the range) in order to determine the critical void volume fraction fc . It is essential to emphasize how unique the method applied is and how different it is from the other more common methods involving parameter calibration, i.e. curve-fitting methods. The critical void volume fraction fc at void coalescence was established through digital image analysis of surfaces of S235JR steel, which involved studying real, physical results obtained directly from the material tested.

  12. Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 2: initial clinical experience. (United States)

    Kellman, Peter; Wilson, Joel R; Xue, Hui; Bandettini, W Patricia; Shanbhag, Sujata M; Druey, Kirk M; Ugander, Martin; Arai, Andrew E


    Diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and to a lesser extent global myocardial edema, are important processes in heart disease which are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) or T1-mapping. Measurement of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps. We hypothesized that quantitative assessment of myocardial ECV would be clinically useful for detecting both focal and diffuse myocardial abnormalities in a variety of common and uncommon heart diseases. A total of 156 subjects were imaged including 62 with normal findings, 33 patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI), 33 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 15 with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 7 with acute myocarditis, 4 with cardiac amyloidosis, and 2 with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS). Motion corrected ECV maps were generated automatically from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. Abnormally-elevated ECV was defined as >2SD from the mean ECV in individuals with normal findings. In HCM the size of regions of LGE was quantified as the region >2 SD from remote. Mean ECV of 62 normal individuals was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD), normal range 20.4%-30.4%. Mean ECV within the core of chronic myocardial infarctions (without MVO) (N=33) measured 68.5 ± 8.6% (pmapping appears promising to complement LGE imaging in cases of more homogenously diffuse disease. The ability to display ECV maps in units that are physiologically intuitive and may be interpreted on an absolute scale offers the potential for detection of diffuse disease and measurement of the extent and severity of abnormal regions.

  13. Cardiac catheterization - discharge (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary ...

  14. A change in the electro-physical properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.


    The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at atmospheric pressure is promising for modification of electro-physical MCT properties.

  15. Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 2: initial clinical experience (United States)


    Background Diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and to a lesser extent global myocardial edema, are important processes in heart disease which are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) or T1-mapping. Measurement of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps. We hypothesized that quantitative assessment of myocardial ECV would be clinically useful for detecting both focal and diffuse myocardial abnormalities in a variety of common and uncommon heart diseases. Methods A total of 156 subjects were imaged including 62 with normal findings, 33 patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI), 33 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 15 with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 7 with acute myocarditis, 4 with cardiac amyloidosis, and 2 with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS). Motion corrected ECV maps were generated automatically from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. Abnormally-elevated ECV was defined as >2SD from the mean ECV in individuals with normal findings. In HCM the size of regions of LGE was quantified as the region >2 SD from remote. Results Mean ECV of 62 normal individuals was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD), normal range 20.4%-30.4%. Mean ECV within the core of chronic myocardial infarctions (without MVO) (N = 33) measured 68.5 ± 8.6% (p ECV correlated to the extent of LGE (r = 0.72, p ECV (mean difference 19 ± 7% of slice). Abnormally elevated ECV was identified in 4 of 16 patients with non-ischemic DCM (38.1 ± 1.9% (p ECV values in other disease entities ranged 32-60% for cardiac amyloidosis (N = 4), 40-41% for systemic capillary leak syndrome (N = 2), and 39-56% within abnormal regions affected by myocarditis (N = 7). Conclusions ECV mapping appears promising to complement LGE imaging in cases of more

  16. Development of a Pre-admission Screening Checklist to Minimize Acute Discharges from an Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Alekseyev


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is twofold. Firstly, it attempts to examine the causes of the patient discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF to an acute care hospital. Secondly, it is intended to develop a Pre-admission Screening Checklist (PSC and examine its utility in minimizing the acute discharges to improve the care quality. Materials & Methods: A retrospective chart review was completed, examining the data from the patients’ medical charts admitted to an inner-city IRF over a 6-month period. A PSC was developed and implemented as a part of admission record review prior to deciding on the patient admission to the IRF. The PSC included information relevant to the patient’s medical condition, rehabilitation potential, and the risk of acute discharge, which was completed over a 4-month period. Results: According to the results, the rate of acute discharge in the IRF patients was 15.7% in the 6-month period prior to the implementation of the PSC, which included 549 referrals and 86 patients. Additionally, the PSC was applied for 324 referrals over the subsequent 4-month period. Out of the patients that were reviewed using the PSC, 37 cases were acutely discharged from the IRF during their rehabilitation (11.4%. The most common reasons for acute discharge were heart diseases, sepsis, and change in neurological status. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, the PSC is a useful instrument that can improve the care quality by identifying the patients at the risk of acute discharge before admission to the IRF. The PSC can be a useful adjunct to the efforts made to prevent acute discharges from the IRF by creating a standardized assessment that optimizes the care.

  17. Predicting Rectal and Bladder Overdose During the Course of Prostate Radiotherapy Using Dose-Volume Data From Initial Treatment Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Vedang, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Shukla, Pragya; Adurkar, Pranjal; Master, Zubin; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Purpose: To evaluate whether information from the initial fractions can determine which patients are likely to consistently exceed their planning dose-volume constraints during the course of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were recontoured on their daily megavoltage computed tomography scans and the dose was recalculated. The bladder and rectal volumes (in mL) receiving {>=}100% and {>=}70% of the prescribed dose in each fraction and in the original plans were recorded. A fraction for which the difference between planned and delivered was more than 2 mL was considered a volume failure. Similarly if the difference in the planned and delivered maximum dose (D{sub max}) was {>=}1% for the rectum and bladder, the fraction was considered a dose failure. Each patient's first 3 to 5 fractions were analyzed to determine if they correctly identified those patients who would consistently fail (i.e., {>=}20% of fractions) during the course of their radiotherapy. Results: Six parameters were studied; the rectal volume (RV) and bladder volumes (BV) (in mL) received {>=}100% and {>=}70% of the prescribed dose and maximum dose to 2 mL of the rectum and bladder. This was given by RV{sub 100}, RV{sub 70}, BV{sub 100}, BV{sub 70}, RD{sub max}, and BD{sub max}, respectively. When more than 1 of the first 3 fractions exceed the planning constraint as defined, it accurately predicts consistent failures through the course of the treatment. This method is able to correctly identify the consistent failures about 80% (RV{sub 70}, BV{sub 100}, and RV{sub 100}), 90% (BV{sub 70}), and 100% (RD{sub max} and BD{sub max}) of the times. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method accurately identifying patients who are likely to consistently exceed the planning constraints during the course of

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume 4. Safety and health plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Safety and Health Plan recognizes the potential hazards associated with the Project and has been developed specifically to respond to these risks in a positive manner. Prevention, the primary objective of the Plan, starts with building safety controls into the process design and continues through engineering, construction, start-up, and operation of the Project facilities and equipment. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local health and safety laws, regulations, and codes throughout all Project phases is required and assured. The Plan requires that each major Project phase be thoroughly reviewed and analyzed to determine that those provisions required to assure the safety and health of all employees and the public, and to prevent property and equipment losses, have been provided. The Plan requires followup on those items or situations where corrective action needs were identified to assure that the action was taken and is effective. Emphasis is placed on loss prevention. Exhibit 1 provides a breakdown of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.'s (ASFI's) Loss Prevention Program. The Plan recognizes that the varied nature of the work is such as to require the services of skilled, trained, and responsible personnel who are aware of the hazards and know that the work can be done safely, if done correctly. Good operating practice is likewise safe operating practice. Training is provided to familiarize personnel with good operational practice, the general sequence of activities, reporting requirements, and above all, the concept that each step in the operating procedures must be successfully concluded before the following step can be safely initiated. The Plan provides for periodic review and evaluation of all safety and loss prevention activities at the plant and departmental levels.

  19. Initiation of resuscitation with high tidal volumes causes cerebral hemodynamic disturbance, brain inflammation and injury in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available AIMS: Preterm infants can be inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (V(T in the delivery room, causing lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about their effects on the brain. The aim of this study was to compare an initial 15 min of high V(T resuscitation strategy to a less injurious resuscitation strategy on cerebral haemodynamics, inflammation and injury. METHODS: Preterm lambs at 126 d gestation were surgically instrumented prior to receiving resuscitation with either: 1 High V(T targeting 10-12 mL/kg for the first 15 min (n = 6 or 2 a protective resuscitation strategy (Prot V(T, consisting of prophylactic surfactant, a 20 s sustained inflation and a lower initial V(T (7 mL/kg; n = 6. Both groups were subsequently ventilated with a V(T 7 mL/kg. Blood gases, arterial pressures and carotid blood flows were recorded. Cerebral blood volume and oxygenation were assessed using near infrared spectroscopy. The brain was collected for biochemical and histologic assessment of inflammation, injury, vascular extravasation, hemorrhage and oxidative injury. Unventilated controls (UVC; n = 6 were used for comparison. RESULTS: High V(T lambs had worse oxygenation and required greater ventilatory support than Prot V(T lambs. High V(T resulted in cerebral haemodynamic instability during the initial 15 min, adverse cerebral tissue oxygenation index and cerebral vasoparalysis. While both resuscitation strategies increased lung and brain inflammation and oxidative stress, High V(T resuscitation significantly amplified the effect (p = 0.014 and p<0.001. Vascular extravasation was evident in the brains of 60% of High V(T lambs, but not in UVC or Prot V(T lambs. CONCLUSION: High V(T resulted in greater cerebral haemodynamic instability, increased brain inflammation, oxidative stress and vascular extravasation than a Prot V(T strategy. The initiation of resuscitation targeting Prot V(T may reduce the severity of brain injury in preterm neonates.

  20. Frequency and volumes of ignimbrite eruptions following the Late Neogene initiation of the Central Oregon High Cascades (United States)

    Pitcher, Bradley W.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Grunder, Anita L.; Duncan, Robert A.


    The late Neogene Deschutes Formation of central Oregon preserves a remarkable volcanic and sedimentary record of the initial stages of High Cascades activity following an eastward shift in the locus of volcanism at 7.5 Ma. Numerous ignimbrite and tephra-fall units are contained within the formation, and since equivalent deposits are relatively rare for the Quaternary Cascades, the eruptions of the earliest High Cascade volcanoes were likely more explosive than those of the Quaternary arc. In this study, the timing and frequency of eruptions which produced 14 laterally extensive marker ignimbrites within the Deschutes Formation are established using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar ages for the lowermost (6.25 ± 0.07 Ma) and uppermost (5.45 ± 0.04 Ma) marker ignimbrites indicate that all major explosive eruptions within the Deschutes Formation occurred within a period of 800 ± 54 k.y. (95% confidence interval). Minimum estimates for the volumes of the 14 ignimbrites, using an ArcGIS-based method, range from 1.0 to 9.4 km3 and have a total volume of 62.5 km3. Taken over the 50 km of arc length, the explosive volcanic production rate of the central Oregon High Cascades during Deschutes Formation time was a minimum of 1.8 km3/m.y./km of arc length. By including estimates of the volumes of tephra-fall components, as well as ignimbrites that may have traveled west, we estimate a total volume range, for these 14 eruptions alone, of 188 to 363 km3 ( 121 to 227 km3 DRE), a rate of 4.7-9.1 km3/m.y./km arc length. This explosive volcanic production rate is much higher than the average Quaternary eruption rates, of all compositions, estimated for the entire Cascade arc (1.5-2.5), Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian arc (0.6-1.0), and the Andean southern volcanic zone (1.1-2.0). We suggest that this atypical explosive pulse may result from the onset of regional extension and migration of the magmatic arc, which had the combined effect of increasing

  1. Surface discharge induced interactions of filaments in argon dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Panpan; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaotong; Jia, Pengying; Dong, Lifang


    A needle-plate geometry is used to generate two barrier-discharge filaments composed of volume discharge and surface discharge in atmospheric pressure argon, interactions of which are investigated for the first time on the nanosecond timescale using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results indicate that the onset of volume discharges for the two filaments have a periodical discharge sequence, which implies interactions of the two filaments. Moreover, strong interactions of the two filaments are controlled through surface discharges, one of which is induced by that of the other filament during the positive discharge. Different from repulsive streamers, counter-propagating streamers are attractive between the two filaments.

  2. Investigation in the iceberg capsizing force responsible for glacial earthquakes and ice-volume discharge estimation from seismic records and a numerical modeling (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Mangeney, Anne; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Stuzmann, Eléonore


    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of kilometer-scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves which last between 2 and 10 min, with dominant energy between 10-100 s of period. The source responsible for generation of such seismic waves is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. We develop a 2D finite element model which takes into account the effect of water on solid structures. Using realistic rheological laws that describe ice behavior, we model iceberg capsize and investigate the forces applied on the solid Earth during this phenomenon, and generated seismic waves. We investigate the force variations with iceberg dimensions, initial buoyant conditions and direction of capsize rotation. We find that top-out iceberg capsize exerts a force on the glacier terminus which largely differs from the bottom-out capsize force in terms of amplitude and force waveforms but only in the seismic frequency band. For realistic iceberg dimensions, we compute a catalog of capsize forces whose magnitudes are consistent with seismic observations. Finally, by exploring the geometric parameters which control the capsize dynamics (height and width of the iceberg, and its initial buoyant condition), we are able to accurately reproduce the observed seismic wavefield and estimate the calved iceberg volume.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova


    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  4. Discharge of landfill leachate to streambed sediments impacts the mineralization potential of phenoxy acid herbicides depending on the initial abundance of tfdA gene classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Milosevic, Nemanja; Malaguerra, Flavio


    faster mineralization. The observed difference in mineralization rates between discharge zones was simulated by a Monod-based kinetic model, which confirmed the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes. This study suggests presence of specific degraders adapted to slow growth rate and high yield strategy...

  5. The association between guideline-based treatment instructions at the point of discharge and lower 1-year mortality in Medicare patients after acute myocardial infarction: the American College of Cardiology's Guidelines Applied in Practice (GAP) initiative in Michigan. (United States)

    Rogers, Adam M; Ramanath, Vijay S; Grzybowski, Mary; Riba, Arthur L; Jani, Sandeep M; Mehta, Rajendra; De Franco, Anthony C; Parrish, Robert; Skorcz, Stephen; Baker, Patricia L; Faul, Jessica; Chen, Benrong; Roychoudhury, Canopy; Elma, Mary Anne C; Mitchell, Kristi R; Froehlich, James B; Montoye, Cecelia; Eagle, Kim A


    The American College of Cardiology's Guidelines Applied in Practice (GAP) initiative for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to increase the use of guideline-based therapies and improve outcomes in patients with AMI. It is unknown whether hospitals that are more successful in using the standard discharge contract--a key component of GAP that emphasizes guideline-based medications, lifestyle modification, and follow-up planning--experience a proportionally greater improvement in patient outcomes. Medicare patients treated for AMI in all 33 participating GAP hospitals in Michigan were enrolled. We aggregated the hospitals into 3 tertiles based on the rates of discharge contract use: 0% to 8.4% (tertile 1), >8.4% to 38.0% (tertile 2), and >38.0% to 61.1% (tertile 3). We analyzed 1-year follow-up mortality both pre- and post-GAP and compared the mortality decline post-GAP with discharge contract use according to tertile. There were 1368 patients in the baseline (pre-GAP) cohort and 1489 patients in the post-GAP cohort. After GAP implementation, mortality at 1 year decreased by 1.2% (P = .71), 1.2% (P = .68), and 6.0% (P = .03) for tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, discharge contract use was significantly associated with decreased 1-year mortality in tertile 2 (odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.84) and tertile 3 (odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.75). Increased hospital utilization of the standard discharge contract as part of the GAP program is associated with decreased 1-year mortality in Medicare patient populations with AMI. Hospital efforts to promote adherence to guideline-based care tools such as the discharge contract used in GAP may result in mortality reductions for their patient populations at 1 year.

  6. The influence of Kr, CO2, and iso-C4H8 admixtures on the time of the formation of a stable flame front in mixtures of natural gas and isobutylene with oxygen and hydrogen with air under initiation with a spark discharge (United States)

    Rubtsov, N. M.; Seplyarskii, B. S.; Chernysh, V. I.; Tsvetkov, G. I.


    High-speed color filming was used to study laminar spherical flame propagation at the initial stage in preliminarily mixed stoichiometric mixtures of natural gas and isobutylene with oxygen containing krypton and carbon dioxide and in hydrogen-air mixtures at atmospheric pressure in a bomb with a constant volume. Under experimental conditions ( T 0 = 298 K, p 0 = 100 torr, spark discharge energy E 0 = 0.91 J), the dilution of mixtures with Kr and CO2 increased the time of formation of a stable flame front by more than 10 times. The introduction of a small chemically active admixture (1.2% isobutylene) into a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and air sharply increased the time of formation of a stable flame front, which was evidence of an important role played by the chemical mechanism of the reaction in the formation of the combustion field.

  7. Does the homogeneous ice nucleation initiate at the surface or in the volume of super-cooled water droplets? (United States)

    Benz, S.; Möhler, O.; Wagner, R.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.


    The nucleation of ice in super-cooled water droplets affects many atmospheric processes as the initiation of precipitation and radiative transfer. Water droplets are freezing due to the formation of a critical germ initiating the freezing of the whole droplet. The common quantity to describe the creation of ice is the nucleation rate J, defined as the product of the number of critical germs and the rate at which additional molecules are incorporated into a critical germ. Nucleation of ice in a super-cooled liquid is a stochastic process and depends strongly on temperature. Recently there was a discussion whether the germs of the new phase are formed preferentially near the surface or in the interior of the droplet. Experiments at the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe were performed to assess this question. We produced clouds of super-cooled water droplets and deduced the ice nucleation rate J from simultaneously measurements of the number density and size distribution of liquid droplets, the number density of ice particles, and the temperature in the range between -36 and -37 °C. With different number densities of seed aerosol particles (sulphuric acid aerosol) we were able to vary the size of the nucleating water droplets between 4 µm and 9 µm diameter. The comparison of the results - by assumption of a volume dependent process - showed very good agreement both with data from literature gained from considerably larger droplets and with classical nucleation theory. The nucleation rates disagree from each other when converting them to surface-proportional values. This contradicts the hypothesis that a critical germ is formed preferentially near the surface of a super-cooled liquid droplet.

  8. Ear discharge (United States)

    ... antibiotic medicines, which are placed in the ear. Antibiotics may be given by mouth if a ruptured eardrum from an ear infection is causing the discharge. Alternative Names Drainage from the ear; Otorrhea; Ear bleeding; ...

  9. Osteomyelitis - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Osteomyelitis - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have osteomyelitis , a bone infection caused by bacteria or other ...

  10. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu


    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  11. Hip fracture - discharge (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  12. Association of timing of initiation of breastmilk expression on milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II among mothers of very low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Parker, Leslie A; Sullivan, Sandra; Krueger, Charlene; Mueller, Martina


    Feeding breastmilk to premature infants decreases morbidity but is often limited owing to an insufficient milk supply and delayed attainment of lactogenesis stage II. Early initiation of milk expression following delivery has been shown to increase milk production in mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Although recommendations for milk expression in this population include initiation within 6 hours following delivery, little evidence exists to support these guidelines. This study compared milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II in mothers of VLBW infants who initiated milk expression within 6 hours following delivery versus those who initiated expression after 6 hours. Forty mothers of VLBW infants were grouped according to when they initiated milk expression following delivery. Group I began milk expression within 6 hours, and Group II began expression after 6 hours. Milk volume was measured daily for the first 7 days and on Days 21 and 42. Timing of lactogenesis stage II was determined through mothers' perceptions of sudden breast fullness. Group I produced more breastmilk during the initial expression session and on Days 6, 7, and 42. No difference in timing of lactogenesis stage II was observed. When mothers who began milk expression prior to 1 hour following delivery were removed from analysis, benefits of milk expression within 6 hours were no longer apparent. Initiation of milk expression within 6 hours following delivery may not improve lactation success in mothers of VLBW infants unless initiated within the first hour.

  13. Batteries: Discharging the right product (United States)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.


    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  14. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)


    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  15. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  16. Hollow hexagonal pattern with surface discharges in a dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Feng, Jianyu; Dong, Lifang; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying; Du, Tian; Hao, Fang


    The hollow hexagonal pattern involved in surface discharges is firstly investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The spatiotemporal structures of the pattern are studied using an intensified charge-coupled device and photomultiplier. Instantaneous images taken by an intensified charge-coupled device and optical correlation measurements show that the surface discharges are induced by volume discharges. The optical signals indicate that the discharge filaments constituting the hexagonal frame discharge randomly at the first current pulse or the second pulse, once or twice. There is no interleaving of several sub-lattices, which indicates that the ‘memory’ effect is no longer in force due to surface discharges. By using the emission spectrum method, both the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the surface discharges are larger than that of the volume discharges.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Image Sequence Influences the Relationship between Bone Marrow Lesions Volume and Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang


    Full Text Available Subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs are related to structural and symptomatic osteoarthritis progression. However, it is unclear how sequence selection influences a quantitative BML measurement and its construct validity. We compared quantitative assessment of BMLs on intermediate-weighted fat suppressed (IW FS turbo spin echo and 3-dimensional dual echo steady state (3D DESS sequences. We used a customized software to measure 30 knees’ (24- and 48-month MR images BMLs on both sequences. The results showed that the IW FS sequences have much larger BML volumes (median: IW FS = 1840 mm3; DESS = 191 mm3 and BML volume change (between 24 and 48 months than DESS sequence and demonstrate more BML volume change. The 24-month BML volume on IW FS is correlated with BML volume on DESS (rs = 0.83. BML volume change on IW FS is not significantly correlated with change on DESS. The 24-month WOMAC pain is correlated with the 24-month BMLs on IW FS (rs = 0.39 but not DESS. The change in WOMAC pain is correlated with BML volume change on IW FS (rs = 0.37 but not DESS. Overall, BML quantification on IW FS offers better validity and statistical power than BML quantification on a 3D DESS sequence.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)


    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  19. Chronic Use of Aspirin and Total White Matter Lesion Volume: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. (United States)

    Holcombe, Andrea; Ammann, Eric; Espeland, Mark A; Kelley, Brendan J; Manson, JoAnn E; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer


    To investigate the relationship between aspirin and subclinical cerebrovascular heath, we evaluated the effect of chronic aspirin use on white matter lesions (WML) volume among women. Chronic aspirin use was assessed in 1365 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Differences in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers were assessed with linear mixed models. A number of secondary analyses were performed, including lobe-specific analyses, subgroup analyses based on participants' overall risk of cerebrovascular disease, and a dose-response relationship analysis. The mean age of the women at magnetic resonance imaging examination was 77.6 years. Sixty-one percent of participants were chronic aspirin users. After adjusting for demographic variables and comorbidities, chronic aspirin use was nonsignificantly associated with 4.8% (95% CI: -6.8%, 17.9%) larger WML volumes. These null findings were confirmed in secondary and sensitivity analyses, including an active comparator evaluation where aspirin users were compared to users of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. There was a nonsignificant difference in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers. Further, our results suggest that chronic aspirin use may not have a clinically significant effect on WML volumes in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. An investigation into discharge, visual perception, and appearance concerns of prosthetic eye wearers. (United States)

    Pine, Nicola S; de Terte, Ian; Pine, Keith R


    We investigate prosthetic eye wearers' initial and current concerns about mucoid discharge, visual perception, and appearance, and the reasons for their concerns. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of private practice patients was designed. Participants were 217 experienced prosthetic eye wearers, aged at least 16 years. An anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed or mailed to participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to investigate differences or correlations between variables. Content analysis was used to analyze participants' open responses. Participants were equally concerned about discharge, visual perception, and appearance during the first three months following eye loss and at least 2 years later, even though their concerns decreased. Older participants were less concerned about appearance, while females were more concerned about current discharge and appearance. The greater the frequency and volume of discharge, the greater was the concern. Participants' initial discharge concern was due to a negative interpretation of what it meant, but later, it was due to discomfort from wiping, and how discharge looked to others. Loss of depth perception and reduced visual range were equally concerning. Initial appearance concerns related to disguisability of the prosthesis, but over time, changes to the socket and eyelids became more important. Loss of self-image is commonly considered to be the major concern of anophthalmic patients, but discharge and visual perception concerns are of equal importance. Reasons given for these concerns provide greater insight into patients' personal experience of eye loss.

  1. Dual response of human leukemia U937 cells to hypertonic shrinkage: initial regulatory volume increase (RVI) and delayed apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). (United States)

    Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Moshkov, Alexey V; Wibberley, Anna V; Lang, Florian; Model, Michael A; Vereninov, Alexey A


    Osmotic cell shrinkage is a powerful trigger of suicidal cell death or apoptosis, which is paralleled and enforced by apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Cells counteract cell shrinkage by volume regulatory increase (RVI). The present study explored the response of human U937 cells to hypertonic solution thus elucidating the relationship between RVI and AVD. Cell water, concentration of monovalent ions and the appearance of apoptotic markers were followed for 0.5-4 h after the cells were transferred to a hypertonic medium. Intracellular water, K+, Na+, and Cl- content, ouabain-sensitive and -resistant Rb+ influxes were determined by measurement of the cell buoyant density in Percoll density gradient, flame emission analysis and 36Cl- assay, respectively. Fluorescent microscopy of live cells stained by acridine orange and ethidium bromide was used to verify apoptosis. After 2-4 h incubation in hypertonic media the cell population was split into light (L) and heavy (H) fractions. According to microscopy and analysis of monovalent ions the majority of cells in the L population were healthy, while the H fractions were enriched with apoptotic cells. The density of L cells was decreasing with time, while the density of H cells was increasing, thus reflecting the opposite effects of RVI and AVD. At the same time, some of the cells were shifting from L to H fractions, indicating that apoptosis was gradually extending to cells that were previously displaying normal RVI. The findings suggest that apoptosis can develop in cells capable of RVI. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge (United States)

    ... discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge ... You received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or radiotherapy. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-powered x-rays onto a small ...

  3. Atrial fibrillation - discharge (United States)

    Auricular fibrillation - discharge; A-fib - discharge; AF - discharge; Afib - discharge ... Avoid salty and fatty foods. Stay away from fast-food restaurants. ... how to check your pulse, and check it every day. It is better ...

  4. Patients with blunt head trauma on anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications: can they be safely discharged after a normal initial cranial computed tomography scan? (United States)

    Docimo, Salvatore; Demin, Aleksandr; Vinces, Fausto


    The literature reports delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after blunt trauma in patients taking preinjury anticoagulant and antiplatelet (AC/AP) medications. We sought to evaluate the incidence of delayed ICH at our institution and hypothesize that patients taking AC/AP medications who are found to have a negative first computed tomography (CT) scan will not require a second CT scan. A total of 303 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Age, gender, mechanism of injury, international normalized ratio (INR), initial and secondary cranial CT findings, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred sixty-eight (55.4%) were found to be taking AP/AC medications. Ninety-six (57%) were male and 72 (43%) female. Aspirin use was 42.8 per cent (72 of 168), clopidogrel next (39 of 168 [23.0%]), and warfarin least (18 of 168 [10.7%]). One hundred sixty-six (98.8%) presented with significant findings on the first CT scan. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 patients with an INR 2.0 or higher presented with an ICH on the first CT. Ninety percent of patients with an INR 1.5 or higher presented with positive findings on the first CT scan. One hundred per cent of patients with an INR 3.0 or higher presented with an ICH on the first CT scan. The incidence of a delayed ICH was two of 168 (1.19%). Of those two patients with a delayed ICH, 100 per cent were taking warfarin and had an INR greater than 2.0. The incidence of delayed ICH was 1.19 per cent. The protocol requiring a second CT scan for all patients on AC/AP medications after a negative first CT scan should be questioned. For patients with blunt head trauma taking warfarin or a warfarin-aspirin combination, a repeat cranial CT scan after a negative initial CT is acceptable. For patients taking clopidogrel, a period of observation may be warranted.

  5. Three dimensional thermal pollution models. Volume 1: Review of mathematical formulations. [waste heat discharge from power plants and effects on ecosystems (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.


    A mathematical model package for thermal pollution analyses and prediction is presented. These models, intended as user's manuals, are three dimensional and time dependent using the primitive equation approach. Although they have sufficient generality for application at sites with diverse topographical features; they also present specific instructions regarding data preparation for program execution and sample problems. The mathematical formulation of these models is presented including assumptions, approximations, governing equations, boundary and initial conditions, numerical method of solution, and same results.

  6. Deflagration-to-detonation transition control by high voltage nanosecond discharges (United States)

    Starikovskii, Andrei; Rakitin, Aleksandr


    A smooth square detonation tube with a transverse size of 20 mm and a single-cell discharge chamber has been assembled to study DDT mechanisms under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges. Stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture was used at initial pressures of 0.3 and 1 bar. Two general mechanisms of DDT initiation have been observed and explained under the experimental conditions. When initiated by a spark, the mixture ignites simultaneously over the volume of the discharge channel, producing a shock wave with Mach number over 2 and a flame wave. The waves then form an accelerating complex, and, after it reaches a certain velocity, an adiabatic explosion occurs resulting in DDT. At 1 bar of initial pressure, the DDT length and time do not exceed 50 mm and 50 μs, respectively. Under streamer initiation, the mixture inside the discharge channel is excited non-uniformly. The mixture is first ignited at the hottest spot with the shortest ignition delay, which is at the high voltage electrode tip. Originating at this point, the ignition wave starts propagating along the channel and accelerates up to the CJ velocity value. The initiation energy is by an order of magnitude lower for the streamer-gradient mode when compared to the spark initiation.

  7. Extrastriatal dopamine D-2/3 receptors and cortical grey matter volumes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients before and after initial antipsychotic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Pinborg, Lars H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.


    OBJECTIVES: Long-term dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade, common to all antipsychotics, may underlie progressive brain volume changes observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined associations between cortical volume changes and extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 recept...... binding potentials (BPND) in first-episode schizophrenia patents at baseline and after antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two initially antipsychotic-naïve patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(123)I]epidepride single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT......), and psychopathology assessments before and after 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (N = 13) or zuclopenthixol (N = 9). Twenty healthy controls matched on age, gender and parental socioeconomic status underwent baseline MRI and SPECT. RESULTS: Neither extrastriatal D2/3 receptor BPND at baseline, nor...

  8. Discharge pulse phenomenology (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.


    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  9. Evaluation of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Initiative. Year Five Final Report: 2010-2011. Volume I (United States)

    Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Velez, Melissa; Caven, Meghan; de la Cruz, Rodolfo; Donoghue, Nathaniel; Kliorys, Kristina; Linkow, Tamara; Luck, Rachel; Sahni, Sarah; Woodford, Michelle


    The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative was established in 2005 with planning grants that allowed a limited number of schools to explore a redesign of their respective schedules and add time to their day or year. Participating schools are required to expand learning time by at least 300 hours per academic year to improve student…

  10. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.


    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  12. Behaviour of air discharged from a sparger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    This research has been performed as a part of the project, Development of Design Verification Technology for Korea Next Generation Reactor. At first, current state of the art of the bubble dynamics and the result will be used to develop an optimum tool including computer code for analysis of air or air-steam mixture bubble, which is discharged from a sparger. Introduced are linear perturbation; spherical bubble cloud theory; bubble interaction; and Volume of Fluid, a method of tracking free surface, which is to be used in computational fluid dynamics. An analysis was performed for the oscillation of an air bubble of perfect spherical shape. The heat transfer through the bubble surface is considered, although the effect was not so significant. The effect of initial and boundary conditions were investigated and the correlation equation was developed. 42 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie


    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  14. Initial clinical experience with the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant brachytherapy applicator for accelerated partial breast irradiation. (United States)

    Yashar, Catheryn M; Blair, Sarah; Wallace, Anne; Scanderbeg, Dan


    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is becoming increasingly popular. The Cianna single-entry high-dose-rate applicator, Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI, Cianna Medical, Aliso Viejo, CA), contains peripheral struts allowing greater planning flexibility for small-breasted women, technically easier insertion, and normal tissue exposure minimization. This study evaluates early clinical experience. Thirty patients treated with the SAVI with a median followup of 12 months were evaluated. The median age was 59.5. Tumor size averaged 0.9cm. Fifteen cancers were ductal carcinoma in situ (50%), 1 was invasive lobular (3.3%), 4 were tubular (6.7%), and the rest infiltrating ductal (40%). Most of them were estrogen receptor (ER) positive (90%). Nine women (30%) were premenopausal. Dosimetry was outstanding with median V90, V150, and V200 of 96.2%, 24.8, and 12.8cc. There were no symptomatic seromas, and one report of asymptomatic fat necrosis seen on mammogram at 1 year. In patients who had skin spacing of less than 1cm, the median skin dose was 245cGy/fraction. The median rib and lung dose per fraction for those patients with either structure less than 1cm was 340 and 255cGy (75% of prescribed dose), respectively. There have been no local recurrences to date. Early clinical experience with the SAVI demonstrates the ease of placement of a single-entry brachytherapy device combined with the increased dose modulation of interstitial brachytherapy. Dose to normal structures has remained exceedingly low. Almost half of evaluated patients were not candidates for other single-entry brachytherapy devices because of skin spacing or breast size, demonstrating an expansion of candidates for single-entry partial breast brachytherapy.

  15. Concussion - adults - discharge (United States)

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... a car Ski, snowboard, skate, skateboard, or do gymnastics or martial arts Participate in any activity where ...

  16. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  17. Eye muscle repair - discharge (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  18. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge (United States)

    ... VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... The major problems to watch for are an infected shunt and a blocked shunt. Call your child's provider if your child ...

  19. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, Volume 43. MERRA-2; Initial Evaluation of the Climate (United States)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Bosilovich, Michael G.; Akella, Santha; Lawrence, Coy; Cullather, Richard; Draper, Clara; Gelaro, Ronald; Kovach, Robin; Liu, Qing; Molod, Andrea; hide


    The years since the introduction of MERRA have seen numerous advances in the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as well as a substantial decrease in the number of observations that can be assimilated into the MERRA system. To allow continued data processing into the future, and to take advantage of several important innovations that could improve system performance, a decision was made to produce MERRA-2, an updated retrospective analysis of the full modern satellite era. One of the many advances in MERRA-2 is a constraint on the global dry mass balance; this allows the global changes in water by the analysis increment to be near zero, thereby minimizing abrupt global interannual variations due to changes in the observing system. In addition, MERRA-2 includes the assimilation of interactive aerosols into the system, a feature of the Earth system absent from previous reanalyses. Also, in an effort to improve land surface hydrology, observations-corrected precipitation forcing is used instead of model-generated precipitation. Overall, MERRA-2 takes advantage of numerous updates to the global modeling and data assimilation system. In this document, we summarize an initial evaluation of the climate in MERRA-2, from the surface to the stratosphere and from the tropics to the poles. Strengths and weaknesses of the MERRA-2 climate are accordingly emphasized.

  20. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  1. Superior short-term cholesterol control and achievement of the adult treatment panel III low-density lipoprotein goals with initiation of statin therapy by the time of hospital discharge following acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Bybee, Kevin A; Powell, Brian D; Williams, Brent A; Murphy, Joseph G; Kopecky, Stephen L; Wright, R Scott


    In a community-based population, we compared serum cholesterol concentrations following hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction based on statin therapy at the time of hospital discharge. At the time of follow-up cholesterol measurement, patients discharged from the hospital on a statin had lower mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (106.4 vs 116.7 mg/dl, p Adult Treatment Panel III LDL goal of <100 mg/dl at the time of follow-up compared with patients who were discharged without a statin (49% vs 33%; adjusted odds ratio 2.56; p <0.01).

  2. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

  3. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N


    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  4. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando


    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  5. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk


    weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass......Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...

  6. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge (United States)

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge; Coronary artery disease - MIDCAB discharge; CAD - ...

  7. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  8. Urethral discharge culture (United States)

    Culture of urethral discharge; Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate ... 2015:chap 109. Craft AC, Woods GL. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: ...

  9. Foot amputation - discharge (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  10. Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge (United States)

    ... a shower the day after surgery. If tape strips were used to close your skin, they should ... cancer Endometriosis Hysterectomy Uterine fibroids Patient Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Review Date 2/18/ ...

  11. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure—the spark regime (United States)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.


    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N2 (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 1015 cm-3 towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 1011 cm-3 produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 108 cm-3.

  12. Nurse-led discharge. (United States)

    Page, Carole


    Delayed discharges have financial implications for hospital trusts and cause dissatisfaction for patients and their families. This article looks at nurse-led discharge pathways at Milton Keynes Hospital's ambulatory care unit. It explains how giving nurses the responsibility to discharge has improved the patient experience, made nurses more accountable and saved money for the trust.

  13. Using the Red/Yellow/Green Discharge Tool to Improve the Timeliness of Hospital Discharges (United States)

    Mathews, Kusum S.; Corso, Philip; Bacon, Sandra; Jenq, Grace Y.


    Background As part of Yale-New Haven Hospital (Connecticut)’s Safe Patient Flow Initiative, the physician leadership developed the Red/Yellow/Green (RYG) Discharge Tool, an electronic medical record–based prompt to identify likelihood of patients’ next-day discharge: green (very likely), yellow (possibly), and red (unlikely). The tool’s purpose was to enhance communication with nursing/care coordination and trigger earlier discharge steps for patients identified as “green” or “yellow”. Methods Data on discharge assignments, discharge dates/times, and team designation were collected for all adult medicine patients discharged from October – December 2009 (Study Period 1) and October – December 2011 (Study Period 2), between which the tool’s placement changed from the sign-out note to the daily progress note. Results In Study Period 1, 75.9% of the patients had discharge assignments, compared with 90.8% in Period 2 (p discharge rate improved from 10.4% to 21.2% from 2007 to 2011. “Green” patients were more likely to be discharged before 11 A.M. than “yellow” or “red” patients (p discharged by 11 A.M. had a lower length of stay than those without assignments and did not have an associated increased risk of readmission. Discharge prediction accuracy worsened after the change in placement, decreasing from 75.1% to 59.1% for “green” patients (p discharge predictions, suggesting that education and/or experience may contribute to discharge assignment. Conclusions The RYG Discharge Tool helped facilitate earlier discharges, but accuracy depends on placement in daily work flow and experience. PMID:25016672

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge (United States)

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  15. PhRMA CPCDC initiative on predictive models of human pharmacokinetics, part 2: comparative assessment of prediction methods of human volume of distribution. (United States)

    Jones, Rhys Do; Jones, Hannah M; Rowland, Malcolm; Gibson, Christopher R; Yates, James W T; Chien, Jenny Y; Ring, Barbara J; Adkison, Kimberly K; Ku, M Sherry; He, Handan; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Marathe, Punit; Fischer, Volker; Dutta, Sandeep; Sinha, Vikash K; Björnsson, Thorir; Lavé, Thierry; Poulin, Patrick


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of various empirical, semimechanistic and mechanistic methodologies with and without protein binding corrections for the prediction of human volume of distribution at steady state (Vss ). PhRMA member companies contributed a set of blinded data from preclinical and clinical studies, and 18 drugs with intravenous clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) data were available for the analysis. In vivo and in vitro preclinical data were used to predict Vss by 24 different methods. Various statistical and outlier techniques were employed to assess the predictability of each method. There was not simply one method that predicts Vss accurately for all compounds. Across methods, the maximum success rate in predicting human Vss was 100%, 94%, and 78% of the compounds with predictions falling within tenfold, threefold, and twofold error, respectively, of the observed Vss . Generally, the methods that made use of in vivo preclinical data were more predictive than those methods that relied solely on in vitro data. However, for many compounds, in vivo data from only two species (generally rat and dog) were available and/or the required in vitro data were missing, which meant some methods could not be properly evaluated. It is recommended to initially use the in vitro tissue composition-based equations to predict Vss in preclinical species and humans, putting the assumptions and compound properties into context. As in vivo data become available, these predictions should be reassessed and rationalized to indicate the level of confidence (uncertainty) in the human Vss prediction. The top three methods that perform strongly at integrating in vivo data in this way were the Øie-Tozer, the rat -dog-human proportionality equation, and the lumped-PBPK approach. Overall, the scientific benefit of this study was to obtain greater characterization of predictions of human Vss from several methods available in the literature. Copyright

  16. A role for pharmacists in community-based post-discharge warfarin management: protocol for the 'the role of community pharmacy in post hospital management of patients initiated on warfarin' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereznicki Luke RE


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter periods of hospitalisation and increasing warfarin use have placed stress on community-based healthcare services to care for patients taking warfarin after hospital discharge, a high-risk period for these patients. A previous randomised controlled trial demonstrated that a post-discharge service of 4 home visits and point-of-care (POC International Normalised Ratio (INR testing by a trained pharmacist improved patients' outcomes. The current study aims to modify this previously trialled service model to implement and then evaluate a sustainable program to enable the smooth transition of patients taking warfarin from the hospital to community setting. Methods/Design The service will be trialled in 8 sites across 3 Australian states using a prospective, controlled cohort study design. Patients discharged from hospital taking warfarin will receive 2 or 3 home visits by a trained 'home medicines review (HMR-accredited' pharmacist in their 8 to 10 days after hospital discharge. Visits will involve a HMR, comprehensive warfarin education, and POC INR monitoring in collaboration with patients' general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists. Patient outcomes will be compared to those in a control, or 'usual care', group. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of patients experiencing a major bleeding event in the 90 days after discharge. Secondary outcome measures will include combined major bleeding and thromboembolic events, death, cessation of warfarin therapy, INR control at 8 days post-discharge and unplanned hospital readmissions from any cause. Stakeholder satisfaction will be assessed using structured postal questionnaire mailed to patients, GPs, community pharmacists and accredited pharmacists at the completion of their study involvement. Discussion This study design incorporates several aspects of prior interventions that have been demonstrated to improve warfarin management, including POC INR

  17. Improving Hospital Discharge Time (United States)

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.


    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  18. Characterisation of pulsed discharge in water (United States)

    Kocik, Marek; Dors, Miroslaw; Podlinski, Janusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Kanazawa, Seiji; Ichiki, Ryuta; Sato, Takehiko


    In this paper, Schlieren photography technique has been applied for the visualization of the pressure field of a single-shot underwater pulsed discharge. A needle-to-plane electrode configuration submerged in distilled water was used. The detailed time- and space-resolved images of both streamers and pressure waves were captured. As a result, several phenomena, such as the phase change prior to the initiation of the discharge, primary and secondary streamers propagation, shock wave generation, and the bubble formation, were observed. From these observations, a scenario of multiple events from prebreakdown to post-discharge was proposed. The gas bubbles generated in discharge were used to visualize the electrohydrodynamic flow induced by the discharge. This work was presented on the occasion of the 13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII).

  19. Suprathermal electrons in a vacuum spark discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashutin, O. A., E-mail:; Savjolov, A. S., E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)


    Results of experiments on the detection of suprathermal electron beams in the plasma of a highcurrent low-inductance vacuum spark by means of space-resolved spectral X-ray polarimetry are presented. It is shown that the observed polarization of bremsstrahlung may be caused by an ~100-keV electron beam propagating along the discharge axis from the pinching region toward the anode. The influence of the discharge initiation conditions on the parameters of the generated electron beams is analyzed.

  20. Electrical Discharges in Water. A Hydrodynamic Description (United States)


    discharges wit), wires. The method of initiation used usually must provide for a brief initihtior, proceso in comparison with the duration of the termined primarily by the radius of curvature of the point r and by the voltage u, it being higher for the case of electrodes of the point-plane...After the formation of the leaders, their development is de- termined by the field strength at their heads. When the field strengths prove to be lower

  1. Post-Discharge Follow-Up Visits and Hospital Utilization (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Analysis reported in Post-Discharge Follow-Up Visits and Hospital Utilization by Medicare Patients, 2007-2010, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and...

  2. Extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge lasers (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah; West, Andrew; Tallents, Greg


    An extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge laser has recently been installed at the University of York. The laser produces EUV radiation of wavelength 46.9nm, with pulse durations of approximately 1.2ns and energies of up to 50 μJ. A population inversion is produced by a high voltage electrical discharge passing through an argon filled capillary tube. Within the capillary, radial pinching of the argon plasma through JxB force causes the pressure and temperature of the plasma to increase which causes amplification between 3p -3s (J = 0-1) transitions producing EUV radiation. Laser optimisation, calibration of detectors and designs for initial experiments to produce warm dense matter by focusing onto solid targets are presented. The plasmas formed by the EUV laser irradiation of solid targets can be shown to produce warm dense matter in a regime where the ionization equilibrium is dominated by radiative ionization.

  3. Using "residual depths" to monitor pool depths independently of discharge (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle


    As vital components of habitat for stream fishes, pools are often monitored to follow the effects of enhancement projects and natural stream processes. Variations of water depth with discharge, however, can complicate monitoring changes in the depth and volume of pools. To subtract the effect of discharge on depth in pools, residual depths can be measured. Residual...

  4. Dielectric barrier discharge in a two-phase mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Qizheng; Zhang Ting; Lu Fei; Li Jin; He Zhenghao; Lin Fuchang [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    This paper reports the experimental investigation of the dielectric barrier discharge in which the gap area is filled with a two-phase mixture (TPM), air and solid particles. We found that there are two kinds of discharges in the TPM. One is the surface discharge generated on the surface of the solid particles and the other is the filament discharge generated in the air void. For the case of low volume fraction of solid particles, the surface discharge starts to occur when the applied voltage is higher than the onset voltage. At a further voltage increase, the filament discharge takes place at the same time. For the case of high volume fraction, such as the packed-bed reactor, only the surface discharge exists. Under the condition of the same volume fraction, the larger the diameter of the solid particles, the lower the surface discharge onset voltage. As a conclusion, we think that the plasma reactor using the form of low volume fraction of solid particles may be a better choice for waste-gas treatment enhanced by catalysts.

  5. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge. (United States)

    Pine, Keith; Sloan, Brian; Stewart, Joanna; Jacobs, Robert J


    This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists' Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed. Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists' Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes. A standardized treatment protocol for managing discharge is lacking. More frequent prosthesis removal and cleaning was associated with more severe discharge, but the direction of cause and effect has not been established. Professional repolishing regimes had limited impact on discharge experience. Further research into the socket's response to prosthetic eye wear, including the

  6. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  7. Graywater Discharges from Vessels (United States)


    both sewage and graywater, or sewage collected from “ honey dipper” trucks, which may contain far less graywater, depending on the source (See... crystal clean effluent discharge. As a reference, Cruiseliners equipped with Scanship AWP systems has obtained continous discharge permits in Hawaii and

  8. Lithium battery discharge tests (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.


    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  9. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.


    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  10. The Effect of the Mode of Gas Preionization on the Parameters of Runaway Electrons in High-Pressure Discharges (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, V. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. V.; Semeniuk, N. S.


    The results of theoretical modeling of the process of formation of a nanosecond discharge in a coaxial discharge gap filled with a high-pressure gas are presented. Two cardinally different evolution scenarios of the nanosecond discharge are addressed: A) in a uniformly volume pre-ionized gas medium and B) in a strongly spatially-nonuniform initially-ionized region near the cathode with a small curvature radius. Relying on the minimal mathematical model of a high-voltage discharge and the description of the physical kinetics of runaway electrons, it is shown using the Boltzmann kinetic equation that the amplitude and duration of a current pulse of runaway electrons and their energy spectrum strongly depend on the mode of gas preionization in the gap. In particular, the other conditions being equal, near-cathode initiation gives rise to the generation of a large group of low-energy runaway electrons within the late current-switching stage. The volume-homogeneous gas preionization can reduce the number of fast electrons by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to the regime without preionization.

  11. Silane Discharge Ion Chemistry. (United States)

    Chatham, Robert Hood, III

    We have studied silane dc, rf and dc proximity discharges, using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. We have developed qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges from our measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, we have measured the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane, and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, we have measured the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He('+), Ne('+), and Ar('+) with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane, as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. We have developed a detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge, by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that we have gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

  12. Volcano seismicity and ground deformation unveil the gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics of a volcanic eruption. (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Maggio, Giuseppe; Pistolesi, Marco; Marchetti, Emanuele; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Poggi, Pasquale


    Effusive eruptions are explained as the mechanism by which volcanoes restore the equilibrium perturbed by magma rising in a chamber deep in the crust. Seismic, ground deformation and topographic measurements are compared with effusion rate during the 2007 Stromboli eruption, drawing an eruptive scenario that shifts our attention from the interior of the crust to the surface. The eruption is modelled as a gravity-driven drainage of magma stored in the volcanic edifice with a minor contribution of magma supplied at a steady rate from a deep reservoir. Here we show that the discharge rate can be predicted by the contraction of the volcano edifice and that the very-long-period seismicity migrates downwards, tracking the residual volume of magma in the shallow reservoir. Gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics explain the initially high discharge rates observed during eruptive crises and greatly influence our ability to predict the evolution of effusive eruptions.

  13. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie


    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  14. Discharge lamp technologies (United States)

    Dakin, James


    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  15. Discharge lamp technologies (United States)

    Dakin, James


    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  16. Progressive striatal and hippocampal volume loss in initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine: relationship to dose and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Skimminge, Arnold; Rasmussen, Hans


    First-generation antipsychotics have been associated with striatal volume increases. The effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on the striatum are unclear. Moreover, SGAs may have neuroprotective effects on the hippocampus. Dose-dependent volumetric effects of individual SGAs have...... scarcely been investigated. Here we investigated structural brain changes in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients after 6 months treatment with the SGA, quetiapine. We have recently reported on baseline volume reductions in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. Baseline and follow-up T1...

  17. Pulsed electrical discharge in conductive solution (United States)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M.; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya; Son, E. E.


    Electrical discharge in a conductive solution of isopropyl alcohol in tap water (330 μ S cm-1) has been studied experimentally applying high voltage millisecond pulses (rise time  ˜0.4 μ \\text{s} , amplitude up to 15 kV, positive polarity) to a pin anode electrode. Dynamic current-voltage characteristics synchronized with high-speed images of the discharge were studied. The discharge was found to develop from high electric field region in the anode vicinity where initial conductive current with density  ˜100 A cm-2 results in fast heating and massive nucleation of vapor bubbles. Discharges in nucleated bubbles then produce a highly conductive plasma region and facilitate overheating instability development with subsequent formation of a thermally ionized plasma channel. The measured plasma channel propagation speed was 3-15 m s-1. A proposed thermal model of plasma channel development explains the low observed plasma channel propagation speed.

  18. Transition in discharge plasma of Hall thruster type in presence of secondary electron emissive surface (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Yadrenkin, M. A.; Fomichev, V. P.


    Modification of the sheath structure near the emissive plate placed in magnetized DC discharge plasma of Hall thruster type was studied in the experiment and in kinetic simulations. The plate is made from Al2O3 which has enhanced secondary electron emission yield. The energetic electrons emitted by heated cathode provide the volume ionization and the secondary electron emission from the plate. An increase of the electron beam energy leads to an increase of the secondary electron generation, which initiates the transition in sheath structure over the emissive plate.

  19. Brain radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  20. Brain injury - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  1. Hypospadias repair - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  2. Femur fracture repair - discharge (United States)

    ... page: // Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  3. Thyroid gland removal - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  4. Breast radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  5. Pectus excavatum - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Pectus excavatum - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This is an abnormal formation of the rib ...

  6. Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... JavaScript. You were in the hospital to treat diverticulitis. This is an infection of an abnormal pouch ( ...

  7. Lasik eye surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... page: // Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  8. Pneumonia - adults - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  9. Pneumonia - children - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  10. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  11. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Epilepsy or seizures - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  12. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary


    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  13. Asthma - child - discharge (United States)

    ... page: // Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  14. Abdominal radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  15. Chest radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  16. Concussion - child - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  17. Multiple sclerosis - discharge (United States)

    ... page: // Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  18. Electronic discharge summaries. (United States)

    Stetson, Peter D; Keselman, Alla; Rappaport, Daniel; Van Vleck, Tielman; Cooper, Mary; Boyer, Aurelia; Hripcsak, George


    Timely completion of Discharge Summaries is a requirement of high quality care. We developed a system for writing electronic Discharge Summaries. DSUM Writer has generated 2464 of 7349 total summaries (34%) and has paid for itself during its first 8 weeks in production. DSUM Writer is a component of a suite of tools (eNote) for electronic physician documentation used to support clinical care, billing and narrative analysis research.

  19. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  20. Impact of Ganges–Brahmaputra interannual discharge variations on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 5. Impact of Ganges–Brahmaputra interannual discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during 1992–1999 period. Fabien Durand Fabrice Papa Atiqur Rahman Sujit Kumar Bala. Volume 120 Issue 5 October 2011 pp 859-872 ...

  1. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam


    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  2. Retrospective Methods Analysis of Semiautomated Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume Quantification From a Selection of the STICH II Cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas). (United States)

    Haley, Mark D; Gregson, Barbara A; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel F; Mendelow, Alexander David


    The ABC/2 method for calculating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume has been well validated. However, the formula, derived from the volume of an ellipse, assumes the shape of ICH is elliptical. We sought to compare the agreement of the ABC/2 formula with other methods through retrospective analysis of a selection of the STICH II cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas). From 390 patients, 739 scans were selected from the STICH II image archive based on the availability of a CT scan compatible with OsiriX DICOM viewer. ICH volumes were calculated by the reference standard semiautomatic segmentation in OsiriX software and compared with calculated arithmetic methods (ABC/2, ABC/2.4, ABC/3, and 2/3SC) volumes. Volumes were compared by difference plots for specific groups: randomization ICH (n=374), 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH (n=206), antithrombotic-associated ICH (n=79), irregular-shape ICH (n=703) and irregular-density ICH (n=650). Density and shape were measured by the Barras ordinal shape and density groups (1-5). The ABC/2.4 method had the closest agreement to the semiautomatic segmentation volume in all groups, except for the 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH group where the ABC/3 method was superior. Although the ABC/2 formula for calculating elliptical ICH is well validated, it must be used with caution in ICH scans where the elliptical shape of ICH is a false assumption. We validated the adjustment of the ABC/2.4 method in randomization, antithrombotic-associated, heterogeneous-density, and irregular-shape ICH. URL: Unique identifier: ISRCTN22153967. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. 40 CFR 1700.10 - No-discharge zones by EPA prohibition. (United States)


    .... (4) A complete description of the facilities reasonably available for collecting the discharge... the facilities have the capacity and capability to provide safe and sanitary removal of the volume of discharge being prohibited in terms of both vessel berthing and discharge reception. (iii) The schedule of...

  4. Evaluation of the anterior ethmoidal artery by 3D dual volume rotational digital subtraction angiography and native multidetector CT with multiplanar reformations. Initial findings. (United States)

    Pandolfo, Ignazio; Vinci, Sergio; Salamone, Ignazio; Granata, Francesca; Mazziotti, Silvio


    Our purpose is to codify the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) course and its relationship with adjacent structures. Twenty patients with cerebrovascular disease underwent selective internal carotid dual volume angiography. Fusion of the vascular and bony images was obtained successively on a second console. MDCT of the cranium was performed in all patients. To identify the AEA course, multiplanar CT reformations were obtained. In all cases the entry-point of AEA and its course were identified by means of dual volume angiography. The information was confirmed by MDCT. In a second phase, we studied another 78 patients affected by inflammatory disease and polyposis only by means of MDCT, in order to confirm the previous data obtained by comparison between angiography and MDCT. In this second phase, 110/156 vessels were indirectly detected by means of visualization of the ethmoidal entry point. In the remaining cases, AEA was directly shown due to integrity of the thin ethmoidal bone lamellae or bony canal. Dual volume angiography is essential to identify the course of the AEA (standard of reference for the interpretation of CT). In patients with benign rhinosinusal pathology, where invasivity techniques are not justified, MPR reconstructions were of pivotal importance in the evaluation of the course of the artery with particular reference to its relationship with the frontal recess.

  5. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)


    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)


    Both [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBR{sub max}) and BV (rBV{sub max}), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBR{sub max} were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOL{sub BV} and rBV{sub max} were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBR{sub max} and rBV{sub max} were positively correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined

  7. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges. (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E


    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  8. Models of Discharge Care in Magnet® Hospitals. (United States)

    Bobay, Kathleen; Bahr, Sarah J; Weiss, Marianne E; Hughes, Ronda; Costa, Linda


    The aim of this article is to describe how the discharge preparation process is operationalized in Magnet® hospitals. Nationally, there are intensive efforts toward improving discharge transitions and reducing readmissions. Discharge preparation is a core hospital function, yet there are few reports of operational models. This was a descriptive, Web-based survey of 32 Magnet hospitals (64 units) participating in the Readiness Evaluation and Discharge Interventions study. Most hospitals have adopted 1 or more national readmission reduction initiatives. Most unit models include several discharge preparation roles; RN case managers, and discharging RNs lead the process. Nearly one-half of units actively screen for readmission risk. More than three-fourths report daily discharge rounds, but less than one-third include the patient and family. More than two-thirds report a follow-up phone call, mostly to assess patient satisfaction. Magnet hospitals operationalize discharge preparation differently. Recommended practices from national discharge initiatives are inconsistently used. RNs play a central role in discharge planning, coordination, and teaching.

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience. (United States)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W; Poulsen, Hans S; Law, Ian


    Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBRmax) and BV (rBVmax), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBRmax were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOLBV and rBVmax were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBRmax and rBVmax were positively correlated (R (2) = 0.59, p PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using hybrid PET/MR systems may provide complementary information on tumour biology, but the potential clinical value remains to be determined in future trials.

  10. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors. (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chau; Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; Tseng, Han-Min; My, Pei-Chi


    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm(2). Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ~6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. • Hybrid DK-IVIM imaging allows simultaneous measurement of K, D and f. • Combined K/D/f better demarcates contrast-enhanced tumour than they do separately. • f correlates better with contrast-leakage-corrected CBV DSC than with uncorrected CBV DSC.

  11. Complications following large-volume epidural blood patches for postdural puncture headache. Lumbar subdural hematoma and arachnoiditis: initial cause or final effect? (United States)

    Riley, Cara A; Spiegel, Joan E


    Significant complications following large-volume epidural blood patches (LEBPs) in two parturients following LEBP for postdural puncture headache are reported. A 39-year-old woman developed a spinal subdural hematoma causing both lumbar back and radicular pain following a single LEBP using 58 mL of blood. The second case was a 33-year-old woman who received three LEBPs over a 4-day period totaling 165 mL of blood. She developed arachnoiditis and chronic sacral radiculopathy with resolution 4 months later.

  12. Discharge characteristics of four highway drainage systems in Ohio (United States)

    Straub, D.E.


    Excessive water in the subbase of high-way combined with large traffic volumes and heavy loads is a major cause of road deterioration. Prompt removal of any excess water in a subbase will decrease the road deterioration and extend the effective life of a highway. This study presents discharge characteristics of four highway subbase drainage systems. These systems consisted of shallow, longitudal trenches with geocomposite drain materials (edge drains made from a polyethylene core surrounded by a geotextile filter fabric) that underline the joint between the shoulder and the traffic lane of State Route 16, approximately 1.0 mile southeast of Granville, Ohio. For selected rainfall-runoff events the maximum discharge, discharge characteristics from April 1991 through November 1993 were computed for three geocomposite products- a post type, an oblong-pipe type, and a cusp type-and a conventional perforated pipe edge drain. In general, the discharge characteristics of the conventional edge drain and that of the oblong-pipe edge drain were similar for most of the rainfall-runoff event characteristics. Both produced most of the highest maximum discharges and largest discharge volumes among the four longitudal edge drains. The post edge drain produced smaller maximum discharge and volumes than the conventional and oblong-pipe edge drains, but it had the shortest lag times for most of the event characteristics. The cusp edge drain produced small maximum discharges and small volumes similar to those from the post edge drain, but it had the longest lag times of all the edge drains for most of the event characteristics. The cusp edge drain may have also had some problems during installation which could have affected the discharge characteristics.

  13. How does litter cover, litter diversity and fauna affect sediment discharge and runoff? (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas


    Litter cover plays a major role in soil erosion processes. It is known that litter cover reduces erosivity of raindrops, decreases sediment discharge and lowers runoff volume compared to bare ground. However, in the context of biodiversity, the composition of litter cover, its effect on sediment discharge and runoff volume and their influence on soil erosion have not yet been analyzed in detail. Focusing on initial soil erosion (splash), our experimental design is designated to get a better understanding of these mechanisms. The experiments were carried out within the DFG research unit "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (BEF)-China" in subtropical China. The "New Integrated Litter Experiment (NILEx)" used as platform combining different subprojects of BEF-China dealing with "decomposition and nutrient cycling", "mechanisms of soil erosion" and "functional effects of herbivores, predators and saproxylics" in one experiment. In NILEx, 96 40cm x 40cm runoff plots on two hill slopes inside a castanea molissima forest plantation have been installed and filled with seven different types of litter cover. 16 one-species plots, 24 two-species plots, 4 four-species plots and 4 bare ground plots have been set up, each replicated once. We prepared 48 Plots with traps (Renner solution) for soil macrofauna (diplopods and collembola), so half of the plots were kept free from fauna while the other half was accessible for fauna. Rainfall was generated artificially by using a rainfall simulator with a continuous and stable intensity of 60 mm/h. Our experiments included two runs of 20 minutes duration each, both conducted at two different time steps (summer 2012 and autumn 2012). Runoff volume and sediment discharge were measured every 5 minutes during one rainfall run. Litter coverage and litter mass were recorded at the beginning (summer 2012) and at the end of the experiment (autumn 2012). Our results show that sediment discharge as well as runoff volume decreases

  14. The Role of Climatic Conditions in Controlling Observed Variability of Timing and Peak Discharge of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods: Lago Cachet Dos, Chile (United States)

    Jacquet, J.; McCoy, S. W.; McGrath, D.; Nimick, D.; Friesen, B.; Fahey, M. J.; Leidich, J.; Okuinghttons, J.


    The sudden release of water from an ice-dammed lake poses substantial hazard to the downstream environment, but predicting the timing and magnitude of such an event is difficult. We use a series of high-resolution discharge measurements from a glacier-dammed lake, Lago Cachet Dos (LC2), during outburst events to evaluate the environmental conditions that influence the timing of initiation and peak discharge of observed glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Since April 2008, 20 GLOFs have initiated out of LC2, located on the eastern edge of the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile and flooded areas along the Rio Colonia- Rio Baker system. GLOF frequency has averaged 2-3 events annually and peak discharges exiting LC2 have ranged widely from 2,000 to >15,000 m3 s-1. Although some LC2 GLOFs are consistent with global compilations relating peak discharge to lake volume, large deviations from the global trend and large intra-event variability are striking and call into question the predictive ability of simple empirical scaling equations. To evaluate the environmental conditions that lead to variability in observed peak discharge, we use a variation of the theoretical model of Nye (1976), which describes the process of englacial conduit evolution as a competition between thermally induced conduit growth and viscous flow of ice causing conduit collapse. We show that, consistent with theory, initial lake volume, lake temperature, and the rate of meltwater input into the glacially dammed lake all influence the peak discharge of measured GLOFs. Consequently, evolving climatic conditions of a region can greatly influence the potential hazard of GLOFs. Our results suggest that more accurate predictions of GLOF timing and magnitude from ice dammed lakes can be made by incorporating additional measurements of environmental conditions.

  15. Novel Molecular Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerber, A.; Schwan, S.; Hayashi, D.


    A systematic investigation into halides and ~oxides showed the high potential of transition metal oxides as visible radiators for highly efficient gas discharge light sources. Zirconium monoxide (ZrO) has been identified as most promising candidate combining highly attractive green and red emission

  16. Electrostatic Discharge Training Manual (United States)



  17. ACL reconstruction - discharge (United States)

    ... have redness, pain, swelling, or yellowish discharge from your incisions. You have a temperature higher than 101°F (38.3°C). ... W, Amy E, Sepulveda F. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. ...

  18. Electrical Discharge Machining. (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  19. Initial clinical experience with the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) breast brachytherapy device for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI): first 100 patients with more than 1 year of follow-up. (United States)

    Yashar, Catheryn M; Scanderbeg, Daniel; Kuske, Robert; Wallace, Anne; Zannis, Victor; Blair, Sarah; Grade, Emily; Swenson, Virginia H; Quiet, Coral


    The Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI; Cianna Medical, Aliso Viejo, CA) is a multichannel single-entry brachytherapy device designed to allow dose modulation to minimize normal tissue dose while simultaneously maximizing target coverage. This is the first report on the initial 102 patients with nearly 2 years of median follow-up. One hundred two patients were treated at two institutions. Data were collected on eligibility and dosimetry and followed for toxicity and recurrence. The median follow-up is 21 months. Overall dosimetry is outstanding (median percent of target volume receiving 90% of the prescription dose was 95.9%, volume of target receiving 150% of the prescription dose was 27.8 mL, and volume of target receiving 200% of the prescription dose was 14.0 cm(3)). No devices were pulled prior to treatment completion. For patients with a skin bridge of less than 7 mm, the maximum median skin dose was 280 cGy (median percent of target volume receiving 90% of the prescription dose was 95.2%, volume of target receiving 150% of the prescription dose was 25.8 cm(3) and volume of target receiving 200% of the prescription dose was 12.7 mL). For patients with both chest wall and skin of less than 7 mm, the maximum median lung dose was 205 cGy with simultaneous skin dose of 272 cGy. The rate of telangiectasia was 1.9%. Grade 1 hyperpigmentation developed in 10 patients (9.8%) and Grade 2 fibrosis in 2 patients (1.9%). There were 2 symptomatic seromas and 2 cases of asymptomatic fat necrosis (1.9%). Of the patients, 27% were not eligible for MammoSite balloon brachytherapy (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA) and 5% were not eligible for any balloon brachytherapy. The recurrence rate was 1%. The SAVI appears to safely allow an increase in eligibility for APBI over balloon brachytherapy or three-dimensional conformal radiation, highlighting the outstanding device flexibility to maximize the target dose and minimize the normal tissue dose. The device was well tolerated by

  20. Hospital variation in quality of discharge summaries for patients hospitalized with heart failure exacerbation. (United States)

    Al-Damluji, Mohammed Salim; Dzara, Kristina; Hodshon, Beth; Punnanithinont, Natdanai; Krumholz, Harlan M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I; Horwitz, Leora I


    Single-site studies have demonstrated inadequate quality of discharge summaries in timeliness, transmission, and content, potentially contributing to adverse outcomes. However, degree of hospital-level variation in discharge summary quality for patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) is uncertain. We analyzed discharge summaries of patients enrolled in the Telemonitoring to Improve Heart Failure Outcomes (Tele-HF) study. We assessed hospital-level performance on timeliness (fraction of summaries completed on the day of discharge), documented transmission to the follow-up physician, and content (presence of components suggested by the Transitions of Care Consensus Conference). We obtained 1501 discharge summaries from 1640 (91.5%) patients discharged alive from 46 hospitals. Among hospitals contributing ≥ 10 summaries, the median hospital dictated 69.2% of discharge summaries on the day of discharge (range, 0.0%-98.0%; PHospital course was typically included (97.2%), but summaries were less likely to include discharge condition (30.7%), discharge volume status (16.0%), or discharge weight (15.7%). No discharge summary included all 7 Transitions of Care Consensus Conference-endorsed content elements, was dictated on the day of discharge, and was sent to a follow-up physician. Even at the highest performing hospital, discharge summary quality is insufficient in terms of timeliness, transmission, and content. Improvements in all aspects of discharge summary quality are necessary to enable the discharge summary to serve as an effective transitional care tool. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Corona Discharge from Water Droplet on Electrically Stressed Polymer Surface (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Otsubo, Masahisa; Honda, Chikahisa; Tanaka, Shou


    This paper describes the results of experiments and simulations made to examine the corona discharges from water droplets on a polymer surface exposed to electrical stress. In this study, water droplets with different conductivities and volumes were placed on the surface of plate-shaped high temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (HTV-SR) energized with ac voltage, and the corona discharge phenomena were observed by a high-speed camera with an image intensifier. The electric-field distributions were calculated by the finite element method (FEM). It is demonstrated that the electric field is intensified at the triple junction of the water droplet, air and the insulating material due to the difference in their permittivities, which can ionize the surrounding air and trigger a corona discharge. It can also be confirmed that the contact angle, volume, conductivity and number of water droplets are shown to have a marked effect on the mode of the corona discharge development.

  2. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K


    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  3. Assessment of sepsis-induced immunosuppression at ICU discharge and 6 months after ICU discharge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorio, Violette; Venet, Fabienne; Delwarde, Benjamin; Floccard, Bernard; Marcotte, Guillaume; Textoris, Julien; Monneret, Guillaume; Rimmelé, Thomas


    Increase in mortality and in recurrent infections in the year following ICU discharge continues in survivors of septic shock, even after total clinical recovery from the initial septic event and its complications...

  4. The ability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density to predict an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and prostatectomy diminishes with increasing tumour grade due to reduced PSA secretion per unit tumour volume. (United States)

    Corcoran, Niall M; Casey, Rowan G; Hong, Matthew K H; Pedersen, John; Connolly, Stephen; Peters, Justin; Harewood, Laurence; Gleave, Martin E; Costello, Anthony J; Hovens, Chris M; Goldenberg, S Larry


    Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Due to sampling error, the Gleason score of clinically localized prostate cancer is frequently underestimated at the time of initial biopsy. Given that this may lead to inappropriate surveillance of patients with high-risk disease, there is considerable interest in identifying predictors of significant undergrading. Recently PSAD has been proposed to be an accurate predictor of subsequent upgrading in patients diagnosed with Gleason 6 disease on biopsy. We examined the predictive characteristics of PSAD in patients with low- and intermediate-risk disease on biopsy subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. We found that although PSAD was a significant predictor of upgrade of biopsy Gleason 6 and 3 + 4 = 7 tumours, it failed to predict upgrading in patients with Gleason 7 tumours taken as a whole. When we explored reasons for this discrepancy, we found that the amount of PSA produced per unit tumour volume decreased with increasing Gleason score, thereby diminishing the predictive value of PSAD. To analyse the performance of PSA density (PSAD) as a predictor of Gleason score upgrade in a large cohort stratified by Gleason score. We and others have shown that an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and final radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology is a significant risk factor for recurrence after local therapy. Patients undergoing RP with matching biopsy information were identified from two prospective databases. Patients were analysed according to the concordance between biopsy and final pathology Gleason score in three paired groups: 6/>6, 3 + 4/>3 + 4, 7/>7. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated stratified by Gleason score, and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify significant predictors of tumour upgrade. From 1516 patients, 435 (29%) had

  5. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Rogalla, Patrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Hilbig, Andreas [Charite - University Medicine, Medical Clinic III - Hematology and Oncology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences. (orig.)


    Gow, J.D.


    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  7. Epileptiform discharge propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mălîia, Mihai Dragos; Meritam, Pirgit; Scherg, Michael


    propagation was analyzed using sequential voltage-maps of the averaged spikes, and principal components analysis. When propagation was detected, sources were modeled both at onset and peak. RESULTS: Propagation occurred in half of the patients. The median time of propagation between onset and peak was 17 ms......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how often discharge propagation occurs within the spikes recorded in patients evaluated for epilepsy surgery, and to assess its impact on the accuracy of source imaging. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 50 consecutive patients who had presurgical workup. Discharge....... In 60% of the cases with propagation (15/25 patients) this remained in the same sub-lobar area where onset occurred. The accuracy of source imaging in cases of propagating spikes was 67% when only analyzing onset or peak. This was lower as compared to cases without propagation (79%). Combining source...

  8. Diffuse Discharge Switch Analysis. (United States)


    discharge current, jO’ is also fixed by ne* For methane-argon, 9:1, the minimum starts at an E/n of 2.5 Td and gives an elec-7 (21) tron drift velocity of...deposition (assuming 10 ) is 280 W/cm , the discharge current density (at E/n = 2.5 Td ) is 8 A/cm ,and the area of the switch is 2.5 m . Since one reason for 3...34 ne e = 6.7x10-2 ne A/cm 2 (6) eb (p/p ) 12For ne 5x10,this gives 167211 (mA/cm 2 (7) 3eb (pipo0 ) The current gain is JO e ve ne 2.4 x 1014 (8) Jeb

  9. Early postpartum discharge and subsequent breastfeeding. (United States)

    Janson, S; Rydberg, B


    Early postpartum discharge of babies was gradually introduced in Sweden in the 1980s on ideological grounds, based on the premise that maternity wards were unnatural settings for mothers and babies and hampered breastfeeding. From about 1990, early discharge was used as a means to reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to examine if mandated early discharge at Central Hospital of Karlstad, Sweden, influenced subsequent breastfeeding. Breastfeeding outcomes of infants up to six months of age of all births in 1993 (n = 3231) were compared with the outcome of newborns in 1990 (n = 1462). Breastfeeding at six months postpartum continued to increase during the early 1990s for both healthy and sick infants, irrespective of whether or not they were discharged early. In infants born in 1995 the breastfeeding rate at six months was 64 percent for healthy newborns and 53 percent for sick newborns. Factors other than the time of discharge, most likely a positive change of attitude in society and vigorous introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, seem to have been more important for successful breastfeeding.

  10. Charging of moving surfaces by corona discharges sustained in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh, E-mail:; Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States); Zhang, Daihua, E-mail: [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Leoni, Napoleon, E-mail:; Birecki, Henryk, E-mail:; Gila, Omer, E-mail: [Hewlett-Packard Research Labs, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)


    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are used in electrophotographic (EP) printing technologies for charging imaging surfaces such as photoconductors. A typical corona discharge consists of a wire (or wire array) biased with a few hundred volts of dc plus a few kV of ac voltage. An electric discharge is produced around the corona wire from which electrons drift towards and charge the underlying dielectric surface. The surface charging reduces the voltage drop across the gap between the corona wire and the dielectric surface, which then terminates the discharge, as in a dielectric barrier discharge. In printing applications, this underlying surface is continuously moving throughout the charging process. For example, previously charged surfaces, which had reduced the local electric field and terminated the local discharge, are translated out of the field of view and are replaced with uncharged surface. The uncharged surface produces a rebound in the electric field in the vicinity of the corona wire which in turn results in re-ignition of the discharge. The discharge, so reignited, is then asymmetric. We found that in the idealized corona charging system we investigated, a negatively dc biased corona blade with a dielectric covered ground electrode, the discharge is initially sustained by electron impact ionization from the bulk plasma and then dominated by ionization from sheath accelerated secondary electrons. Depending on the speed of the underlying surface, the periodic re-ignition of the discharge can produce an oscillatory charging pattern on the moving surface.

  11. Charging of moving surfaces by corona discharges sustained in air (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Zhang, Daihua; Leoni, Napoleon; Birecki, Henryk; Gila, Omer; Kushner, Mark J.


    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are used in electrophotographic (EP) printing technologies for charging imaging surfaces such as photoconductors. A typical corona discharge consists of a wire (or wire array) biased with a few hundred volts of dc plus a few kV of ac voltage. An electric discharge is produced around the corona wire from which electrons drift towards and charge the underlying dielectric surface. The surface charging reduces the voltage drop across the gap between the corona wire and the dielectric surface, which then terminates the discharge, as in a dielectric barrier discharge. In printing applications, this underlying surface is continuously moving throughout the charging process. For example, previously charged surfaces, which had reduced the local electric field and terminated the local discharge, are translated out of the field of view and are replaced with uncharged surface. The uncharged surface produces a rebound in the electric field in the vicinity of the corona wire which in turn results in re-ignition of the discharge. The discharge, so reignited, is then asymmetric. We found that in the idealized corona charging system we investigated, a negatively dc biased corona blade with a dielectric covered ground electrode, the discharge is initially sustained by electron impact ionization from the bulk plasma and then dominated by ionization from sheath accelerated secondary electrons. Depending on the speed of the underlying surface, the periodic re-ignition of the discharge can produce an oscillatory charging pattern on the moving surface.

  12. The theory and measurement of partial discharge transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson


    A theoretical approach to partial discharge transients is presented. This approach is based on the relationship between the charge induced on the measurement electrode by those created in the interelectrode volume during partial discharge activity. The primary sources for these induced charges...... are the charges which, as a result of partial discharge activity, are distributed within the voids of the insulation medium. These charge relationships are derived, and their application to the measured transients associated with the time dependence of the induced charge is presented. The application to multiple...... electrode systems of practical interest is illustrated. A discussion of the salient features and practical aspects of the theory is included...

  13. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)


    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  14. Powerful glow discharge excilamp (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.


    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  15. Theory of gas discharge plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M


    This book presents the theory of gas discharge plasmas in a didactical way. It explains the processes in gas discharge plasmas. A gas discharge plasma is an ionized gas which is supported by an external electric field. Therefore its parameters are determined by processes in it. The properties of a gas discharge plasma depend on its gas component, types of external fields, their geometry and regimes of gas discharge. Fundamentals of a gas discharge plasma include elementary, radiative and transport processes which are included in its kinetics influence. They are represented in this book together with the analysis of simple gas discharges. These general principles are applied to stationary gas discharge plasmas of helium and argon. The analysis of such plasmas under certain conditions is theoretically determined by numerical plasma parameters for given regimes and conditions.

  16. Dielectric barrier discharges: progress on plasma sources and on the understanding of regimes and single filaments (United States)

    Brandenburg, Ronny


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are plasmas generated in configurations with an insulating (dielectric) material between the electrodes which is responsible for a self-pulsing operation. DBDs are a typical example of nonthermal atmospheric or normal pressure gas discharges. Initially used for the generation of ozone, they have opened up many other fields of application. Therefore DBDs are a relevant tool in current plasma technology as well as an object for fundamental studies. Another motivation for further research is the fact that so-called partial discharges in insulated high voltage systems are special types of DBDs. The breakdown processes, the formation of structures, and the role of surface processes are currently under investigation. This review is intended to give an update to the already existing literature on DBDs considering the research and development within the last two decades. The main principles and different modes of discharge generation are summarized. A collection of known as well as special electrode configurations and reactor designs will be presented. This shall demonstrate the different and broad possibilities, but also the similarities and common aspects of devices for different fields of applications explored within the last years. The main part is devoted to the progress on the investigation of different aspects of breakdown and plasma formation with the focus on single filaments or microdischarges. This includes a summary of the current knowledge on the electrical characterization of filamentary DBDs. In particular, the recent new insights on the elementary volume and surface memory mechanisms in these discharges will be discussed. An outlook for the forthcoming challenges on research and development will be given.

  17. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers (United States)

    As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The NPDES permit program regulates direct discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities that discharge directly into surface waters. The NPDES permit program is part of the Permit Compliance System (PCS) which issues, records, tracks, and regulates point source discharge facilities. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit. Facilities in PCS are identified as either major or minor. Within the major/minor classification, facilities are grouped into municipals or non-municipals. In many cases, non-municipals are industrial facilities. This data layer contains Minor dischargers. Major municipal dischargers include all facilities with design flows of greater than one million gallons per day; minor dischargers are less that one million gallons per day. Essentially, a minor discharger does not meet the discharge criteria for a major. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.

  18. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.


    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  19. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  20. Arc Discharge Electrode Phenomena (United States)

    Ecker, G.

    The ASI was dedicated to the topic "Electrical Breakdown and Discharges in Gases," — a part of the general field called "Gaseous Electronics." There are physicists — more than a few — who have hardly heard about Gaseous Electronics. There are others — particularly, so called pure theoreticians — who consider this field the esoterica of physics filled with bizarre oddities. But there are also those experts who dared to look closer into this field and found that it has many fascinating and tempting aspects combining extreme features from various fields of physics.

  1. Continuous pile discharging machine (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.


    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  2. Discharge consents in Scotland. (United States)

    Rosie, Andrew J; Singleton, Peter T R


    The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is charged with the protection of the Scottish environment, and this is achieved through the regulation of polluting discharges and through consulting, influencing and educating others who interact with it. This paper describes aspects of the agency's regulatory work as it applies to the Scottish fish-farming industry. By far the largest sector of the industry in Scotland involves the rearing of fin-fish in cages, presently still dominated by Atlantic salmon, and the paper is based on experiences gained within this sector. The present circumstances affecting its development are described with reference to the environmental impacts associated with cage-rearing techniques used for production in marine waters. This paper briefly reviews the statutory background behind Scotland's system of discharge consents, including relevant aspects of European legislation. Methods developed to control the environmental risks posed by sea louse treatment chemicals are described. The concept of farming the sea is explored in relation to SEPA's 'allowable zone of effects' approach and the growing public concern about perceived environmental damage. Finally, the future prospects for the industry in Scotland are reviewed in relation to sea louse control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Prokof'ev


    Full Text Available Abroad and in Russia there exist the practices of discharge of liquids, which maintain radionuclides in reservoirs. In order to ensure radiation protection of environment and population such discharge must be carried out under control. For carrying out of the control it is necessary to determine the value of acceptable discharge of radionuclides into reservoir with consideration of specific conditions and to supervise the actual value of discharge. The value of acceptable discharge of radionuclide into reservoir depends on such parameters as its volume and rate of the water pour off.

  4. A framework of pediatric hospital discharge care informed by legislation, research, and practice. (United States)

    Berry, Jay G; Blaine, Kevin; Rogers, Jayne; McBride, Sarah; Schor, Edward; Birmingham, Jackie; Schuster, Mark A; Feudtner, Chris


    To our knowledge, no widely used pediatric standards for hospital discharge care exist, despite nearly 10 000 pediatric discharges per day in the United States. This lack of standards undermines the quality of pediatric hospital discharge, hinders quality-improvement efforts, and adversely affects the health and well-being of children and their families after they leave the hospital. In this article, we first review guidance regarding the discharge process for adult patients, including federal law within the Social Security Act that outlines standards for hospital discharge; a variety of toolkits that aim to improve discharge care; and the research evidence that supports the discharge process. We then outline a framework within which to organize the diverse activities that constitute discharge care to be executed throughout the hospitalization of a child from admission to the actual discharge. In the framework, we describe processes to (1) initiate pediatric discharge care, (2) develop discharge care plans, (3) monitor discharge progress, and (4) finalize discharge. We contextualize these processes with a clinical case of a child undergoing hospital discharge. Use of this narrative review will help pediatric health care professionals (eg, nurses, social workers, and physicians) move forward to better understand what works and what does not during hospital discharge for children, while steadily improving their quality of care and health outcomes.

  5. Illumination of mesospheric irregularity by lightning discharge (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; Velde, Oscar; Evans, Adrian


    Theoretical model calculations recently predicted the existence of mesospheric irregularities which assist the initiation of sprites. Here we report the experimental detection of a ˜3-19 km3 large mesospheric irregularity at ˜80-85 km height which is illuminated by the electromagnetic field of an intense positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharge. While the lightning discharge causes a prompt group of four sprites above the lightning discharge, the mesospheric irregularity is found at a horizontal distance at least ˜15-20 km away from the sprite group and it rebrightens ˜40-60 ms after the sprite group occurrence. This rebrightening is driven by a local quasi-static electric field enhancement with a charge moment ˜4-20 Ckm which causes the irregularity to develop a downward descending luminous column from ˜75-85 km height. The quasi-static electric field enhancement is caused by the reorganization of residual charge inside the thundercloud during a high-level activity of intracloud discharges with ˜10-20 pulses per ms. Such mesospheric irregularities might have an effect on the wave propagation of 100 kHz radio waves which are used for atomic time transfer and marine navigation.

  6. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 5. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period by analyzing its recession curve: A case study of the Ranichauri spring (India) ... Keywords. Spring hydrograph; exponential fitting; gravity spring; recession period; recession curve.

  7. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

  8. Advanced ponderomotive description of electron acceleration in ICRF discharge initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wauters Tom


    An example for plasma production by the TOMAS ICRF system is given. Following the described conditions it can be derived that plasma production is (i most efficient close to the antenna straps (few cm's where the field gradient and amplitude are large, and (ii that the lower frequency field accelerates electrons more easily for a given antenna voltage.

  9. Role of electric discharges in the generation of atmospheric vortices (United States)

    Sinkevich, O. A.; Maslov, S. A.; Gusein-zade, N. G.


    The existing thermohydrodynamic and hydroelectromagnetic models of tornado are considered. The potentialities of the humid atmosphere as a heat engine generating air vortices are analyzed in detail. The ability of long-term atmospheric electric discharges to form a tornado funnel and create an initial twist of up to 10-3-10-2 s-1 in it are estimated. The possible effect of a lightning discharge on the initiation and evolution of the tornado is discussed. It is shown that the electric current flowing along the lightning channel can lead to helical instability and generation of a weak primary vortex. The channel formed in the atmosphere by a lightning discharge and the vortex motion of the parent thundercloud can enhance the primary vortex and promote its transformation into a tornado. Possible mechanisms of enhancement of the primary vortex created by a lightning discharge and the possibility of its transformation into a tornado in the postdischarge stage are discussed.

  10. Volume do recipiente, adubação e sua forma de mistura ao substrato no crescimento inicial de Peltophorum dubium (sprengel taubert em viveiro Container volume, fertilization and way to mix substrate on the initial growth of Peltophorum dubium (sprengel taubert in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Luiz Brachtvogel


    Full Text Available O ensaio comparou três volumes de recipientes, três tipos de adubação e duas formas de mistura do fertilizante ao substrato, no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Taubert (canafístula em viveiro, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 2. Foram utilizados tubetes de 100 e 180 cm³ preenchidos com substrato comercial e sacos plásticos de 10 x 15 cm cheios com mistura de solo e vermiculita em partes iguais, fertilizados com fertilizante de liberação lenta (FLL nas dosagens de 1,75 e 3,5 kg m-3 e com formulação NPK a 1,0 kg m-3 de substrato. As formas de misturas adotadas foram aquelas com base por metro cúbico de substrato ou individualmente para cada recipiente. Na análise destrutiva realizada 12 semanas após a emergência, avaliaram-se o número de folhas, a altura da planta, o diâmetro do coleto e as massas secas da parte aérea, o sistema radicular e o total. Os resultados indicaram que a redução no volume do recipiente causou diminuição na massa seca, diâmetro e altura. O número de folhas, a massa seca da parte aérea e a massa seca total foram semelhantes nas plântulas sob fertilização com NPK, independentemente do volume do recipiente, o que não ocorreu naquelas sob FLL, onde esse parâmetro diminuiu com o volume do recipiente. O cálculo do índice de Dickson após 12 semanas indicou valores superiores em mudas com a forma de mistura convencional em relação à individual e maior naquelas sob fertilização com NPK, em comparação com as sob FLL.This essay compared three container volumes, conventional fertilizer, recommended and half recommended slow release fertilizer, and the way of mixing fertilizer in the substrate on the initial growth of Peltophorum dubium seedlings in a nursery. The statistical design was a randomized factorial 3 x 3 x 2, using 180 and 100 cm³ plugs for containers filled with commercial substrate and plastic bags of 10 x 15 cm filled with soil and vermiculita in equal

  11. USAF 1990 Research Initiation Program. Volume 3 (United States)


    Worchester Polytechnic Institute - I New Orleans , University of - I Wright State University - 4 New York, City College of - 1 Wyoming, University of - 1...Engineering Dr. Johanna Schruben University of Houston-Victoria Specialty: Mathematics xiv RESEARCH REPORTS xv MINI-GRANT RESEARCH REPORTS Technical...a Double Aperture Dr. Johanna Schruben Telescope Obtained as a Function of the Ratio of Optical Transfer Functions Without and With Diversity 210

  12. Mathematical physics approaches to lightning discharge problems (United States)

    Kyrala, A.


    Mathematical physics arguments useful for lightning discharge and generation problems are pursued. A soliton Ansatz for the lightning stroke is treated including a charge generation term which is the ultimate source for the phenomena. Equations are established for a partially ionized plasma inding the effects of pressure, magnetic field, electric field, gravitation, viscosity, and temperature. From these equations is then derived the non-stationary generalized Ohm's Law essential for describing field/current density relationships in the horizon channel of the lightning stroke. The discharge initiation problem is discussed. It is argued that the ionization rate drives both the convective current and electric displacement current to increase exponentially. The statistical distributions of charge in the thundercloud preceding a lightning dischage are considered. The stability of the pre-lightning charge distributions and the use of Boltzmann relaxational equations to determine them are discussed along with a covered impedance path provided by the aircraft.

  13. The effect of container volume on seedling production and initial growth of Jatropha curcas L. on the Western ParanaEfeito do volume do recipiente na produção de mudas e no crescimento inicial de Jatropha curcas L. no Oeste Paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cristina Ajala


    Full Text Available The effect of container volume on seedling production and initial growth of Jatropha curcas L. on the Western ParanaEste trabalho objetivou comparar a influência do volume de recipientes na produção de mudas e no crescimento, durante o primeiro ano, de pinhão manso no oeste paranaense. A produção de mudas no viveiro utilizou saco plástico de 1.178 cm3 e tubetes de 120 e 180 cm3 preenchidos com substrato comercial. As mensurações quinzenais incluíram os incrementos em altura, diâmetro do coleto e área foliar. Após o plantio foram avaliados os incrementos no número de folhas, de ramificações e a porcentagem de sobrevivência trimestral. Ao final da fase de viveiro, o maior incremento em altura (1,56 cm e em diâmetro do coleto (1,3 mm foi obtido nas mudas de J. curcas conduzidas em saco plástico com volume de 1.178 cm3, enquanto que os valores para mudas em tubetes de 180 cm3 e 120 cm3 resultaram em 1,24 cm e 1,2 mm e 1,48 cm e 1,1 mm, respectivamente. Após o plantio, não foram verificadas diferenças nos incrementos trimestrais em altura, diâmetro de colo, número de folhas, número de ramos (primários e secundários e porcentagem de mortalidade em função do volume dos recipientes utilizados para a formação das mudas. Os incrementos observados no primeiro trimestre após o plantio apresentaram os maiores valores em diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas, e mortalidade. Mudas de J.curcas semeadas no final de agosto, conduzidas em viveiro de setembro a novembro em tubetes de 120 cm3, e plantadas em dezembro em solo PVd da região oeste do Estado do Paraná resultam em crescimento equivalente ao de mudas produzidas em recipientes de maior volume com economia de substrato, espaço de viveiro e esforço no plantio.

  14. Self-stabilized discharge filament in plane-parallel barrier discharge configuration: formation, breakdown mechanism, and memory effects (United States)

    Tschiersch, R.; Nemschokmichal, S.; Bogaczyk, M.; Meichsner, J.


    Single self-stabilized discharge filaments were investigated in the plane-parallel electrode configuration. The barrier discharge was operated inside a gap of 3 mm shielded by glass plates to both electrodes, using helium-nitrogen mixtures and a square-wave feeding voltage at a frequency of 2 kHz. The combined application of electrical measurements, ICCD camera imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and surface charge diagnostics via the electro-optic Pockels effect allowed the correlation of the discharge development in the volume and on the dielectric surfaces. The formation criteria and existence regimes were found by systematic variation of the nitrogen admixture to helium, the total pressure and the feeding voltage amplitude. Single self-stabilized discharge filaments can be operated over a wide parameter range, foremost, by significant reduction of the voltage amplitude after the operation in the microdischarge regime. Here, the outstanding importance of the surface charge memory effect on the long-term stability was pointed out by the recalculated spatio-temporally resolved gap voltage. The optical emission revealed discharge characteristics that are partially reminiscent of both the glow-like barrier discharge and the microdischarge regime, such as a Townsend pre-phase, a fast cathode-directed ionization front during the breakdown and radially propagating surface discharges during the afterglow.

  15. Observations of Precursor Breakdown Prior to Intracloud Lightning Discharges (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Brown, M. F.


    Using the New Mexico Tech VHF Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) we have detected weak precursor discharges occurring up to a few tens of seconds before the initiation of normal polarity intracloud (IC) lightning discharges. With the very sensitive LMA installed at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in south central New Mexico, we observe low-power VHF precursor events in about 10% of lightning discharges. Most of the precursors occur within horizontal distances of about 200 meters of the locations of the initial LMA sources observed in the subsequent discharges, with altitudes about the same as the altitudes of the initial LMA sources. Most precursors consist of a single LMA source, indicating that the duration of the RF emission is less than the 80 μs time window of the WSMR LMA. Occasionally, a given precursor event lasts for up to 400 μs. For most discharges with precursors, only one precursor is observed, occurring anywhere from a few hundred milliseconds to 30 seconds before the discharge. For some flashes, more precursors are observed, several seconds apart. In a few cases, some of the precursor sources are several kilometers from the initial LMA source. In these cases, the leader channels of the ensuing discharge propagate from the flash initiation point to the horizontal locations of the distant precursors. The precursors apparently occur in the regions of the highest pre-discharge fields in the cell, indicating high field regions before the lightning discharge. The precursors are observed only at altitudes of about 8 to 10 km, corresponding to the region between the mid-level negative and upper positive storm charges. We have not observed precursors at altitudes in the 5 to 7 km range, corresponding to the region below the mid-level negative charge where CG discharges are initiated. The altitude dependence of the precursors may result from the fact that breakdown is easier to initiate at lower pressures. Because of RF emission restrictions at WSMR, the

  16. [Redesigning the hospital discharge process]. (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, M; Flores-Pardo, E; Uris-Sellés, J


    The aim of this article is to show that the redesign and planning process of hospital discharge advances the departure time of the patient from a hospital environment. Quasi-experimental study conducted from January 2011 to April 2013, in a local hospital. The cases analysed were from medical and surgical nursing units. The process was redesigned to coordinate all the professionals involved in the process. The hospital discharge improvement process improvement was carried out by forming a working group, the analysis of retrospective data, identifying areas for improvement, and its redesign. The dependent variable was the time of patient administrative discharge. The sample was classified as pre-intervention, inter-intervention, and post-intervention, depending on the time point of the study. The final sample included 14,788 patients after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean discharge release time decreased significantly by 50 min between pre-intervention and post-intervention periods. The release time in patients with planned discharge was one hour and 25 min less than in patients with unplanned discharge. Process redesign is a useful strategy to improve the process of hospital discharge. Besides planning the discharge, it is shown that the patient leaving the hospital before 12 midday is a key factor. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating water discharge from large radar altimetry datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. V. Getirana


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of large altimetry datasets as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions. A rating curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by the Envisat satellite at 475 virtual stations (VS within the Amazon basin. From a global-scale perspective, the stage–discharge relations at VS are built based on radar altimetry and outputs from a modeling system composed of a land surface model and a global river routing scheme. In order to quantify the impact of model uncertainties on rating-curve based discharges, a second experiment is performed using outputs from a simulation where daily observed discharges at 135 gauging stations are introduced in the modeling system. Discharge estimates at 90 VS are evaluated against observations during the curve fitting calibration (2002–2005 and evaluation (2006–2008 periods, resulting in mean normalized RMS errors as high as 39 and 15% for experiments without and with direct insertion of data, respectively. Without direct insertion, uncertainty of discharge estimates can be mostly attributed to forcing errors at smaller scales, generating a positive correlation between performance and drainage area. Mean relative streamflow volume errors (RE of altimetry-based discharges varied from 15 to 84% for large and small drainage areas, respectively. Rating curves produced a mean RE of 51% versus 68% from model outputs. Inserting discharge data into the modeling system decreases the mean RE from 51 to 18%, and mean NRMSE from 24 to 9%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology to the continental or global scales.

  18. Parental Understanding of Hospital Course and Discharge Plan. (United States)

    Bhansali, Priti; Washofsky, Anne; Romrell, Evan; Birch, Sarah; Winer, Jeffrey C; Hoffner, Wendy


    Hospital discharge marks an important transition in care from the inpatient team to the family and primary care provider. Parents must know the hospital course and discharge plan to care for their child at home and provide background for future providers. Our study aimed to determine parental knowledge of key aspects of their child's hospital course and discharge plan and to identify markers of increased risk for incomplete or incorrect knowledge among participants. We conducted a descriptive prospective cohort study of parents within 24 hours of hospital discharge. The primary outcome was concordance of parent responses to verbal interview questions about their child's hospital treatment, laboratory testing, imaging, procedures and discharge plan with the medical record. Of 174 participants, 15% felt less than "completely prepared" to explain the hospital course to their primary care provider or to provide care after discharge. There was >83% overall concordance with interview responses and the medical record, with concordance higher for hospital course events than discharge plan. There were few significant differences in understanding between trainee-based teams and the attending physician-run unit. No patient or family characteristics were consistently associated with poor understanding of hospital course or discharge plan. Although parents were generally knowledgeable about hospital course and discharge plan, areas for improved communication were identified. Individualized counseling about hospital course and discharge plan should be initiated for all parents early during hospitalization. Methods that assess and bolster caregiver comprehension and minimize dependence on written instructions may help with transition to outpatient care. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Transition from symmetric discharge to asymmetric discharge in a short gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Ning, Wenjun; Dai, Dong; Zhang, YuHui; Hao, Yanpeng; Li, Licheng


    The discharge dynamics of a 2.08 mm gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are studied with a one-dimensional fluid model. By increasing the amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage source, it is observed that the discharge is symmetric at first and abruptly turns into an asymmetric state after passing a certain critical value. Compared with former publications dealing with relatively larger gap-distance DBD, our simulation results indicate some new discoveries. First, in both the symmetric and asymmetric states, every discharge event is fully developed from Townsend discharge to glow discharge, and the discharge current appears as a steep narrow pulse. Second, the residual positive column is always completely dissipated before the next break down; therefore, its influence on the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition can be eliminated. It is further revealed that the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition in the short-gap DBD is more delicate. A subtle phase shift is observed before the transition process. When the phase shift is further promoted with voltage rising, a discordance of the evolution paces between electron and ions occurs, which consequently leads to the formation of discharge asymmetry.


    Henriksen, O.M.; Larsen, V.A.; Muhic, A.; Hansen, A.E.; Larsson, H.B.W.; Poulsen, H.S.; Law, I.


    AIM: Assessment of amino acid transport using PET tracers such as [18F]-fluor-ethyl-thyrosine (FET) is a valuable supplement to routine contrast enhanced structural MRI in the initial and follow up evaluations of patients with brain tumors. MRI blood volume (BV) imaging using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) has also been shown to give important information about tumor angiogenesis. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of structural MRI, angiogenic activity (BV DSC), and metabolic activity (FET) in a short single session using an integrated PET/MRI scanner. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-five scans were obtained in 22 referred brain tumor patients. A 20 min static simultaneous PET/MRI (Siemens mMR) acquisition 20 min. p.i. of 200 MBq FET was performed. The MRI protocol included axial FLAIR and post-contrast T1 MPRAGE. For BV imaging the contrast agent (0.1-0.2 ml/kg, Gadovist 1 mmol/ml) was administered using a power injector and BV maps were calculated using dedicated software. Metabolically active tumor volume (FET-vol) was defined in tissue as activity > 1.6 x background activity (B), and metabolic activity, Tmax/B, as maximal tumor activity/B. A low-dose CT scan was obtained for attenuation correction. RESULTS: The PET/MRI scans were well-accepted by patients. Fourteen had high grade glioma (glioblastoma n = 9, oligodendroglioma III n = 4, astrocytoma III n = 1), 7 patients had low grade glioma (ganglioglioma =1, brain stem glioma n = 1, astrocytoma II n = 1, pontine glioma, oligodendroglioma n = 2, unspecified n = 1) and one patients has brain metastasis (malignant melanoma). Five patients had been exposed to anti-angiogenetic chemotherapy (Bevacizumab + irinotecan). Median tumor volume was 1.6 ml (range 0-138 ml). Areas with visually increased BV were observed in 15 of 18 scans with metabolically active tumor tissue. Scans with increased BV had significantly larger median FET-vol (4.1 ml vs 0 ml, p < 0.0005) and

  1. Proposed test method for determining discharge rates from water closets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Fjord Jensen, T.

    At present the rates at which discharge takes place from sanitary appliances are mostly known only in the form of estimated average values. SBI has developed a measuring method enabling determination of the exact rate of discharge from a sanitary appliance as function of time. The methods depends...... on the application of a calibrated measuring vessel, the volume of water in the vessel being measured at a given moment by means of a transducer and recorded by an UV recorder which is able to follow very rapid variations. In the article the apparatus is described in detail, and an example is given...

  2. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...

  3. A descriptive study of urethral discharge among men in Fiji. (United States)

    Gaunavinaka, Lavenia; Balak, Dashika; Varman, Sumanthla; Ram, Sharan; Graham, Stephen M


    Urethral discharge is a common presentation of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in men and known pathogens include Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. There are no published data of the burden of urethral discharge among men in Fiji. To evaluate urethral discharge among men to determine the incidence, the frequency of recurrence and reported at-risk behaviour. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of clinical records of all men presenting with urethral discharge to two major reproductive health clinics. Data collected included self-reported at-risk behaviours, results of abnormal syphilis serology and antibiotics prescribed. The frequency of recurrence in the following 1-2 years of initial presentation was determined along with microbiological findings from urethral swab in this group. A total of 748 males presented with urethral discharge to the clinic in one year. This represents an incidence rate of at least 295 per 100,000 adult males per year in the study population. Within the next 1-2 years of the initial presentation, 102 (14%) of these re-presented out of which 42 had urethral swab taken for etiological diagnosis. The commonest isolate was Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results of syphilis tests were available for 560 (75%) of patients and 29 (5%) were positive. Recurrence was not associated with self-reported at-risk behaviours. The incidence of urethral discharge among males in Fiji is very high and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  4. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M


    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  5. High-voltage discharge in supersonic jet of plumbum vapor (United States)

    Amirov, R. Kh; Antonov, N. N.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.


    During study of vacuum discharge in plumbum evaporating from molybdenum crucible in identical geometry of discharge gap and the same crucible temperature existence of two different discharge forms were observed. These two forms are vacuum arc with current above 10 A and voltage about 15 V and high-voltage discharge with current about 10 mA and voltage of 340 V. Plumbum was placed in heat-isolated crucible (cathode). Electron-beam heater was situated under the crucible. At the temperature of 1.25 kK that corresponds to plumbum saturated vapor pressure about 0.1 kPa voltage from power source (380 V, 200 A) was applied to anode and high-voltage discharge initiated with characteristics mentioned above. After a few seconds this discharge could turn into arc or could exist hundreds of seconds until total plumbum evaporation. Glow of discharge could take the form of a cone, harness or plasma bunch that hanged at the appreciable distance from the electrodes. The estimations of plasma parameters are presented.

  6. Paediatrician perceptions of patient referral and discharge. (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Turbitt, Erin; Gafforini, Sarah; Kunin, Marina


    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the factors involved in the decision of paediatric specialists to discharge patients back to their primary care provider following referral. Return of patients to primary care, when medically appropriate, is essential to provide efficient care to children given the limited workforce of paediatric subspecialists in Australia. Methods Data were compiled from a self-completed mail survey of all paediatricians in five specialties at two children's hospitals in Melbourne (n=81). Analysis involved frequency distributions and descriptive analyses, followed by bivariate analyses to determine the differences, if any, among respondents based on the demographic variables collected. Results The response rate was 91%. Most paediatricians (73%) believed that at least sometimes referrals were for a condition general practitioners (GPs) should be able to manage themselves. However, only 36% reported that they frequently or almost always provided the referring GP with information on how to care for the particular condition without a referral. Concerns regarding whether a patient would receive required care following discharge were felt to be important by most paediatricians. Further, many paediatricians reported that their discharge decision is affected by concerns it would be too complicated to arrange for a GP to take over the care of a patient. Conclusions Understanding the factors involved in the referral process and the decision to discharge patients from speciality care clinics to primary care is essential to develop strategies to address long waiting times. Ensuring appropriate referral of children involves the participation of GPs, parents and specialists. What is known about the topic? Most paediatric subspecialists practice in paediatric hospitals, where there is a sufficient volume of patients requiring their services. There have been reports across Australia of increased referrals to general and subspecialist

  7. Process Performances of 2 ns Pulsed Discharge Plasma (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori


    Pulsed discharge plasmas have been used to treat exhaust gases. Since pulse duration and the rise time of applied voltage to the discharge electrode has a strong influence on the energy efficiency of pollutant removal, the development of a short-pulse generator is of paramount importance for practical applications. In this work, it is demonstrated that the non thermal plasma produced by the 2 ns pulsed discharge has a higher energy efficiency than the 5 ns pulsed discharge plasma for NO removal and ozone generation. Typically, the NO removal efficiency was 1.0 mol kW-1 h-1 for 70% NO removal (initial NO concentration = 200 ppm, gas flow = 10 L/min). Meanwhile, the ozone yield was 500 g kW-1 h-1 for 20 g/m3 ozone concentration in the case of oxygen feeding. These energy efficiencies are the highest in the literature.

  8. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)


    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  9. Quality management for discharge measurements in Bavaria (United States)

    Roth, Carmen


    The hydrology of surface waters is based on the knowledge of the two main hydrological parameters, water level and discharge. These data are not only needed for almost every hydrological planning, but are very important for the management of high and low water. Our long term goal is a complete registration of every natural runoff - covering everything from low to high water - at our 600 measuring stations using limited resources but at the same time achieving high reliability and quality. To this point we are currently enforcing the use of modern data acquisition technology for water level and discharge measurements. The new techniques enable a continuous registration of water levels, actual velocity and consequently the discharge. Currently we are using gauging methods like the well known bubble gauge and radar, while the ultrasonic systems become more and more frequent. The moving boat techniques using the ultrasonic-Doppler-systems (e.g. ADCP, Q-Liner) are gradually substituting traditional methods for discharge measurement. In addition to that hydraulic methods (e. g. SIMK®) are being incorporated in the measuring systems as well. Since 2000 almost all gauges have been equipped with data loggers and automatic data transmission systems. One of the outcomes of these investments is the online availability of hydrological data on our website ( where high quality data can be easily accessed. A new project has been initiated to improve the present rating curve. By means of hydraulic calculation the curve will be verified and if necessary adjusted to minimise deviations in the near future, which is of high importance especially for flooding forecasts.

  10. Research on the Optical Properties of Transformers Partial Discharge Based on Different Discharge Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bengang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the different types of discharge in transformer were simulated based on the real transformer fault model. The optical partial discharge detection system was established based on optical sensors which were capturing partial discharge accompanied by optical effects. In this research, surface discharge and suspended discharge defect model was pressurized to generate partial discharge signal. The results showed that: Partial discharge optical signals could effectively respond the production and development process of transformer partial discharge. It was able to assess discharge level also. When the discharge phenomenon stabilized, the phase of surface discharge mainly between 60°~150°and 240°~330°, the phase of suspended discharge mainly between 260°~320°. According to the phase characteristic of discharge pattern, the creeping discharge and suspended discharge phenomenon of transformer can be distinguished. It laid the foundation for the application of transformer optical partial discharge detection technology.

  11. Discharge cell for ozone generator (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Suguru


    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  12. Conductive Bands Diminish Electrostatic Discharges (United States)

    Leung, Philip L.; Whittlesey, Albert


    Electrostatic discharges on surfaces covered with electrically insulating paints reduced by connecting edges of painted surfaces to electrical grounds with band of conductive material. Prevents charge build up on paint which eventually arcs to conductive surface, damaging structures and equipment.

  13. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge (United States)

    ... Surgery for pancreatic cancer - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. You had surgery to treat pancreatic cancer . Now that you're going home, follow instructions ...

  14. Electron beam relaxation in a beam-plasma discharge in crossed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadeev, K.K.; Erastov, E.M.; Ivanov, A.A.; Muksunov, A.M.; Nikiforov, V.A.; Severnyj, V.V.; Khripunov, B.I.; Shapkin, V.V. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)

    Experimental investigation into production conditions of high- degree ionization plasma with an electron beam Usub(b)=5 kV, Isub(b)=0.7 A in crypton n/sub 0/=3x10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ in crossed electric and magnetic fields is stated. It is shown that resonance electric field can lead both to starting up of volume discharge-under these conditions electron beam power dissipation sharply increases, and discharge breakdown. Power dissipation increases when incresing magnetic field intensity from 8 to 12 kGs. Dependence of electron beam power dissipation on a longitudinal size of working volume has been investigated. A minimum length of the beam and gas interaction range, at which generation of volume discharge is still possible, has been determined. The data obtained can be useful during construction of a plasma centrifuge on the basis of beam-plasma discharge.

  15. Discharge planning in nursing homes.


    Murtaugh, C M


    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to identify nursing home residents who vary in their discharge planning needs. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Administrative records from a database maintained by the National Health Corporation were the primary data source. The 3,883 persons studied were admitted in 1982 to one of 48 nursing homes located in Tennessee, other southern states, and Missouri. STUDY DESIGN. Residents were followed until discharge or for one year, whichever occurred first. ...

  16. Simulation of Thermal and Chemical Relaxation in a Post-Discharge Air Corona Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Meziane, M; Ducasse, O; Yousfi, M


    In a DC point-to-plane corona discharge reactor, the mono filamentary streamers cross the inter electrode gap with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The discharge phase (including the primary and the secondary streamers development) lasts only some hundred of nanoseconds while the post-discharge phases occurring between two successive discharge phases last some tens of microseconds. From the point of view of chemical activation, the discharge phases create radical and excited species located inside the very thin discharge filaments while during the post-discharge phases these radical and excited species induce a chemical kinetics that diffuse in a part of the reactor volume. From the point of view of hydrodynamics activation, the discharge phases induce thermal shock waves and the storage of vibrational energy which relaxes into thermal form only during the post-discharge phase. Furthermore, the glow corona discharges that persist during the post-discharge phases induce the so called electri...

  17. The formation of diffuse discharge by short-front nanosecond voltage pulses and the modification of dielectrics in this discharge (United States)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.


    The dynamics of diffuse discharge formation under the action of nanosecond voltage pulses with short fronts (below 1 ns) in the absence of a source of additional preionization and the influence of a dielectric film on this process have been studied. It is established that the diffuse discharge is induced by the avalanche multiplication of charge initiated by high-energy electrons and then maintained due to secondary breakdowns propagating via ionized gas channels. If a dielectric film (polyethylene, Lavsan, etc.) is placed on the anode, then multiply repeated discharge will lead to surface and bulk modification of the film material. Discharge-treated polyethylene film exhibits a change in the optical absorption spectrum in the near-IR range.

  18. Measuring health literate discharge practices. (United States)

    Innis, Jennifer; Barnsley, Jan; Berta, Whitney; Daniel, Imtiaz


    Purpose Health literate discharge practices meet patient and family health literacy needs in preparation for care transitions from hospital to home. The purpose of this paper is to measure health literate discharge practices in Ontario hospitals using a new organizational survey questionnaire tool and to perform psychometric testing of this new survey. Design/methodology/approach This survey was administered to hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability testing were performed. Findings The participation rate of hospitals was 46 percent. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that there were five factors. The survey, and each of the five factors, had moderate to high levels of reliability. Research limitations/implications There is a need to expand the focus of further research to examine the experiences of patients and families. Repeating this study with a larger sample would facilitate further survey development. Practical implications Measuring health literate discharge practices with an organizational survey will help hospital managers to understand their performance and will help direct quality improvement efforts to improve patient care at hospital discharge and to decrease hospital readmission. Originality/value There has been little research into how patients are discharged from hospital. This study is the first to use an organizational survey tool to measure health literate discharge practices.

  19. Early Stage of Pulsed High Current Discharge with Copper Powder (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takuma; Kuraoka, Takuya; Takano, Kazuya; Ibuka, Shinji; Yasuoka, Koichi; Ishii, Shozo

    Early phase of powder plasmas powered by a pulsed high current discharge was examined by use of high-speed cameras and a laser shadowgraph and schlieren techniques. Initial electrons created by a pre-ionization discharge collide with both an anode and powder particles, of which surfaces evaporate after then. Evaporation of the particle by electron collision initially occured in the hemisphere surface which is close to cathode side. Since vaporization of the anode far exceeds that of the particles, discharge characteristics is almost similar to that of vacuum sparks in which expanding anode plasmas are observed. In order to suppress the developpment of the anode plasma, reduction of the effective anode area by varying the anode shape was examined.

  20. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)


    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  1. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators (United States)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.


    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  2. The radiation field wave forms produced by intracloud lightning discharge processes (United States)

    Weidman, C. D.; Krider, E. P.


    The large-amplitude radiation field pulses produced by intracloud lightning discharge processes have been recorded with submicrosecond time resolution. The wave forms are distinctly different from those produced by return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning, yet they are surprisingly alike within a discharge and in different discharges. The shapes tend to be bipolar, with two or three narrow, fast-rising pulses superimposed on the initial half cycle. Pulses with a positive initial polarity are usually produced in the several tens of milliseconds prior to the first return stroke in a cloud-to-ground discharge. Positive pulses tend to occur at regular intervals and have a mean full width of about 40 + or - 13 microsec. Negative pulses are usually produced during isolated cloud discharges at more random intervals and have shapes similar to the positive pulses but with more variability. The implications of the field shapes and polarities for the physics of intracloud discharge processes are discussed.

  3. Discharge from total populations of Ia and II afferent fibers in the cat's deefferented medial gastrocnemius muscle during static stretch. (United States)

    Botterman, B R; Eldred, E


    Estimates were made of the changing volumes of discharge arising from the total populations of Ia and II spindle afferent fibers in the cat's deefferented medial gastrocnemius as the muscle was extended stepwise over its excursion range. The estimates were based on values reported elsewhere for (i) the incidence of active units and (ii) their rates of discharge at static muscle lengths normalized against the excursion range of the particular muscle, together with (iii) the numbers of Ia and II afferent fibers in the medial gastrocnemius as derived from a critical review of published information. Curves representing the total discharge of the two afferent types are similar and show three phases: an initial level of spontaneous activity, a somewhat curvilinear rise associated with early recruitment of units during stretch, and rectilinear increase after full recruitment. There was no appearance of saturation. Completion of recruitment of both types of units occurred about halfway in the extension range of the passive muscle. Over most of the excursion range, inflow from the group II population was about one-third greater than that from the Ia units.

  4. Water purification by electrical discharges (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman


    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  5. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Characteristics of Multineedle-to-Cylinder Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Sun


    Full Text Available A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD produces a homogenous discharge with low energy consumption, offering broad developmental prospects, and this discharge process is also the mechanism through which charges are transported. Higher reaction efficiency is achieved when more charges are transported. Focusing on the electrode configuration of the multineedle-to-cylinder (MC system, i.e., the structure of needles arrayed on the inner coaxial rod, the effect of needle arrangement, including needle length (NL, inter axial needle distance (ID, and inter axial needle rotation angle (INRA, on the transported charge per cycle and discharge power in DBDs is investigated. The finite-element method (FEM and quasi-static field simulation are adopted to study the active region (AR where the electric field strength exceeds the breakdown electric field strength between MC electrodes because this region plays a dominant role in DBD. The improvement of its volume ratio in the reactor allows an increase in discharge power. The simulation results are in accordance with the experimental results, which illustrate that quasi-static field simulation is effective and reliable. Simulation results show that mutual effects of nearby needles and between needles and the inner rod exist. As a result, shorter ID (1.5 mm, needles with similar lengths (3.5 mm are arranged, and an INRA of 0° is proven to be the optimal structure because it produces the highest AR volume ratio. The result is experimentally validated by transported charges per cycle and discharge power obtained through Lissajous figures.

  6. Atmospheric-pressure electric discharge as an instrument of chemical activation of water solutions (United States)

    Rybkin, V. V.; Shutov, D. A.


    Results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of physicochemical characteristics of plasmas generated in different types of atmospheric-pressure discharges (pulsed streamer corona, gliding electric arc, dielectric barrier discharge, glow-discharge electrolysis, diaphragmatic discharge, and dc glow discharge) used to initiate various chemical processes in water solutions are analyzed. Typical reactor designs are considered. Data on the power supply characteristics, plasma electron parameters, gas temperatures, and densities of active particles in different types of discharges excited in different gases and their dependences on the external parameters of discharges are presented. The chemical composition of active particles formed in water is described. Possible mechanisms of production and loss of plasma particles are discussed.

  7. Light and Light Sources High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, Peter G


    Light and Light Sources gives an introduction to the working principles of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and points out challenges and problems associated with the development and operation of HID lamps. The state-of-the-art in electrode and plasma diagnostics as well as numerical methods used for the understanding of HID lamps are described. This volume addresses students as well as scientists and researchers at universities and in industry.

  8. Commencement Bay Study. Volume V. Water Quality. (United States)


    source discharges also reflect local rainfall activity (e.g., storm drains , sewer plant outfalls). The body of literature available to -55- support...water.* There were higher concentrations noted in some storm drains , bank seepage, and effluent samples. The amount of discharge at these points was...either storm drains or bank seepage and of low volume. Purgeable Halocarbons None of the waterway stations had concentrations in excess of

  9. Family involvement in emergency department discharge education for older people. (United States)

    Palonen, Mira; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi


    To report findings concerning family involvement in emergency department discharge education for older people. The current trend of population ageing in Western countries has caused an increase in emergency department visits. Due to the continuing improvement in the mental and physical status of older people, they are frequently discharged home. Proper discharge education enables older people and their families to better understand how they can cope with the medical issue at home. Given the lack of research, we know relatively little about the significance of family involvement in older people's emergency department discharge education. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Qualitative thematic interviews of seven older patients, five family members and fifteen nurses were conducted. Data were analysed using content analysis. Family involvement in discharge education was seen as turbulent. The experiences were twofold: family involvement was acknowledged, but there was also a feeling that family members were ostracised. Families were seen as a resource for nurses, but as obliged initiators of their own involvement. Our findings suggest that family members are not considered participants in emergency department care. For a family-friendly approach, actions should be taken on both individual and organisational levels. The findings support healthcare providers and organisation leaders in promoting family involvement in discharge education for older people. Families can be encouraged to be involved without feeling responsible for the interaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chemical routes to discharging graphenides. (United States)

    Hodge, Stephen A; Buckley, David J; Yau, Hin Chun; Skipper, Neal T; Howard, Christopher A; Shaffer, Milo S P


    Chemical and electrochemical reduction methods allow the dispersion, processing, and/or functionalization of discrete sp(2)-hybridised nanocarbons, including fullerenes, nanotubes and graphenes. Electron transfer to the nanocarbon raises the Fermi energy, creating nanocarbon anions and thereby activating an array of possible covalent reactions. The Fermi level may then be partially or fully lowered by intended functionalization reactions, but in general, techniques are required to remove excess charge without inadvertent covalent reactions that potentially degrade the nanocarbon properties of interest. Here, simple and effective chemical discharging routes are demonstrated for graphenide polyelectrolytes and are expected to apply to other systems, particularly nanotubides. The discharging process is inherently linked to the reduction potentials of such chemical discharging agents and the unusual fundamental chemistry of charged nanocarbons.

  11. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla


    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  12. Constricted glow discharge plasma source (United States)

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan


    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  13. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.


    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  14. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.


    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  15. On self-sustainment of DC discharges with gridded anode (United States)

    Yuan, Chengxun; Yao, Jingfeng; Eliseev, S. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Zhou, Zhongxiang


    The paper presents results of numerical investigation of a large-volume plasma source based on a DC discharge with gridded anode. Geometry and configuration of the electrodes were chosen so as to ensure the formation of a cathode sheath, which would accelerate electrons up to high energies and inject them into the post-anode space and create plasma. Simulations were carried out using a hybrid model, and distributions of the main discharge parameters were obtained in a wide range of currents. At low currents, cathode sheath occupies whole interelectrode gap while plasma is formed in the post-anode space. It is shown that ions moving through the anode grid into the interelectrode gap cause reduction of discharge voltage when compared to the case of classical obstructed discharge with virtually closed anode grid. At higher currents, however, plasma is formed within the interlectrode gap as well, and ions moving from plasma in the post-anode space become trapped by reversed electric field. This essentially nullifies influence of the post-anode plasma on discharge properties.

  16. The Influence of the Presence of Multiple Voids on the Discharge Patterns in Solid Epoxy Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Larsen, Esben


    In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void di...

  17. Generation of intense soft X-rays from capillary discharge plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At Laser Plasma Division, RRCAT, a program on high voltage capillary discharge had been started. The system consists of a 400 kV Marx bank, water line capacitor, spark gap and capillary chamber. The initial results of the emission of intense short soft X-ray pulses (5–10 ns) from the capillary discharge are reported.

  18. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge (United States)

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.


    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  19. Simulating the inception of pulsed discharges near positive electrodes (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute


    With 3D particle simulations we study the inception of pulsed discharges near positive electrodes. In different geometries, we first determine the breakdown voltage. Then we study the probability of inception for a fast voltage pulse. This probability mostly depends on the availability of seed electrons to generate the initial electron avalanches. These results are compared with experimental observations. Then we investigate how the shape of a starting discharge affects its further development. In particular, we discuss the formation of so-called ``inception clouds.'' JT was supported by STW-project 10755.

  20. Numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge and generated electromagnetic pulse (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.


    Using the concept of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche, numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-UHF range was conducted. We evaluated the numbers of electrons initiating the avalanche, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with measured ones. The discharge capable of generating EMPs produces runaway electrons in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-flashes (TGF) registered in the nearest space, which may be an argument for a joint EMP and TGF source.

  1. The discharge behavior of lithium-ion batteries using the Dual-Potential Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Battery Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    This paper gives insight into the discharge behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on the investigations, which have been done by the researchers [1– 19]. In this article, the battery's discharge behaviour at various discharge rates is studied and surface monitor, discharge curve, volume monitor...... and maximum temperature in the domain, lowest and the highest rate of changes were seen for 0.5C and 5C respectively....

  2. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.


    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...

  3. Your Superintendent -- Recharge or Discharge? (United States)

    Turner, Loyd L.

    This speech discusses criteria for hiring, evaluating, and rehiring or discharging superintendents by school boards. The presentation stresses that most board evaluation methods are weak and suggests a superintendent evaluation checklist such as the one used by the Fort Worth Board of Education as a workable remedy. (JF)

  4. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge (United States)

    ... becomes red or painful, or yellow or green discharge is draining from it. You have chest pain or shortness of breath that does not go away with rest. Your pulse feels irregular -- very slow (fewer than 60 beats), or very fast (over 100 to 120 beats) a minute. You ...

  5. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht


    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  6. Estimating stream discharge using stage and multi-level acoustic Doppler velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jane Bang; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer; Ovesen, Niels Bering

    obtained from an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and with discharge values derived by the Danish Water Authority by traditional stage-discharge analysis. The novelty of this approach is that the velocity gradient is implemented as a marker for hydraulic changes in the hydrograph estimation......, without explicit use of cross sectional area and cross sectional average velocity. The initial results show good agreement between the ADCP discharge measurements and the discharge values predicted from the stage-velocity method and suggest superiority of the stage-velocity method during abrupt changes...

  7. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert


    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  8. Discharge current distribution in stratified soil under impulse discharge (United States)

    Eniola Fajingbesi, Fawwaz; Shahida Midi, Nur; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.; Hajar Yusoff, Siti


    The mobility of charge particles traversing a material defines its electrical properties. Soil (earth) have long been the universal grounding before and after the inception of active ground systems for electrical appliance purpose due to it semi-conductive properties. The soil can thus be modelled as a single material exhibiting semi-complex inductive-reactive impedance. Under impulse discharge such as lightning strikes to soil this property of soil could result in electric potential level fluctuation ranging from ground potential rise/fall to electromagnetic pulse coupling that could ultimately fail connected electrical appliance. In this work we have experimentally model the soil and lightning discharge using point to plane electrode setup to observe the current distribution characteristics at different soil conductivity [mS/m] range. The result presented from this research indicate above 5% shift in conductivity before and after discharge which is significant for consideration when dealing with grounding designs. The current distribution in soil have also be successfully observed and analysed from experimental result using mean current magnitude in relation to electrode distance and location, current density variation with depth all showing strong correlation with theoretical assumptions of a semi-complex impedance material.

  9. Homelessness following disability-related discharges from active duty military service in Afghanistan and Iraq. (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D; Brignone, Emily; Metraux, Stephen; Peterson, Rachel; Carter, Marjorie E; Barrett, Tyson; Palmer, Miland; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V


    Many dynamics in the relationship among military service-related disabilities, health care benefits, mental health disorders, and post-deployment homelessness among US Veterans are not well understood. Determine whether Veterans with a disability-related discharge from military service are at higher risk for homelessness, whether Veterans Health Administration (VHA) service-connected disability benefits mitigates that risk, and whether risks associated with discharge type, service-connected disability, or the interaction between them vary as a function of mental health disorders. Retrospective cohort study of 364,997 Veterans with a disability-related or routine discharge and initial VHA encounter between 2005 and 2013. Logistic regression and survival analyses were used to estimate homelessness risk as a function of discharge status, mental health disorders, and receipt of VHA disability benefits. Disability-discharged Veterans had higher rates of homelessness compared to routine discharges (15.1 verses 9.1 per 1000 person-years at risk). At the time of the first VHA encounter, mental health disorders were associated with differentially greater risk for homelessness among Veterans with a disability discharge relative to those with a routine discharge. During the first year of VHA service usage, higher levels of disability benefits were protective against homelessness among routinely-discharged Veterans, but not among disability-discharged Veterans. By 5-years, disability discharge was a risk factor for homelessness (AOR = 1.30). In the long-term, disability discharge is an independent risk factor for homelessness. While VHA disability benefits help mitigate homelessness risk among routinely-discharged Veterans during the early reintegration period, they may not offer sufficient protection for disability-discharged Veterans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO and their relationships to the recharge/discharge oscillator paradigm


    Singh, A.; Delcroix, Thierry


    One of the leading theories to explain the oscillatory nature of the El Nino Southern Oscillation is the recharge-discharge oscillator paradigm, which roots on warm waters exchanged between the equatorial and off-equatorial regions. This study tests the relevance of this theory to account for the Eastern and recently mediated Central Pacific El Nino events. The recharge-discharge of the equatorial Pacific, measured here as changes in Warm (> 20 degrees C) Water Volume (WWV), is analysed using...

  11. Improving the reliability of verbal communication between primary care physicians and pediatric hospitalists at hospital discharge. (United States)

    Mussman, Grant M; Vossmeyer, Michael T; Brady, Patrick W; Warrick, Denise M; Simmons, Jeffrey M; White, Christine M


    Timely and reliable verbal communication between hospitalists and primary care physicians (PCPs) is critical for prevention of medical adverse events but difficult in practice. Our aim was to increase the proportion of completed verbal handoffs from on-call residents or attendings to PCPs within 24 hours of patient discharge from a hospital medicine service to ≥90% within 18 months. A multidisciplinary team collaborated to redesign the process by which PCPs were contacted following patient discharge. Interventions focused on the key drivers of obtaining stakeholder buy-in, standardization of the communication process, including assigning primary responsibility for discharge communication to a single resident on each team and batching calls during times of maximum resident availability, reliable automated process initiation through leveraging the electronic health record (EHR), and transparency of data. A run chart assessed the impact of interventions over time. The percentage of calls initiated within 24 hours of discharge improved from 52% to 97%, and the percentage of calls completed improved to 93%. Results were sustained for 18 months. Standardization of the communication process through hospital telephone operators, use of the discharge order to ensure initiation of discharge communication, and batching of phone calls were associated with improvements in our measures. Reliable verbal discharge communication can be achieved through the use of a standardized discharge communication process coupled with the EHR. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity (United States)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.


    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H2O2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H2O2 addition with O2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O2 injected and H2O2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  13. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)


    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  14. Efficient gas lasers pumped by double-discharge circuits with semiconductor opening switch (United States)

    Panchenko, Alexei N.; Tarasenko, Victor F.


    A review of applications of double-discharge circuits based on generators with inductive energy storage (IES) and semiconductor opening switches (SOS) for efficient excitation of different gas lasers is presented. Using a pre-pulse-sustainer circuit technique based on inductive energy storage and semiconductor opening switch generators allows the formation of a pre-pulse with high amplitude and short rise-time and provides a sharp increase of discharge current which significantly improves discharge stability and life-time of the volume discharge in gas mixtures containing halogens. A pre-pulse with high pumping power forms a high-density discharge plasma and an inversion population in gas mixtures under study within ∼10 ns and provides both early onset of lasing and conditions for efficient excitation of an active medium from the storage capacitor. As a result, pulse duration, output energy and efficiency of the lasers under study were improved.

  15. Measurement of Absolute Hydroxyl Radical Concentration in Lean Fuel-Air Mixtures Excited by Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge. (United States)

    Yin, Z.; Lempert, W. R.; Adamovich, I. V.


    The focus in plasma assisted combustion research has been on the evaluation of conventional plasma/combustion mechanisms in predicting oxidation and ignition processes initiated and/or sustained by non-equilibrium, nanosecond discharges. Accurate quantitative data such as temperature and species concentration are needed for assessing and improving numerical modeling. As an important intermediate species, the concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) is very sensitive to the combustion environment (e.g., temperature, equivalence ratio), and therefore is of great interest to kinetic study. In this work, Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used for time-resolved temperature and OH number density measurements in lean H_2-, CH_4-, C_2H_4-, and C_3H_8- air mixtures in a plasma flow reactor inside a tube furnace. The premixed fuel-air flow in the reactor, initially at T_0=500 K and P=100 torr, was excited by a burst of repetitive nanosecond electric pulses in a dielectric-barrier plane-to-plane geometry (˜28 kV peak voltage and ˜5 nsec pulse width, estimated 1.25 mJ/pulse coupled energy). Laser was timed to probe after the discharge burst was over to avoid strong plasma emission interference. Relative fluorescence signal was put on an absolute scale by calibrating against Rayleigh scattering signal in the same flow reactor. Experimental results were compared to predictions from a 0-D plasma/combustion chemistry model employing several well-established combustion mechanisms. 2-D temperature and OH concentration distributions in the discharge volume were obtained by planar LIF and was used to quantitatively evaluate plasma uniformity in the reactor. These results were used to determine the validity of the 0-D model. thanks

  16. Addressing the business of discharge: building a case for an electronic discharge summary. (United States)

    Mourad, Michelle; Cucina, Russell; Ramanathan, Rajiv; Vidyarthi, Arpana R


    Hospitalists are increasingly involved in implementing quality improvement initiatives around patient safety, clinical informatics, and transitions of care, but may lack expertise in promoting these important interventions. Developing a sound business case is essential to garnering support and resources for any quality improvement initiative. We present a framework for developing a business case using a structured approach to exploring qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits and describe its application in the experience of developing an electronic discharge summary at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). At our institution, we found that the primary financial benefits are the cost reductions in eliminating transcription needs and decreasing billing delays, as well as reducing the cost of tracking completion of and dissemination of discharge summaries. Costs incurred from a new information technology (IT) infrastructure, programmer time, maintenance and training must also be accounted for. While benefits may be apparent to front line providers (improved communication, efficiency of data transfer, and increased referring physician satisfaction), implementing and sustaining such an innovation depends on articulating a sound business case with a detailed cost-benefit analysis to institutional decision making. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Electrolocation-communication discharges of the fish Gymnotus carapo L. (Gymnotidae: Gymnotiformes during behavioral sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopa R.M.


    Full Text Available Technical problems have hampered the study of sleep in teleosts. The electrical discharges of Gymnotus carapo L. (Gymnotidae: Gymnotiformes were monitored to evaluate their ease and reliability as parameters to study sleep. The discharges were detected by electrodes immersed in a glass aquarium and were recorded on a conventional polygraph. G. carapo showed conspicuous signs of behavioral sleep. During these periods, opercular beat rates were counted, electric discharges recorded, and the "sharp discharge increase" (SDI of the orienting reflex was investigated. All 20 animals monitored maintained electrical discharges during behavioral sleep. The discharge frequencies during sleep (50.3 ± 10.4 Hz were not significantly different from those observed when the fish was awake and inactive (57.2 ± 12.1 Hz (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, P>0.05. However, the SDI, which was prevalent in the awake fish, was not observed during periods of behavioral sleep. Additional observations showed that the species had cannibalistic habits. When presented with electrical discharges from a conspecific, the sleeping fish showed an initial decrease or pause in discharge frequency, while the awake fish did not have this response. We conclude that the electrical discharges of G. carapo were not conspicuous indicators of behavioral sleep. Discharges may have been maintained during sleep for sensory purposes, i.e., conspecific detection and avoidance of cannibalistic attacks.

  18. Newborn discharge timing and readmissions: California, 1992-1995. (United States)

    Danielsen, B; Castles, A G; Damberg, C L; Gould, J B


    Hospital stays for newborns and their mothers after uncomplicated vaginal delivery have decreased from an average of 4 days in 1970 to 1.1 days in 1995. Despite the lack of population-based research on the quality-of-care implications of this trend, federal legislation passed in 1996 mandated coverage for 48-hour hospital stays after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. To assess the impact of very early discharge (defined as discharge on the day of birth) on the risk of infant readmission during the neonatal period in a California healthy newborn population. Retrospective cohort study, based on a linked dataset consisting of the birth certificate, newborn, and maternal hospitalization record, and linked infant readmission records for all healthy, vaginally delivered, and routinely discharged California newborns from 1992 to 1995. Very early discharge and infant readmission during the first 28 days of life. The percentage of infants discharged very early or early (after a 1-night stay) increased from 71% in 1992 to 85% in 1995. The percentage of infants discharged very early increased from 5.0% in 1992 to 5.7% in 1993 and 7.0% in 1994, then decreased to 6.7% in 1995. Characteristics that have been previously associated with suboptimal pregnancy outcomes were found to decrease the likelihood of very early discharge, eg, maternal complications, primiparity, and Hispanic, African American, South East Asian, or other Asian race/ethnicity. The rate of readmission in the neonatal period initially decreased from 27.6 infants per 1000 in 1992 to 25.67 infants per 1000 in 1994, then increased to 30.2 infants per 1000 in 1995. For infants discharged early, no statistically significant increase in the risk of readmission was observed, compared with infants discharged after a 2+-night stay. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for readmission was statistically significantly higher for infants who were discharged very early, compared with infants discharged early (OR: 1.27), first order

  19. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. Here, the application of DBDs for ozone synthesis, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, the generation of incoherent (V)UV radiation and surface processing (etching, ashing) is presented. The main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidally-driven DBDs (transient, filamented, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) are described, and a simple plasmachemical reaction pathway for ozone synthesis are give. Experimental results on the degradation of VOCs (2-propanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride), as well as byproduct formation is presented for stand-alone DBD treatment, as well as for simultaneous (V)UV illumination of the discharge. Illumination of the discharge with (V)UV can change the plasmachemistry by enhanced formation of certain species of radicals--and thereby change byproduct formation--but also can change the discharge physics, known as the Joshi effect. As an example for generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent UV light, experimental results on a XeBr* excimer UV light source are presented. Effects of the total and partial pressure of a Xe/Br{sub 2} system, the gap spacing and the applied driving frequency on the UV radiant efficiency are shown. For the application of DBDs for surface processing, experimental results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers using DBDs in oxygen are shown function of gas pressure, gap spacing and applied frequency.

  20. Measurement of radiation and temperature of cathod spots in excimer laser discharge; Ekishima reza reiki hodennai ni fukumareru inkyoku kiten no kogakuteki kansoku to ondo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Discharge-pumped XUV source (United States)

    Schmidt, Jiri; Kolacek, Karel; Straus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr


    We have built two experimental devices (CAPEX and CAPEX-U) working as XUV sources, which are based on the fast, pinching capillary discharge. On both these devices we have observed lasing at 46.9 nm (Ne-like Ar line). However, besides lasing at the above mentioned relatively long wavelength, they are also used for testing a possibility of amplification at the wavelengths below 20 nm that have more practical applications. Particularly, at present nitrogen-filled capillary (?4 mm x 90 mm) discharge is studied for the development of XUV (soft X-ray) laser based on recombination pumping scheme: the fully stripped nitrogen nuclei recombine to hydrogen-like atoms, where Balmer-alpha transition (wavelength 13.4 nm) is - according to theoretical predictions - capable of creating population inversion. The modified electrical parameters (peak current 60 kA with quarter period of 45 ns) meet the necessary theoretical conditions. The only question remains, if suitable pre-pulse can suppress the capillary-wall-ablation, which in all presently known cases has quashed the amplification. In this paper the recent results obtained from both these discharge systems (argon-, nitrogen-filled capillaries) will be presented. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under auspices and with the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Contract 14-29772S) and of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (INGO contract LG15013).

  2. Sterilization of medical equipment and contaminated articles by making use of a resistive barrier discharge (United States)

    Uhm, Han S.; Kang, Jung G.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guang S.


    Presented here is an apparatus consisting of an atmospheric resistive-barrier discharge for the sterilization of medical tools wrapped in typical hospital cloths, for the sterilization of manufactured drugs in typical packaging materials, and for the sterilization of biologically-contaminated articles. The sterilization apparatus consists of layers of the resistive-barrier discharge device operating at room temperature, a sterilization chamber, and an ozone destruction device. An electrical discharge in the resistive-barrier discharge system generates an atmospheric plasma in oxygen gas, generating ozone, which in turn efficiently sterilizes medical tools and biologically contaminated articles at room temperature. A sterilization experiment was carried out at an apparatus volume of 100 liters, with a sterilization chamber volume of 60 liters, and a discharge device volume of 40 liters. The sterilization in this experiment required 60 W of power for 5 hours of residence time. For a given sterilization time, the required electrical power was proportional to the apparatus volume. Ozone in the sterilization chamber was destroyed safely after sterilization.

  3. Exploration to generate atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma in air (United States)

    Wenzheng, LIU; Chuanlong, MA; Shuai, ZHAO; Xiaozhong, CHEN; Tahan, WANG; Luxiang, ZHAO; Zhiyi, LI; Jiangqi, NIU; Liying, ZHU; Maolin, CHAI


    Atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma in air has high application value. In this paper, the methods of generating APGD plasma in air are discussed, and the characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in non-uniform electric field are studied. It makes sure that APGD in air is formed by DBD in alternating current electric field with using the absorbing electron capacity of electret materials to provide initial electrons and to end the discharge progress. Through designing electric field to form two-dimensional space varying electric field and three-dimensional space varying electric field, the development of electron avalanches in air-gap is suppressed effectively and a large space of APGD plasma in air is generated. Further, through combining electrode structures, a large area of APGD plasma in air is generated. On the other hand, by using the method of increasing the density of initial electrons, millimeter-gap glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air is formed, and a maximum gap distance between electrodes is 8 mm. By using the APGD plasma surface treatment device composed of contact electrodes, the surface modification of high polymer materials such as aramid fiber and polyester are studied and good effect of modifications is obtained. The present paper provides references for the researchers of industrial applications of plasma.

  4. Role of electric discharges in the generation of atmospheric vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkevich, O. A., E-mail: [National Research University “MPEI,” (Russian Federation); Maslov, S. A., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Gusein-zade, N. G., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)


    The existing thermohydrodynamic and hydroelectromagnetic models of tornado are considered. The potentialities of the humid atmosphere as a heat engine generating air vortices are analyzed in detail. The ability of long-term atmospheric electric discharges to form a tornado funnel and create an initial twist of up to 10{sup –3}–10{sup –2} s{sup –1} in it are estimated. The possible effect of a lightning discharge on the initiation and evolution of the tornado is discussed. It is shown that the electric current flowing along the lightning channel can lead to helical instability and generation of a weak primary vortex. The channel formed in the atmosphere by a lightning discharge and the vortex motion of the parent thundercloud can enhance the primary vortex and promote its transformation into a tornado. Possible mechanisms of enhancement of the primary vortex created by a lightning discharge and the possibility of its transformation into a tornado in the postdischarge stage are discussed.

  5. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming


    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Rulemaking Process (United States)

    The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices.

  7. Metadata - National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) (United States)

    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) is an annual probability survey that collects information on the characteristics of inpatients discharged from non-federal short-stay hospitals in the United States.

  8. National Hospital Discharge Survey: Annual summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presents statistics on the utilization of non-Federal short-stay hospitals based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey from a national sample of the hospital records of discharged inpatients...

  9. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  10. Generation of nanoparticles by spark discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabrizi, N.S.; Ullmann, M.; Vons, V.A.; Lafont, U.; Schmidt-Ott, A.


    The production of nanoparticles by microsecond spark discharge evaporation in inert gas is studied systematically applying transmission electron microscopy, mobility analysis and BET surface area measurement. The method of spark discharge is of special interest, because it is continuous, clean,

  11. Ready for discharge? A Survey of Discharge Transition of Care Education and Evaluation in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Gallahue


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current education and practices of emergency medicine (EM residents as perceived by EM program directors to determine if there are deficits in resident discharge handoff training. This survey study was guided by the Kern model for medical curriculum development. A six-member Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD Transitions of Care task force of EM physicians performed these steps and constructed a survey. The survey was distributed to program residency directors via the CORD listserve and/or direct contact. There were 119 responses to the survey, which were collected using an online survey tool. Over 71% of the 167 American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME accredited EM residency programs were represented. Of those responding, 42.9% of programs reported formal training regarding discharges during initial orientation and 5.9% reported structured curriculum outside of orientation. A majority (73.9% of programs reported that EM residents were not routinely evaluated on their discharge proficiency. Despite the ACGME requirements requiring formal handoff curriculum and evaluation, many programs do not provide formal curriculum on the discharge transition of care or evaluate EM residents on their discharge proficiency.

  12. Ready for Discharge? A Survey of Discharge Transition-of-Care Education and Evaluation in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs. (United States)

    Gallahue, Fiona E; Betz, Amy E; Druck, Jeffrey; Jones, Jonathan S; Burns, Boyd; Hern, Gene


    This study aimed to assess current education and practices of emergency medicine (EM) residents as perceived by EM program directors to determine if there are deficits in resident discharge handoff training. This survey study was guided by the Kern model for medical curriculum development. A six-member Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) Transitions of Care task force of EM physicians performed these steps and constructed a survey. The survey was distributed to program residency directors via the CORD listserve and/or direct contact. There were 119 responses to the survey, which were collected using an online survey tool. Over 71% of the 167 American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited EM residency programs were represented. Of those responding, 42.9% of programs reported formal training regarding discharges during initial orientation and 5.9% reported structured curriculum outside of orientation. A majority (73.9%) of programs reported that EM residents were not routinely evaluated on their discharge proficiency. Despite the ACGME requirements requiring formal handoff curriculum and evaluation, many programs do not provide formal curriculum on the discharge transition of care or evaluate EM residents on their discharge proficiency.

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  14. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level of...

  15. Radio frequency discharge with dust particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chutov, Y. I.; W. J. Goedheer,; Kravchenko, O. Y.; Zuz, V. M.; Yan, M.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I.; Fortunato, E.; Kroesen, G.


    A 1D PIC/MCC method has been developed for computer simulations of low-pressure RF discharges with dust particles using the method for dust-free discharges. A RF discharge in argon with dust particles distributed uniformly in the interelectrode gap is simulated at parameters providing a possibility

  16. Modeling Wideband Electromagnetic Emission of Compact Intracloud Discharges (United States)

    Davydenko, Stanislav; Iudin, Dmitry


    Wideband electromagnetic emission of compact intracloud discharge (CID) is examined in the framework of fractal approach. CID is considered as a result of electric coupling of two bipolar conducting structures, which developed relatively slowly in the regions of strong electric field at the preliminary stage of the discharge. Main stage of CID starts at the moment of electric contact of the bipolar structures and lead to fast formation of tree-like system of well-conducting channels and corresponding current system. To estimate the electromagnetic emission, tree-like current structures at the preliminary and main stages of CID are represented as a sum of linear mean component and set of numerous small-scale constituents corresponding to initial breakdowns between the neighboring cells of the discharge domain. Mean linear currents are considered as effective sources of VLF/LF emission at the both preliminary and main stages of CID. Electrostatic, induction, and radiation electric field components at different distances from CID are calculated taking into account specific features of mean currents at both stages of the discharge. It is shown that, at the preliminary stage, only electrostatic component of the mean current field can be detected, whereas at the main stage all the above components of the electric field can be observed confidently. Radiation electric field of the mean current at the main stage of CID in the far zone represents a typical narrow bipolar pulse (NBP). Dependence of NBP profile on the discharge length and current pulse velocity is analyzed. It is shown that due to bi-directional expansion of mean current the bipolar pulse remains narrow in wide range of the discharge parameters. The small-scale linear currents corresponding to formation of new conducting channels of the discharge are considered as effective sources of HF/VHF emission. Radiation electric field of whole discharge structure at any stage of CID is a sum of contributions of small

  17. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian


    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  18. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity and Electrical Conductivity of Composite Energetic Materials (United States)


    Wani, M.K. Bansode, G.M. Gore, Primary explosives : Electrostatic discharge initiation , additive effect and its relation to thermal and explosive ...International, 2007. [32] S.K. Chan, R. Turcotte, Onset temperatures in hot wire ignition of AN-based emulsions , Propellants, Explosives , Pyrotechnics 34 (2009...energies as small as 0.082 nJ [2]. In fact, ESD is a large cause of ignition in powders such as dust [3], food [4], and textiles [5], as well as explosives

  20. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.


    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  1. The role of fast electrons in diffuse discharge formation: Monte Carlo simulation (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Zhang, Cheng; Qiu, Jintao; Hou, Xingmin; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Shao, Tao


    In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of nanosecond pulsed discharges in air of negative polarity using a two-dimensional fluid and fluid-Monte Carlo simulations. The computational parameters and conditions are taken from an experiment. The discharge is initiated near the cathode having a small radius of curvature and propagates towards the flat anode. The simulations are done in atmospheric pressure air with a nanosecond pulse of 120 kV amplitude in a 12 mm gap with a sharp cathode. The essential difference between discharges initiated by low- and high-energy beams of electrons originating in the vicinity of the cathode was observed. The beam of electrons with the initial energy of 20 keV was shown to result in a diffuse discharge, while the 20 eV beam had a negligible influence on the discharge evolution. By analyzing the experimental and computational results, we conclude that a diffuse discharge is formed due to fast electrons without any assumptions on the critical role of the runaway electrons. More study is required to explore the intermediate range of energies and investigate the transition to the diffuse mode of the discharge.

  2. Discharge patterns in the lateral superior olive of decerebrate cats. (United States)

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Davis, Kevin A


    Anatomical and pharmacological studies have shown that the lateral superior olive (LSO) receives inputs from a number of sources and that LSO cells can alter the balance of their own excitatory and inhibitory drive. It is thus likely that the ongoing sound-evoked responses of LSO cells reflect a complex interplay of excitatory and inhibitory events, which may be affected by anesthesia. The goal of this study was to characterize the temporal discharge patterns of single units in the LSO of unanesthetized, decerebrate cats in response to long-duration ipsilateral best-frequency tone bursts. A decision tree is presented to partition LSO units on the basis of poststimulus time histogram shape, adaptation of instantaneous firing rate as a function of time, and sustained discharge rate. The results suggest that LSO discharge patterns form a continuum with four archetypes: sustained choppers that show two or more peaks of activity at stimulus onset and little adaptation of rate throughout the response, transient choppers that undergo a decrease in rate that eventually stabilizes with time, primary-like units that display an initial peak of activity followed by a monotonic decline in rate to a steady-state value, and onset-sustained units that exhibit an initial peak of activity at stimulus onset followed by a low sustained activity. Compared with the chopper units, the nonchopper units tend to show longer first-spike latencies, lower peak firing rates, and more irregular sustained discharge patterns. Modeling studies show that the full range of LSO response types can be obtained from an underlying sustained chopper by varying the strength and latency of a sound-driven ipsilateral inhibition relative to that of excitation. Together, these results suggest that inhibition plays a major role in shaping the temporal discharge patterns of units in unanesthetized preparations.

  3. Comparison of two approaches for determining ground-water discharge and pumpage in the lower Arkansas River Basin, Colorado, 1997-98 (United States)

    Dash, Russell G.; Troutman, Brent M.; Edelmann, Patrick


    In March 1994, the Colorado Division of Water Resources (CDWR) adopted ?Rules Governing the Measurement of Tributary Ground Water Diversions Located in the Arkansas River Basin? (Office of the State Engineer, 1994); these initial rules were amended in February 1996 (Office of the State Engineer, 1996). The amended rules require users of wells that divert tributary ground water to annually report the water pumped monthly by each well. The rules allow a well owner to report the pumpage measured by a totalizing flowmeter (TFM) or pumpage determined from electrical power data and a power conversion coefficient (PCC) (Hurr and Litke, 1989).Opinions by representatives of the State of Kansas, presented before the Special Master hearing a court case [State of Kansas v. State of Colorado, No. 105 Original (1996)] concerning post-Compact well pumping, stated that the PCC approach does not provide the same level of accuracy and reliability as a TFM when used to determine pumpage. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the CDWR, began a 2-year study to compare ground-water pumpage estimates made using the TFM and the PCC approaches. The study area was along the Arkansas River between Pueblo, Colorado, and the Colorado-Kansas State line (fig. 1).The two approaches for estimating ground-water discharge and pumpage were compared for more than 100 wells completed in the alluvial aquifer of the Arkansas River Basin. The TFM approach uses an inline flowmeter to directly measure instantaneous discharge and the total volume of water pumped at a well. The PCC approach uses electrical power consumption records and a power conversion coefficient to estimate the pumpage at ground-water wells.This executive summary describes the results of the comparison of the two approaches. Specifically, (1) the differences in instantaneous discharge measured with three portable flowmeters and measured with an inline TFM are evaluated, and the statistical differences in paired

  4. Improving communication with primary care to ensure patient safety post-hospital discharge. (United States)

    Shivji, Faiz S; Ramoutar, Darryl N; Bailey, Chris; Hunter, James B


    Successful communication between hospitals and primary care is of paramount importance to enable continuity of care and maintain patient safety post-discharge. Discharge summaries are the simplest way for GPs to obtain information about a patient's hospital stay. A quality improvement study was conducted with the aim of increasing the content of discharge summaries for inpatients in the authors' department. A prospective review of 60 electronic discharge summaries was conducted over a 6-week period. The content of discharge summaries was reviewed in accordance with local trust guidelines. Targeted, intensive, cost and time-effective educational interventions were then conducted. A post-intervention review of 60 discharge summaries was performed. A further review of 60 discharge summaries was performed after 12 months. Initial results pre-intervention confirmed suboptimal content of discharge summaries. Post-intervention results showed each component of discharge summaries improved in terms of content, with six of eight components having a statistically significant (Pdischarge summaries and communication with primary care.

  5. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. As an introduction of this type of gas discharge, the main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidal-driven DBDs (transient, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) will be described, and plasmachemical reaction pathways for the generation of ozone will be briefly discussed. The generation of atomic oxygen for ozone synthesis leads inevitably to the second application of DBDs, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in dry and humid air. Another application of DBDs is the generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent (V)UV/visible light. The last and latest application of DBDs is the surface processing near atmospheric pressures. As an example, results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers in an oxygen plasma will be shown as function of gas pressure, gap spacing, and applied frequency. The surface of the etched photoresist is characterized by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possibility of material deposition with DBDs will also be presented, where DBDs in acetylene lead to fast substrate deposition. Here, only the effects of the gas pressure and gap distance are explored.

  6. Renormalized Volume (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew


    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  7. Iterative initial condition reconstruction (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

  8. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume III. Critical design areas. [Identification of critical design areas; design or materials problems, trade-off areas, items affecting operability and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Several meetings have been held with representatives from Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.; Airco Energy Company, Inc.; Bechtel Group, Inc.; and HRI Engineering, Inc. to identify critical design areas in the Phase Zero work. (Critical design areas are defined as those requiring additional data or further work to finalize design or material selection, to optimize the trade-off between capital investment and operating cost, or to enhance system operability and reliability.) The critical design areas so identified are summarized by plant in this volume of Report XI. Items of a proprietary nature have been omitted from this report, but are included in the limited access version.

  9. Potential factors, including activities of daily living, influencing home discharge for patients with putaminal haemorrhage. (United States)

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Okamoto, Sayaka; Okazaki, Hideto; Mizuno, Shiho; Asano, Naoki; Maeda, Hirofumi; Masaki, Mitsuko; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Tsunoda, Tetsuya; Sonoda, Shigeru


    Convalescent rehabilitation wards assist stroke patients in acquiring skills for activities of daily living to increase the likelihood of home discharge. However, an improvement in activities of daily living does not necessarily imply that patients are discharged home. We investigated the characteristics of patients with putaminal haemorrhage who are discharged home following convalescence in rehabilitation wards. The sample comprised 89 patients (58 men and 31 women) with putaminal haemorrhage hospitalised in the convalescent rehabilitation ward of our hospital between August 2012 and July 2013. Their age ranged from 29 to 88 years (61.9 ± 11.9 years). The lesion occurred on the right side in 48 and on the left in 41 patients. The mean period from onset to hospitalisation in the convalescent rehabilitation ward was 30.8 ± 17.2 days, and the mean hospitalisation period was 70.7 ± 31.8 days. We examined age, sex, haematoma volume, duration from onset to hospitalisation, neurological symptoms, cognitive function, functional independence measure, number of cohabitating family members and whether the patient lived alone before stroke, and the relationship among these factors and discharge destination (home or facility/hospital) was assessed. The discharge destination was home for 71 and a facility or hospital for 18 patients. Differences were observed in age, haematoma volume, neurological symptoms, cognitive function, functional independence measure score on admission and discharge, number of cohabitating family members and whether the patient lived alone before stroke for patients discharged home. Patients who required long-term care and were discharged home were more likely to be living with family members who were present during daytime. Home discharge was possible if functional independence measure score was ≥70 at the time of discharge for motor items and ≥24 for cognitive items, even if a patient lived alone before stroke. Although the

  10. Ecton processes in the generation of pulsed runaway electron beams in a gas discharge (United States)

    Mesyats, G. A.


    As was shown earlier for pulsed discharges that occur in electric fields rising with extremely high rates (1018 V/(cm s)) during the pulse rise time, the electron current in a vacuum discharge is lower than the current of runaway electrons in an atmospheric air discharge in a 1-cm-long gap. In this paper, this is explained by that the field emission current from cathode microprotrusions in a gas discharge is enhanced due to gas ionization. This hastens the initiation of explosive electron emission, which occurs within 10-11 s at a current density of up to 1010 A/cm2. Thereafter, a first-type cathode spot starts forming. The temperature of the cathode spot decreases due to heat conduction, and the explosive emission current ceases. Thus, the runaway electron current pulse is similar in nature to the ecton phenomenon in a vacuum discharge.

  11. A high-brightness repetitively pulsed UV radiation source using a linearly stabilized surface discharge (United States)

    Bugrimov, S. N.; Kamrukov, A. S.; Kashnikov, G. N.; Kozlov, N. P.; Ovchinnikov, P. A.


    A method is proposed for initiating spark plasma discharges on a dielectric surface in the form of strictly rectilinear plasma channels. The method can be implemented using relatively modest (less than 25 kV) working and ignition voltages and does not require any 'hard' electrotechnical loops. Experiments were carried out in order to study the formation dynamics, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of linearly stabilized surface discharges having linearly stabilized spark channel and the results are discussed. High-speed photographs of the discharges are presented and the spectrum of radiation from the discharges is illustrated in graphic form. It is shown that linearly stabilized discharges can be used to obtain high-power repetitively pulsed sources of CW ultraviolet radiation in the UV region having a brightness temperature of at least 40 K.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon......The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... using an existing large-scale airborne geophysical survey and hydrogeological data from the boreholes in the study area. This data helped in locating zones of groundwater discharge as well estimating complex salinity distribution under the sediment bed along with information about geology under lagoon...

  13. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda


    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  14. Characterising and modelling groundwater discharge in anagricultural wetland on the French Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. Weng


    Full Text Available Interaction between a wetland and its surrounding aquifer was studied in the Rochefort agricultural marsh (150 km2. Groundwater discharge in the marsh was measured with a network of nested piezometers. Hydrological modelling of the wetland showed that a water volume of 770,000 m3 yr–1 is discharging into the marsh, but that this water flux essentially takes place along the lateral borders of the wetland. However, this natural discharge volume represents only 20% of the artificial freshwater injected each year into the wetland to maintain the water level close to the soil surface. Understanding and quantifying the groundwater component in wetland hydrology is crucial for wetland management and conservation. Keywords: wetland, hydrology, groundwater, modelling, marsh

  15. Numerical modeling of partial discharges parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.


    Full Text Available In recent testing of the partial discharges or the use for the diagnosis of insulation condition of high voltage generators, transformers, cables and high voltage equipment develops rapidly. It is a result of the development of electronics, as well as, the development of knowledge about the processes of partial discharges. The aim of this paper is to contribute the better understanding of this phenomenon of partial discharges by consideration of the relevant physical processes in isolation materials and isolation systems. Prebreakdown considers specific processes, and development processes at the local level and their impact on specific isolation material. This approach to the phenomenon of partial discharges needed to allow better take into account relevant discharge parameters as well as better numerical model of partial discharges.

  16. EDITORIAL: Mercury-free discharges for lighting (United States)

    Haverlag, M.


    This special Cluster of articles in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers the subject of mercury-free discharges that are being investigated by different light source researchers, as an alternative to existing mercury-containing lamps. The main driving force to move away from mercury-containing discharge light sources is connected to the environmentally unfriendly nature of mercury. After inhalation or direct contact, severe mercury exposure can lead to damage to human brain cells, the kidneys, the liver and the nervous system. For this reason, the use of mercury in products is becoming more and more restricted by different governmental bodies. In the lighting industry, however, many products still make use of mercury, for different reasons. The main reason is that mercury-containing products are, in most cases, more efficient than mercury-free products. For a realistic comparison of the environmental impact, the mercury-contamination due to electricity production must be taken into account, which depends on the type of fuel being used. For an average European fuel-mix, the amount of mercury that is released into the environment is around 29 μg kWh-1. This means that a typical 30 W TL lamp during a lifetime of 20,000 hours will release a total of about 20 mg mercury due to electricity production, which exceeds the total mercury dose in the lamp (more and more of which is being recycled) by a factor of 5-10 for a modern TL lamp. This illustrates that, quite apart from other environmental arguments like increased CO2 production, mercury-free alternatives that use more energy can in fact be detrimental for the total mercury pollution over the lifetime of the lamp. For this reason, the lighting industry has concentrated on lowering the mercury content in lamps as long as no efficient alternatives exist. Nevertheless, new initiatives for HID lamps and fluorescent lamps with more or less equal efficiency are underway, and a number of them are described in this

  17. Rapid Patient Discharge Contribution to Bed Surge Capacity During a Mass Casualty Incident: Findings From an Exercise With New York City Hospitals. (United States)

    Jacobs-Wingo, Jasmine L; Cook, Heather A; Lang, William H

    Mass casualty incidents may increase patient volume suddenly and dramatically, requiring hospitals to expeditiously manage bed inventories to release acute care beds for disaster victims. Electronic patient tracking systems combined with unit walk-throughs can identify patients for rapid discharge. The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's 2013 Rapid Patient Discharge Assessment (RPDA) aimed to determine the maximum number of beds NYC hospitals could make available through rapid patient discharge and to characterize discharge barriers. Unit representatives identified discharge candidates within normal operations in round 1 and additional discharge candidates during a disaster scenario in round 2. Descriptive statistics were performed. Fifty-five NYC hospitals participated in the RPDA exercise; 45 provided discharge candidate counts in both rounds. Representatives identified 4225 patients through the RPDA: among these, 1138 (26.9%) were already confirmed for discharge; 1854 (43.9%) were round 1 discharge candidates; and 1233 (29.2%) were round 2 discharge candidates. These 4225 patients represented 21.4% of total bed capacity. Frequently reported barriers included missing prescriptions for aftercare or discharge orders. The NYC hospitals could implement rapid patient discharge to clear one-fifth of occupied inpatient beds for disaster victims, given they address barriers affecting patients' safe and efficient discharge.

  18. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan


    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating...... current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column......, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light...

  19. Pin Hole Discharge Creation in Na2SO4 Water Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hlavatá


    Full Text Available This work deals with the diaphragm discharge generated in water solutions containing Na2SO4 as a supporting electrolyte. The solution conductivity was varied in the range of 270 ÷ 750 µScm-1. The batch plasma reactor with volume of 100 ml was divided into two electrode spaces by the Shapal-MTM ceramics dielectric barrier with a pin-hole (diameter of 0.6 mm. Three variable barrier thicknesses (0.3; 0.7 and 1.5 mm and non-pulsed DC voltage up to 2 kV were used for the discharge creation. Each of the current–voltage characteristic can be divided into three parts: electrolysis, bubble formation and discharge operation. The experimental results showed that the discharge ignition moment in the pin-hole was significantly dependent on the dielectric diaphragm thickness. Breakdown voltage increases with the increase of the dielectric barrier thickness.

  20. Values of contrast galactography in nonlactating nipple discharge in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Park, Yong Hyun; Ji, Hoon; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Nipple discharge is a relatively frequent initial symptom of a pathologic lesion in the nonlactating breast which brings the patient to the physician for treatment. Eventhough only stressful significance of a sanguineous discharge, all type of nipple discharge will indicate that abnormal nipple discharge is a symptom of a pathologic change in the ductal and secretery susrem of the breast, and galactogram often offers information to etiology. Galactography using water soluble contrast media is a valuable procedure to evaluate women with nonlactational nipple discharge or bleeding which are usually due to benign diseases such as intraductal papilloma, papillomatosis, secretory disease or malignant lesions. Contrast galactography can often accomplish such localization and sometimes can suggest or confirm the nature of the pathologic process. Authors have experienced 5077 cases of mammograms, and among them, 195 cases with nipple discharge have been at Youndong Severance Hospital. Yonsei University since October 1, 1983 through June 10, 1988. The results were: 1. Incidence of non lactating nipple discharge was 3.9% among 5077 cases. 2. Most frequent histopathologic disease among surgically confirmed 100 cases was papilloma (35%), which was followed by papillomatosis (28%), fibrocystic disease (14%) and then breat carcinoma (13%). 3. Age distribution of patient of nonlactating nipple discharge showed no differences in comparing to the patients with the same histopathologic disease without nipple discharge. 4. Bloody nipple discharge is the commonest finding (61%) which was followed by serous (22%), milkish (8%), and then seroanguinous (5%) nipple discharge, in analyzing relationship between histopathologic diagnosis and nipple discharge, papilloma and papillomatosis had bloody nipple discharge (69%, 57%), frequently and serous nipple discharge (26%, 25%). Breat cancer had mostly bloody nipple discharge (85%), in contrast to the fibrocystic disease which showed 50

  1. Criteria Led Discharge - The Irish Journey


    Walsh, Richard Patrick; Courtney, Garry; Fitzpatrick, Sinead


    Problem: Improving patient flow and patient experience, reducing Average Length of Stay and readmissions to hospital are key policy and service objectives of the HSE, the National Acute Medicine Programme, and the Department of Health. Criteria Led Discharge (CLD) is an inter-disciplinary tool to support patient engagement in care planning and to support planned discharge from hospital by competent members of the interdisciplinary team without consultant review on day of discharge. The tool i...

  2. Distribution Methods for Transferable Discharge Permits (United States)

    Eheart, J. Wayland; Joeres, Erhard F.; David, Martin H.


    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the operation of a single-price auction of transferable discharge permits. Permits may be sold at auction by the control authority or may be given, free of charge, to the dischargers according to some agreed-upon formula and subsequently redistributed by a similar auction. The sales method and four alternative free allocation schemes are compared through the example case of phosphorus discharge from point sources in the Wisconsin-Lake Michigan watershed.

  3. Evaluation of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge Actuator Substrate Materials (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Sauti, Godfrey; Xu, Tian-Bing; Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan


    A key, enabling element of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator is the dielectric substrate material. While various investigators have studied the performance of different homogeneous materials, most often in the context of related DBD experiments, fundamental studies focused solely on the dielectric materials have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental assessment of the body-force-generating performance of a wide range of dielectric materials in search of opportunities to improve DBD actuator performance. Materials studied included commonly available plastics and glasses as well as a custom-fabricated polyimide aerogel. Diagnostics included static induced thrust, electrical circuit parameters for 2D surface discharges and 1D volume discharges, and dielectric material properties. Lumped-parameter circuit simulations for the 1D case were conducted showing good correspondence to experimental data provided that stray capacitances are included. The effect of atmospheric humidity on DBD performance was studied showing a large influence on thrust. The main conclusion is that for homogeneous, dielectric materials at forcing voltages less than that required for streamer formation, the material chemical composition appears to have no effect on body force generation when actuator impedance is properly accounted for.

  4. Insulator Degradation by High Current Discharges (United States)

    Engel, Thomas Gregory


    The degenerative action produced by 300 kA, repetitive arc discharges on the surface of various insulator materials is investigated as a function of insulator and electrode material and the ambient atmosphere used. The insulator damage produced by the 20 mus wide oscillating pulse is characterized by a shot-to-shot decrease in surface breakdown voltage of the insulator and a loss of insulator mass. The insulators under investigation include a broad group of ceramic, polymeric, and elastomeric materials which have been tested with graphite, molybdenum, copper, and copper-tungsten electrodes. Typically, the ambient gas used in the tests was atmospheric air although some tests were conducted in pure nitrogen, pure oxygen, and admixtures thereof. Models have also been developed which predict holdoff voltage degradation, mass erosion, and holdoff voltage conditioning for the insulator. The conditioning of an insulator is characterized by an increase in its surface holdoff voltage in the initial stages of the test. In these models, insulator performance is predicted by its HDR (i.e., holdoff voltage degradation resistance), MVC (mass vaporization coefficient), and HVC (holdoff voltage conditioning) figures of merit which are calculated using the pertinent thermophysical properties of the material. The relationship between the figures of merit is also discussed.

  5. Microscale Experiments in Chemistry: Initiatives in Implementation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Microscale Experiments in Chemistry: Initiatives in Implementation. Information and Announcements Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 92-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Readiness for hospital discharge: A concept analysis. (United States)

    Galvin, Eileen Catherine; Wills, Teresa; Coffey, Alice


    To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature; therefore, a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up-to-date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research. Literature review and concept analysis. A review of literature was conducted in 2016. Databases searched were: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and SocINDEX with Full Text. No date limits were applied. Identification of the attributes, antecedents and consequences of readiness for hospital discharge led to an operational definition of the concept. The following attributes belonging to 'readiness for hospital discharge' were extracted from the literature: physical stability, adequate support, psychological ability, and adequate information and knowledge. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area of hospital discharge, by proposing an operational definition of readiness for hospital discharge, derived from the literature. A better understanding of the phenomenon will assist healthcare professionals to recognize, measure and implement interventions where necessary, to ensure patients are ready for hospital discharge and assist in the advancement of knowledge for all professionals involved in patient discharge from hospital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge (United States)

    Gutsol, Alexander F [San Ramon, CA; Fridman, Alexander [Marlton, NJ; Blank, Kenneth [Philadelphia, PA; Korobtsev, Sergey [Moscow, RU; Shiryaevsky, Valery [Moscow, RU; Medvedev, Dmitry [Moscow, RU


    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  8. Pelvic (between the hips) radiation - discharge (United States)

    ... radiation treatment area on your body is large. Alternative Names Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical ...

  9. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  10. Early home-supported discharge of stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Sørensen, J.


    OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive and systematic assessment (HTA) of early home-supported discharge by a multidisciplinary team that plans, coordinates, and delivers care at home (EHSD) was undertaken and the results were compared with that of conventional rehabilitation at stroke units. METHODS......: A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...... are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: EHSD is evidenced as a dominant health intervention. However, financial barriers between municipalities and health authorities have to be overcome. For qualitative reasons, a learning path of implementation is recommended where one stroke unit in a region initiates EHSD...

  11. Neutrons in a nanosecond low-pressure discharge in deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor F. Tarasenko


    Full Text Available Stable neutron generation with a yield of ∼1.2 × 104 neutrons per pulse was obtained during d(d,n3He reaction initiated by the high-voltage nanosecond discharge in a gap with a potential tungsten cylinder (anode and a grounded deuterated zirconium plate (cathode filled with deuterium at a pressure of ∼102 Pa. Estimated duration of the neutron pulse was ∼1.5 ns. Less intensive neutron emission was registered without deuterated plate. Splashing of material of the tungsten electrode was observed during the high-voltage nanosecond discharge in the deuterium, hydrogen, helium and argon at pressures of 102–104 Pa.

  12. Oxygen weaning after hospital discharge in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (United States)

    Yeh, Jennifer; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Collaco, Joseph M


    In the United States, approximately 12,000 preterm infants are diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and many of these infants require supplemental oxygen after initial hospital discharge. In children with BPD we sought to identify factors associated with supplemental oxygen use after initial hospital discharge, factors associated with duration of supplemental oxygen use, and methods used to wean off supplemental oxygen in the home environment. All subjects (n = 420) with the diagnosis of BPD were recruited from a single center Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Subject information was obtained from patient history records, patient demographics, and caregiver questionnaires. Younger gestational age and having a Nissen fundoplication were associated with home supplemental oxygen use in subjects with BPD. Of the 154 subjects who received supplemental oxygen at home, 38% received flows ≤1/8 LPM, 30% received flows >1/8 LPM and ≤1/4 LPM, 21% received flows >1/4 LPM and ≤1/2 LPM, and 11% received flows >1/2 LPM. Among subjects receiving ≤1/8 LPM of oxygen, the median age of weaning off oxygen was 10.1 months, but increased depending on level of oxygen flow at initial outpatient visit. Of the 137 subjects weaned off of oxygen during the study period, weaning was not supervised by a physician in 32.1% of subjects. Home supplemental oxygen use is common in infants diagnosed with BPD. In this study, the median age of weaning off supplemental oxygen was 10.1 months after initial hospital discharge. Unsupervised weaning of supplemental oxygen occurred in 32.1% of subjects with BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1206-1211. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Carbon-14 as a tracer of groundwater discharge to streams (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah; Harrington, Glenn; Cook, Peter; Post, Vincent; Dogramaci, Shawan


    The provenance of groundwater discharge to a stream can be determined by measuring the response of multiple groundwater age tracers within the stream across the discharge zone. The sampling interval required to detect groundwater discharge is limited by the rate of equilibration with the atmosphere downstream of the discharge zone, which is determined by the gas transfer velocity. Carbon-14 (14C) equilibration is driven by CO2 exchange, which is a small component of the dissolved inorganic carbon in most stream systems, and therefore the rate of equilibration is slower than for other gaseous age tracers. In this paper we use a step-wise approach to develop and demonstrate the use of 14C as a tracer in streams receiving groundwater discharge. Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) in the emerging groundwater degasses until equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is reached; increasing pH and enriching the residual 14C by fractionation. In addition, the 14C gradient between groundwater and the atmosphere drives a slower process of isotopic equilibration. We have measured the rates of this chemical and isotopic equilibration experimentally by exposing 250 L of old groundwater to the atmosphere in an evaporation pan. Chemical equilibrium was achieved within 2 days, during which the 14C increased from 6 to 16 pMC. The influence of fractionation during the initial CO2 degassing on isotopic equilibrium rates was negligible. Isotopic equilibrium took over 2 months, with 14C in the evaporation pan increasing to 108 pMC over 71 days. This increase in 14C was simulated using a mass balance model with an effective 14C gas transfer velocity of 0.013 m d-1. Field testing of the method was conducted at two sites. Firstly, we measured the evolution of 14C in dewatering discharge as it flows along an ephemeral creek channel in the Pilbara, Western Australia. Measured 14C increased from 11 to 31 pMC along the 10km reach, which corresponds to a travel time of about 2 days. The measured increase was

  14. Pending Laboratory Tests and the Hospital Discharge Summary in Patients Discharged To Sub-Acute Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walz, Stacy E; Smith, Maureen; Cox, Elizabeth; Sattin, Justin; Kind, Amy J. H


    ...) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e...

  15. Flow Classification and Cave Discharge Characteristics in Unsaturated Karst Formation (United States)

    Mariethoz, G.; Mahmud, K.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.


    In this study we utilize the spatial array of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, SW Australia, developed in Quaternary aeolianite (dune limestone), with the aim of understanding infiltration water movement via the relationships between infiltration, stalactite morphology and groundwater recharge. Mahmud et al. (2015) used the Terrestrial LiDAR measurements to analyze stalactite morphology and to characterize possible flow locations in this cave. Here we identify the stalactites feeding the drip loggers and classify each as matrix (soda straw or icicle), fracture or combined-flow. These morphology-based classifications are compared with flow characteristics from the drip logger time series and the discharge from each stalactite is calculated. The total estimated discharge from each area is compared with infiltration estimates to better understand flow from the surface to the cave ceilings of the studied areas. The drip discharge data agrees with the morphology-based flow classification in terms of flow and geometrical characteristics of cave ceiling stalactites. No significant relationships were observed between the drip logger discharge, skewness and coefficient of variation with overburden thickness, due to the possibility of potential vadose-zone storage volume and increasing complexity of the karst architecture. However, these properties can be used to characterize different flow categories. A correlation matrix demonstrates that similar flow categories are positively correlated, implying significant influence of spatial distribution. The infiltration water comes from a larger surface area, suggesting that infiltration is being focused to the studied ceiling areas of each chamber. Most of the ceiling in the cave site is dry, suggesting the possibility of capillary effects with water moving around the cave rather than passing through it. Reference:Mahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to

  16. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaggars, S.R.


    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)


    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  18. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan (United States)

    ... Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this ... need any special equipment or supplies, such as: Hospital bed Wheelchair Walker or cane Shower ... Checklist Your discharge planner will give you a ...

  19. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong


    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  20. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben


    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  1. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The colour of the fluid can suggest the cause of the otorrhoea. A purulent dis- charge indicates the presence of infection, while a bloody discharge may follow trauma or occur with granulation tissue associated with chronic infection. The presence of a mucoid discharge indicates a perforation of the tympanic mem-.

  3. [Early postpartum hospital discharge in France]. (United States)

    Vendittelli, F; Boniol, M; Mamelle, N


    Early postpartum discharge is a recent practice in France and for which there are few national data. The Sentinel AUDIPOG network was used to describe the practice of postpartum early discharge (vaginal delivery and discharge were researched, in univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis, of the births of 2001-2002. Early postpartum discharges concerned 3% of the deliveries in 1997 and 7% in 2002. Eearly postpartum discharge was more frequent in the level II and III obstetric facilities, in non- university hospitals, in facilities with more than 1 500 deliveries a year, in urban hospitals and in Paris and the surrounding area. The women leaving early in the postpartum were more often multiparas, with no pregnancy pathology, with a single pregnancy, without postpartum hemorrhage, and a child > 2500 g without risk of infection. At present, 40% of vaginal delivery and 25% of caesarean section primiparas and 55% of vaginal delivery and 30% of caesarean section multiparas could be discharged early. The reduction of the postpartum hospital stay is inevitable but it is advisable to take care that the women who are discharged are medically fit for discharge.

  4. Silicon nanoparticles produced by spark discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.; Munao, D.; Evirgen, A.; Kelder, E.M.; Schmidt-Ott, A.


    On the example of silicon, the production of nanoparticles using spark discharge is shown to be feasible for semiconductors. The discharge circuit is modelled as a damped oscillator circuit. This analysis reveals that the electrode resistance should be kept low enough to limit energy loss by Joule

  5. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears & Associates, Inc


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  6. Computing discharge using the index velocity method (United States)

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.


    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  7. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming


    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies...... in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements...... and involvement in the process of organisational change: whereas in the ‘add on’ model the professional groups remain at a distance, in the ‘embedded model’ they are closely engaged. Conclusions In terms of understanding the making of hospital discharge arrangements, the study contributes two sets of insights...

  8. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super


    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  9. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.


    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  10. Comparison of the Formula of PSA, Age, Prostate Volume and Race Versus PSA Density and the Detection of Primary Malignant Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting a Positive Initial Prostate Biopsy in Chilean Men with Suspicion of Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Orellana, Nelson; Morales, Francisca; Jacob, Omar


    Combining risk factors for prostate cancer into a predictive tool may improve the detection of prostate cancer while decreasing the number of benign biopsies. We compare one such tool, age multiplied by prostate volume divided by total serum PSA (PSA-AV) with PSA density and detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in a Chilean prostate cancer screening program. The objectives were not only to determine the predictive values of each, but to determine the number of clinically significant cancers that would have been detected or missed. A prospective study was conducted of all men undergoing 12 core ultrasound guided prostate biopsy for suspicion of cancer attending the Hospital DIPRECA and Hospital de Carabineros de Chile. Total serum PSA was registered, prostate volumecalculated at the moment of biopsy, and an 8 ml blood simple taken immediately before the biopsy procedure. Mononuclear cells were obtained from the blood simple using differential gel centrifugation and CPCs identified using immunocytchemistry with anti- PSA and anti-P504S. Biopsy results were classed as positive or negative for cancer and if positive the Gleason score, number of positive cores and percent infiltration recorded. A total of 664 men participated, of whom 234 (35.2%) had cancer detected. They were older, had higher mean PSA, PSA density and lower PSA-AV. Detection of CPCs had high predictive score, sensitivity, sensibility and positive and negative predictive values, PSA-AV was not significantly different from PSA density in this population. The use of CPC detection avoided more biopsies and missed fewer significant cancers. In this screening population the use of CPC detection predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer better than the other parameters. The high negative predictive value would allow men CPC negative to avoid biopsy but remain in follow up. The formula PSA-AV did not add to the predictive performance using PSA density.

  11. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G., E-mail: [Laboratoire Temps-Fréquence, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel 2000 (Switzerland); Shea, H. [Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchâtel 2002 (Switzerland)


    Miniature (discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  12. Smartphone for measuring river discharge (United States)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Lüthi, Beat; Philippe, Thomas


    Smartphones have become powerful and have extended their capacities including different types of sensors. These capabilities make them very interesting for its applications in water management. We have developed a new mobile device application for open-channel flow measurements. This app can be used to determine the flow in e.g. rivers, artificial channels, irrigation ditches, furrows, etc. The smartphone app computes the runoff by analysing a few seconds of a movie that is recorded using the smartphone camera. The runoff is calculated from the estimated water level, surface velocity and from prior knowledge on the channel geometry. The water level is determined by the separation line of image segments with and without optical flow. Via calibration of the smartphone camera position this separation line is mapped to a water level. The surface velocity is calculated using a modified method of the standard Particle Image Velocimetry method. Among the key characteristics of the method is the fact that no tracer particles are needed. There are two flavours of the app. In the first one, all the measurements are taken using the available sensors in the mobile device and all the calculations are made making only use of the device. Three results are given back: the water level, the average surface velocity and discharge. This information can be sent via SMS. In the second one, the movie is send to a central computer where more detailed calculations are made, like fine camera calibration, camera stabilization tuning, definition of the region of interest, the sub-windows for the velocity analysis can be changed, different algorithms can be chosen, etc. It also generates more detailed results. Using smartphones, measurements can be made at much lower cost, since there is no need of permanent installations, which also makes it possible to take measurements in any place.

  13. Relaxation of an electron beam in a crossed-field beam-plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadeev, K.; Erastov, E.; Ivanov, A.; Muksunov, A.; Nikiforov, V.; Severnyi, V.; Khripunov, B.; Shapkin, V.


    The conditions for the formation of a plasma with a high degree of ionization by an electron beam (U/sub b/ = 5 kV, I/sub b/ = 0.07 A) have been studied experimentally in krypton at a density n/sub 0/ = 3 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Imposing a resonant electric field can cause both the onset of a volume discharge (under these conditions the dissipation of the beam power increases sharply) and a cutoff of the discharge. An increase in the magnetic field from 8 and 12 kG causes an increase in the power dissipation. The dissipation of the beam power has been studied as a function of the longitudinal dimension of the working volume, in which the beam interacts with the gas. Below a certain minimum length of this region a volume discharge can no longer be formed. The results of this study may prove useful for developing a plasma centrifuge which operates by means of a beam-plasma discharge.

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report V, Volume 1 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Flare System (Plant 19), Tankage (Plant 20), Interconnecting Piping (Plant 21), River Facilities (Plant 22), Rail, Truck, Pipeline (Plant 23), and Electrical Distribution (Plant 30). Flare System (Plant 19) provides primary and auxiliary flare systems for safe collection and disposal of overpressure relief discharges, and operational and emergency venting of flammable vapors and liquids from the various processing plants and loading facilities. Tankage (Plant 20) provides storage for propane and heavier liquid hydrocarbon products, as well as for by-product ammonia, phenols, and liquid sulfur. Interconnecting Piping (Plant 21) includes the fuel gas blending and distribution system and the interconnecting process and utility piping between process plants and offsites. River Facilities (Plant 22) provides the loading of liquid products and by-products into barges for marine surface transportation, and the unloading of coal from barges. Rail, Truck, Pipeline (Plant 23) provides loading and unloading of products shipped by either rail or truck. Electrical Distribution (Plant 30) receives main utility power from the Big River Electric Corporation and distributes the power to the other plants. The following information is included for each of the six plants: a description of the plant's design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams, as applicable; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for piping and instrument diagrams.

  15. Pediatric primary care providers’ perspectives regarding hospital discharge communication: a mixed methods analysis (United States)

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K.; Bergert, Lora; Mallory, Leah A.; Engel, Richard; Rassbach, Caroline; Shen, Mark; Woehrlen, Tess; Cooperberg, David; Coghlin, Daniel


    Objective Effective communication between inpatient and outpatient providers may mitigate risks of adverse events associated with hospital discharge. However, there is an absence of pediatric literature defining effective discharge communication strategies at both freestanding children’s hospitals and general hospitals. The objectives of this study were to assess associations between pediatric primary care providers’ (PCPs) reported receipt of discharge communication and referral hospital type, and to describe PCPs’ perspectives regarding effective discharge communication and areas for improvement. Methods We administered a questionnaire to PCPs referring to sixteen pediatric hospital medicine programs nationally. Multivariable models were developed to assess associations between referral hospital type and receipt and completeness of discharge communication. Open-ended questions asked respondents to describe effective strategies and areas requiring improvement regarding discharge communication. Conventional qualitative content analysis was performed to identify emergent themes. Results Responses were received from 201 PCPs, representing a response rate of 63%. While there were no differences between referral hospital type and PCP-reported receipt of discharge communication (RR 1.61,95%CI 0.97–2.67), PCPs referring to general hospitals more frequently reported completeness of discharge communication relative to those referring to freestanding children’s hospitals (RR 1.78,95%CI 1.26–2.51). Analysis of free text responses yielded four major themes: (i) structured discharge communication; (ii) direct personal communication; (iii) reliability and timeliness of communication; and (iv) communication for effective post-discharge care. Conclusions This study highlights potential differences in the experiences of PCPs referring to general hospitals and freestanding children’s hospitals, and presents valuable contextual data for future quality improvement

  16. Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich


    Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1...

  17. Implementing Patient Safety Initiatives in Rural Hospitals (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Tupper, Judith; Coburn, Andrew; Wakefield, Mary


    Implementation of patient safety initiatives can be costly in time and energy. Because of small volumes and limited resources, rural hospitals often are not included in nationally driven patient safety initiatives. This article describes the Tennessee Rural Hospital Patient Safety Demonstration project, whose goal was to strengthen capacity for…

  18. Neutrons in a nanosecond low-pressure discharge in deuterium


    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Mikhail I. Lomaev; Dmitry A. Sorokin; Nechaev, Boris A.; Vladimir N. Padalko; Dudkin, Gennady N.


    Stable neutron generation with a yield of ∼1.2 × 104 neutrons per pulse was obtained during d(d,n)3He reaction initiated by the high-voltage nanosecond discharge in a gap with a potential tungsten cylinder (anode) and a grounded deuterated zirconium plate (cathode) filled with deuterium at a pressure of ∼102 Pa. Estimated duration of the neutron pulse was ∼1.5 ns. Less intensive neutron emission was registered without deuterated plate. Splashing of material of the tungsten electrode was obser...

  19. Medication Discrepancies at Pediatric Hospital Discharge. (United States)

    Gattari, Theresa B; Krieger, Lauren N; Hu, Hsou Mei; Mychaliska, Kerry P


    The pediatric hospital discharge process presents significant challenges, and medication discrepancies remain an unsolved problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the discrepancy rates at the time of discharge when multiple sources of medication documentation exist, and to characterize the medication discrepancies into error type, medication category, and discharge summary authorship. A prospective study was performed on pediatric patients admitted to a general inpatient floor for >24 hours. After discharge, medication lists were obtained from the patients' parent/guardian, discharge summary, and Patient Summary List, a medication list that is part of the electronic medical record. These 3 medication lists were then compared with the pharmacy record to identify discrepancies, defined as any difference in medication name, dose, route, or frequency. Medication discrepancies were analyzed in terms of error type (dosage or addition/omission), category of medication, and final signers of the discharge summary. Sixty-nine patient charts were analyzed, and 8% of medications contained a documentation discrepancy between sources. Overall, 26% (18 of 69) of the charts contained ≥1 discrepant medication; the Patient Summary List had the highest rate of discrepancy at 29%. Allergy (27%) and seizure medications (25%) were the categories with the highest rates of discrepancy. Addition/omission errors were much more common than dosage errors. Medication discrepancies exist in inpatient documentation at the time of pediatric hospital discharge when multiple sources of documentation exist. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Observations on the spatial variability of the Prut river discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil-Andrei BRICIU


    Full Text Available Liquid and solid discharges of the Prut River were analysed based on measurementsperformed in 7 points from the Romanian national network of water monitoring during aperiod of 30 years. The analyses were performed on flows for the period after theconstruction of the Stânca-Costeşti dam and show the influence of the dam for the entireanalysed time. The analysis from upstream to downstream of the spatial variability of thePrut River annual discharges showed their steady increase downstream and then adecrease in the sector next to Oancea station. A statistical minority of the annualdischarges showed a continuous increase of them until the flowing of Prut into Danube.Knowing that the lower basin of the river is characterized by a low amount of rainfall anda higher evapo(transpiration than the remaining basin, the decreasing flows to the rivermouth is explicable; but the increasing flows to the river mouth cannot be justified, underthese conditions of water balance, than by certain climatological parameters of thermodynamicalnature which generate, with increased frequency, more intense and rich rainfall, with a torrential character. The analyses on couples of three months showed thatthe Oancea flows are higher than the upstream stations (opposite than usual in yearswhen the flows of the upstream hydrometrical stations are lower than the multiannualaverage and that supports the mentioned pluviometrical character. A plausible cause for"Oancea phenomenon" is the increase and the decrease of the sunspots number, whosecycles are relatively well fold on the increase and decrease of annual average flow atOancea hydrometrical station. The strongest increased discharges of the Prut River overthe discharges at the upstream stations occur from May to July (MJJ, the months with thehighest amount of rainfall. Seasonal analysis of MJJ and other couples of 3 monthsshowed that there are also growing flows at Prisăcani station relative to the adjacentstations, but

  1. Discharge cleaning and wall conditioning in a Novillo Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, R; Camps, E; Contreras, G; Muhl, S


    Our Novillo Tokamak is a small toroidal device magnetically confined defined by the main design parameters: R sub o =0.23 m, a sub v =0.08 m, a sub p =0.06 m, B sub T =0.05-0.47 T, I sub p =1-12 kA, n sub e =1-2x10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 , T sub e =150 eV, T sub i =50 eV. For the initial discharge chamber cleaning we have often used vacuum baking up to 100 deg. C and then conditioning using Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC) in H sub 2 and He. In this work we report that vacuum baking is effective for obtaining a final total pressure of the order of 1.6x10 sup - sup 7 Torr. We have found that a single parameter, the performance parameter (PP), can be used to optimize the TDC method. This parameter represents the quantity of electron and ion energy incident on the chamber wall during the Taylor discharge, it is equal to (I sub p tau), where I sub p is the peak-to-peak plasma current and tau is the plasma current duration. In graphs of PP versus the gas pressure for different oscillator powers, the maximum val...

  2. Whiteboards and discharge traffic lights: visual management in acute care. (United States)

    O'Brien, Lauri; Bassham, Jane; Lewis, Melissa


    Flinders Medical Centre was experiencing issues with timely discharge and knowing the potential discharges and in-patient bed capacity for the next day. This case study describes the application of 'visual management' theory to discharge processes. The solutions developed were 'patient journey boards' and 'discharge traffic lights'. The implementation of these visual management systems has enabled the hospital to improve its discharge processes.

  3. Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Nathanson, Marcus; Spans, André; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Temnerud, Johan; Bishop, Kevin H.; Seibert, Jan


    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km2. These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average

  4. Initiation of large-volume silicic centers in the Yellowstone hotspot track: insights from H2O- and F-rich quartz-hosted rhyolitic melt inclusions in the Arbon Valley Tuff of the Snake River Plain (United States)

    Drew, Dana L.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Wallace, Paul J.


    During the onset of caldera cluster volcanism at a new location in the Snake River Plain (SRP), there is an increase in basalt fluxing into the crust and diverse silicic volcanic products are generated. The SRP contains abundant and compositionally diverse hot, dry, and often low-δ18O silicic volcanic rocks produced through time during the formation of individual caldera clusters, but more H2O-rich eruptive products are rare. We report analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from pumice clasts from the upper and lower Arbon Valley Tuff (AVT) to gain insight into the initiation of caldera cluster volcanism. The AVT, a voluminous, caldera-forming rhyolite, represents the commencement of volcanism (10.44 Ma) at the Picabo volcanic field of the Yellowstone hotspot track. This is a normal δ18O rhyolite consisting of early and late erupted members (lower and upper AVT, respectively) with extremely radiogenic Sr isotopes and unradiogenic Nd isotopes, requiring that ~50 % of the mass of these elements is derived from melts of Archean upper crust. Our data reveal distinctive features of the early erupted lower AVT melt including: variable F concentrations up to 1.4 wt%, homogenous and low Cl concentrations (~0.08 wt%), H2O contents ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 wt%, CO2 contents ranging from 79 to 410 ppm, and enrichment of incompatible elements compared to the late erupted AVT, subsequent Picabo rhyolites, SRP rhyolites, and melt inclusions from other metaluminous rhyolites (e.g., Bishop Tuff, Mesa Falls Tuff). We couple melt inclusion data with Ti measurements and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of the host quartz phenocrysts to elucidate the petrogenetic evolution of the AVT rhyolitic magma. We observe complex and multistage CL zoning patterns, the most critical being multiple truncations indicative of several dissolution-reprecipitation episodes with bright CL cores (higher Ti) and occasional bright CL rims (higher Ti). We interpret the high H2O, F, F/Cl, and

  5. Improving the quality of discharge summaries for elective surgical procedures at North Bristol NHS Trust. (United States)

    Ladds, Emma; Betteridge, Frederica; Yamamoto, Sarah; Gupta-Jessop, Thomas


    Following elective surgical procedures, hospital discharge summaries are essential in the handover to primary care. The information provided varies between institutions and is highly user-dependent. Various interventions have focused on improving information transfer to patients and primary care physicians including the development of electronic templates, electronic transmission to primary care, and training initiatives for junior doctors. An evaluation of the urological patient's journey at Southmead Hospital revealed a need for improved discharge summary advice. Urology specialists developed "gold standard" templates for elective urological procedures. Following a new rotation of junior doctors, discharge summaries were audited for one week. The templates were then made available on the urology ward, a teaching session was employed to encourage compliance, and the hospital electronic discharge summary template was edited. Following each intervention, summaries for one week of urology procedures were audited to assess the quality of advice provided to patients. At baseline, 18% of discharge summaries contained sufficient patient advice, this reduced to 10% after templates were made available on the wards, increasing to 45% following the education session and 84% once the electronic discharge summary proforma was edited. We conclude that discharge summaries are an effective time point for intervening to provide patients with specific post-operative information and this may be optimised for different elective procedures via the introduction of electronically-distributed standardised templates.

  6. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges (United States)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.


    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  7. High-Resolution Discharge Forecasting for Snowmelt and Rainfall Mixed Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Berezowski


    Full Text Available Discharge events induced by mixture of snowmelt and rainfall are strongly nonlinear due to consequences of rain-on-snow phenomena and snowmelt dependence on energy balance. However, they received relatively little attention, especially in high-resolution discharge forecasting. In this study, we use Random Forests models for 24 h discharge forecasting in 1 h resolution in a 105.9 km 2 urbanized catchment in NE Poland: Biala River. The forcing data are delivered by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model in 1 h temporal and 4 × 4 km spatial resolutions. The discharge forecasting models are set in two scenarios with snowmelt and rainfall and rainfall only predictors in order to highlight the effect of snowmelt on the results (both scenarios use also pre-forecast discharge based predictors. We show that inclusion of snowmelt decrease the forecast errors for longer forecasts’ lead times. Moreover, importance of discharge based predictors is higher in the rainfall only models then in the snowmelt and rainfall models. We conclude that the role of snowmelt for discharge forecasting in mixed snowmelt and rainfall environments is in accounting for nonlinear physical processes, such as initial wetting and rain on snow, which cannot be properly modelled by rainfall only.

  8. Runaway Electron Preionized Diffuse Discharge and Its Impact on Plane Anode (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor; Erofeev, Michael; Ripenko, Vasilii; Shulepov, Mikhail; Baksht, Evgenii; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University Collaboration; Institute of High Current Electronics Collaboration


    The spatial structure of a runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) in nonuniform electric field and the influence of its plasma on the surface of a plane anode have been studied. In our experiments, we used a NPG-18/3500N high-voltage generator. The incident voltage had negative polarity, amplitude of 20 kV, and FWHM of 6 ns; the discharge current was up to 200 A. The discharge plasma was formed in nitrogen by applying high voltage pulses to the interelectrode gap which was varied between 2 and 9 mm. Under such conditions, the specific input power reached up to 10 MW/cm3. It is established that diffuse channel is the initial stage of the discharge radiation; then anode spot, channel with high glow intensity based on the anode spot and spark channel are consecutively formed. Spark formation finished within 10-15 ns after the onset of the discharge. Microstructure of spark and diffuse channels with anode spot autograph have been detected. The traces of such discharge represents itself an aggregation of up to 100 microcraters with dimeters of 5-100 micrometers. It was also shown that diffuse discharge does not leave erosive action on an anode surface or on its carbon cover. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under the Grant Number 14-29-00052.

  9. Joint Replacement Volume Positively Correlates With Improved Hospital Performance on Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Quality Metrics. (United States)

    Sibley, Rachel A; Charubhumi, Vanessa; Hutzler, Lorraine H; Paoli, Albit R; Bosco, Joseph A


    The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is transitioning Medicare from a fee-for-service program into a value-based pay-for-performance program. In order to accomplish this goal, CMS initiated 3 programs that attempt to define quality and seek to reward high-performing hospitals and penalize poor-performing hospitals. These programs include (1) penalties for hospital-acquired conditions (HACs), (2) penalties for excess readmissions for certain conditions, and (3) performance on value-based purchasing (VBP). The objective of this study was to determine whether high-volume total joint hospitals perform better in these programs than their lower-volume counterparts. We analyzed data from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database on total New York State hospital discharges from 2013 to 2015 for total knee and total hip arthroplasty. This was compared to data from Hospital Compare on HAC's, excess readmissions, and VBP. From these databases, we identified 123 hospitals in New York, which participated in all 3 Medicare pay-for-performance programs and performed total joint replacements. Over the 3-year period spanning 2013-2015, hospitals in New York State performed an average of 1136.59 total joint replacement surgeries and achieved a mean readmission penalty of 0.005909. The correlation coefficient between surgery volume and combined performance score was 0.277. Of these correlations, surgery volume and VBP performance, and surgery volume and combined performance showed statistical significance (P quality, as well as joint replacement volumes and VBP performance, specifically. These findings are consistent with previously reported associations between patient outcomes and procedure volumes. However, a relationship between joint replacement volume and HAC scores or readmission penalties could not be demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.


    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  11. Enhancement of flame development by microwave-assisted spark ignition in constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wolk, Benjamin


    The enhancement of laminar flame development using microwave-assisted spark ignition has been investigated for methane-air mixtures at a range of initial pressures and equivalence ratios in a 1.45. l constant volume combustion chamber. Microwave enhancement was evaluated on the basis of several parameters including flame development time (FDT) (time for 0-10% of total net heat release), flame rise time (FRT) (time for 10-90% of total net heat release), total net heat release, flame kernel growth rate, flame kernel size, and ignitability limit extension. Compared to a capacitive discharge spark, microwave-assisted spark ignition extended the lean and rich ignition limits at all pressures investigated (1.08-7.22. bar). The addition of microwaves to a capacitive discharge spark reduced FDT and increased the flame kernel size for all equivalence ratios tested and resulted in increases in the spatial flame speed for sufficiently lean flames. Flame enhancement is believed to be caused by (1) a non-thermal chemical kinetic enhancement from energy deposition to free electrons in the flame front and (2) induced flame wrinkling from excitation of flame (plasma) instability. The enhancement of flame development by microwaves diminishes as the initial pressure of the mixture increases, with negligible flame enhancement observed above 3. bar. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Framework and components for effective discharge planning system: a delphi methodology (United States)


    Background To reduce avoidable hospital readmissions, effective discharge planning and appropriate post discharge support care are key requirements. This study is a 3-staged process to develop, pretest and pilot a framework for an effective discharge planning system in Hong Kong. This paper reports on the methodology of Delphi approach and findings of the second stage on pre-testing the framework developed so as to validate and attest to its applicability and practicability in which consensus was sought on the key components of discharge planning. Methods Delphi methodology was adopted to engage a group of experienced healthcare professionals to rate and discuss the framework and components of an effective discharge planning. The framework was consisted 36 statements under 5 major themes: initial screening, discharge planning process, coordination of discharge, implementation of discharge, and post discharge follow-up. Each statement was rated independently based on 3 aspects including clarity, validity and applicability on a 5-point Likert-scale. Statement with 75% or above of participants scoring 4–5 on all 3 aspects would be included in the discharge planning framework. For those statements not reaching 75% of consensus in any one of the aspect, it would be revised or discarded following the group discussion, and be re-rated in another round. Results A total of 24 participants participated in the consensus-building process. In round one rating, consensus was achieved in 25 out of 36 statements. Among those 11 statements not reaching consensus, the major concern was related to the “applicability” of the statements. The participants expressed a lack of manpower, skills and time in particular during weekends and long holidays in carrying out assessment and care plans within 24 h after admission. There were also timeliness and availability issue in providing transportation and necessary equipment to the patients. To make the statements more applicable, the

  13. Stormwater pollution treatment BMP discharge structures. (United States)


    Structural best management practices (BMPs) are used to capture and treat stormwater runoff. Most structural BMPs provide treatment by filtering : runoff through a filter media or collecting it in a detention basin and slowly discharging it over an e...

  14. Drug Overdose Surveillance Using Hospital Discharge Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svetla Slavova; Terry L. Bunn; Jeffery Talbert


    Objectives. We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. Methods...

  15. On current termination in rotamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, N.; Euripides, P.; Jones, I.R.; Xu, S. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Physical Sciences


    A new series of rotamak experiments conducted in a 50 litre spherical pyrex discharge vessel is described. An analysis of the results, together with that of previous results from a smaller, 10 litre vessel, provides an explanation for the current termination phenomenon which is such a noteworthy and characteristic feature of all rotamak discharges studied to date. It is shown that the amplitude of the applied rotating magnetic field, B{sub {omega}}, has to be greater than a certain critical value, B{sub {omega}}{sup crit}, for the rotamak discharge to be maintained. Provided B{sub {omega}} {>=} B{sub {omega}}{sup crit}, the properties of the discharge are then determined by the behaviour of the circuit used to couple the RF generators to the plasma load. The conditions necessary for the production of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration are presented. (author).

  16. Improving discharge from the paediatric oncology unit. (United States)

    Higby, Charlotte; Pye, Kate


    Shared care service models are preferred in the management of children and young people with cancer so that specialist expertise is available when needed but children can be supported near to where they live. Care is co-ordinated by a primary treatment centre. Nurses in one centre were concerned about the poor quality of communication between their centre and the shared care hospitals where their patients were being supported. An action research approach was used to improve the process of discharging a child or young person with cancer. This involved clarifying the responsibilities of the nursing staff, mapping out a new discharge pathway, developing new forms to support the education and communication activities and sharing the results with partners in the discharge process. The project highlighted the importance of effective discharge for the child or young person with cancer and their family and the risks of not doing this correctly.

  17. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)


    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  18. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan


    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  19. No Discharge Zone in EPA Region 2 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These are No Discharge Area (NDA) Areas (polygons) for New York and New Jersey. The actual NDA areas/polygons were primarily created using narrative description from...

  20. Scaling of a fast spherical discharge (United States)

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.


    The influence of the discharge cavity dimensions on the properties of the spherical plasma formed in a fast discharge was studied experimentally. The passage of a current pulse with an amplitude of 30-40 kA and a rise rate of 1012 A/s (a fast discharge) through a spherical ceramic (Al2O3) cavity with an inner diameter of 11 mm filled with argon at a pressure of 80 Pa results in the formation of a 1- to 2-mm-diameter spherical plasma with an electron temperature of several tens of electronvolts and a density of 1018-1019 cm-3. It is shown that an increase in the inner diameter of the discharge cavity from 11 to 21 mm leads to the fourfold increase in the formation time of the spherical plasma and a decrease in the average ion charge. A decrease in the cavity diameter to 7 mm makes the spherical plasma unstable.

  1. River Flow Regimes and Effective Discharge (United States)

    Basso, S.; Sprocati, R.; Frascati, A.; Marani, M.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.


    The concept of effective discharge is widespread in geomorphology and river engineering and restoration. For example, it is used to design the most stable channel configuration, to estimate sedimentation rate and lifespan of reservoirs and to characterize the hydrologic forcing in models studying long-term evolution of rivers. Accordingly, the effective discharge has been the focus of countless empirical, theoretical and numerical studies, which found it to vary among catchments as a function of climate, landscape and river morphology, type of transport (dissolved, suspended or bedload), and of streamflow variability. The heterogeneity of the effective discharge values observed in different catchments challenges a thorough understanding of its pivotal drivers, and a consistent framework which explains observations carried out in different geographic areas is still lacking. In the present work, the observed diversity is explained in terms of the underlying heterogeneity of river flow regimes, by linking effective discharge to attributes of the sediment rating curve and to streamflow variability, as resulting from climatic and landscape drivers. An analytic expression of the effective ratio (i.e. the ratio between effective discharge and mean streamflow) is provided, which captures observed values of effective discharge for suspended sediment transport in a set of catchments of the continental United States. The framework disentangles hydrologic and landscape controls on effective discharge, and highlights distinct effective ratios of persistent and erratic hydrologic regimes (respectively characterized by low and high flow variability), attributable to intrinsically different streamflow dynamics. Clusters of river catchments characterized by similar streamflow dynamics can be identified. The framework provides an opportunity for first-order estimates of effective discharge in rivers belonging to different areas, based on the type of flow regime.

  2. Climate response to the meltwater runoff from Greenland ice sheet: evolving sensitivity to discharging locations (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Hallberg, Robert; Sergienko, Olga; Samuels, Bonnie L.; Harrison, Matthew; Oppenheimer, Michael


    Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) might have lost a large amount of its volume during the last interglacial and may do so again in the future due to climate warming. In this study, we test whether the climate response to the glacial meltwater is sensitive to its discharging location. Two fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, CM2G and CM2M, which have completely different ocean components are employed to do the test. In each experiment, a prescribed freshwater flux of 0.1 Sv is discharged from one of the four locations around Greenland—Petermann, 79 North, Jacobshavn and Helheim glaciers. The results from both models show that the AMOC weakens more when the freshwater is discharged from the northern GIS (Petermann and 79 North) than when it is discharged from the southern GIS (Jacobshavn and Helheim), by 15% (CM2G) and 31% (CM2M) averaged over model year 50-300 (CM2G) and 70-300 (CM2M), respectively. This is due to easier access of the freshwater from northern GIS to the deepwater formation site in the Nordic Seas. In the long term (> 300 year), however, the AMOC change is nearly the same for freshwater discharged from any location of the GIS. The East Greenland current accelerates with time and eventually becomes significantly faster when the freshwater is discharged from the north than from the south. Therefore, freshwater from the north is transported efficiently towards the south first and then circulates back to the Nordic Seas, making its impact to the deepwater formation there similar to the freshwater discharged from the south. The results indicate that the details of the location of meltwater discharge matter if the short-term ( 300 years) climate response is focused upon.

  3. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Paez


    Full Text Available Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study analyzed the clinical records of 600 children treated in three institutions that offer graduate courses in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in Porto Alegre, Brazil.Results: The analysis of clinical records revealed that 24.2% of the child patients were discharged from treatment. Neurological assessment and treatment duration were predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Conclusion: The predictors of discharge and dropout may coincide, but they are not the same. In this sample, the construction of the therapeutic alliance and the understanding of the reasons why children need psychotherapy by their parents or guardians may explain our findings.

  4. Controlled emptying with whole-area dischargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Franke


    Full Text Available While emptying complex bulk solids apparatuses and silos, the discharger at container bottom can significantly affect the energy demand of the process and the product quality. At practice, a variety of discharge devices has been developed which differ in the closing mechanism and the design of their fixed inserts. Experimental studies with wheat have shown that some whole-area dischargers cause a distinctive flow profile. Due to their design, these systems offer an unexploited potential to locally influence the bulk solids motion and to realize a controlled emptying. Based on a prototype, a new type of discharge device has been developed at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy e.V. (ATB. First results show that fixed baffles at the walls lead to a decelerated emptying at the sides of the discharge device. On the other hand, a complete renunciation of these installations results in a significant acceleration in the same regions. In future, it is intended to locally control the bulk solids movement by using an optimized design of the fixed inserts of the closing mechanism. Furthermore, it is intended to investigate how the drying process in mixed-flow grain dryers can be influenced and homogenized by using the newly developed discharge device.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam


    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge planning is a nurses learning  process of patients  hospitalized in  the hospital. Discharge planning  includes all treatments given to the patients  from the time of admission, during hospitalization, until the time of discharge. The aimed of this study was to evaluate  the patient’s  compliance for therapy (oral and injection medicine, nutrition and activities. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 14 respondents with DHF and GE who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was Discharge planning and the dependent variable was patient’s  compliance for therapy.  Data were collected by using questionaire of medicine, nutrition and activity then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that discharge planning had significance influence to patient’s  compliance for therapy (p= 0.028. Discussion: It can be concluded that discharge planning has an effect to increase patient’s  compliance for therapy (oral and injection medicine, nutrition and activities.

  6. Pediatric primary care providers' perspectives regarding hospital discharge communication: a mixed methods analysis. (United States)

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K; Bergert, Lora; Mallory, Leah A; Engel, Richard; Rassbach, Caroline; Shen, Mark; Woehrlen, Tess; Cooperberg, David; Coghlin, Daniel


    Effective communication between inpatient and outpatient providers may mitigate risks of adverse events associated with hospital discharge. However, there is an absence of pediatric literature defining effective discharge communication strategies at both freestanding children's hospitals and general hospitals. The objectives of this study were to assess associations between pediatric primary care providers' (PCPs) reported receipt of discharge communication and referral hospital type, and to describe PCPs' perspectives regarding effective discharge communication and areas for improvement. We administered a questionnaire to PCPs referring to 16 pediatric hospital medicine programs nationally. Multivariable models were developed to assess associations between referral hospital type and receipt and completeness of discharge communication. Open-ended questions asked respondents to describe effective strategies and areas requiring improvement regarding discharge communication. Conventional qualitative content analysis was performed to identify emergent themes. Responses were received from 201 PCPs, for a response rate of 63%. Although there were no differences between referral hospital type and PCP-reported receipt of discharge communication (relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval 0.97-2.67), PCPs referring to general hospitals more frequently reported completeness of discharge communication relative to those referring to freestanding children's hospitals (relative risk 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.51). Analysis of free text responses yielded 4 major themes: 1) structured discharge communication, 2) direct personal communication, 3) reliability and timeliness of communication, and 4) communication for effective postdischarge care. This study highlights potential differences in the experiences of PCPs referring to general hospitals and freestanding children's hospitals, and presents valuable contextual data for future quality improvement initiatives

  7. An evaluation of paediatric medicines reconciliation at hospital discharge into the community. (United States)

    Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Tomlin, Stephen; Halford, Ellisha; Jani, Yogini; Ghaleb, Maisoon


    A UK national survey of primary care physicians has indicated that the medication information on hospital discharge summary was incomplete or inaccurate most of the time. Internationally, studies have shown that hospital pharmacist's interventions reduce these discrepancies in the adult population. There have been no published studies on the incidence and severity of the discrepancies of the medication prescribed for children specifically at discharge to date. The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence, nature and potential clinical severity of medication discrepancies at the point of hospital discharge in a paediatric setting. Five weeks prospective review of hospital discharge letters was carried out. Medication discrepancies between the initial doctor's discharge letter and finalised drug chart were identified, pharmacist changes were recorded and their severity was assessed. The setting of the review was at a London, UK paediatric hospital providing local secondary and specialist tertiary care. The outcome measures were: - incidence and the potential clinical severity of medication discrepancies identified by the hospital pharmacist at discharge. 142 patients (64 female and 78 males, age range 1 month - 18 years) were discharged on 501 medications. The majority of patients were under the care of general surgery and general paediatric teams. One in three discharge letters contained at least one medication discrepancy and required pharmacist interventions to rectify prior to completion. Of these, 1 in 10 had the potential for patient harm if undetected. Medicines reconciliation by pharmacist at discharge may be a good intervention in preventing medication discrepancies which have the potential to cause moderate harm in paediatric patients. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Corona discharges from a windmill and its lightning protection tower in winter thunderstorms (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Daohong; Rison, William; Thomas, Ronald J.; Edens, Harald E.; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Krehbiel, Paul R.


    This paper presents lightning mapping array (LMA) observations of corona discharges from a windmill and its lightning protection tower in winter thunderstorms in Japan. Corona discharges from the windmill, called windmill coronas, and those from the tower, called tower coronas, are distinctly different. Windmill coronas occur with periodic bursts, generally radiate larger power, and possibly develop to higher altitudes than tower coronas do. A strong negative electric field is necessary for the frequent production of tower coronas but is not apparently related with windmill coronas. These differences are due to the periodic rotation of the windmill and the moving blades which can escape space charges produced by corona discharges and sustain a large local electric field. The production period of windmill coronas is related with the rotation period of the windmill. Surprisingly, for one rotation of the windmill, only two out of the three blades produce detectable discharges and source powers of discharges from these two blades are different. The reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. For tower coronas, the source rate can get very high only when there is a strong negative electric field, and the source power can get very high only when the source rate is very low. The relationship between corona discharges and lightning flashes is investigated. There is no direct evidence that corona discharges can increase the chance of upward leader initiation, but nearby lightning flashes can increase the source rate of corona discharges right after the flashes. The peak of the source height distribution of corona discharges is about 100 m higher than the top of the windmill and the top of the tower. Possible reasons for this result are discussed.

  9. Plasma recombination in runaway discharges in tokamak TCABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, T.K. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu. K.; Nascimento, I.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    A new regime of runaway discharges has been observed in the TCABR tokamak. One of the most distinctive features of this regime is the effect of plasma detachment from the limiter. This experimental fact can only be explained by the volume recombination, which requires a low-temperature plasma. The analysis of the energy and particle balance in the system plasma-relativistic runaway beam in TCABR, which takes into account only the collisional mechanism of the heat transfer from runaways to thermal electrons, predicts electron temperatures T{sub e} = 0.1 - 2 eV; the temperature decreases with the neutral density increase. The recombination process with the rate constant around 10{sup -16} m3/s is required for the explanation of plasma density behavior in the experiment. At present, it is difficult to conclude about the mechanism of recombination. More reliable and detailed experimental data, mainly about the plasma temperature, are necessary. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of narrow bipolar electromagnetic pulses generated by thunderstorm discharges (United States)

    Bochkov, E. I.; Babich, L. P.; Kutsyk, I. M.


    Using the concept of avalanche relativistic runaway electrons (REs), we perform numerical simulations of compact intracloud discharge (CID) as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-VHF range, called narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). For several values of the field overvoltage and altitude at which the discharge develops, the numbers of seed electrons initiating the avalanche are evaluated, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with the measured NBP parameters. We note shortcomings in the hypothesis assuming participation of cosmic ray air showers in avalanche initiation. The discharge capable of generating NBPs produces REs in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-ray flashes (TGFs), which can be an argument in favor of a unified NBP and TGF source.

  11. 'Rapid discharge': issues for hospital-based nurses in discharging cancer patients home to die. (United States)

    Tan, Yung Ying; Blackford, Jeanine


    To explore issues for hospital-based nurses in arranging rapid home discharge for imminently dying cancer patients in a Singapore acute hospital. Dying at home is an important measure of a 'good death'. For hospitalised terminally ill patients, achieving home death can be of paramount importance to them and their family. Nurses experience many challenges in discharging imminently dying cancer patients home, due to time limitations and complex needs of patients and their families. Qualitative interpretive description. Using purposive sampling, 14 registered nurses from an oncology ward in a Singapore hospital were recruited to participate in individual, semi-structured interviews. Nursing issues in facilitating rapid discharge fell into three categories: time, discharge processes and family preparation. Decisions to die at home appeared solely family/patient driven, and were made when death appeared imminent. Discharge then became time-critical, as nurses needed to complete multiple tasks within short timeframes. Stress was further exacerbated by nurses' inexperience and the infrequent occurrence of rapid discharge, as well as absence of standardised discharge framework for guidance. Together, the lack of time and discharge processes to enable smooth hospital-to-home transition potentially affected nurses' capacity to adequately prepare families, and may contribute to caregiver anxiety. Rapid discharge processes are needed as sudden patient/family decisions to die at home will continue. Earlier involvement of palliative care and implementation of a discharge pathway can potentially help nurses address their multiple responsibilities to ensure a successful transition from hospital to home. Recognition of nursing issues and challenges during rapid discharge has implications for clinical improvements in supporting nurses during this challenging situation. Results of this study can be used to inform the conceptualisation of clinical interventions to facilitate urgent

  12. Predicting discharge location of hip fracture patients; the new discharge of hip fracture patients score


    Vochteloo, Anne; Tuinebreijer, Wim; Maier, Andrea; Nelissen, Rob; Bloem, Rolf; Pilot, Peter


    textabstractPurpose This paper reports on the development and validity of a new instrument, called the discharge of hip fracture patients score (DHP), that predicts at admission the discharge location in patients living in their own home prior to hip fracture surgery. Methods A total of 310 patients aged 50 years and above were included. Risk factors for discharge to an alternative location (DAL) were analysed with a multivariable regression analysis taking the admission variables into accoun...

  13. Does the cerebellum initiate movement? (United States)

    Thach, W T


    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  14. A global model of cylindrical and coaxial surface-wave discharges (United States)

    Kemaneci, Efe; Mitschker, Felix; Rudolph, Marcel; Szeremley, Daniel; Eremin, Denis; Awakowicz, Peter; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter


    A volume-averaged global model is developed to investigate surface-wave discharges inside either cylindrical or coaxial structures. The neutral and ion wall flux is self-consistently estimated based on a simplified analytical description both for electropositive and electronegative plasmas. The simulation results are compared with experimental data from various discharge setups of either argon or oxygen, measured or obtained from the literature over a wide range of pressure and power, for a continuous and a pulse-modulated power input. A good agreement is observed between the simulations and the measurements. The contribution of the wall flux on the net loss rates is quantified for a variety of species in different discharge setups. A coaxial plasmaline is further investigated to reveal the detailed behaviour of plasma properties with respect to input power and pressure.

  15. Elimination of inter-discharge helium glow discharge cleaning with lithium evaporation in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maingi


    Full Text Available Operation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX typically used either periodic boronization and inter-shot helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC, or inter-shot lithium evaporation without boronization, and initially with inter-shot HeGDC. To assess the viability of operation without HeGDC, dedicated experiments were conducted in which Li evaporation was used while systematically shrinking the HeGDC between shots from the standard 10min to zero (10→6.5→4→0. Good shot reproducibility without HeGDC was achieved with lithium evaporations of 100mg or higher; evaporations of 200–300mg typically resulted in very low ELM frequency or ELM-free operation, reduced wall fueling, and improved energy confinement. The use of HeGDC before lithium evaporation modestly reduced Dα in the outer scrape-off layer, but not at the strike point. Pedestal electron and ion temperature also improved modestly, suggesting that HeGDC prior to lithium evaporation is a useful tool for experiments that seek to maximize plasma performance.

  16. A Computational Study on the Discharge Characteristics of Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharges at a Constant Power (United States)

    Song, Xinxin; Tan, Zhenyu; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yuantao


    The study on homogeneous DBDs at atmospheric pressure has attracted much attention for their advantages in applications. Tremendous work has been conducted both experimentally and numerically at a constant applied voltage or driving frequency. However the investigation of dielectric barrier discharges is still scarce for a constant power or power density. In this work, a new computational approach for DBDs is developed to explore atmospheric DBDs at a constant power based on a one-dimensional fluid model. The frequency and gap spacing effects on the atmospheric plasmas are systematically analyzed based on computational data. The computational results show that at a constant power both the current density and the amplitude of the applied voltage decrease, whereas the current pulse width increases, with increasing frequency. The simulation also indicates that as the gap spacing is raised with a fixed power and frequency, the current density and electron density increase initially, then reach their peak values, and then decrease, which means that there are maximum values for both of them. These results are significant for many industrial applications, as they can be used to optimize plasma devices of DBDs with the consideration of power consumption.

  17. Reasons for discharge delays in teaching hospitals. (United States)

    Silva, Soraia Aparecida da; Valácio, Reginaldo Aparecido; Botelho, Flávia Carvalho; Amaral, Carlos Faria Santos


    To analyze the causes of delay in hospital discharge of patients admitted to internal medicine wards. We reviewed 395 medical records of consecutive patients admitted to internal medicine wards of two public teaching hospitals: Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and Hospital Odilon Behrens. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol was used to define the moment at which notes in the medical records indicated hospital stay was no longer appropriate and patients could be discharged. The interval between this estimated time and actual discharge was defined as the total number of days of delay in hospital discharge. An instrument was used to systematically categorize reasons for delay in hospital discharge and frequencies were analyzed. Delays in discharge occurred in 60.0% of 207 hospital admissions in the Hospital das Clínicas and in 58.0% of 188 hospital admissions in the Hospital Odilon Behrens. Mean delay per patient was 4.5 days in the former and 4.1 days in the latter, corresponding to 23.0% and 28.0% of occupancy rates in each hospital, respectively. The main reasons for delay in the two hospitals were, respectively, waiting for complementary tests (30.6% versus 34.7%) or for results of performed tests to be released (22.4% versus 11.9%) and medical-related accountability (36.2% versus 26.1%) which comprised delays in discussing the clinical case and in clinical decision making and difficulties in providing specialized consultation (20.4% versus 9.1%). Both hospitals showed a high percentage of delay in hospital discharge. The delays were mainly related to processes that could be improved by interventions by care teams and managers. The impact on mean length of stay and hospital occupancy rates was significant and troubling in a scenario of relative shortage of beds and long waiting lists for hospital admission.

  18. Interoperability challenges in river discharge modelling (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schlummer, Manuela; Andres, Volker; Jirka, Simon; Looser, Ulrich; Mladek, Richard; Pappenberger, Florian; Strauch, Adrian; Utech, Michael; Zsoter, Ervin


    River discharge is a critical water cycle variable, as it integrates all the processes (e.g. runoff and evapotranspiration) occurring within a river basin and provides a hydrological output variable that can be readily measured. Its prediction is of invaluable help for many water-related areas such as water resources assessment and management, as well as flood protection and disaster mitigation. Observations of river discharge are very important for the calibration and validation of hydrological or coupled land, atmosphere and ocean models . This requires the use of data from different scientific domains (Water, Weather, etc.). Typically, such data are provided using different technological solutions and formats. This complicates the integration of new hydrological data sources into application systems. Therefore, a considerable effort is often spent on data access issues instead of the actual scientific question. In the context of the FP7 funded project GEOWOW (GEOSS Interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water), the "River Discharge" use scenario was developed in order to combine river discharge observations data from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) database and model outputs produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) predicting river discharge based on weather forecast information. In this presentation we describe interoperability solutions which were adopted in order to address the technological challenges of the "River Discharge" use scenario: 1) Development of a Hydrology Profile for the OGC SOS 2.0 standard; 2) Enhancement of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) to support the use scenario: 2.1) Develop new interoperability arrangements for GRDC and ECMWF capacities; 2.2) Select multiple time series for comparison. The development of the above functionalities and tools aims to respond to the need of Water and Weather scientists to assess river discharge forecasting models.

  19. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik


    , immersed into a ceramic dielectric barrier. A closed flow-through system necessary for the measurements was prepared by placing a quartz plate at a height of 3 mm from the ceramic barrier. The production of nitrogen radicals was determined from the removal of a trace amount of NO in pure N2 gas, while...... the production of oxygen radicals was determined by ozone production in pure O2 or synthetic air. The production efficiency of N and O radicals and NO oxidation in synthetic air was comparable with the efficiency of a volume barrier discharge device. The power density per unit of surface area of the CBD device...... was more than two times larger than that of a similar volume barrier discharge setup, which makes the CBD device a compact alternative for gas treatment. The production of ozone and different nitrogen oxides was also evaluated for the open system of the CBD which is usable for surface treatment. The ozone...

  20. Initial Egyptian ECMO experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Abdelbary


    Results: A total of twelve patients received ECMO between January 2014 and June 2015. The mean age was 35.9 years. (range 13–65 years, 8 males, with VV ECMO in 10 patients, and VA ECMO in 2 patients. Out of ten patients of VV ECMO, one had H1N1 pneumonia, one had advanced vasculitic lung, four had bacterial pneumonia, two traumatic lung contusions and one with organophosphorus poisoning, and one undiagnosed etiology leading to severe ARDS. Lung injury score range was 3–3.8, PaO2/FiO2 (20–76 mechanical ventilation duration before ECMO 1–14 days, Femoro-jugular cannulation in 7 patients and femoro-femoral in 2 patients and femoro-subclavian in 1 patient; all patients were initially sedated and paralyzed for (2–4 days and ventilated on pressure controlled ventilation with Pmax of 25 cm H2O and PEEP of 10 cm H2O. In VA ECMO patients were cannulated percutaneously using femoro-femoral approach. One patient showed no neurologic recovery and died after 24 h, the other had CABG on ECMO however the heart didn’t recover and died after 9 days. Heparin intravenous infusion was used initially in all patients and changed to Bivalirudin in 2 patients due to possible HIT. Pump flow ranged from 2.6 to 6.5 L/min. Average support time was 12 days (range 2–24 days. Seven patients (63.3% were successfully separated from ECMO and survived to hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay ranged from 3 to 42 days, tracheostomy was done percutaneously in 5 patients and surgically in 3. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 6 patients, VAP in 7 patients, neurologic complications in 1 patient with complete recovery, cardiac arrhythmias in 3 patients, pneumothorax in 9 patients, and deep venous thrombosis in 2 patients.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Flow Erosion on Sand Discharge Pipe in Nitrogen Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhu


    Full Text Available In nitrogen drilling, entrained sand particles in the gas flow may cause erosive wear on metal surfaces and have a significant effect on the operational life of discharge pipelines, especially for elbows. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations based code FLUENT is carried out to investigate the flow erosion on a sand discharge pipe in conjunction with an erosion model. The motion of the continuum phase is captured based on solving the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations, while the kinematics and trajectory of the sand particles are evaluated by the discrete phase model (DPM. The flow field has been examined in terms of pressure, velocity, and erosion rate profiles along the flow path in the bend of the simulated discharge pipe. Effects of flow parameters such as inlet velocity, sandy volume fraction, and particle diameter and structure parameters such as pipe diameter and bend curvature are analyzed based on a series of numerical simulations. The results show that small pipe diameter or small bend curvature leads to serious erosion, while slow flow, little sandy volume fraction, and small particle diameter can weaken erosion. The results obtained from the present work provide useful guidance to practical operation and discharge pipe design.

  2. Very early discharge versus early discharge versus non-early discharge in children with cancer and febrile neutropenia. (United States)

    Loeffen, Erik A H; Te Poele, Esther M; Tissing, Wim J E; Boezen, H Marike; de Bont, Eveline S J M


    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common adverse effect in children with cancer. Due to the high relative risk of infections and infectious complications, standard care for children with cancer and febrile neutropenia consists of routine hospitalization and parenteral administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, there are less serious causes of febrile neutropenia; in a subgroup of these children, lengthy in-hospital treatment might be unnecessary. Various research groups have studied the adjustment of standard care to shorten in-hospital treatment for children with cancer and febrile neutropenia at low risk for bacterial infections. However, most of these studies were not done in a randomized matter. To evaluate whether early discharge (mean/median of less than five days) from in-hospital treatment was not inferior to non-early discharge (mean/median of five days or more) and whether very early discharge (mean/median of less than 24 hours) was not inferior to early discharge, non-early discharge, or a combination of these, in children with cancer and febrile neutropenia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2015, issue 11), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to December 2015), EMBASE/Ovid (from 1980 to December 2015), the reference lists of relevant articles and review articles, and various conference proceedings (dependent on availability from 2005 to 2010 to 2013 to 2015). We scanned the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) Register, the National Institute of Health Register for ongoing trials, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 9 January 2016. We included all randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials in which children with cancer and febrile neutropenia were divided in groups with different times of discharge. We used standard methods of Cochrane and its Childhood Cancer Group. Two independent review authors performed

  3. Color Variable Light Source Using Electrodeless Discharge (United States)

    Miki, Ryoji; Motomura, Hideki; Jinno, Masahumi; Aono, Masaharu

    Color variable pulsed Hg-Ne discharge lamp was invented and reported by Itatani's group in 1973. The color of Hg-Ne discharge was controlled by changing electron temperature by changing pulse frequency. Maya's group reported about color variable mercury fluorescent lamps using burst pulse and different type of phosphors. Kroesen's group proposed Hg-Ne color variable lamp using depletion effect. All these lamps use electrodes inside a tube. The authors propose a new type of color variable discharge lamp using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), electrodeless discharge. Color variable lamp using ICP is demonstrated. Just after starting discharge of Hg-Ne, the luminescent color of the lamp is red because of Ne emission. After that, the color changes gradually toward blue resulting from increase in mercury vapor pressure. When the color change stoppes and it is in the steady state with blue color, the color can be changed toward red by increasing input power. This is due to Ne emission resulting from increase in current density.

  4. Filamentation of a Magnetized, Radio Frequency Discharge (United States)

    Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sharma, Devendra; Thomas, Edward


    A filamentation instability has been observed in a radio-frequency (rf) discharge that was subject to an externally applied, homogeneous magnetic field. The instability arises in a uniform rf-discharge after the magnetic field strength is sufficiently increased. First, the plasma shows target-like glow structures, followed by spiral structures at higher fields. Finally, the plasma breaks up into individual, string-like, magnetic field aligned filaments that seem to repel each other. A variety of filamentation states can be observed, but their overall shapes follow the aforementioned rule of magnetic field strength dependency. The detailed picture of the discharge glow, however, depends on experiment specific conditions as the geometric shape and type of the discharge electrodes, the discharge pressure and power. In an effort to verify that the observed effect is universal, we compare experimental measurements made using two different high magnetic field, dusty plasma experiment facilities: the experiment that was located at the Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany and the newly built MDPX (magnetized dusty plasma experiment) at Auburn University, Alabama. In both experimental setups we could observe filamentation. This work is supported from funding from DOE and NSF.

  5. Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults (United States)

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.


    Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…

  6. Real-time operational feedback: daily discharge rate as a novel hospital efficiency metric. (United States)

    Wong, Hannah J; Wu, Robert C; Caesar, Michael; Abrams, Howard; Morra, Dante


    Part of delivering quality care means providing it in a timely, efficient manner. Improving the efficiency of care requires measurement. The selection of appropriate indicators that are valid and responsive is crucial to focus improvement initiatives. Indicators of operational efficiency should be conceptually simple, generated in real time, calculated using readily available hospital administrative data, sufficiently granular to reveal detail needed to focus improvement, and correlate with other valid indicators of operational efficiency. In this paper, the authors propose daily discharge rate as a novel real-time metric of hospital operational discharge efficiency and compare it with average length of stay. The authors also suggest the use of control charts as an effective way to present daily discharge rate data to clinicians and managers in real time to prompt actionable improvements in discharge efficiency. The authors conclude that daily discharge rate has the potential to drive timely improvements in the discharge process and warrants consideration and further study by others interested in improving hospital operational efficiency and the delivery of quality care.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of various chemicals on discharge of and pain caused by jellyfish nematocysts. (United States)

    Birsa, Laura M; Verity, Peter G; Lee, Richard F


    Jellyfish tentacles in contact with human skin can produce pain swelling and redness. The pain is due to discharge of jellyfish nematocysts and associated toxins and discharge can be caused by a variety of mechanical and chemical stimuli. A series of tests were carried out with chemicals traditionally used to treat jellyfish stings e.g. acetic acid ammonia meat tenderizer baking soda and urea to determine if these chemicals stimulated or inhibited nematocyst discharge and if they brought relief to testers who were exposed to jellyfish tentacles. Chrysaora quinquecirrha (sea nettle) Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (sea wasp) and Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-of-war) were used in the study. It was found that many of the chemicals traditionally used to treat jellyfish stings stimulated nematocyst discharge and did not relieve the pain. However there was immediate relief when a common anesthetic lidocaine was sprayed on the skin of testers in contact with jellyfish tentacles. Initial exposure of tentacle suspensions to lidocaine prevented the nematocyst discharge by subsequent exposure to acetic acid ethanol ammonia or bromelain. Thus lidocaine in addition to acting as an anesthetic on skin in contact with jellyfish tentacles inhibited nematocyst discharge possibly by blocking sodium and/or calcium channels of the nematocytes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetics of charged particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in a nonuniform electrostatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpakov, V. A., E-mail:; Krichevskii, S. V.; Markushin, M. A. [Korolev Samara National Research University (Russian Federation)


    A high-voltage gas discharge is of interest as a possible means of generating directed flows of low-temperature plasma in the off-electrode space distinguished by its original features [1–4]. We propose a model for calculating the trajectories of charges particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.15 Torr existing in a nonuniform electrostatic field and the strength of this field. Based on the results of our calculations, we supplement and refine the extensive experimental data concerning the investigation of such a discharge published in [1, 2, 5–8]; good agreement between the theory and experiment has been achieved. The discharge burning is initiated and maintained through bulk electron-impact ionization and ion–electron emission. We have determined the sizes of the cathode surface regions responsible for these processes, including the sizes of the axial zone involved in the discharge generation. The main effect determining the kinetics of charged particles consists in a sharp decrease in the strength of the field under consideration outside the interelectrode space, which allows a free motion of charges with specific energies and trajectories to be generated in it. The simulation results confirm that complex electrode systems that allow directed plasma flows to be generated at a discharge current of hundreds or thousands of milliamperes and a voltage on the electrodes of 0.3–1 kV can be implemented in practice [3, 9, 10].

  9. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity (United States)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui


    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  10. Predicting discharge location of hip fracture patients; the new discharge of hip fracture patients score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.H. Vochteloo (Anne); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); A.B. Maier (Andrea); R.G.H.H. Nelissen (Rob); R.M. Bloem (Rolf); P. Pilot (Peter)


    textabstractPurpose This paper reports on the development and validity of a new instrument, called the discharge of hip fracture patients score (DHP), that predicts at admission the discharge location in patients living in their own home prior to hip fracture surgery. Methods A total of 310 patients

  11. Research on Modern Gas Discharge Light Sources (United States)

    Born, M.; Markus, T.

    This article gives an overview of today's gas discharge light sources and their application fields with focus on research aspects. In Sect. 15.1 of this chapter, an introduction to electric light sources, the lighting market and related research topics is outlined. Due to the complexity of the subject, we have focused on selected topics in the field of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps since these represent an essential part of modern lamp research. The working principle and light technical properties of HID lamps are described in Sect. 15.2. Physical and thermochemical modelling procedures and tools as well as experimental analysis are discussed in Sects. 15.3 and 15.4, respectively. These tools result in a detailed scientific insight into the complexity of real discharge lamps. In particular, analysis and modelling are the keys for further improvement and development of existing and new products.

  12. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards (United States)

    Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.


    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

  13. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk


    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today's research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ɛ ) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ɛ of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  14. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hamdan


    Full Text Available Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.. Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ε is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  15. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad


    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity (ε) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  16. Air Force Research Initiation Program 1986 Technical Report Volume 1 (United States)


    Stellar Stintillometer- fased Dr. Frank Battles Studies of .Optical Turbulence; 760-6MG-058 4 Requested A No-Cost Time Extention. ) Dr. Albert Biggs To Be...critical opalescence, KArm’n vortices, Bnard cells in clouds, and lunar feature enharcements. In addition the linearity of video cameras was testea...further study: KArman vortices, 8(nard cells in clouos. lunar ohotograpny, time-exposure for low-light levels w;thout image intensification. and

  17. Air Force Research Initiation Program 1986 Technical Report Volume 2 (United States)


    Effect on the Dynamic Response of Flexible Structures," (84-1044-CP) AIAA Dynamics Specialists Conference, Palm Springs, CA, May 17-18, 1084. 3. coeine nth esadVrin cw.’ta the following manner. The ratio at the *inismu win deeoe by gtoeqer and fullia*’’ and later and &axiomus grid point

  18. Strategy for a DOD Software Initiative. Volume 2. Appendices (United States)


    M. M. Levitt, Karl N. Lewis, Floyd F. Lieblein, Edward Lomas, Leighton Lopkoff, Arthur L. Lorenzi, D. S. Lowry, Edward S. Lugo, Raul S. Machado , John...reducing his need for skilled human assis - tance. lab Figure 13-2 shows how the more sophisticated techniques embrace the simpler, near-term...DoD Acqui- sition Improvement Program has provided guidelines toward de - ciding whether the most recent technology should be incorporated in weapon

  19. Hazardous Waste Minimization Initiation Decision Report. Volume 2. Appendixes. (United States)


    The oxidation of aLrazine, butyl phthalate , chloroaniline, diphenyl hydrazine, ethylene dibromide, malathion, pentachlorophenol, and xylene was rapid...microorganisms in the presence of oxygen. The hydraulic detention time of this unit operation is usually from 6 to 24 hr. Depending upon the process mode...shorter or longer detention times may be achieved. This is followed by a sludge-liquid separation step in a clarifier. Organic loading rates can vary

  20. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 2. (United States)


    formed in both cases, however, this ketone rearranged in a (3,3] sigmatropic fashion DA!& to compound 1. For the Jones oxidation, rearrangement occurred...effort 3 . Cost sharing by the university. The list of proposals selected for award was forwarded to AFOSR for approval of funding and for research...proposals were made by the contractor. Evaluation criteria consisted of: 0 1. Technical excellence of the proposal 2. Continuation of the SFRP effort 3 . Cost

  1. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  2. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program . Volume 1. (United States)


    Rex Flynn, J. Amsterdam, and G. Wang, "Components of high-level vision: a cognitive neuroscience analysis and accounts of neurological syndromes...Changes in blood neutrophil and lymphocyte counts following administration of )rtisol to horses and foals . EqguJneVe. L , 1983, Vol 5(1), pp 58-60. 9

  3. Realistic Bomber Training Initiative. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1 (United States)


    Latorraca James 000812 292 Lauderdale Margo 000160 54 LaVasquez Enrique 000205 70 Lawson Kim 000908 344 Leach Christopher 001091 427 Leach William 000269...008180 569 Vackar David 008245 598 Valentine Tanya 008248 599 Valerio- Healy Trudy 008147 555 Vallejos Frandis 008177 567 Vaughn Linda 008082/8101 524

  4. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 3 (United States)


    Trinity University Texas Southern University Specialty: Zoology Specialty: Molecular Biology Dr. Carolyn Caudle- Alexander Dr. Harold Longbotham Tennessee...Cultured Cells Dr. C. Caudle- Alexander 210-1OMG-097 92 In Vivo Processing of Tetraisopropyl Dr. James Chambers Pyrophosphoramine 210-1OMG-083 93 EMG...Lalezari and C.D. Massey, "mm-Wave Microstrip Antennas," Microwave Journal, pp.87-96, April 1987. [12] J.C. Herper, A. Hessel and B. Tomasic, "Element

  5. Experimental and modeling analysis of fast ionization wave discharge propagation in a rectangular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Adamovich, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Xiong Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Starikovskaia, Svetlana [Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France); Czarnetzki, Uwe; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)


    Fast ionization wave (FIW), nanosecond pulse discharge propagation in nitrogen and helium in a rectangular geometry channel/waveguide is studied experimentally using calibrated capacitive probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge in the channel was generated using a custom designed pulsed plasma generator (peak voltage 10-40 kV, pulse duration 30-100 ns, and voltage rise time {approx}1 kV/ns), generating a sequence of alternating polarity high-voltage pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz. Both negative polarity and positive polarity ionization waves have been studied. Ionization wave speed, as well as time-resolved potential distributions and axial electric field distributions in the propagating discharge are inferred from the capacitive probe data. ICCD images show that at the present conditions the FIW discharge in helium is diffuse and volume-filling, while in nitrogen the discharge propagates along the walls of the channel. FIW discharge propagation has been analyzed numerically using quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional kinetic models in a hydrodynamic (drift-diffusion), local ionization approximation. The wave speed and the electric field distribution in the wave front predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. A self-similar analytic solution of the fast ionization wave propagation equations has also been obtained. The analytic model of the FIW discharge predicts key ionization wave parameters, such as wave speed, peak electric field in the front, potential difference across the wave, and electron density as functions of the waveform on the high voltage electrode, in good agreement with the numerical calculations and the experimental results.

  6. Bloody nipple discharge in a 7-month-old boy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zaid, Ahmed


    Isolated bloody nipple discharge is rare in infancy and is usually idiopathic. Discharge commonly resolves spontaneously, and ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic technique to detect the cause of discharge. The authors report a 7-month-old boy who presented with unilateral spontaneous bloody nipple discharge for 1 month without signs of infection or mass.

  7. 42 CFR 418.26 - Discharge from hospice care. (United States)


    ...) The discharge planning process must include planning for any necessary family counseling, patient education, or other services before the patient is discharged because he or she is no longer terminally ill. ... from hospice care. (a) Reasons for discharge. A hospice may discharge a patient if— (1) The patient...

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE: Computer modelling of magnetron discharges (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Bultinck, Evi; Kolev, Ivan; Schwaederlé, Laurent; Van Aeken, Koen; Buyle, Guy; Depla, Diederik


    In this paper, some modelling approaches to describe direct current (dc) magnetron discharges developed in our research groups will be presented, including an analytical model, Monte Carlo simulations for the electrons and for the sputtered atoms, a hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model and particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision simulations. The strengths and limitations of the various modelling approaches will be explained, and some characteristic simulation results will be illustrated. Furthermore, some other simulation methods related to the magnetron device will be briefly explained, more specifically for calculating the magnetic field distribution inside the discharge, and for describing the (reactive) sputtering.

  9. Corona discharge in electroporation of cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramariuc, R; Nisiparu, L [Competence Centre in Electrostatics and Electrotehchnologies (Romania); Tudorache, A; Branduse, E; Fotescu, L [Research Institute of Wine Processing, Valea Mantei Street, No.l, Valea Calugareasca (Romania); Popa, M E; Mitelut, A [Biotechnology Faculty, University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (Romania); Turtoi, M O


    The objective of the present work is to demonstrate that electrical corona discharge is very efficient in cellular membrane electroporation due to current pulses with sharp front (2-5 ns) and to the fact that corona discharge is associated with UV radiation and micro particles emission. A comparison between DC and AC at 800 Hz and a special waveform to corona application is presented. The comparison is analyzed by means of applying all these in the maceration process (electroplasmolysis) of red wine production and in the processes of different types of the microbes.

  10. Primary medication non-adherence after discharge from a general internal medicine service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks A Fallis

    Full Text Available Medication non-adherence frequently leads to suboptimal patient outcomes. Primary non-adherence, which occurs when a patient does not fill an initial prescription, is particularly important at the time of hospital discharge because new medications are often being prescribed to treat an illness rather than for prevention.We studied older adults consecutively discharged from a general internal medicine service at a large urban teaching hospital to determine the prevalence of primary non-adherence and identify characteristics associated with primary non-adherence. We reviewed electronic prescriptions, electronic discharge summaries and pharmacy dispensing data from April to August 2010 for drugs listed on the public formulary. Primary non-adherence was defined as failure to fill one or more new prescriptions after hospital discharge. In addition to descriptive analyses, we developed a logistical regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with primary non-adherence.There were 493 patients eligible for inclusion in our study, 232 of whom were prescribed new medications. In total, 66 (28% exhibited primary non-adherence at 7 days after discharge and 55 (24% at 30 days after discharge. Examples of medications to which patients were non-adherent included antibiotics, drugs for the management of coronary artery disease (e.g. beta-blockers, statins, heart failure (e.g. beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, furosemide, stroke (e.g. statins, clopidogrel, diabetes (e.g. insulin, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g. long-acting bronchodilators, prednisone. Discharge to a nursing home was associated with an increased risk of primary non-adherence (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.01-4.95.Primary non-adherence after medications are newly prescribed during a hospitalization is common, and was more likely to occur in patients discharged to a nursing home.

  11. Observations of narrow bipolar events reveal how lightning is initiated in thunderstorms. (United States)

    Rison, William; Krehbiel, Paul R; Stock, Michael G; Edens, Harald E; Shao, Xuan-Min; Thomas, Ronald J; Stanley, Mark A; Zhang, Yang


    A long-standing but fundamental question in lightning studies concerns how lightning is initiated inside storms, given the absence of physical conductors. The issue has revolved around the question of whether the discharges are initiated solely by conventional dielectric breakdown or involve relativistic runaway electron processes. Here we report observations of a relatively unknown type of discharge, called fast positive breakdown, that is the cause of high-power discharges known as narrow bipolar events. The breakdown is found to have a wide range of strengths and is the initiating event of numerous lightning discharges. It appears to be purely dielectric in nature and to consist of a system of positive streamers in a locally intense electric field region. It initiates negative breakdown at the starting location of the streamers, which leads to the ensuing flash. The observations show that many or possibly all lightning flashes are initiated by fast positive breakdown.

  12. Challenges of implementing a standardized process for discharge summaries (5 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad Almidani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge summaries are essential documents to provide a long-lasting record of a patient's visit to a hospital. It provides an effective method of communication between various hospital services and primary care providers.We conducted a study recently in KFSH&RC recommending that every admitted patient to the Pediatric Department must have a discharge summary initiated as soon as possible within the first five days of hospitalization and to be updated periodically until its completion on the patient's discharge day. Results of this study showed that most of the patients received their discharge summaries within the time limit as recommended by the JCIA standard. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to present our department's experience in regard to the difficulties, challenges, and outcomes of the adopted work flow for discharge summaries over a period of five years. Methods: The residents have been instructed to initiate the discharge summaries as soon as possible within the first five days of hospitalization for every patient admitted under the Department of Pediatrics regardless of the expected discharge date. Afterward, it will be the responsibility of the attending junior and senior residents to update the summaries on regular basis as long as the patient under their care. They should transfer the updated summary to the coming resident that will take over the medical care until the discharge day when the most recent update will be forwarded to the attending consultant for final review and signature. Results: Between 2011 and 2016, a significant drop in the number of delinquent records was noted. From 1131 delinquent records at the end of the fourth quarter of 2011, the number has fallen to 15 in the fourth quarter of 2016. Furthermore, compliance to JCIA documentation standards showed sustained improvement since the initiation of the project. The department used to score around 50% in the discharge documentation compliance

  13. Fractal Model of a Compact Intracloud Discharge. II. Specific Features of Electromagnetic Emission (United States)

    Davydenko, S. S.; Iudin, D. I.


    We examine the features of the electromagnetic emission of a compact intracloud discharge (CID) within the framework of the fractal approach [1] described in the first part of the article. Compact intracloud discharge is considered as the result of electric interaction of two bipolar streamer-type structures previously developed in the regions of a strong electric field inside the thundercloud. To estimate the electromagnetic emission of the discharge, the complex tree-like structure of the electric currents at the preliminary and main stages of CID was represented as the sum of a relatively slowly varying large-scale linear mean component and fast small-scale constituents corresponding to the initial formation of elementary conductive channels of the discharge tree. Mean linear current of the discharge is considered as an effective source of the VLF/LF emission at both the preliminary and main stages of a CID. Electrostatic, induction, and radiation components of the electric field at different distances from the mean current are calculated taking into account specific features of both stages of the discharge within the framework of the transmission-line model. It is shown that at the preliminary stage only the electrostatic component can mainly be detected, whereas at the main stage all the above components of the electric field can be reliably measured. Dependence of the radiation electric field at the main stage on the length of the discharge channel and propagation velocity of the current front is analyzed. It is found that due to the bi-directional expansion of the current at the main stage of a CID the radiation field pulse remains narrow in a wide range of discharge parameters. The small-scale currents corresponding to the initial breakdown between the neighboring cells of the discharge domain are considered as the sources of HF/VHF radiation. It is shown that HF/VHF emission at the preliminary stage is negligible as compared to emission at the main stage

  14. Effect of riverine freshwater discharge in salinity simulations over the northern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Kalathupurath Kuttan, Sandeep; Pant, Vimlesh; Devendra Rao, Ambarukhana


    Sea surface salinity (SSS) in the north Indian Ocean (NIO) exhibits contrasting spatial distribution, particularly in the two semi-enclosed basins namely the Arabian sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB). BoB experiences excess amount of freshwater inflow from rivers as well as from the surplus of precipitation over evaporation (E-P) and thus maintains a fresher surface water throughout the year as compared to AS. Major rivers such as Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Irrawaddy discharge large amount of freshwater volume to the BoB. The input of relatively less saline waters by the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) makes the eastern equatorial IO fresher. Substantial change in salinity and temperature due to river runoff results in a change in ambient sea-water density near river mouths in coastal regions. In the present study, we simulate the circulation features of the NIO using a free-surface primitive equation ocean general circulation model 'Regional Ocean Modeling System' (ROMS). The model domain extends from 30°S-30°N, 30°E-120°E with 1/4 x 1/4 degree resolution in the horizontal and 40 vertical terrain following sigma levels. The model is initialized with annual mean climatology of temperature and salinity from World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and forced with daily climatological winds from Quikscat and ASCAT and other atmospheric forcing fields from TropFlux. Different numerical experiments were carried out to understand the impact of freshwater forcing on the sea surface salinity (SSS) simulations. Model simulations and available in-situ and satellite observations utilized to understand processes, particularly the contribution of freshwater forcing, controlling the SSS spatial and seasonal variations in various sectors of the Indian Ocean.

  15. Submarine Groundwater Discharge at a Single Spot Location: Evaluation of Different Detection Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schubert


    Full Text Available Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD into the ocean is of general interest because it acts as vehicle for the transport of dissolved contaminants and/or nutrients into the coastal sea and because it may be accompanied by the loss of significant volumes of freshwater. Due to the large-scale and long-term nature of the related hydrological processes, environmental tracers are required for SGD investigation. The water parameters of electrical conductivity and temperature, the naturally occurring radionuclides of radon and radium as well as the stable water isotopes 18O and 2H have proven in previous studies their general suitability for the detection and quantification of SGD. However, individual hydrogeological settings require a site-specific application of this “tool box”. This study evaluates and compares the applicability of the abovementioned tracers for investigating SGD from a distinct submarine source in a karst environment at Cabbé, southern France. The specific advantages and disadvantages of each individual parameter under the given hydrogeological conditions are discussed. Radon appeared to be the most suitable environmental tracer in the site specific context. The water temperature was less reliable due to the little temperature difference between seawater and groundwater and since the diurnal variation of the air temperature masks potential SGD signals. Radium isotopes are less applicable in the studied region due to the lack of a well-developed subterranean estuary. The stable water isotopes showed results consistent with the salinity and radon data; however, the significantly higher effort required for stable isotope analyses is disadvantageous. A multi-temporal thermal remote sensing approach proved to be a powerful tool for initial SGD surveying.

  16. Goal management tendencies predict trajectories of adjustment to lower limb amputation up to 15 months post rehabilitation discharge


    Coffey, Laura; Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre


    Objective: To explore patterns of change in positive affect, general adjustment to lower limb amputation, and self-reported disability from rehabilitation admission to 15 months post-discharge; to examine whether goal pursuit and goal adjustment tendencies predict either initial status or rates of change in these outcomes, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Design: Prospective cohort study with four time points (T1 = on admission; T2 = 6 weeks post-discharge; T3 = 6 ...

  17. Medication reconciliation to solve discrepancies in discharge documents after discharge from the hospital. (United States)

    Geurts, Marlies M E; van der Flier, Merel; de Vries-Bots, Anne M B; Brink-van der Wal, Thaliet I C; de Gier, Johan J


    When patients are admitted to, and discharged from hospital there is a high chance of discrepancies and errors occurring during the transfer of patients' medication information. This often causes drug related problems. Correct and fast communication of patients' medication information between community pharmacy and hospital is necessary. To investigate the number, type, and origin of discrepancies within discharge documents and between discharge documents and information in the pharmacy computer system, concerning the medication of patients living independently when they are discharged from hospital. Second, to test which variables have an impact on the number of discrepancies found and to study the time spent on the medication reconciliation process. One quality-certified community pharmacy in the Netherlands. Pharmacists reviewed discharge documents of patients discharged over one year. This information was compared to information available in the pharmacy computer system. Discrepancies were discussed with medical specialists and/or general practitioners. Type and origin of discrepancies were classified. Differences in variables between hospitals were tested using Independent-Samples Mann-Whitney U Test and Pearson Chi Square test. Poisson regression analysis was performed to test the impact of variables on the number of discrepancies found. Number, type and origin of discrepancies for all independently living patients discharged from the hospital. During the study period, 100 discharges took place and were analyzed. No differences were found between the two main hospitals, a university hospital and a teaching hospital. In total, 223 discrepancies were documented. Sixty-nine discharges (69.0 %) required consultation with a patients' medical specialist. A majority of the discrepancies (73.1 %) have their origin in hospital information. The number of discrepancies found increased with the number of medicines prescribed at discharge. The community pharmacist spent

  18. The Beginning of a New Life Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury- Patient’s Experiences One Month Post-Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Bodil Bjørnshave; Bjerrum, Merete; Angel, Sanne


    Introduction: Studies show that individuals having suffered traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) are challenged by barriers and problems in their transition from hospital rehabilitation to home. This study aims to explore patients’ first-hand experiences of returning home and to compare their post......-discharge experiences with their pre-discharge expectations. Method: A qualitative follow-up study using inductive contents analysis. One month post-discharge, we reinterviewed seven Danish TSCI-patients, admitted for initial rehabilitation at the Spinal Cord Injury Centre of Western Denmark. Findings: We identified...

  19. Formation of a spark discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field with current limitation by a large ballast Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanov, B. B., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    Results of studies of a spark discharge initiated in argon in a point–plane electrode gap with limitation of the discharge current by a large ballast resistance are presented. It is shown that the current flowing through the plasma channel of such a low-current spark has the form of periodic pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when a low-current spark transforms into a constricted glow discharge, current pulses disappear, the spatial structure of the cathode glow changes abruptly, and a brightly glowing positive plasma column forms in the gap.

  20. Hospital course and discharge criteria for children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Mansbach, Jonathan M; Clark, Sunday; Piedra, Pedro A; Macias, Charles G; Schroeder, Alan R; Pate, Brian M; Sullivan, Ashley F; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A


    For children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, there is uncertainty about the expected inpatient clinical course and when children are safe for discharge. Examine the time to clinical improvement, risk of clinical worsening after improvement, and develop discharge criteria. Prospective multiyear cohort study. Sixteen US hospitals. Consecutive hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis. We defined clinical improvement using: (1) retraction severity, (2) respiratory rate, (3) room air oxygen saturation, and (4) hydration status. After meeting improvement criteria, children were considered clinically worse based on the inverse of ≥1 of these criteria or need for intensive care. Among 1916 children, the median number of days from onset of difficulty breathing until clinical improvement was 4 (interquartile range, 3-7.5 days). Of the total, 1702 (88%) met clinical improvement criteria, with 4% worsening (3% required intensive care). Children who worsened were age <2 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-5.94), gestational age <37 weeks (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.13-3.32), and presented with severe retractions (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 2.12-14.50), inadequate oral intake (AOR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.39-4.62), or apnea (AOR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.45-5.68). Readmissions were similar for children who did and did not worsen. Although children hospitalized with bronchiolitis had wide-ranging recovery times, only 4% worsened after initial improvement. Children who worsened were more likely to be younger, premature infants presenting in more severe distress. For children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, these data may help establish more evidence-based discharge criteria, reduce practice variability, and safely shorten hospital length-of-stay. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  1. Predicting respiratory infection one year after inpatient rehabilitation with pulmonary function measured at discharge in persons with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Postma, Karin; Bussmann, Johannes B; Haisma, Janneke A; van der Woude, Lucas H; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J


    To determine whether pulmonary function at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation can predict respiratory infection in spinal cord injury in the first year after discharge, and to determine which pulmonary function parameter predicts best. Multicentre prospective cohort study. A total of 140 persons with spinal cord injury. Pulmonary function was tested at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Pulmonary function parameters (expressed in absolute and percentage predicted values) were: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, and peak expiratory flow. Respiratory infection was determined one year after discharge by a physician. Differences between the respiratory infection and non-respiratory infection groups were tested; and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine how accurately pulmonary function parameters could predict respiratory infection. Of the 140 participants, 14 (10%) experienced respiratory infection in the first year after discharge. All pulmonary function parameters were significantly lower in persons who experienced respiratory infection than in those who did not. All pulmonary function parameters were almost equally accurate in predicting respiratory infection; only percentage predicted forced vital capacity was less accurate. Pulmonary function at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation can be used as a predictor of respiratory infection in the first year after discharge in spinal cord injury. No single pulmonary function parameter was a clearly superior predictor of respiratory infection.

  2. ANMCO Position Paper: hospital discharge planning: recommendations and standards


    Mennuni, Mauro; Massimo Gulizia, Michele; Alunni, Gianfranco; Francesco Amico, Antonio; Maria Bovenzi, Francesco; Caporale, Roberto; Colivicchi, Furio; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Egman, Sabrina; Fattirolli, Francesco; Gabrielli, Domenico; Geraci, Giovanna; Gregorio, Giovanni; Francesco Mureddu, Gian


    Abstract The hospital discharge is often poorly standardized and affected by discontinuity and fragmentation of care, putting patients at high risk of both post-discharge adverse events and early readmission. The present ANMCO document reviews the modifiable components of the hospital discharge process related to adverse events or re-hospitalizations and suggests the optimal methods for redesigning the whole discharge process. The key principles for proper hospital discharge or transfer of ca...

  3. Eliminating mercury use in hospital laboratories: a step toward zero discharge. (United States)

    Harvie, J


    In 1996, the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District initiated a Zero Discharge Project to work toward the goal of zero discharge of persistent toxic substances from its wastewater treatment plant. This multifaceted project focuses on mercury, lead, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, and hexachlorbenzene. Here, the author describes a collaboration with local hospitals to eliminate the use of mercury-containing fixatives by histopathology laboratories. Three primary roadblocks to change were identified: (a) technicians' belief that pathologists would be resistant to change; (b) lack of time to research alternatives; (c) lack of awareness of the hospital's role in polluting the environment. PMID:10501136

  4. Scaled-Up Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas Generated by DC and Pulsed Discharges (United States)


    decontamination or flue gas cleaning [7-9]). We suppose that during the initial phase of the spark pulse, the strong chemical effect can be maintained thanks to...streamer-to-spark transition discharge in air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The transient spark (TS) is applicable for flue gas cleaning or bio...the gas composition, flow rate, value of R and geometry of electrodes [22–24]. Glow discharge has already been applied e. g. for flue gas cleaning [22,25

  5. Assessing medication adherence and healthcare utilization and cost patterns among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder. (United States)

    Karve, Sudeep; Markowitz, Michael; Fu, Dong-Jing; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Candrilli, Sean D; Alphs, Larry


    Hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder have a high risk of re-hospitalization. However, limited data exist evaluating critical post-discharge periods during which the risk of re-hospitalization is significant. Among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder, we assessed pharmacotherapy adherence and healthcare utilization and costs during sequential 60-day clinical periods before schizoaffective disorder-related hospitalization and post-hospital discharge. From the MarketScan(®) Medicaid database (2004-2008), we identified patients (≥18 years) with a schizoaffective disorder-related inpatient admission. Study measures including medication adherence and healthcare utilization and costs were assessed during sequential preadmission and post-discharge periods. We conducted univariate and multivariable regression analyses to compare schizoaffective disorder-related and all-cause healthcare utilization and costs (in 2010 US dollars) between each adjacent 60-day post-discharge periods. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. We identified 1,193 hospital-discharged patients with a mean age of 41 years. The mean medication adherence rate was 46% during the 60-day period prior to index inpatient admission, which improved to 80% during the 60-day post-discharge period. Following hospital discharge, schizoaffective disorder-related healthcare costs were significantly greater during the initial 60-day period compared with the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period (mean US$2,370 vs US$1,765; p schizoaffective disorder-related costs declined during the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period and remained stable for the remaining post-discharge periods (days 121-365). We observed considerably lower (46%) adherence during 60 days prior to the inpatient admission; in comparison, adherence for the overall 6-month period was 8% (54%) higher. Our study findings suggest that both short-term (e.g., 60 days) and long-term (e.g., 6-12 months) medication

  6. The transition from acute care to home: a review of issues in discharge teaching and a framework for better practice. (United States)

    McBride, Meghan; Andrews, Gavin J


    Patients are often sent home with complex discharge plans that can become overwhelming and difficult to follow. By contrast, implementing effective teaching at the time of discharge can lead to a decrease in the rate of hospital readmissions and mortality for patients post discharge (Koelling, Johnson, Cody, & Aaronson, 2005). Unfortunately, many of the discharge teaching practices and programs used in health care settings have been criticized as being ineffective. Ensuring that patients are prepared for the transition from hospital to home after a cardiac event will require a fundamental shift in how teaching is performed in acute care settings. In this paper, the authors identify and examine models and concepts relevant to improving the process of providing discharge education in acute care settings. This includes attention to adult education, self-management and patient-centred care. A practical framework was developed: Important Elements of Effective Discharge Teaching. This framework can be used by frontline staff to initiate realistic practice change and promote the use of evidence-based strategies related to discharge teaching in acute care settings. The Important Elements of Effective Discharge Teaching framework provides health care practitioners with a tool to evaluate and reflect on their current professional practice and provides examples of teaching strategies that are based on best evidence. Nurses can incorporate elements of this framework while providing health teaching to patients after a cardiac event.

  7. Excimer Lasers With Capacitively Excited Tubular Discharges (United States)

    Eichler, Hans J.; Herweg, Helmut; de la Rosa, Jose


    The excitation of excimer lasers in tubular discharges results in simple and compact devices needing no preionization. Optical output energies are in the millijoule range. We investigated XeF, KrF and ArF lasers for various operating conditions. The lasers consist of capillary glass tubes with two internal electrodes at the ends and an aluminium-foil wrapped around the tube as capacitive electrode. A maximum output energy of 0.3 mJ has been achieved for the XeF laser. The good quality of the discharge is indicated by the observation of spontaneous mode locking. The detailed study of the discharge for different polarities of the electrodes has shown that efficient operation with a high gas lifetime can be obtained by a purely capacitively excited discharge. A gas lifetime of about 10,000 pulses for 3 litres gas mixture has been observed. Using a two stage Marx generator to generate 100 kV excitation voltage a maximum output energy of 0.7 mJ was obtained for a gas mixture of Kr, F2 and He with an efficiency of 0.17%. The KrF laser operates also without the buffer gas. Laser action in ArF has been achieved with 15 μJ pulse energy and 10 ns duration.

  8. Generation of Nanoparticles by Spark Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Ott, A.; Salman Tabrizi, N.

    Spark discharge is a method for producing nanoparticles from conductive materials. Besides the general advantages of nanoparticle synthesis in the gas phase, the method offers additional advantages like simplicity, compactness and versatility. The synthesis process is continuous and is performed at

  9. From submarine to lacustrine groundwater discharge (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Meinikmann, Karin; Pöschke, Franziska; Nützmann, Gunnar; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its role in marine nutrient cycling are well known since the last decade. The freshwater equivalent, lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD), is often still disregarded, although first reports of LGD are more than 50 years old. We identify nine different reasons why groundwater has long been disregarded in both freshwater and marine environments such as invisibility of groundwater discharge, the size of the interface and its difficult accessibility. Although there are some fundamental differences in the hydrology of SGD and LGD, caused primarily by seawater recirculation that occurs only in cases of SGD, there are also a lot of similarities such as a focusing of discharge to near-shore areas. Nutrient concentrations in groundwater near the groundwater–surface water interface might be anthropogenically enriched. Due to spatial heterogeneity of aquifer characteristics and biogeochemical processes, the quantification of groundwater-borne nutrient loads is challenging. Both nitrogen and phosphorus might be mobile in near-shore aquifers and in a lot of case studies large groundwater-borne nutrient loads have been reported.

  10. Mortality after hospital discharge in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Sylvia; de Jonge, Evert; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Arbous, M. Sesmu; de Lange, Dylan W.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.


    To assess the mortality risk of ICU patients after hospital discharge and compare it to mortality of the general Dutch population. Cohort study of ICU admissions from a national ICU registry linked to administrative records from an insurance claims database. Eighty-one Dutch ICUs. ICU patients (n =

  11. Partial discharges in spheroidal voids: Void orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson


    Partial discharge transients can be described in terms of the charge induced on the detecting electrode. The influence of the void parameters upon the induced charge is examined and discussed for spheroidal voids. It is shown that a quantitative interpretation of the induced charge requires...

  12. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage


    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a s...... it to a spheroidal void located in a simple disk-type spacer...

  13. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of acti-.

  14. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from

  15. Parametric study of radiofrequency helium discharge under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The excitation temperatures in the α and γ modes were 3266 and 4500 K respectively, evaluated by Boltzmann's plot method. The estimated gas temperature increased from 335 K in the α mode to 485 K in the γ mode, suggesting that the radio frequency atmospheric pressure helium discharge can be used for surface ...

  16. Pulsed high voltage discharge induce hematologic changes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... The aim of this work to examine the effect of the gas-liquid hybrid discharge treatment system on some hematological ... liquid phase. The high energy plasma arc produces a pressure shock wave, electromagnetic radiations, .... through a 50 kilo-ohm resistor by a negative dc high-voltage power supply and ...

  17. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of activated ...

  18. New design for a microwave discharge lamp. (United States)

    Glangetas, A


    A simple discharge lamp with a microwave cavity fitting inside provides an intense source of VUV resonance radiation for photochemical work inside a vacuum chamber. Good coupling and minimum reabsorption result in better efficiency ( greater, similar1%) and more intense output power (up to 2.5x10(16) quanta s(-1)) than have been achieved previously.

  19. Discharge management for children with complex needs. (United States)

    Lewis, Mary; Noyes, Jane


    There is now an expectation that children with complex (often technology-dependent) care needs will be cared for at home by parents who assume 24-hour responsibility following extensive training to nurse, care for and parent their child. A variety of models of discharge planning exist but the planning and process of discharge are persistently reported to be problematic from the perspective of families, professionals and commissioners. A consultation exercise with both parents and professionals indicated that nurses, doctors and social workers would benefit from some practical help and specific knowledge relating to complex discharge management. This article summarises best practice and, where possible, evidence-based principles and procedures with the intention of contributing to the establishment of effective models of discharge management and ongoing homecare, and improved outcomes for children and families. Guidance on putting together and costing a care package proposal, and applying risk management and clinical governance procedures in home-based settings will be published in the June issue of Paediatric Nursing.

  20. Generation of Nanoparticles by Spark Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman Tabrizi, N.


    Spark discharge is a method for producing nanoparticles from conductive materials. Besides the general advantages of nanoparticle synthesis in the gas phase, the method offers additional advantages like simplicity, compactness and versatility. The synthesis process is continuous and is performed at