WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume contributors describe

  1. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  2. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  3. Guide For Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    TEIC is an internationally recognised academic journal on English Language Teaching (ELT).ItsISSN number is 1005-538X.Articles must abide by the following rules,or they will be automatrically rejected1.Word limit per article:less than 3,000 words (less than 5 pages).2.Authors whose articles will be published in TEIC will receive a letter of acceptance.Contributors whodo not receive such a letter within six months of sending in their articles are free to contributed themto other journals or publications.

  4. Guide For Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Articles must abide by the following rules,or they will be automatically rejected.1.Word limit per article:less than 3,000 words(less than 5 pages).2.Authors whose articles will be published in TEIC will receive a letter of acceptance.Contributors who do not receivesuch a letter within six months of sending in their articles are free to contribute them to other journals or publica-tions.3.In the year 2000 there will be four issues of TEIC,for which a subscription fee of 16 yuan must be paid.4.No money is earned from TEIC (in fact,a subsidy of 50,000 yuan is needed for each issue);therefore,no royaltieswill be paid to the authors of published articles.At the same time,the authors will not be required to pay a so-called"publication fee".5.When you send your article by E-mail,please include it as an attachment,instead of in the body of the E-mail.Al-

  5. NOTICE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    , Trump BF, Marzella L. Autophagocytosis. In: Trump BF, Arstuka Au. Eds. Pathology of cell membranes. Plenum Press: New York 1983:201-36. Unpublished materials or personal communications should not be included in the reference list but may be noted in parenthesis in the text.Proof ReadingGalley proofs will be sent to contributors for correction of errors, but no major alteration of the text could be accepted. The corrected proofs should be sent back promptly along with reprint order if required.

  6. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Brunner, Robert L; Kuller, Lewis H; Johnson, Karen C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L(1) penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and nonusers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Deborah Jowitt美国著名舞评家,早于1967年便开始为美国《村声》(Village Voice)杂志撰写舞评专栏,一写就是四十年,作品曾集结成《Dance Beat》(1977)及《The Dance in Mind》(1985)两部书。第三本作品《Time and the Dancing Image》则获得1988年的Ia Torre Bueno Prize。她另一部作品《Jerome Robbins:His Life,His Theater,His Dance》亦于2004年时出版。现于纽约大学Tisch School of the Arts舞蹈系教学。本期《Ming+》刊出她为刚刚过世的舞蹈家皮娜·鲍什所新撰的纪念文章,回忆她对鲍什的印象,亦分析其作品的重大意义。

  8. Contributors

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Felix K. Ameka is a linguist who teaches in the African Languages and Cultures programme at Leiden University. His relevant research interests are in ethnography of communication, semantics, pragmatics, socio-historical linguistics and the reflexive relations between language, culture and cognition and West African languages especially Gbe and Ghana-Togo Mountain languages. Judith Aston is a Senior Lecturer in Film-making and Creative Media at the University of the West of England in Bristol,...

  9. Contributors

    OpenAIRE

    Michelet, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Flora Kimmich translates from French and German. Her translation of Gustav Droysen’s monumental nineteenth-century classic History of Alexander the Great [Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen]—the first into English—was published in 2012 by the American Philosophical Society. Lionel Gossman, M. Taylor Pyne Professor emeritus of Romance Languages at Princeton University, is the author of books on Edward Gibbon, Augustin Thierry, Jacob Burckhardt, J.J. Bachofen, and the eighteenth-century French m...

  10. EDS becoms CERN Openlab contributor

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "EDS announced that it has become an official contributor to CERN openlab. The purpose of the joint project beteween CERN and EDS is to carry out research and development in the field of monitoring, management and operation of grid services." (1 page)

  11. EDS becomes CERN Openlab contributor

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "EDS today announced that it has become an official contributor to CERN openlab. The purpose of the joint project between CERN and EDS is to carry out research and development in the field of monitoring, management and operaiton of grid services." (2/3 page)

  12. PACE: Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimation- A machine learning-based assessment of the number of contributors in DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Michael A; Adelman, Jonathan D

    2017-03-01

    The deconvolution of DNA mixtures remains one of the most critical challenges in the field of forensic DNA analysis. In addition, of all the data features required to perform such deconvolution, the number of contributors in the sample is widely considered the most important, and, if incorrectly chosen, the most likely to negatively influence the mixture interpretation of a DNA profile. Unfortunately, most current approaches to mixture deconvolution require the assumption that the number of contributors is known by the analyst, an assumption that can prove to be especially faulty when faced with increasingly complex mixtures of 3 or more contributors. In this study, we propose a probabilistic approach for estimating the number of contributors in a DNA mixture that leverages the strengths of machine learning. To assess this approach, we compare classification performances of six machine learning algorithms and evaluate the model from the top-performing algorithm against the current state of the art in the field of contributor number classification. Overall results show over 98% accuracy in identifying the number of contributors in a DNA mixture of up to 4 contributors. Comparative results showed 3-person mixtures had a classification accuracy improvement of over 6% compared to the current best-in-field methodology, and that 4-person mixtures had a classification accuracy improvement of over 20%. The Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimation (PACE) also accomplishes classification of mixtures of up to 4 contributors in less than 1s using a standard laptop or desktop computer. Considering the high classification accuracy rates, as well as the significant time commitment required by the current state of the art model versus seconds required by a machine learning-derived model, the approach described herein provides a promising means of estimating the number of contributors and, subsequently, will lead to improved DNA mixture interpretation. Copyright © 2016

  13. WE-AB-BRA-02: Development of Biomechanical Models to Describe Dose-Volume Response to Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, M; Polan, D; Feng, M; Lawrence, T; Haken, R Ten; Brock, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that radiotherapy treatment for liver metastases causes marked liver hypertrophy in areas receiving low dose and atrophy/fibrosis in areas receiving high dose. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a biomechanical model-based dose-response model to describe these liver responses to SBRT. Methods: In this retrospective study, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm, Morfeus, was expanded to include dose-based boundary conditions. Liver and tumor volumes were contoured on the planning images and CT/MR images three months post-RT and converted to finite element models. A thermal expansion-based relationship correlating the delivered dose and volume response was generated from 22 patients previously treated. This coefficient, combined with the planned dose, was applied as an additional boundary condition to describe the volumetric response of the liver of an additional cohort of metastatic liver patients treated with SBRT. The accuracy of the model was evaluated based on overall volumetric liver comparisons and the target registration error (TRE) using the average deviations in positions of identified vascular bifurcations on each set of registered images, with a target accuracy of the 2.5mm isotropic dose grid (vector dimension 4.3mm). Results: The thermal expansion coefficient models the volumetric change of the liver to within 3%. The accuracy of Morfeus with dose-expansion boundary conditions a TRE of 5.7±2.8mm compared to 11.2±3.7mm using rigid registration and 8.9±0.28mm using Morfeus with only spatial boundary conditions. Conclusion: A biomechanical model has been developed to describe the volumetric and spatial response of the liver to SBRT. This work will enable the improvement of correlating functional imaging with delivered dose, the mapping of the delivered dose from one treatment onto the planning images for a subsequent treatment, and will further provide information to assist

  14. Significant Reduction in Mitral Regurgitation Volume Is the Main Contributor for Increase in Systolic Forward Flow in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Hemodynamic Analysis Using Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Yuji; Shibayama, Kentaro; Mihara, Hirotsugu; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Berdejo, Javier; Arsanjani, Reza; Siegel, Robert; Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Makkar, Raj R; Shiota, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Reduction in mitral regurgitation (MR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has previously been reported. However, the hemodynamic effects of TAVR in patients with MR have not been previously evaluated. We analyzed 571 patients who underwent TAVR from December 2010 to December 2013. We studied 20 patients with moderate or severe preprocedural functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) who also had a follow-up transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination between 90 and 360 days (median 213 days) after TAVR (Significant FMR Group). We also studied age- and gender-matched 20 patients with mild or lesser MR (Nonsignificant MR Group). Left ventricular functional measurements were assessed using echocardiography before and after TAVR. Left ventricular outflow tract stroke volume measurements using pulsed-wave Doppler (SVLVOT ) were calculated as a representative of systolic forward flow, and stroke volume by the Simpson's method (SVSimpson ) was calculated as a parameter of degree of LV contraction. MR grade improved in 22 of 40 patients after TAVR. In both groups, BNP level decreased, left ventricular ejection fraction increased, and SVLVOT increased after TAVR. SVSimpson increased in the Nonsignificant MR Group and remained unchanged in the Significant FMR Group. Vena contracta width of MR (MRVC) decreased in the Significant FMR Group. Using multivariable analysis in the Significant FMR Group, the increase in SVLVOT significantly correlated with the decrease in MRVC (P FMR. In these patients, increase in SVLVOT after TAVR was associated with decrease in severity of MR. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  16. Top Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: 1996-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gabrielle A.; Davis, Kim S.; Zanger, Dinorah; Gerrard-Morris, Aimee; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    S.G. Little (1997) reported the top contributors to the school psychology literature from 1987 to 1995. The present study represents a follow-up by examining the top contributors from 1996 to 2005. Similar to Little, a list of the top 50 contributors was developed using a point system that assigned more credit based on fewer coauthors and higher…

  17. Head movement, an important contributor to human cerebrospinal fluid circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Zheng, Nan; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Chi, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cong; Wang, Xue-Mei; Lin, Xiang-Tao; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The suboccipital muscles are connected to the upper cervical spinal dura mater via the myodural bridges (MDBs). Recently, it was suggested that they might work as a pump to provide power for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the suboccipital muscles contractions on the CSF flow. Forty healthy adult volunteers were subjected to cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Each volunteer was scanned twice, once before and once after one-minute-head-rotation period. CSF flow waveform parameters at craniocervical junction were analyzed. The results showed that, after the head rotations, the maximum and average CSF flow rates during ventricular diastole were significantly increased, and the CSF stroke volumes during diastole and during entire cardiac cycle were significantly increased. This suggested that the CSF flow was significantly promoted by head movements. Among the muscles related with head movements, only three suboccipital muscles are connected to the upper cervical spinal dura mater via MDBs. It was believed that MDBs might transform powers of the muscles to CSF. The present results suggested that the head movements served as an important contributor to CSF dynamics and the MDBs might be involved in this mechanism. PMID:27538827

  18. Describe Your Favorite Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Isaac; Dill, Vicky

    1993-01-01

    A third grader describes Ms. Gonzalez, his favorite teacher, who left to accept a more lucrative teaching assignment. Ms. Gonzalez' butterflies unit covered everything from songs about social butterflies to paintings of butterfly wings, anatomy studies, and student haiku poems and biographies. Students studied biology by growing popcorn plants…

  19. Development of limb volume measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  20. Simple Waveforms, Simply Described

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.

  1. Donations and dependence: Individual contributor strategies in house elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwig, Jennifer A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of individual contributors to financing federal candidates, past work has largely neglected this crucial financial constituency in favor of research on corporate and trade political action committees (PACs). By contrast, in this study I offer the first analysis of aggregate contributions from the population of individual contributors to House candidates. Using an original big dataset constructed from over fifteen million Federal Election Commission (FEC) disclosure records, I identify individual contributors (rather than contributions) and trace the variation in their strategies across types of House candidates. I distinguish between frequent donors, who are theorized to have more contact with members of Congress, versus infrequent donors in these elections. I find evidence that the character of aggregate donations from repeat donors is more access-oriented even while controlling for other salient candidate characteristics. Funds from infrequent donors, in contrast, appear more ideologically motivated. By also examining the percentage of funds that House candidates receive from repeat donors, I show that the fundraising coalitions of candidates may reproduce reliance on more access-oriented, repeat donors despite the influx of dollars from infrequent donors. I suggest that my findings provide a persuasive case for re-evaluating the diversity of roles individual contributors play in the campaign finance system, and for systematically analyzing variation in contributor strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacobezoars described and demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Serge-Emile

    2011-02-01

    A bezoar is a concretion of foreign material that forms and persists in the gastrointestinal tract. Bezoars are classified by their material origins. Phytobezoars contain plant material, trichobezoars contain hair, lactobezoars contain milk proteins, and pharmacobezoars contain pharmaceutical products. Tablets, suspensions, and even insoluble drug delivery vehicles can, on rare occasions, and sometimes under specific circumstances, form pharmacobezoars. The goal of this review is to catalog and examine all of the available reports in the English language medical literature that convincingly describe the formation and management of pharmacobezoars. Articles included in this review were identified by performing searches using the terms "bezoar," "pharmacobezoar," and "concretion" in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and JSTOR. The complete MEDLINE and JSTOR holdings were included in the search without date ranges. The results were limited to English language publications. Articles that described nonmedication bezoars were not included in the review. Articles describing phytobezoars, food bezoars, fecal impactions, illicit drug packet ingestions, enteral feeding material bezoars, and hygroscopic diet aid bezoars were excluded. The bibliographic references within the articles already accumulated were then examined in order to gather additional pharmacobezoar cases. The cases are grouped by pharmaceutical agent that formed the bezoar, and groupings are arranged in alphabetical order. Discussions and conclusions specific to each pharmaceutical agent are included in that agent's subheading. Patterns and themes that emerged in the review of the assembled case reports are reviewed and presented in a more concise format. Pharmacobezoars form under a wide variety of circumstances and in a wide variety of patients. They are difficult to diagnose reliably. Rules for suspecting, diagnosing, and properly managing a pharmacobezoar are highly dependent on the

  3. How Mathematics Describes Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  4. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  5. 47 CFR 54.711 - Contributor reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... administrators of the North American Numbering Plan administration cost recovery (See 47 CFR 52.16 of this chapter), the local number portability cost recovery (See 47 CFR 52.32 of this chapter), and the TRS Fund... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.711 Contributor reporting requirements. (a)...

  6. An Analysis of Contributions and Contributors in Economic Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, James W., Jr.; Durden, Garey C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 25 years of the content and contributors in economic education research. Finds that economic education has become a legitimate subfield within economics and has grown from mostly descriptive research to sophisticated mathematical and econometric models. (CFR)

  7. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  8. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  9. The Role of Emotions in Contributors Activity: A Case Study on the GENTOO Community

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the relation between the emotions and the activity of contributors in the Open Source Software project Gentoo. Our case study builds on extensive data sets from the project's bug tracking platform Bugzilla, to quantify the activity of contributors, and its mail archives, to quantify the emotions of contributors by means of sentiment analysis. The Gentoo project is known for a considerable drop in development performance after the sudden retirement of a central contributor. We analyse how this event correlates with the negative emotions, both in bilateral email discussions with the central contributor, and at the level of the whole community of contributors. We then extend our study to consider the activity patters on Gentoo contributors in general. We find that contributors are more likely to become inactive when they express strong positive or negative emotions in the bug tracker, or when they deviate from the expected value of emotions in the mailing list. We use these insights to develop a Bayes...

  10. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-07-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  11. Applying Open Researchers and Contributors ID in scholarly journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Im

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open Researchers and Contributors ID (ORCID launched its registry services in October 2012. Consequently, adding personal information to the ORCID registry became routine work for researchers. To add ORCID to an online article, the tag needs to be included in the Journal Article Tag Suite extensible markup language file, if such a file has been produced by the publisher. Subsequently, all co-authors’ ORCID can be easily and conveniently collected and then integrated into the manuscript management system. In the current age of information and the Internet, journals need to keep pace with the surge of new standards and technologies. Editors should be able to accept and apply these new systems rapidly.

  12. Evaluating the Training, Responsibilities, and Practices of P&T Committee Members and Nonmember Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ryan; Kelly, Brett J; Moody, Mary

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees are responsible for managing drug formularies in numerous health care settings. Although pharmacy practice and health care organizations provide general recommendations of responsibilities and skills for members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees, the study investigators hypothesized that there is diversity in the training, responsibilities, and practices of these members and contributors. To describe the training, responsibilities, and practices of members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees in a variety of health care settings, using an online survey. In December 2015, an online survey was delivered to clinicians who were considered likely to be involved in P&T committee service from hospitals ranked by U.S. News & World Report and a convenience sample of clinicians practicing in managed care settings. The survey instrument was designed to assess various domains and perceptions of P&T committee processes. Sixty-nine respondents representing various health care delivery settings in the United States were eligible for and completed the survey. The majority of the respondents were pharmacists (94.2%), and 72.5% of the respondents were P&T committee members. The remainder of the respondents were nonmember P&T committee contributors. Approximately 60% of the respondents had served in P&T committee roles for ≥ 10 years. Specialized postgraduate training incorporating literature evaluation and formulary management was possessed by 21.7% and 17.4% of the respondents, respectively; however, most of the respondents received on-the-job training. Approximately half of the respondents were responsible for preparation of P&T committee documents, and 58% reported that nonmember contributors typically write and prepare these documents. Skill in literature evaluation was the most important criterion in selecting authors of P&T committee documents, while 10.1% of the respondents indicated that their committees did not

  13. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor's Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełkowski, Tadeusz; Gloor, Peter; Jemielniak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution.

  14. The Role of Emotions in Contributors Activity: A Case Study on the GENTOO Community

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the relation between the emotions and the activity of contributors in the Open Source Software project Gentoo. Our case study builds on extensive data sets from the project's bug tracking platform Bugzilla, to quantify the activity of contributors, and its mail archives, to quantify the emotions of contributors by means of sentiment analysis. The Gentoo project is known for a period of centralization within its bug triaging community. This was followed by considerable changes in co...

  15. The effect of varying the number of contributors on likelihood ratios for complex DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Corina C G; Haned, Hinda; Jeurissen, Loes; Gill, Peter D; Sijen, Titia

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of DNA mixtures with three or more contributors, defined here as high order mixtures, is difficult because of the inevitability of allele sharing. Allele sharing complicates the estimation of the number of contributors, which is an important parameter to assess the probative value. Consequently, these mixtures may not be deemed suitable for interpretation and reporting. In this study, we generated three-, four- and five-person mixtures with little or no drop-out and with varying levels of allele sharing. For these DNA mixtures we computed likelihood ratios (LRs) using the LRmix model, and always using persons of interest that are true contributors. We assessed the influence of different scenarios on the LR, and used (1) the true or an incorrect number of contributors, (2) zero, one or two anchored individuals and (3) an equal number of contributors under Hp and Hd or an extra contributor under Hd. It was shown that the LR varied considerably when the hypotheses used an incorrect number of contributors, especially when individuals were anchored under the hypotheses. Overall, when analysing high order mixtures, there may occur a transition from LR greater than one to less than one if an incorrect number of contributors is conditioned. This is a result of allele sharing among the multiple contributors rather than allele drop-out, since this study only utilised samples with little or no drop-out.

  16. Falling while walking: A hidden contributor to pedestrian injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; O'Hern, Steve; Burtt, Duane; Rossiter, Ben

    2017-02-07

    Walking is a sustainable mode of transportation which is beneficial to both individuals and to the broader community, however, there are risks and it is essential that road design and operation provides safe conditions for walking. In Victoria, pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road user groups, accounting for approximately 12% of all road fatalities and serious injuries. These figures largely represent injuries where the pedestrian has been struck by a vehicle with the extent of pedestrian-only injuries largely un-reported. Falling while walking may be a significant contributor to pedestrian only injuries. Indeed, the World Health Organisation has identified falls generally as the second leading cause of unintentional injury death in older populations. Despite the prevalence of fall-related injuries, there has been relatively little research undertaken to address the issues surrounding falls that occur while walking for transport and in public spaces. This study, therefore, aimed to address this gap in our knowledge. Analyses of various data sources were undertaken to enhance our understanding of fall-related injuries while walking in Victoria. Two sources of data were accessed: Only 85 fall-related incidents were reported in the crash-based data, however, pedestrian falls while walking in the road environment accounted for an average of 1680 hospital admissions and 3545 emergency department presentations each year, and this number is rising. The findings in this study show clearly that Police data is of little use when attempting to understand issues of safe travel for pedestrians other than vehicle-pedestrian incidents. However, analysis of hospital data provides a more realistic indication of the extent of pedestrian fall-related injuries and highlights the significant number of pedestrian fall-related injuries that occur each year. Moreover, the findings identified that older pedestrians are significantly over-represented amongst fall

  17. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  18. Five describing factors of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Vorst, H.C.M.; Oort, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with

  19. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  20. Using fundamental equations to describe basic phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    constraining the total charge of refrigerant in the system, which is missing.In traditional mathematical modelling of a refrigeration cycle/system, the influence from the total charge of refrigerant on the system behaviour is normally not modelled explicitly. Instead, parameters such as superheat......When the fundamental thermodynamic balance equations (mass, energy, and momentum) are used to describe the processes in a simple refrigeration system, then one finds that the resulting equation system will have a degree of freedom equal to one. Further investigations reveal that it is the equation...... and the before mentioned parameters. In doing so, a systematic use of control volumes for modelling a refrigeration system is outlined....

  1. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  2. Modeling Approaches for Describing Microbial Population Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita

    , ethanol and biomass throughout the reactor. This work has proven that the integration of CFD and population balance models, for describing the growth of a microbial population in a spatially heterogeneous reactor, is feasible, and that valuable insight on the interplay between flow and the dynamics......Although microbial populations are typically described by averaged properties, individual cells present a certain degree of variability. Indeed, initially clonal microbial populations develop into heterogeneous populations, even when growing in a homogeneous environment. A heterogeneous microbial......) to predict distributions of certain population properties including particle size, mass or volume, and molecular weight. Similarly, PBM allow for a mathematical description of distributed cell properties within microbial populations. Cell total protein content distributions (a measure of cell mass) have been...

  3. An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbricht, Thomas; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Verchot, Louis; Herold, Martin; Wittmann, Florian; Householder, Ethan; Herold, Nadine; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, interannual flood variability and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: (1) long-term water supply exceeding atmospheric water demand; (2) annually or seasonally water-logged soils; and (3) a geomorphological position where water is supplied and retained. Tropical and subtropical wetlands estimates reach 4.7 million km(2) (Mkm(2) ). In line with current understanding, the American continent is the major contributor (45%), and Brazil, with its Amazonian interfluvial region, contains the largest tropical wetland area (800,720 km(2) ). Our model suggests, however, unprecedented extents and volumes of peatland in the tropics (1.7 Mkm(2) and 7,268 (6,076-7,368) km(3) ), which more than threefold current estimates. Unlike current understanding, our estimates suggest that South America and not Asia contributes the most to tropical peatland area and volume (ca. 44% for both) partly related to some yet unaccounted extended deep deposits but mainly to extended but shallow peat in the Amazon Basin. Brazil leads the peatland area and volume contribution. Asia hosts 38% of both tropical peat area and volume with Indonesia as the main regional contributor and still the holder of the deepest and most extended peat areas in the tropics. Africa hosts more peat than previously reported but climatic and topographic contexts leave it as the least peat-forming continent. Our results suggest large biases in our current

  4. Circulatory contributors to the phenotype in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Shovlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT is mechanistically and therapeutically challenging, not only because of the molecular and cellular perturbations that generate vascular abnormalities, but also the modifications to circulatory physiology that result, and are likely to exacerbate vascular injury. First, most HHT patients have visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Significant visceral AVMs reduce the systemic vascular resistance: supra-normal cardiac outputs are required to maintain arterial blood pressure, and may result in significant pulmonary venous hypertension. Secondly, bleeding from nasal and gastrointestinal telangiectasia leads to iron losses of such magnitude that in most cases, diet is insufficient to meet the ‘hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement.’ Resultant iron deficiency restricts erythropoiesis, leading to anemia and further increases in cardiac output. Low iron levels are also associated with venous and arterial thromboses, elevated Factor VIII, and increased platelet aggregation to circulating 5HT (serotonin. Third, recent data highlight that reduced oxygenation of blood due to pulmonary AVMs results in a graded erythrocytotic response to maintain arterial oxygen content, and higher stroke volumes and/or heart rates to maintain oxygen delivery. Finally, HHT-independent factors such as diet, pregnancy, sepsis and other intercurrent illnesses also influence vascular structures, hemorrhage, and iron handling in HHT patients. These considerations emphasize the complexity of mechanisms that impact on vascular structures in HHT, and also offer opportunities for targeted therapeutic approaches.

  5. Oceanic Tidal Mixing As a Contributor to Milankovitch-scale Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Walter; Bills, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    We propose that changes in the magnitude of oceanic tidal mixing on long time scales is an important, but previously unrecognized, contributor to global climate change. it is well known that Earth's orbital and rotational state changes significantly on 10(exp 4)-10(exp 5) year time scales, and that this influences the spatial and temporal pattern of incident radiation. It is widely supposed that climatic variations on these same time scales are, in large part, a response of the ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system to this radiative forcing. Our proposal is that variations in the luni-solar tidal potential, induced by these same orbital and rotational variations, influences oceanic mixing and thus modulates meridional heat transport, by amounts which are competitive with the radiative forcing. There are some obvious differences between tidal potential and insolation. First is that the Sun and Moon both contribute to tides, whereas the radiation is entirely of solar origin. Second is that the Earth is transparent to gravity but opaque to radiation. Clipping associated with this opacity makes the radiation pattern temporal spectrum rather more complex than the tidal spectrum. A third point is that solar radiation directly delivers energy to Earth's surface whereas tidal mixing will only expedite lateral transport of heat in association with oceanic thermohaline circulation. The diurnal average insolation pattern is best parameterized via a Fourier series in time of year and Legendre polynomials in sine of latitude. Our present focus will be on the annual average terms. The Legendre degree n=0 term describes the global average insolation, and is nearly constant. The degree n=l term describes differences between northern and southern hemispheres, and the annual mean is zero. The degree n=2 term is the main contributor to the equator to pole variations, and varies with obliquity and orbital eccentricity, with the obliquity variation dominating. The lowest order

  6. Uncertainty in the number of contributors in the proposed new CODIS set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Michael D; Bright, Jo-Anne; Buckleton, John S; Curran, James M

    2015-11-01

    The probability that multiple contributors are detected within a forensic DNA profile improves as more highly polymorphic loci are analysed. The assignment of the correct number of contributors to a profile is important when interpreting the DNA profiles. In this work we investigate the probability of a mixed DNA profile appearing as having originated from a fewer number of contributors for the African American, Asian, Caucasian and Hispanic US populations. We investigate a range of locus configurations from the proposed new CODIS set. These theoretical calculations are based on allele frequencies only and ignore peak heights. We show that the probability of a higher order mixture (five or six contributors) appearing as having originated from one less individual is high. This probability decreases as the number of loci tested increases.

  7. Sharing Economy as a Contributor to Sustainable Growth. An EU Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florin Bonciu; Ana-Cristina Bâlgar

    2016-01-01

    ...; the second has in view the need of a new model of sustainable economic growth. In the context of these two points of view, the paper analyses the sharing economy as a potential significant contributor to sustainable economic growth...

  8. Contributors to fatigue in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlan, Linda L; Savik, Kay

    2015-10-01

    To describe levels of fatigue and explore clinical factors that might contribute to fatigue in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Descriptive, correlational design. Sample was a sub-set of patients enrolled in a randomised clinical trial testing patient-directed music for anxiety self-management. Clinical factors included age, gender, length of ICU stay, length of ventilatory support, illness severity (APACHE III), and sedative exposure (sedation intensity and frequency). Descriptive statistics and mixed models were used to address the study objectives. Medical and surgical intensive care units in the Midwestern United States. Fatigue was measured daily via a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale, up to 25 days. A sample of 80 patients (50% female) receiving ventilatory support for a median 7.9 days (range 1-46) with a mean age of 61.2 years (SD 14.8) provided daily fatigue ratings. ICU admission APACHE III was 61.5 (SD 19.8). Baseline mean fatigue ratings were 60.7 (SD 27.9), with fluctuations over time indicating a general trend upward. Mixed models analysis implicated illness severity (β(se(β))=.27(.12)) and sedation frequency (β(se(β))=1.2(.52)) as significant contributors to fatigue ratings. Illness severity and more frequent sedative administration were related to higher fatigue ratings in these mechanically ventilated patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel cells - a new contributor to stationary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Angelo U.

    , very low noise and emissions release, high efficiency both directly as fuel cell (38-55%) and in integrated cycles (50-65% with fossil fuels), delivered `power quality' and reliability. Focus is principally kept on the impact fuel cells could have on electrical grid management and control, for their voltage support and active filtering capabilities, for their response speed and for quick load connection capabilities. The cost for the moment is high, but some technology, like phosphoric acid, is in the market entry phase. Cost analysis for the main subsystems, that is fuel cell stacks, fuel processors, and power electronics and controls, indicates that the prices will be driven down to the required levels both through technology refinements and increase of production volumes. Anyhow, a new phase is beginning, where centralised power plants are facing the competition of distributed generators, like fuel cells, small gas turbines and internal combustion engines, and of other renewable energy generators, like photovoltaics and wind generators. They all are modular, dispersed throughout the utility distribution system to provide power closer to end user, and are not in competition with existing transmission and distribution systems, but they improve the systems' utilisation. The plants will initially be directly owned and operated by gas or energy distributors, and the customers could easily supersede their mistrusts by only paying for the energy they are really utilising, leaving away the worries about the investment costs and the risks of a bad operation. An `intelligent grid', delivering high quality electrical energy to millions of electrical household consumers, which, a second later, become non-polluting energy producers, appears to be giving a very relevant contribution to `the town of the future', envisaged also by the European Commission, where the quality of our lives is mainly depending on the quality of the energy.

  10. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE which has continuously observed CH4  (but not N2O from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  11. TO CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    eo_spatial Information Science (Quarterly),which has been sponsored by Wuhan University,is a periodical on surveying and mapping with public distribution at home and abroad.In order to further enhance the representativity of the Journal as well as to exert its academic radiation in the subject field,we hereby solicit quality articles both here and abroad. 1.Themes of theses:Those who intend to contribute a paper are invited to focus on one of the following listed subjects or related:photogrammetry,remote sensing,geo_surveying,engineering surveying,cartology,physical geosurveying,geodynamics,graphics,geographical information system and mapping apparatus.Contributions should be of high academic or application value.The authors assume sole responsibility for their dissertations.

  12. Doctoral Origins of Contributors to the American Economic Review, 1960-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Emily

    1975-01-01

    Concluded that publishing performance is not a function of the quality of graduate schools. Larger institutions appear to have an advantage by turning out a larger number of Ph.D.'s, but no correlation was found when the number of contributors to the "American Economic Review" from a school was compared with the rating of its graduate programs.…

  13. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  14. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Keijer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  15. Systematic Review of the Role of External Contributors in School Substance Use Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Emily J.; White, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A literature review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of external contributors (anyone other than a teacher at the school) in delivering school-based drug, alcohol and tobacco education (substance use education) programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The review focused upon literature published from 1990 onwards in English.…

  16. 5 CFR 630.1004 - Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member. 630.1004 Section 630.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1004 Application...

  17. The Professional Identity of Contributors to the "Journal of Counseling & Development": Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Thomas, Kenneth R.; Chan, Fong

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the results of a previous study which demonstrated that between 1984 and 1993, there was a trend toward publishing articles written by psychologists as opposed to counselors in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Asserts that professional affiliation of contributors matters less than the content of the articles…

  18. Contributors to Secondary Osteoporosis in Patients Referred for Treatment with Teriparatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Anaforoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Teriparatide is an anabolic agent belonging to a new class of antiosteoporosis drugs. The Turkish Social Security Institution covers teriparatide for patients with osteoporosis who have 2 osteoporotic fractures, are older than 65 years, and have a T-score of less than -4. We evaluated possible secondary contributors to osteoporosis in patients referred for treatment with this agent. Material and Method: All patients referred to our center for teriparatide treatment over 2 year were evaluated for clinical risk factors for osteoporosis, medical history, and medications. Results: Sixty-eight patients (63 women and 5 men, mean age:71.3±9.4 (50-89 years were referred. Twenty-nine patients (42.6% had received osteoporosis therapy before referral, consisting of bisphosphonate (n=20, strontium ranelate (n=6, calcitonin (n=2, or calcitonin and bisphosphonate (n=1. The mean duration of the previous therapy was 46.4± 38.5 (3-120 months. In all, 50 of the 68 patients (73.5%, including all of the men, had a contributor to secondary osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency was the most frequent contributor in 34 patients (52.3%. Other common contributors were hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism. Only 3 of 18 patients with hyperthyroidism and none of the patients with hypogonadism had been diagnosed previously, and 16 of the 24 patients receiving vitamin D supplementation still had deficiency of this vitamin. Discussion: Most of our patients had a contributor to secondary osteoporosis, which often had not been identified previously. Identifying and correcting such disorders might improve the treatment of osteoporosis and reduce the risk of subsequent fracture. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 98-101

  19. Autoantibodies to Non-myelin Antigens as Contributors to the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For years, investigators have sought to prove that myelin antigens are the primary targets of autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent experiments have begun to challenge this assumption, particularly when studying the neurodegenerative phase of MS. T-lymphocyte responses to myelin antigens have been extensively studied, and are likely early contributors to the pathogenesis of MS. Antibodies to myelin antigens have a much more inconstant association with the pathogenesis of MS. Recent ...

  20. Sharing Economy as a Contributor to Sustainable Growth. An EU Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu; Ana-Cristina Bâlgăr

    2016-01-01

    The paper bases its analytical approach on two assumptions: the first refers to a significant change taking place in the contemporary world economy – the phenomenon of multipolarity – and proposes a new concept, that of multi-level manifestation of multipolarity; the second has in view the need of a new model of sustainable economic growth. In the context of these two points of view, the paper analyses the sharing economy as a potential significant contributor to sustainable economic growth. ...

  1. Sharing Economy as a Contributor to Sustainable Growth. An EU Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu; Ana-Cristina Bâlgăr

    2016-01-01

    The paper bases its analytical approach on two assumptions: the first refers to a significant change taking place in the contemporary world economy – the phenomenon of multipolarity – and proposes a new concept, that of multi-level manifestation of multipolarity; the second has in view the need of a new model of sustainable economic growth. In the context of these two points of view, the paper analyses the sharing economy as a potential significant contributor to sustainable economic growth. ...

  2. The Case for DUF1220 Domain Dosage as a Primary Contributor to Anthropoid Brain Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eKeeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the hypothesis that increasing copy number (dosage of sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains is a major contributor to the evolutionary increase in brain size, neuron number and cognitive capacity that is associated with the primate order. We further propose that this relationship is restricted to the anthropoid sub-order of primates, with DUF1220 copy number markedly increasing in monkeys, further in apes, and most extremely in humans where the greatest number of copies (~272 haploid copies is found. We show that this increase closely parallels the increase in brain size and neuron number that has occurred among anthropoid primate species. We also provide evidence linking DUF1220 copy number to brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly. While we believe these and other findings presented here strongly suggest increase in DUF1220 copy number is a key contributor to anthropoid brain expansion, the data currently available rely on correlative measures that, though considerable, do not yet provide direct evidence for a causal connection. Nevertheless, we believe the evidence presented is sufficient to provide the basis for a testable model which proposes that DUF1220 protein domain dosage increase is a main contributor to the increase in brain size and neuron number found among the anthropoid primate species and that is at its most extreme in human.

  3. Strong contributors to network persistence are the most vulnerable to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Stouffer, Daniel B; Uzzi, Brian; Bascompte, Jordi

    2011-09-14

    The architecture of mutualistic networks facilitates coexistence of individual participants by minimizing competition relative to facilitation. However, it is not known whether this benefit is received by each participant node in proportion to its overall contribution to network persistence. This issue is critical to understanding the trade-offs faced by individual nodes in a network. We address this question by applying a suite of structural and dynamic methods to an ensemble of flowering plant/insect pollinator networks. Here we report two main results. First, nodes contribute heterogeneously to the overall nested architecture of the network. From simulations, we confirm that the removal of a strong contributor tends to decrease overall network persistence more than the removal of a weak contributor. Second, strong contributors to collective persistence do not gain individual survival benefits but are in fact the nodes most vulnerable to extinction. We explore the generality of these results to other cooperative networks by analysing a 15-year time series of the interactions between designer and contractor firms in the New York City garment industry. As with the ecological networks, a firm's survival probability decreases as its individual nestedness contribution increases. Our results, therefore, introduce a new paradox into the study of the persistence of cooperative networks, and potentially address questions about the impact of invasive species in ecological systems and new competitors in economic systems.

  4. Taking Care of Our Own: A Multispecialty Study of Resident and Program Director Perspectives on Contributors to Burnout and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily G; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Putnam, Karen T; Penaskovic, Kenan M; Denniston, Clark R; Clark, Leslie H; Rubinow, David R; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-04-01

    Rates of resident physician burnout range from 60 to 76 % and are rising. Consequently, there is an urgent need for academic medical centers to develop system-wide initiatives to combat burnout in physicians. Academic psychiatrists who advocate for or treat residents should be familiar with the scope of the problem and the contributors to burnout and potential interventions to mitigate it. We aimed to measure burnout in residents across a range of specialties and to describe resident- and program director-identified contributors and interventions. Residents across all specialties at a tertiary academic hospital completed surveys to assess symptoms of burnout and depression using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Residents and program directors identified contributors to burnout and interventions that might mitigate its risk. Residents were asked to identify barriers to treatment. There were 307 residents (response rate of 61 %) who completed at least one question on the survey; however, all residents did not respond to all questions, resulting in varying denominators across survey questions. In total, 190 of 276 residents (69 %) met criteria for burnout and 45 of 263 (17 %) screened positive for depression. Program directors underestimated rates of burnout, with only one program director estimating a rate of 50 % or higher. Overall residents and program directors agreed that lack of work-life balance and feeling unappreciated were major contributors. Forty-two percent of residents reported that inability to take time off from work was a significant barrier to seeking help, and 25 % incorrectly believed that burnout is a reportable condition to the medical board. Resident distress is common and most likely due to work-life imbalance and feeling unappreciated. However, residents are reluctant to seek help. Interventions that address work-life balance and increase access to support are urgently needed in academic

  5. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  6. How Do Children Describe Spatial Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M. V.; Richardson, J. Ryder

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of children's production of locative prepositions in order to test H. Clark's hypotheses regarding the acquisition of spatial terms. Subjects were required to describe the spatial arrangement of two balls arranged in each of three spatial dimensions. (SED)

  7. Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Chen, Elizabeth J; Quisenberry, Thomas J; Ko, Kevin; Braverman, John M; Giarla, Thomas C; Mortimer, Nathan T; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Robic, Srebrenka; McCartha, Shannon R; Perry, Danielle R; Prescod, Lindsay M; Sheppard, Zenyth A; Saville, Ken J; McClish, Allison; Morlock, Emily A; Sochor, Victoria R; Stanton, Brittney; Veysey-White, Isaac C; Revie, Dennis; Jimenez, Luis A; Palomino, Jennifer J; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Himelblau, Edward T; Campbell, Jaclyn D; Hertz, Alexandra L; McEvilly, Maddison F; Wagner, Allison R; Youngblom, James; Bedi, Baljit; Bettincourt, Jeffery; Duso, Erin; Her, Maiye; Hilton, William; House, Samantha; Karimi, Masud; Kumimoto, Kevin; Lee, Rebekah; Lopez, Darryl; Odisho, George; Prasad, Ricky; Robbins, Holly Lyn; Sandhu, Tanveer; Selfridge, Tracy; Tsukashima, Kara; Yosif, Hani; Kokan, Nighat P; Britt, Latia; Zoellner, Alycia; Spana, Eric P; Chlebina, Ben T; Chong, Insun; Friedman, Harrison; Mammo, Danny A; Ng, Chun L; Nikam, Vinayak S; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Xu, Thomas Q; Burg, Martin G; Batten, Spencer M; Corbeill, Lindsay M; Enoch, Erica; Ensign, Jesse J; Franks, Mary E; Haiker, Breanna; Ingles, Judith A; Kirkland, Lyndsay D; Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Matthews, Jordan; Mittig, Cody M; Monsma, Nicholaus; Olson, Katherine J; Perez-Aragon, Guillermo; Ramic, Alen; Ramirez, Jordan R; Scheiber, Christopher; Schneider, Patrick A; Schultz, Devon E; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Wernette, Adam C; Wykle, Maxine E; Zavala-Arellano, Elizabeth; McDonald, Mitchell J; Ostby, Kristine; Wendland, Peter; DiAngelo, Justin R; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Cox, Amanda H; Docherty, James E B; Gingras, Robert M; Grieb, Stephanie M; Pavia, Michael J; Personius, Casey L; Polak, Grzegorz L; Beach, Dale L; Cerritos, Heaven L; Horansky, Edward A; Sharif, Karim A; Moran, Ryan; Parrish, Susan; Bickford, Kirsten; Bland, Jennifer; Broussard, Juliana; Campbell, Kerry; Deibel, Katelynn E; Forka, Richard; Lemke, Monika C; Nelson, Marlee B; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Ramey, S Mariel; Schmidt, Luke; Villegas, Paola; Jones, Christopher J; Christ, Stephanie L; Mamari, Sami; Rinaldi, Adam S; Stity, Ghazal; Hark, Amy T; Scheuerman, Mark; Silver Key, S Catherine; McRae, Briana D; Haberman, Adam S; Asinof, Sam; Carrington, Harriette; Drumm, Kelly; Embry, Terrance; McGuire, Richard; Miller-Foreman, Drew; Rosen, Stella; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Segal, Matt; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Skuse, Gary; Paetkau, Don W; Bridgman, Rachael K; Brown, Charlotte M; Carroll, Alicia R; Gifford, Francesca M; Gillespie, Julie Beth; Herman, Susan E; Holtcamp, Krystal L; Host, Misha A; Hussey, Gabrielle; Kramer, Danielle M; Lawrence, Joan Q; Martin, Madeline M; Niemiec, Ellen N; O'Reilly, Ashleigh P; Pahl, Olivia A; Quintana, Guadalupe; Rettie, Elizabeth A S; Richardson, Torie L; Rodriguez, Arianne E; Rodriguez, Mona O; Schiraldi, Laura; Smith, Joanna J; Sugrue, Kelsey F; Suriano, Lindsey J; Takach, Kaitlyn E; Vasquez, Arielle M; Velez, Ximena; Villafuerte, Elizabeth J; Vives, Laura T; Zellmer, Victoria R; Hauke, Jeanette; Hauser, Charles R; Barker, Karolyn; Cannon, Laurie; Parsamian, Perouza; Parsons, Samantha; Wichman, Zachariah; Bazinet, Christopher W; Johnson, Diana E; Bangura, Abubakarr; Black, Jordan A; Chevee, Victoria; Einsteen, Sarah A; Hilton, Sarah K; Kollmer, Max; Nadendla, Rahul; Stamm, Joyce; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gygi, Amber M; Ogawa, Emmy E; Van Camp, Matt; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Leatherman, Judith L; Modahl, Cassie M; Rubin, Michael R; Apiz-Saab, Susana S; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Carrion-Ortiz, Carlos F; Claudio-Vazquez, Patricia N; Espada-Green, Debbie M; Feliciano-Camacho, Marium; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Karina M; Taboas-Arroyo, Mariela; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Montañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera-Burgos, Myrielis; Rivera-Rosario, Francisco J; Eisler, Heather L; Alexander, Jackie; Begley, Samatha K; Gabbard, Deana; Allen, Robert J; Aung, Wint Yan; Barshop, William D; Boozalis, Amanda; Chu, Vanessa P; Davis, Jeremy S; Duggal, Ryan N; Franklin, Robert; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Gong, Henry Z; Greenstein, Rachel A; Guo, Averill D; Hanson, Casey; Homa, Kaitlin E; Hsu, Simon C; Huang, Yi; Huo, Lucy; Jacobs, Sarah; Jia, Sasha; Jung, Kyle L; Wai-Chee Kong, Sarah; Kroll, Matthew R; Lee, Brandon M; Lee, Paul F; Levine, Kevin M; Li, Amy S; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Max Mian; Lousararian, Adam P; Lowery, Peter B; Mallya, Allyson P; Marcus, Joseph E; Ng, Patrick C; Nguyen, Hien P; Patel, Ruchik; Precht, Hashini; Rastogi, Suchita

    2017-08-07

    The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5' ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains. Copyright © 2017 Leung et al.

  8. Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Leung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb in D. ananassae. To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%, while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%. Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias, but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae. Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5′ ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2, while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains.

  9. Evaluating forensic DNA mixtures with contributors of different structured ethnic origins: a computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Qing; Fung, Wing K

    2003-08-01

    The effect of a structured population on the likelihood ratio of a DNA mixture has been studied by the current authors and others. In practice, contributors of a DNA mixture may belong to different ethnic/racial origins, a situation especially common in multi-racial countries such as the USA and Singapore. We have developed a computer software which is available on the web for evaluating DNA mixtures in multi-structured populations. The software can deal with various DNA mixture problems that cannot be handled by the methods given in a recent article of Fung and Hu.

  10. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  11. describing a collaborative clothing design process between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 43, 2015. Designing success: describing a ... PROCESS BETWEEN APPRENTICE DESIGNERS AND EXPERT DESIGN ...... decision-making. Thinking Skills and ...

  12. CosmoQuest: Building a Community of Skilled Citizen Science Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P.; Lehan, C.; Bracey, G.; Durrell, P.; Komatsu, T.; Yamani, A.; Francis, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility invites the public to participate in NASA Science Mission Directorate related research that leads to publishable results and data catalogues. CosmoQuest projects range in difficulty from simple crater and transient marking tasks to more complicated mapping tasks. To successfully engage contributors in creating usable results, training and validation are required. This is accomplished through activities that are designed to mirror the experiences students would have in a university, and include mentoring by team scientists, feedback on contributor efforts, seminars to learn about new science, and even formal classes to provide needed background. Recruitment is accomplished using new and social media, and planetarium and Science on the Sphere™ trailers and shows, and community is built through online and real-world collaboration spaces and events. In this presentation, we detail CosmoQuest's four-pronged approach of media recruitment, science education, citizen science, and community collaboration. We also discuss how it is leveraged to create a skilled collaboration of citizen scientists. Training and data validation activities will be be emphasized, with examples of both what can go right and lessons learned from when things go wrong. We conclude with strategies on how to utilize best practices in user interface design to create virtual experiences that allow major citizen science efforts to be scalable to large audiences.

  13. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time.

  14. Psychometric properties of a MOVE!23 subscale: Perceived Contributors to Weight Change in a national sample of veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Buta, Eugenia; Dorflinger, Lindsey; Heapy, Alicia A; Ruser, Christopher B; Goulet, Joseph L; Masheb, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    The MOVE!23, a questionnaire to assess weight-related domains in veterans, was examined. Factor analysis of Perceived Contributors to Weight Change revealed three factors (psychosocial, eating behavior, and medical) that were positively correlated with body mass index, and psychiatric and medical comorbidity (p's MOVE!23 Perceived Contributors to Weight Change subscale is a reliable and valid measure that is associated with body mass index and may assist in tailoring treatments according to gender and comorbidity.

  15. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  16. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo

  17. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo

  18. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  19. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  20. A Dualistic Model To Describe Computer Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitezki, Peter; Engel, Michael

    1985-07-01

    The Dualistic Model for Computer Architecture Description uses a hierarchy of abstraction levels to describe a computer in arbitrary steps of refinement from the top of the user interface to the bottom of the gate level. In our Dualistic Model the description of an architecture may be divided into two major parts called "Concept" and "Realization". The Concept of an architecture on each level of the hierarchy is an Abstract Data Type that describes the functionality of the computer and an implementation of that data type relative to the data type of the next lower level of abstraction. The Realization on each level comprises a language describing the means of user interaction with the machine, and a processor interpreting this language in terms of the language of the lower level. The surface of each hierarchical level, the data type and the language express the behaviour of a ma-chine at this level, whereas the implementation and the processor describe the structure of the algorithms and the system. In this model the Principle of Operation maps the object and computational structure of the Concept onto the structures of the Realization. Describing a system in terms of the Dualistic Model is therefore a process of refinement starting at a mere description of behaviour and ending at a description of structure. This model has proven to be a very valuable tool in exploiting the parallelism in a problem and it is very transparent in discovering the points where par-allelism is lost in a special architecture. It has successfully been used in a project on a survey of Computer Architecture for Image Processing and Pattern Analysis in Germany.

  1. Reduced motor neuron excitability is an important contributor to weakness in a rat model of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Paul; Vincent, Jacob A; Powers, Randall; Cope, Tim C; Rich, Mark M

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms by which sepsis triggers intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) remain unclear. We previously identified difficulty with motor unit recruitment in patients as a novel contributor to ICUAW. To study the mechanism underlying poor recruitment of motor units we used the rat cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis. We identified striking dysfunction of alpha motor neurons during repetitive firing. Firing was more erratic, and often intermittent. Our data raised the possibility that reduced excitability of motor neurons was a significant contributor to weakness induced by sepsis. In this study we quantified the contribution of reduced motor neuron excitability and compared its magnitude to the contributions of myopathy, neuropathy and failure of neuromuscular transmission. We injected constant depolarizing current pulses (5s) into the soma of alpha motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anesthetized rats to trigger repetitive firing. In response to constant depolarization, motor neurons in untreated control rats fired at steady and continuous firing rates and generated smooth and sustained tetanic motor unit force as expected. In contrast, following induction of sepsis, motor neurons were often unable to sustain firing throughout the 5s current injection such that force production was reduced. Even when firing, motor neurons from septic rats fired erratically and discontinuously, leading to irregular production of motor unit force. Both fast and slow type motor neurons had similar disruption of excitability. We followed rats after recovery from sepsis to determine the time course of resolution of the defect in motor neuron excitability. By one week, rats appeared to have recovered from sepsis as they had no piloerection and appeared to be in no distress. The defects in motor neuron repetitive firing were still striking at 2weeks and, although improved, were present at one month. We infer that rats suffered from weakness due to reduced

  2. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  3. Frameworks for understanding and describing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models ...... Maps (2001) • Intellectual Capital Statements (2003) • Chesbrough’s framework for Open Business Models (2006) • Business Model Canvas (2008)......This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models...... and in this manner “complement” each other. There are a multitude of varying frameworks that could be chosen from and we urge the reader to search and trial these for themselves. The six chosen models (year of release in parenthesis) are: • Service-Profit Chain (1994) • Strategic Systems Auditing (1997) • Strategy...

  4. Describing Spirituality at the End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M

    2015-09-01

    Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value.

  5. Nurse managers describe their practice environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Lake, Sharon W; Brandford, Arica

    2013-01-01

    Hospital work environments that support the professional practice of nurses are critical to patient safety. Nurse managers are responsible for creating these professional practice environments for staff nurses, yet little is known about the environments needed to support nurse managers. Domains of nurse managers' practice environment have recently been defined. This is a secondary analysis of 2 cross-sectional studies of organizational characteristics that influence nurse manager practice. Content analysis of the free text comments from 127 nurse managers was used to illustrate the 8 domains of nurse managers' practice environments. Nurse managers valued time spent with their staff; therefore, workloads must permit meaningful interaction. Directors demonstrated trust when they empowered nurse managers to make decisions. Administrative leaders should build patient safety cultures on the basis of shared accountability and mutual respect among the health care team. The expectations of nurse managers have greatly expanded in the volume and complexity of direct reports, patient care areas, and job functions. The nurse managers in this analysis reported characteristics of their practice environments that limit their role effectiveness and may negatively impact organizational performance. Further research is needed to understand the effects of nurse managers' practice environments on staff and patient outcomes.

  6. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence-based evaluations and intervention programs to decrease the risk of injury in baseball players.

  7. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer.

  8. Lightning-triggered electroporation and electrofusion as possible contributors to natural HGT among prokaryotes

    CERN Document Server

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies show that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a significant contributor to genetic variability of prokaryotes, and was perhaps even more abundant during early evolution. Hitherto, research of natural HGT has mainly focused on three mechanisms: conjugation, natural competence, and viral transduction. This paper discusses the feasibility of a fourth such mechanism - cell electroporation and/or electrofusion triggered by atmospheric electrostatic discharges (lightnings). A description of electroporation as a phenomenon is followed by a review of experimental evidence that electroporation of prokaryotes in aqueous environments can result in release of non-denatured DNA, as well as uptake of DNA from the surroundings and transformation. Similarly, a description of electrofusion is followed by a review of experiments showing that prokaryotes devoid of cell wall can electrofuse into hybrids expressing the genes of their both precursors. Under sufficiently fine-tuned conditions, electroporation and...

  9. Beyond fast food and slow motion: weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, G; Rother, K I

    2012-02-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of "junk" food, dubbed "The Big Two", are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold.

  10. LEGAL STATUS OF FIRMS – MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO ROMANIAN PUBLIC BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TOFAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public expenditure and collection of public resources generate interactions among different subjects of law, natural and legal persons, subjects of public law and private law. These interactions are the main object of the financial regulation, both at domestic and EU level. The legal relations are part of social relations and the companies legally formed are subject to the execution of the financial and fiscal liabilities, which is ensured by the state authority. Financial legal relations are distinguished from other legal relationships by the specific connection that occurs between the contributors and the state authority representative. The subjects involved and the position they have towards each other is subject to regulatory act and, if needed, court of law determination and control. In legal theory, the time of crises determine deep mutation in the legislation in force and the papers shows some of these changes and conclude on some aspects to be improved.

  11. Beyond fast food and slow motion: Weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, G.; Rother, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of “junk” food, dubbed “The Big Two”, are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold. PMID:22183119

  12. Sharing Economy as a Contributor to Sustainable Growth. An EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper bases its analytical approach on two assumptions: the first refers to a significant change taking place in the contemporary world economy – the phenomenon of multipolarity – and proposes a new concept, that of multi-level manifestation of multipolarity; the second has in view the need of a new model of sustainable economic growth. In the context of these two points of view, the paper analyses the sharing economy as a potential significant contributor to sustainable economic growth. The conclusion of this research is that sharing economy has a huge potential of involving millions or even billions of participants and of capitalizing the existing assets while providing spill over effects in the economy. The authors expect sharing economy to become a form of economic activity that will complement traditional forms of business while generating positive economic, social and environmental effects.

  13. On Gaussian Beams Described by Jacobi's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Steven Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gaussian beams describe the amplitude and phase of rays and are widely used to model acoustic propagation. This paper describes four new results in the theory of Gaussian beams. (1) It is shown that the \\v{C}erven\\'y equations for the amplitude and phase are equivalent to the classical Jacobi Equation of differential geometry. The \\v{C}erven\\'y equations describe Gaussian beams using Hamilton-Jacobi theory, whereas the Jacobi Equation expresses how Gaussian and Riemannian curvature determine geodesic flow on a Riemannian manifold. Thus the paper makes a fundamental connection between Gaussian beams and an acoustic channel's so-called intrinsic Gaussian curvature from differential geometry. (2) A new formula $\\pi(c/c")^{1/2}$ for the distance between convergence zones is derived and applied to several well-known profiles. (3) A class of "model spaces" are introduced that connect the acoustics of ducting/divergence zones with the channel's Gaussian curvature $K=cc"-(c')^2$. The "model" SSPs yield constant Gauss...

  14. Lightning-triggered electroporation and electrofusion as possible contributors to natural horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-09-01

    Phylogenetic studies show that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a significant contributor to genetic variability of prokaryotes, and was perhaps even more abundant during the early evolution. Hitherto, research of natural HGT has mainly focused on three mechanisms of DNA transfer: conjugation, natural competence, and viral transduction. This paper discusses the feasibility of a fourth such mechanism--cell electroporation and/or electrofusion triggered by atmospheric electrostatic discharges (lightnings). A description of electroporation as a phenomenon is followed by a review of experimental evidence that electroporation of prokaryotes in aqueous environments can result in release of non-denatured DNA, as well as uptake of DNA from the surroundings and transformation. Similarly, a description of electrofusion is followed by a review of experiments showing that prokaryotes devoid of cell wall can electrofuse into hybrids expressing the genes of their both precursors. Under sufficiently fine-tuned conditions, electroporation and electrofusion are efficient tools for artificial transformation and hybridization, respectively, but the quantitative analysis developed here shows that conditions for electroporation-based DNA release, DNA uptake and transformation, as well as for electrofusion are also present in many natural aqueous environments exposed to lightnings. Electroporation is thus a plausible contributor to natural HGT among prokaryotes, and could have been particularly important during the early evolution, when the other mechanisms might have been scarcer or nonexistent. In modern prokaryotes, natural absence of the cell wall is rare, but it is reasonable to assume that the wall has formed during a certain stage of evolution, and at least prior to this, electrofusion could also have contributed to natural HGT. The concluding section outlines several guidelines for assessment of the feasibility of lightning-triggered HGT.

  15. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R

    2013-01-01

    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  16. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  17. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  18. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  19. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  20. Does Guru Granth Sahib describe depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Sikhism is a relatively young religion, with Guru Granth Sahib as its key religious text. This text describes emotions in everyday life, such as happiness, sadness, anger, hatred, and also more serious mental health issues such as depression and psychosis. There are references to the causation of these emotional disturbances and also ways to get out of them. We studied both the Gurumukhi version and the English translation of the Guru Granth Sahib to understand what it had to say about depression, its henomenology, and religious prescriptions for recovery. We discuss these descriptions in this paper and understand its meaning within the context of clinical depression. Such knowledge is important as explicit descriptions about depression and sadness can help encourage culturally appropriate assessment and treatment, as well as promote public health through education.

  1. Using default inheritance to describe LTAG

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, R; Weir, D; Evans, Roger; Gazdar, Gerald; Weir, David

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation into how the set of elementary trees of a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar can be represented in the lexical knowledge representation language DATR (Evans & Gazdar 1989a,b). The LTAG under consideration is based on the one described in Abeille et al. (1990). Our approach is similar to that of Vijay-Shanker & Schabes (1992) in that we formulate an inheritance hierarchy that efficiently encodes the elementary trees. However, rather than creating a new representation formalism for this task, we employ techniques of established utility in other lexically-oriented frameworks. In particular, we show how DATR's default mechanism can be used to eliminate the need for a non-immediate dominance relation in the descriptions of the surface LTAG entries. This allows us to embed the tree structures in the feature theory in a manner reminiscent of HPSG subcategorisation frames, and hence express lexical rules as relations over feature structures.

  2. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  3. Five-step authorship framework to improve transparency in disclosing contributors to industry-sponsored clinical trial publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Hren, Darko; Mansi, Bernadette; Lineberry, Neil; Bhattacharya, Ananya; Garrity, Maureen; Clark, Juli; Gesell, Thomas; Glasser, Susan; Gonzalez, John; Hustad, Carolyn; Lannon, Mary-Margaret; Mooney, LaVerne A; Peña, Teresa

    2014-10-24

    Authorship guidelines have established criteria to guide author selection based on significance of contribution and helped to define associated responsibilities and accountabilities for the published findings. However, low awareness, variable interpretation, and inconsistent application of these guidelines can lead to confusion and a lack of transparency when recognizing those who merit authorship. This article describes a research project led by the Medical Publishing Insights and Practices (MPIP) Initiative to identify current challenges when determining authorship for industry-sponsored clinical trials and develop an improved approach to facilitate decision-making when recognizing authors from related publications. A total of 498 clinical investigators, journal editors, publication professionals and medical writers were surveyed to understand better how they would adjudicate challenging, real-world authorship case scenarios, determine the perceived frequency of each scenario and rate their confidence in the responses provided. Multiple rounds of discussions about these results with journal editors, clinical investigators and industry representatives led to the development of key recommendations intended to enhance transparency when determining authorship. These included forming a representative group to establish authorship criteria early in a trial, having all trial contributors agree to these criteria and documenting trial contributions to objectively determine who warrants an invitation to participate in the manuscript development process. The resulting Five-step Authorship Framework is designed to create a more standardized approach when determining authorship for clinical trial publications. Overall, these recommendations aim to facilitate more transparent authorship decisions and help readers better assess the credibility of results and perspectives of the authors for medical research more broadly. Please see related article: http

  4. Describing and Enhancing Collaboration at the Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Beatty

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning materials differ from classroom practice in that they seldom explicitly offer opportunities for collaboration. Despite this, students do collaborate, helping one another through the content and affordances of computer materials. But, in doing so, students meet with challenges. Paradoxically, these challenges can either inspire or discourage learning and second-language acquisition. This paper, based on research with twenty Hong Kong university students in a controlled experiment, evaluates challenges to collaboration at the computer as evidenced by discourse. The students were videotaped and their discourse transcribed and evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively, according to a set of discourse markers created to describe collaborative, non-collaborative and ambiguous strategies. The paper begins by exploring the differences between collaboration and similar terms such as teamwork and cooperative learning then goes on to define collaboration in the context of computer-assisted learning. It ends by presenting practical suggestions for software designers, teachers and students to enhance collaboration at the computer.

  5. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  6. Can the genetic code be mathematically described?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Diego L

    2004-04-01

    From a mathematical point of view, the genetic code is a surjective mapping between the set of the 64 possible three-base codons and the set of 21 elements composed of the 20 amino acids plus the Stop signal. Redundancy and degeneracy therefore follow. In analogy with the genetic code, non-power integer-number representations are also surjective mappings between sets of different cardinality and, as such, also redundant. However, none of the non-power arithmetics studied so far nor other alternative redundant representations are able to match the actual degeneracy of the genetic code. In this paper we develop a slightly more general framework that leads to the following surprising results: i) the degeneracy of the genetic code is mathematically described, ii) a new symmetry is uncovered within this degeneracy, iii) by assigning a binary string to each of the codons, their classification into definite parity classes according to the corresponding sequence of bases is made possible. This last result is particularly appealing in connection with the fact that parity coding is the basis of the simplest strategies devised for error correction in man-made digital data transmission systems.

  7. The Rise and Fall of a Central Contributor: Dynamics of Social Organization and Performance in the Gentoo Community

    CERN Document Server

    Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Social organization and division of labor crucially influence the performance of collaborative software engineering efforts. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the relation between social organization and performance in Gentoo, an Open Source community developing a Linux distribution. We study the structure and dynamics of collaborations as recorded in the project's bug tracking system over a period of ten years. We identify a period of increasing centralization after which most interactions in the community were mediated by a single central contributor. In this period of maximum centralization, the central contributor unexpectedly left the project, thus posing a significant challenge for the community. We quantify how the rise, the activity as well as the subsequent sudden dropout of this central contributor affected both the social organization and the bug handling performance of the Gentoo community. We analyze social organization from the perspective of network theory and augment our qua...

  8. Handbook of the Economics of Education. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A., Ed.; Machin, Stephen J., Ed.; Woessmann, Ludger, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    How does education affect economic and social outcomes, and how can it inform public policy? Volume 3 of the Handbooks in the Economics of Education uses newly available high quality data from around the world to address these and other core questions. With the help of new methodological approaches, contributors cover econometric methods and…

  9. Scale Up in Education. Volume 1: Ideas in Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara Ed.; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Scale Up in Education, Volume 1: Ideas in Principle" examines the challenges of "scaling up" from a multidisciplinary perspective. It brings together contributions from disciplines that routinely take promising innovations to scale, including medicine, business, engineering, computing, and education. Together the contributors explore appropriate…

  10. Dietary contributors to glycemic load in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and selected cancers. We sought to identify the main food and food group contributors to dietary GL in a representative sample of US adults to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a longitudinal cohort of 30,239 community-dwelling black and white women and men age ≥45 years across the US. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of each carbohydrate food, and its glycemic index, were used to calculate GL values for each carbohydrate food reported. These were totaled to estimate the mean total daily GL for each participant. Individual carbohydrate foods also were collapsed into 18 carbohydrate food groups, and the portion of the total GL contributed by each carbohydrate food and food group was determined. Analyses were conducted overall, by race/sex groups, and by region. Results Sweetened beverages were the main contributors to GL overall (12.14 median % of daily GL), by far the largest contributors in black men (17.79 median %) and black women (16.43 median %), and major contributors in white men (12.02 median %) and white women (11.22 median %). Other important contributors to GL overall and in all race/sex groups and regions included breads, starchy side dishes, and cereals. Conclusions In this US cohort of white and black adults, sweetened beverages were major contributors to GL overall, and especially in black participants. This information may help to inform future interventions targeting reduction in dietary GL. PMID:25837217

  11. The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Passmore, Anne; Parsons, Richard; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds) of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4%) of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%), and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4%) such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  12. Anticholinergic medications: an additional contributor to cognitive impairment in the heart failure population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaukat, Arslan; Habib, Amir; Lane, Kathleen A; Shen, Changyu; Khan, Saba; Hellman, Yaron M; Boustani, Malaz; Malik, Adnan S

    2014-10-01

    Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment and the association is multifactorial. In general, the burden of anticholinergic drugs has consistently been shown to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive burden of medications in patients with CHF. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective, single-center study. The study was conducted in an outpatient setting. Patients who presented to a comprehensive heart failure clinic during a 1-month period were included. The primary outcomes of interest were mean anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) score of all medications and CHF medications (ACB-CHF), calculated based on the ACB Scoring Scale (ACB-SS). The ACB-CHF score was further dichotomized as 0 or 1 (low anticholinergic burden) versus 2 or 3 (high anticholinergic burden). A total of 182 patients were included. The mean ACB and ACB-CHF scores were 2.4 (range 0-13) and 1.0 (range 0-4), respectively, while 25.8 % of patients had an ACB-CHF score of 2 or 3. There was no association found between ejection fraction in patients with systolic heart failure and the ACB (p = 0.28) or ACB-CHF (p = 0.62) score. We conclude that patients with CHF have a substantial exposure to anticholinergic medications with adverse cognitive effects. This may be another important contributor to the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment in these patients.

  13. Identifying the most likely contributors to a Y-STR mixture using the discrete Laplace method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2015-01-01

    In some crime cases, the male part of the DNA in a stain can only be analysed using Y chromosomal markers, e.g. Y-STRs. This may be the case in e.g. rape cases, where the male components can only be detected as Y-STR profiles, because the fraction of male DNA is much smaller than that of female DNA...... demonstrate how the discrete Laplace method can be used to separate a two person Y-STR mixture, where the Y-STR profiles of the true contributors are not present in the reference dataset, which is often the case for Y-STR profiles in real case work. We also briefly discuss how to calculate the weight...... of the evidence using the likelihood ratio principle when a suspect's Y-STR profile fits into a two person mixture. We used three datasets with between 7 and 21 Y-STR loci: Denmark (n=181), Somalia (n=201) and Germany (n=3443). The Danish dataset with 21 loci was truncated to 15 and 10 loci to examine the effect...

  14. Cardiorenal syndrome: pathophysiological mechanism, preclinical models, novel contributors and potential therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Qiang; Cao Longxing; Li Huang; Wang Binghui; Li Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the current knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms,preclinical models,novel contributors and potential therapies of cardiorenal syndrome.Data sources The literature concerning cardioranal syndrome in this review was collected from PubMed published in English up to January 2014.Study selection Original articles and critical reviews related to cardiorenal syndrome were selected and carefully analyzed.Results Cardiorenal syndrome is a condition characterized by kidney and heart failure where failure of one organ worsens the function of the other thus further accelerating the progressive failure of both organs.The pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome is not fully understood,but may be caused by a complex combination of neurohormonal system activation,endothelial dysfunction,proteinuria,oxidative stress,uremic toxins and other factors.Managing cardiorenal syndrome is still a major therapeutic challenge in clinical practice because many of the drugs used to control heart failure can worsen renal function,and vice versa.Non-dialyzable uremic toxins,such as indoxyl sulfate,causing detrimental effects on the heart and kidney as well as stimulation of inflammatory responses,may be an effective therapeutic target for cardiorenal syndrome.Conclusions Suitable disease models of cardiorenal syndrome are urgently needed to investigate the pathophysiology and effective therapeutic approaches to the condition.Non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins that may have cardiac and renal effects may provide therapeutic benefit to cardiorenal syndrome patients.

  15. Periodontal disease and subgingival microbiota as contributors for rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis: modifiable risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jose U; Bretz, Walter A; Abramson, Steven B

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the individuals. Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention toward understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared with those of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of progressive disease treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing toward changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis.

  16. Periodontal Disease and Subgingival Microbiota as Contributors for RA Pathogenesis: Modifiable Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jose U.; Bretz, Walter A.; Abramson, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e., Porphyromonas ginigivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the subject. Recent findings Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention towards understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both RA patients and subjects at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared to that of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of PD treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. Summary Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing towards changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis. PMID:24807405

  17. Association of NOS3 gene variants and clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmanić Šamija, R. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Primorac, D. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Osijek, Osijek (Croatia); Eberly College of Science, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); St. Catherine Speciality Hospital, Zabok (Croatia); Rešić, B. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Pavlov, V. [Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Čapkun, V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Punda, H. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Lozić, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Zemunik, T. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.

  18. Association of NOS3 gene variants and clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanić Šamija, R; Primorac, D; Rešić, B; Pavlov, V; Čapkun, V; Punda, H; Lozić, B; Zemunik, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.

  19. Association of NOS3 gene variants and clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzmani? ?amija

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.

  20. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present withi...

  1. Amateur or Professional: Assessing the Expertise of Major Contributors in OpenStreetMap Based on Contributing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anran Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM, provide an alternative way to produce geographic data. Research has proven that the resulting data in some areas are of decent quality, which guarantees their usability in various applications. Though these achievements are normally attributed to the huge heterogeneous community mainly consisting of amateurs, it is in fact a small percentage of major contributors who make nearly all contributions. In this paper, we investigate the contributing behaviors of these contributors to deduce whether they are actually professionals. Various indicators are used to depict the behaviors on three themes: practice, skill and motivation, aiming to identify solid evidence for expertise. Our case studies show that most major contributors in Germany, France and the United Kingdom are hardly amateurs, but are professionals instead. These contributors have rich experiences on geographical data editing, have a decent grasp of professional software and work on the project with enthusiasm and concentration. It is less unexpected that they can create geographic data of high quality.

  2. The Role of Comets as Possible Contributors of Water and Prebiotic Organics to Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Charnley, S. B.

    2011-01-01

    The question of exogenous delivery of organics and water to Earth and other young planets is of critical importance for understanding the origin of Earth's water, and for assessing the prospects for existence of Earth-like exo-planets. Viewed from a cosmic perspective, Earth is a dry planet yet its oceans are enriched in deuterium by a large factor relative to nebular hydrogen. Can comets have delivered Earth's water? The deuterium content of comets is key to ,assessing their role as contributors of water to Earth. Icy bodies today reside in two distinct reservoirs, the Oort Cloud and the Kuiper Disk (divided into the classical disk, the scattered disk, and the detached or extended disk populations). Orbital parameters can indicate the cosmic storage reservoir for a given comet. Knowledge of the diversity of comets within a reservoir assists in assessing their possible contribution to early Earth, but requires quantitative knowledge of their components - dust and ice. Strong gradients in temperature and chemistry in the proto-planetary disk, coupled with dynamical dispersion of an outer disk of icy planetesimals, imply that comets from KD and OC reservoirs should have diverse composition. The primary volatiles (native to the nucleus) provide the preferred metric for building a taxonomy for comets, and the number of comets so quantified is growing rapidly. Taxonomies based on native species (primary volatiles) are now beginning to emerge [1, 2, 3]. The measurement of cosmic parameters such as the nuclear spin temperatures for H2O, NH3 and CH4, and of enrichment factors for isotopologues (D/H in water and hydrogen cyanide, N-14/N-15 in CN and hydrogen cyanide) provide additional tests of the origin of cometary material. I will provide an overview of these aspects, and implications for the origin of Earth's water and prebiotic organics.

  3. Contributors to ozone episodes in three US/Mexico border twin-cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chune; Fernando, H J S; Yang, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The Process Analysis tools of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system together with back-trajectory analysis were used to assess potential contributors to ozone episodes that occurred during June 1-4, 2006, in three populated U.S.-Mexico border twin cities: San Diego/Tijuana, Imperial/Mexicali and El Paso/Ciudad Juárez. Validation of CMAQ output against surface ozone measurements indicates that the predictions are acceptable with regard to commonly recommended statistical standards and comparable to other reported studies. The mean normalized bias test (MNBT) and mean normalized gross error (MNGE) for hourly ozone fall well within the US EPA suggested range of +/-15% and 35%, respectively, except MNBT for El Paso. The MNBTs for maximum 8-h average ozone are larger than those for hourly ozone, but all the simulated maximum 8-h average ozone are within a factor of 2 of those measured in all three regions. The process and back-trajectory analyses indicate that the main sources of daytime ground-level ozone are the local photochemical production and regional transport. By integrating the effects of each process over the depth of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is found that in the San Diego area (SD), chemistry and vertical advection contributed about 36%/48% and 64%/52% for June 2 and 3, respectively. This confirms the previous finding that high-altitude regional transport followed by fumigation contributes significantly to ozone in SD. The back-trajectory analysis shows that this ozone was mostly transported from the coastal area of southern California. For the episodes in Imperial Valley and El Paso, respectively, ozone was transported from the coastal areas of southern California and Mexico and from northern Texas and Oklahoma.

  4. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd; Casey E. Shutt; Sakiko Oyama; J. Troy Blackburn; Joseph B. Myers

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a risk factor for shoulder and elbow injury in baseball players. Although this evidence forms a basis for recommending stretching, clinical measures of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) do not differentiate if GIRD is due to muscular, capsuloligamentous, or osseous factors. Understanding the contributions of these structures to GIRD is important for the development of targeted interventions. We hypothesize that the osseous component will have the greatest relative contribution to GIRD, followed by muscle stiffness and posterior capsule thickness. Methods:Internal rotation ROM, muscle stiffness (teres minor, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid), posterior capsule thickness, and humeral retrotorsion were evaluated on 156 baseball players. A side-to-side difference was calculated for each variable. Variables were entered into a multivariable linear regression to determine the significant predictors of GIRD. Results:The regression model was statistically significant (R2=0.134, F(1, 156)=24.0, p<0.01) with only humeral retrotorsion difference remaining as a significant predictor (β=-0.243, t156=-4.9, p<0.01). A greater humeral retrotorsion side-to-side difference was associated with more GIRD. Conclusion:Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3%of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence

  5. Physio-behavioral coupling in a cooperative team task: contributors and relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Adam J; Funke, Gregory J; Russell, Sheldon M; Dukes, Allen W; Middendorf, Matthew S

    2014-02-01

    Research indicates that coactors performing cooperative tasks often exhibit spontaneous and unintended similarities in their physiological and behavioral responses--a phenomenon referred to here as physio-behavioral coupling (PBC). The purpose of this research was to identify contributors to PBC; examine relationships between PBC, team performance, and perceived team attributes (e.g., cohesion, trust); and compare a set of time-series measures(cross-correlation [CC], cross-recurrence quantification analysis [CRQA], and cross-fuzzy entropy [CFEn]) in their characterization of PBC across comparisons. To accomplish this, PBC was examined in human postural sway (PS) and cardiac interbeat intervals (IBIs) from dyadic teams performing a fast-paced puzzle task (Quadra--a variant of the video game Tetris). Results indicated that observed levels of PBC were not a chance occurrence, but instead driven by features of the team-task environment, and that PBC was likely influenced by similar individual task demands and interpersonal coordination dynamics that were not "unique" to a particular team. Correlation analysis revealed that PBC exhibited negative relationships with team performance and team attributes, which were interpreted to reflect complementary coordination (as opposed to mimicry) during task performance, potentially due to differentiated team roles. Finally, qualitative comparison of time-series measures used to characterize PBC indicated that CRQA percent recurrence and CFEn (both nonlinear measures) settled on mostly analogous characterizations, whereas linear CC did not. The disparity observed between the linear and nonlinear measures highlights underlying computational and interpretational differences between the two families of statistics and supports the use of multiple metrics for characterizing PBC.

  6. Adipose Tissue Dendritic Cells Are Independent Contributors to Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kae Won; Zamarron, Brian F; Muir, Lindsey A; Singer, Kanakadurga; Porsche, Cara E; DelProposto, Jennifer B; Geletka, Lynn; Meyer, Kevin A; O'Rourke, Robert W; Lumeng, Carey N

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic changes of adipose tissue leukocytes, including adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) and adipose tissue dendritic cells (ATDCs), contribute to obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic disease. However, clear discrimination between ATDC and ATM in adipose tissue has limited progress in the field of immunometabolism. In this study, we use CD64 to distinguish ATM and ATDC, and investigated the temporal and functional changes in these myeloid populations during obesity. Flow cytometry and immunostaining demonstrated that the definition of ATM as F4/80(+)CD11b(+) cells overlaps with other leukocytes and that CD45(+)CD64(+) is specific for ATM. The expression of core dendritic cell genes was enriched in CD11c(+)CD64(-) cells (ATDC), whereas core macrophage genes were enriched in CD45(+)CD64(+) cells (ATM). CD11c(+)CD64(-) ATDCs expressed MHC class II and costimulatory receptors, and had similar capacity to stimulate CD4(+) T cell proliferation as ATMs. ATDCs were predominantly CD11b(+) conventional dendritic cells and made up the bulk of CD11c(+) cells in adipose tissue with moderate high-fat diet exposure. Mixed chimeric experiments with Ccr2(-/-) mice demonstrated that high-fat diet-induced ATM accumulation from monocytes was dependent on CCR2, whereas ATDC accumulation was less CCR2 dependent. ATDC accumulation during obesity was attenuated in Ccr7(-/-) mice and was associated with decreased adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. CD45(+)CD64(+) ATM and CD45(+)CD64(-)CD11c(+) ATDCs were identified in human obese adipose tissue and ATDCs were increased in s.c. adipose tissue compared with omental adipose tissue. These results support a revised strategy for unambiguous delineation of ATM and ATDC, and suggest that ATDCs are independent contributors to adipose tissue inflammation during obesity. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Investigating Mass Loading Contributors of Seasonal Oscillations in GPS Observations Using Wavelet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang

    2016-08-01

    We adopt the cross wavelet transform (XWT) to examine the potential geophysical contributors of seasonal oscillations in GPS observations. Daily vertical GPS position time series and mass loadings [atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrological loading (AOH)] of 30 globally distributed GPS sites, spanning from January 2002 to December 2014, are used to quantify the performance. First, we examine the spectra of GPS time series and AOH. The results confirm the anomalous sub-seasonal peaks in GPS spectra are seen to have not an obvious geophysical explanation. The Akaike information criteria is then used to quantify how well the noise models fit the two series. The Generalized Gauss Markov plus white noise (GGM + WH) model is in most cases the preferred noise model for GPS, and the fifth order autoregressive plus white noise (AR(5) + WH) model is the preferred noise model for AOH. Second, we test the significance of periodic oscillations in GPS residuals and AOH. We find both series have significantly high power located near one cycle per year frequency band, whereas harmonic signals at higher draconitic frequency are identified as non-white process. Finally, we adopt XWT to examine the relative phasing between the two series, and find the annual variations in two series are physically related for most sites. The time variable phase asynchrony obtained using the XWT-based semblance analysis confirms that the annual variations in GPS observations are resulting from a combination of geophysical signals and systematic errors. The weighted least squares fitting method where the covariance matrix follows a specific stochastic noise model is also performed for comparison.

  8. Wintertime Cloud Cover as a Contributor towards Inter-Annual Sea Ice Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letterly, A.; Key, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The role of cloud forcing on Arctic sea ice is fundamental but also complex, serving as an accelerant or antagonist to ice growth on a hemispheric scale. Though sea ice decline in recent decades is largely attributed to arctic amplification, plunges in ice extent and restorative winter refreezes occurring on a year-to-year basis cannot be adequately explained by this general trend. For improved understanding and prediction of these inter-annual fluctuations in ice area, cloud forcing effects on surface energy budgets must be seen as an important factor for ice growth and melt. For example, the significant rebound of arctic sea ice from the record minimum of September 2012 was aided by the surface cooling effects of negative winter cloud cover anomalies (fewer clouds), according to a recent study using satellite and reanalysis data. For this study, the ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to diagnose and quantify the contribution of surface radiative forcing by wintertime cloud cover on sea ice during years with anomalous total ice areas. Comparisons between reanalysis of cloud forcing from September through March and passive microwave-derived ice concentrations in September demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between cloud cover during winter and the ice extent at the end of a melt season. Cloud re-emission of longwave radiation in winter months acts to curb the process by which polar seas radiatively cool to space and freeze, so that less winter cloud generally results in thicker sea ice. Here we investigate the role of winter cloud cover as a predictor and contributor to anomalous ice extent over the past 32 years. Our results stand to improve climate model projections of sea ice melt and assign some cause to large year-to-year ice area variability in a warming arctic regime.

  9. Contributor factors for the occurrence of salmonellosis during preparation, storage and consumption of homemade mayonnaise salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Varela Tomasco, Paula; Ortiz Alvarenga, Verônica; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of practices adopted for preparation, storage and consumption of homemade mayonnaise salad (HMS) as contributor factors for the occurrence of salmonellosis. A total of 493 individuals answered a questionnaire composed of demographic and socioeconomic questions and, preparing, storage and consumption practices of HMS. The level of good hygiene practices (GHP) of respondents was calculated using Good Practice and Outbreak Prevention Indexes. The consumer behavior and the correlation between practices were performed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). 75% of respondents consume HMS, being 43% of interviewers doing this at least once per month. HMS was prepared from 30min to 1h before being served by 46% of individuals, it remaining for 30min to 1h at room temperature during the meal by 63% of people. Furthermore, 51% of respondents left the HMS container open or improperly closed, which may lead to cross-contamination. Most respondents (66%) stated reuse the HMS for less than one day (44%), at once (76%). 77% of participants declared that they prepare HMS, being only 7% preparing HMS without eggs. The majority (51%) used a cooked and a raw egg yolk. In addition, 75% of the cases showed raw eggs in recipe. The Weighted Good Practice Index, Weighted Outbreak Prevention Index and Weighted Harmonic Outbreak Prevention Index were 63%, 62% and 27% of participants, respectively. The MCA gathered the participants into two groups one commits various errors and other commits few errors on GHP. Thus, a consumer would probably perform multiple either good or bad practices simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same

  11. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same

  12. Contributors to suicidality in rural communities: beyond the effects of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handley Tonelle E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural populations experience a higher suicide rate than urban areas despite their comparable prevalence of depression. This suggests the identification of additional contributors is necessary to improve our understanding of suicide risk in rural regions. Investigating the independent contribution of depression, and the impact of co-existing psychiatric disorders, to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a rural community sample may provide clarification of the role of depression in rural suicidality. Methods 618 participants in the Australian Rural Mental Health Study completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, providing assessment of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-use disorders. Logistic regression analyses explored the independent contribution of depression and additional diagnoses to suicidality. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was performed to illustrate the benefit of assessing secondary psychiatric diagnoses when determining suicide risk. Results Diagnostic criteria for lifetime depressive disorder were met by 28% (174 of the sample; 25% (154 had a history of suicidal ideation. Overall, 41% (63 of participants with lifetime suicidal ideation and 34% (16 of participants with a lifetime suicide attempt had no history of depression. When lifetime depression was controlled for, suicidal ideation was predicted by younger age, being currently unmarried, and lifetime anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition to depression, suicide attempts were predicted by lifetime anxiety and drug use disorders, as well as younger age; being currently married and employed were significant protective factors. The presence of comorbid depression and PTSD significantly increased the odds of reporting a suicide attempt above either of these conditions independently. Conclusions While depression contributes significantly to suicidal

  13. Mesenteric lymph return is an important contributor to vascular hyporeactivity and calcium desensitization after hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Gang; Niu, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Si, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Jing

    2012-08-01

    . Even more importantly, mesenteric lymph 1 h after shock was an important contributor to vascular hyporeactivity, and its mechanism of action was related to calcium desensitization. Targeting lymph may therefore have therapeutic potential in the treatment of severe shock-induced hypotension.

  14. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  15. Regenerating the Philosophy of Education: What Happened to Soul? Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Volume 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Hewitt, Randall, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, Joe L. Kincheloe and Randall Hewitt have gathered an impressive and scholarly group of authors who argue for the continuing importance of the philosophy of education. Reviving the notion that philosophy is an essential foundation in the study and research of education, contributors to this volume directly confront the evisceration…

  16. Regenerating the Philosophy of Education: What Happened to Soul? Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Volume 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Hewitt, Randall, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, Joe L. Kincheloe and Randall Hewitt have gathered an impressive and scholarly group of authors who argue for the continuing importance of the philosophy of education. Reviving the notion that philosophy is an essential foundation in the study and research of education, contributors to this volume directly confront the evisceration…

  17. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...

  18. Chloride transport-driven alveolar fluid secretion is a major contributor to cardiogenic lung edema

    OpenAIRE

    Solymosi, Esther A.; Kaestle-Gembardt, Stefanie M.; Vadász, István; Wang, Liming; Neye, Nils; Chupin, Cécile Julie Adrienne; Rozowsky, Simon; Ruehl, Ramona; Tabuchi, Arata; Schulz, Holger; Kapus, Andras; Morty, Rory E.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a novel mechanism for the formation of cardiogenic lung edema, a potentially fatal complication of left heart disease that was previously attributed to passive fluid filtration across an intact alveolo-capillary barrier. Instead, we demonstrate that a major part of cardiogenic edema results from active epithelial secretion of Cl− and secondary fluid flux into the alveolar space. Transepithelial Cl− secretion is triggered by inhibition of epithelial Na+ uptake and mediated...

  19. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  20. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  1. Comorbidity as a contributor to frequent severe acute exacerbation in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong SH

    2016-08-01

    (adjusted OR =1.09, 95% CI =1.01–1.19, P=0.036 were associated with frequent severe AEs. In addition, poor lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (adjusted OR =0.16, 95% CI =0.04–0.70, P=0.015, was inversely associated with early (ie, within 90 days of admission frequent severe AEs.Conclusion: Based on our study, among COPD-related comorbidities, coexisting asthma has a significant impact on the frequent severe AEs in COPD patients. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, comorbidity, exacerbation

  2. Empowering consumers as contributors for health product safety: lessons from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan-Go, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Empowering consumers to contribute to adverse drug reaction reporting seems a sensible innovation, particularly when traditional reports emanating from healthcare professionals are neither increasing nor improving. This work, inspired by an EU-FP7-funded project, describes an attempt by the Philippines to introduce a consumer reporting system through education and an online platform for reporting, and the lessons that were captured in the process. While participating consumers did not contribute to the adverse drug reporting process in the traditional sense as originally expected, the reports received by the drug regulatory agency revealed consumers' concerns regarding health product legitimacy, quality and market claims, as well as the lack of available and accessible information. These reports led regulators to take action. Initial insights on consumer behavior are proposed for regulators and industry to consider in greater depth and how this may impact on consumers providing valued information that will promote other aspects of product safety.

  3. Neuromuscular Junctions as Key Contributors and Therapeutic Targets in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boido, Marina; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive autosomal neuromuscular disease, representing the most common fatal pediatric pathology. Even though, classically and in a simplistic way, it is categorized as a motor neuron (MN) disease, there is an increasing general consensus that its pathogenesis is more complex than expected. In particular, neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are affected by dramatic alterations, including immaturity, denervation and neurofilament accumulation, associated to impaired synaptic functions: these abnormalities may in turn have a detrimental effect on MN survival. Here, we provide a description of NMJ development/maintenance/maturation in physiological conditions and in SMA, focusing on pivotal molecules and on the time-course of pathological events. Moreover, since NMJs could represent an important target to be exploited for counteracting the pathology progression, we also describe several therapeutic strategies that, directly or indirectly, aim at NMJs. PMID:26869891

  4. Acquired channelopathies as contributors to development and progression of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattling, Benjamin; Eggert, Britta; Friese, Manuel A

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most frequent inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affects about two and a half million individuals worldwide and causes major burdens to the patients, which develop the disease usually at the age of 20 to 40. MS is likely referable to a breakdown of immune cell tolerance to CNS self-antigens resulting in focal immune cell infiltration, activation of microglia and astrocytes, demyelination and axonal and neuronal loss. Here we discuss how altered expression patterns and dysregulated functions of ion channels contribute on a molecular level to nearly all pathophysiological steps of the disease. In particular the detrimental redistribution of ion channels along axons, as well as neuronal excitotoxicity with regard to imbalanced glutamate homeostasis during chronic CNS inflammation will be discussed in detail. Together, we describe which ion channels in the immune and nervous system commend as attractive future drugable targets in MS treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ten Years of Medicinal Chemistry (2005-2014) in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry: Country of Contributors, Topics, and Public-Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Luca; Barlocco, Daniela

    2016-08-25

    This review analyzes the articles that have appeared during the past 10 years in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, the leading journal in the field of medicinal chemistry, to provide a picture of the changing trends in this research area. Our analysis involved the country of the corresponding author, assuming that he/she was the leader of the research group, the interaction between private and public sectors, and the research topics. This analysis provides information on the contributions to the journal of authors from each country and highlights the differences between the public and private sectors regarding the research topics pursued. Moreover, changes in the number of articles that describe work on hits, leads, or clinical candidates during these years have been correlated with the affiliation of the contributors (public or private). An analysis of top-cited articles that have appeared in the journal has also been included. The data will provide the basis for understanding the evolution that is taking place in medicinal chemistry.

  6. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) during the month of March, 2006 by using a 7- channel aethalometer (Thermo-Anderson). These measurements, obtained at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm at a 5 minute time resolution, showed an enhanced absorption in the UV over that expected from carbon soot alone. Samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (less than 0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. The samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. The samples have been characterized for total carbon content (stable isotope ratio mass spectroscopy) and natural radionuclide tracers (210Pb, 210Po, 210Bi, 7Be, 13C, 14C, 40K, 15N). Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV-visible spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples (1). The continuous spectra also show an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from carbon soot and the general profiles are quite similar to those observed for humic and fulvic acids found as colloidal materials in surface and groundwaters (2), indicating the presence of humic-like substances (HULIS) in the fine aerosols. The spectra also show evidence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm typical of polycyclic aromatics (PAH) and nitrated aromatic compounds. Spectra were also obtained on NIST standard diesel soot (SRM 2975), NIST standard air particulate matter (SRM 8785

  7. In search of the malarial parasite: biographical sketches of the blood stain contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafts, Kristine; Hempelmann, Ernst; Oleksyn, Barbara J

    2011-09-01

    Methylene blue was synthesized by Caro in 1876 at BASF, a chemical company. Six years later, Koch employed methylene blue when he discovered the tubercle bacillus. In 1880, Ehrlich described what he termed "neutral" dyes: mixtures of acidic and basic dyes for the differentiation of cells in peripheral blood smears. Bernthsen prepared in 1886 a relatively pure dye, obtained by decomposition of methylene blue, and called it methylene azure. In 1891, Malachowski developed a method which used mixtures of eosin and "ripened" methylene blue that not only differentiated blood cells, but also demonstrated the nuclei of malarial parasites. Romanowsky later performed the same feat with an unrepeatable method. A number of "ripening" (polychroming) techniques were investigated by different groups (Nocht 1899) but the aqueous dye solutions produced were unstable and precipitated rapidly. Subsequently, methanol was introduced as a solvent for the dye precipitate (Jenner 1899) and techniques were developed that utilized the fixative properties of the methanolic solution prior to aqueous dilution for staining (Wright 1902). Giemsa (1902) further improved these techniques by developing more precise methods of methylene blue demethylation and adding glycerol as a stabilizing agent to the methanol solvent. Today, the Malachowski-Wright-Giemsa stain continues to be regarded as the world's standard diagnostic technique for malaria.

  8. Prospective large-scale field study generates predictive model identifying major contributors to colony losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merav Gleit Kielmanowicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, unusually high losses of colonies have been reported by beekeepers across the USA. Multiple factors such as Varroa destructor, bee viruses, Nosema ceranae, weather, beekeeping practices, nutrition, and pesticides have been shown to contribute to colony losses. Here we describe a large-scale controlled trial, in which different bee pathogens, bee population, and weather conditions across winter were monitored at three locations across the USA. In order to minimize influence of various known contributing factors and their interaction, the hives in the study were not treated with antibiotics or miticides. Additionally, the hives were kept at one location and were not exposed to potential stress factors associated with migration. Our results show that a linear association between load of viruses (DWV or IAPV in Varroa and bees is present at high Varroa infestation levels (>3 mites per 100 bees. The collection of comprehensive data allowed us to draw a predictive model of colony losses and to show that Varroa destructor, along with bee viruses, mainly DWV replication, contributes to approximately 70% of colony losses. This correlation further supports the claim that insufficient control of the virus-vectoring Varroa mite would result in increased hive loss. The predictive model also indicates that a single factor may not be sufficient to trigger colony losses, whereas a combination of stressors appears to impact hive health.

  9. Invited Commentary: Smokeless Tobacco-An Important Contributor to Cancer, but More Work Is Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Neal D

    2016-10-15

    In this issue of the Journal, Wyss et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;000(00):000-000) describe the association between use of smokeless tobacco and head and neck cancer in 11 US case-control studies. Despite use by an estimated 300 million people worldwide and prior evidence for a causal association with cancer, these products remain understudied. Data are particularly needed for persons who do not use cigarettes or other smoking tobacco products. With 6,772 cancer cases and 8,375 controls, the current study is larger than previous efforts, allowing evaluation of associations among never cigarette smokers. Importantly, snuff use was positively associated with head and neck cancer, particularly for cancers of the oral cavity, whereas associations were weaker for chewing tobacco. Associations were observed among never cigarette smokers but not among ever cigarette smokers. Yet, despite the large sample size, only 44 cases and 62 controls had used snuff and only 61 cases and 96 controls had used chewing tobacco in the absence of cigarettes, precluding detailed examinations of dose response and cessation. Future studies set in high-prevalence populations with detailed assessment of lifetime use are needed to better understand the cancer risks of exclusive smokeless tobacco use and dual use of smokeless tobacco with other tobacco products, including cigarettes.

  10. Prospective large-scale field study generates predictive model identifying major contributors to colony losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielmanowicz, Merav Gleit; Inberg, Alex; Lerner, Inbar Maayan; Golani, Yael; Brown, Nicholas; Turner, Catherine Louise; Hayes, Gerald J R; Ballam, Joan M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, unusually high losses of colonies have been reported by beekeepers across the USA. Multiple factors such as Varroa destructor, bee viruses, Nosema ceranae, weather, beekeeping practices, nutrition, and pesticides have been shown to contribute to colony losses. Here we describe a large-scale controlled trial, in which different bee pathogens, bee population, and weather conditions across winter were monitored at three locations across the USA. In order to minimize influence of various known contributing factors and their interaction, the hives in the study were not treated with antibiotics or miticides. Additionally, the hives were kept at one location and were not exposed to potential stress factors associated with migration. Our results show that a linear association between load of viruses (DWV or IAPV) in Varroa and bees is present at high Varroa infestation levels (>3 mites per 100 bees). The collection of comprehensive data allowed us to draw a predictive model of colony losses and to show that Varroa destructor, along with bee viruses, mainly DWV replication, contributes to approximately 70% of colony losses. This correlation further supports the claim that insufficient control of the virus-vectoring Varroa mite would result in increased hive loss. The predictive model also indicates that a single factor may not be sufficient to trigger colony losses, whereas a combination of stressors appears to impact hive health.

  11. From demonstration projects to volume market: Market development for advanced housing renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Prendergast, E.; Rodsjo, A.; Haavik, T.; Parker, P.

    2010-01-01

    How do we get from demonstration projects to a volume market for very low energy demand in advanced housing renovation? The contributors to this report have been working with this issue for many years. Some worked in both IEA SHC Task 28 Sustainable Housing (2000-2005) and in SHC Task 37 Advanced Ho

  12. Critical Digital Literacies as Social Praxis: Intersections and Challenges. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies. Volume 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, JuliAnna, Ed.; Pandya, Jessica Zacher, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The contributors to this edited volume examine the simultaneous implementation of critical and digital literacies and explore ramifications for the development and assessment of critical digital literacies (CDL) curricula across educational contexts. We ask: How has the increasing ubiquity of digital literacies in and out of school affected our…

  13. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    senescence in addition to prevailing temperature and light conditions. With these improvements and inputs to the 1D biosphere-atmosphere model SOSAA (model to Simulate Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols), we showed that the contribution of Silver birch to stand scale atmospheric reactivity may exceed the ones from conifers, and therefore specific land use and species distribution patterns should be accounted for in biosphere-atmosphere models describing the surface-atmosphere exchange of reactive gases.

  14. Shortwave UV-induced damage as part of the solar damage spectrum is not a major contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Daniel; Matt, Katja; Burger, Katharina; Bergemann, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Because of the absence of a nucleotide excision repair in mitochondria, ultraviolet (UV)-induced bulky mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lesions persist for several days before they would eventually be removed by mitophagy. Long persistence of this damage might disturb mitochondrial functions, thereby contributing to skin ageing. In this study, we examined the influence of shortwave UV-induced damage on mitochondrial parameters in normal human skin fibroblasts. We irradiated cells with either sun-simulating light (SSL) or with ultraviolet C to generate bulky DNA lesions. At equivalent antiproliferative doses, both irradiation regimes induced gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1). Only irradiation with SSL, however, caused significant changes in mtDNA copy number and a decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Our results indicate that shortwave UV-induced damage as part of the solar spectrum is not a major contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina

    2010-08-17

    Each year, the University of California (UC), as the managing and operating contractor of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, prepares an integrated report regarding its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2009 summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year (CY) 2009. Throughout this report, 'Berkeley Lab' or 'LBNL' refers both to (1) the multiprogram scientific facility the UC manages and operates on the 202-acre university-owned site located in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus, and the site itself, and (2) the UC as managing and operating contractor for Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its environmental management system (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The Site Environmental Report is distributed by releasing it on the World Wide Web (Web) from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. Links to documents available on the Web are given with the citations in the References section. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows Berkeley Lab's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible

  16. Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian D.

    2000-09-26

    Representing samll-scale features can be a challenge when one wants to model unsaturated flow in large domains. In this report, the various upscaling techniques are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: stochastic methods, renormalization methods, volume averaging and homogenization methods. In addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed.

  17. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  18. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  19. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  20. Describing Earth System Simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Metafor project has developed a Common Information Model (CIM using the ISO1900 series formalism to describe the sorts of numerical experiments carried out by the earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  1. Describing Earth system simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, B. N.; Balaji, V.; Bentley, P.; Callaghan, S.; DeLuca, C.; Denvil, S.; Devine, G.; Elkington, M.; Ford, R. W.; Guilyardi, E.; Lautenschlager, M.; Morgan, M.; Moine, M.-P.; Murphy, S.; Pascoe, C.; Ramthun, H.; Slavin, P.; Steenman-Clark, L.; Toussaint, F.; Treshansky, A.; Valcke, S.

    2012-11-01

    The Metafor project has developed a common information model (CIM) using the ISO19100 series formalism to describe numerical experiments carried out by the Earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  2. Describing Earth system simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Lawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Metafor project has developed a common information model (CIM using the ISO19100 series formalism to describe numerical experiments carried out by the Earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  3. Inferring the Number of Contributors to Complex DNA Mixtures Using Three Methods: Exploring the Limits of Low-Template DNA Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonse, Lauren E; Tejada, Genesis; Swaminathan, Harish; Lun, Desmond S; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    In forensic DNA casework, the interpretation of an evidentiary profile may be dependent upon the assumption on the number of individuals from whom the evidence arose. Three methods of inferring the number of contributors-NOCIt, maximum likelihood estimator, and maximum allele count, were evaluated using 100 test samples consisting of one to five contributors and 0.5-0.016 ng template DNA amplified with Identifiler(®) Plus and PowerPlex(®) 16 HS. Results indicate that NOCIt was the most accurate method of the three, requiring 0.07 ng template DNA from any one contributor to consistently estimate the true number of contributors. Additionally, NOCIt returned repeatable results for 91% of samples analyzed in quintuplicate, while 50 single-source standards proved sufficient to calibrate the software. The data indicate that computational methods that employ a quantitative, probabilistic approach provide improved accuracy and additional pertinent information such as the uncertainty associated with the inferred number of contributors.

  4. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  5. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China(hereafter Trans. Nonferrous Met.Soc. China), founded in 1991 and sponsored by The Nonferrous Metals Society of China, is published bimonthly and mainly contains reports of original research which reflect the new progresses in the field of nonferrous metals science and technology, including mineral processing, extraction metallurgy, metallic materials and heat treatments, metal working, physical metallurgy, powder metallurgy, with the emphasis on materials science and engineering. It is the unique preeminent publication in English of The Nonferrous Metals Society of China for scientists, engineers,under/post-graduates on the field of nonferrous metals industry. This journal is covered by many famous abstract/index systems and databases such as SCI Expanded, Ei Compendex Plus, INSPEC,CA, METADEX, AJ, JICST.

  6. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China,founded in 1991 and sponsored by The Nonferrous Metals Society of China,is published monthly now and mainly contains reports of original research which reflect the new progresses in the field of nonferrous metals science and technology,including mineral processing,extraction metallurgy,metallic materials and heat treatments,metal working,physical metallurgy,powder metallurgy,with the emphasis

  7. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China,founded in 1991 and sponsored by The Nonferrous Metals Society of China,is published monthly now and mainly contains reports of original research which reflect the new progresses in the field of nonferrous metals science and technology,including mineral processing,extraction metallurgy,metallic materials and heat treatments,metal working,physical metallurgy,powder metallurgy,with the emphasis

  8. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China,founded in 1991 and sponsored by The Nonferrous Metals Society of China,is published monthly now and mainly contains reports of original research which reflect the new progresses in the field of nonferrous metals science and technology,including mineral processing,extraction metallurgy,metallic materials and heat treatments,metal working,physical metallurgy,powder metallurgy,with the emphasis on fundamental science.It is the unique preeminent publication in English for scientists,

  9. Notes for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is the official journal of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China and published by the Chemical Industry Press. The aim of the journal is to develop the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the field of chemical engineering.

  10. Notes for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is the official journal of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China and published by the Chemical Industry Press. The aim of the journal is to develop the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the field of chemical engineering.

  11. Invitation Letter to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Friends As the transaction for Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES), China Foundry,published quarterly from August 2004 to a worldwide readership in English by Foundry Journal Agency, covers the whole fields of foundry technology for iron, steel and non-ferrous castings, including sand molding casting, die casting, investment casting, etc. The focus of China Foundry is on original practical and theoretical research in the foundry industry. Significant survey or similar papers are also considered for publication. There are five columns in it: Special Review, Research & Development, Overseas Foundry, Industry Information, and Advertisements.China Foundry is indexed by Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) (available through the Web of Science,beginning with the first issue of 2007), Chemical Abstract (CA), Cambridge Science Abstract (CSA) and Abstract Journal (AJ) and so on.

  12. Notes for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is the official joumal of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China and published by the Chemical Industry Press. The aim of the journal is to develop the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the field of chemical engineering.

  13. Notes for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is the official journal of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China and published by the Chemical Industry Press. The aim of the journal is to develop the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the field of chemical engineering. Submission of Papers All papers will be submitted on line, http://www.cjche.com.cn Conditions of Publication It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to CJChE have not been published and will not be submitted or published elsewhere in English or any other language, without the written consent of the publisher. All manuscripts are reviewed by referees and the decision to accept them for publication is made by the editors. Authors are solely respon- sible for the accuracy and suitability of their contributions. Types of Contribution All manuscripts with significant research results in the areas of chemi- cal engineering and its application are welcome. Four types of papers appear in this journal: Re- search Papers, Research Notes, Reviews and Perspectives. All papers will class according to subject: (1) Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena; (2) Separation Science and Engineering; (3) Catalysis, Kinetics and Reaction Engineering; (4) Process Systems Engineering and Process Safety; (5) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics; (6) Bio- technology and Bioengineering; (7) Energy, Resources and Environmental Technology; (8) Mate- rials and Product Engineering.

  14. Notes for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is the official journal of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China and published by the Chemical Industry Press. The aim of the journal is to develop the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the field of chemical engineering.

  15. GUIDE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Teaching English in China(TEIC)is a journal aimed at all those who are professionally involved orinterested in the field of teaching English as a foreign language in China.The readership includesthose who teach at junior and senior middle schools and in colleges and universities across thecountry.Thus TEIC is concerned with all the factors that influence the development of ELT in China,whetherthese be practical issues or theoretical issues that are relevant to it.Within this framework articles are welcomed on practical concerns such as the teaching of newmaterials,classroom techniques,methods,syllabuses and the development of new means of assessment.Such articles should have a strong experiential basis,be applicable or of interest to people working in awide variety of contexts and take account of articles previously published in TEIC.

  16. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Journal of Acoustics is the publication of the Acoustical Society of China and the Institute of Acoustics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,to promote the international understanding and collaboration in the field of acoustics.It publishes original works in

  17. INFORMATION FOR OVERSEAS CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China(hereafter Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China),founded in 1991 and sponsored by The Nonferrous Metals Society of China, is published bimonthly and mainly contains reports of original research which reflect the new progresses in the field of nonferrous metals science and technology, including geology, mining, mineral processing, extraction metallurgy, metallic materials and heat treatments, metal working, physical metallurgy, powder metallurgy, machinery, automatization, computer,information and management, with the emphasis on materials science and engineering. It is the unique preeminent publication in English of The Nonferrous Metals Society of China for scientists, engineers, under/postgraduates in the field of nonferrous metals industry.

  18. NOTICE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY is an academic,professional periodical published quarterly by the CHINESE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION and distributed worldwide.Manuscripts are welcome from any part of the world.Address manuscripts to the Editorial Office,Journal of Microbiology and Immunology,4 Sanjianfang Nanli,Chaoyang District,Beijing 100024,China.

  19. Guidelines for Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development This journal is led by the PROFILE research group at Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras -Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá. It is a publication for teachers of English interested in increasing their professional expertise. Starting from the assumption that our professional knowledge is enriched by different members of our academic community, the journal is mainly concerned with sharing the results of classroom research projects undertaken by primary and secondary school teachers as well as teachers of adults. It also includes articles written by teacher educators and guest teachers willing to disseminate innovations and research findings. PROFILE is registered in Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, Latindex, and the Directory of Open Access Journals –DOAJ. It is indexed in the MLA International Bibliography, Educational Research Abstracts online (ERA, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database (LLBA, SciELO, and Publindex-Colciencias, classified in category A2.

  20. Guidelines for Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This journal is led by the PROFILE research group at Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras - Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá campus. It is a publication for teachers of English interested in increasing their professional expertise. Starting from the assumption that our professional knowledge is enriched by different members of our academic community, the journal is mainly concerned with sharing the results of classroom research projects undertaken by primary and secondary school teachers as well as teachers of adults. It also includes articles written by teacher educators and guest teachers willing to disseminate innovations and research findings.

    PROFILE is registered in Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, Latindex, EBSCO, and the Directory of Open Access Journals –DOAJ. It is indexed in the MLA International Bibliography, Educational Research Abstracts online (ERA, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database (LLBA, Redalyc, SciELO, and Publindex-Colciencias, classified in category A2.

  1. Guidelines for Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available PROFILE Issues in Teach ers’ Professional Development This journal is led by the PROFILE research group at Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras - Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá campus. It is a publication for teachers of English interested in increasing their professional expertise. Starting from the assumption that our professional knowledge is enriched by different members of our academic community, the journal is mainly concerned with sharing the results of classroom research projects undertaken by primary and secondary school teachers as well as teachers of adults. It also includes articles written by teacher educators and guest teachers willing to disseminate innovations and research findings. PROFILE is registered in Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, Latindex, and the Directory of Open Access Journals –DOAJ. It is indexed in the MLA International Bibliography, Educational Research Abstracts online (ERA, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database (LLBA, Redalyc, SciELO, and Publindex-Colciencias, classified in category A2.

  2. Notes for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Global Review is a bilingual(Chinese and English) bimonthly in IR category,the first of the kind in China,published by SIIS and the co-publisher Shanghai Association of International Relations.We invite contributions submitted by Chinese as well as

  3. Guide for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Teaching English in China (TEIC) is an annual journal aimed at all those who are professionally involved or interested in the field of teaching English as a foreign language in China. The readership includes those who teach at junior and senior middle schools and in colleges and universities across the country. Thus TEIC is concerned with all the factors that influence the development of ELT in China, whether these be practical issues or theoretical issues that are relevant to it.

  4. Guide For Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Articles do not follow the rules will be rejected immediately.1.TEIC is an internationally recognised academic journal on English Language Teaching(ELT).ItsISSN number is 1005-538X.2.Word limit per article:less than 3,000 words(less than 5 pages).3.Letters of adoption will be delivered to the authors whose articles will be published in TEIC.Contrib-utors who do not receive the letter of adoption within six months after the contribution can contributethe same article to any other journals or magazines or similar publications.4.The next two issues of this year(issues 35 and 36)are still free for every subscribers.But the year-

  5. GUIDE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Teaching English in China(TEIC) is an annual journal aimed at all those who are professionallyinvolved or interested in the field of teaching English as a foreign language in China.The readershipincludes those who teach at junior and senior middle schools and in colleges and universities acrossthe countryThus TEIC is concerned with all the factors that influences the development of ELT in China,whether these be practical issues or theoretical issues that are relevant to it.

  6. GUIDE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Teaching English in China (TEIC) is a journal aimed at all those who are professionally involved or interested in the field of teaching English as a foreign language in China. The readership includes those who teach at primary or secondary schools and in colleges and universities across the countries. Thus TIEC is concerned with all the factors that influence the development of ELT in China, whether these be practical issues or theoretical issues that are relevant to it.

  7. GUIDE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Teaching English in China(TEIC)is a journal aimed at all those who are professionally involved orinterested in the field of teaching English as a foreign language in China.The readership includesthose who teach at junior and senior middle schools and in coUcges and universities across the countryThus TEIC is concerned with all the factors that influence the development of ELT in China,whetherthese be practical issues or theoretical issues that are relevant to it.

  8. GUIDE FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    CELEA Journal aims at all those who are professionally involved or interested in the field of teaching English as a foreign language in China. The readership includes those who teach at primary or secondary schools and in colleges and universities across the countries. Thus CELEA Journal is concerned with all the factors that influence the development of ELT in China, whether these be practical issues or theoretical issues that are relevant to it.

  9. Guide For Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Articles do not follow the rules will be rejected immediately.1.TEIC is an internationally recognised academic journal on English Language Teaching(ELT).ItsISSN number is 1005-538X.2.Word limit per article:less than 3,000 words(less than 5 pages).3.Letters of adoption will be delivered to the authors whose articles will be published in TEIC.Contrib-utors who do not receive the letter of adoption within six months after the contribution can contributethe same article to any other journals or magazines or similar publications.4.The next two issues of this year(issues 35 and 36)are still free for every subscribers.But the year-2000 quarterlies will charge a cost of 16 yuan for the four issues.Nothing can go free forever,as wehave said.

  10. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Journal of China Ordnance A comprehensive academic journal sponsored by China Ordnance Society, is published quarterly. This journal is a representative of publications of the academic circles specializing chiefly in the field of ordnance science and technology. Contributions within the above scope all over the world are welcome. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere.

  11. Information for Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China,founded in 1991 and sponsored by The Nonferrous Metals Society of China,is published monthly now and mainly contains reports of original research which reflect the new progresses in the field of nonferrous metals science and technology,including mineral processing,extraction metallurgy,metallic materials and heat treatments,metal working,physical metallurgy,powder metallurgy,with the emphasis on fundamental science.It is the unique preeminent publication in English for scientists,engineers,under/post-graduates on the field of nonferrous metals industry.This journal is covered by many famous abstract/index systems and databases such as SCI Expanded,Ei Compendex Plus,INSPEC,CA,METADEX,AJ and JICST.

  12. Notice to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Manuscript should be typewritten in English, with double spacing and with wide margins. The original manuscript and two duplicates are required. Words to be italicized should be underlined and footnote should be avoided. A running head of not more than 40 letters should be supplied. Written style should be concise,

  13. INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONTRIBUTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Aims and scope Contemporary Foreign Language Studies(CFLS) is a journal devoted to the scientific discussion of issues in linguistics,applied linguistics, language teaching and learning published monthly by the Editorial Office of Contemporapy Foreign Languages Studies, attached to School of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The journal aims to spread new knowledge, accommodate academic exchanges, stimulate intellectual debates, and lead developmental trends. It carries research papers on theories of language, theories and practices of language teaching and learning and testing.

  14. Information for contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    1.Chinese Chemical Letters(CCL) is a monthly journal,launched by the Chinese Chemical Society.CCL will publish preliminary accounts in the whole field of chemistry,satisfying a real and urgent need for the dissemination of research results,especially hot topics.In a way,it has become a show window of important chemical literature of China.For this purpose,articles in CCL are only written in English.

  15. Information for contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    1.Chinese Chemical Letters(CCL)is a monthly journal,launched by the Chinese Chemical Society.CCL will publish preliminary accounts in the whole field of chemistry,satisfying a real and urgent need for the dissemination of research results,especially hot topics.In a way,it has become a show window of important chemical literature of China.For this purpose,articles in CCL are only written in English.

  16. Instructions to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The English edition of Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine is edited and published by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press.Original scientific papers of advanced clinical and experimental medicine in the field of integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine are expected.

  17. Instructions to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The English edition of Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine is edited and published by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press. Original scientific papers of advanced clinical and experimental medicine in the field of integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine are expected. Articles must not have been published in English elsewhere and are not under simultaneous consideration by other publications.

  18. Instructions to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The English edition of Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine is edited and published by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press. Original scientific papers of advanced clinical and experimental medicine in the field of integration of traditional Chinese and western medicine are expected. Articles must not have been published in English elsewhere and are not under simultaneous consideration by other publications.

  19. Instructions to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The English edition of Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine is edited and published by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press. Original scientific papers of advanced clinical and experimental medicine in the field of integration of traditional Chinese and western medicine are expected. Articles must not have been published in English elsewhere and are not under simultaneous considerationby other publications.

  20. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... mechanism of regulation. Besides being regulated by cell volume, KCNQ1 is also modulated by the interaction of the ß subunit KCNE1 giving rise to the cardiac IKs delayed rectifier potassium current. Apart from altering the kinetic characteristics of the KCNQ1 channel current, KCNE1 also augments the KCNQ1...

  1. Describing Service-Oriented Architecture by Extended Darwin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; SHEN Mei-e; YING Shi; YE Peng; LIANG Zao-qing

    2005-01-01

    Describing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is critical in the development of Web-based system. In this paper, an approach for describing SOA by extended Darwin is proposed. The requirements for describing SOA, which are different from that of ordinary architecture, are highlighted firstly, and then a solution for extending Darwin is presented. Using the extended Darwin, service components and connectors can be described explicit by the extended construct, as well as precise operational semantics of SOA by the π-calculus. Finally an example of supply-chain management system is given for manifesting the effect of the extended Darwin.

  2. Audio-Described Educational Materials: Ugandan Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Sellaeg, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study of how 12 visually impaired teachers in Uganda experienced audio-described educational video material for teachers and student teachers. The study is based upon interviews with these teachers and observations while they were using the material either…

  3. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  4. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  5. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A; Giraud, T; Bellard, C; Tellier, A; Le Cam, B; Smulders, M J M; Kleinschmit, J; Roldan-Ruiz, I; Gladieux, P

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination of genetic data and ecological niche models to investigate the historical patterns of biogeographic range expansion of a wild fruit tree, the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple. Both climatic predictions for the last glacial maximum and analyses of microsatellite variation indicated that M. sylvestris experienced range contraction and fragmentation. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed a clear pattern of genetic structure, with one genetic cluster spanning a large area in Western Europe and two other genetic clusters with a more limited distribution range in Eastern Europe, one around the Carpathian Mountains and the other restricted to the Balkan Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian computation appeared to be a powerful technique for inferring the history of these clusters, supporting a scenario of simultaneous differentiation of three separate glacial refugia. Admixture between these three populations was found in their suture zones. A weak isolation by distance pattern was detected within each population, indicating a high extent of historical gene flow for the European crabapple.

  6. Thermodynanmic relations between selected parameters describing unsaturated flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C M

    1980-05-01

    The first law of thermodynamics is applied to unsaturated flow by replacing the usual PdV term (P is pressure and V is volume) for chemical system which appears there by psi d theta/sub s/ (phi is matric suction and theta/sub s/ is the degree of saturation). If the assumption is made that hysteretic behavior of the moisture characteristic can be ignored, all the usual thermodynamic relations can be derived in which P is replaced by phi and V is replaced by theta/sub s/ and the various thermodynamic potentials, internal energy, U, entropy S, and so on, are understood to be normalized to unit void volume of the soil being considered. This leads to a thermodynamically derived theoretical expression for the slope of the moisture characteristic in terms of theta/sub s/, temperature, T, and the thermal expansivity of water, ..beta../sub l/. When hysteresis is considered, it is shown that for certain types of laboratory experiments the area enclosed by the main branches of the hysteresis loop in the phi - theta/sub s/ plane, or by extension any closed loop traversed by the system in the phi - theta/sub s/ plane, represents, to the extent that the sample temperature is kept constant during the adsorption-desorption process, the void volume of the sample multiplied by the integral of the temperature and the differential of the entropy generated by carrying out the cyclic adsorption-desorption process. These results when combined with an explicit representation of phi interms of an integral over the poor radius distribution allow an explicit calculation of the entropy change in terms of physical parameters.

  7. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  8. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  9. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems described by maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crispin, Y.; Marduel, C. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The problem of suppressing chaotic behavior in dynamical systems is treated using a feedback control method with limited control effort. The proposed method is validated on archetypal systems described by maps, i.e. discrete-time difference equations. The method is also applicable to dynamical systems described by flows, i.e. by systems of ordinary differential equations. Results are presented for the one-dimensional logistic map and for a two-dimensional Lotka-Volterra map describing predator-prey population dynamics. It is shown that chaos can be suppressed and the system stabilized about a period-1 fixed point of the maps.

  10. Volume-effect and radiotherapy [2]. Part 2: volume-effect and normal tissue; Effet volume en radiotherapie [2]. Deuxieme partie: volume et tolerance des tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Atlan, D. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    The first part of our work has focused on the relationship bet men tumor Volume and tumor control. Indeed, it is well known that the importance of irradiated volume could be a main parameter of radiation-induced complications. Numerous mathematical models have described the correlation between the irradiated volume and the risk of adverse effects. These models should predict the complication rate of each treatment planning. At the present time late effects have been the most studied. In this report we firstly propose a review of different mathematical models described for volume effect. Secondly, we will discuss whether these theoretical considerations can influence our view of radiation treatment planning optimization. (authors)

  11. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  12. US Forest Service Survey parcels described by metes and bounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting survey parcels described by a metes and bounds description. Examples include: land lots, housing subdivision lots, mineral...

  13. On the Cauchy Problem Describing an Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jo(a)o-Paulo DIAS; Mário FIGUEIRA; Filipe OLIVEIRA

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a model is derived to describe a quartic anharmonic interatomic interaction with an external potential involving a pair electron-phonon. The authors study the corresponding Cauchy Problem in the semilinear and quasilinear cases.

  14. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  15. Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BD Wood

    2000-09-26

    The representation of small-scale features can be a challenge when attempting to model unsaturated flow in large domains. Upscaling methods offer the possibility of reducing the amount of resolution required to adequately simulate such a problem. In this report, the various upscaling techniques that are discussed in the literature are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: (1) stochastic methods, (2) renormalization methods, and (3) volume averaging and homogenization methods; in addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. The trade-off is a reduction in accuracy in favor of a method that is easier to employ. For practical applications, the most reasonable approach appears to be one in which any of the upscaling methods identified above maybe suitable for upscaling in regions where the variations in the parameter fields are small. For regions where the subsurface structure is more complex, only the homogenization and volume averaging methods are probably suitable. With the continual increases in computational capacity, fill-resolution numerical modeling may in many instances provide a tractable means of solving the flow problem in unsaturated systems.

  16. Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.

  17. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria

    2015-10-28

    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.

  18. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  19. Describing spatiotemporal couplings in ultrashort pulses using coupling coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Shu-Guang; Dan You-Quan; Zhang Bin; Sun Nian-Chun; Sui Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Three coupling coefficients are defined to describe spatiotemporal coupling in ultrashort pulses.With these coupling coefficients,the first-order spatiotemporal couplings of Gaussian pulse and beam are described analytically.Also,the first-order and the second-order spatiotemporal couplings caused by angular dispersion elements are studied using these coupling coefficients.It can be shown that these coupling coefficients are dimensionless and normalized,and readily indicate the severity of spatiotemporal coupling.

  20. Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 17 From the Guest Editor Describing the Elephant Framing a Discussion on Command and Control Col Henry...DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on...path ahead for better understanding and op- erational performance in this complex core function. To move down this path requires a common frame of

  1. The Coriolis Effect Further Described in the Seventeenth Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Claude Francis Milliet Dechales described the Coriolis effect in his 1674 Cursus seu Mundus Mathematicus. Dechales discussed and illustrated the deflection of both falling bodies and of projectiles launched toward the poles that should occur on a rotating Earth. Interestingly, this was done as an argument against the Earth's rotation, the deflections not having been observed at the time. Dechales's work follows on that of Giovanni Battista Riccioli, who had also described the effect in his Almagestum Novum of 1651.

  2. Critical Pedagogy in the New Dark Ages: Challenges and Possibilities. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 422

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakaki, Maria, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book unmasks the neoliberal ideology that led modern civilization to withdraw from its previous accomplishments into what may be called the new Dark Ages. The international group of contributors to this volume aggressively rejects the siege of society by capitalism and the resulting deterioration. These authors engage a critical pedagogy that…

  3. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (Ppolyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries.

  4. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Hypothesis and conceptual model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Rowe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired—due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself—the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term neuromuscular strain. In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain

  5. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome: hypothesis and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter C; Fontaine, Kevin R; Violand, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM) has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired-due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself-the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term "neuromuscular strain." In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain during the

  6. Metabolomics reveals trichloroacetate as a major contributor to trichloroethylene-induced metabolic alterations in mouse urine and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Li, Fei; Qu, Aijuan; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-11-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis is believed to be mediated in part by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). However, the contribution of the two TCE metabolites, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) to the toxicity of TCE, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the metabolite profiles in serum and urine upon exposure of mice to TCE, to aid in determining the metabolic response to TCE exposure and the contribution of DCA and TCA to TCE toxicity. C57BL/6 mice were administered TCE, TCA, or DCA, and urine and serum subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS)-based global metabolomics analysis. The ions were identified through searching metabolomics databases and by comparison with authentic standards, and quantitated using multiple reactions monitoring. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of mRNA, biochemical analysis, and liver histology were also performed. TCE exposure resulted in a decrease in urine of metabolites involved in fatty acid metabolism, resulting from altered expression of PPARα target genes. TCE treatment also induced altered phospholipid homeostasis in serum, as revealed by increased serum lysophosphatidylcholine 18:0 and 18:1, and phosphatidylcholine metabolites. TCA administration revealed similar metabolite profiles in urine and serum upon TCE exposure, which correlated with a more robust induction of PPARα target gene expression associated with TCA than DCA treatment. These data show the metabolic response to TCE exposure and demonstrate that TCA is the major contributor to TCE-induced metabolite alterations observed in urine and serum.

  7. Linguistic terms describing different types of armour in Persian manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshtagh Khorasani, Manouchehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates different terms describing armour and its diverse typology in Persian martial tradition taken from a selected number of 47 dated Persian manuscripts from the 10th to the 19th centuries C.E. Both human and animal armour used in battlefields are described.

    El presente artículo describe, a partir de 47 manuscritos persas datados entre el siglo X y el siglo XIX d.C., los diversos términos que han designado las armaduras y sus diversas tipologías en la tradición marcial persa, tanto en lo que se refiere a armaduras para hombres como aquellas elaboradas para los animales de batalla.

  8. Algorithm describing pressure distribution of non-contact TNT explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kiciński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The aim of this study is to develop a computational algorithm, describing the shock wave pressure distribution in the space induced by non-contact TNT explosion. The procedure describes pressure distribution on a damp surface of the hull. Simulations have been carried out using Abaqus/CAE. The study also shows the pressure waveform descriptions provided by various authors and presents them in charts. The formulated conclusions convince efficiency of the algorithm application.[b]Keywords:[/b] Underwater explosion, shock wave, CAE, TNT, Kobben class submarine

  9. Dynamic modelling of pectin extraction describing yield and functional characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Cognet, T.; Santacoloma, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    A dynamic model of pectin extraction is proposed that describes pectin yield, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity. The dynamic model is one dimensional in the peel geometry and includes mass transport of pectin by diffusion and reaction kinetics of hydrolysis, degradation and de-esterification....... The model takes into account the effects of the process conditions such as temperature and acid concentration on extraction kinetics. It is shown that the model describes pectin bulk solution concentration, degree of esterification and intrinsic viscosity in pilot scale extractions from lime peel...

  10. Describing baseball pitch movement with right-hand rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A Terry; Baldwin, David G

    2007-07-01

    The right-hand rules show the direction of the spin-induced deflection of baseball pitches: thus, they explain the movement of the fastball, curveball, slider and screwball. The direction of deflection is described by a pair of right-hand rules commonly used in science and engineering. Our new model for the magnitude of the lateral spin-induced deflection of the ball considers the orientation of the axis of rotation of the ball relative to the direction in which the ball is moving. This paper also describes how models based on somatic metaphors might provide variability in a pitcher's repertoire.

  11. An autocatalytic kinetic model for describing microbial growth during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro E D

    2015-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the behaviour of microbial growth is widely desired in order to control, predict and design food and bioproduct processing, stability and safety. This work develops and proposes a new semi-empirical mathematical model, based on an autocatalytic kinetic, to describe the microbial growth through its biomass concentration. The proposed model was successfully validated using 15 microbial growth patterns, covering the three most important types of microorganisms in food and biotechnological processing (bacteria, yeasts and moulds). Its main advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as the interpretation of its parameters. It is shown that the new model can be used to describe the behaviour of microbial growth.

  12. A Quark Transport Theory to describe Nucleon--Nucleon Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmbach, U; Biro, T S; Mosel, U

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of the Friedberg-Lee model we formulate a semiclassical transport theory to describe the phase-space evolution of nucleon-nucleon collisions on the quark level. The time evolution is given by a Vlasov-equation for the quark phase-space distribution and a Klein-Gordon equation for the mean-field describing the nucleon as a soliton bag. The Vlasov equation is solved numerically using an extended testparticle method. We test the confinement mechanism and mean-field effects in 1+1 dimensional simulations.

  13. Newly Described Tumor Entities in Sinonasal Tract Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal tract (nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) is extremely challenging due in part to the tremendous diversity of tumor types that may arise in this region. Compounding the difficulty, a number of new sinonasal tumor entities have been recently described, and pathologists may not yet be familiar with these neoplasms. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the newly described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and renal cell-like adenocarcinoma.

  14. Describing dengue epidemics: Insights from simple mechanistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Maíra; Stollenwerk, Nico; Kooi, Bob W.

    2012-09-01

    We present a set of nested models to be applied to dengue fever epidemiology. We perform a qualitative study in order to show how much complexity we really need to add into epidemiological models to be able to describe the fluctuations observed in empirical dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence data offering a promising perspective on inference of parameter values from dengue case notifications.

  15. Superintendents Describe Their Leadership Styles: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Superintendents from eight southeastern United States school districts self-described their leadership styles across the choices of autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic, situational, servant, or transformational. When faced with this array of choices, the superintendents chose with arguable equitableness, indicating that successful leaders can…

  16. Comparing Theoretical Perspectives in Describing Mathematics Departments: Complexity and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2010-01-01

    We draw on two studies of mathematics departments in 11-18 comprehensive maintained schools in England to compare and contrast the insights provided by differing theoretical perspectives. In one study, activity theory was used to describe common features of the work of three departments. In the other, a mathematics department was viewed and…

  17. Describing Elementary Certification Methods across the Elementary Music Career Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe elementary music method choice and certification method choice overall and across the elementary music career cycle. Participants (N = 254) were categorized as Level I or Elementary Division in a southwestern music education association database. The questionnaire included 25 four-point Likert-type items…

  18. Icosahedral symmetry described by an incommensurately modulated crystal structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolny, Janusz; Lebech, Bente

    1986-01-01

    A crystal structure model of an incommensurately modulated structure is presented. Although six different reciprocal vectors are used to describe the model, all calculations are done in three dimensions making calculation of the real-space structure trivial. Using this model, it is shown that both...

  19. Describing, Instantiating and Evaluating a Reference Architecture : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris

    2003-01-01

    The result of a domain maturing is the emergence of reference architectures that offer numerous advantages to software architects and other stakeholders. However there is no straightforward way to describe a reference architecture and in sequence to design instances for specific systems, while at th

  20. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  1. Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set describes surficial geology of the conterminous United States. The data set was generated from a U.S. Geological Survey 1:7,500,000-scale map...

  2. Describing the Corneal Shape after Wavefront-Optimized Photorefractive Keratectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim; Wijdh, Robert H. J.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a procedure for describing wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) corneas and to characterize PRK-induced changes in shape. METHODS: We analyzed preoperative and postoperative corneal elevation data of 41 eyes of 41 patients (mean [±SD] age, 38 [±11] years) who und

  3. An Evolving Framework for Describing Student Engagement in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Flavio S.; diSessa, Andrea A.; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement in classroom activities is usually described as a function of factors such as human needs, affect, intention, motivation, interests, identity, and others. We take a different approach and develop a framework that models classroom engagement as a function of students' "conceptual competence" in the "specific content" (e.g., the…

  4. Avicenna, the first to describe thyroid-related orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Iraj; Burger, Albert; Moharreri, Muhammad-Reza; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-01-01

    The history of the association of goiter and orbital disease is discussed. Although Graves and Basedow are credited with the first descriptions of this association, it was described many years earlier between AD 1000 and 1110 by two Persian physicians and philosophers, Avicenna and Al-Jurjani.

  5. Interpersonal Problems of People Who Describe Themselves as Lonely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Rita de Sales; Horowitz, Leonard M.

    1979-01-01

    The complaint "I am lonely" summarizes specific interpersonal difficulties in socializing. The UCLA Loneliness Scale identifies lonely and not-lonely students who described their major interpersonal problems by performing a Q-sort with a standardized set of problems. Results show that lonely people consistently report problems of…

  6. Collective learning in schools described: building collective learning capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiest, Eric; Teurlings, C.; Ansems, E.; Bakx, A.; Grootswagers, A.; Heijmen-Versteegen,; Jongen,; Uphoff,

    2005-01-01

    Processes of collective learning are expected to increase the professionalism of teachers and school leaders. Little is known about the processes of collective learning which take place in schools and about the way in which those processes may be improved. This paper describes a research into proces

  7. A Framework for Describing Variations in State Early Intervention Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Donna; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; McKenna, Patti

    2000-01-01

    Information about the early intervention service systems in 20 states was gathered and organized into dimensions of a framework for describing early intervention systems at the state and local levels. Results indicate considerable variation exists on eligibility criteria, agencies involved in early intervention, and models of intake and service…

  8. A visual metaphor describing neural dynamics in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico J M van Beveren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many scientific disciplines the use of a metaphor as an heuristic aid is not uncommon. A well known example in somatic medicine is the 'defense army metaphor' used to characterize the immune system. In fact, probably a large part of the everyday work of doctors consists of 'translating' scientific and clinical information (i.e. causes of disease, percentage of success versus risk of side-effects into information tailored to the needs and capacities of the individual patient. The ability to do so in an effective way is at least partly what makes a clinician a good communicator. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder which affects approximately 1% of the population. Over the last two decades a large amount of molecular-biological, imaging and genetic data have been accumulated regarding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. However, it remains difficult to understand how the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are related to disturbances on the molecular-biological level. In general, psychiatry seems to lack a conceptual framework with sufficient explanatory power to link the mental- and molecular-biological domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present an essay-like study in which we propose to use visualized concepts stemming from the theory on dynamical complex systems as a 'visual metaphor' to bridge the mental- and molecular-biological domains in schizophrenia. We first describe a computer model of neural information processing; we show how the information processing in this model can be visualized, using concepts from the theory on complex systems. We then describe two computer models which have been used to investigate the primary theory on schizophrenia, the neurodevelopmental model, and show how disturbed information processing in these two computer models can be presented in terms of the visual metaphor previously described. Finally, we describe the

  9. The skeletal L-type Ca(2+) current is a major contributor to excitation-coupled Ca(2+) entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Roger A; Pessah, Isaac N; Beam, Kurt G

    2009-01-01

    The term excitation-coupled Ca(2+) entry (ECCE) designates the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) into skeletal muscle cells, which occurs in response to prolonged depolarization or pulse trains and depends on the presence of both the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in the plasma membrane and the type 1 ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. The ECCE pathway is blocked by pharmacological agents that also block store-operated Ca(2+) entry, is inhibited by dantrolene, is relatively insensitive to the DHP antagonist nifedipine (1 microM), and is permeable to Mn(2+). Here, we have examined the effects of these agents on the L-type Ca(2+) current conducted via the DHPR. We found that the nonspecific cation channel antagonists (2-APB, SKF 96356, La(3+), and Gd(3+)) and dantrolene all inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) current. In addition, complete (>97%) block of the L-type current required concentrations of nifedipine >10 microM. Like ECCE, the L-type Ca(2+) channel displays permeability to Mn(2+) in the absence of external Ca(2+) and produces a Ca(2+) current that persists during prolonged ( approximately 10-second) depolarization. This current appears to contribute to the Ca(2+) transient observed during prolonged KCl depolarization of intact myotubes because (1) the transients in normal myotubes decayed more rapidly in the absence of external Ca(2+); (2) the transients in dysgenic myotubes expressing SkEIIIK (a DHPR alpha(1S) pore mutant thought to conduct only monovalent cations) had a time course like that of normal myotubes in Ca(2+)-free solution and were unaffected by Ca(2+) removal; and (3) after block of SR Ca(2+) release by 200 microM ryanodine, normal myotubes still displayed a large Ca(2+) transient, whereas no transient was detectable in SkEIIIK-expressing dysgenic myotubes. Collectively, these results indicate that the skeletal muscle L-type channel is a major contributor to the Ca(2+) entry attributed to ECCE.

  10. The Skeletal L-type Ca2+ Current Is a Major Contributor to Excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Roger A.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Beam, Kurt G.

    2009-01-01

    The term excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry (ECCE) designates the entry of extracellular Ca2+ into skeletal muscle cells, which occurs in response to prolonged depolarization or pulse trains and depends on the presence of both the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in the plasma membrane and the type 1 ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. The ECCE pathway is blocked by pharmacological agents that also block store-operated Ca2+ entry, is inhibited by dantrolene, is relatively insensitive to the DHP antagonist nifedipine (1 μM), and is permeable to Mn2+. Here, we have examined the effects of these agents on the L-type Ca2+ current conducted via the DHPR. We found that the nonspecific cation channel antagonists (2-APB, SKF 96356, La3+, and Gd3+) and dantrolene all inhibited the L-type Ca2+ current. In addition, complete (>97%) block of the L-type current required concentrations of nifedipine >10 μM. Like ECCE, the L-type Ca2+ channel displays permeability to Mn2+ in the absence of external Ca2+ and produces a Ca2+ current that persists during prolonged (∼10-second) depolarization. This current appears to contribute to the Ca2+ transient observed during prolonged KCl depolarization of intact myotubes because (1) the transients in normal myotubes decayed more rapidly in the absence of external Ca2+; (2) the transients in dysgenic myotubes expressing SkEIIIK (a DHPR α1S pore mutant thought to conduct only monovalent cations) had a time course like that of normal myotubes in Ca2+-free solution and were unaffected by Ca2+ removal; and (3) after block of SR Ca2+ release by 200 μM ryanodine, normal myotubes still displayed a large Ca2+ transient, whereas no transient was detectable in SkEIIIK-expressing dysgenic myotubes. Collectively, these results indicate that the skeletal muscle L-type channel is a major contributor to the Ca2+ entry attributed to ECCE. PMID:19114636

  11. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie.wang2@osumc.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Osei, Kwame [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-07-22

    to insulin despite the levels of PC1/3 and PC2 proteins were not reduced somehow. The findings demonstrate that the perturbation of PIHO results in defects in the subsequent conversion process of proinsulin and is a contributor to the occurrence of disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in diabetes.

  12. KCNJ10 may not be a contributor to nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA in Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA is an autosomal recessive hearing loss disorder that is associated with mutations in SLC26A4. However, not all patients with NSEVA carry biallelic mutations in SLC26A4. A recent study proposed that single mutations in both SLC26A4 and KCNJ10 lead to digenic NSEVA. We examined whether KCNJ10 excert a role in the pathogenesis of NSEVA in Chinese patients. METHODS: SLC26A4 was sequenced in 1056 Chinese patients with NSEVA. KCNJ10 was screened in 131 patients who lacked mutations in either one or both alleles of SLC26A4. Additionally, KCNJ10 was screened in 840 controls, including 563 patients diagnosed with NSEVA who carried biallelic SLC26A4 mutations, 48 patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss due to inner ear malformations that did not involve enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA, 96 patients with conductive hearing loss due to various causes, and 133 normal-hearing individuals with no family history of hereditary hearing loss. RESULTS: 925 NSEVA patients were found carrying two-allele pathogenic SLC26A4 mutations. The most frequently detected KCNJ10 mutation was c.812G>A (p.R271H. Compared with the normal-hearing control subjects, the occurrence rate of c.812G>A in NSEVA patients with lacking mutations in one or both alleles of SLC26A4 had no significant difference(1.53% vs. 5.30%, χ(2 = 2.798, p = 0.172, which suggested that it is probably a nonpathogenic benign variant. KCNJ10 c.1042C>T (p.R348C, the reported EVA-related mutation, was not found in patients with NSEVA who lacked mutations in either one or both alleles of SLC26A4. Furthermore, the normal-hearing parents of patients with NSEVA having two SLC26A4 mutations carried the KCNJ10 c.1042C>T or c.812G>A mutation and a SLC26A4 pathogenic mutation. CONCLUSION: SLC26A4 is the major genetic cause in Chinese NSEVA patients, accounting for 87.59%. KCNJ10 may not be a contributor to NSEVA in Chinese population. Other

  13. New models for describing outliers in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rose; Jackson, Dan

    2016-09-01

    An unobserved random effect is often used to describe the between-study variation that is apparent in meta-analysis datasets. A normally distributed random effect is conventionally used for this purpose. When outliers or other unusual estimates are included in the analysis, the use of alternative random effect distributions has previously been proposed. Instead of adopting the usual hierarchical approach to modelling between-study variation, and so directly modelling the study specific true underling effects, we propose two new marginal distributions for modelling heterogeneous datasets. These two distributions are suggested because numerical integration is not needed to evaluate the likelihood. This makes the computation required when fitting our models much more robust. The properties of the new distributions are described, and the methodology is exemplified by fitting models to four datasets. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Galactic Rotation Described with Bulge+Disk Gravitational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, C F

    2008-01-01

    Observations reveal that mature spiral galaxies consist of stars, gases and plasma approximately distributed in a thin disk of circular shape, usually with a central bulge. The rotation velocities quickly increase from the galactic center and then achieve a constant velocity from the core to the periphery. The basic dynamic behavior of a mature spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, is well described by simple models balancing Newtonian gravitational forces against the centrifugal forces associated with a rotating thin axisymmetric disk. In this research, we investigate the effects of adding central bulges to thin disk gravitational models. Even with the addition of substantial central bulges, all the critical essential features of our thin disk gravitational models are preserved. (1) Balancing Newtonian gravitational and centrifugal forces at every point within the disk yields computed radial mass distributions that describe the measured rotation velocity profiles of mature spiral galaxies successfully. (2) T...

  15. Oculoectodermal syndrome: twentieth described case with new manifestations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, Daniela de Almeida; Leal, Deborah Maria de Castro Barbosa; Kozmhinsky, Valter; Querino, Marina Coutinho Domingues; Regueira, Marina Genesia da Silva; Studart, Maria Gabriela de Morais

    2016-01-01

    Oculoectodermal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the association of aplasia cutis congenita, epibulbar dermoids, and other abnormalities. This report describes the twentieth case of the disease. We report a 4-year-old female child who presented with the classical features of the syndrome: aplasia cutis congenita and epibulbar dermoids. Our case expands the clinical spectrum of the disease to include: diffuse hyperpigmentation (some following the Blaschko´s lines); hypopigmented skin areas on the trunk; arachnoid cyst on the right fronto-parietal border; rounded left side of the hippocampus; and dermoid cyst underlying the bulb-medullary transition. Our patient also reported infantile hemangioma on the right wrist and verrucous hemangioma on the left leg, the latter not previously described in the literature.

  16. A six-parameter space to describe galaxy diversification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar; Davoust, Emmanuel; Thuillard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy diversification proceeds by transforming events like accretion, interaction or mergers. These explain the formation and evolution of galaxies that can now be described with many observables. Multivariate analyses are the obvious tools to tackle the datasets and understand the differences between different kinds of objects. However, depending on the method used, redundancies, incompatibilities or subjective choices of the parameters can void the usefulness of such analyses. The behaviour of the available parameters should be analysed before an objective reduction of dimensionality and subsequent clustering analyses can be undertaken, especially in an evolutionary context. We study a sample of 424 early-type galaxies described by 25 parameters, ten of which are Lick indices, to identify the most structuring parameters and determine an evolutionary classification of these objects. Four independent statistical methods are used to investigate the discriminant properties of the observables and the partitioni...

  17. Statistical models describing the energy signature of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Thavlov, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one third of the primary energy production in Denmark is used for heating in buildings. Therefore efforts to accurately describe and improve energy performance of the building mass are very important. For this purpose statistical models describing the energy signature of a building, i.......e. the heat dynamics of the building, have been developed. The models can be used to obtain rather detailed knowledge of the energy performance of the building and to optimize the control of the energy consumption for heating, which will be vital in conditions with increasing fluctuation of the energy supply...... or varying energy prices. The paper will give an overview of statistical methods and applied models based on experiments carried out in FlexHouse, which is an experimental building in SYSLAB, Risø DTU. The models are of different complexity and can provide estimates of physical quantities such as UA...

  18. Double sigmoidal models describing the growth of coffee berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Jesus Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify if the growth pattern of coffee berries, considering fresh mass accumulation over time, is double sigmoid and to select the most suitable nonlinear model to describe such behavior. Data used consisted of fourteen longitudinal observations of average fresh mass of coffee berries obtained in an experiment with the cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. The fits provided by the Logistic and Gompertz models were compared in their single and double versions. Parameters were estimated using the least squares method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm implemented in the nls function of the R software. It can be concluded that the growth pattern of the coffee fruit, in fresh mass accumulation, is double sigmoid. The double Gompertz and double Logistic models were adequate to describe such a growth curve, with a superiority of the double Logistic model.

  19. Which number system is "best" for describing empirical reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Eugene Wigner's much discussed notion of the "unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" in describing the physics of empirical reality is simultaneously both trivial and profound. After all, the relevant mathematics was, (in the first instance), originally developed in order to be useful in describing empirical reality. On the other hand, certain aspects of the mathematical superstructure have now taken on a life of their own, with at least some features of the mathematical superstructure greatly exceeding anything that can be directly probed or verified, or even justified, by empirical experiment. Specifically, I wish to raise the possibility that the real number system, (with its nevertheless pragmatically very useful tools of real analysis, and mathematically rigorous notions of differentiation and integration), may nevertheless constitute a "wrong turn" when it comes to modelling empirical reality. Without making any definitive recommendation, I shall discuss several alternatives.

  20. Curie law for systems described by kappa distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-01-01

    We derive the magnetization of a system, Pierre Curie's law, for paramagnetic particles out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions. The analysis uses the theory and formulation of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems with a non-zero potential energy. Among other results, emphasis is placed on the effect of kappa distribution on the phenomenon of having strong magnetization at high temperatures. At thermal equilibrium, high temperature leads to weak magnetization. Out of thermal equilibrium, however, strong magnetization at high temperatures is rather possible, if the paramagnetic particle systems reside far from thermal equilibrium, i.e., at small values of kappa. The application of the theory to the space plasma at the outer boundaries of our heliosphere, the inner heliosheath, leads to an estimation of the ion magnetic moment for this space plasma, that is, μ ≈ 138+/-7 \\text{eV/nT} .

  1. A geostatistical approach for describing spatial pattern in stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  2. Describing spatial pattern in stream networks: A practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, L.M.; Torgersen, C.E.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.

  3. The first fossil cephalopod statoliths to be described from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, M. R.; MADDOCK, LINDA; Steurbaut, E.

    1980-01-01

    Statoliths of cephalopods are small, hard calcareous stones which lie within the cartilaginous skulls of octopods, sepioids and teuthoids1. Fossil statoliths, clearly belonging to genera which are alive today, have previously been described from 11 Cenozoic deposits spanning from the Eocene to the Pleistocene in North America2–5. Such statoliths are of particular interest because they provide a means of studying the evolution of living cephalopod groups which have no calcareous shells, includ...

  4. New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko

    2013-02-01

    We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

  5. The scentscape: An integrative framework describing scents in servicescapes

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Marc; Girard, Anna; Suppin, Anna-Caroline; Bartsch, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The systematic use of ambient scents is a trend in service companies that is accompanied by increasing research attention. However, we lack a theoretical framework that ad-dresses ambient scents' specific role in physical surroundings of services. Thus, this article develops the 'scentscape', a model that describes the process of olfactory stimulation and its impacts on customers and employees in service environments. The paper extends Bitner's servicescape model (1992) and combines it with G...

  6. On the problems of describing joint axis alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin A; Greiner, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Each three-dimensional joint possesses at least one potentially oblique axis of rotation. Several systems are used to express joint axis alignment. One system, designated the plane projection (PP) method, describes angles based on orthogonal projections onto two, of the three, anatomical planes. Alternatively, a joint axis may be described in two different ways using two sequential Cardan angle rotations. These expression systems all lay claim to similar descriptive labels, such as deviation and elevation. Difficulties arise as researchers use these various methods to compare their own data to the results of others. A joint axis alignment, described as 27 degrees deviation and 41 degrees elevation in PP, differs by as much as 6 degrees when expressed as Cardan angles. Differences among expression systems increase as the joint axis alignment becomes more oblique -- eventually differing by as much as 75 degrees . This paper explores implications for this lack of congruence among the joint axis expression systems. Effective steps in dealing with these issues begin with recognizing the existence and extent of the problem. The paper provides a common set of algorithms to illustrate and alleviate the possible problems associated with the exchange of joint axis alignment data.

  7. On Differential Equations Describing 3-Dimensional Hyperbolic Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-Yi; DING Qing; Keti Tenenblat

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of a (2+1)-dimensional differential equation describing threedimensional hyperbolic spaces (3-h.s.). The (2+1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equation and its sister equation, the (2+1)-dimensional coupled derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation, are shown to describe 3-h.s. The (2+1)-dimensional generalized HF model: St = (1/2i [S, Sy] + 2iσS)x, σx = 1-4itr(SSxSy), in which S ∈ GLC(2)/GLC(1)×GLC(1),provides another example of (2+1)-dimensional differential equations describing 3-h.s. As a direct consequence, the geometric construction of an infinite number of conservation laws of such equations is illustrated. Furthermore we display a new infinite number of conservation laws of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the (2+1)odimensional derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation by a geometric way.

  8. Openings: On the Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Journal of Homosexuality and asks whether the journal's first contributors might reveal a historically problematic relationship whereby the categories of front-line LGBT health advocates in the 1970s might be incommensurate with the post-AIDS, queer politics that would follow in decades to come.

  9. A proposal to describe a phenomenon of expanding language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietorzecka, Kordula

    Changes of knowledge, convictions or beliefs are subjects of interest in frame of so called epistemic logic. There are various proposed descriptions of a process (or its results) in which so a called agent may invent certain changes in a set of sentences that he had already chosen as a point of his knowledge, convictions or beliefs (and this is also considered in case of many agents). In the presented paper we are interested in the changeability of an agent's language which is by its own independent from already mentioned changes. Modern epistemic formalizations assume that the agent uses a fixed (and so we could say: static) language in which he expresses his various opinions which may change. Our interest is to simulate a situation when a language is extended by adding to it new expressions which were not known by the agent so he couldn't even consider them as subjects of his opinions. Actually such a phenomenon happens both in natural and scientific languages. Let us mention a fact of expanding languages in process of learning or in result of getting of new data about some described domain. We propose a simple idealization of extending sentential language used by one agent. Actually the language is treated as a family of so called n-languages which get some epistemic interpretation. Proposed semantics enables us to distinguish between two different types of changes - these which occur because of changing agent's convictions about logical values of some n-sentences - we describe them using one place operator C to be read it changes that - and changes that consist in increasing the level of n-language by adding to it new expressions. However the second type of change - symbolized by variable G - may be also considered independently of the first one. The logical frame of our considerations comes from and it was originally used to describe Aristotelian theory of substantial changes. This time we apply the mentioned logic in epistemology.

  10. Foaming volume and foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  11. Two heuristic approaches to describe periodicities in genomic microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Aßmus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the first part we discuss the filtering of panels of time series based on singular value decomposition. The discussion is based on an approach where this filtering is used to normalize microarray data. We point out effects on the periodicity and phases for time series panels. In the second part we investigate time dependent periodic panels with different phases. We align the time series in the panel and discuss the periodogram of the aligned time series with the purpose of describing the periodic structure of the panel. The method is quite powerful assuming known phases in the model, but it deteriorates rapidly for noisy data.  

  12. Analysis of a mathematical model describing necrotic tumor growth

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a model describing the growth of necrotic tumors in different regimes of vascularisation. The tumor consists of a necrotic core of death cells and a surrounding nonnecrotic shell. The corresponding mathematical formulation is a moving boundary problem where both boundaries delimiting the nonnecrotic shell are allowed to evolve in time.We determine all radially symmetric stationary solutions of the problem and reduce the moving boundary problem into a nonlinear evolution. Parabolic theory provides us the perfect context in order to show local well-posed of the problem for small initial data.

  13. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Szybisz, M A; Szybisz, L.

    2016-01-01

    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type $1/(t_c -t)^{(1- \\beta)/\\beta}$, with $\\beta>0$, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time $t_c$. However, this model fails in determining $t_c$ in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this...

  14. Can all neurobiological processes be described by classical physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Lisewski, A M

    1999-01-01

    We discuss results recently given in an article by M. Tegmark (quant-ph/9907009) where he argues that neurons can be described appropriately by pure classical physics. This letter is dedicated to the question if this is really the case when the role of dissipation and noise -- the two concurrent phenomena present in these biological structures -- is taken into account. We argue that dissipation and noise might well be of quantum origin and give also a possible reason why neural dynamics is not classical.

  15. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  16. Quadrupolar gravitational fields described by the $q-$metric

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Hernando; Yerlan, Aimuratov

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Zipoy-Voorhees metric ($q-$metric) as the simplest static, axially symmetric solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that possesses as independent parameters the mass and the quadrupole moment. In accordance with the black holes uniqueness theorems, the presence of the quadrupole completely changes the geometric properties of the corresponding spacetime that turns out to contain naked singularities for all possible values of the quadrupole parameter. The naked singularities, however, can be covered by interior solutions that correspond to perfect fluid sources with no specific equations of state. We conclude that the $q-$metric can be used to describe the entire spacetime generated by static deformed compact objects.

  17. Spectral Gaps of Dirac Operators Describing Graphene Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benguria, Rafael D.; Fournais, Søren; Stockmeyer, Edgardo; Van Den Bosch, Hanne

    2017-06-01

    The two-dimensional Dirac operator describes low-energy excitations in graphene. Different choices for the boundary conditions give rise to qualitative differences in the spectrum of the resulting operator. For a family of boundary conditions, we find a lower bound to the spectral gap around zero, proportional to |Ω|-1/2, where {Ω } \\subset R2 is the bounded region where the Dirac operator acts. This family contains the so-called infinite mass and armchair cases used in the physics literature for the description of graphene quantum dots.

  18. Failure of random matrix theory to correctly describe quantum dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottos, T; Cohen, D

    2001-12-01

    Consider a classically chaotic system that is described by a Hamiltonian H(0). At t=0 the Hamiltonian undergoes a sudden change (H)0-->H. We consider the quantum-mechanical spreading of the evolving energy distribution, and argue that it cannot be analyzed using a conventional random-matrix theory (RMT) approach. Conventional RMT can be trusted only to the extent that it gives trivial results that are implied by first-order perturbation theory. Nonperturbative effects are sensitive to the underlying classical dynamics, and therefore the Planck's over 2 pi-->0 behavior for effective RMT models is strikingly different from the correct semiclassical limit.

  19. Can CA describe collective effects of polluting agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, A.

    2015-03-01

    Pollution represents one of the most relevant issues of our time. Several studies are on stage but, generally, they do not consider competitive effects, paying attention only to specific agents and their impact. In this paper, it is suggested a different scheme. At first, it is proposed a formal model of competitive noxious effects. Second, by generalizing a previous algorithm capable of describing urban growth, it is developed a cellular automata (CA) model that provides the effective impact of a variety of pollutants. The final achievement is a simulation tool that can model pollution combined effects and their dynamical evolution in relation to anthropized environments.

  20. Theory of control systems described by differential inclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhengzhi; Huang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a brief introduction to the theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and deals in depth with control of three kinds of differential inclusion systems. The authors introduce the algebraic decomposition of convex processes, the stabilization of polytopic systems, and observations of Luré systems. They also introduce the elemental theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and the properties and designs of the control systems described by differential inclusions. Addressing the material with clarity and simplicity, the book includes recent research achievements and spans all concepts, concluding with a critical mathematical framework. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and postgraduate students in the area of automatic control engineering.

  1. Ruin Probabilities of a Surplus Process Described by PDMPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-min He; Rong Wu; Hua-yue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we mainly study the ruin probability of a surplus process described by a piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP). An integro-differentiai equation for the ruin probability is derived. Under a certain assumption, it can be transformed into the ruin probability of a risk process whose premiums depend on the current reserves. Using the same argument as that in Asmussen and Nielsen[2], the ruin probability and its upper bounds are obtained. Finally, we give an analytic expression for ruin probability and its upper bounds when the claim-size is exponentially distributed.

  2. Describing fuzzy sets using a new concept:fuzzify functor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏克新; 王兆霞; 王权

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a fuzzify functor as an extension of the concept of fuzzy sets.The fuzzify functor and the first-order operated fuzzy set are defined.From the theory analysis,it can be observed that when the fuzzify functor acts on a simple crisp set,we get the first order fuzzy set or type-1 fuzzy set.By operating the fuzzify functor on fuzzy sets,we get the higher order fuzzy sets or higher type fuzzy sets and their membership functions.Using the fuzzify functor we can exactly describe the type-1 fuzz...

  3. Using UMLS metathesaurus concepts to describe medical images: dermatology vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, James W; Sneiderman, Charles A; Hameed, Kamran; Ackerman, Michael J; Hatton, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    Web servers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) displayed images of ten skin lesions to practicing dermatologists and provided an online form for capturing text they used to describe the pictures. The terms were submitted to the UMLS Metathesaurus (Meta). Concepts retrieved, their semantic types, definitions and synonyms, were returned to each subject in a second web-based form. Subjects rated the concepts against their own descriptive terms. They submitted 825 terms, 346 of which were unique and 300 mapped to UMLS concepts. The dermatologists rated 295 concepts as 'Exact Match' and they accomplished both tasks in about 30 min.

  4. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  5. Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β, with β > 0, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time tc. However, this model fails in determining tc in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this trouble, the NLF model is extended by introducing a parameter γ, which multiplies all terms with past growth rate index (GRI). In this novel approach the solution for CPI is also analytic being proportional to the Gaussian hypergeometric function 2F1(1 / β , 1 / β , 1 + 1 / β ; z) , where z is a function of β, γ, and tc. For z → 1 this hypergeometric function diverges leading to a finite time singularity, from which a value of tc can be determined. This singularity is also present in GRI. It is shown that the interplay between parameters β and γ may produce phenomena of multiple equilibria. An analysis of the severe hyperinflation occurred in Hungary proves that the novel model is robust. When this model is used for examining data of Israel a reasonable tc is got. High-inflation regimes in Mexico and Iceland, which exhibit weaker inflations than that of Israel, are also successfully described.

  6. Asphere, O asphere, how shall we describe thee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, G. W.; Brophy, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    Two key criteria govern the characterization of nominal shapes for aspheric optical surfaces. An efficient representation describes the spectrum of relevant shapes to the required accuracy by using the fewest decimal digits in the associated coefficients. Also, a representation is more effective if it can, in some way, facilitate other processes - such as optical design, tolerancing, or direct human interpretation. With the development of better tools for their design, metrology, and fabrication, aspheric optics are becoming ever more pervasive. As part of this trend, aspheric departures of up to a thousand microns or more must be characterized at almost nanometre precision. For all but the simplest of shapes, this is not as easy as it might sound. Efficiency is therefore increasingly important. Further, metrology tools continue to be one of the weaker links in the cost-effective production of aspheric optics. Interferometry particularly struggles to deal with steep slopes in aspheric departure. Such observations motivated the ideas described in what follows for modifying the conventional description of rotationally symmetric aspheres to use orthogonal bases that boost efficiency. The new representations can facilitate surface tolerancing as well as the design of aspheres with cost-effective metrology options. These ideas enable the description of aspheric shapes in terms of decompositions that not only deliver improved efficiency and effectiveness, but that are also shown to admit direct interpretations. While it's neither poetry nor a cure-all, an old blight can be relieved.

  7. Evaluation of Geographic Indices Describing Health Care Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Agnus M; Park, Jong Heon; Kang, Sungchan; Kim, Yoon

    2017-01-01

    The accurate measurement of geographic patterns of health care utilization is a prerequisite for the study of geographic variations in health care utilization. While several measures have been developed to measure how accurately geographic units reflect the health care utilization patterns of residents, they have been only applied to hospitalization and need further evaluation. This study aimed to evaluate geographic indices describing health care utilization. We measured the utilization rate and four health care utilization indices (localization index, outflow index, inflow index, and net patient flow) for eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee replacement surgery, caesarean sections, hysterectomy, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans) according to three levels of geographic units in Korea. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance database in Korea. We evaluated the associations among the health care utilization indices and the utilization rates. In higher-level geographic units, the localization index tended to be high, while the inflow index and outflow index were lower. The indices showed different patterns depending on the procedure. A strong negative correlation between the localization index and the outflow index was observed for all procedures. Net patient flow showed a moderate positive correlation with the localization index and the inflow index. Health care utilization indices can be used as a proxy to describe the utilization pattern of a procedure in a geographic unit.

  8. Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjenluoma, K; Rantanen, A; McCormack, B; Slater, P; Hahtela, N; Suominen, T

    2017-04-24

    This study looks to describe the workplace culture from the viewpoints of stress, job satisfaction and practice environment. Data were collected from nurses (n = 109) using a web-based survey, The Person-Centred Nursing Index, from two purposefully selected hospital districts in Finland. Data were statistically analysed. Nurses described their workplace culture in slightly positive terms. Nurses only occasionally experienced stress (mean = 2.56, SD = 0.55) and were fairly satisfied with their job (mean = 4.75, SD = 0.66) and their practice environment (mean = 4.42, SD = 0.81). Demographic variables such as the nurses' age, length of time in nursing, time at their present hospital, working shifts and their use of patient restriction were more frequently associated with their perceived workplace culture. Older nurses and those with a longer work history in the nursing profession tended to be more satisfied with their workplace culture in psychiatric nursing. Young and/or newly graduated nurses felt more negatively on their workplace culture; this issue should be recognised and addressed with appropriate support and mentoring. Nurses who used restrictive measures were more often less satisfied with their workplace culture. Continuous efforts are needed to reduce the use of coercive measures, which challenge also the managers to support nursing practice to be more person-centred. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. First order reversal curves diagrams for describing ferroelectric switching characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Mitoseriu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available First Order Reversal Curves (FORC are polarization-field dependences described between saturation field Esat and a variable reversal field Er∈(-Esat, Esat. The FORC diagrams were proposed to describe some characteristics of the switching process in ferroelectrics. The approach is related to the Preisach model which considers the distribution of the elementary switchable units over their coercive and bias fields. The influence of the anisotropic porosity in Pb(Zr,TiO3 bulk ceramics on the FORC distributions demonstrated the existence of a positive/negative bias as a result of the confinement induced by anisotropy. The reducing of grain size in Ba(Zr,TiO3 ceramics causes an increase of the ratio of the reversible/irreversible components of the polarization on the FORC distribution indicating the tendency of system towards the superparaelectric state. The FORC method demonstrates to provide a kind of ‘fingerprinting’ of various types of switching characteristics in ferroic systems.

  10. Conjugated Molecules Described by a One-Dimensional Dirac Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias; Goyer, Francois

    2010-06-08

    Starting from the Hückel Hamiltonian of conjugated hydrocarbon chains (ethylene, allyl radical, butadiene, pentadienyl radical, hexatriene, etc.), we perform a simple unitary transformation and obtain a Dirac matrix Hamiltonian. Thus already small molecules are described exactly in terms of a discrete Dirac equation, the continuum limit of which yields a one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian. Augmenting this Hamiltonian with specially adapted boundary conditions, we find that all the orbitals of the unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are reproduced by the continuous Dirac equation. However, only orbital energies close to the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy are accurately predicted by the Dirac equation. Since it is known that a continuous Dirac equation describes the electronic structure of graphene around the Fermi energy, our findings answer the question to what extent this peculiar electronic structure is already developed in small molecules containing a delocalized π-electron system. We illustrate how the electronic structure of small polyenes carries over to a certain class of rectangular graphene sheets and eventually to graphene itself. Thus the peculiar electronic structure of graphene extends to a large degree to the smallest unsaturated molecule (ethylene).

  11. Motion in a stochastic layer described by symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Elskens, Y. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France); Balescu, R. [Association Euratom, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-07-01

    The motion in the stochastic layer surrounding an island can be studied by using the standard map: this problem is of direct relevance to the diffusion of magnetic field lines in a tokamak. In a previous work it was shown that this process can be adequately modelled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) describing transitions of the running point between three basins representing, respectively, trapped motion around the island, and passing motion above or below the island. The sticking property of the island deeply modifies the nature of the transport process, leading to sub-diffusive behavior. In the present work it is shown that the motion can be analyzed in terms of a symbolic dynamics which leads to the possibility of an automatic measurement of the data necessary for the construction of the CTRW. The logical features of the procedure are described, and the method is applied to an analysis of long time series, thus completing the results of the previous work. (author) 10 refs.

  12. Assessment of diffusion models to describe drying of roof tiles using generalized coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Vera S. O.; da Silva, Wilton Pereira; e Silva, Cleide M. D. P. S.; da Silva Júnior, Aluízio Freire; de Farias Aires, Juarez Everton; Rocha, Vicente P. T.

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to study the mass transient diffusion in solids with an arbitrary shape, highlighting boundary condition of the third kind. To this end, the numerical formalism to discretize the transient 3D diffusion equation written in generalized coordinates is presented. For the discretization, it was used the finite volume method with a fully implicit formulation. An application to drying of roof tiles has been done. Three models were used to describe the drying process: (1) the volume V and the effective mass diffusivity D are considered constant for the boundary condition of the first kind; (2) V and D are considered constant for the boundary condition of the third kind and (3) V and D are considered variable for the boundary condition of the third kind. For all models, the convective mass transfer coefficient h was considered constant. The analyses of the results obtained make it possible to affirm that the model 3 describes the drying process better than the other models.

  13. Strength in Numbers: Describing the Flooded Area of Isolated Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie M.; Haag, Kim H.

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of isolated, freshwater wetlands are scattered across the karst1 landscape of central Florida. Most are small (less than 15 acres), shallow, marsh and cypress wetlands that flood and dry seasonally. Wetland health is threatened when wetland flooding patterns are altered either by human activities, such as land-use change and ground-water pumping, or by changes in climate. Yet the small sizes and vast numbers of isolated wetlands in Florida challenge our efforts to characterize them collectively as a statewide water resource. In the northern Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida alone, water levels are measured monthly in more than 400 wetlands by the Southwest Florida Water Management Distirct (SWFWMD). Many wetlands have over a decade of measurements. The usefulness of long-term monitoring of wetland water levels would greatly increase if it described not just the depth of water at a point in the wetland, but also the amount of the total wetland area that was flooded. Water levels can be used to estimate the flooded area of a wetland if the elevation contours of the wetland bottom are determined by bathymetric mapping. Despite the recognized importance of the flooded area to wetland vegetation, bathymetric maps are not available to describe the flooded areas of even a representative number of Florida's isolated wetlands. Information on the bathymetry of isolated wetlands is rare because it is labor intensive to collect the land-surface elevation data needed to create the maps. Five marshes and five cypress wetlands were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2000 to 2004 as part of a large interdisciplinary study of isolated wetlands in central Florida. The wetlands are located either in municipal well fields or on publicly owned lands (fig. 1). The 10 wetlands share similar geology and climate, but differ in their ground-water settings. All have historical water-level data and multiple vegetation surveys. A comprehensive report by Haag and

  14. A more robust Boolean model describing inhibitor binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoqian Steven XIE; Chao TANG

    2008-01-01

    From the first application of the Boolean model to the cell cycle regulation network of budding yeast, new regulative pathways have been discovered, par-ticularly in the G1/S transition circuit. This discovery called for finer modeling to study the essential biology, and the resulting outcomes are first introduced in the ar-ticle. A traditional Boolean network model set up for the new G1/S transition circuit shows that it cannot correctly simulate real biology unless the model parameters are fine tuned. The deficiency is caused by an overly coarse-grained description of the inhibitor binding process, which shall be overcome by a two-vector model proposed whose robustness is surveyed using random perturba-tions. Simulations show that the proposed two-vector model is much more robust in describing inhibitor binding processes within the Boolean framework.

  15. Does classical mechanics always adequately describe "classical physical reality"

    CERN Document Server

    Shemi-zadeh, V E

    2002-01-01

    The article is dedicated to discussion of irreversibility and foundation of statistical mechanics "from the first principles". Taking into account infinitesimal and, as it seems, neglectful for classical mechanics fluctuations of the physical vacuum, makes a deterministic motion of unstable dynamic systems is broken ("spontaneous determinism breaking", "spontaneous stochastization"). Vacuum fluctuations play part of the trigger, starting the powerful mechanism of exponent instability. The motion of the dynamic systems becomes irreversible and stochastic. Classical mechanics turns out to be applicable only for a small class of stable dynamic systems with zero Kolmogorov-Sinay entropy $h=0$. For alternative "Stochastic mechanics" there are corresponding equations of motion and Master Equation, describing irreversible evolution of the initial distribution function to equilibrium state.

  16. Detecting and describing the modular structures of weighted networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Gao Zi-You

    2007-01-01

    In the functional properties of complex networks, modules play a central role.In this paper,we propose a new method to detect and describe the modular structures of weighted networks. In order to test the proposed method, as an example, we use our method to analyse the structural properties of the Chinese railway network. Here, the stations are regarded as the nodes and the track sections are regarded as the links. Rigorous analysis of the existing data shows that using the proposed algorithm, the nodes of network can be classified naturally. Moreover, there are several core nodes in each module. Remarkably, we introduce the correlation function Grs, and use it to distinguish the different modules in weighted networks.

  17. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of two fields can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the...

  18. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cooman, G. [Universiteit Gent, Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  19. Describing pulsar wind nebulae with a simple leptonic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Joachim; Hoppe, Stefan; Domainko, Wilfried; Hofmann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Egberts, Kathrin [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, Cherenkov telescopes like e.g. H.E.S.S. have identified a large number of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources as Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The VHE-gamma-ray emission shows a rich diversity of spectral and spatial morphologies. Theoretical models can help to understand and interprete the observed source properties. A simple semi-analytical leptonic model describing VHE gamma-ray emission from PWNe is presented. It assumes diffusion with radiative cooling as the transport mechanism for electrons and their interaction with radiative and interstellar magnetic fields as the origin of electromagnetic radiation. In the framework of this model, spectral and spatial properties of the expected VHE gamma-ray emission from single PWNe may be estimated.

  20. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. SPONSORSHIP: The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... frequency questions, a question on type of fat spreads used on bread, questions on seven sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The summary of the healthy-diet index showed that the subjects who adhered to food-based dietary guidelines (top quintile) compared to those who did not (bottom quintile) were most...

  1. Knowledge epidemics and population dynamics models for describing idea diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of ideas is often closely connected to the creation and diffusion of knowledge and to the technological evolution of society. Because of this, knowledge creation, exchange and its subsequent transformation into innovations for improved welfare and economic growth is briefly described from a historical point of view. Next, three approaches are discussed for modeling the diffusion of ideas in the areas of science and technology, through (i) deterministic, (ii) stochastic, and (iii) statistical approaches. These are illustrated through their corresponding population dynamics and epidemic models relative to the spreading of ideas, knowledge and innovations. The deterministic dynamical models are considered to be appropriate for analyzing the evolution of large and small societal, scientific and technological systems when the influence of fluctuations is insignificant. Stochastic models are appropriate when the system of interest is small but when the fluctuations become significant for its evolution...

  2. Probable technologies behind the Vimanas described in Ramayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi.K.R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sanskrit literature there is a prominent place for Maharshi Valmiki‟s Ramayana. This is one of the very few popular epics which are translated to multiple languages across the world. It has seven kaandas (books, five hundred sargas (chapters and twenty four thousand slokas (verses in it. The vimanas are described in various kaandas of Ramayana. It is said that Ravana had the vimana which could appear and disappear, travel long distances with high speed based on the thought power of the master. A few years ago in the year 2013 researchers from the University of Minnesota have designed a model quadcopter which can be flown by the human thought power. As per Prof Bin He from the University of Minnesota, for the first time humans are able to control the flight of flying robots using just their thought sensed from non-invasive brain waves. German scientists from the Technical University of Munich under the leadership of Professor Tim Fricke have simulated the flight of aircraft using thought power of the pilots. This makes us think if such an aircraft with an advanced technology like this existed once upon a time during the era of Ramayana. Carvings of Ravana‟s vimana in Ellora cave temples help us in comparing it with that of modern Jetpack. Descriptions on seating capacity of Pushpaka vimana help us in comparing the same with Airbus 380-800 which can accommodate 853 passengers. Concepts of invisibility of aircrafts make us think of camouflaging techniques and stealth technology used in modern military aircrafts. All these features help us in analyzing the probable technologies behind vimanas described in Ramayana

  3. Assessing the state of substitution models describing noncoding RNA evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E; Whelan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is widely used to investigate the relationships between homologous sequences. RNA molecules have played a key role in these studies because they are present throughout life and tend to evolve slowly. Phylogenetic inference has been shown to be dependent on the substitution model used. A wide range of models have been developed to describe RNA evolution, either with 16 states describing all possible canonical base pairs or with 7 states where the 10 mismatched nucleotides are reduced to a single state. Formal model selection has become a standard practice for choosing an inferential model and works well for comparing models of a specific type, such as comparisons within nucleotide models or within amino acid models. Model selection cannot function across different sized state spaces because the likelihoods are conditioned on different data. Here, we introduce statistical state-space projection methods that allow the direct comparison of likelihoods between nucleotide models and 7-state and 16-state RNA models. To demonstrate the general applicability of our new methods, we extract 287 RNA families from genomic alignments and perform model selection. We find that in 281/287 families, RNA models are selected in preference to nucleotide models, with simple 7-state RNA models selected for more conserved families with shorter stems and more complex 16-state RNA models selected for more divergent families with longer stems. Other factors, such as the function of the RNA molecule or the GC-content, have limited impact on model selection. Our models and model selection methods are freely available in the open-source PHASE 3.0 software.

  4. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  5. Overweight Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Lung Volumes in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte G W Seijger

    Full Text Available In this large observational study population of 105 myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients, we investigate whether bodyweight is a contributor of total lung capacity (TLC independent of the impaired inspiratory muscle strength.Body composition was assessed using the combination of body mass index (BMI and fat-free mass index. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory muscle strength measurements were performed on the same day. Patients were stratified into normal (BMI < 25 kg/m(2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 groups. Multiple linear regression was used to find significant contributors for TLC.Overweight was present in 59% of patients, and body composition was abnormal in almost all patients. In overweight patients, TLC was significantly (p = 2.40×10(-3 decreased, compared with normal-weight patients, while inspiratory muscle strength was similar in both groups. The decrease in TLC in overweight patients was mainly due to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume (ERV further illustrated by a highly significant (p = 1.33×10(-10 correlation between BMI and ERV. Multiple linear regression showed that TLC can be predicted using only BMI and the forced inspiratory volume in 1 second, as these were the only significant contributors.This study shows that, in DM1 patients, overweight further reduces lung volumes, as does impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Additionally, body composition is abnormal in almost all DM1 patients.

  6. Conceptual framework describing a child's total (built, natural ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complexity of the components and their interactions that characterize children’s health and well-being are not adequately captured by current public health paradigms. Children are exposed to combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors from their built, natural, and social environments at each lifestage and throughout their lifecourse. Children’s inherent characteristics (e.g., sex, genetics, pre-existing disease) and their activities and behaviors also influence their exposures to chemical and non-chemical stressors from these environments. We describe a conceptual framework that considers the interrelationships between inherent characteristics, activities and behaviors, and stressors (both chemical and non-chemical) from the built, natural, and social environments in influencing children’s health and well-being throughout their lifecourse. This framework is comprised of several intersecting circles that represent how stressors from the total environment interact with children’s inherent characteristics and their activities and behaviors to influence their health and well-being at each lifestage and throughout their lifecourse. We used this framework to examine the complex interrelationships between chemical and non-chemical stressors for two public health challenges specific to children: childhood obesity and general cognitive ability. One systematic scoping review showed that children’s general cognitive ability was influenced not only by

  7. Second order evolution equations which describe pseudospherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano Ferraioli, D.; de Oliveira Silva, L. A.

    2016-06-01

    Second order evolution differential equations that describe pseudospherical surfaces are considered. These equations are equivalent to the structure equations of a metric with Gaussian curvature K = - 1, and can be seen as the compatibility condition of an associated sl (2 , R) -valued linear problem, also referred to as a zero curvature representation. Under the assumption that the linear problem is defined by 1-forms ωi =fi1 dx +fi2 dt, i = 1 , 2 , 3, with fij depending on (x , t , z ,z1 ,z2) and such that f21 = η, η ∈ R, we give a complete and explicit classification of equations of the form zt = A (x , t , z) z2 + B (x , t , z ,z1) . According to the classification, these equations are subdivided in three main classes (referred to as Types I-III) together with the corresponding linear problems. Explicit examples of differential equations of each type are determined by choosing certain arbitrary differentiable functions. Svinolupov-Sokolov equations admitting higher weakly nonlinear symmetries, Boltzmann equation and reaction-diffusion equations like Murray equation are some known examples of such equations. Other explicit examples are presented, as well.

  8. The complexity of organizational change: describing communication during organizational turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Organizational researchers and practitioners have been interested in organizational change for some time. Historically, they have directed most of their efforts at improving the efficiency of planned top-down change. These efforts were strategic attempts at altering parameters leading to transformational change. Most efforts failed to meet their intended purposes. Transformational organizational change has not been likely. The legitimate systems have been robust. There has been little systematic investigation of the communication occurring during these efforts. The purpose of this essay is to describe results of a mixed methods research project answering two research questions. (a) How do organizational members communicate during a time of turbulence? (b) What features of this communication suggest the potential for or resistance to transformative change? Comparing the results at the beginning of the period to other periods, gives insight into how social actors communicate and enact the organization during a threshold period where transformational change was possible. Results reveal identifiable patterns of communication as communication strategies, parameters, or basins of attraction. The overall pattern explains how micro communication patterns intersect and how the accumulation of these patterns may resist or accomplish change at a macro level.

  9. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  10. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  11. Entropic-Skins Geometry to Describe Wall Turbulence Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Queiros-Conde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the phenomenon of intermittency in wall turbulence and, more particularly, the behaviour of moments  and and intermittency exponents ζP with the order p and distance to the wall, we developed a new geometrical framework called “entropic-skins geometry” based on the notion of scale-entropy which is here applied to an experimental database of boundary layer flows. Each moment has its own spatial multi-scale support Ωp (“skin”. The model assumes the existence of a hierarchy of multi-scale sets Ωp ranged from the “bulk” to the “crest”. The crest noted characterizes the geometrical support where the most intermittent (the highest fluctuations in energy dissipation occur; the bulk is the geometrical support for the whole range of fluctuations. The model assumes then the existence of a dynamical flux through the hierarchy of skins. The specific case where skins display a fractal structure is investigated. Bulk fractal dimension  and crest dimension  are linked by a scale-entropy flux defining a reversibility efficiency  (d is the embedding dimension. The model, initially developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, is applied here to wall bounded turbulence where intermittency exponents are measured by extended self-similarity. We obtained for intermittency exponents the analytical expression with γ ≈ 0.36 in agreement with experimental results.

  12. Folding superfunnel to describe cooperative folding of interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, László

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a generalization of the well-known folding funnel concept of proteins. In the funnel model the polypeptide chain is treated as an individual object not interacting with other proteins. Since biological systems are considerably crowded, protein-protein interaction is a fundamental feature during the life cycle of proteins. The folding superfunnel proposed here describes the folding process of interacting proteins in various situations. The first example discussed is the folding of the freshly synthesized protein with the aid of chaperones. Another important aspect of protein-protein interactions is the folding of the recently characterized intrinsically disordered proteins, where binding to target proteins plays a crucial role in the completion of the folding process. The third scenario where the folding superfunnel is used is the formation of aggregates from destabilized proteins, which is an important factor in case of several conformational diseases. The folding superfunnel constructed here with the minimal assumption about the interaction potential explains all three cases mentioned above. Proteins 2016; 84:1009-1016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An ontological approach to describing neurons and their relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David J.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Martone, Maryann E.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of neuroscience, perhaps one of the most information rich disciplines of all the life sciences, requires basic frameworks for organizing the vast amounts of data generated by the research community to promote novel insights and integrated understanding. Since Cajal, the neuron remains a fundamental unit of the nervous system, yet even with the explosion of information technology, we still have few comprehensive or systematic strategies for aggregating cell-level knowledge. Progress toward this goal is hampered by the multiplicity of names for cells and by lack of a consensus on the criteria for defining neuron types. However, through umbrella projects like the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF), we have the opportunity to propose and implement an informatics infrastructure for establishing common tools and approaches to describe neurons through a standard terminology for nerve cells and a database (a Neuron Registry) where these descriptions can be deposited and compared. This article provides an overview of the problem and outlines a solution approach utilizing ontological characterizations. Based on illustrative implementation examples, we also discuss the need for consensus criteria to be adopted by the research community, and considerations on future developments. A scalable repository of neuron types will provide researchers with a resource that materially contributes to the advancement of neuroscience. PMID:22557965

  14. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  15. An ontological approach to describing neurons and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hamilton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of neuroscience, perhaps the most information rich discipline of all the life sciences, requires basic frameworks for organizing the vast amounts of data generated by the research community to promote novel insights and integrated understanding. Since Cajal, the neuron remains a fundamental unit of the nervous system, yet even with the explosion of information technology, we still have few comprehensive or systematic strategies for aggregating cell-level knowledge. Progress toward this goal is hampered by the multiplicity of names for cells and by lack of a consensus on the criteria for defining neuron types. However, through umbrella projects like the Neuroscience Information Framework and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility, we have the opportunity to propose and implement an informatics infrastructure for establishing common tools and approaches to describe neurons through a standard terminology for nerve cells and a database (a Neuron Registry where these descriptions can be deposited and compared. This article provides an overview of the problem and outlines a solution approach utilizing ontological characterizations.

  16. Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesando, Igor

    2014-12-01

    We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein-Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.

  17. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmat S. Al-Salim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42

  18. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  19. Sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems described by natural coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Yabin

    2014-03-01

    The classical natural coordinate modeling method which removes the Euler angles and Euler parameters from the governing equations is particularly suitable for the sensitivity analysis and optimization of multibody systems. However, the formulation has so many principles in choosing the generalized coordinates that it hinders the implementation of modeling automation. A first order direct sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems formulated with novel natural coordinates is presented. Firstly, a new selection method for natural coordinate is developed. The method introduces 12 coordinates to describe the position and orientation of a spatial object. On the basis of the proposed natural coordinates, rigid constraint conditions, the basic constraint elements as well as the initial conditions for the governing equations are derived. Considering the characteristics of the governing equations, the newly proposed generalized-α integration method is used and the corresponding algorithm flowchart is discussed. The objective function, the detailed analysis process of first order direct sensitivity analysis and related solving strategy are provided based on the previous modeling system. Finally, in order to verify the validity and accuracy of the method presented, the sensitivity analysis of a planar spinner-slider mechanism and a spatial crank-slider mechanism are conducted. The test results agree well with that of the finite difference method, and the maximum absolute deviation of the results is less than 3%. The proposed approach is not only convenient for automatic modeling, but also helpful for the reduction of the complexity of sensitivity analysis, which provides a practical and effective way to obtain sensitivity for the optimization problems of multibody systems.

  20. Describing rainfall in northern Australia using multiple climate indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks Rogers, Cassandra Denise; Beringer, Jason

    2017-02-01

    Savanna landscapes are globally extensive and highly sensitive to climate change, yet the physical processes and climate phenomena which affect them remain poorly understood and therefore poorly represented in climate models. Both human populations and natural ecosystems are highly susceptible to precipitation variation in these regions due to the effects on water and food availability and atmosphere-biosphere energy fluxes. Here we quantify the relationship between climate phenomena and historical rainfall variability in Australian savannas and, in particular, how these relationships changed across a strong rainfall gradient, namely the North Australian Tropical Transect (NATT). Climate phenomena were described by 16 relevant climate indices and correlated against precipitation from 1900 to 2010 to determine the relative importance of each climate index on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales. Precipitation trends, climate index trends and wet season characteristics have also been investigated using linear statistical methods. In general, climate index-rainfall correlations were stronger in the north of the NATT where annual rainfall variability was lower and a high proportion of rainfall fell during the wet season. This is consistent with a decreased influence of the Indian-Australian monsoon from the north to the south. Seasonal variation was most strongly correlated with the Australian Monsoon Index, whereas yearly variability was related to a greater number of climate indices, predominately the Tasman Sea and Indonesian sea surface temperature indices (both of which experienced a linear increase over the duration of the study) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the climatic processes driving variability and, subsequently, the importance of understanding the relationships between rainfall and climatic phenomena in the Northern Territory in order to project future rainfall patterns in the

  1. Probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of migrating microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L Schroeder

    Full Text Available In all but the most sterile environments bacteria will reside in fluid being transported through conduits and some of these will attach and grow as biofilms on the conduit walls. The concentration and diversity of bacteria in the fluid at the point of delivery will be a mix of those when it entered the conduit and those that have become entrained into the flow due to seeding from biofilms. Examples include fluids through conduits such as drinking water pipe networks, endotracheal tubes, catheters and ventilation systems. Here we present two probabilistic models to describe changes in the composition of bulk fluid microbial communities as they are transported through a conduit whilst exposed to biofilm communities. The first (discrete model simulates absolute numbers of individual cells, whereas the other (continuous model simulates the relative abundance of taxa in the bulk fluid. The discrete model is founded on a birth-death process whereby the community changes one individual at a time and the numbers of cells in the system can vary. The continuous model is a stochastic differential equation derived from the discrete model and can also accommodate changes in the carrying capacity of the bulk fluid. These models provide a novel Lagrangian framework to investigate and predict the dynamics of migrating microbial communities. In this paper we compare the two models, discuss their merits, possible applications and present simulation results in the context of drinking water distribution systems. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of stochastic dynamics on the composition of non-stationary microbial communities that are exposed to biofilms and provides a new avenue for modelling microbial dynamics in systems where fluids are being transported.

  2. Describing failure in geomaterials using second-order work approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Nicot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomaterials are known to be non-associated materials. Granular soils therefore exhibit a variety of failure modes, with diffuse or localized kinematical patterns. In fact, the notion of failure itself can be confusing with regard to granular soils, because it is not associated with an obvious phenomenology. In this study, we built a proper framework, using the second-order work theory, to describe some failure modes in geomaterials based on energy conservation. The occurrence of failure is defined by an abrupt increase in kinetic energy. The increase in kinetic energy from an equilibrium state, under incremental loading, is shown to be equal to the difference between the external second-order work, involving the external loading parameters, and the internal second-order work, involving the constitutive properties of the material. When a stress limit state is reached, a certain stress component passes through a maximum value and then may decrease. Under such a condition, if a certain additional external loading is applied, the system fails, sharply increasing the strain rate. The internal stress is no longer able to balance the external stress, leading to a dynamic response of the specimen. As an illustration, the theoretical framework was applied to the well-known undrained triaxial test for loose soils. The influence of the loading control mode was clearly highlighted. It is shown that the plastic limit theory appears to be a particular case of this more general second-order work theory. When the plastic limit condition is met, the internal second-order work is nil. A class of incremental external loadings causes the kinetic energy to increase dramatically, leading to the sudden collapse of the specimen, as observed in laboratory.

  3. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed S. Ibrehem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7109 ] 

  4. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  5. Describing soil surface microrelief by crossover length and fractal dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vidal Vázquez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate description of soil surface topography is essential because different tillage tools produce different soil surface roughness conditions, which in turn affects many processes across the soil surface boundary. Advantages of fractal analysis in soil microrelief assessment have been recognised but the use of fractal indices in practice remains challenging. There is also little information on how soil surface roughness decays under natural rainfall conditions. The objectives of this work were to investigate the decay of initial surface roughness induced by natural rainfall under different soil tillage systems and to compare the performances of a classical statistical index and fractal microrelief indices. Field experiments were performed on an Oxisol at Campinas, São Paulo State (Brazil. Six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plow, chisel plow, disc harrow + disc level, disc plow + disc level and chisel plow + disc level were tested. Measurements were made four times, firstly just after tillage and subsequently with increasing amounts of natural rainfall. Duplicated measurements were taken per treatment and date, yielding a total of 48 experimental surfaces. The sampling scheme was a square grid with 25×25 mm point spacing and the plot size was 1350×1350 mm, so that each data set consisted of 3025 individual elevation points. Statistical and fractal indices were calculated both for oriented and random roughness conditions, i.e. after height reading have been corrected for slope and for slope and tillage tool marks. The main drawback of the standard statistical index random roughness, RR, lies in its no spatial nature. The fractal approach requires two indices, fractal dimension, D, which describes how roughness changes with scale, and crossover length, l, specifying the variance of surface microrelief at a reference scale. Fractal parameters D and l, were estimated by two independent self-affine models

  6. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  7. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  8. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume L, Molecular biology of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains contributions by contributors to the 1985 Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This year's theme was Molecular Biology of Development. The volume consists of 104 articles organized by content into sections entitled Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Interactions in Early Development; Lineage and Segmentation/Pattern Formation; Homeotic Mutants; Homeo Boxes; Tissue Specificity/Position Effects; Expression of Genes Introduced into Transgenic Mice; Induced Developmental Defects; Control of Gene Expression; Sex Determination; Cell-cycle Effects; Pluripotent Cells/Oncogenes; Cellular Differentiation; and Developmental Neurobiology.

  9. Libraries in the early 21st century, volume 1 An international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    This unique volume gives a truly international overview over the modern history and development of libraries and library technology in selected countries of the world. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of library work on all continents, covering examples of both the developed and the developing world. A further volume with further national profiles is planned for 2012. This multivolume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level. Many of the contributors are well-kn

  10. Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M. Z.

    2012-04-01

    horizon. Our results indicate that winter Rs of BSCs-dominated areas are the main contributor to the total carbon released by soil respiration and, therefore, which we should considered when estimating carbon budgets in desert ecosystems. Key words: Winter Soil Respiration; Biological Soil Crust (BSCs); Q10

  11. Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Yevoo Lucy; Nielsen Rikke; Williams Thomas N; Kadobera Daniel; Källander Karin; Mutebi Aloysius; Akpakli Jonas; Narh Clement; Gyapong Margaret; Amu Alberta; Waiswa Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collectio...

  12. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a biofilm model describing mixed growth of nitrite oxidisers in a CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaros, M; Dokianakis, S N; Lyberatos, G

    2006-01-01

    A simple kinetic model has been developed for describing nitrite oxidation by autotrophic aerobic nitrifiers in a CSTR reactor, in which mixed (suspended and attached) growth conditions are prevailing. In this work, a critical dimensionless parameter is identified containing both biofilm characteristics and microbial kinetic parameters, as well as the specific (per volume) surface of the reactor configuration used. Evaluation of this dimensionless parameter can easily provide information on whether or not wall attachment is critical, and should be taken into account either in kinetic studies or in reactor design, when specific pollutants are to be removed from the waste influent stream. The effect of bulk dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the validity of this model is addressed and minimum non-limiting DO concentrations are proposed depending on the reactor configuration.

  14. EuroForMix: An open source software based on a continuous model to evaluate STR DNA profiles from a mixture of contributors with artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleka, Øyvind; Storvik, Geir; Gill, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We have released a software named EuroForMix to analyze STR DNA profiles in a user-friendly graphical user interface. The software implements a model to explain the allelic peak height on a continuous scale in order to carry out weight-of-evidence calculations for profiles which could be from a mixture of contributors. Through a properly parameterized model we are able to do inference on mixture proportions, the peak height properties, stutter proportion and degradation. In addition, EuroForMix includes models for allele drop-out, allele drop-in and sub-population structure. EuroForMix supports two inference approaches for likelihood ratio calculations. The first approach uses maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters. The second approach is Bayesian based which requires prior distributions to be specified for the parameters involved. The user may specify any number of known and unknown contributors in the model, however we find that there is a practical computing time limit which restricts the model to a maximum of four unknown contributors. EuroForMix is the first freely open source, continuous model (accommodating peak height, stutter, drop-in, drop-out, population substructure and degradation), to be reported in the literature. It therefore serves an important purpose to act as an unrestricted platform to compare different solutions that are available. The implementation of the continuous model used in the software showed close to identical results to the R-package DNAmixtures, which requires a HUGIN Expert license to be used. An additional feature in EuroForMix is the ability for the user to adapt the Bayesian inference framework by incorporating their own prior information.

  15. Endogenous levels of Echinacea alkylamides and ketones are important contributors to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in cultured macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A.; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Wu, Lankun; Solco, Avery K.S.; Yum, Manyu; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kim, Meehye; Birt, Diane F.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of Echinacea as a dietary supplement, researchers have been actively investigating which Echinacea constituent or groups of constituents are necessary for immune modulating bioactivities. Our prior studies indicate that alkylamides may play an important role in the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. HPLC fractionation, employed to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. tennesseensis identified fractions containing alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors using lipopolysaccharide induced PGE2 production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and parallel cytotoxicity screens were also employed to substantiate an anti-inflammatory response. Echinacea pallida showed significant inhibition of PGE2 with a first round fraction, containing GC-MS peaks for Bauer Ketones 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, with 23 and 24 identified as significant contributors to this PGE2 inhibition. Chemically synthesized Bauer Ketones 21 and 23 at 1 μM each significantly inhibited both PGE2 and NO production. Three rounds of fractionation were produced from an E. angustifolia extract. GC-MS analysis identified the presence of Bauer Ketone 23 in third round Fraction 3D32 and Bauer Alkylamide 11 making up 96% of third round Fraction 3E40. Synthetic Bauer Ketone 23 inhibited PGE2 production to 83 % of control and synthetic Bauer Alkylamide 11 significantly inhibited PGE2 and NO production at the endogenous concentrations determined to be present in their respective fraction, thus each constituent partially explained the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of their respective fraction. From this study two key contributors to the anti-inflammatory properties of E. angustifolia were identified as Bauer Alkylamide 11 and Bauer Ketone 23. PMID:19807154

  16. Regional projections of glacier volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier melt-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and glaciers peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced melt and the reduction of the glacier reservoir by glacier retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in glacier runoff indicating that the effect of glacier shrinkage is more dominant than increased melting rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.

  17. Three-dimensional volume-rendered multidetector CT imaging of the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery: its anatomy and role in diagnosing extrapancreatic perineural invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Craig; Brooke Jeffrey, R.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Olcott, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Extrapancreatic perineural spread in pancreatic adenocarcinoma contributes to poor outcomes, as it is known to be a major contributor to positive surgical margins and disease recurrence. However, current staging classifications have not yet taken extrapancreatic perineural spread into account. Four pathways of extrapancreatic perineural spread have been described that conveniently follow small defined arterial pathways. Small field of view three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images allow visualization of small peripancreatic vessels and thus perineural invasion that may be associated with them. One such vessel, the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (PIPDA), serves as a surrogate for extrapancreatic perineural spread by pancreatic adenocarcinoma arising in the uncinate process. This pictorial review presents the normal and variant anatomy of the PIPDA with 3D volume-rendered MDCT imaging, and emphasizes its role as a vascular landmark for the diagnosis of extrapancreatic perineural invasion from uncinate adenocarcinomas. Familiarity with the anatomy of PIPDA will allow accurate detection of extrapancreatic perineural spread by pancreatic adenocarcinoma involving the uncinate process, and may potentially have important staging implications as neoadjuvant therapy improves. PMID:24434918

  18. Clinical analysis of contributors to the delayed gallbladder opacification following the use of water-soluble contrast medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Chang Ku,1,2 Victor C Kok,3,4 Ming-Yung Lee,5 Soa-Min Hsu,1 Pei-Yu Lee,1 Che-Wei Chang,1 Yeu-Sheng Tyan,6 Chi-Wen Juan7,8 1Department of Radiology, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, 2Department of Nursing, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Kuang Tien General Hospital, 4Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, 5Department of Statistics and Informatics Science, Providence University, 6Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, 7Department of Emergency Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, 8Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, Taichung, Taiwan Objectives: Gallbladder opacification (GBO on computed tomography (CT imaging may obscure certain pathological or emergent conditions in the gallbladder, such as neoplasms, stones, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical contributing factors that could predict the presence of delayed GBO determined by CT.Methods: This study retrospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who received enhanced CT or intravenous pyelography imaging and then underwent abdominal CT imaging within 5 days. According to the interval between imaging, the patients were divided into group A (1 day, group B (2 or 3 days, and group C (4 or 5 days. Three radiologists evaluated CT images to determine GBO. Fisher’s exact test and multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression were performed.Results: Positive GBO was significantly associated with the interval between imaging studies, contrast type, contrast volume, renal function, and hypertransaminasemia (P<0.05. Multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression analysis of the three groups identified contrast type and hypertransaminasemia as independent predictors of GBO in group B patients (odds ratio [OR], 13.52, 95% confidence interval [CI

  19. Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E

    2015-12-01

    The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World."

  20. Sensory properties of virgin olive oil polyphenols: identification of deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon as a key contributor to pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, Paul; Busch, Johanneke L H C; de Joode, Teun; Groenewegen, Anneke; Alexandre, Helene

    2003-02-26

    Polyphenols are an important functional minor component of virgin olive oils that are responsible for the key sensory characteristics of bitterness, pungency, and astringency. Polyphenols were isolated from virgin olive oils by using liquid/liquid extraction and then separated by using reverse phase HPLC followed by fraction collection. The sensory qualities of the isolated polyphenols were evaluated, and almost all fractions containing polyphenols were described as bitter and astringent. However, the fraction containing deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon produced a strong burning pungent sensation at the back of the throat. In contrast, the fraction containing the analogous deacetoxy-oleuropein aglycon, at an equivalent concentration, produced only a slight burning/numbing sensation, which was perceived more on the tongue. No other polyphenol fractions from the analyzed oils produced the intense burning sensation; thus, deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon is the polyphenol responsible for the majority of the burning pungent sensation found in pungent extra virgin olive oils.

  1. Describing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    York. Do Carmo , Manfredo P, [1976], Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Prent- ice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Faugeras, 0. D., et. al, [1982...lightbulb. It is well-known (for exam~ple, do Carmo "" "..-’,.’.V .. .V...i ra I s ; ul ing-.. "’. Figure 11. The helicoid of a single blade. (Reproduced from [do Carmo 1976, Figure 2-27 Page 94]) where m and 1 are assumed

  2. On an isotherm thermodynamically consistent in Henry's region for describing gas adsorption in microporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc

    2010-05-15

    The Dubinin-Astakhov and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms, originally formulated from the classical volume filling theory of micropores, constitute the most accepted models for describing gas adsorption in microporous materials. The most important weakness of these equations relies on the fact that they do not reduce to Henry's law at low pressures, not providing therefore a proper characterization of adsorbents in the early stage of adsorption. In this paper, we propose a way out of this inherent problem using the thermodynamic isotherm developed in a previous study [J. Llorens, M. Pera-Titus, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 331 (2009) 302]. This isotherm allows the generation of a series of equations that make available a comprehensive description of gas adsorption for the whole set of relative pressures (including Henry's region), also providing explicit information about energy heterogeneity of the adsorbent through the two characteristic m parameters of the thermodynamic isotherm (i.e., m(1) and m(2)). The obtained isotherm converges into the Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm for relative pressures higher than 0.1, the characteristic α parameter of this isotherm being expressed as α=m(2)-1 and the affinity coefficient (β) as a sole function of m(2). An expression differing from the Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm has been obtained for describing Henry's region, providing relevant information about confinement effects when applied to zeolites.

  3. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  4. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke De Bock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury.

  5. A time and motion study of junior doctor work patterns on the weekend: a potential contributor to the weekend effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L C; Lehnbom, E C; Baysari, M T; Walter, S R; Day, R O; Westbrook, J I

    2016-07-01

    Patients admitted to hospital on weekends have a greater risk of mortality compared to patients admitted on weekdays. Junior medical officers (JMO) make up the majority of medical staff on weekends. No previous study has quantified JMO work patterns on weekends. To describe and quantify JMO work patterns on weekends and compare them with patterns previously observed during the week. Observational time and motion study of JMO working weekends using the Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT; Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia) software. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the proportion of total observed time spent in tasks. Weekend JMO predominately spent time in indirect care (32.0%), direct care (23.0%) and professional communication (22.1%). JMO spent 20.9% of time multitasking and were interrupted, on average, every 9 min. Weekend JMO spent significantly more time in direct care compared with weekdays (13.0%; P pattern of JMO work could be a potential contributing factor to the weekend effect in terms of JMO abilities to respond safely and adequately to care demands. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  7. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  8. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  9. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus – Contributors to Cellular Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Passamaneck, Yale; Christie, Andrew E.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival. PMID:25945801

  10. Volume of the Hippocampal Subfields in Healthy Adults: Differential Associations with Age and a Pro-inflammatory Genetic Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Naftali; Daugherty, Ana M.; Bender, Andrew R.; Dahle, Cheryl L.; Land, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most age-sensitive brain regions, yet the mechanisms of hippocampal shrinkage remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to aging and differentially sensitive to vascular risk. Promoters of inflammation are frequently proposed as major contributors to brain aging and vascular disease but their effects on hippocampal subfields are unknown. We examined the associations of hippocampal subfield volumes with age, a ...

  11. Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevoo Lucy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and

  12. Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källander, Karin; Kadobera, Daniel; Williams, Thomas N; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Yevoo, Lucy; Mutebi, Aloysius; Akpakli, Jonas; Narh, Clement; Gyapong, Margaret; Amu, Alberta; Waiswa, Peter

    2011-08-05

    Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and appropriate treatment in Dodowa HDSS, there were severe challenges to prompt

  13. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  14. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years...... of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. RESULTS: Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2...

  15. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  16. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  17. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  18. Equations to describe brain size across the continuum of human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan; Seri, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    Equations fitting the normative values for gender-specific brain size changes are available. However, these equations do not fit for all age ranges across the human lifespan and particularly have failed to examine the fit across the continuum of prenatal and postnatal human life. We sought to develop a parametric equation that best describes the changes in gender-specific brain size as a function of age across the continuum of prenatal and postnatal human life. Brain weight and brain volume data retrieved from the literature were combined to perform a meta-analysis. Additions to previously published findings included collecting a dataset that spanned the continuum of human lifespan, logarithmic transformation of the data and utilization of the Birch equation. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) for quantitative evaluation of the new equations. A total of 2,011 brain weight data points spanning from 10 weeks of fetal gestation to over 90 years of age were retrieved. Using our approach, we developed equations with improved fits and lower or similar AIC values compared to the published equations. The new equations are modifications of the basic Birch model. These equations are the first to describe the gender-specific brain weight changes through the continuum of both prenatal and postnatal human life while achieving a level of accuracy similar to or better than the previous, more age-restricted models. The new equations are improved compared to previously used equations and may be useful to those who study brain development, particularly researchers interested in prenatal and postnatal brain size.

  19. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prados

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F, apparent elimination rate (ke/F, and Tlag; sex (female; male on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs.

  20. A population-based model to describe geometrical uncertainties in radiotherapy: applied to prostate cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, E.; Keijzer, M.; Storchi, P. R.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Bondar, L.; Mutanga, T. F.; de Boer, H. C. J.; Heemink, A. W.

    2011-02-01

    Local motions and deformations of organs between treatment fractions introduce geometrical uncertainties into radiotherapy. These uncertainties are generally taken into account in the treatment planning by enlarging the radiation target by a margin around the clinical target volume. However, a practical method to fully include these uncertainties is still lacking. This paper proposes a model based on the principal component analysis to describe the patient-specific local probability distributions of voxel motions so that the average values and variances of the dose distribution can be calculated and fully used later in inverse treatment planning. As usually only a very limited number of data for new patients is available; in this paper the analysis is extended to use population data. A basic assumption (which is justified retrospectively in this paper) is that general movements and deformations of a specific organ are similar despite variations in the shapes of the organ over the population. A proof of principle of the method for deformations of the prostate and the seminal vesicles is presented.

  1. A population-based model to describe geometrical uncertainties in radiotherapy: applied to prostate cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiarto, E; Keijzer, M; Heemink, A W [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics (DIAM), Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Storchi, P R; Hoogeman, M S; Bondar, L; Mutanga, T F [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre. Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Boer, H C J, E-mail: e.budiarto@tudelft.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-21

    Local motions and deformations of organs between treatment fractions introduce geometrical uncertainties into radiotherapy. These uncertainties are generally taken into account in the treatment planning by enlarging the radiation target by a margin around the clinical target volume. However, a practical method to fully include these uncertainties is still lacking. This paper proposes a model based on the principal component analysis to describe the patient-specific local probability distributions of voxel motions so that the average values and variances of the dose distribution can be calculated and fully used later in inverse treatment planning. As usually only a very limited number of data for new patients is available; in this paper the analysis is extended to use population data. A basic assumption (which is justified retrospectively in this paper) is that general movements and deformations of a specific organ are similar despite variations in the shapes of the organ over the population. A proof of principle of the method for deformations of the prostate and the seminal vesicles is presented.

  2. Interobserver agreement in describing video capsule endoscopy findings: a multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Alessandro; Cannizzaro, Renato; Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Zancanella, Laura; Fusetti, Nadia; Simoni, Marzia; Cantoni, Franco; Melina, Raffaele; Alberani, Angela; Caravelli, Giancarlo; Villa, Federica; Chilovi, Fausto; Casetti, Tino; Iaquinto, Gaetano; D'imperio, Nicola; Gullini, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have specifically addressed interobserver agreement in describing lesions identified during capsule endoscopy. The aim of our study is to evaluate interobserver agreement in the description of capsule endoscopy findings. Consecutive short segments of capsule endoscopy were prospectively observed by 8 investigators. Seventy-five videos were prepared by an external investigator (gold standard). The description of the findings was reported by the investigators using the same validated and standardized capsule endoscopy structured terminology. The agreement was assessed using Cohen's kappa statistic. As concerns the ability to detect a lesion, the agreement with the gold standard was moderate (kappa 0.48), as well as the agreement relating to the final diagnosis (κ 0.45). The best agreement was observed in identifying the presence of active bleeding (κ 0.72), whereas the poorest agreement concerned the lesion size (κ 0.32). The agreement with the GS was significantly better in endoscopists with higher case/volume of capsule endoscopy per year. Diagnostic concordance was better in the presence of angiectasia than in the presence of polyps or ulcers/erosions. Correct lesion identification and diagnosis seem more likely to occur in presence of angiectasia, and for readers with more experience in capsule endoscopy reading. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Using smooth sheets to describe groundfish habitat in Alaskan waters, with specific application to two flatfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Reid, Jane A.; Golden, Nadine

    2016-10-01

    In this analysis we demonstrate how preferred fish habitat can be predicted and mapped for juveniles of two Alaskan groundfish species - Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) - at five sites (Kiliuda Bay, Izhut Bay, Port Dick, Aialik Bay, and the Barren Islands) in the central Gulf of Alaska. The method involves using geographic information system (GIS) software to extract appropriate information from National Ocean Service (NOS) smooth sheets that are available from NGDC (the National Geophysical Data Center). These smooth sheets are highly detailed charts that include more soundings, substrates, shoreline and feature information than the more commonly-known navigational charts. By bringing the information from smooth sheets into a GIS, a variety of surfaces, such as depth, slope, rugosity and mean grain size were interpolated into raster surfaces. Other measurements such as site openness, shoreline length, proportion of bay that is near shore, areas of rocky reefs and kelp beds, water volumes, surface areas and vertical cross-sections were also made in order to quantify differences between the study sites. Proper GIS processing also allows linking the smooth sheets to other data sets, such as orthographic satellite photographs, topographic maps and precipitation estimates from which watersheds and runoff can be derived. This same methodology can be applied to larger areas, taking advantage of these free data sets to describe predicted groundfish essential fish habitat (EFH) in Alaskan waters.

  4. Volume of intersection of two cones

    CERN Document Server

    Balogun, F A; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    Radiation measurements utilising collimated source and detector systems invariably result in a target volume described by the overlap of their fields of view. When these collimators are cylindrical, this is derived from the volume of intersection of two cones. In general, analysis of this volume does not lend itself to a direct analytical process. Here, numerical methods of estimating the common volume of two intersecting right cones are presented. These include methods which employ, (a) a sequential scanning of an elemental volume with a predetermined size across a defined space containing the volume of interest and (b) a Monte Carlo technique. The accuracy obtainable and the execution time in the first type of algorithm depend on the size of the elemental volume (bin-size). On the other hand, these two parameters are independent of the bin-size but dependent on the number of histories sampled, for the Monte Carlo technique. At 0 deg. angle of inclination, where an analytical estimation is easily obtained, t...

  5. Oceanography, Volume 5, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    compacted for efficient com- some cases weakly two-way interactive, coupling munication ( Garthner et al.. 1991). will supplv with atmospheric models...depiction of the ocean mesoscale, which may be Garthner . J.P., B.R. Mendenhall and R.M. Clancy, 1991: Navv an important contributor to the global heat bal

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  8. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  9. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  11. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  12. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  13. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  14. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  15. Analysis of Partial Volume Effects on Accurate Measurement of the Hippocampus Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam Hajiesmaeili; Jamshid Dehmeshki; Tim Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal volume loss is an important biomarker in distinguishing subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its measurement in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This paper describes a post-processing approach to quantify PVE for correction of the hippocampal volume by using a spatial fuzzyC-means (SFCM) method. The algorithm is evaluated on a dataset of 20 T1-weighted MRI scans sampled at two different resolutions. The corrected volumes for left and right hippocampus (HC) which are 23% and 18% for the low resolution and 6% and 5% for the high resolution datasets, respectively are lower than hippocampal volume results from manual segmentation. Results show the importance of applying this technique in AD detection with low resolution datasets.

  16. Guidance for Contributors to Episodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Episodes is distributed to awide range of scientists in over 150 countries. It aims to keep readers informed, of new and current developments in earth science and is a vital communications link in the global geological community.

  17. Vasile Goldis, Familia magazine contributor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra PANTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century around Oradea “Familia” magazine have worked important culture people, including Vasile Goldis. As a teacher he was concerned about the development of theatrical movement and he was supported by Iosif Vulcan. Vasile Goldis ˝ as secretary of the “Society for the creation of a Fund for the Romanian theater ˝ was the author of some issues printed in the “Familia” magazine where he has shown the importance of the Romanian theater and believed that,by developping theater can be achieved the developpement of the national culture.. Vasile Goldis considered theater one of the most important institutions of the Transylvanian Romanians which, along with the school and the church could sow in the hearts of Romanian the national sentiment.

  18. INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS TO PEDOSPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Send manuscripts and address all editorial correspondence to the Editorial Office of PEDOSPHERE, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 821, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. Tel.:+86-25-8688 1235, +86-25-8688 1256; Fax:+86-25-8688 1256; E-mail:pedos@issas.ac.cn, pedo@issas.ac.cn, rmdu@issas.ac.cn.

  19. Information for Contributors to PEDOSPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PEDOSPHERE is a peer-reviewed international journal of soil science.It welcomes submissions from scientists around the world under a broad scope of topics relevant to timely,high quality original research findings,especially up-to-date achievements and advances in the entire field of soil science studies dealing with environmental science,ecology,agriculture,bioscience,geoscience,forestry,etc.Its areas of particular interest include soil physics;soil chemistry;soil biology and biochemistry;soil fertility and plant nutrition;soil resources and use;soil mineralogy;soil environment and ecology;soil and water conservation;forest,range,and wetland soils;soil salinity and management;soil and plant analysis and technology;and soil gases and global change.

  20. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  1. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  2. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  3. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  4. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  5. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  6. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  7. Beta-cell dysfunction is the primary contributor to the early postpartum diabetes among Chinese women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xiao-pei; XIAO Hai-peng; CHEN Song-jin; ZHAN Yan-feng; XIU Ling-ling; WANG Zi-lian

    2008-01-01

    Background Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)are at higher risk of future development of diabetes. This study investigated the risk factors associated with early postpartum abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) among Chinese women with a history of GDM. Methods A total of 186 women with a history of GDM were screened for early postpartum AGR at 6-8 weeks after delivery. Those with AGR were given lifestyle intervention therapy and reevaluated in 6-12 months. The demographic, anthropometric, prenatal and delivery data were recorded. The plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP)and lipid concentration were measured, and insulin secretion were analyzed. Insulinogenic index △ins30'/△BG30', the homeostasis model assessment index(HOMA)-B, and HOMA-IR were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors. Results of the GDM women 28. O%(52/186)had AGR at 6-8 weeks after delivery;45. 2% (17/40) of these AGR women reminded abnormal after 6-12 month lifestyle intervention. Compared to the women who reverted to normal, women with consistent AGR showed significantly lower fasting insulin concentration, lower △ins30'/△BG30'as well aslower HOMA-B. No significant differences in age, body mass index(BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid level, HsCRP and HOMA-IR were observed between the two groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI>25 kg/m2. fasting glucose level≥5. 6 mmol/L and/or 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)2 hours glucose level≥11. 1 mmol/L during pregnancy were predictors for the AGR at 6-8 weeks after delivery. △ins30'/△BG30≤1.05 was a significant risk contributor to the consistent early postpartum AGR. Conclusion There is a high incidence of early postpartum AGR among Chinese woman with prior GDM. Beta-cell dysfunction, rather than insulin resistance or inflammation, is the predominant contributor to the early onset and consistent AGR after delivery.

  8. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  9. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  11. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  12. University students as recipients of and contributors to information on climate change: insights from South Africa and implications for well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zoghbi, Mona Betour; El Ansari, Walid

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance the in-depth understanding of the contextual dimensions that shape the relationships between climate change communication approach and youth well-being. The study focused on university students who constitute the key stakeholders and future decision-makers and leaders for managing the long-term climate risks. A total of 10 focus group interviews were conducted with 117 undergraduate and graduate South African university students from over 12 universities located in different provinces of South Africa. In addition, another 16 interviews were also undertaken with university students, 10 interviews with key experts, and 3 youth national events were attended as participant-observation. As recipients of information on climate change, students' well-being was negatively affected by the media's pessimism of communicating risks and the inadequate or restricted networking of communicating solutions and strategies. As contributors to information on climate change, students faced key barriers to their efficacy and agency that entailed socio-cultural inequalities (e.g. race and language) and a lack of formal forums for community recognition, policy consultation and collaboration. In addition, for some students (e.g. journalism students), the lack of sufficient knowledge and skills on climate change and sustainability issues limited their ability to effectively communicate these issues to their audience. Platforms for interactive and reflective discussions, access to innovative technologies and social media, and opportunities for multi-stakeholder partnerships are keys to the success of youth-targeted and youth-initiated communication on climate change.

  13. Non-native plants and soil microbes: potential contributors to the consistent reduction in soil aggregate stability caused by the disturbance of North American grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchicela, Jessica; Vogelsang, Keith M; Schultz, Peggy A; Kaonongbua, Wittaya; Middleton, Elizabeth L; Bever, James D

    2012-10-01

    • Soil aggregate stability is an important ecosystem property that is altered by anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the generalization of these alterations and the identification of the main contributors are limited by the absence of cross-site comparisons and the application of inconsistent methodologies across regions. • We assessed aggregate stability in paired remnant and post-disturbance grasslands across California, shortgrass and tallgrass prairies, and in manipulative experiments of plant composition and soil microbial inoculation. • Grasslands recovering from anthropogenic disturbance consistently had lower aggregate stability than remnants. Across all grasslands, non-native plant diversity was significantly associated with reduced soil aggregate stability. A negative effect of non-native plants on aggregate stability was also observed in a mesocosm experiment comparing native and non-native plants from California grasslands. Moreover, an inoculation study demonstrated that the degradation of the microbial community also contributes to the decline in soil aggregate stability in disturbed grasslands. • Anthropogenic disturbance consistently reduced water-stable aggregates. The stability of aggregates was reduced by non-native plants and the degradation of the native soil microbial community. This latter effect might contribute to the sustained decline in aggregate stability following anthropogenic disturbance. Further exploration is advocated to understand the generality of these potential mechanisms.

  14. The decays of three top contributors to the reactor ve high-energy spectrum, 92Rb, 96gsY, and 142Cs, studied with total absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasco, Bertis; MTAS Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of 92Rb, 96gsY, and 142Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ve spectral shape in nuclear reactors. The measurements were performed with the NaI(Tl) based Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS). MTAS was constructed specifically to measure improved β-decay feeding patterns from neutron-rich nuclei, because it is difficult to measure β-decay feeding intensities with high energy precision γ-ray measurements due to the low efficiency of high precision detectors. Besides the impact to the high energy ve spectral shape in nuclear reactors, there are several other important applications of improved measurements of β-decay feeding patterns by total absorption spectroscopy; improve understanding of elemental abundances in the universe, help with stockpile stewardship, contribute to understanding of underlying nuclear structure, and improve measurements of decay heat. We will demonstrate some of the techniques for analyzing MTAS γ-decay data. This research was also sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, U. S. Department of Energy under Contracts DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-96ER40983, DE-FG02-96ER40978, and by the Polish National Science Center under Contract UMO-2013/08/T/ST2/00624.

  15. The renin-angiotensin system: a target of and contributor to dyslipidemias, altered glucose homeostasis, and hypertension of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Kelly; Shoemaker, Robin; Yiannikouris, Frederique; Cassis, Lisa A

    2012-03-15

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension. Obesity has emerged as a primary contributor to essential hypertension in the United States and clusters with other metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, hypertension, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol) defined within the metabolic syndrome. In addition to hypertension, RAS blockade may also serve as an effective treatment strategy to control impaired glucose and insulin tolerance and dyslipidemias in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or specific cholesterol metabolites have been demonstrated to activate components required for the synthesis [angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)], degradation (ACE2), or responsiveness (angiotensin II type 1 receptors, Mas receptors) to angiotensin peptides in cell types (e.g., pancreatic islet cells, adipocytes, macrophages) that mediate specific disorders of the metabolic syndrome. An activated local RAS in these cell types may contribute to dysregulated function by promoting oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. This review will discuss data demonstrating the regulation of components of the RAS by cholesterol and its metabolites, glucose, and/or insulin in cell types implicated in disorders of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, we discuss data supporting a role for an activated local RAS in dyslipidemias and glucose intolerance/insulin resistance and the development of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome. Identification of an activated RAS as a common thread contributing to several disorders of the metabolic syndrome makes the use of angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors an intriguing and novel option for multisymptom treatment.

  16. In vitro glucuronidation of Armillarisin A: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 acts as a major contributor and significant species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongxue; Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Ge, Guangbo; Cao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yan; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling

    2014-11-01

    1. This study is performed to investigate liver microsomal glucuronidation of Armillarisin A (A.A), an effective cholagogue drug, aiming at characterizing the involved UDP-glucuronosyltranferases (UGT) and revealing potential species differences. 2. A.A glucuronidation in human liver microsomes (HLM) generates one metabolite (M2) glucuronidated at the phenol hydroxyl group, obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. Multiple isoforms including UGT1A1, 1A7, 1A9 and 2B15 can catalyze A.A glucuronidation. Kinetic assays and chemical inhibition studies both demonstrate that UGT1A9 is responsible for A.A glucuronidation in HLM. A.A glucuronidation in Cynomolgus monkey microsomes (CyLM) also follows Michaelis-Menten model, but can additionally catalyze the traced glucuronosyl substitution at the alcohol hydroxyl group (M1). The reactions in liver microsomes from Sprague-Dawley rats (RLM), ICR/CD-1 mouse (MLM), Beagle dog (DLM) all display biphasic kinetics and only M2 is detected. HLM, RLM and CyLM exhibit very similar catalytic activities towards A.A glucuronidation, with the intrinsic clearance values of respective 38, 37 and 37 μL/min/mg, which are much higher than MLM and DLM. 3. This in vitro study indicates that UGT1A9 acts as a major contributor to A.A glucuronidation in human liver, and the reaction displays large species differences.

  17. Structural Analysis via Generalized Interactive Graphics - STAGING. Volume IV. Appendices to System Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    TE SECURITY CLA𔃿nfF 1. AT CIN OF THIS PAGE IIIla~r faa,. FOREWARD This final repo, t was prepared by the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle Memorial...Kasik C. Scofield W. Young F. Drobot Kevin Cadmus was a major contributor to the preparation of this volume. The work reported herein was conducted... IELT -----O ’) 8 . OL.F. . .DBDRT. IDaDAD IDBJLF ICKAGT DELPIC ENTRY CLASS: MAIN SEGMENT: (DE0) DESCI DELETE ANO DEACTIVATE ALL PICKED 2EAOS ON A LEVEL

  18. Using the ecology model to describe the impact of asthma on patterns of health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawn Barbara P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma changes both the volume and patterns of healthcare of affected people. Most studies of asthma health care utilization have been done in selected insured populations or in a single site such as the emergency department. Asthma is an ambulatory sensitive care condition making it important to understand the relationship between care in all sites across the health service spectrum. Asthma is also more common in people with fewer economic resources making it important to include people across all types of insurance and no insurance categories. The ecology of medical care model may provide a useful framework to describe the use of health services in people with asthma compared to those without asthma and identify subgroups with apparent gaps in care. Methods This is a case-control study using the 1999 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Cases are school-aged children (6 to 17 years and young adults (18 to 44 years with self-reported asthma. Controls are from the same age groups who have no self-reported asthma. Descriptive analyses and risk ratios are placed within the ecology of medical care model and used to describe and compare the healthcare contact of cases and controls across multiple settings. Results In 1999, the presence of asthma significantly increased the likelihood of an ambulatory care visit by 20 to 30% and more than doubled the likelihood of making one or more visits to the emergency department (ED. Yet, 18.8% of children and 14.5% of adults with asthma (over a million Americans had no ambulatory care visits for asthma. About one in 20 to 35 people with asthma (5.2% of children and 3.6% of adults were seen in the ED or hospital but had no prior or follow-up ambulatory care visits. These Americans were more likely to be uninsured, have no usual source of care and live in metropolitan areas. Conclusion The ecology model confirmed that having asthma changes the likelihood and pattern of care for Americans

  19. Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  20. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  1. High Volume Colour Image Processing with Massively Parallel Embedded Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jan W.M.; Bond, W.; Pouls, R.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Joubert, G.R.; Peters, F.J.; Tirado, P.; Nagel, W.E.; Plata, O.; Zapata, E.

    2006-01-01

    Currently Oce uses FPGA technology for implementing colour image processing for their high volume colour printers. Although FPGA technology provides enough performance it, however, has a rather tedious development process. This paper describes the research conducted on an alternative implementation

  2. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model to describe azithromycin whole-blood and plasma concentrations over time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Anic-Milic, T; Oreskovic, K; Padovan, J; Brouwer, K L R; Zuo, P; Schmith, V D

    2013-07-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.).

  3. Excluded-Volume Approximation for Supernova Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yudin, A V

    2014-01-01

    A general scheme of the excluded-volume approximation as applied to multicomponent systems with an arbitrary degree of degeneracy has been developed. This scheme also admits an allowance for additional interactions between the components of a system. A specific form of the excluded-volume approximation for investigating supernova matter at subnuclear densities has been found from comparison with the hard-sphere model. The possibility of describing the phase transition to uniform nuclear matter in terms of the formalism under consideration is discussed.

  4. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  5. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  6. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  7. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  8. Estimation of feline renal volume using computed tomography and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Logsdon, Stacy A; Werre, Stephen R; Daniel, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Renal volume estimation is an important parameter for clinical evaluation of kidneys and research applications. A time efficient, repeatable, and accurate method for volume estimation is required. The purpose of this study was to describe the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for estimating feline renal volume. Standardized ultrasound and CT scans were acquired for kidneys of 12 cadaver cats, in situ. Ultrasound and CT multiplanar reconstructions were used to record renal length measurements that were then used to calculate volume using the prolate ellipsoid formula for volume estimation. In addition, CT studies were reconstructed at 1 mm, 5 mm, and 1 cm, and transferred to a workstation where the renal volume was calculated using the voxel count method (hand drawn regions of interest). The reference standard kidney volume was then determined ex vivo using water displacement with the Archimedes' principle. Ultrasound measurement of renal length accounted for approximately 87% of the variability in renal volume for the study population. The prolate ellipsoid formula exhibited proportional bias and underestimated renal volume by a median of 18.9%. Computed tomography volume estimates using the voxel count method with hand-traced regions of interest provided the most accurate results, with increasing accuracy for smaller voxel sizes in grossly normal kidneys (-10.1 to 0.6%). Findings from this study supported the use of CT and the voxel count method for estimating feline renal volume in future clinical and research studies.

  9. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  10. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  11. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  12. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  13. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; /Daresbury; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; /Cockcroft Inst.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  14. CMH-17 Volume 5 Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrulonis, Rachael; Kiser, J. Douglas; David, Kaia E.; Davies, Curtis; Ashforth, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of issues must be addressed during the process of certifying CMC (ceramic matrix composite) components for use in commercial aircraft. The Composite Materials Handbook-17, Volume 5, Revision A on ceramic matrix composites has just been revised to help support FAA certification of CMCs for elevated temperature applications. The handbook supports the development and use of CMCs through publishing and maintaining proven, reliable engineering information and standards that have been thoroughly reviewed. Volume 5 contains detailed sections describing CMC materials processing, design analysis guidelines, testing procedures, and data analysis and acceptance. A review of the content of this latest revision will be presented along with a description of how CMH-17, Volume 5 could be used by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and others in the future.

  15. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  16. Anti-PEG IgM Is a Major Contributor to the Accelerated Blood Clearance of Polyethylene Glycol-Conjugated Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Yu; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-07-06

    Limited therapeutic efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEGylated) protein drugs has been recently reported in animals and human following repeat injections. Since there are reports that an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon is caused by repeated injection of PEGylated liposome, there is an assumption that PEGylated proteins lose their long circulating property when they are injected repeatedly due to the induction of anti-PEG antibody. Although induction of anti-PEG antibody by PEGylated protein has been reported, there is little evidence of accelerated blood clearance of PEGylated protein upon repeated injection. Herein, we investigated the blood concentration of PEGylated ovalbumin (PEG-OVA), a model PEGylated protein, upon its repeated injection. A single intravenous administration of PEG-OVA elicited an anti-PEG IgM response but not anti-PEG IgG response, while the administration did not elicit antibody against OVA. At 24 h postinjection of test PEG-OVA, although control mice showed 41.6% dose of PEG-OVA in blood, the mice pretreated with PEG-OVA showed rapid clearance of test PEG-OVA from blood and undetectable level of PEG-OVA. Interestingly, the anti-PEG IgM induced by PEGylated liposome did not affect the blood concentration of subsequent dose of PEG-OVA. Our result suggests that anti-PEG IgM is a major contributor to the accelerated blood clearance of PEG-conjugated protein, but the presence of anti-PEG IgM in blood circulation does not necessarily affect circulating property of entire PEGylated materials.

  17. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  18. Hip-Hop(e): The Cultural Practice and Critical Pedagogy of International Hip-Hop. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…

  19. Residual limb volume change: Systematic review of measurement and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. This systematic review assesses what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: group I: descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; group II: studies investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care in people with lower-limb amputation; and group III: studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. We found that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, limited evidence exists regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with transtibial amputation in the early postoperative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required.

  20. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  1. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  2. The Gigaton Volume Detector in Lake Baikal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.r [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Berezhnev, S. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.; Budnev, N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.; Domogatsky, G.; Doroshenko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Ermakov, G. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gres' , O.; Gres' , T. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Grishin, N. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grishin, O. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Klabukov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-21

    The objective of the Baikal Project is the creation of a kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino observatory: the Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD) in Lake Baikal. Basic elements of the GVD - new optical modules, FADC readout units, and underwater communication systems - were investigated and tested in Lake Baikal with prototype strings in 2008-2010. We describe the results of prototype strings operation and review the preliminary design and expected sensitivity of the GVD telescope.

  3. Volume 1 - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An introduction to the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) materials. Describes EIIP development, use of EIIP, inventory staff training, and planning, development, documentation, and reporting of inventories.

  4. Examining the major contributors and controlling factors of ozone production in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta region during harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Open biomass burning (OBB has been reported to emit substantial amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, and the mixing of OBB with urban plumes could exacerbate regional ozone (O3 pollution. In the present study, an observational field campaign was performed in a rural area at the edge of Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR during harvest season when intensive open burning of wheat residues was observed. The O3 production rate at the site was calculated using a photochemical box model (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism, Version 2 constrained by real-time ambient measurements (e.g., O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, the sum of NO2 + NO (NOx, J values. During the period impacted by OBB, the O3 concentration frequently exceeded 100 ppbv. Analysis showed that the net O3 production was pronounced, in particular when the site was characterized by a prevailing southerly wind that also brought substantial amounts of NOx emitted from urban areas. At these times, the maximum rate of O3 production was 20 ppbv h−1 with potential production rate of 102 ppbv on a daily basis. The O3 production at the site was typically VOC-sensitive in the morning because NOx dominated the plumes. However, in the afternoon, conditions became NOx-sensitive due to the rapid photochemical consumption of NOx in the production of O3. A positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that solvent usage and OBB were the primary contributors to the mass fraction of ambient NMHCs observed at the study site, and were responsible for 35 and 23% of the total O3 production, respectively. The preferential presence of NOx in the morning inhibited net O3 production; meanwhile O3 built up in the afternoon due to a decrease in NOx concentrations. These results indicated that a joint effort in the regulation of solvent (aromatics usage and OBB, as well as NOx from on-road vehicle exhaust may be effective in eliminating high-O3 pollution risk in the rural areas of the YRDR.

  5. Management of Drilling Cuttings in Term of Volume and Economics in Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Biltayib.M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of drilling oil and gas wells generates large volumes of drill cuttings and spent muds. The American Petroleum Institute estimated that about 150 million barrels of drilling waste was generated yearly from onshore wells in the United States alone. Of the total drilling waste, approximately 50% is solid drilling waste. The biggest contributors of drilling wastes are drilling cuttings and mud. Reducing the drilling fluids not only it reduces the waste volume, but it also reduces the environmental effects associated with it. The main purpose of drilling waste management is to find to ways by which the generation of waste can be controlled to minimize or eliminate its negative impact on the environment. Minimizing waste is always the priority, however, it not always the most cost-effective solution. The objective of this report is t

  6. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume III of III: software description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-29

    This volume contains a description of the software comprising the National Utility Financial Statement Model (NUFS). This is the third of three volumes describing NUFS provided by ICF Incorporated under contract DEAC-01-79EI-10579. The three volumes are entitled: model overview and description, user's guide, and software guide.

  7. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  8. Bottom-up coarse-grained models that accurately describe the structure, pressure, and compressibility of molecular liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G., E-mail: wnoid@chem.psu.edu [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U{sub V}(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U{sub V}, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U{sub V} accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.

  9. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  10. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  11. Employment Densities, (Note: Describe as available), Published in unknown, Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC), Indiana University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Employment Densities dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as '(Note: Describe as available)'. Data by...

  12. Population, Nighttime, (Note: Describe as available), Published in unknown, Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC), Indiana University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Population, Nighttime dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as '(Note: Describe as available)'. Data by...

  13. Immigration Information, (Note: Describe as available), Published in unknown, Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC), Indiana University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Immigration Information dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as '(Note: Describe as available)'. Data by...

  14. Designing a sampling system for concurrently measuring outdoor recreation visitation and describing visitor characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Susan M. Kocis

    2004-01-01

    Two primary information needs for managing recreation areas and the visitors to those areas are: (1) good estimates of visitation volume, and (2) accurate descriptions of visitor characteristics, such as length of stay, frequency of visit, and primary activity. For National Forests in the United States of America with large undeveloped areas, efficient sampling for the...

  15. Decision‐making process of prenatal screening described by pregnant women and their partners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wätterbjörk, Inger; Blomberg, Karin; Nilsson, Kerstin; Sahlberg‐Blom, Eva

    2015-01-01

    ... describe complex feelings regarding the risk assessment. The decision making about prenatal screening has been described as easy by some women who viewed the decision as a mere formality and a confirmation that all is well. Women have also described decision making on screening as a process in which they considered their own...

  16. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities determined...” must have at least some employees engaged in certain described activities. This requirement will be...

  17. Sampling-based motion planning with reachable volumes: Theoretical foundations

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We introduce a new concept, reachable volumes, that denotes the set of points that the end effector of a chain or linkage can reach. We show that the reachable volume of a chain is equivalent to the Minkowski sum of the reachable volumes of its links, and give an efficient method for computing reachable volumes. We present a method for generating configurations using reachable volumes that is applicable to various types of robots including open and closed chain robots, tree-like robots, and complex robots including both loops and branches. We also describe how to apply constraints (both on end effectors and internal joints) using reachable volumes. Unlike previous methods, reachable volumes work for spherical and prismatic joints as well as planar joints. Visualizations of reachable volumes can allow an operator to see what positions the robot can reach and can guide robot design. We present visualizations of reachable volumes for representative robots including closed chains and graspers as well as for examples with joint and end effector constraints.

  18. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  19. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.L.; Hutzler, M.J.

    1979-04-01

    This report is Volume I of a six-volume series documenting the Integrating Model of the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) as it existed on January 1, 1978. It offers a review of entire PIES system, including the basic components of the Integrating Model, which are described in detail in Volume IV of this series. In particular, this volume addresses the problem that PIES solves and the major features and applications of PIES.

  20. Analysis meets geometry the Mikael Passare memorial volume

    CERN Document Server

    Boman, Jan; Kiselman, Christer; Kurasov, Pavel; Sigurdsson, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to the memory of Mikael Passare, an outstanding Swedish mathematician who devoted his life to developing the theory of analytic functions in several complex variables and exploring geometric ideas first-hand. It includes several papers describing Mikael’s life as well as his contributions to mathematics, written by friends of Mikael’s who share his attitude and passion for science. A major section of the book presents original research articles that further develop Mikael’s ideas and which were written by his former students and co-authors. All these mathematicians work at the interface of analysis and geometry, and Mikael’s impact on their research cannot be underestimated. Most of the contributors were invited speakers at the conference organized at Stockholm University in his honor. This book is an attempt to express our gratitude towards this great mathematician, who left us full of energy and new creative mathematical ideas.

  1. Photomedicine: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-hur, E.; Rosenthal, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the idiopathic photodermatoses; xeroderma pigmentosum, beta-carotene therapy for erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases; photochemotherapy of psoriasis using the furocoumrains; photochemotherapy of various skin disorders; photodynamic therapy of cancer; and photoimmunotherapy.

  2. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  3. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. C.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  4. Using an Extended Kalman Filter Learning Algorithm for Feed-Forward Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, David J.; Mussa, Yussuf

    2004-01-01

    In this study a new extended Kalman filter (EKF) learning algorithm for feed-forward neural networks (FFN) is used. With the EKF approach, the training of the FFN can be seen as state estimation for a non-linear stationary process. The EKF method gives excellent convergence performances provided that there is enough computer core memory and that the machine precision is high. Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). The neural network was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9997. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  5. Using an extended Kalman filter learning algorithm for feed-forward neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new extended Kalman filter (EKF learning algorithm for feed-forward neural networks (FFN is used. With the EKF approach, the training of the FFN can be seen as state estimation for a non-linear stationary process. The EKF method gives excellent convergence performances provided that there is enough computer core memory and that the machine precision is high. Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. The neural network was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9997. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  6. DescribeX: A Framework for Exploring and Querying XML Web Collections

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzolo, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    This thesis introduces DescribeX, a powerful framework that is capable of describing arbitrarily complex XML summaries of web collections, providing support for more efficient evaluation of XPath workloads. DescribeX permits the declarative description of document structure using all axes and language constructs in XPath, and generalizes many of the XML indexing and summarization approaches in the literature. DescribeX supports the construction of heterogeneous summaries where different document elements sharing a common structure can be declaratively defined and refined by means of path regular expressions on axes, or axis path regular expression (AxPREs). DescribeX can significantly help in the understanding of both the structure of complex, heterogeneous XML collections and the behaviour of XPath queries evaluated on them. Experimental results demonstrate the scalability of DescribeX summary refinements and stabilizations (the key enablers for tailoring summaries) with multi-gigabyte web collections. A com...

  7. Nonlinear Blind Equalization for Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商未雄; 何庆声; 金国藩

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear blind equalization for volume holographic data storage channel. Base on the recurrent neural network channel model, we describe a novel blind equalizer for the volume holographic data storage system to improve the bit error rate and hence to make the storage densities achievable. The experimental results also indicate that a significant improvement in the bit error rate to 2.55 × 10-3 is possible with the nonlinear blind equalization.

  8. Volume reflection of ultrarelativistic particles in single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Maisheev

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytical description of volume reflection of charged ultrarelativistic particles in bent single crystals is considered. The relation describing the angle of volume reflection as a function of the transversal energy is obtained. Different angle distributions of the scattered protons in single crystals are found. Results of calculations for 400 GeV protons scattered by the silicon single crystal are presented.

  9. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC STRUCTURES DESCRIBED BY THE THREE-VERTEX ANTIFERROMAGNETIC POTTS MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yarash K. Abuev; Albert B. Babaev; Pharkhat E. Esetov

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A computer simulation of the antiferromagnetic structures described by the three-vertex Potts model on a triangular lattice is performed, taking into account the antiferromagnetic exchange...

  10. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva; Burnet, Jean-Paul; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, Thomas

    2013-08-12

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  11. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler,Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  12. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  13. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Pedro, Francisco Gil [Departamento de Fisica Teórica UAM and Instituto de Fisica Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-21

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  14. Microscopic Origin of Volume Modulus Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco Gil

    2015-01-01

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  15. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, M.P.; Sigmund, O. 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, H. K.; W. Malalasekera 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...

  16. A New Density Operator Formalism for Describing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东海; 吴钦义

    1994-01-01

    A density operator formalism has been proposed to describe the evolution of two-spin-1/2 systems in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments:The formalism is particularly convenient and has distinct physical meaning for describing the evolution of spin systems under the Hamiltonian containing non-commutable terms. Some examples are presented to demonstrate the new formalism.

  17. Head-Mounted Eye Tracking: A New Method to Describe Infant Looking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchak, John M.; Kretch, Kari S.; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants' visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker…

  18. Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov.: the first described species of Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I; Mckellar, Ryan C

    2016-07-26

    Based on two relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first formally described species of Passandridae from Baltic amber, and the first known European representative of the family. The global distribution of extant Passandra Dalman is mapped, and the historical distribution of the group is briefly discussed.

  19. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  20. Native metastability in chalcogenide glasses described within configuration-coordinate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M [Institute of Materials of Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv (Ukraine); Vakiv, M [Institute of Materials of Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv (Ukraine)

    2007-08-15

    It was created configuration-coordinate model for describing of native metastability in chalcogenide glasses. It was shown that potential should be at least triple-well. System of differential equations for describing transitions between the atomic states was made and solved within present configuration-coordinate model.

  1. Butler–Volmer–Monod model for describing bio-anode polarization curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Heijne, ter A.; Stein, N.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model of the bio-anode was developed based on a simple representation of the underlying biochemical conversions as described by enzyme kinetics, and electron transfer reactions as described by the Butler–Volmer electron transfer kinetics. This Butler–Volmer–Monod model was well able to des

  2. Some plants described by Pliny for the treatment of renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis Tortora, M

    1994-01-01

    Pliny the Elder described medicinal plants in books XX-XXVII of Naturalis Historia, reporting the therapeutic properties and preparations of the plants for use in different parts of the body. An exhibition of 20 plants chosen from those indicated for renal diseases is described.

  3. The genus Mymaromella (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatidae) in North America, with a key to described extant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Huber; Gary A.P. Gibson; Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Michael Gates

    2008-01-01

    A key is given to the five described extant species of Mymaromella. Two new species, Mymaromella pala Huber & Gibson, sp. n. and M. palella Huber & Gibson, sp. n. (Mymarommatoidea: Mymarommatidae), are described as the first species of the family from North America. Psocoptera (Insecta) are proposed as...

  4. Determination of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters that Describe Isothermal Seed Germination: A Student Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageseth, Gaylord T.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project for students to collect and fit data to a theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination, including activation energy for substrate and produce and the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. (Author/SK)

  5. Use of a negative binomial distribution to describe the presence of Sphyrion laevigatum in Genypterus blacodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rehbein, Patricio; De los Ríos-Escalante, Patricio; Castro, Raúl; Navarrete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the frequency and number of Sphyrion laevigatum in the skin of Genypterus blacodes, an important economic resource in Chile. The analysis of a spatial distribution model indicated that the parasites tended to cluster. Variations in the number of parasites per host could be described by a negative binomial distribution. The maximum number of parasites observed per host was two.

  6. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, A.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.; Noel, T.

    2015-08-01

    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechanism ``mass-loss driven dissolution'' in contrast to ``two-body relaxation driven dissolution'' which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be described by a log-logistic differential equation. We report the finding of a resonance condition which may play a role for the evolution of star clusters and may be calibrated by the main periodic orbit in the large island of retrograde quasiperiodic orbits in the Poincaré surfaces of section. We also report on the existence of a stability curve which may be of relevance with respect to the structure of star clusters.

  7. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population.

  8. Predator, Pet Lesbian, or Just The Nanny? LGBTQ Parents of Children With Disabilities Describe Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Margaret F

    2017-08-11

    How are lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans/queer (LGBTQ) parents of children with disabilities categorized by service providers, and how do parents anticipate, interpret, and respond to such categorizations? This intersectional study investigated the experiences of LGBTQ parents of children with disabilities with service providers in Toronto, Canada. Parents described pressures to "fit" into providers' limited understanding of family. Some parents described facing overt discrimination, including one parent who was seen as a possible sexual predator. Some described being perceived as representatives of "diversity" for organizations, or "pet lesbians" in the words of one couple. Others described being misread as a non-parent, as in "just the nanny," particularly in conjunction with their racial minority status. Parents described how their experiences of being "outside the mainstream" helped them challenge systems and normative beliefs. Findings suggest that a context of scarce disability resources shapes parents' experiences of how LGBTQ identity comes to matter.

  9. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  10. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  11. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  12. The colour of pain: can patients use colour to describe osteoarthritis pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using colour to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether colour could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using colour to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with colour, how colours related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using colour to describe pain to healthcare professionals. The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using colour was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. Colours used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of colours was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with colours such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of colours. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use colour to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of colour were raised. For some patients, using colour to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mathematical and Statistical Models and Methods for Describing the Thermal Characteristics of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    2010-01-01

    , existence of prior physical knowledge, the data and the available statistical soft- ware tools. The importance of statistical model validation is discussed, and some simple tools for that purpose are demonstrated. This paper also briefly describes some of the most frequently used software tools for modelling......This paper describes a number of statistical methods and models for describing the thermal characteristics of buildings using frequent readings of heat consumption, ambient air temperature, and other available climate variables. For some of the methods frequent readings of the indoor air...

  14. What do we teach? What do we know? A methodology for describing archaeological skills and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collis

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available I recommend that we should move to a flexible, modular system, in describing courses and training, in defining the skills needed to operate as archaeologists and professional career structures, and in describing ourselves as archaeologists. A 'Thesaurus' of skills and knowledge can be constructed, with levels of expertise, which will give us a simple and flexible tool for describing the range of activities necessary to the profession. Two or three examples are discussed, and ways in which quality can be controlled without too much bureaucracy. Potentially this approach has a world-wide application.

  15. Review of reactive kinetic models describing reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination is a major degradation pathway of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic subsurface environments, and reactive kinetic models describing the degradation process are needed in fate and transport models of these contaminants. However, reductive dechlorination is a complex biologi...

  16. Doctors Describe First U.S. Case of Locally Acquired Zika in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctors Describe First U.S. Case of Locally Acquired Zika in Pregnancy Baby shows no signs of brain ... HealthDay News) -- The first case of locally acquired Zika virus in a pregnant woman in the United ...

  17. Endorsement of Models Describing Sexual Response of Men and Women with a Sexual Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Sand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several models have been used to describe men's and women's sexual responses. These models have been conceptualized as linear or circular models. The circular models were proposed to describe women's sexual function best. AIM: This study aims to determine whether men and women thought...... that current theoretical models of sexual responses accurately reflected their own sexual experience and to what extent this was influenced by sexual dysfunction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a large, broadly sampled, nonclinical population, cohort of Danish men and women. The Female Sexual Function...... Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the International Index of Erectile Function were used to describe sexual function. Also, participants completed questionnaires with written descriptions of different sexual responses to describe their most experienced sexual response. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  18. Suicidal shooting masked using a method described in Conan Doyle's novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A; Kunz, J

    1995-06-01

    The case of a suicide by gunshot is presented in which the person committing the suicide used a method described by Conan Doyle in one of his novels: conceal the weapon and make the suicide appear to be a homicide.

  19. IVOA Recommendation: SimpleDALRegExt: Describing Simple Data Access Services

    CERN Document Server

    Plante, Raymond; Harrison, Paul; Tody, Doug

    2014-01-01

    An application that queries or consumes descriptions of VO resources must be able to recognize a resource's support for standard IVOA protocols. This specification describes how to describe a service that supports any of the four fundamental data access protocols -- Simple Cone Search (SCS), Simple Image Access (SIA), Simple Spectral Access (SSA), Simple Line Access (SLA) -- using the VOResource XML encoding standard. A key part of this specification is the set of VOResource XML extension schemas that define new metadata that are specific to those protocols. This document describes in particular rules for describing such services within the context of IVOA Registries and data discovery as well as the VO Standard Interface (VOSI) and service self-description. In particular, this document spells out the essential markup needed to identify support for a standard protocol and the base URL required to access the interface that supports that protocol.

  20. Towards a Density Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functional able to describe localization/delocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Ann E.; Wills, John M.

    2013-03-01

    The inability to computationally describe the physics governing the properties of actinides and their alloys is the poster child of failure of existing Density Functional Theory exchange-correlation functionals. The intricate competition between localization and delocalization of the electrons, present in these materials, exposes the limitations of functionals only designed to properly describe one or the other situation. We will discuss the manifestation of this competition in real materials and propositions on how to construct a functional able to accurately describe properties of these materials. I addition we will discuss both the importance of using the Dirac equation to describe the relativistic effects in these materials, and the connection to the physics of transition metal oxides. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Digital data set describing ground-water regions with unconsolidated watercourses in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes ground-water regions in the United States defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ground-water regions are useful for dividing the...

  2. Best-fit index for describing physical perspectives in Sasang typology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chae, Han; Kown, Youngkyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the best-fit index for describing the constitutional or physical characteristics of Sasang typology for its universal application. Methods: Ponderal index (PI), body mass index (BMI...

  3. WELL-POSEDNESS OF THE MODEL DESCRIBING A REPAIRABLE, STANDBY, HUMAN & MACHINE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geni Gupur

    2003-01-01

    By using the strong continuous semigroup theory of linear operators we prove the existence of a unique positive time-dependent solution of the model describing a repairable, standby, human & machine system.

  4. Coupled gel spreading and diffusive transport models describing microbicidal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; MacMillan, Kelsey; Ham, Anthony S.; Szeri, Andrew J.; Katz, David F.

    2016-11-01

    Gels are a drug delivery platform being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, that act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. Despite success in one Phase IIb trial of a vaginal gel delivering tenofovir, problems of user adherence to designed gel application regimen compromised results in two other trials. The microbicide field is responding to this issue by simultaneously analyzing behavioral determinants of adherence and pharmacological determinants of drug delivery. Central to both user adherence and mucosal drug delivery are gel properties (e.g. rheology) and applied volume. The specific problem to be solved here is to develop a model for how gel rheology and volume, interacting with loaded drug concentration, govern the transport of the microbicide drug tenofovir into the vaginal mucosa to its stromal layer. The analysis here builds upon our current understanding of vaginal gel deployment and drug delivery, incorporating key features of the gel's environment, fluid production and subsequent gel dilution, and vaginal wall elasticity. We consider the microbicide drug tenofovir as it is the most completely studied drug, in both in vitroand in vivostudies, for use in vaginal gel application. Our goal is to contribute to improved pharmacological understanding of gel functionality, providing a computational tool that can be used in future vaginal microbicide gel design.

  5. Analysis of increasing trend of mortgage volume in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Střelcová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an empirical analysis of mortgage volume in the Czech Republic and factors identification of the increasing trend of the mortgage volume in the period from 2001 to 2007. Firstly, analysis of quarterly time series of mortgage volume and average mortgage rate are performed. Consequently, causality between mortgage volume and average mortgage rate is analysed. The morgage rate is the most important factor for economic subjects decision of residential investment. Afterwards, it is analysed causality between mortgage volume and selected factors via multiple regression analysis. Based on this analysis, influencing factors for multiple regression analysis describing mortgage volume are selected. Our empirical analysis validate the causality between mortgage volume and mortgage rate, unemployment rate and price level of real estates. Part of this paper is also economic eduction of causality and estimation of expect progress of mortgage volume especially in connection with present economic and business recession.

  6. Use of a negative binomial distribution to describe the presence of Sphyrion laevigatum in Genypterus blacodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Peña-Rehbein

    Full Text Available This paper describes the frequency and number of Sphyrion laevigatum in the skin of Genypterus blacodes, an important economic resource in Chile. The analysis of a spatial distribution model indicated that the parasites tended to cluster. Variations in the number of parasites per host could be described by a negative binomial distribution. The maximum number of parasites observed per host was two.

  7. Describing a Decision Support System for Nuisance Management of Urban Building Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Hankach, Pierre; CHACHOUA, Mohamed; MARTIN, Jean Marc; GOYAT, YANN

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a decision support system for managing urban building sites nuisances is described. First, the decision process for nuisance management is studied in order to understand the use context of the decision support system. Two levels are identified where decision support is appropriate : at the territorial level for the administrator of the public space and at the building site level for the project owner. The decision support system at the former level is described. The interactio...

  8. Automated static image analysis as a novel tool in describing the physical properties of dietary fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kurek,Marcin Andrzej; Piwińska, Monika; Wyrwisz, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The growing interest in the usage of dietary fiber in food has caused the need to provide precise tools for describing its physical properties. This research examined two dietary fibers from oats and beets, respectively, in variable particle sizes. The application of automated static image analysis for describing the hydration properties and particle size distribution of dietary fiber was analyzed. Conventional tests for water holding capacity (WHC) were conducted. The particles were...

  9. Exact Eigenstates for a Class of Model Describing Interactions Among Five Bosonic Modes with Multiphoton Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWen-Xing; LIJia-Hua; LIWei-Bin; LUOJin-Ming; XIEXiao-Tao; WEIHua

    2004-01-01

    We present an efficient approach to studying the spectra and eigenstates for the model describing interactions among five bosonic modes without using the assumption of the Bethe ansatz. The exact analytical results of all the eigenstates and eigenvalues are in terms of a parameter A for a class of models describing five-mode multiphoton process. The parameter is determined by the roots of a polynomial and is solvable analytically or numerically.

  10. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  11. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... sleep. There was also increase in both frequency of uri- nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to ... phagia, fever, head trauma, chronic cough, weight loss, ... water deprivation at 15Kg. Total volume of urine voided.

  12. Osmosis at constant volume. Negative pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Zupanovic, Pasko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Ales; Juretic, Davor

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic state of solvent and solution separated with an elastic semipermeable membrane, in the box with a fixed volume, is considered. It is shown that the minimum of the free energy is accompanied by the compression of the solution and tension of the solvent caused by the transfer of solvent molecules into compartment with solution. The tensile state of the solvent is described in terms of negative pressure. It is found that the negative pressure as well as compression pressure is of the order of osmotic pressure given by van't Hoff equation. It is proposed that this mechanism could be responsible for the water uptake in tall trees.

  13. Irradiation of target volumes with concave outlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Neve, W.; Fortan, L.; Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; DE Wagter, C. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    A heuristic planning procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution for target volumes with concavities has been investigated. The procedure divides the planning problem into a number of sub-problems each solvable by known methods. By patching together the solutions to the sub-problems, a solution with a predictable dosimetric outcome can be obtained. The procedure can be applied to most 3-dimensional systems. The procedure is described and its applications to the irradiation of neoplasms are discussed. (A.S.).

  14. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    cm3 intact soil samples. Finally, breakthrough of tritium (3H2O) was used to construct breakthrough curves for each peat soil, which indicates the flow pattern in the soil. A mobile-immobile domain model (MIM-model) in CXTFIT was used to derive parameters describing the size of the immobile...... and mobile domains as well as the exchange between the two domains. Finally, the samples were dried in the own for determination of the bulk density. The bulk density was correlated to parameters from the MIM-model and to the macropore volume to determine, whether bulk density can be used as a key parameter....

  15. Volume Effects in Discrete beta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan

    2011-01-01

    We calculate discrete beta functions corresponding to the two-lattice matching for the 2D O(N) models and Dyson's hierarchical model. We describe and explain finite-size effects such as the appearance of a nontrivial infrared fixed point that goes to infinity at infinite volume or the merging of an infrared and an ultraviolet fixed point. We present extensions of the RG flows to the complex coupling plane. We discuss the possibility of constructing a continuous beta function from the discrete one by using functional conjugation methods. We briefly discuss the relevance of these findings for the search of nontrivial fixed points in multiflavor lattice gauge theory models.

  16. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Idzik, Marek; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kulis, Szymon; Suszycki, Leszek; Swientek, Krzysztof; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Bernreuther, Werner; Feld, Lutz; Hebbeker, Thomas; Muennich, Astrid; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Tonutti, Manfred; Rindani, Saurabh; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, S.K.; Adloff, Catherine; Delebecque, Pierre; Hermel, Richard; Karyotakis, Yannis; Lafaye, Remi; Prast, Julie; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Singh, R.K.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Antipov, Sergei; Arnold, Ned; Berger, Edmond; Carwardine, John; Drake, Gary; Emery, Louis; Friedsam, Horst; Fuerst, Joel; Gai, Wei; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Kelly, Michael; Kim, Kwang-Je; Lenkszus, Frank; Liu, Wanming; Magill, Stephen; Noonan, John; Repond, Jose; Saunders, Claude; Shepard, Ken; Underwood, David G.; Wang, Haitao; Weerts, Harry; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Zhang, Jinlong; Yock, Philip; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Biswal, S.S.; Godbole, Rohini; Vempati, Sundir K.; Comerma, Albert; Dieguez, Angel; Garrido, Luis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Herms, Atila; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Cabruja, Enric; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Miquel, Ramon; Lux, Thorsten; Martinez, Manel; Padilla, Cristobal; Riu, Imma; Ward, Bennie; Sun, Yipeng; Ablikim, Medina; Bai, Sha; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Cao, J.S.; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chi, Yun Long; Dai, Jian Ping; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Du, Shuxian; Fang, Shou Xian; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gu, Jun; He, An; Hou, Mi; Hu, Tao; Huang, Tong Ming; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jin, Shan; Kang, Wen; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Zhong Quan; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lu, Cai-Dian; Ma, Li; Ma, Qiang; Ouyang, Qun; Pam, Wei Min; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Peng, G.X.; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Shi, Cai Tu; Sun, Hong; Sun, Yi; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jin; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yue, Jun Hui; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zong, Zhang Guo; Liu, Chun; Wu, Yue Liang; Yang, Jin Min; Liang, Jian Tao; Liu, Li Qiang; Lu, Wen Hui; Xiong, Lian You; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Tong Xian; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca; Eigen, Gerald; Osland, Per; Handu, Virender K.; Jawale, Suresh B.; Joshi, Gopal; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Singh, Pitamber; Sinha, Anil K.; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Topkar, Anita; Adey, David; Hawkes, Chris; Hillier, Stephen James; Mikami, Yoshinari; Miller, Owen; Stockton, Mark; Watson, Nigel Keith; Wilson, John A.; Petersen, Troels Christian; Driouichi, Chafik; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Klinkby, Esben; Xella, Stefania; Von Toerne, Eckhard; Brock, Ian; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert; Hohlfeld, Mark; Killenberg, Martin; Kittel, Olaf; Koch, Manuel; Kohrs, Robert; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kruger, Hans; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Reuen, Lars; Ummenhofer, Martin; Wermes, Norbert; Wienemann, Peter; Butler, John; Cussans, David; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Helen; Lynch, Clare; Velthuis, Jaap J.; Hearty, Christopher; Mattison, Thomas; Anerella, Michael; Dawson, Sally; Marone, Andrew; Morse, William Michael; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Pogorelsky, Igor; Radeka, Veljko; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Partridge, Richard; Narain, Meenakshi; Coca, Cornelia; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Popescu, Sorina; Teodorescu, Eliza; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Christophe, Grojean; Baddams, Nigel; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Camporesi, Tiziano; Capatina, Ofelia; De Roeck, Albert; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John R.; Ferguson, John; Gastal, Martin; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Hawkings, Richard; Kraml, Sabine; Latina, Andrea; Parma, Vittorio; Pedersen, John; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Rinolfi, Louis; Rolandi, Gigi; Ruehl, Ingo; Sauli, Fabio; Schulte, Daniel; Tavian, Laurent; Zimmermann, Frank; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Hwang, Youngseok; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Youngim; Park, Hwanbae; Shin, Seunghwan; Son, Dongchul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Datta, Anindya; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Kundu, Anirban; Bhandari, R.K.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Mallik, C.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  17. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  18. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  19. Animation framework using volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  20. Historical volume estimation and a structured method for calculating habitable volume for in-space and surface habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Bobskill, M. R.; Wilhite, A.

    2012-11-01

    Habitable volume is an important spacecraft design figure of merit necessary to determine the required size of crewed space vehicles, or habitats. In order to design habitats for future missions and properly compare the habitable volumes of future habitat designs with historical spacecraft, consistent methods of both defining the required amount of habitable volume and estimating the habitable volume for a given layout are required. This paper provides a brief summary of historical habitable volume requirements and describes the appropriate application of requirements to various types of missions, particularly highlighting the appropriate application for various gravity environments. Then the proposed "Marching Grid Method", a structured automatic, numerical method to calculate habitable volume for a given habitat design, is described in detail. This method uses a set of geometric Boolean tests applied to a discrete set of points within the pressurized volume to numerically estimate the functionally usable and accessible space that comprises the habitable volume. The application of this method to zero gravity and nonzero gravity environments is also discussed. This proposed method is then demonstrated by calculating habitable volumes using two conceptual-level layouts of habitat designs, one for each type of gravity environment. These include the US Laboratory Module on ISS and the Scenario 12.0 Pressurized Core Module from the recent NASA Lunar Surface Systems studies. Results of this study include a description of the effectiveness of this method for various resolutions of the investigated grid, and commentary highlighting the use of this method to determine the overall utility of interior configurations for automatically evaluating interior layouts.