WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume concentration ratios

  1. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  2. Effect of emulsifier type and concentration, aqueous phase volume and wax ratio on physical, material and mechanical properties of water in oil lipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, A; Norton, J E; Norton, I T

    2013-12-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions in lipsticks could have the potential to improve moisturizing properties and deliver hydrophilic molecules to the lips. The aims of this work were (i) to investigate the effect of emulsifier type (polymer vs. monomer, and saturated vs. unsaturated chain) and concentration on droplet size and (ii) to investigate the effect of wax ratio (carnauba wax, microcrystalline wax, paraffin wax and performalene) and aqueous phase volume on material properties (Young's modulus, point of fracture, elastic modulus and viscous modulus). Emulsion formation was achieved using a high shear mixer. Results showed that the saturated nature of the emulsifier had very little effect on droplet size, neither did the use of an emulsifier with a larger head group (droplet size ~18-25 μm). Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) resulted in emulsions with the smallest droplets (~3-5 μm), as expected from previous studies that show that it produces a thick elastic interface. The results also showed that both Young's modulus and point of fracture increase with increasing percentage of carnauba wax (following a power law dependency of 3), but decrease with increasing percentage of microcrystalline wax, suggesting that the carnauba wax is included in the overall wax network formed by the saturated components, whereas the microcrystalline wax forms irregular crystals that disrupt the overall wax crystal network. Young's modulus, elastic modulus and viscous modulus all decrease with increasing aqueous phase volume in the emulsions, although the slope of the decrease in elastic and viscous moduli is dependent on the addition of solid wax, as a result of strengthening the network. This work suggests the potential use for emulsions in lipstick applications, particularly when PGPR is used as an emulsifier, and with the addition of solid wax, as it increases network strength. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  4. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  5. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  6. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the effects of dietary roughage: concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia ... several factors which include the potential rate and extent of degradation of the test feedstuff and the prevailing rate of ... diet effects have be,en designed to examine either the influence of dietary ...

  7. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Concentration ratio of radon progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    Investigations have been made on the concentration ratio of radon progeny in air. Data have been acquired intermittently since 1988 using alpha spectroscopic method around the author's office that is located in the northeastern part of Japan. Clarifying the behavior of radon progeny is an issue of wide importance to radiation protection, predicting earthquakes, etc. Let Rabc=ECRn(RaA)/{ECRn(RaB) + ECRn(RaC)}; the concentration ratio, Rabc, is relevant to the stability of the air. Statistical and time series analyses indicated several interesting results. To examine the log-normal distribution, Lilliefors test was made for logarithm of outdoor data every one year. Rabc passed the test 6 times for 9 years, while Radon progeny passed 8 times. Outdoor data indicated that the value of Rabc was lower in the morning, in other world, the air was more stable in the morning than in the afternoon. To see the seasonal variation, one-way layout analysis was made for four groups of data, i.e., spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February). Rabc indicated significantly higher level in spring and winter, in other word, air was stable in summer and autumn. Time series analysis was made for various variables; power spectra were estimated with autoregressive model that is equivalent to maximum entropy method. Power spectrum for Rabc was most similar to that of wind speed. One-year period, that is always remarkable for radon progeny, was not significant for Rabc. Three- to nine-day periods were often seen for Rabc, radon progeny, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. These several-day periods are probably attributed to the passage of air masses. Twenty-day to thirty-day peak may be attributed to meteorological phenomena corresponding to the rotation period of the sun. Temperature indicated no significant periodicity except overwhelming one-year period. Wind speed is well known to affect the radon progeny concentration

  9. Concentration ratios for BIOPATH: selection of the soil-to-plant concentration ratio database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    In Switzerland, high-level radioactive waste is planned to be deposited in deep crystalline formations. 'BIOPATH' is the computer code which has been used to simulate the movement of radionuclides in the biosphere, in order to calculate the doses to man. The key parameter used in the model on which the code is based is the concentration ratio (CR). This specifies the transfer of individual radionuclides via the various foodchains, ultimately to man. Five types of CR are required for the model, namely soil to plant, intake by cattle to milk, intake by cattle to meat, intake by poultry to eggs and from water to fish. Each of these CR are discussed in turn; it is shown that soil to plant CR exhibit a variability that greatly exceeds that observed in the other types of CR and for this reason the report goes on to consider these in much closer detail. The different methods and experimental techniques used to derive soil to plant CR are examined and assessed, to allow evaluation of a meaningful data base for use in BIOPATH. The report concludes by examining the data available for each radionuclide in turn and listing a recommended CR for it, to input into the BIOPATH model. (author)

  10. Meat characteristics of buffaloes fed with different roughage: concentrate ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sanghuayprai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.

  11. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  12. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......, and 73%, 97%, and 73% for Ualb/Ucreat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that measurement of the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio is a specific and quite sensitive alternative to measurement of the urinary albumin excretion rate in timed collections, when screening for microalbuminuria....

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and their ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Ming; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2013-05-01

    Determinations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratios are important in several clinical settings, yet published normative data have significant limitations. We sought to determine a large dataset of stringently-defined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios. We evaluated data from 627 patients who had determinations of CSF lactate and/or CSF pyruvate from 2001 to 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic. Inclusion in the normal reference population required normal CSF cell counts, glucose and protein and routine serum chemistries and absence of progressive brain disorder, epilepsy, or seizure within 24h. Brain MRI, if done, showed no evidence of tumor, acute changes or basal ganglia abnormality. CSF cytology, CSF alanine and immunoglobulin levels, and oligoclonal band analysis were required to be normal, if done. Various inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared. 92 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for a reference population. The 95% central intervals (2.5%-97.5%) for CSF lactate and pyruvate levels were 1.01-2.09mM and 0.03-0.15mM, respectively, and 9.05-26.37 for CSF L/P. There were no significant gender-related differences of CSF lactate or pyruvate concentrations or of CSF L/P. Weak positive correlations between the concentration of CSF lactate or pyruvate and age were noted. Using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, we determined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios in a large, well-characterized reference population. Normalcy of routine CSF and blood analytes are the most important parameters in determining reference intervals for CSF lactate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dependency of soil activity concentration on soil -biota concentration ratio of radionuclides for earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Kim, Byeong Ho; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The transfer of radionuclides to wildlife (non-human biota) is normally quantified using an equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}), defined as the radionuclide activity concentration in the whole organism (fresh weight) divided by that in the media (dry weight for soil). The present study describes the effect of soil radionuclide activity concentration on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn to a functionally important wildlife group, annelids, using a commonly studied experimental worm (E.andrei). Time-dependent whole body concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn for the earthworm were experimentally measured for artificially contaminated soils with three different activity concentrations for each radionuclide which were considerably higher than normal background levels. Two parameters of a first order kinetic model, the equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}) and the effective loss rate constant (k), were estimated by comparison of experimental CR results with the model prediction

  15. Radiochlorine concentration ratios for agricultural plants in various soil conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN/DEI/SECRE), Cadarache bat 159, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: claude.colle@irsn.fr; Levchuk, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Yoschenko, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Zvarich, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Long-term field experiments have been carried out in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radiochlorine ({sup 36}Cl) transfer to plants from four types of soil, namely, Podzoluvisol, Greyzem, Phaeozem and Chernozem. Radiochlorine concentration ratios (CR = concentration of {sup 36}Cl in the fresh plant material divided by its concentration in the dried soil in the upper 20 cm layer) were obtained in green peas (2.6 {+-} 0.4), onions (1.5 {+-} 0.5), potatoes (8 {+-} 1), clover (90 {+-} 26) and ryegrass (158 {+-} 88) hay, oat seeds (36 {+-} 23) and straw (305 {+-} 159), wheat seeds (35 {+-} 10) and straw (222 {+-} 82). These values correlate with the stable chlorine values for the same plants. It was shown that {sup 36}Cl plant/soil CR in radish roots (CR = 9.7 {+-} 1.4) does not depend on the stable chlorine content in the soil (up to 150 mg kg{sup -1}), soil type and thus, that stable chlorine CR values (9.4 {+-} 1.2) can also be used for {sup 36}Cl. Injection of additional quantities of stable chlorine into the soil (100 mg kg{sup -1} of dry soil) with fertilizer does not change the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 36}Cl. The results from a batch experiment showed that chlorine is retained in the investigated soils only by live biota and transfers quickly (in just a few hours) into the soil solution from dry vegetation even without decomposition of dead plants and is integrated in the migration processes in soil.

  16. Radiochlorine concentration ratios for agricultural plants in various soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.; Colle, C.; Levchuk, S.; Yoschenko, V.; Zvarich, S.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term field experiments have been carried out in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radiochlorine ( 36 Cl) transfer to plants from four types of soil, namely, Podzoluvisol, Greyzem, Phaeozem and Chernozem. Radiochlorine concentration ratios (CR = concentration of 36 Cl in the fresh plant material divided by its concentration in the dried soil in the upper 20 cm layer) were obtained in green peas (2.6 ± 0.4), onions (1.5 ± 0.5), potatoes (8 ± 1), clover (90 ± 26) and ryegrass (158 ± 88) hay, oat seeds (36 ± 23) and straw (305 ± 159), wheat seeds (35 ± 10) and straw (222 ± 82). These values correlate with the stable chlorine values for the same plants. It was shown that 36 Cl plant/soil CR in radish roots (CR = 9.7 ± 1.4) does not depend on the stable chlorine content in the soil (up to 150 mg kg -1 ), soil type and thus, that stable chlorine CR values (9.4 ± 1.2) can also be used for 36 Cl. Injection of additional quantities of stable chlorine into the soil (100 mg kg -1 of dry soil) with fertilizer does not change the soil-to-plant transfer of 36 Cl. The results from a batch experiment showed that chlorine is retained in the investigated soils only by live biota and transfers quickly (in just a few hours) into the soil solution from dry vegetation even without decomposition of dead plants and is integrated in the migration processes in soil

  17. Mean platelet volume, neutrophil to lyphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ünal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: It has been demonstrated that ratio of neutrophil and platelet count systemic inflammation and is associated with prognosis of many cardiovascular diseases, malignates and chronic inflammatory diseases.As far as it is known, there are no studies investigating neutrophil/lymphocyeratio(NLR, platelet/lymphocyte ratio(PLR and mean platelet volume(MPV values together within the context of psoriasis, a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease. Materials and Methods: 320 patients followed up in our polyclinic with psoriasis vulgaris and 200 healthy persons were evaluated in the study. Results: Leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet, MPV, NLR and PLR values in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher, and lymphocyte count, on the other hand, was significantly lower than those of the control group. No significant difference was found between MPV, NLR and PLR values of patients with or without a family history, nail and joint involvement. Conclusions: These parameters may be made use of as cheap and easily applicable methods in predicting which psoriasis patients are under the risk of cardiovascular disease. PLR is a better inflammation marker than MPV and NLR in patients with psoriasis. We did not observe a significant relationship between MPV, NLR and PLR values and such disease characteristics as severity of disease, joint involvement, nail involvement and duration of disease in patients with psoriasis. So, we believe that there is little information on the extent to which MPV,NLR and PLR might be useful regarding these characteristics.

  18. Variation among chlorine concentration ratios for native and agronomic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.; Macdonald, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Variation among plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for important radionuclides requires attention because it is a major source of uncertainty in nuclear environmental safety assessments. For agronomic plants, variation among plant species is easy to deal with because there are relatively few species. In natural settings, there are vastly more species and the question becomes how to develop representative statistical distributions of CRs. Chlorine (Cl) is a good element with which to address this problem, because 36 Cl is a key radionuclide in nuclear waste disposal and yet stable Cl is easily measured in the environment. We measured CRs (dry weight basis) for Cl among edible parts of agronomic plants at one site, and found a geometric mean (GM) of 10, a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.9 and a range of 5-66. When the GM was weighted by the relative contributions of the various plants to the human diet, it rose to 16. Among native plants at five sites, each site representative of a specific environment, the GMs were 4.0-13 and the GSDs were 2.9-6.2. The CRs for individual species ranged from 0.8 to 170. However, when weighted by relative contributions of the plants to selected animal diets, the GMs were as high as 50. The conclusions are that: the variation in CR for agronomic plants is a subset of the variation among native or all plants, variation among species (the GSD) can be sixfold, and variation among species is large enough that typical diets of specific animals could expose them to several-fold higher amounts of Cl (or 36 Cl) than expected from generic CR values. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. An evaluation of the volume and concentration of alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    objective of this study was to evaluate the volume and alcohol concentration of ... Keywords: Alcohol content, Standard drink measure,. Sales regulation, Port .... 1993. 9. Stockwell T, Blaze-Temple D, Walker C. The effect of. 'standard drink' ...

  20. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  1. The Handling of Constant Volumes of Various Concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Handling of Constant Volumes of Various Concentrations of Seawater by the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus Demersus. T Erasmus. Abstract. This paper reports on the effects of varying the concentration of sea water dosed at a rate of 10% of body mass on the handling of fluid and solutes by jackass penguins ...

  2. Development of pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg isotope ratios in seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrok, Marko; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian

    2014-12-03

    Hg concentrations in seawater are usually too low to allow direct (without pre-concentration and removal of salt matrix) measurement of its isotope ratios with multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Therefore, a new method for the pre-concentration of Hg from large volumes of seawater was developed. The final method allows for relatively fast (about 2.5Lh(-1)) and quantitative pre-concentration of Hg from seawater samples with an average Hg recovery of 98±6%. Using this newly developed method we determined Hg isotope ratios in seawater. Reference seawater samples were compared to samples potentially impacted by anthropogenic activity. The results show negative mass dependent fractionation relative to the NIST 3133 Hg standard with δ(202)Hg values in the range from -0.50‰ to -1.50‰. In addition, positive mass independent fractionation of (200)Hg was observed for samples from reference sites, while impacted sites did not show significant Δ(200)Hg values. Although the influence of the impacted sediments is limited to the seawater and particulate matter in very close proximity to the sediment, this observation may raise the possibility of using Δ(200)Hg to distinguish between samples from impacted and reference sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Note on different digestible energy concentrations and ratios of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    balanced according to the ideal protein concept. The piglets performed best on the diets with a high lysine: DE ratio, resulting in better performance (P<0,01) in all parameters. The most prominent improvement being the 42'/" for average daily gain (ADG),32"/" for final mass and 25"/" for feed conversion. Feed costs per unit of ...

  4. Development of pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg isotope ratios in seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štrok, Marko; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The method for the quantitative pre-concentration of Hg from seawater was developed. • First report of Hg isotope ratios in seawater is presented. • A unique mass independent 200 Hg isotope fractionation was observed. • This fractionation has unique potential to distinguish anthropogenic and natural Hg. - Abstract: Hg concentrations in seawater are usually too low to allow direct (without pre-concentration and removal of salt matrix) measurement of its isotope ratios with multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Therefore, a new method for the pre-concentration of Hg from large volumes of seawater was developed. The final method allows for relatively fast (about 2.5 L h −1 ) and quantitative pre-concentration of Hg from seawater samples with an average Hg recovery of 98 ± 6%. Using this newly developed method we determined Hg isotope ratios in seawater. Reference seawater samples were compared to samples potentially impacted by anthropogenic activity. The results show negative mass dependent fractionation relative to the NIST 3133 Hg standard with δ 202 Hg values in the range from −0.50‰ to −1.50‰. In addition, positive mass independent fractionation of 200 Hg was observed for samples from reference sites, while impacted sites did not show significant Δ 200 Hg values. Although the influence of the impacted sediments is limited to the seawater and particulate matter in very close proximity to the sediment, this observation may raise the possibility of using Δ 200 Hg to distinguish between samples from impacted and reference sites

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  7. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  8. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  10. Sample to moderator volume ratio effects in neutron yield from a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-02-15

    Performance of a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup depends upon thermal neutron yield at the PGNAA sample location. For a moderator, which encloses a sample, thermal neutron intensity depends upon the effective moderator volume excluding the void volume due to sample volume. A rectangular moderator assembly has been designed for the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA setup. The thermal and fast neutron yield has been measured inside the sample cavity as a function of its front moderator thickness using alpha particle tracks density and recoil proton track density inside the CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The thermal/fast neutron yield ratio, obtained from the alpha particle tracks density to proton tracks density ratio in the NTDs, shows an inverse correlation with sample to moderator volume ratio. Comparison of the present results with the previously published results of smaller moderators of the KFUPM PGNAA setup confirms the observation.

  11. Methods for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    Three simple practical methods of irradiations with high energy particles providing the conditions for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in the massive samples are described in the present paper. Realization of the condition of two-sided irradiation of a plane sample during its rotation in the flux of the projectiles is the basis of the first method. The use of free air as a filter with varying absorbent ability due to movement of the irradiated sample along ion beam brought to the atmosphere is at the basis of the second method of uniform ion alloying. The third method for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in a massive sample consists of irradiation of a sample through the absorbent filter in the shape of a foil curved according to the parabolic law moving along its surface. The first method is the most effective for obtaining a great number of the samples, for example, for mechanical tests, the second one - for irradiation in different gaseous media, and the third one - for obtaining high concentrations of the implanted ions under controlled (regulated) thermal and deformation conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  12. Evaluation of atmospheric particulate concentrations derived from analysis of ratio Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, W. H.; Mausel, P. W.; Zhou, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for atmospheric particulate concentration evaluation above urban areas using ratio Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. October 25, 1982 TM data over Chicago, IL are analyzed using TM band ratios of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 1/6 and particulate concentration estimates derived from TM ratios are tested over low reflective turbid water sites and highly reflective concrete highways. From analysis of the data it is evident that for water, the pattern of increasing particulate concentration is associated with decreasing ratio values in all band combinations used. Over concrete features, the TM band 1/4 ratio values follow the predicted pattern, while the TM band 1/6 has ratios which are reversed from anticipated values.

  13. Optimum Concentration Ratio Analysis Using Dynamic Thermal Model for Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Iberoamericano de Estudiantes de Ingenieria Electrica, s.l. : Cibelec, 2005. 40. Brogren, Maria. Optical Effeciency of Low-Concentrating Solar Energy...46 3.5 Particular Solution to the Transport Equation...50 3.7 Homogenous Solution the Transport Equation ..................................................... 51 3.8 Total Excess

  14. Mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amira M. Elsayed

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... The aim of this study was to compare the MPV and mean platelet volume/platelet count ... brain stroke, both in the acute phase and long after disease.17 ... males, while the healthy controls comprised 12 females and 8.

  15. The assumption of linearity in soil and plant concentration ratios: an experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have evaluated one of the main assumptions in the use of concentration ratios to describe the transfer of elements in the environment. The ratios examined in detail were the 'concentration ratio' (CR) of leaf to soil and the 'partition coefficient' (Ksub(d)) of solid- to liquid-phase concentrations in soil. Use of these ratios implies a linear relationship between the concentrations. Soil was experimentally contaminated to evaluate this linearity over more than a 1000-fold range in concentration. A secondary objective was to determine CR and Ksub(d) values in a long-term (2 y) outdoor study using a peat soil and blueberries. The elements I, Se, Cs, Pb and U were chosen as environmentally important elements. The results indicated that relationships of leaf and leachate concentrations were not consistently linearly related to the total soil concentrations for each of the elements. The modelling difficulties implied by these concentration dependencies can be partially offset by including the strong negative correlation between CR and Ksub(d). The error introduced by using a mean value of the ratios for Se or U resulted in up to a ten-fold increase in variability for CR and a three-fold increase for Ksub(d). (author)

  16. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  17. Influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkova Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering is spread technology today. The main advantage of this method is the ability to produce parts which have a very complex geometry and which can be produced only in very complicated way by classical conventional methods. Special category of such components are parts with porous structure, which can give to the product extraordinary combination of properties. The article deals with some aspects that influence the manufacturing of regular porous structures in spite of the fact that input technological parameters at various samples were the same. The main goal of presented research has been to investigate the influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure. Realized tests have indicated that the unit of regular porous structure with lower volume ratio is able to carry a greater load to failure than the unit with higher volume ratio.

  18. Ratio-based vs. model-based methods to correct for urinary creatinine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-08-01

    Creatinine-corrected urinary analyte concentration is usually computed as the ratio of the observed level of analyte concentration divided by the observed level of the urinary creatinine concentration (UCR). This ratio-based method is flawed since it implicitly assumes that hydration is the only factor that affects urinary creatinine concentrations. On the contrary, it has been shown in the literature, that age, gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors also affect UCR. Consequently, an optimal method to correct for UCR should correct for hydration as well as other factors like age, gender, and race/ethnicity that affect UCR. Model-based creatinine correction in which observed UCRs are used as an independent variable in regression models has been proposed. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of ratio-based and model-based creatinine correction methods when the effects of gender, age, and race/ethnicity are evaluated one factor at a time for selected urinary analytes and metabolites. It was observed that ratio-based method leads to statistically significant pairwise differences, for example, between males and females or between non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), more often than the model-based method. However, depending upon the analyte of interest, the reverse is also possible. The estimated ratios of geometric means (GM), for example, male to female or NHW to NHB, were also compared for the two methods. When estimated UCRs were higher for the group (for example, males) in the numerator of this ratio, these ratios were higher for the model-based method, for example, male to female ratio of GMs. When estimated UCR were lower for the group (for example, NHW) in the numerator of this ratio, these ratios were higher for the ratio-based method, for example, NHW to NHB ratio of GMs. Model-based method is the method of choice if all factors that affect UCR are to be accounted for.

  19. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Oguzhan Kum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. METHODS: Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. RESULTS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p = 0.001. However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect.

  20. A spreadsheet to determine the volume ratio for target and breast in partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, T.; Willis, D.; Miller, J.; Hubbard, P.; Oliver, M.; Chua, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The technical feasibility of Partial Breast Irradiation (PBI) using external beam radiotherapy depends on the ratio between the evaluation planning target volume (PTV e val) and the whole breast volume (PBI volume ratio = PVR). We aimed to develop a simple method to determine PVR using measurements performed at the time of the planning CT scan. A PVR calculation tool was developed using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to determine the PTV from three orthogonal dimensions of the seroma cavity and a given margin on the CT scans. The breast volume is estimated from the separation and breast height in five equally spaced CT slices. The PTV e val and whole breast volume were determined for 29 patients from two centres using the spreadsheet calculation tool and compared to volumes delineated on computerised treatment planning systems. Both the PTV e val and whole breast volumes were underestimated by approximately 25% using the spreadsheet. The resulting PVRs were 1.05 +/- 0.35 (mean +/- 1 S D) times larger than the ones determined from planning. Estimations of the PVR using the calculation tool were achievable in around 5 minutes at the time of CT scanning and allow a prompt decision on the suitability of the patients for PBI.

  1. CALCIUM, CREATININE AND URINARY PHOSPHATE/CREATININE RATIO CONCENTRATIONS IN NEONATES OF VARIOUS GESTATIONAL AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Fomina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: specify peculiarities of calcium and phosphates excretion in neonates of various gestational ages and types of feeding in neonatal period. Patients and methods. Calcium-creatinine (Ca/Cr and phosphate-creatinine (P/Cr ratio concentrations were determined in 96 healthy neonates of 38-40 weeks of gestational age and 146 premature infants of 28-37 weeks of gestational age of various types of feeding. Results. The Ca/Cr ratio concentration in healthy term infants in the early neonatal period amounted to 0.9-2.2 (median – 1.8, the P/Cr ratio concentration – 0.8-2.1 (median – 1.6. The Ca/Cr ratio concentration in premature infants (28-37 weeks of gestational age amounted to 0.9-2.4 (median – 1.9, which is comparable to this parameter’s value in term infants. The P/Cr ratio concentration amounted to 0.7-3.1 (median – 2.4, which exceeds this parameter’s value in term infants. The lesser the gestational age and birth weight, the higher the Ca/Cr and P/Cr ratio concentrations. The authors revealed hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia in premature infants with a very low body weight fed with specialized formulas. Conclusions. Use of specialized formulas in small premature infants (gestational age < 33 weeks with VLBW results in excessive calcium and phosphates excretion. It is reasonable to monitor their concentrations using a non-invasive and informative method of determining Ca/Cr and P/Cr ratios. Feeding of premature infants with BW > 1,500 g with breast milk only (in case of the mother’s adequate lactation allows avoiding hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia and preventing risk of a renal pathology. 

  2. Effect of Gynosaponin on Rumen Methanogenesis under Different Forage-Concentrate Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhetgul Manatbay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of gynosaponin on in vitro methanogenesis under different forage-concentrate ratios (F:C ratios. Experiment was conducted with two kinds of F:C ratios (F:C = 7:3 and F:C = 3:7 and gynosaponin addition (0 mg and 16 mg in a 2×2 double factorial design. In the presence of gynosaponin, methane production and acetate concentration were significantly decreased, whereas concentration of propionate tended to be increased resulting in a significant reduction (p<0.05 of acetate:propionate ratio (A:P ratio, in high-forage substrate. Gynosaponin treatment increased (p<0.05 the butyrate concentration in both F:C ratios. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis showed there was no apparent shift in the composition of total bacteria, protozoa and methanogens after treated by gynosaponin under both F:C ratios. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis indicated that variable F:C ratios significantly affected the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Rumninococcus flavefaciens, total fungi and counts of protozoa (p<0.05, but did not affect the mcrA gene copies of methanogens and abundance of total bacteria. Counts of protozoa and abundance of F.succinogenes were decreased significantly (p<0.05, whereas mcrA gene copies of methanogens were decreased slightly (p<0.10 in high-forage substrate after treated by gynosaponin. However, gynosaponin treatment under high-concentrate level did not affect the methanogenesis, fermentation characteristics and tested microbes. Accordingly, overall results suggested that gynosaponin supplementation reduced the in vitro methanogenesis and improved rumen fermentation under high-forage condition by changing the abundances of related rumen microbes.

  3. Determination of cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios for vegetables in Goiania City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Sachett, I.A.; Pereira, J.C.; Zenaro, R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological accident that occurred in Goiania City, Brazil, in September 1987, led to the spreading of 137 Cs in the urban area. Even after the decontamination procedure, there was a reminiscence of 137 Cs activity in the soil of residential gardens. This activity was enough to conduct preliminary experiments for determination of soil to vegetable concentration ratios. Experiments were conducted for carrots, lettuce and radishes. Two types of experimental patterns were used to determine the concentration ratios: lysimeters cultivation under greenhouse condition and soil cultivation in open field plot. The concentration ratios measured for cultivation under greenhouse and field plot conditions are considerably higher than those mentioned in the International Union of Radioecologist (IUR) data bank for the same vegetables and cultivation condition. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  5. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  6. Novel Apparatus for the Real-Time Quantification of Dissolved Gas Concentrations and Isotope Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Leen, J.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Liem, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of dissolved gases and their isotopic composition are critical in studying a variety of phenomena, including underwater greenhouse gas generation, air-surface exchange, and pollution migration. These studies typically involve obtaining water samples from streams, lakes, or ocean water and transporting them to a laboratory, where they are degased. The gases obtained are then generally measured using gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for concentrations and isotope ratios, respectively. This conventional, off-line methodology is time consuming, significantly limits the number of the samples that can be measured and thus severely inhibits detailed spatial and temporal mapping of gas concentrations and isotope ratios. In this work, we describe the development of a new membrane-based degassing device that interfaces directly to Los Gatos Research (cavity enhanced laser absorption or Off-Axis ICOS) gas analyzers (cavity enhanced laser absorption or Off-Axis ICOS analyzers) to create an autonomous system that can continuously and quickly measure concentrations and isotope ratios of dissolved gases in real time in the field. By accurately controlling the water flow rate through the membrane degasser, gas pressure on the outside of the membrane, and water pressure on the inside of the membrane, the system is able to generate precise and highly reproducible results. Moreover, by accurately measuring the gas flow rates in and out of the degasser, the gas-phase concentrations (ppm) could be converted into dissolved gas concentrations (nM). We will present detailed laboratory test data that quantifies the linearity, precision, and dynamic range of the system for the concentrations and isotope ratios of dissolved methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. By interfacing the degassing device to a novel cavity-enhanced spectrometer (developed by LGR), preliminary data will also be presented for dissolved volatile organics (VOC) and other

  7. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institute für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schinnerer, Eva [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kepley, Amanda [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz and Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  8. Volume dose ratios relevant for alanine dosimetry in small, 6 MV photon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard O.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Behrens, Claus F.

    2012-01-01

    therapy). To this end, we here present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study with DOSRZnrc that investigated the influence of field and detector size for small 6 MV photon beams. The study focusses on doses averaged over the volume of the detector rather than point doses.The ratio of volume...... averaged doses to water (D¯W) and alanine (D¯det) was found to be approximately 1.025 for most situations studied, and a constant ratio is likely to be representative for many applications in radiation therapy. However, D¯W/D¯det was found to be as low as 0.9908 ± 0.0037 in situations where one might...... expect significant deviations from charged particle equilibrium (i.e. at shallow depths and when the field size was smaller than the range of the secondary electrons). These effects therefore need consideration when finite-size alanine dosimeters are used under such conditions....

  9. Relationship between Contrast Enhancement of the Perivascular Space in the Basal Ganglia and Endolymphatic Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Toshio; Naganawa, Shinji; Katagiri, Toshio; Kuno, Kayao

    2018-01-10

    We routinely obtain the endolymphatic hydrops (EH) image using heavily T 2 -weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (hT 2 w-3D-FLAIR) imaging at 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single-dose of gadolinium-based contrast media (IV-SD-GBCM). While repeating the examination, we speculated that the contrast enhancement of the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia might be related to the degree of EH. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the endolymphatic volume ratio (%EL volume ) and the signal intensity of the PVS (SI-PVS). In 20 patients with a suspicion of EH, a heavily T 2 -weighted 3D-turbo spin echo sequence for MR cisternography (MRC) and an hT 2 w-3D-FLAIR as a positive perilymph image (PPI) were obtained at 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM. The %EL volume of the cochlea and the vestibule were measured on the previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 image. The PVS in the basal ganglia was segmented on MRC using a region-growing method. The PVS regions were copied and pasted onto the PPI, and the SI-PVS was measured. The larger value of the right and the left ears was employed as the %EL volume , and the weighted average of both sides was employed as the SI-PVS. The correlation between the %EL volume and the SI-PVS was evaluated. There was a strong negative linear correlation between the %EL volume of the cochlea and the SI-PVS (r = -0.743, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between the %EL volume of the vestibule and the SI-PVS (r = -0.267, P = 0.256). There was a strong negative correlation between the cochlear %EL volume and the SI-PVS. Contrast enhancement of PVS might be a biomarker of EH.

  10. Brain size and brain/intracranial volume ratio in major mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teale Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper summarizes the findings of a long term study addressing the question of how several brain volume measure are related to three major mental illnesses in a Colorado subject group. It reports results obtained from a large N, collected and analyzed by the same laboratory over a multiyear period, with visually guided MRI segmentation being the primary initial analytic tool. Methods Intracerebral volume (ICV, total brain volume (TBV, ventricular volume (VV, ventricular/brain ratio (VBR, and TBV/ICV ratios were calculated from a total of 224 subject MRIs collected over a period of 13 years. Subject groups included controls (C, N = 89, and patients with schizophrenia (SZ, N = 58, bipolar disorder (BD, N = 51, and schizoaffective disorder (SAD, N = 26. Results ICV, TBV, and VV measures compared favorably with values obtained by other research groups, but in this study did not differ significantly between groups. TBV/ICV ratios were significantly decreased, and VBR increased, in the SZ and BD groups compared to the C group. The SAD group did not differ from C on any measure. Conclusions In this study TBV/ICV and VBR ratios separated SZ and BD patients from controls. Of interest however, SAD patients did not differ from controls on these measures. The findings suggest that the gross measure of TBV may not reliably differ in the major mental illnesses to a degree useful in diagnosis, likely due to the intrinsic variability of the measures in question; the differences in VBR appear more robust across studies. Differences in some of these findings compared to earlier reports from several laboratories finding significant differences between groups in VV and TBV may relate to phenomenological drift, differences in analytic techniques, and possibly the "file drawer problem".

  11. Value of the regurgitant volume to end diastolic volume ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular dimensions after valve replacement in aortic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); C. Tirtaman; E. Bos (Egbert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the value of regurgitant stroke volume (RSV) to end-diastolic volume (EDV) ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular (LV) dimensions after uncomplicated valve replacement in 34 patients with severe pure aortic insufficiency. The RSV/EDV ratio

  12. Oxygen concentrators performance with nitrous oxide at 50:50 volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ronaldo Moll

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Few investigations have addressed the safety of oxygen from concentrators for use in anesthesia in association with nitrous oxide. This study evaluated the percent of oxygen from a concentrator in association with nitrous oxide in a semi-closed rebreathing circuit. Methods: Adult patients undergoing low risk surgery were randomly allocated into two groups, receiving a fresh gas flow of oxygen from concentrators (O293 or of oxygen from concentrators and nitrous oxide (O293N2O. The fraction of inspired oxygen and the percentage of oxygen from fresh gas flow were measured every 10 min. The ratio of FiO2/oxygen concentration delivered was compared at various time intervals and between the groups. Results: Thirty patients were studied in each group. There was no difference in oxygen from concentrators over time for both groups, but there was a significant improvement in the FiO2 (p < 0.001 for O293 group while a significant decline (p < 0.001 for O293N2O. The FiO2/oxygen ratio varied in both groups, reaching a plateau in the O293 group. Pulse oximetry did not fall below 98.5% in either group. Conclusion: The FiO2 in the mixture of O293 and nitrous oxide fell during the observation period although oxygen saturation was higher than 98.5% throughout the study. Concentrators can be considered a stable source of oxygen for use during short anesthetic procedures, either pure or in association with nitrous oxide at 50:50 volume.

  13. Measurement of fluorescent probes concentration ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbater, Osnat; Gannot, Israel

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenic process of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, begins years before the clinical diagnosis. Here, we suggest a novel method which may detect AD up to nine years earlier than current exams, minimally invasive, with minimal risk, pain and side effects. The method is based on previous reports which relate the concentrations of biomarkers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) (Aβ and Tau proteins) to the future development of AD in mild cognitive impairment patients. Our method, which uses fluorescence measurements of the relative concentrations of the CSF biomarkers, replaces the lumbar puncture process required for CSF drawing. The process uses a miniature needle coupled trough an optical fiber to a laser source and a detector. The laser radiation excites fluorescent probes which were prior injected and bond to the CSF biomarkers. Using the ratio between the fluorescence intensities emitted from the two biomarkers, which is correlated to their concentration ratio, the patient's risk of developing AD is estimated. A theoretical model was developed and validated using Monte Carlo simulations, demonstrating the relation between fluorescence emission and biomarker concentration. The method was tested using multi-layered tissue phantoms simulating the epidural fat, the CSF in the sub-arachnoid space and the bone. These phantoms were prepared with different scattering and absorption coefficients, thicknesses and fluorescence concentrations in order to simulate variations in human anatomy and in the needle location. The theoretical and in-vitro results are compared and the method's accuracy is discussed.

  14. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Beresford, N.A.; Brown, J.E.; Yankovich, T.

    2013-01-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. -- Highlights: • An online database containing wildlife radionuclide transfer parameters is described. • Database underpins recent ICRP and IAEA data wildlife transfer compilations. • Database contains equilibrium based whole organism to media concentration ratios

  15. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  16. Characteristics of plant concentration ratios assessed in a 64-site field survey of 23 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the statistical characteristics of plant concentration ratios (CRs) and translocation factors (TFs) have not been critically assessed, especially in field surveys. The statistical characteristics, particularly the measures of variation, are important for stochastic modelling of plant uptake. The CR and TF values for 23 naturally occurring elements throughout the geographic range of one plant species, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), in Canada were surveyed. Although the ratios imply linear relationships, the numerator concentrations were not closely correlated with the denominator concentrations. The variation in the ratios was not clearly related to the means or to characteristics of the elements. The overall geometric standard deviation for CRs was 2.5 and for TFs was 1.6. The values of CR were intercorrelated for certain groups of elements and these groups reflected the periodic classification of elements. Thus, correlation between elements in stochastic models, which may reduce overall variability, is valid. Site variables such as soil pH, soil bulk density, soil fertility and plant growth condition were only slightly useful in statistically explaining some of the variation in CR values. (author)

  17. Neutrophil: Lymphocyte Ratio and Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Balkarli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gout is a clinical syndrome with increased uric acid concentration, which is caused by inflammatory response against monosodium urate (MSU crystals. In gout, neutrophils are involved in inflammatory response and neutrophil activation is dependent on local cytokine production. Mean platelet volume (MPV and neutrophillymphocyte ratio (NLR are considered as inflammatory markers in several diseases and it is reported that they may have prognostic significance. Inthe current literature, there is no study evaluating MPV and NLR in gout. In this retrospective study, we investigated the role of MPV and NLR in determining inflammation in gout disease. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, 106 patients with gout (91 men and 15 women meeting the inclusion criteria based on patient records and 148 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (128 men and 20 women were included. Laboratory data during attacks (group I and intercritical period (group II were collected for the patient group. Results: Mean age was 59.46±12.93 years in the patient group and 59.00±11.33 years in the control group. Age at first attack was 52.00±12.77 years and mean time interval between first 2 attacks was 6.00±5.52 months. There was tophus in 9 patients (8.5% and family history of gout in 17 patients (16.0%. Compared to groupII (intercritical period and the control, no significant difference in MPV levels was found in groupI (during attack. MPV was similar among the three groups. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR were found to be significantly higher in group I compared to group II. There was significant difference in NLR among three groups. When classified according to the presence of tophus, it was seen that MPV and NLR were similar in both groups. Discussion: The finding of increased NLR during attacks and intercritical period show that patients with gout are subjected to chronic inflammation. Thus, NLR can be a simple, inexpensive

  18. Cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiograph in pediatric heart disease: How does it correlate with heart volumes at magnetic resonance imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Zhou, Cheng; Isaac, Kathryn V. [The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Tomlinson, George [University of Toronto, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital and Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The cardiothoracic ratio by chest radiograph is widely used as a marker of cardiac size. The purpose of this study is to correlate cardiothoracic ratio and cardiac volumes as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) in common structural and myopathic heart disease with increased cardiac size due to volume overload or hypertrophy. A retrospective single center study was performed in all patients between 2007 and 2013 with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), aortic regurgitation, isolated left-to-right shunt and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who underwent cardiovascular MR and chest radiograph within 6 months of each other. Cardiothoracic ratios by chest radiograph (frontal and lateral) were compared to cardiac volumes (indexed for body surface area) by cardiovascular MR. One hundred twenty-seven patients (mean age: 11.2 ± 5.5 years) were included in this study (76 with TOF, 23 with isolated left-to-right shunt, 16 with aortic regurgitation and 12 with HCM). Frontal cardiothoracic ratio of all groups correlated with indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDVI) (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) and indexed total heart volume (THVI) (r = 0.27, P < 0.01). In TOF patients, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with RVEDVI (r = 0.34, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 27.6%), indexed RV end-systolic volume (ESVI) (r = 0.44, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 33.3%) and THVI (r = 0.35, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 19.6%), although RV volumes and THVI showed widespread variation given the high coefficients of variation. In patients with aortic regurgitation, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with left ventricular (LV) EDVI (r = 0.50, P = 0.047), but not with THVI and aortic regurgitant fraction, and widespread variation for LV EDVI (coefficient of variation = 19.2%), LV ESVI (coefficient of variation = 32.5%) and THVI (coefficient of variation = 13.6%) was also observed. Frontal cardiothoracic ratio was not correlated with cardiac volumes

  19. Inorganic speciation of dissolved elements in seawater: the influence of pH on concentration ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of inorganic elemental speciation in seawater span the past four decades. Experimentation, compilation and critical review of equilibrium data over the past forty years have, in particular, considerably improved our understanding of cation hydrolysis and the complexation of cations by carbonate ions in solution. Through experimental investigations and critical evaluation it is now known that more than forty elements have seawater speciation schemes that are strongly influenced by pH. In the present work, the speciation of the elements in seawater is summarized in a manner that highlights the significance of pH variations. For elements that have pH-dependent species concentration ratios, this work summarizes equilibrium data (S = 35, t = 25°C that can be used to assess regions of dominance and relative species concentrations. Concentration ratios of complex species are expressed in the form log[A]/[B] = pH - C where brackets denote species concentrations in solution, A and B are species important at higher (A and lower (B solution pH, and C is a constant dependent on salinity, temperature and pressure. In the case of equilibria involving complex oxy-anions (MOx(OHy or hydroxy complexes (M(OHn, C is written as pKn = -log Kn or pKn* = -log Kn* respectively, where Kn and Kn* are equilibrium constants. For equilibria involving carbonate complexation, the constant C is written as pQ = -log(K2lKn [HCO3-] where K2l is the HCO3 - dissociation constant, Kn is a cation complexation constant and [HCO3-] is approximated as 1.9 × 10-3 molar. Equilibrium data expressed in this manner clearly show dominant species transitions, ranges of dominance, and relative concentrations at any pH.

  20. The effect of reinforcement volume ratio on porosity and thermal conductivity in Al-Mgo composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume ratios (RVR on composite structure and thermal conductivity were examined in Al-MgO reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs of 5%, 10% and 15% RVR produced by melt stirring. In the production of composites, EN AW 1050A aluminum alloy was used as the matrix material and MgO powders with particle size of -105 µm were used as the reinforcement material. For every composite specimen was produced at 500 rev/min stirring speed, at 750 °C liquid matrix temperature and 4 minutes stirring time. Composite samples were cooled under normal atmosphere. Then, microstructures of the samples were determined and evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. In general, it was observed that the reinforcement exhibited a homogeneous distribution. Furthermore, it was determined that the increase in the RVR increased porosity. From the Scanning Electron Microscope images, a thermal Ansys model was generated to determine effective thermal conductivity. Effective thermal conductivity of Al-MgO composites increased with the decrease in reinforcement volume ratio.

  1. A hidden variable in shear transformation zone volume versus Poisson's ratio relation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Oh, H. S.; Park, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we elucidate a hidden variable in a shear transformation zone (STZ) volume (Ω) versus Poisson's ratio (ν) relation and clarify the correlation between STZ characteristics and the plasticity of metallic glasses (MGs). On the basis of cooperative shear model and atomic stress theories, we carefully formulate Ω as a function of molar volume (Vm) and ν. The twofold trend in Ω and ν is attributed to a relatively large variation of Vm as compared to that of ν as well as an inverse relation between Vm and ν. Indeed, the derived equation reveals that the number of atoms in an STZ instead of Ω is a microstructural characteristic which has a close relationship with plasticity since it reflects the preference of atomistic behaviors between cooperative shearing and the generation of volume strain fluctuation under stress. The results would deepen our understanding of the correlation between microscopic behaviors (STZ activation) and macroscopic properties (plasticity) in MGs and enable a quantitative approach in associating various STZ-related macroscopic behaviors with intrinsic properties of MGs.

  2. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  3. 137Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bq g -1137 Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bq g -1137 Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict 137 Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate 137 Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of 137 Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in 137 Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples

  4. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  5. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Beresford, N A; Brown, J E; Yankovich, T

    2013-12-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation of a regression-based model to predict cesium-137 concentration ratios for saltwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, John E.; Rowan, David J.; Smith, Jim T.

    2016-01-01

    Data from published studies and World Wide Web sources were combined to develop a regression model to predict "1"3"7Cs concentration ratios for saltwater fish. Predictions were developed from 1) numeric trophic levels computed primarily from random resampling of known food items and 2) K concentrations in the saltwater for 65 samplings from 41 different species from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. A number of different models were initially developed and evaluated for accuracy which was assessed as the ratios of independently measured concentration ratios to those predicted by the model. In contrast to freshwater systems, were K concentrations are highly variable and are an important factor in affecting fish concentration ratios, the less variable K concentrations in saltwater were relatively unimportant in affecting concentration ratios. As a result, the simplest model, which used only trophic level as a predictor, had comparable accuracies to more complex models that also included K concentrations. A test of model accuracy involving comparisons of 56 published concentration ratios from 51 species of marine fish to those predicted by the model indicated that 52 of the predicted concentration ratios were within a factor of 2 of the observed concentration ratios. - Highlights: • We developed a model to predict concentration ratios (C_r) for saltwater fish. • The model requires only a single input variable to predict C_r. • That variable is a mean numeric trophic level available at (fishbase.org). • The K concentrations in seawater were not an important predictor variable. • The median-to observed ratio for 56 independently measured C_r was 0.83.

  7. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  8. Whole-Organism Concentration Ratios for Plutonium in Wildlife from Past US Nuclear Research Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    johansen, M.; Kamboj; Kuhne, W.

    2012-07-26

    Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo-media}) for plutonium (Pu) in wildlife were calculated using data from the broad range of organism types and environmental settings of the US nuclear research program. Original sources included site-specific reports and scientific journal articles typically from 1960s to 80s research. Most of the calculated CR{sub wo-media} values are new to existing data sets, and, for some wildlife categories, serve to fill gaps or add to sparse data including those for terrestrial reptile; freshwater bird, crustacean and zooplankton; and marine crustacean and zooplankton. Ratios of Pu concentration in the whole-organism to that in specific tissues and organs are provided here for a range of freshwater and marine fish. The CR{sub wo-media} values in fish living in liquid discharge ponds were two orders of magnitude higher than those for similar species living in lakes receiving Pu from atmospheric fallout, suggesting the physico-chemical form of the source Pu can dominate over other factors related to transfer, such as organism size and feeding behavior. Small rodent data indicated one to two order of magnitude increases when carcass, pelt, and gastrointestinal tract were included together in the whole-organism calculation compared to that for carcass alone. Only 4% of Pu resided in the carcass of small rodents compared to 75% in the gastrointestinal tract and 21% in the pelt.

  9. Concentration ratios to great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Olkiluoto repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Haavisto, Fiia [FM Meri and Erae Oy, Seijaistentie 133a, 21230 Lemu (Finland); Salmi, Juhani A. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 3, 20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. The great cormorant was a common species in the Finnish coastal area and possibly also a resource for human uses before the decline of the cormorant population in the 18. century. During the last decade, the great cormorant has become again a relevant part of food web in the Bothnian Sea coastal area. Due to the regulatory requirements, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the adequate literature data on common waterfowl is sparse or in some cases lacking, samples of adult cormorants, eggs and guano together with water and fish samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area. This contribution will present concentration ratios of stable element based on these samples with focus on the elements of a high relevance to the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository together with discussion on the role of food (fish) versus the application of the water-to-bird concentration ratio. (authors)

  10. Elemental Concentration Ratios for Benthic Animals in the Seas around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with such necessity, several computerized tools for estimating the exposure of wildlife to ionizing radiations have been developed. The world most famous tools may be RESRAD-Biota and ERICA. There is also a Korean version named K-Biota. All of these three assessment tools use concentration ratios (CRs) for the estimation of the internal radiation dose to wild organisms. The CR is one of the most important model parameters in the wildlife dose assessment in general, and defined as the ratio of the radionuclide concentration in an organism to that in a medium (soil or water). The IAEA recently published a handbook of CR values for generic use. CR values can vary greatly with environmental conditions and wildlife species. Accordingly, it is better to use site-specific CR data if available, as emphasized by the IAEA. In this study, CR values of different nuclides were measured for various benthic wild animal species living in the seas around the Gyeongju nuclear site. As the result of field studies, CR values of 16 elements were measured for ten different animal species living near or on the bottoms of seas around the Gyeongju nuclear site. The CR values varied considerably with elements, wildlife species and sampling points. For the enhancement in accuracy and reliability of the estimation with the K-BIOTA, a computerized tool for Korean wildlife dose assessment, CR data needs to be extended to many other species of domestic wildlife

  11. Elemental Concentration Ratios for Benthic Animals in the Seas around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In accordance with such necessity, several computerized tools for estimating the exposure of wildlife to ionizing radiations have been developed. The world most famous tools may be RESRAD-Biota and ERICA. There is also a Korean version named K-Biota. All of these three assessment tools use concentration ratios (CRs) for the estimation of the internal radiation dose to wild organisms. The CR is one of the most important model parameters in the wildlife dose assessment in general, and defined as the ratio of the radionuclide concentration in an organism to that in a medium (soil or water). The IAEA recently published a handbook of CR values for generic use. CR values can vary greatly with environmental conditions and wildlife species. Accordingly, it is better to use site-specific CR data if available, as emphasized by the IAEA. In this study, CR values of different nuclides were measured for various benthic wild animal species living in the seas around the Gyeongju nuclear site. As the result of field studies, CR values of 16 elements were measured for ten different animal species living near or on the bottoms of seas around the Gyeongju nuclear site. The CR values varied considerably with elements, wildlife species and sampling points. For the enhancement in accuracy and reliability of the estimation with the K-BIOTA, a computerized tool for Korean wildlife dose assessment, CR data needs to be extended to many other species of domestic wildlife.

  12. Whole-organism concentration ratios for plutonium in wildlife from past US nuclear research data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, M.P.; Kamboj, S.; Kuhne, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR wo-media ) for plutonium (Pu) in wildlife were calculated using data from the broad range of organism types and environmental settings of the US nuclear research program. Original sources included site-specific reports and scientific journal articles typically from 1960s to 80s research. Most of the calculated CR wo-media values are new to existing data sets, and, for some wildlife categories, serve to fill gaps or add to sparse data including those for terrestrial reptile; freshwater bird, crustacean and zooplankton; and marine crustacean and zooplankton. Ratios of Pu concentration in the whole-organism to that in specific tissues and organs are provided here for a range of freshwater and marine fish. The CR wo-media values in fish living in liquid discharge ponds were two orders of magnitude higher than those for similar species living in lakes receiving Pu from atmospheric fallout, suggesting the physico-chemical form of the source Pu can dominate over other factors related to transfer, such as organism size and feeding behavior. Small rodent data indicated one to two order of magnitude increases when carcass, pelt, and gastrointestinal tract were included together in the whole-organism calculation compared to that for carcass alone. Only 4% of Pu resided in the carcass of small rodents compared to 75% in the gastrointestinal tract and 21% in the pelt

  13. Is the use of wildlife group-specific concentration ratios justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Copplestone, David [School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Howard, Brenda J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    The international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD; www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org/?) provides the most comprehensive international compilation of radionuclide transfer parameters (concentration ratios) for wildlife. The concentration ratio (CR{sub wo-media}) is a constant that describes the ratio between the activity concentration of a radionuclide in the whole- organism and the activity concentration of that radionuclide in a reference environmental medium (e.g. soil or filtered water). Developed to support activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the WTD now contains over 100,000 CR{sub wo-media} values. The WTD has been used to generate summary statistics for broad wildlife groups (e.g. amphibian, arthropod, mammal, reptile, shrub, tree etc). The group-specific summary statistics include mean and standard deviation (both arithmetic and geometric) and range. These summarised CR{sub wo-media} values (generally arithmetic or geometric mean) are used in most of the modelling approaches currently implemented for wildlife dose assessment. Beyond the broad organism group summary statistics presented within the WTD, it is possible to generate CR{sub wo-media} summary statistics for some organism sub-categories (e.g. carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous birds). However, using a statistical analysis we developed recently for the analysis of summarised datasets, we have shown that there is currently little statistical justification for the use of organism sub-category CR{sub wo-media} values. Large variability is a characteristic of many of the organism-radionuclide datasets within the WTD, even within individual input data sets. Therefore, the statistical validity of defining different CR{sub wo-media} values for these broad wildlife groups may also be questioned. However, no analysis has been undertaken to date to determine the statistical significance of any differences between

  14. Assessment of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in pediatric familial Mediterranean fever patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Basaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV both have been used as a simple marker of inflammation in many disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship between NLR, MPV, and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the files of FMF patients in pediatric rheumatology outpatient clinic were reviewed. There were 160 participants (68.4% in the FMF patient group and 74 participants (31.6% in the control group. Ninety of patients were in attack-free period, and 70 were in attack period. Results: The highest values of NLR were found in the patients at attack period. Patients in attack-free period and the participants in control group had similar levels of NLR (1.71 ± 0.83 and 1.91 ± 1.86 respectively (P = 0.457, and they had lower ratios than the patients did at attack period (4.10 ± 3.11 (P < 0.001 for both. There was no significant difference between MPV values of attack patients (8.35 ± 4.91 and attack-free patients (8.43 ± 1.15 (P = 0.074. MPV values of attack patients and attack-free patients were significantly higher than control group (7.99 ± 0.81 (P < 0.001 for both. Conclusion: NLR ratio may indicate FMF attack period. Since there was no significant difference between attack-free patients and control groups, NLR ratio cannot be used as a subclinical inflammation marker. However, NLR could be a useful predictor of inflammation in FMF patients. On the other hand, since our attack and attack-free patients have similar MPV values and both had greater MPV values than control group, we suggest that MPV may be used to show subclinical inflammation.

  15. Active renin mass concentration to determine aldosterone-to-renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available François Corbin1, Pierre Douville2, Marcel Lebel3 1Division of Biochemistry, l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 2Division of Biochemistry; 3Division of Nephrology, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital and l'Université Laval, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Active renin mass concentration (ARC is independent of the endogenous level of angiotensinogen, and less variable and more reproducible than plasma renin activity. Reference values for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR using ARC are still undefined. The objective of the present study was to determine the threshold of ARR using ARC measurement to screen for primary aldosteronism.Methods: A total of 211 subjects were included in the study, comprising 78 healthy normotensive controls, 95 patients with essential hypertension, and 38 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (20 with surgery-confirmed aldosterone-producing adenoma and 18 with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Blood samples were drawn from ambulatory patients and volunteers in the mid-morning without specific dietary restriction for measuring plasma aldosterone concentration, ARC, and serum potassium.Results: Most normotensive controls and essential hypertension patients had ARR results below 100 pmol/ng, a value which corresponded to 3.3 times the median of these two groups.Conclusion: Patients with ARR values above this level should be considered for further investigation (confirmatory tests or for repeat testing should ARR values be borderline. This study indicates that ARC can be used reliably in determining ARR for primary aldosteronism screening.Keywords: primary aldosteronism, active renin mass concentration, aldosterone-to-renin ratio

  16. Feasibility study of one axis three positions tracking solar PV with low concentration ratio reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    A new PV design, called 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module', with low concentration ratio reflector was proposed in the present study. Every PV module is designed with a low concentration ratio reflector and is mounted on an individual sun tracking frame. The one axis tracking mechanism adjusts the PV position only at three fixed angles (three position tracking): morning, noon and afternoon. This 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module' can be designed in a simple structure with low cost. A design analysis was performed in the present study. The analytical results show that the optimal stopping angle β in the morning or afternoon is about 50 o from the solar noon position and the optimal switching angle that controls the best time for changing the attitude of the PV module is half of the stopping angle, i.e. θ H = β/2, and both are independent of the latitude. The power generation increases by approximately 24.5% as compared to a fixed PV module for latitude φ o . The analysis also shows that the effect of installation misalignment away from the true south direction is negligible ( o . An experiment performed in the present study indicates that the PV power generation can increase by about 23% using low concentration (2X) reflectors. Hence, combining with the power output increase of 24.5%, by using one axis three position tracking, the total increase in power generation is about 56%. The economic analysis shows that the price reduction is between 20% and 30% for the various market prices of flat plate PV modules

  17. Glass-surface area to solution-volume ratio and its implications to accelerated leach testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; McVay, G.L.; Riddle, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    The value of glass surface area to solution volume ratio (SA/V) can strongly influence the leaching rate of PNL 76-68 glass. The leaching rate is largely governed by silicon solubility constraints. Silicic acid in solution reduced the elemental release of all glass components. No components are leached to depths greater than that of silicon. The presence of the reaction layer had no measurable effect on the rate of leaching. Accelerated leach testing is possible since PNL 76-68 glass leaching is solubility-controlled (except at very low SA/V values). A series of glasses leached with SA/V x time = constant will yield identical elemental release

  18. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and 210 Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer

  19. ON THE ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN GALAXY LIGHT CONCENTRATION AND X-RAY-TO-OPTICAL FLUX RATIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povic, M.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Fernandez Lorenzo, M.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) play an important role in many aspects of modern cosmology, and of particular interest is the issue of the interplay between AGNs and their host galaxy. Using X-ray and optical data sets, we have explored the properties of a large sample of AGNs in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field, and studied their evolution in relation with the evolution of their host galaxy. We present here an anticorrelation between X-ray-to-optical flux (X/O) ratio and galaxy light concentration (C), which has been found for the first time and might suggest that early-type galaxies, having poor matter supply to feed the AGN activity, have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  20. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujarati, Vivek P., E-mail: vivekgujarati@gmail.com; Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  1. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  2. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B

    2010-01-01

    arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...... was reduced in both groups with ropivacaine administration 24 h postoperatively (p ropivacaine injection 6 h postoperatively. The median (IQR [range]) dose of oxycodone administered...

  3. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  4. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, D.; St-Laurent, J.; Hahni, M.; Chapados, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10,C50), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb) were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-Francois and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 20 '6Pb) are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88?mg kg -1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81?mg kg-1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13?mg kg -1 (Pb), respectively, while the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn) were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10,C50), most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth). The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on flood plains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils

  5. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz; Małek, Łukasz A.; Petryka, Joanna; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Miłosz, Barbara; Biernacka, Elżbieta K.; Kowalski, Mirosław; Hoffman, Piotr; Demkow, Marcin; Miśko, Jolanta; Rużyłło, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m 2 ). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC) PRV = 0.770 vs AUC PRF = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m 2 ), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC PRV = 0.770 vs AUC PRF = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  6. Non-invasive assessment of distribution volume ratios and binding potential: tissue heterogeneity and interindividually averaged time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Strasse 14, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, G.A. [Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Reischl, G. [Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Due to the stochastic nature of radioactive decay, any measurement of radioactivity concentration requires spatial averaging. In pharmacokinetic analysis of time-activity curves (TAC), such averaging over heterogeneous tissues may introduce a systematic error (heterogeneity error) but may also improve the accuracy and precision of parameter estimation. In addition to spatial averaging (inevitable due to limited scanner resolution and intended in ROI analysis), interindividual averaging may theoretically be beneficial, too. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of such averaging on the binding potential (BP) calculated with Logan's non-invasive graphical analysis and the ''simplified reference tissue method'' (SRTM) proposed by Lammertsma and Hume, on the basis of simulated and measured positron emission tomography data [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate (dMP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (RAC) PET. dMP was not quantified with SRTM since the low k {sub 2} (washout rate constant from the first tissue compartment) introduced a high noise sensitivity. Even for considerably different shapes of TAC (dMP PET in parkinsonian patients and healthy controls, [{sup 11}C]raclopride in patients with and without haloperidol medication) and a high variance in the rate constants (e.g. simulated standard deviation of K {sub 1}=25%), the BP obtained from average TAC was close to the mean BP (<5%). However, unfavourably distributed parameters, especially a correlated large variance in two or more parameters, may lead to larger errors. In Monte Carlo simulations, interindividual averaging before quantification reduced the variance from the SRTM (beyond a critical signal to noise ratio) and the bias in Logan's method. Interindividual averaging may further increase accuracy when there is an error term in the reference tissue assumption E=DV {sub 2}-DV ' (DV {sub 2} = distribution volume of the first tissue compartment, DV &apos

  7. 'Finite' non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, (arXiv: 0707.0105)] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, (arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th])] and using the formalisms of [S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar slow-roll inflation, (arXiv: 0705.3178 [astro-ph]); S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar inflation, Phys. Rev. D 77 (2008) 083511, (arXiv: 0711.2920 [astro-ph])], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-)instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of getting finite values for the non-linear parameter f NL while looking for non-Gaussianities in type IIB compactifications on orientifolds of the Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau WCP 4 [1,1,1,6,9] in the L(arge) V(olume) S(cenarios) limit. We show the same in two contexts. First is multi-field slow-roll inflation with D3-instanton contribution coming from a large number of multiple wrappings of a single (Euclidean) D3-brane around the 'small' divisor yielding f NL ∼O(1). The second is when the slow-roll conditions are violated and for the number of the aforementioned D3-instanton wrappings being of O(1) but more than one, yielding f NL ∼O(1). Based on general arguments not specific to our (string-theory) set-up, we argue that requiring curvature perturbations not to grow at horizon crossing and at super-horizon scales, automatically picks out hybrid inflationary scenarios which in our set up can yield f NL ∼O(1) and tensor-scalar ratio of O(10 -2 ). For all our calculations, the world-sheet instanton contributions to the Kaehler potential coming from the non-perturbative α ' corrections

  8. Designing the fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic composites under Hertzian stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Sung; Jang, Kyung Soon; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae Woo; Han, In Sub; Woo, Sang Kuk

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Optimum fiber volume ratios in the SiC/SiC composite layers were designed under Hertzian stress. → FEM analysis and spherical indentation experiments were undertaken. → Boron nitride-pyrocarbon double coatings on the SiC fiber were effective. → Fiber volume ratio should be designed against flexural stress. -- Abstract: Finite element method (FEM) analysis and experimental studies are undertaken on the design of the fiber volume ratio in silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC composites under indentation contact stresses. Boron nitride (BN)/Pyrocarbon (PyC) are selected as the coating materials for the SiC fiber. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are modeled by introducing a woven fiber layer in the SiC matrix. Especially, this study attempts to find the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics under Hertzian stress. The analysis is performed by changing the fiber type, fiber volume ratio, coating material, number of coating layers, and stacking sequence of the coating layers. The variation in the stress for composites in relation to the fiber volume ratio in the contact axial or radial direction is also analyzed. The same structures are fabricated experimentally by a hot process, and the mechanical behaviors regarding the load-displacement are evaluated using the Hertzian indentation method. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are fabricated, and mechanical characterization is performed by changing the coating layer, according to the introduction (or omission) of the coating layer, and the number of woven fiber mats. The results show that the damage mode changes from Hertzian stress to flexural stress as the fiber volume ratio increases in composites because of the decreased matrix volume fraction, which intensifies the radial crack damage. The result significantly indicates that the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics should be designed for

  9. A New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enterovirus and Norovirus from Large Volumes of Water - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of enteric viruses in environmental water usually requires the concentration of viruses from large volumes of water. The 1MDS electropositive filter is commonly used for concentrating enteric viruses from water but unfortunately these filters are not cost-effective...

  10. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  11. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well

  12. Development and evaluation of a regression-based model to predict cesium concentration ratios for freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, John E.; Rowan, David J.; Rasmussen, Joseph B.; Smith, Jim T.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Whicker, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Data from published studies and World Wide Web sources were combined to produce and test a regression model to predict Cs concentration ratios for freshwater fish species. The accuracies of predicted concentration ratios, which were computed using 1) species trophic levels obtained from random resampling of known food items and 2) K concentrations in the water for 207 fish from 44 species and 43 locations, were tested against independent observations of ratios for 57 fish from 17 species from 25 locations. Accuracy was assessed as the percent of observed to predicted ratios within factors of 2 or 3. Conservatism, expressed as the lack of under prediction, was assessed as the percent of observed to predicted ratios that were less than 2 or less than 3. The model's median observed to predicted ratio was 1.26, which was not significantly different from 1, and 50% of the ratios were between 0.73 and 1.85. The percentages of ratios within factors of 2 or 3 were 67 and 82%, respectively. The percentages of ratios that were <2 or <3 were 79 and 88%, respectively. An example for Perca fluviatilis demonstrated that increased prediction accuracy could be obtained when more detailed knowledge of diet was available to estimate trophic level. - Highlights: • We developed a model to predict Cs concentration ratios for freshwater fish species. • The model uses only two variables to predict a species CR for any location. • One variable is the K concentration in the freshwater. • The other is a species mean trophic level measure easily obtained from (fishbase.org). • The median observed to predicted ratio for 57 independent test cases was 1.26

  13. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  14. The study of alteration in left ventricular volume and pressure to volume ratio during exercise in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhonglin; Pei Zhuguo; Zang Bin

    1994-01-01

    The alterations induced by exercise in left ventricular end diastolic volume index (EDVI), end systolic volume index (ESVI) and systolic blood pressure to end systolic volume ratio (P/ESV) were studied in 15 normal subjects and 42 patients with coronary heart disease using a non-geometric count-based method and supine bicycle exercise test. Normal subjects had an increase in EDVI and a decrease in ESVI, but coronary heart disease patients had an increase in both EDVI and ESVI. The extent of increase induced by exercise in EDVI was greater in angina patients than that in normal and old myocardial infarction subjects. The P/ESV can be used to evaluate left ventricular systolic pressure-volume relationship. For the P/ESV exercise response, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for coronary heart disease were 95%, 93% and 95%, respectively

  15. Increased serum chemerin concentrations in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: Relationship between insulin resistance and ovarian volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Yue, Jiang; Sun, Yun; Zheng, Jun; Tao, Tao; Li, Shengxian; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-23

    Chemerin has been linked to adiposity, and insulin resistance (IR) which are the common characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Chemerin also shows inhibitory action on follicular steroidogenesis. We investigated the associations between chemerin and IR or polycystic ovary morphology in patients with PCOS. A total of 148 women with newly diagnosed PCOS using Rotterdam criteria and 88 healthy individuals were enrolled. The recruited patients with PCOS were further stratified by tertiles of serum chemerin concentrations as follows: Group 1 ( 30.27 ng/ml). Compared to controls, women with PCOS in each tertile had higher serum chemerin concentrations. By linear regression analysis, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and ovarian volume showed significant associations with chemerin after adjusting for confounding factors (β = 0.257, P = 0.028; β = 0.276, P = 0.005, respectively). The odds ratios (ORs) for ovarian volume excess gradually increased across increasing tertiles of chemerin in the adjusted model [Group 1: reference; Group 2: OR 1.602; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.170–2.194; Group 3: OR 1.857; 95% CI: 1.335-2.583]. Patients with PCOS showed increased serum chemerin concentrations as compared to healthy women. Individuals with higher chemerin tended to have higher risk for ovarian volume excess in patients with PCOS, regardless of adiposity.

  16. Comparison of atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons between temperate regions and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Insogna, Susanna

    2009-09-01

    For the purpose of understanding the transport and deposition mechanisms and the air-water distribution of some volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs), their atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio was evaluated. In addition, for the purpose of differentiating VCHC behaviour in a temperate climate from its behaviour in a polar climate, the atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio evaluated in matrices from temperate zones was compared with the concentration ratio evaluated in Antarctic matrices. In order to perform air samplings also at rigid Antarctic temperatures, the sampling apparatus, consisting of a diaphragm pump and canisters, was suitably modified. Chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were measured in air, water and snow using specific techniques composed of a purpose-made cryofocusing-trap-injector (for air samples) and a modified purge-and-trap injector (for aqueous samples) coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The VCHCs were retrieved in all the investigated matrices, both Italian and Antarctic, with concentrations varying from tens to thousands of ng m(-3) in air and from digits to hundreds of ng kg(-1) in water and snow. The atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratios were always found to be lower than 1. In particular, the Italian air/water concentration ratios were smaller than the Antarctic ones, by reason of the higher atmospheric photochemical activity in temperate zones. On the other hand, the Antarctic air/snow concentration ratios proved to be largely in favour of snow with respect to the Italian ratios, thus corroborating the hypothesis of a more efficient VCHC deposition mechanism and accumulation on Antarctic snow.

  17. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...

  18. Fibrin d-dimer concentration, deep vein thrombosis symptom duration, and venous thrombus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kalsi, Henna; Wysokinski, Waldemar E; Mauck, Karen F; Bhagra, Anjali; Havyer, Rachel D; Thompson, Carrie A; Hayes, Sharonne N; McBane, Robert D

    2011-04-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrin D-dimer levels, symptom duration, and thrombus volume, consecutive patients with incident deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated. In a cross-sectional study design, patient symptom onset was determined by careful patient questioning. Venous thrombosis was confirmed by compression duplex ultrasonography. Thrombus volume was estimated based on patient's femur length using a forensic anthropology method. Fibrin D-dimer was measured by latex immunoassay. 72 consecutive patients with confirmed leg DVT agreed to participate. The median symptom duration at the time of diagnosis was 10 days. The median D-dimer concentration was 1050 ng/dL. The median thrombus volume was 12.92 cm(3). D-Dimer levels correlated with estimated thrombus volume (P venous thrombosis and correlates with thrombus volume.

  19. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  20. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B

    2010-01-01

    was reduced in both groups with ropivacaine administration 24 h postoperatively (p time intervals. No reduction in pain scores was observed with ropivacaine injection 6 h postoperatively. The median (IQR [range]) dose of oxycodone administered......Wound administration of local anaesthetic may be effective for postoperative pain management in knee arthroplasty, but the analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic in relation to volume vs concentration has not been determined. In a double-blinded trial, 48 patients scheduled for total knee...... arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...

  1. The measurement of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using double isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongguo

    1994-01-01

    The isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are measured by silicagel-thermal ionization mass spectrometry using the double isotope spikers. The double isotope spikers ( 70 Zn and 67 Zn-enriched isotopes) are used to correct the isotope mass fractionation for the zinc isotope ratios, and to certify the zinc concentrations in the unknown samples. The zinc concentrations of these double isotope spikers are surveyed by a spiker made of pure (99.99%) natural zinc metal powder. The correcting factors (f a , f t and f n ) of the zinc isotope ratios in the spiked mixture, spike and unspiked samples for the isotope mass fractionation, and the spike-to-unspiked ratios (X r ) of the zinc isotope r in the spiked mixture samples can be obtained to solve the matrix equations by numerical approximation. The natural zinc isotope ratios are: 64 Zn/ 67 Zn = 11.8498, 66 Zn/ 67 Zn = 6.7977, 68 Zn/ 67 Zn = 4.5730 and 70 Zn/ 67 Zn = 0.1520. The uncertainties determined of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are +- 0.16% and +-0.31%, respectively

  2. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  3. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  4. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  5. Profile of isokinetic eccentric-to-concentric strength ratios of shoulder rotator muscles in elite female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; Fleury, Anna Maria; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosia; Dubas, Joao Paulo; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscles strength in female handball players. Twenty-seven handball players performed concentric and eccentric strength tests of both dominant and non-dominant upper limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer. Internal and external rotator muscles peak torque was assessed at 1.05, 3.14, and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in concentric mode and at 3.14 and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in eccentric mode. Concentric balance ratio and functional ratio were obtained. Bi-lateral deficiency was compared. Concentric strength for internal and external rotation was significantly greater for the dominant than for the non-dominant limb for all speeds (P muscles were stronger in the dominant than the non-dominant limb (P stronger than the non-dominant side, balance concentric ratios remained the same, with only the functional strength ratio different at 5.23 rad . s(-1). Our results suggest that concentric strength exercises be used for internal and external rotators on the non-dominant side, and functional exercise that improves eccentric rotation strength for prevention programmes.

  6. Impedance ratio method for urine conductivity-invariant estimation of bladder volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schlebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume could help patients with impaired bladder volume sensation to determine the right moment for catheterisation. Continuous, non-invasive impedance measurement is a promising technology in this scenario, although influences of body posture and unknown urine conductivity limit wide clinical use today. We studied impedance changes related to bladder volume by simulation, in-vitro and in-vivo measurements with pigs. In this work, we present a method to reduce the influence of urine conductivity to cystovolumetry and bring bioimpedance cystovolumetry closer to a clinical application.

  7. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-02-09

    The ratio of {sup 210}Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5{+-}2.2) x 10{sup -5} (arithmetic mean{+-}S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of {sup 210}Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of {sup 210}Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 214}Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of {sup 210}Po to {sup 210}Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, were 1:7.5x10{sup -5} and 1:0.6 x 10{sup -5}, respectively.

  8. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of 210 Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ( 222 Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5±2.2) x 10 -5 (arithmetic mean±S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of 210 Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of 210 Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, 210 Pb and 214 Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to 210 Pb and 210 Po, were 1:7.5x10 -5 and 1:0.6 x 10 -5 , respectively

  9. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz, E-mail: mspiewak@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Małek, Łukasz A., E-mail: lmalek@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Petryka, Joanna, E-mail: joannapetryka@hotmail.com [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz, E-mail: lmazurkiewicz@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Cardiomyopathy, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miłosz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara-milosz@o2.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Biernacka, Elżbieta K., E-mail: kbiernacka@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalski, Mirosław, E-mail: mkowalski@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Hoffman, Piotr, E-mail: phoffman@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Demkow, Marcin, E-mail: mdemkow@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miśko, Jolanta, E-mail: jmisko@wp.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Rużyłło, Witold, E-mail: wruzyllo@ikard.pl [Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m{sup 2}). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.430, p = 0.0014, respectively). On the other hand, both PRV and PRF showed a good correlation with the RV/LV ratio (r = 0.691, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.685, p < 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that both measures of PR had similar ability to predict severe RV dilatation when the RV/LV ratio-based criterion was used, namely the RV/LV ratio > 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC){sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m{sup 2}), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC{sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  10. An ancillary method in urine cytology: Nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio for discrimination between benign and malignant urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Keiko; Hoshiai, Keita; Kumagai, Naoya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Kurose, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The essential of urine cytology for the diagnosis and the follow-up of urothelial neoplasia has been widely recognized. However, there are some cases in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made due to difficulty in discriminating between benign and malignant. This study evaluated the practicality of nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) for the discrimination. Using Papanicolaou-stained slides, 253 benign urothelial cells and 282 malignant urothelial cells were selected and divided into a benign urothelial cell and an urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell groups. Three suspicious cases and four cases in which discrimination between benign and malignant was difficult were prepared for verification test. Subject cells were decolorized and stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole for detection of the nuclei and the nucleoli. Z-stack method was performed to analyze. When the cutoff point of 1.514% discriminating benign urothelial cells and UC cells from nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) was utilized, the sensitivity was 56.0%, the specificity was 88.5%, the positive predictive value was 84.5%, and the negative predictive value was 64.4%. Nuclear and nucleolar volume, number of the nucleoli, and nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) were significantly higher in the UC cell group than in the benign urothelial cell group (P benign and malignant urothelial cells, providing possible additional information in urine cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:483-491. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Equilibrium and Dynamic Osmotic Behaviour of Aqueous Solutions with Varied Concentration at Constant and Variable Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, Ivan L.; Manev, Emil D.; Sazdanova, Svetla V.; Kolikov, Kiril H.

    2013-01-01

    Osmosis is essential for the living organisms. In biological systems the process usually occurs in confined volumes and may express specific features. The osmotic pressure in aqueous solutions was studied here experimentally as a function of solute concentration (0.05–0.5 M) in two different regimes: of constant and variable solution volume. Sucrose, a biologically active substance, was chosen as a reference solute for the complex tests. A custom made osmotic cell was used. A novel operative experimental approach, employing limited variation of the solution volume, was developed and applied for the purpose. The established equilibrium values of the osmotic pressure are in agreement with the theoretical expectations and do not exhibit any evident differences for both regimes. In contrast, the obtained kinetic dependences reveal striking divergence in the rates of the process at constant and varied solution volume for the respective solute concentrations. The rise of pressure is much faster at constant solution volume, while the solvent influx is many times greater in the regime of variable volume. The results obtained suggest a feasible mechanism for the way in which the living cells rapidly achieve osmotic equilibrium upon changes in the environment. PMID:24459448

  12. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative estimation of a ratio of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume to brain volume based on segmentation of CT images in patients with extra-axial hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Kurpad, Shekar; Mueller, Wade

    2017-02-01

    Background Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. Objective The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma. Patients and methods In our retrospective study, we reviewed 113 patients with surgical extra-axial hematomas. We included 28 patients (age 61.7 +/- 17.7 years; 19 males, nine females) with an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) ( n = 5) and subacute/chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) ( n = 23). We excluded 85 patients, in order, due to acute SDH ( n = 76), concurrent intraparenchymal pathology ( n = 6), and bilateral pathology ( n = 3). Noncontrast CT images of the head were obtained using a CT scanner (2004 GE LightSpeed VCT CT system, tube voltage 140 kVp, tube current 310 mA, 5 mm section thickness) preoperatively, postoperatively (3.8 ± 5.8 hours from surgery), and at follow-up clinic visit (48.2 ± 27.7 days after surgery). Each CT scan was loaded into an OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) workstation to segment pixels based on radiodensity properties measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Based on HU values from -30 to 100, brain, CSF spaces, vascular structures, hematoma, and/or postsurgical fluid were segregated from bony structures, and subsequently hematoma and/or postsurgical fluid were manually selected and removed from the images. The remaining images represented overall brain volume-containing only CSF spaces, vascular structures, and brain parenchyma. Thereafter, the ratio between the total number of voxels representing CSF volume (based on values between 0 and 15 HU) to the total number of voxels

  14. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Mendes, Monique; Rossignol, Candace; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Faraji, Ariana; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Doré, Sylvain; Weiss, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)) as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates. Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A) or carbon monoxide (HI+CO). An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes. Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury), the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury) had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10) compared the HI+A group ( p carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  15. Increased ratio of peritoneal effusion-to-serum potassium concentration in a dog with gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Oz, Jennifer; Aroch, Itamar; Segev, Gilad

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory findings of a dog with gastric perforation, resulting in a markedly increased peritoneal effusion-to-serum potassium ratio. A 6-year-old mixed breed neutered male dog presented with a right femoral fracture after being hit by car. The fracture was repaired surgically. Four days postoperatively, the dog developed peritoneal effusion, confirmed with ultrasonography. Peritoneal effusion analysis and serum biochemistry, performed concurrently, showed blood-to-effusion glucose difference >1.1 mmol/L [>20 mg/dL], suggesting the effusion was septic. The effusion-to-serum creatinine ratio was mildly increased (1.36) and the effusion-to-serum potassium ratio was markedly increased (>2.67). Combined, these findings were suggestive of a septic uroabdomen. A positive contrast retrograde urethrocystography did not reveal urine leakage from the lower urinary tract. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a gastric perforation in the pyloric area and an intact urinary tract. Gastric perforation should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an increased peritoneal effusion to serum potassium ratio. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  16. Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M = 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period

  17. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amygdala to hippocampal volume ratio is associated with negative memory bias in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Negative memory bias is thought to be one of the main cognitive risk and maintenance factors for depression, but its neural substrates are largely unknown. Here, we studied whether memory bias is related to amygdala and hippocampal volume, two structures that are critical for emotional

  19. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40%...... predictors of SV/PP (P abnormalities in the arterial compliance of these patients....

  20. Molar volume, excess enthalpy, and Prigogine-Defay ratio of some silicate glasses with different (P,T) histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Behrens, Harald

    2007-10-21

    Structural relaxation in silicate glasses with different (p,T) histories was experimentally examined by differential scanning calorimetry and measurements of molar volume under ambient pressure. Temperature and pressure-dependent rates of changes in molar volume and generation of excess enthalpy were determined for sodium trisilicate, soda lime silicate, and sodium borosilicate (NBS) compositions. From the derived data, Prigogine-Defay ratios are calculated and discussed. Changes of excess enthalpy are governed mainly by changes in short-range structure, as is shown for NBS where boron coordination is highly sensitive to pressure. For all three glasses, it is shown how the relaxation functions that underlie volume, enthalpy, and structural relaxation decouple for changes in cooling rates and pressure of freezing, respectively. The magnitude of the divergence between enthalpy and volume may be related to differences in structural sensitivity to changes in the (p,V,T,t) space on different length scales. The findings suggest that the Prigogine-Defay ratio is related to the magnitude of the discussed decoupling effect.

  1. Determination of plutonium isotopic ratios and total concentration by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Michele.

    1980-11-01

    A non-destructive method of analysis is being investigated for the control in situ of plutonium isotopic composition and total concentration in different matrix without preliminary calibration. The plutonium isotopic composition is determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using germanium detector systems. The same apparatus is used for direct measuring of the total plutonium concentration in solutions or solids by a differential attenuation technique based on two transmitted gamma rays with energies on both sides of the k shell absorption edge of plutonium [fr

  2. The concentration ratio of alkaline earth elements calcium, barium and strontium in grains of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Ivana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba belong to the same group of the periodic table of elements, and thus have similar chemical features, their importance for plants differs greatly. Since plants do not have the ability to completely dis­criminate between essential (e.g. Ca and non-essential elements (e.g. Sr and Ba, they read­ily take all of them up from soil solution, which is reflected in the ratios of concentrations of those elements in plant tissues, and it influences their nutritive characteristics. The ability of plant species and genotypes to take up and accumulate chemical elements in their different tissues is related to their genetic background. However, differences in chemical composition are the least reflected in their reproductive parts. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate ratios of concentrations of Ca, Sr and Ba in the whole grain of diploid and tetraploid wheat - ancestors of common wheat, as well as in hexaploid commercial cultivars, grown in the field, at the same location, over a period of three years. The investigated genotypes accumulated Ca, Sr and Ba at different levels, which is reflected in the ratio of their concentrations in the grain. The lowest ratio was established between Ba and Sr, followed by Ca and Ba, while the highest ratio was between Ca and Sr. Moreover, the results have shown that the year of study, genotype and the combination highly significantly affected the ratio of the concentration Ca:Sr, Ca:Ba, and Ba:Sr.

  3. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  4. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Hendriks, W H

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  5. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Riet, van M.M.J.; Visser, P.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth and water usage of tomato seedlings under different ammonium/nitrate ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of agricultural C3 vegetable crops,and therefore results in an increase in crop yield.However,little is known about the combined effect of elevated CO2 and N species on plant growth and development.Two growth-chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effects of NH4+/NO3- ratio and elevated CO2 concentration on the physiological development and water use of tomato seedlings.Tomato was grown for 45 d in containers with nutrient solutions varying in NH4+/NO3- ratios and CO2 concentrations in growth chambers.Results showed that plant height,stem thickness,total dry weight,dry weight of the leaves,stems and roots,G value (total plant dry weight/seedling days),chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate,leaf-level and whole plant-level water use efficiency and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings were increased with increasing proportion of NO3- in nutrient solutions in the elevated CO2 treatment.Plant biomass,plant height,stem thickness and photosynthetic rate were 67%,22%,24% and 55% higher at elevated CO2 concentration than at ambient CO2 concentration,depending on the values of NH4+/NO3- ratio.These results indicated that elevating CO2 concentration did not mitigate the adverse effects of 100% NH4+-N (in nutrient solution) on the tomato seedlings.At both CO2 levels,NH4+/NO3- ratios of nutrient solutions strongly influenced almost every measure of plant performance,and nitrate-fed plants attained a greater biomass production,as compared to ammonium-fed plants.These phenomena seem to be related to the coordinated regulation of photosynthetic rate and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings.

  7. Removal method of fluorescent dyes as pretreatment for measurement of major ion concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Kashiwaya, Koki; Kodama, Hiroki; Miyajima, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The major ion concentration and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen can provide important information for migration of groundwater. Sometimes, quantitative estimation of these chemical and isotopic characteristics of solution is necessary for groundwater containing fluorescent dyes, which are used in drilling borehole and tracer experiments. However, sometimes correct estimation is disturbed by dyes and they become a cause of troubles for measurement equipments. Thus development of method to remove dyes is required so that the characteristics of groundwater can be estimated without the negative effect of dyes on measurement or equipments. In this study, removal of four representative dyes (Uranin, Eosin, Naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium(NAP) and Amino G acid potassium salt (AG)) was investigated. Uranin and Eosin were found to be removed by non-ionic synthetic resin: HP2MG. 99.99% of the dyes were removed from initial solutions containing dyes with 10 mg/L after contact with resin, while the contact had little effect on ion concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Thus the chemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater samples containing Uranin and Eosin can be obtained by using the HP2MG resin. On the other hand, the NAP and AG were found to be difficult to remove by the HP2MG resin but they were able to be removed by anion exchange resin (Dowex 1x8). Though contact of solution with Dowex 1x8 did not affect cation concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, anion concentrations were changed by the contact. Therefore the Dowex 1x8 is only applicable to estimation of the cation concentrations and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen. When both anion and cation concentrations from the samples were necessary, Uranin or Eosin were recommended as a tracer in drilling or tracer experiments. (author)

  8. The relation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume with the presence and severity of Behçet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Alan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's syndrome (BS is associated with chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although there have been extensive investigations on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and mean platelet volume (MPV in many diseases, their roles in BS is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NLR, PLR, and MPV levels in BS patients and explore their clinical significance. The study included 254 patients with BS and 173 healthy individuals. Age, sex, age of onset, duration of disease, smoking, Behçet activity score, total white blood counts, neutrophil, platelet, and T lymphocyte counts of the patients were recorded. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, platelet, NLR, and PLR were significantly higher in patients with BS when compared with healthy controls (all p  0.05. In the BS group, PLR and MPV were significantly different among the three severity groups (p = 0.037 and p = 0.016, respectively. We showed that any laboratory markers were not associated with joint, eye, central nervous system, large vessel, or gastrointestinal involvement in BS. NLR was shown to be an independent factor for BS by multivariate analysis. We suggest that NLR can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion of BS given the support of the findings from larger prospective studies.

  9. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  10. Comparison of emission inventory and ambient concentration ratios of CO, NMOG, and NOx in California South Coast Air Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, E.M.; Croes, B.E.; Bennett, C.L.; Lawson, D.R.; Lurmann, F.W.; Main, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, the author performed a top-down validation of the reactive organic gas and carbon monoxide emission inventories for California's South Coast Air Basin by comparing speciation profiles for nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) and ratios of CO/NO x and NMOG/NO x derived from early-morning (0700 to 0800) ambient measurements taken during the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study with the corresponding ratios and speciation profiles derived from day-specific, hourly, gridded emission inventories. Twenty separate comparisons were considered for each ratio, each representing a different combination of season, emission category, and spatial and temporal averaging of emissions. It was determined that the most appropriate comparison in summer was ambient pollutant ratios with ratios derived from morning on-road motrovehicle emission inventories, and in the fall, ambient ratios with ratios derived from overnight on-road motor vehicle emission inventories with some contribution from overnight stationary-source NO x emission inventories. From these comparisons, the ambient CO/CO x and NMOG/NO x ratios are about 1.5 and 2 to 2.5 times higher, respectively, than the corresponding inventory ratios. On the assumption that inventories of NO x emissions are reasonably correct, these results indicate that on-road motor vehicle CO and NMOG emissions are significantly underestimated. Comparisons of measured CO, NMOG, and NO x concentrations and CO/NO x and NMOG/NO x ratios with air quality model predictions obtained by the California Air Resources Board show similar differences

  11. Guinea pig ascorbate status predicts tetrahydrobiopterin plasma concentration and oxidation ratio in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alan; Hasselholt, Stine; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is an essential co-factor of nitric oxide synthases and is easily oxidized to dihydrobiopterin (BH₂) which promotes endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and deleterious superoxide production. Vitamin C has been shown to improve endothelial function by different mechanisms, some involving BH₄. The hypothesis of the present study was that vitamin C status, in particular low levels, influences biopterin redox status in vivo. Like humans, the guinea pig lacks the ability to synthesize vitamin C and was therefore used as model. Seven day old animals (n = 10/group) were given a diet containing 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, or 1500 ppm vitamin C until euthanasia at age 60-64 days. Blood samples were drawn from the heart and analyzed for ascorbate, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), BH₄ and BH₂ by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma BH₄ levels were found to be significantly lower in animals fed 100 ppm vitamin C compared to all other groups (P < .05 or less). BH₂ levels were not significantly different between groups but the BH₂-to-BH₄ ratio was higher in the group fed 100 ppm vitamin C (P < .001 all cases). Significant positive correlations between BH4 and ascorbate and between BH₂-to-BH₄ ratio and DHA were observed (P < .0001 both cases). Likewise, BH₂-to-BH₄ ratio was negatively correlated with ascorbate (P < .0001) as was BH₄ and DHA (P < .005). In conclusion, the redox status of plasma biopterins, essentially involved in vasodilation, depends on the vitamin C status in vivo. Thus, ingestion of insufficient quantities of vitamin C not only leads to vitamin C deficiency but also to increased BH₄ oxidation which may promote endothelial dysfunction. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  13. Evaluation of NO2 predictions by the plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and ozone limiting method (OLM) in AERMOD using new field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Elizabeth M; Tino, Vincent R; Hanna, Steven R; Egan, Bruce A

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and the ozone limiting method (OLM) are in the AERMOD model to predict the 1-hr average NO2/NO(x) concentration ratio. These ratios are multiplied by the AERMOD predicted NO(x) concentration to predict the 1-hr average NO2 concentration. This paper first briefly reviews PVMRM and OLM and points out some scientific parameterizations that could be improved (such as specification of relative dispersion coefficients) and then discusses an evaluation of the PVMRM and OLM methods as implemented in AERMOD using a new data set. While AERMOD has undergone many model evaluation studies in its default mode, PVMRM and OLM are nondefault options, and to date only three NO2 field data sets have been used in their evaluations. Here AERMOD/PVMRM and AERMOD/OLM codes are evaluated with a new data set from a northern Alaskan village with a small power plant. Hourly pollutant concentrations (NO, NO2, ozone) as well as meteorological variables were measured at a single monitor 500 m from the plant. Power plant operating parameters and emissions were calculated based on hourly operator logs. Hourly observations covering 1 yr were considered, but the evaluations only used hours when the wind was in a 60 degrees sector including the monitor and when concentrations were above a threshold. PVMRM is found to have little bias in predictions of the C(NO2)/C(NO(x)) ratio, which mostly ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 at this site. OLM overpredicted the ratio. AERMOD overpredicts the maximum NO(x) concentration but has an underprediction bias for lower concentrations. AERMOD/PVMRM overpredicts the maximum C(NO2) by about 50%, while AERMOD/OLM overpredicts by a factor of 2. For 381 hours evaluated, there is a relative mean bias in C(NO2) predictions of near zero for AERMOD/PVMRM, while the relative mean bias reflects a factor of 2 overprediction for AERMOD/OLM. This study was initiated because the new stringent 1-hr NO2

  14. No Evidence for a Relationship Between Hair Testosterone Concentrations and 2D:4D Ratio or Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ronay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed alternative assay procedure to measure hormone levels from hair samples, we examined the relationships between testosterone, cortisol, 2D:4D ratio, overconfidence and risk taking. A total of 162 (53 male participants provided a 3 cm sample of hair, a scanned image of their right and left hands from which we determined 2D:4D ratios, and completed measures of overconfidence and behavioral risk taking. While our sample size for males was less than ideal, our results revealed no evidence for a relationship between hair testosterone concentrations, 2D:4D ratios and risk taking. No relationships with overconfidence emerged. Partially consistent with the Dual Hormone Hypothesis, we did find evidence for the interacting effect of testosterone and cortisol on risk taking but only in men. Hair testosterone concentrations were positively related to risk taking when levels of hair cortisol concentrations were low, in men. Our results lend support to the suggestion that endogenous testosterone and 2D:4D ratio are unrelated and might then exert diverging activating vs. organizing effects on behavior. Comparing our results to those reported in the existing literature we speculate that behavioral correlates of testosterone such as direct effects on risk taking may be more sensitive to state-based fluctuations than baseline levels of testosterone.

  15. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  16. A 40-year record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration and isotope ratios from the firn at Greenland Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, P., Jr.; Petrenko, V. V.; Vimont, I.; Buizert, C.; Lang, P. M.; Edwards, J.; Harth, C. M.; Hmiel, B.; Mak, J. E.; Novelli, P. C.; Brook, E.; Weiss, R. F.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contributes indirectly to climate forcing by being a major sink of tropospheric OH. A good understanding of the past atmospheric CO budget is therefore important for climate models attempting to characterize recent changes in the atmosphere. Previous work at NEEM, Greenland provided the first reconstructions of Arctic atmospheric history of CO concentration and stable isotope ratios (δC18O and δ13CO) from firn air, dating to the 1950s. In this new study, firn air was sampled from eighteen depth levels through the firn column at Summit, Greenland (in May 2013), yielding a second, independent record of Arctic CO concentration and isotopic ratios. Carbon monoxide stable isotope ratios were analyzed on replicate samples and using a newly developed system with improved precision allowing for a more robust reconstruction. The new CO concentration and stable isotope results overall confirm the earlier findings from NEEM, with a CO concentration peak around the 1970s and higher δC18O and δ13CO values associated with peak CO. Modeling and interpretation of the data are in progress.

  17. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity

  18. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Visser, P; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2017-11-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE) basis) diets (i.e. 22 MJ NE/day) with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate (C) in relation to haylage (H). The absolute amounts of diet dry matter fed per day were 4.48 kg of H (100H), 3.36 and 0.73 kg of H and C (75H25C), 2.24 and 1.45 kg of H and C (50H50C) and 1.12 and 2.17 kg of H and C (25H75C). Diets were supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.7 g Ti/day). Voluntary voided faeces were quantitatively collected daily during 10 consecutive days and analysed for moisture, ash, ADL, acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and Ti. A minimum faeces collection period of 6 consecutive days, along with a 14-day period to adapt the animals to the diets and become accustomed to the collection procedure, is recommended to obtain accurate estimations on dry matter digestibility and organic matter digestibility (OMD) in equids fed haylage-based diets supplemented with concentrate. In addition, the recovery of AIA, ADL and Ti was determined and evaluated. Mean faecal recovery over 10 consecutive days across diets for AIA, ADL and Ti was 124.9% (SEM 2.9), 108.7% (SEM 2.0) and 97.5% (SEM 0.9), respectively. Cumulative faecal recovery of AIA significantly differed between treatments, indicating that AIA is inadequate to estimate the OMD in equines. In addition, evaluation of the CV of mean cumulative faecal recoveries obtained by AIA, ADL and Ti showed greater variations in faecal excretion of AIA (9.1) and ADL (7.4) than Ti (3.7). The accuracy of prediction of OMD was higher with the use of Ti than ADL. The use of Ti is preferred as a marker in digestibility trials in equines fed haylage-based diets supplemented with increasing amounts of pelleted concentrate.

  19. Effects of solid feed level and roughage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrates, and roughage in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gilbert, M S; Zandstra, T; Pellikaan, W F; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-08-01

    Effects of solid feed (SF) level and roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and roughage were studied in veal calves. In total, 80 male Holstein-Friesian calves (45±0.2kg of body weight) were divided over 16 pens (5 calves per pen). Pens were randomly assigned to either a low (LSF) or a high (HSF) SF level and to 1 of 2 R:C ratios: 20:80 or 50:50 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped wheat straw on a DM basis. At 27 wk of age, measurements were conducted in 32 calves. During the measurement period, SF intake was 1.2kg of DM/d for LSF and 3.0kg of DM/d for HSF, and milk replacer intake averaged 2.3kg of DM/d for LSF and 1.3kg of DM/d for HSF. To estimate passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and straw, indigestible markers (CoEDTA, hexatriacontane C36, Cr-neutral detergent fiber) were supplied with the feed as a single dose 4, 24, and 48h before assessment of their quantitative recovery in the rumen, abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Rumen Co recovery averaged 20% of the last milk replacer meal. Recoveries of Co remained largely unaffected by SF level and R:C ratio. The R:C ratio did not affect rumen recovery of C36 or Cr. Rumen fractional passage rate of concentrate was estimated from recovery of C36 in the rumen and increased from 3.3%/h for LSF to 4.9%/h for HSF. Rumen fractional passage rate of straw was estimated from Cr recovery in the rumen and increased from 1.3%/h for LSF to 1.7%/h for HSF. An increase in SF level was accompanied by an increase in fresh and dry rumen contents. In HSF calves, pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased with increasing concentrate proportion, indicating increased fermentation. The ratio between Cr and C36 was similar in the small and large intestine, indicating that passage of concentrate and straw is mainly determined by rumen and abomasum emptying. In conclusion, increasing SF level

  20. The ratio and concentration of two monoterpenes mediate fecundity of the pinewood nematode and growth of its associated fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Niu

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, vectored primarily by the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is an important invasive pest and causal agent of pine wilt disease of Chinese Masson pine, Pinus massoniana. Previous work demonstrated that the ratios and concentrations of α-pinene:β-pinene differed between healthy trees and those trees containing blue-stain fungus (and M. alternatus pupae. However, the potential influence of the altered monoterpene ratios and concentrations on PWN and associated fungi remained unknown. Our current results show that low concentrations of the monoterpenes within petri dishes reduced PWN propagation, whereas the highest concentration of the monoterpenes increased PWN propagation. The propagation rate of PWN treated with the monoterpene ratio representative of blue-stain infected pine (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8, 137.6 mg/ml was significantly higher than that (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.1, 137.6 mg/ml representative of healthy pines or those damaged by M. alternatus feeding, but without blue stain. Furthermore, inhibition of mycelial growth of associated fungi increased with the concentration of the monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene. Additionally, higher levels of β-pinene (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8 resulted in greater inhibition of the growth of the associated fungi Sporothrix sp.2 and Ophiostoma ips strains, but had no significant effects on the growth of Sporothrix sp.1, which is the best food resource for PWN. These results suggest that host monoterpenes generally reduce the reproduction of PWN. However, PWN utilizes high monoterpene concentrations and native blue-stain fungus Sporothrix sp.1 to improve its own propagation and overcome host resistance, which may provide clues to understanding the ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion.

  1. Effects of dietary sulfur concentration and forage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal fermentation, sulfur metabolism, and short-chain fatty acid absorption in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, S; McKinnon, J J; Penner, G B; Hendrick, S

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary S concentration and forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on ruminal fermentation, S metabolism, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption in beef heifers. Sixteen ruminally cannulated heifers (initial BW 628 ± 48 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. The main factors included F:C (4% forage vs. 51% forage, DM basis) and the S concentration, which was modified using differing sources of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to achieve low- and high-S diets (LS = 0.30% vs. HS = 0.67% S on a DM basis). Elemental S was also added to increase the S content for the HS diets. Serum sulfate concentration from blood, sulfide (S(2-)), and SCFA concentrations from ruminal fluid, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration from the ruminal gas cap, and urinary sulfate concentration were determined. Continuous rumen pH and SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) absorption were measured. There were no interactions between S concentration and F:C. The F:C did not affect DMI (P = 0.26) or ruminal S metabolite concentrations (P ≥ 0.19), but ruminal pH was lower (P ruminal pH (P ruminal H2S (P Ruminal H2S was positively correlated with serum sulfate (r = 0.89; P Ruminal acetate concentration was not affected (P = 0.26) by dietary S concentration. Heifers fed the HS diet had lower (P = 0.01) ruminal propionate concentration and tended to have lower (P = 0.06) butyrate concentration than heifers fed the LS diet. Ruminal acetate was greater (P = 0.01) and butyrate was less (P < 0.01) with the high F:C diet than the low F:C diet. Both HS (P = 0.06) and low F:C (P = 0.07) diets tended to reduce urine output. Feeding HS diets reduced SCFA absorption (P < 0.05). In summary, S metabolism in beef heifers was not influenced by the F:C, but HS reduced DMI, inhibited SCFA absorption, and increased urinary S excretion.

  2. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in a forest-river system in the South Qinling Mts., China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A

    2016-04-15

    The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios vary significantly between different water types (p water samples including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), EC, and TDS (p water chemistry in the river water. Using the three-source mixing model, atmospheric inputs, carbonate, and silicate weathering contribute 74%, 20%, and 6% respectively to the dissolved Sr in the river water. This research has provided new insights into the contribution of sources of Sr to a river system in a mountainous catchment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the geographic origin of rice by chemometrics with strontium and lead isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-02-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for determining the country of origin of rice in the Japanese market. The rice samples included a total of 350 products grown in Japan (n = 200), the United States (n = 50), China (n = 50), and Thailand (n = 50). In this study, (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios and multielement concentrations (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By combining three chemometric techniques based on different principles and determination criteria, the countries of origin of rice were determined. The predictions made by 10-fold cross-validation were around 97% accurate. The presented method demonstrated the effectiveness of determining the geographic origin of an agricultural product by combining several chemometric techniques using heavy element isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

  4. The major/minor concept: dependence of the selectivity of homogeneously catalyzed reactions on reactivity ratio and concentration ratio of the intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Dai, Zhenya; Drexler, Hans-Joachim; Hapke, Marko; Preetz, Angelika; Heller, Detlef

    2008-07-07

    The homogeneously catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins with cationic Rh(I) complexes is one of the best-understood selection processes. For some of the catalyst/substrate complexes, experimental proof points out the validation of the major/minor principle; the concentration-deficient minor substrate complex, which has very high reactivity, yields the excess enantiomer. As exemplified by the reaction system of [Rh(dipamp)(MeOH)2]+/methyl (Z)-alpha-acetamidocinnamate (dipamp=1,2-bis((o-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphino)ethane), all six of the characteristic reaction rate constants have been previously identified. Recently, it was found that the major substrate complex can also yield the major enantiomer (lock-and-key principle). The differential equation system that results from the reaction sequence can be solved numerically for different hydrogen partial pressures by including the known equilibrium constants. The result displays the concentration-time dependence of all species that exist in the catalytic cycle. On the basis of the known constants as well as further experimental evidence, this work focuses on the examination of all principal possibilities resulting from the reaction sequence and leading to different results for the stereochemical outcome. From the simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1) When an intermediate has extreme reactivity, its stationary concentration can become so small that it can no longer be the source of product selectivity; 2) in principle, the major/minor and lock-and-key principles can coexist depending on the applied pressure; 3) thermodynamically determined intermediate ratios can be completely converted under reaction conditions for a selection process; and 4) the increase in enantioselectivity with increasing hydrogen partial pressure, a phenomenon that is experimentally proven but theoretically far from being well-understood, can be explained by applying both the lock-and-key as well as the major

  5. Effect of volume ratio of liquid to solid on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Bowen; Cai Changchun; Lu Baiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Volume ratio of liquid to solid affects significantly the interfacial microstructure. → Elemental diffusion activity is increased by increasing volume ratio. → Mechanical property is improved by increasing volume ratio. - Abstract: The high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal was fabricated by liquid-solid casting technology. The effect of volume ratios of liquid to solid (6:1, 10:1 and 12:1) on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of bimetal was investigated. The interfacial microstructure was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The shear strength and microhardness in as-cast condition were studied at room temperature. The results show that the volume ratios of liquid to solid affect significantly the interfacial microstructure. When liquid-solid volume ratio was 6:1, the unbonded region was detected in interface region because the imported heat energy cannot support effectively the diffusion of element, whereas, when liquid-solid volume ratios reach 10:1 and 12:1, a sound interfacial microstructure was achieved by the diffusion of C, Cr, Mo, Cu and Mn, and metallurgical bonding without unbonded region, void and hole, etc. was detected. With the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the elemental diffusion activity improves, resulting in the increase of width of interface transition region. At the same distance from interface, with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the microhardness is degraded in HCCI, but increased in MCS. The shear strength is also improved with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio.

  6. The relationship between tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio and genetic polymorphism in patients subjected to renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rančić Nemanja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio as a potential therapeutic drug monitoring strategy was suggested to be used for the patients subjected to renal transplantation. The aim of this study was examining the relationship between tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio, suggested to be used as a therapeutic drug monitoring strategy and the polymorphisms of genes encoding the most important enzymes, such as CYP3A5 and CYP3A4, as well as the transporter P-glycoprotein, for its metabolism and elimination. Methods. The study was designed as a prospective case series study, in which the unit of monitoring was the outpatient examination of 54 patients subjected to renal transplantation. Genotyping was performed by 7500 Real- Time PCR System by assessing allelic discrimination based on TaqMan® methodology. Results. Patients (n = 13 who were treated with less than 2 mg of tacrolimus/day (0.024 ± 0.006 mg/kg/day had the tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio larger than 150 ng/mL/mg/kg. In this group, 84.62% patients had CYP3А5 *3*3 allele. All of these patients had CYP3А4 *1*1/*1*1B allele. Regarding ABCB1 C3435T gene, 30.77% of patients had the TT gene variant, while 69.23% of our patients had CC and CT gene variants. Conclusion. Tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio greater than 150 ng/mL/mg/kg is cut-off value in patients subjected to renal transplantation which might point to patients who are poor CYP3A5 metabolizers and/or with dysfunctional P-glycoprotein.

  7. Green Pharmaceutical Analysis of Drugs Coformulated with Highly Different Concentrations Using Spiking and Manipulation of Their Ratio Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Bassam M

    2017-07-01

    Introducing green analysis to pharmaceutical products is considered a significant approach to preserving the environment. This method can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the existing methods, accompanied by a validated automated procedure for the analysis of a drug with the lowest possible number of samples. Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of empagliflozin (EG) and metformin (MT) by manipulating their ratio spectra in their application on a recently approved pharmaceutical combination, Synjardy tablets. A spiking technique was used to increase the concentration of EG in samples prepared from the tablets to allow for the simultaneous determination of EG with MT without prior separation. Validation parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines were acceptable over a concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL for both drugs using derivative ratio and ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance and proved to be suitable as ecofriendly approaches for industrial QC laboratories.

  8. New and conventional evaporative systems in concentrating nitrogen samples prior to isotope-ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lober, R.W.; Reeder, J.D.; Porter, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to quantify and compare the efficiencies of various evaporative systems used in evaporating 15 N samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Two new forced-air systems were designed and compared with a conventional forced-air system and with an open-air dry bath technique for effectiveness in preventing atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples. The forced-air evaporative systems significantly reduced the time needed to evaporate samples as compared to the open-air dry bath technique; samples were evaporated to dryness in 2.5 h with the forced-air systems as compared to 8 to 10 h on the open-air dry bath. The effectiveness of a given forced-air system to prevent atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples was significantly affected by the flow rate of the air stream flowing over the samples. The average atmospheric contaminant N found in samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath was 0.3 μ N, indicating very low concentrations of atmospheric NH 3 during this study. However, in previous studies the authors have experienced significant contamination of 15 N samples evaporated on an open-air dry bath because the level of contaminant N in the laboratory atmosphere varied and could not be adequately controlled. Average cross-contaminant levels of 0.28, 0.20, and 1.01 μ of N were measured between samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath, the newly-designed forced-air system, and the conventional forced-air system, respectively. The cross-contamination level is significantly higher on the conventional forced-air system than on the other two systems, and could significantly alter the atom % 15 N of high-enriched, low [N] evaporating samples

  9. Zinc sorption in two vertisol and one aridisol series as affected by electrolyte concentration and sodium adsorption ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A. A.; Elamin, E. A.; El Mahi, Y. E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electrolyte concentration (C) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on zinc sorption was studied. Top soil samples (0-30 cm) were taken from soils representing three arid-zon smectitc sites in the Gezira Scheme (Sudan). The orders of these soils are vertisol (El-Hosh (now Wad El Ataya) and El-Suleimi) and aridisol (El-Laota). These soils had no previous history of zinc application, and were previously equilibrated with mixed NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions to render different levels of SAR and salt concentration. Zinc retention decreased as electrolyte concentration increased, where maximum sorption occurred at low electrolyte concentration soils having high pH and high negative charge. Sodium adsorption ratio had little effect on Zn sorption as precipitation prevailed at high pH. It was also found that the sorption capacity of three soils were similar despite the variation in CaCO 3 and clay contents, hence cation exchange capacity and surface area. The results indicated that Zn was more soluble in the saline phases of Gezira soils, whereas sodicity had little effect.(Author)

  10. Accurate measurement of indoor radon concentration using a low-effective volume radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Aya; Minami, Nodoka; Mukai, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Yumi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun

    2017-01-01

    AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ∼10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference. AlphaGUARD can provide accurate measurements of radon concentration for the world average level (∼50 Bq m -3 ) and the reference level of workplace (1000 Bq m -3 ), using integrated data over at least 3 h and 10 min, respectively. (authors)

  11. Population discrimination by strontium-calcium concentration ratios of sagittal otoliths taken from the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, I.; Chiba, D.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Iwasaki, S.; Matsuyama, S.

    1999-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining basic data to understand the population dynamics of the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, inhabiting the Sanriku coastal waters, the concentration ratios of Ca and Sr in otoliths of juvenile fishes being cultivated for releasing to the regions, and those of adult fishes captured in both the Sanriku area (Aomori, Iwate and Miyagi) and Shizuoka prefecture coastal regions (as a comparison) were analysed using a particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The Sr/Ca ratios of otoliths taken from juvenile Japanese flounders had significant differences between Sanriku and Shizuoka sea-farming groups. The differences in otolith Sr/Ca ratios between Sanriku and Shizuoka sea-farming stations would thus differentiate flounder populations. No significant difference in otolith Sr/Ca ratios was observed among the Sanriku group. However, the values for Aomori group formed by small fishes in the Sanriku group seemed to be lower in proportion to their body size. Therefore, genetic characteristics of the juvenile Japanese flounder being reared at the sea-farming stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures are possibly different from those at an Aomori station. On the other hand, statistically significant differences in the otolith Sr/Ca ratios among Aomori, Iwate Miyagi and Shizuoka groups were found in the adult Japanese flounder. That is, higher values for the otolith Sr/Ca ratios were found in the groups inhabiting in the northern regions. The differences in otolith Sr/Ca ratios among these groups probably indicate that there are differences in the fish populations among these sample sites. (author)

  12. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs

  13. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Douglas-Escobar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates.Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A or carbon monoxide (HI+CO. An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes.Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury, the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10 compared the HI+A group (p < 0.05.Conclusion: CO exposure of 250 ppm did not reach carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  15. Tumor Volume Changes Assessed by Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Volumetry in Rectal Cancer Patients After Preoperative Chemoradiation: The Impact of the Volume Reduction Ratio on the Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Young Wan; Hur, Hyuk; Kim, Jin Soo; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Hogeun; Lim, Joon Seok; Seong, Jinsil; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between tumor volume changes assessed by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry and the histopathologic tumor response in rectal cancer patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by radical surgery were prospectively enrolled in the study. The post-treatment tumor volume and tumor volume reduction ratio (% decrease ratio), as shown by 3D MR volumetry, were compared with the histopathologic response, as shown by T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: There were no significant differences in the post-treatment tumor volume and the volume reduction ratio shown by 3D MR volumetry with respect to T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade. In a multivariate analysis, the tumor volume reduction ratio was not significantly associated with T and N downstaging. The volume reduction ratio (>75%, p = 0.01) and the pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level (≤3 ng/ml, p = 0.01), but not the post-treatment volume shown by 3D MR (≤ 5ml), were, however, significantly associated with an increased pathologic complete response rate. Conclusion: More than 75% of the tumor volume reduction ratios were significantly associated with a high pathologic complete response rate. Therefore, limited treatment options such as local excision or simple observation might be considered after preoperative CRT in this patient population.

  16. Volume-of-fluid simulations in microfluidic T-junction devices: Influence of viscosity ratio on droplet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Mehdi; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2017-03-01

    We used volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of droplet formation of Newtonian fluids in microfluidic T-junction devices. To evaluate the performance of the VOF method we examined the regimes of drop formation and determined droplet size as a function of system parameters. Comparison of the simulation results with four sets of experimental data from the literature showed good agreement, validating the VOF method. Motivated by the lack of adequate studies investigating the influence of viscosity ratio (λ) on the generated droplet size, we mapped the dependence of drop volume on capillary number (0.001 1. In addition, we find that at a given capillary number, the size of droplets does not vary appreciably when λ 1. We develop an analytical model for predicting the droplet size that includes a viscosity-dependent breakup time for the dispersed phase. This improved model successfully predicts the effects of the viscosity ratio observed in simulations. Results from this study are useful for the design of lab-on-chip technologies and manufacture of microfluidic emulsions, where there is a need to know how system parameters influence the droplet size.

  17. Pollutant Concentrations in Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratio with Avenues of Trees for Various Wind Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2012-07-01

    This study summarizes the effects of avenues of trees in urban street canyons on traffic pollutant dispersion. We describe various wind-tunnel experiments with different tree-avenue models in combination with variations in street-canyon aspect ratio W/ H (with W the street-canyon width and H the building height) and approaching wind direction. Compared to tree-free street canyons, in general, higher pollutant concentrations are found. Avenues of trees do not suppress canyon vortices, although the air ventilation in canyons is hindered significantly. For a perpendicular wind direction, increases in wall-average and wall-maximum concentrations at the leeward canyon wall and decreases in wall-average concentrations at the windward wall are found. For oblique and perpendicular wind directions, increases at both canyon walls are obtained. The strongest effects of avenues of trees on traffic pollutant dispersion are observed for oblique wind directions for which also the largest concentrations at the canyon walls are found. Thus, the prevailing assumption that attributes the most harmful dispersion conditions to a perpendicular wind direction does not hold for street canyons with avenues of trees. Furthermore, following dimensional analysis, an estimate of the normalized wall-maximum traffic pollutant concentration in street canyons with avenues of trees is derived.

  18. Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. PMID:24957890

  19. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wan; Liu Xiande; Zhao Liwei; Guo, Dongfa; Tian Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206 Pb / 207 Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206 Pb / 207 Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206 Pb / 207 Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

  20. Tacrolimus concentration to dose ratio in solid organ transplant patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Michael H; Kraft, Colleen S; Meredith, Erika J; Mehta, Aneesh K; Wang, Tiffany; Mamo, Yafet T; Dhere, Tanvi; Sitchenko, Kaitlin L; Patzer, Rachel E; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J

    2018-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 SOT patients from September 2012-December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent C. difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C/D ratio) 3 months prior to FMT vs 3 months after FMT. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d) was -17.65 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/kg/d), P-value .43 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean of the differences in C/D ratio calculated as (ng/mL)/(mg/d) was -0.33 (95% CI -1.25 to 0.58) (ng/mL)/(mg/d), P-value .28 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Of these patients, 2/10 underwent allograft biopsy for allograft dysfunction in the year after FMT, with no evidence of allograft rejection on pathology. These preliminary data suggest that FMT may not predictably alter tacrolimus levels and support its safety for SOT patients however further study in randomized trials is needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed δ 13 C, δ 15 N and Hg in hair from Japanese whale meat-eaters and non-eaters. ► The δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in whale meat-eaters were higher than those in non-eaters. ► The Hg concentration in whale meat-eaters was higher than that in non-eaters. ► A positive correlation was seen between δ 15 N and Hg in whale meat-eaters. ► Consumption of whale meat may increase δ 15 N, δ 13 C and Hg in the scalp hair. -- Abstract: We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and Hg concentration. The average δ 15 N and δ 13 C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and −18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and −18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in scalp hair

  2. Studies on body composition of crossbred lambs determined by tritiated water with 50:50 roughage: concentrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder Ali, Md.; Saxena, K.K.; Shukla, V.P.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Six Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset and six Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs were fed 50 : 50 roughage : concentrate ratio having ME of 2.1 Mcal/kg of ratio until they attained 25 kg body weight. Body composition of all the lambs was determined at 25 kg body weight by direct (slaughter method) and indirect (TOH technique) methods. The average corrected TOH space expressed on percent of body weight was found to be 70.48 +- 0.82 and average total body water estimated by desiccation, expressed on percent of body weight, was observed as 69.8 +- 1.08. Body composition of Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk and Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was determined and expressed on empty body weight. The moisture content in Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs but fat and protein contents were not significantly different in the two processes. (author)

  3. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  4. Tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio as a therapeutic drug monitoring strategy: The influence of gender and comedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rančić Nemanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A combination of tacrolimus and other drugs such as corticosteroids has been commonly used immunosuppresive regimens. On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence that male and female may differ in their response to the equal drug treatment. The aim of the study was to estimated the use of tacrolimus concentration/dose (C/D ratio for the assessment of the influence of gender differences and comedication on tacrolimus exposure in renal transplant recipients. Methods. This prospective case series study included 54 patients, in which the unit of monitoring was outpatient examination (1,872 of the renal transplant patients. The patients were monitored in the period 2010-2014, starting one month after the transplantation. Tacrolimus trough concentrations (TTC were measured by chemiluminescence microparticles immunoassay. Results. TTC and the tacrolimus C/D ratio were significantly lower in the females comparing with the males. Contrary to the males, in the females a significant increase of the tacrolimus daily dose (TDD per body weight and TTC, along with the corticosteroid dose increase, was not accompanied by any significant changes in the tacrolimus C/D ratio; in different corticosteroid doses faster elimination of tacrolimus was found with the exception of the doses > 0.25 mg/kg. In the patients treated with proton pump inhibitors, mainly with pantoprazole TDD per body weight and TTC were significantly higher, while the tacrolimus C/D ratio was significantly lower compared to the patients without this treatment. In the patients treated with calcium channel blockers, TDD per body weight was significantly lower (particularly with amlodipine while the tacrolimus C/D ratio was higher compared to the patients who were not treated by them. Conclusion. A lower tacrolimus exposure was detected in females in comparison to males. When gender differences were considered in the context of different corticosteroid doses, faster

  5. Evaluation of CF/CM, concentration ratios for elements in fetus to mother, using cord blood and maternal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.; Kim, H.S.; Nishimura, Y.; Osada, H.; Sekiya, S.

    2000-01-01

    ICRP recommends age-dependent dose evaluation for intakes of radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion, and gave age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients (doses per unit intake) for infants, children and adults in the publications. Dose coefficients are also needed for the assessment of exposures received in utero and after birth by the offspring of the woman who has received intakes of radionuclides. In the model that has been adopted by ICRP, the doses to the developing fetus are calculated using CF/CM values, concentration ratios for radionuclides in the fetus and the maternal tissues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the CF/CM of each radionuclide by the measurement of element concentration in cord blood and maternal blood. Blood samples were obtained from 35 mothers who delivered in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Chiba University. Just after the delivery, unbiblical cord blood was sampled. Maternal blood was also obtained from the arm vein within 30 minutes after the delivery. The serum was separated from the blood sample with centrifugation. About 50 mg of freezer-dried whole blood and serum were digested with 0.5 ml of 65% ultra-pure nitric acid and 0.2 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide in a microwave digester. The diluted solutions were used for the determination of elements by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry). The elements determined in these samples included Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Cs. The concentration of Cu was higher in the maternal blood than in the cord blood in both whole blood and serum. On the other hand, Mn and Fe were higher in the cord blood. The differences of concentration ratios among elements and the differences among tissues will be discussed. (author)

  6. Can mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio be used as a diagnostic marker for sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Selma; Oksuz, Hafıze; Dogu, Bırsen; Bozkus, Fulsen; Ucmak, Hasan; Yanıt, Fadime

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the mean platelet volume (MPV) and MPV/platelet (PLT) values can be used in the study of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Methods: In this retrospective case-controlled study, 69 sepsis, 69 SIRS patients, and 72 control group who were treated in the years 2012-2013 were reviewed, and both the MPV and MPV/PLT rates were evaluated in all groups at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Intensive Care Unit, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between sepsis, SIRS, and control groups when comparing the MPV and MPV/PLT ratio (p0.05). Mean platelet volume values for sepsis and control groups was 10.07/8.731 femtoliter (fL) (p=0.000), and 9.45/8.731 fL (p=0.000) for SIRS and control groups. In the group of sepsis patients, the MPV was found to be at cut-off 8.915, sensitivity 71%, and specificity 63.9%. In the group of patients with SIRS, MPV was found to be at cut-off 8.85, sensitivity 69.6%, and specificity 62.5%. For the MPV/PLT values, the specificity and sensitivity were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: This study shows that although there was no significant reduction in the PLT values between the sepsis and SIRS patients, the MPV and MPV/PLT ratio values were found to have significant differences. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the values were not reliable standard to be used as a test. PMID:26446329

  7. Plant/soil concentration ratios of 226Ra for contrasting sites around an active U mine-mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra were determined in native vegetation and underlying substrate (soil and tailings) at various sites around a conventional open-pit, acid leach U production operation in Wyoming. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for 226Ra were estimated for various sites, including weathered tailings; a tailings impoundment shoreline; downwind from exposed tailings; a mine overburden reclamation area; and several background locations. Radium-226 concentrations for vegetation and substrate and CR values from the perturbed sites were elevated above background. The highest vegetation concentration (1.3 Bq g-1) was found in a grass which had invaded exposed, weathered tailings. Levels of 226Ra in soil and vegetation and CR values decreased with distance from the tailings impoundment edge. CR values varied significantly among sites, but few differences were found between plant species groups. The observed CR values ranged from 0.07 at the background and reclamation areas to 0.4 downwind from the tailings area. Average CR values for plants growing on exposed tailings and within one meter from the impoundment edge were 0.15 and 0.3, respectively. CR values of 226Ra for plants on tailings substrates were comparatively low in contrast to other radionuclides in the U chain. We speculate that in the case of sulfuric acid leached tailings-derived material, 226Ra is sequestered as sulfate, which is highly insoluble relative to the sulfates of the other elements (e.g., U and Th) resulting in reduced availability for plant uptake

  8. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  9. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  10. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  11. Effects of forage:concentrate ratio and forage type on apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and microbial growth in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R; Martín-García, A I; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2009-02-01

    The effects of forage type and forage:concentrate ratio (F:C) on apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and microbial growth were investigated in goats. A comparison between liquid (LAB) and solid (SAB)-associated bacteria to estimate microbial N flow (MNF) from urinary purine derivative excretion was also examined. Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of forage type (grass hay vs. alfalfa hay) and high vs. low F:C (70:30 and 30:70, respectively). Four ruminally cannulated goats were fed, at maintenance intake, 4 experimental diets according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. High-concentrate diets resulted in greater (P 0.05) when diets included alfalfa hay. Total protozoa numbers and holotricha proportion were greater and less (P forage used. The MNF measured in goats fed different diets was influenced by the bacterial pellet (LAB or SAB). In addition, the purine bases:N ratio values found were different from those reported in the literature, which underlines the need for these variables to be analyzed directly in pellets isolated from specific animals and experimental conditions.

  12. Bilirubin concentration is positively associated with haemoglobin concentration and inversely associated with albumin to creatinine ratio among Indigenous Australians: eGFR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J T; Barzi, F; Hoy, W E; Jones, G R D; Rathnayake, G; Majoni, S W; Thomas, M A B; Sinha, A; Cass, A; MacIsaac, R J; O'Dea, K; Maple-Brown, L J

    2017-12-01

    Low serum bilirubin concentrations are reported to be strongly associated with cardio-metabolic disease, but this relationship has not been reported among Indigenous Australian people who are known to be at high risk for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). serum bilirubin will be negatively associated with markers of chronic disease, including CKD and anaemia among Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional analysis of 594 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) people in good health or with diabetes and markers of CKD. Measures included urine albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), haemoglobin (Hb) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Diabetes was defined by medical history, medications or HbA1c≥6.5% or ≥48mmol/mol. Anaemia was defined as Hbbilirubin was performed. Participants mean (SD) age was 45.1 (14.5) years, and included 62.5% females, 71.7% Aboriginal, 41.1% with diabetes, 16.7% with anaemia, 41% with ACR>3mg/mmol and 18.2% with eGFRbilirubin concentration was lower in females than males (6 v 8μmol/L, pbilirubin; Hb and cholesterol (both positively related) and ACR, triglycerides, Aboriginal ethnicity and female gender (all inversely related). Serum bilirubin concentrations were positively associated with Hb and total cholesterol, and inversely associated with ACR. Further research to determine reasons explaining lower bilirubin concentrations among Aboriginal compared with TSI participants are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2002-02-01

    The critical roughage part (CRP) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed Belgian Blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. The roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. For diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of DM but it decreased weekly with 5% units of DM. For the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and concentrate, 12% straw (DM basis) was provided during the first week and thereafter the proportion of straw decreased weekly with 3% units of DM. Several directly observable parameters (rumen pH, feed intake, bloat, faecal consistency) were evaluated weekly for each bull. Apart from these direct indicators of acidosis, also other parameters, whose results were only available after the end of the trial, were determined (volatile fatty acid profile, lactic acid concentration, chewing time). The roughage part between the part fed when signs of a lack of physical structure was first observed and the part that was fed the week before, was considered as the CRP. Most animals showed no acute signs of clinical acidosis (directly observable parameters) and finished the trial on a 100% concentrate diet. However, in sacco rumen DM-degradabilities of maize silage, grass silage and wheat grain was depressed considerably when low roughage diets were fed. Based on all observed parameters, the mean CRP was calculated to be 14.7% for diet 1 and 8.1% for diet 2. The beef type (double-muscled or not) had no influence on the CRP.

  14. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Mathias; Cooper, Steven J.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV) and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs). Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  15. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gergely

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs. Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  16. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Doñana National Park, South of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, J. P.; Olías, M.; González-García, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Doñana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and 210Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that 234U/238U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  17. In vitro fermentation characteristics of diets with different forage/concentrate ratios: comparison of rumen and faecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicarelli, Fabio; Calabrò, Serena; Cutrignelli, Monica I; Infascelli, Federico; Tudisco, Raffaella; Bovera, Fulvia; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the replacement of rumen fluid with faeces as inoculum in studying the in vitro fermentation characteristics of diets for ruminants using the in vitro gas production technique. Six iso-protein diets with different forage/concentrate ratios were incubated with rumen fluid (RI) or faeces (FI) collected from sheep. Most of the fermentation parameters were influenced by diet and inoculum (P < 0.01). With both inocula, organic matter degradability (dOM), cumulative gas production (OMCV) and maximum fermentation rate (R(max) ) increased as the amount of concentrate in the diet increased. R(max) was lower with FI vs RI (P < 0.01); dOM was higher with FI vs RI and the diet × inoculum interaction was significant. As expected, with both inocula, R(max) increased as the neutral detergent fibre content of the diet decreased. Significant correlations were obtained using both inocula between OMCV/dOM and gas/volatile fatty acid (VFA), while the correlation VFA/dOM was significant only with FI. The microbial biomass yield calculated by stoichiometric analysis for all diets was higher with FI vs RI. With FI the organic matter used for microbial growth showed an overall decreasing trend as the amount of concentrate in the diet increased. The results indicate that both faeces and rumen fluid from sheep have the potential to be used as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Social isolation stress and chronic glutathione deficiency have a common effect on the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio and myo-inositol concentration in the mouse frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoba, Alberto; Gruetter, Rolf; Do, Kim Q; Duarte, João M N

    2017-09-01

    Environmental stress can interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing psychopathology. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that social isolation stress interacts with impaired glutathione synthesis and have cumulative effects on the neurochemical profile of the frontal cortex. A mouse model with chronic glutathione deficit induced by knockout (-/-) of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (Gclm) was exposed to social isolation stress from weaning to post-natal day 65. Using magnetic resonance methods at high-field (14.1 T), we analysed the neurochemical profile in the frontal cortex, brain size and ventricular volume of adult animals. Glutathione deficit was accompanied by elevated concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, alanine, and glutamine, as well as the ratio of glutamine-to-glutamate (Gln/Glu), and by a reduction in levels of myo-inositol and choline-containing compounds in the frontal cortex of -/- animals with respect to wild-type littermates. Although there was no significant interaction between social isolation stress and glutathione deficiency, mice reared in isolation displayed lower myo-inositol concentration (-8.4%, p social isolation had no effect on these parameters. We conclude that social isolation caused neurochemical alterations that may add to those associated to impaired glutathione synthesis. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  20. Microstudies on thermal and UV treated silicone-acrylic paints with different pigment volume concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K.W.; Abdul Kariem Arof; Yahaya, A.H.; Yahya, R.; Puteh, R.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of pigment volume concentration (PVC) on morphology of pigment particles employed in the silicone-acrylic compositions suitable for high temperature corrosion protection application, has been investigated using SEM. Silicone-acrylic based paints with 50% silicone resin have been selected to prepare paints with PVC values from 10% to 60%. The paints were applied on mild steel panels of size of 5 cm x 7.5 cm. After curing for one week, the panels were subjected to 24 hours of heating ranging from room temperature up to 300 degree C and 400 hours of UV weathering. After the corrosion test, SEM micrographs were taken to investigate the gloss, rusting and adhesion properties of the coating films. (Author)

  1. Effects of doping concentration ratio on electrical characterization in pseudomorphic HEMT-based MMIC switches for ICT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Oh, Jung-Hun; Sung, Ho-Kun; Wang, Cong

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the doping concentration ratios between upper and lower silicon planar-doping layers on the DC and RF characteristics of the double planar doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) are investigated. From the device simulation, an increase of maximum extrinsic transconductance and a decrease of total on- and off-state capacitances are observed, as well as an increase of the upper to lower planar-doping concentration ratios (UTLPDR), which give rise to an enhancement of the switching speed and isolation characteristics. On the basis of simulation results, two types of pHEMTs are fabricated with two different UTLPDRs of 4:1 and 1:2. After applying these two types' pHEMTs, single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) transmitter/receiver monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) switches are also designed and fabricated. The SPDT MMIC switch with a 4:1 UTLPDR shows an insertion loss of 0.58 dB, isolation of 40.2 dB, and switching speed of 100 ns, respectively, which correspondingly indicate a 0.23 dB lower insertion loss, 2.90 dB higher isolation and 2.5 times faster switching speed than those of 1:2 UTLPDR at frequency range of 2-6 GHz. From the simulation results and comparative studies, we propose that the UTLPDR must be greater than 4:1 for the best switching performance. With the abovementioned excellent performances, the proposed switch would be quite promising in the application of information and communications technology system.

  2. Association of testicular echogenicity, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D.M. Ayala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ayala H.D.M., Ribeiro H.F.L., Rolim Filho S.T., Silva E.V.C. & Vale W.G. Association of testicular echogenicity, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration in buffaloes. [Associação entre a ecogenicidade, circunferência escrotal, volume testicular e concentração de testosterona em búfalos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:334-340, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciencia Animal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa 1, Campus Universitário do Guamá, Belém, PA 66075-110, Brazil. E-mail wm.vale@hotmail.com This article aimed to discuss the changes in the testicular parenchyma, analyzed by the use of ultrasonography, and correlates them with the testicular biometric parameters and testosterone concentration in crossed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes. Nineteen buffaloes, with initial ages between 11 and 59 months,were submitted to fortnightly collections of semen for a period of six months. At each collection the testicular biometry and testicular echogenicity were evaluated as well as blood samples were also collected to measure the plasma testosterone levels. The data were submitted to analysis of variance by the GLM procedure, considering the age group fixed effect. The average data obtained were compared by the Duncan test, at 5% significance. There was a significant growth (P<0.05 of the scrotal circumference, which varied from 12.88±0.51 cmto 31.18±0.75 cm among animals aged 12 to 60 months, as well as testicular volume, which ranged from 30.28±17.37 to 611.96±38.69 cm³ among the animals. The echogenic intensity of the testicular parenchyma varied in pixels from 78.67±6.36 to 109.24±3.13 in animals aged 12 to 60 months respectively. In the animals with ages between 12 and 19 months was observed levels of testosterone considered being low, whereas in the animals from 20 to 21 months there was a progressive increase in the testosterone levels, which

  3. A mathematical model for the effects of volume fraction and fiber aspect ratio of biomass mixture during enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Wang, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Renewable energy or biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative way to replace the depleting fossil fuels. The production cost can be reduced by increasing the concentration of biomass particles. However, lignocellulosic biomass is a suspension of natural fibres, and processing at high solid concentration is a challenging task. Thus, understanding the factors that affect the rheology of biomass suspension is crucial in order to maximize the production at a minimum cost. Our aim was to develop a mathematical model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by combining three scales: the macroscopic flow field, the mesoscopic particle orientation, and the microscopic reactive kinetics. The governing equations for the flow field, particle stress, kinetic equations, and particle orientation were coupled and were simultaneously solved using a finite element method based software, COMSOL. One of the main results was the changes in rheology of biomass suspension were not only due to the decrease in volume fraction of particles, but also due the types of fibres. The results from the simulation model agreed qualitatively with the experimental findings. This approach has enables us to obtain better predictive capabilities, hence increasing our understanding on the behaviour of biomass suspension.

  4. An assessment of soil-to-plant concentration ratios for some natural analogues of the transuranic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsalata, P; Morse, R S; Ford, H; Eisenbud, M; Franca, E P; de Castro, M B; Lobao, N; Sachett, I; Carlos, M

    1989-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of 232Th, 230Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, and the light rare earth elements (REE's) La, Ce and Nd. Twenty-nine soil and 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting Th and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body and U series radionuclides at a nearby open pit U mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent Pu and the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent Am and Cm. The geometric mean CR's (all times 10(-4] decreased as 228Ra (148) greater than 226Ra (76) greater than La (5.4) greater than Nd (3.0) = Ce (2.6) greater than 232Th (0.6), or simply as M (II) greater than M (III) greater than M (IV). These differences may reflect the relative availability of these metals for plant uptake. Significant differences were found in the CR's (for any given analyte) among many of the vegetables sampled. The CR's for the different analytes were also highly correlated. The reasons for the correlations in CR's seen among elements with such diverse chemistries as Ra-REE or Ra-Th are not clear but are apparently related to the essential mineral requirements or mineral status of the different vegetables sampled. This conclusion is based on the significant correlations obtained between the Ca content of the dried vegetables and the CR's for all of the elements studied.

  5. Numerical expression of volume status using the bioimpedance ratio in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume overload results in higher mortality rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. The ratio of bioimpedance (RBI might be a helpful parameter in adjusting dry body weight in CAPD patients. This study examined whether it is possible to distinguish between non-hypervolemic status and hypervolemic status in CAPD patients by using only RBI. Methods: RBI was calculated as follows: RBI = impedance at 50 kHz/impedance at 500 kHz. Based on the experts’ judgements, a total of 64 CAPD patients were divided into two groups, a non-hypervolemic group and a hypervolemic group. The RBI was measured from right wrist to right ankle (rw-raRBI by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM®, Fresenius Medical Care before and after the peritosol was emptied. Other RBIs were measured from the right side of the anterior superior iliac spine to the ipsilateral ankle (rasis-raRBI to control for the electro-physiological effects of peritoneal dialysate. Results: The mean rw-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients in the presence (1.141 ± 0.022 vs. 1.121 ± 0.021, P < 0.001 of a peritosol. Likewise, the mean rasis-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients (presence of peritosol: 1.136 ± 0.026 vs. 1.109 ± 0.022, P < 0.001; absence of peritosol: 1.131 ± 0.022 vs. 1.107 ± 0.022, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The volume status of CAPD patients was able to be simply expressed by RBI. Therefore, this study suggests that when patients cannot be analyzed using BCM, RBI could be an alternative.

  6. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S −1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T gt (s) via growth rate v (m s −1 ): V×S −1  = v gr ×T r . The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m 3 ), minimum and maximum doubling time T dt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S −1  = 4.46⋅10 −11 ×T dt was found, where v gr  = 4.46×10 −11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v gr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v gr >h/2π and T dt ×M×v gr 2 >h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10 −34 J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  7. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  8. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  9. Mean Platelet Volume and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Koçer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic infection caused by Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV which are simple markers of subclinical inflammation and CCHF. We also investigated the relationship of these markers with coagulation parameters.Methods: Thirty-one suspected CCHF patients, who submitted to Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between 2009 and 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Among thirty-one patients, nineteen were laboratory confirmed CCHF patients diagnosed by RT-PCR or CCHFV-specific IgM positivity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinin phosphokinase (CK, coagulation parameters, white blood cell counts (WBCs, and platelet counts of patient group were compared with twenty-five healthy individuals.Results: MPV, AST, ALT, LDH, CK and coagulation parameters were significantly higher in patients with CCHF than the controls, whereas WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, platelet counts and NLR were significantly lower (p<0.05. We found no significant correlation between MPV, NLR and coagulation parameters.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that MPV and NLR may be beneficial markers in the diagnosis of CCHF. But these parameters should not be considered stand-alone tests for this use owing to nonspecificity with other diseases.

  10. Ratio of prostate specific antigen to the outer gland volume of prostrate as a predictor for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Min; Yan, Yang; Wang, Fang; Gu, Wen-Yu; Hu, Guang-Hui; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    As a definite diagnosis of prostate cancer, puncture biopsy of the prostate is invasive method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of OPSAD (the ratio of PSA to the outer gland volume of prostate) as a non-invasive screening and diagnosis method for prostate cancer in a select population. The diagnosis data of 490 subjects undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. This included 133 patients with prostate cancer, and 357 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The OPSAD was significantly greater in patients with prostate cancer (1.87 ± 1.26 ng/ml(2)) than those with BPH (0.44 ± 0.21 ng/ml(2)) (P prostate cancer. In the different groups divided according to the Gleason score of prostate cancer, OPSAD is elevated with the rise of the Gleason score. OPSAD may be used as a new indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer, and it can reduce the use of unnecessary puncture biopsy of the prostate.

  11. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m"2) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I_s_c and P_m_a_x decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  12. Intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio and the level of glucose and glycerol concentration differ between patients surgically treated for upper and lower perforations of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, Jonas E; Axelsen, Anne R; Ellebæk, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    collected every 4th hour for up to 7 postoperative days. Samples were analysed for concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. RESULTS: Microdialysis results showed that patients with upper gastrointestinal tract lesions had significantly higher levels of postoperative intraperitoneal glucose...... and glycerol concentrations, as well as lower lactate/pyruvate ratios and lactate/glucose ratios. In the group with perforation of the lower gastrointestinal tract, those patients with a complicated course showed lower levels of postoperative intraperitoneal glucose concentration and glycerol concentration...... and higher lactate/pyruvate ratios and lactate/glucose ratios than those patients with an uncomplicated course. CONCLUSION: Patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal tract lesions showed differences in postoperative biomarker levels. A difference was also seen between patients with complicated...

  13. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mondragón-Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs and body mass indices (BMIs. Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b±s.e.=-0.000003±0.000001; t94=-2.12, adjusted R2=-0.008, P=0.03. Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days.

  14. FRET two-hybrid assay by linearly fitting FRET efficiency to concentration ratio between acceptor and donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mengyan; Yang, Fangfang; Mai, Zihao; Qu, Wenfeng; Lin, Fangrui; Wei, Lichun; Chen, Tongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We here introduce a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) two-hybrid assay method to measure the maximal donor(D)- and acceptor(A)-centric FRET efficiency (ED,max and EA,max) of the D-A complex and its stoichiometry by linearly fitting the donor-centric FRET efficiency (ED) to the acceptor-to-donor concentration ratio (RC) and acceptor-centric FRET efficiency (EA) to 1/RC, respectively. We performed this method on a wide-field fluorescence microscope for living HepG2 cells co-expressing FRET tandem constructs and free donor/acceptor and obtained correct ED, EA, and stoichiometry values of those tandem constructs. Evaluation on the binding of Bad with Bcl-XL in Hela cells showed that Bad interacted strongly with Bcl-XL to form a Bad-Bcl-XL complex on mitochondria, and one Bad interacted mainly with one Bcl-XL molecule in healthy cells, while with multiple (maybe 2) Bcl-XL molecules in apoptotic cells.

  15. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV 0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  16. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  18. The Effect of Si and Al Concentration Ratios on the Removal of U(VI) under Hanford Site 200 Area Conditions-12115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Gonzalez, Nathan; Moreno-Pastor, Carol; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Injection of reactive gases, such as NH{sub 3}, is an innovative technique to mitigate uranium contamination in soil for a vadose zone (VZ) contaminated with radionuclides. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of the concentration ratio of silicon to aluminum in the presence of various bicarbonate concentrations on the coprecipitation process of U(VI). The concentration of Al in all tests remained unchanged at 2.8 mM. Experiments showed that the removal efficiency of uranium was not significantly affected by the different bicarbonate and U(VI) concentrations tested. For the lower Si:Al molar ratios of 2:1 and 18:1, the removal efficiency of uranium was relatively low (≤ 8%). For the Si:Al molar ratio of 35:1, the removal efficiency of uranium was increased to an average of ∼82% for all bicarbonate concentrations tested. At higher Si:Al molar ratios (53:1 and above), a relatively high removal efficiency of U(VI), approximately 85% and higher, was observed. These results demonstrate that the U(VI) removal efficiency is more affected by the Si:Al molar ratio than by the bicarbonate concentration in solution. The results of this experiment are promising for the potential implementation of NH{sub 3} gas injection for the remediation of U(VI) -contaminated VZ. (authors)

  19. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  20. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  1. Concentration dependence of the partial volume, viscosity, and electric conductivity of solutions of lithium salts in aliphatic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, O.V.; Golubev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Concentration dependence of partial volumes, electric conductivity and viscosity of lithium nitrate and chloride solutions in methanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, isobutanol, pentanol and isopentanol at 298.15 K were studied by the methods of densimetry, conductometry and viscosimetry. Structural specific features of the solutions studied are discussed on the basis of the calculated volumetric characteristics of the substance dissolved and solvent [ru

  2. Model for the evolution of the quality and ratio of the void volume for local boiling and in the transition zone (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, P.

    1963-01-01

    A simple model giving the quality and void volume ratio valid from local boiling to bulk boiling is reported. It is based on simple hypotheses taking in account the formation and condensation of vapor. This model is especially practical for the numerical computation of designs. (author) [fr

  3. The relationship between mean platelet volume and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio with inflammation and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, which develops as a result of inflammation, is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD. In this study, we investigated the relationship of mean platelet volume (MPV and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR with inflammation and proteinuria in patients with CKD Stage 3-4. Healthy individuals who applied to nephrology clinic for checkup purposes acted as controls. Fifty-three patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, active infection, malignancy, and coronary artery disease were excluded from the study. Biochemistry values and hemograms were recorded for all patients and for control group. NLR was calculated. The relationship between MPV/NLR and protein, fibrinogen, and proteinuria was evaluated. Our study showed a statistically significant difference between CKD group and healthy control (HC group in uric acid, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and NLR values (P <0.01, P <0.01, P = 0.01, P <0.01, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between CKD and HC groups for MPV (P = 0.307. Correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between NLR and creatinine (P <0.00, r = 0.571, uric acid (P <0.00, r = 0.436, glomerular filtration rate (P <0.00, r = −0.418, 24 h urine protein (P = 0.004, r = 0.311, and 24 h urine microalbumin (P = 0.001, r = 0.354. A statistically significant relationship was detected between MPV and platelet count (P <0.001, r = −0.422, age (P = 0.004, r = −0.312, uric acid (P = 0.04, r = −0.226, and fibrinogen (P = 0.023, r = −0.249. Whereas, a statistically significant relationship was detected between NLR and microalbuminuria/proteinuria, there was no statistically significant relationship between MPV and microalbuminuria/proteinuria. Our study showed that the NLR is high in CKD group and is correlated with uric acid and proteinuria, which are known to be associated

  4. Combined effects of nitrogen to phosphorus ratios and nitrogen speciation on cyanobacterial metabolite concentrations in eutrophic Midwestern USA reservoirs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, T.D.; Smith, V.H.; Graham, J.L.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Tedesco, L.P.; Clercin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio and nitrogen oxidation state may have substantial effects on secondary metabolite (e.g., microcystins) production in cyanobacteria. We investigated the relationship between the water column TN:TP ratio and the

  5. Changes of Microbial Population in the Rumen of Dairy Steers as Influenced by Plant Containing Tannins and Saponins and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate microbial population in the rumen of dairy steers as influenced by supplementing with dietary condensed tannins and saponins and different roughage to concentrate ratios. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers (Bos indicus were used in a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60 and two supplementations of rain tree pod meal (RPM (0 and 60 g/kg of total DM intake. Chopped 30 g/kg urea treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received feed according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained crude tannins and saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that ruminal pH decreased while ruminal temperature increased by a higher concentrate ratio (R:C 40:60 (p<0.05. In contrast, total bacterial, Ruminococus albus and viable proteolytic bacteria were not affected by dietary supplementation. Numbers of fungi, cellulolytic bacteria, Fibrobactor succinogenes and Ruminococus flavefaciens were higher while amylolytic bacteria was lower when steers were fed at 400 g/kg of concentrate. The population of Fibrobactor succinogenes, was found to be higher with RPM supplementation. In addition, the use of real-time PCR technique indicated that the population of protozoa and methanogens were decreased (p<0.05 with supplementation of RPM and with an increasing concentrate ratio. Supplementation of RPM and feeding different concentrate ratios resulted in changing the rumen microbes especially, when the animals were fed at 600 g/kg of concentrate and supplemented with RPM which significantly reduced the protozoa and methanogens population.

  6. On the concept of resting potential--pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells, the resting potential is established by the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions and the different permeabilities of the cell membrane to them. The large concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions are maintained by the Na⁺/K⁺ pump. Under physiological conditions, the pump transports three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell per ATP hydrolyzed. However, unlike other primary or secondary active transporters, the Na⁺/K⁺ pump does not work at the equilibrium state, so the pumping ratio is not a thermodynamic property of the pump. In this article, I propose a dipole-charging model of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump to prove that the three Na⁺ to two K⁺ pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump is determined by the ratio of the ionic mobilities of potassium to sodium ions, which is to ensure the time constant τ and the τ-dependent processes, such as the normal working state of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the propagation of an action potential. Further, the concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell are 0.3027 and 0.9788, respectively, and the sum of the potassium and sodium equilibrium potentials is -30.3 mV. A comparative study on these constants is made for some marine, freshwater and terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that the pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the ion concentration ratios play a role in the evolution of animal cells.

  7. Effects of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) supplemented to diet (forage: concentrate ratios of 60:40) on the basic ruminal fermentation and methane emissions in in vitro condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aemiro, Ashagrie; Watanabe, Shota; Suzuki, Kengo; Hanada, Masaaki; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) on CH4 production, dry matter (DM) digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia N(NH3-N) concentration as well as on the protozoa population. The treatments considered were Euglena at concentrations of 0.0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the substrate (60:40 forage: concentrate ratio) incubated for 24 and 96 h using an in vitro continuous gas producti...

  8. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  9. Concentrations and activity ratios of 228Ra and 226Ra in surface seawater along the Pacific coast of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Sato, J.; Gamo, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in surface seawater along the Pacific coast of Japan at five ports around the island of Izu-Oshima (n = 29), at Atami in Sagami Bay (n = 13), and at Umizuri Park in Tokyo Bay (n = 14). We also conducted these measurements along a transect from the open Pacific Ocean across the Kuroshio to the mouth of Tokyo Bay (n = 7). The activity ratios decreased with increasing salinity of the sampling sites. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in surface seawater along the coast gradually decreased after at the end of autumn and were lowest in winter and the beginning of spring. The surface salinity along the coast decreased from summer into autumn and increased from winter to the beginning of spring. The activity ratios decreased with the increase of salinity. The variation in activity ratios at the three coastal sites is possibly caused by differing contributions of surface seawater from the Kuroshio and surrounding open ocean. The different patterns and ranges of variation in the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in surface seawater at Izu-Oshima, Atami, and Umizuri Park may reflect both the amount of water from the Kuroshio and vicinity, and the local bathymetry, because continental shelf sediment is the source of Ra isotopes in surface seawater. (orig.)

  10. Effect of Roughage Source and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Animal Performance and Rumen Development in Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four male Holstein-Friesian x Dutch Friesian veal calves (46 ± 3.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels and sources of dietary roughage on animal performance and rumen development. Treatments consisted of 1) C100 = concentrate only; 2) C70-S30 = concentrate

  11. A Caulobacter MreB mutant with irregular cell shape exhibits compensatory widening to maintain a preferred surface area to volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leigh K.; Dye, Natalie A.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rod-shaped bacteria typically elongate at a uniform width. To investigate the genetic and physiological determinants involved in this process, we studied a mutation in the morphogenetic protein MreB in Caulobacter crescentus that gives rise to cells with a variable-width phenotype, where cells have regions that are both thinner and wider than wild-type. During growth, individual cells develop a balance of wide and thin regions, and mutant MreB dynamically localizes to poles and thin regions. Surprisingly, the surface area to volume ratio of these irregularly-shaped cells is, on average, very similar to wild-type. We propose that, while mutant MreB localizes to thin regions and promotes rod-like growth there, wide regions develop as a compensatory mechanism, allowing cells to maintain a wild-type-like surface area to volume ratio. To support this model, we have shown that cell widening is abrogated in growth conditions that promote higher surface area to volume ratios, and we have observed individual cells with high ratios return to wild-type levels over several hours by developing wide regions, suggesting that compensation can take place at the level of individual cells. PMID:25266768

  12. Effects of the Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} concentration ratio on the structure and photoluminescence of ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Boxu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Pei [Auditing Department, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Meng, Xiaoqi; Zou, Kaishun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu, Juncheng, E-mail: jchliu@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-07-15

    To improve the efficiency of photoluminescent films, this study investigates the effects of the Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} concentration ratio on the structure and up-conversion photoluminescence of ZnO films prepared by the sol–gel method and the spin-coating technique. ZnO maintained its hexagonal wurtzite structure after doping with rare earth ions. The ZnO films consist of round granules, the average size of which increases as the Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} concentration ratio increases. Once the ratio exceeds 1:2, the film's granules significantly coarsen, and the surface roughness slightly increases. When the film is pumped with a 980-nm laser, two intense emission bands are observed in the up-conversion emission spectrum, with a green band centered at 550 nm and a red band centered at 660 nm, corresponding to the Ho{sup 3+}: {sup 5}S{sub 2}/{sup 5}F{sub 4}→{sup 5}I{sub 8}, and {sup 5}F{sub 5}→{sup 5}I{sub 8} transitions, respectively. In addition, as the Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} concentration ratio increases, the intensity of the film's upconversion luminescence first increases and then decreases, reaching a maximum at a concentration ratio of 1:2, with a peak of about four times the minimum value.

  13. Calcium and phosphorus concentrations and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in trabecular bone from the femoral neck of healthy humans as determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    The Ca and P concentrations as well as the Ca/P ratio were estimated in intact trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck of healthy humans, 34 women and 44 men, aged from 15 to 55 years, using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mean values (M±SD) for the investigated parameters (on a dry-weight basis) were: 12.1±3.0%, 5.94±1.71%, 2.07±0.25 and 10.9±2.5%, 5.30±1.23%, 2.07±0.22 for females and males, respectively. A statistically significant (p≤0.05) decrease of Ca concentration with age was found only for males while the P concentration and the Ca/P ratio were not affected by age. No statistically significant sex-related differences were observed in any of the parameters. The mean values for Ca, P and the Ca/P ratio lay close to the median of the very wide range of published data. The individual variation for the Ca/P ratio in trabecular bone from the healthy human femoral neck was lower than those for Ca and P separately. This suggests that the specificity of the Ca/P ratio is better than that of Ca and P concentrations and may be more reliable for the diagnosis of bone disorders

  14. [Correlation analysis of cement leakage with volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and vertebral body wall incompetence in percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Huang, Weiquan; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Yongchao; Zhang, Shuncong; Jin, Daxiang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors of cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Between March 2011 and March 2012, 98 patients with single level OVCF were treated by PVP, and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 77.2 years (range, 54-95 years). The mean disease duration was 43 days (range, 15-120 days), and the mean T score of bone mineral density (BMD) was -3.8 (range, -6.7- -2.5). Bilateral transpedicular approach was used in all the patients. The patients were divided into cement leakage group and no cement leakage group by occurrence of cement leakage based on postoperative CT. Single factor analysis was used to analyze the difference between 2 groups in T score of BMD, operative level, preoperative anterior compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative middle compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative sagittal Cobb angle of operative vertebrae, preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence, cement volume, and volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body. All relevant factors were introduced to logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors of cement leakage. All procedures were performed successfully. The mean operation time was 40 minutes (range, 30-50 minutes), and the mean volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body was 24.88% (range, 7.84%-38.99%). Back pain was alleviated significantly in all the patients postoperatively. All patients were followed up with a mean time of 8 months (range, 6-12 months). Cement leakage occurred in 49 patients. Single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence between 2 groups (P 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body (P

  15. Carbon Concentration and Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio Influence Submerged-Culture Conidiation by the Potential Bioherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark A.; Bothast, Rodney J.

    1990-01-01

    We assessed the influence of various carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios on Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 13737 conidium formation in submerged cultures grown in a basal salts medium containing various amounts of glucose and Casamino Acids. Under the nutritional conditions tested, the highest conidium concentrations were produced in media with carbon concentrations of 4.0 to 15.3 g/liter. High carbon concentrations (20.4 to 40.8 g/liter) inhibited sporulation and enhanced the formation of microsclerotiumlike hyphal masses. At all the carbon concentrations tested, a culture grown in a medium with a C:N ratio of 15:1 produced more conidia than cultures grown in media with C:N ratios of 40:1 or 5:1. While glucose exhaustion was often coincident with conidium formation, cultures containing residual glucose sporulated and those with high carbon concentrations (>25 g/liter) exhausted glucose without sporulation. Nitrogen source studies showed that the levels of C. truncatum NRRL 13737 conidiation were similar for all protein hydrolysates tested. Reduced conidiation occurred when amino acid and inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Of the nine carbon sources evaluated, acetate as the sole carbon source resulted in the lowest level of sporulation. Images PMID:16348348

  16. “Finite” non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-03-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, arXiv: 0707.0105] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th

  17. Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carolyn N; Fry, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds.

  18. Plutonium concentrations and Pu/Am ratios in small vertebrates from NAEG Intensive Study Areas of NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated areas of NTS began in spring 1972 and have continued to date. Species conposition, relative abundance, and other pertinent ecological data have been presented in previous reports. In addition, data analysis of Pu and Am concentrations in selected rodent and lizard species has been presented for all NAEG Intensive Study Areas. This report provides further analysis of Pu concentration in small vertebrates of Areas 5 and 11, NTS

  19. A two-stage compound parabolic concentrator system with a large entrance over the exit aperture ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Radu, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Certain optical designs in the field of high energy gamma ray astronomy components of the Cherenkov light, collected by the mirror of telescope, be concentrated on the photo-cathodes of the photomultiplier tubes, with the help of the light collectors having large entrance and small exit apertures. Mathematical restrictions imposed by the design of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) implied that for a given cut-off angle and an entrance aperture, the exit aperture of the CPC should not exceed a limit value. If this value is larger than the active diameter of the photocathode, an additional concentrator must be added to the system in order to transfer the light collected, from the exit aperture of the compound parabolic concentrator to the photocathode of the photomultiplier tube. Different designs of a two-stage system composed by a a hollow compound parabolic concentrator and a solid, dielectric filled concentrator are evaluated in this paper, from the point of view of optical efficiency and manufacturability. (authors)

  20. Influence of alcohol on brain volume in social drinkers: evaluation with MR-based intracranial-parenchymal ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Joo; Lee, Kyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jang; Kim, Jae Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine, by measuring the intracranial-parenchymal ratio at MR imaging, whether alcohol induces brain damage in social drinkers. One hundred and five male adults aged 20 or over were selected for this study. They inclued 41 non-drinkers, 43 mild to moderate social drinkers, nine heavy social drinkers and 12 alcoholics. Using a workstation, the intracranial-parenchymal ratio was measured at four levels of T1-weighted MR images: the fourth, third and lateral ventricle, and the level of the centrum semiovale. The mean ratios of all four levels (I-IV) were also calculated parenchymal ratios were compared between the four groups, and correlation between the amount of alcohol ingestion and the parenchymal ratio also determined. The parenchymal ratio at levels I-IV was 80.31±3.73% in non-drinkers, 79.38±4.39% in mild to moderate social drinkers, 80.92±3.64% in heavy social drinkers and 73.48±4.42% in alcoholics, The difference between alcoholics and the other three groups was statistically significant, but between non-drinkers and social drinkers was insignificant (ANOVA). Multiple regression analysis with control of the age factor revealed a decreased parenchymal ratio in mild to moderate and heavy social drinkers compared with non-drinkers, but without statistical significance. There was significant negative correlation between parenchymal ratio and amount of alcohol ingestion (pearson correlation). There was significant brain atrophy in alcoholics, but no significant difference between non-drinkers and social drinkers. We thus conclude that social drinking dose non induce significant alcohol-related brain atrophy

  1. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-11-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy.

  2. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu; Ogden, Iain D.; MacRae, Marion; Badescu, Vasile; Strachan, Norval J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels ( 50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method

  3. Predictions by the multimedia environmental fate model SimpleBox compared to field data: Intermedia concentration ratios of two phthalate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs J; Peijnenburg WJGM; ECO

    2003-01-01

    The multimedia environmental fate model SimpleBox is applied to compute steady-state concentration ratios with the aim to harmonize environmetal quality objectives of air, water, sediment and soil. In 1995 the Dutch Health Council recommended validation of the model. Several activities were

  4. Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Johansson, B.E.O.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Murphy, M.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design.

  5. Dependences of molar volumes in solids, partial molal and hydrated ionic volumes of alkali halides on covalent and ionic radii and the golden ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Raji

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 436, č. 1-3 (2007), s. 287-293 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : alkali halides * ionic hydration * golden ratio Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2007

  6. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP.Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P portal hypertension was 0.95. In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion.

  7. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  8. Systematic variations of 87Sr/56Sr ratios, Sr compositions, selected major-oxide concentrations, and mineral abundances in piston cores from the Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boger, P.D.; Boger, J.L.; Faure, G.

    1980-01-01

    A mixing model is presented which relates the concentrations of Sr to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and concentrations of other elements contained in a mixture of two components. The model is applied to the measured 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, Sr, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 and SiO 2 concentrations of the detrital fractions of sediment from three piston cores representing different depositional environments in the Red Sea. The sediment is shown to be a mixture of two components derived from old sialic rocks and young volcanic rocks of the surrounding land masses. One of the cores contained a third component which is identified as authigenic Fe 2 O 3 . Removal of this contaminant is shown to return the system to its original detrital constituents. (Auth.)

  9. Concentration determination of nucleic acids and proteins using the micro-volume BioSpec-nano-spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja

    2011-02-17

    Nucleic acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells.

  10. Concentration Determination of Nucleic Acids and Proteins Using the Micro-volume Bio-spec Nano Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic Acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected1. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/ mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells. PMID:21372788

  11. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  12. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  13. The Relationship Between Vancomycin Trough Concentrations and AUC/MIC Ratios in Pediatric Patients: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Stacey; Collins, Kyle; Ensom, Mary H H

    2018-04-01

    In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC. This review aimed to determine the relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC in pediatric patients. We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using the medical subject heading (MeSH) terms vancomycin and AUC and pediatric* or paediatric*. Articles were included if they were published in English and reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC. Of 122 articles retrieved, 11 met the inclusion criteria. One trial reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations, AUC/MIC, and clinical outcomes but was likely underpowered. Five studies found troughs 6-10 mg/l were sufficient to attain an AUC/MIC > 400 in most general hospitalized pediatric patients. One study in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery found a trough of 18.4 mg/l achieved an AUC/MIC > 400. Two oncology studies reported troughs ≥ 15 mg/l likely attained an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. In critical care patients: one study found a trough of 9 mg/l did not attain the AUC/MIC target; another found 7 mg/l corresponded to an AUC/MIC of 400. Potential vancomycin targets varied based on the population studied but, for general hospitalized pediatric patients, troughs of 6-10 mg/l are likely sufficient to achieve AUC/MIC ≥ 400. For MIC ≥ 2 mg/l, higher troughs are likely necessary to achieve an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. More

  14. Comparative study between different simple methods manipulating ratio spectra for the analysis of alogliptin and metformin co-formulated with highly different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghary, Wafaa A; Mowaka, Shereen; Hassan, Mostafa A; Ayoub, Bassam M

    2017-11-05

    Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for simultaneous determination of alogliptin and metformin manipulating their ratio spectra with successful application on recently approved combination, Kazano® tablets. Spiking was implemented to detect alogliptin in spite of its low contribution in the pharmaceutical formulation as low quantity in comparison to metformin. Linearity was acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-25.0μg/mL and 2.5-15.0μg/mL for alogliptin and metformin, respectively using derivative ratio, ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction and spectrum subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and proved to be accurate for assay of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CO and NO2 pollution in a long two-way traffic road tunnel: investigation of NO2/NOx ratio and modelling of NO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrehus, O; Vassbotn, P

    2001-02-01

    The CO, NO and NO2 concentrations, visibility and air flow velocity were measured using continuous analysers in a long Norwegian road tunnel (7.5 km) with traffic in both directions in April 1994 and 1995. The traffic density was monitored at the same time. The NO2 concentration exceeded Norwegian air quality limits for road tunnels 17% of the time in 1994. The traffic through the tunnel decreased from 1994 to 1995, and the mean NO2 concentration was reduced from 0.73 to 0.22 ppm. The ventilation fan control, based on the CO concentration only, was unsatisfactory and the air flow was sometimes low for hours. Models for NO2 concentration based on CO concentration and absolute air flow velocity were developed and tested. The NO2/NOx ratio showed an increase for NOx levels above 2 ppm; a likely explanation for this phenomenon is NO oxidation by O2. Exposure to high NO2 concentrations may represent a health risk for people with respiratory and cardiac diseases. In long road tunnels with two-way traffic, this study indicates that ventilation fan control based on CO concentration should be adjusted for changes in vehicle CO emission and should be supplemented by air flow monitoring to limit the NO2 concentration.

  16. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994

  17. A high precision mass spectrometry method for measuring O2/N2 ratios and CO2 concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marca, A.D.; Dennis, P.F.; Etchells, A.

    2002-01-01

    A full, detailed understanding of the global carbon budget is needed for robust modelling of global climate and environmental change. Since the industrial revolution the carbon cycle has been shifted from a steady state in which removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis is balanced by its addition through respiration. Currently increased respiration due to deforestation, modern agricultural practises and the burning of fossil fuels dominates photosynthesis resulting in modern atmospheric CO 2 concentrations some 32% higher than the year 1800 levels. However, the CO 2 concentration rises are lower than expected from known fossil fuel combustion inventories. A significant proportion of the excess CO 2 is taken up by the oceans, however a missing carbon sink must still be invoked to account for the difference between measured and expected CO 2 rises. A global greening as a result of increased photosynthesis is required to close the circle

  18. Modeled long-term changes of DIN:DIP ratio in the Changjiang River in relation to Chl-α and DO concentrations in adjacent estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Yan, Weijin; Chen, Nengwang; Li, Xinyan; Liu, Lusan

    2015-12-01

    In the past four decades (1970-2013), nitrogen and phosphorous inputs to the Changjiang River basin, mainly from human activities, have increased 3-fold and 306-fold, respectively. The riverine nutrient fluxes to the estuary have also grown exponentially. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorous (DIP) fluxes of the Changjiang River increased by 338% and 574% during 1970-2013 period, and red tides and benthic hypoxia have been observed in the outflow region of the Changjiang River in the East China Sea (ECS). We assumed that time series changes in the DIN:DIP ratio from the Changjiang River could have a significant impact on Chlorophyll-α (Chl-α) concentration in the surface sea water and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bottom sea water of the Changjiang estuary. Our study showed that the DIN:DIP ratio from the Changjiang River increased from 76 to 384 between 1970 and 1985, and decreased from 255 to 149 between 1986 and 2013. The observed Chl-α concentration increased by 146% from 1992 to 2010 in the Changjiang estuary, and was negatively related to the DIN:DIP ratio in 1992-2010. Bottom sea water DO concentration decreased by 24.6% during 1992-2010 and a "low oxygen zone" (122°∼123°E, 32°∼33°N) was observed during summer since 1999. The anthropogenically enhanced nutrient inputs dominated river DIN and DIP fluxes and influenced Chl-α concentrations as well as bottom DO concentrations in the estuary. Scenarios emphasizing global collaboration and proactive environmental problem-solving may result in reductions in the river nutrient exports and in Chl-α and DO concentration in the Changjiang estuary by 2050.

  19. Low concentration of a Gd-chelate increases the signal-to-noise ratio in fast pulsing BEST experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Bellot, Gaëtan; Wang, Jing; Déméné, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    Despite numerous developments in the past few years that aim to increase the sensitivity of NMR multidimensional experiments, NMR spectroscopy still suffers from intrinsic low sensitivity. In this report, we show that the combination of two developments in the field, the Band-selective Excitation Short-Transient (BEST) experiment [Schanda et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128 (2006) 9042] and the addition of the nonionic paramagnetic gadolinium chelate gadodiamide into NMR samples, enhances the signal-to-noise ratio. This effect is shown here for four different proteins, three globular and one unfolded, of molecular weights ranging from 6.5 kDa to 40 kDa, using 2D BEST HSQC and 3D BEST triple resonance sequences. Moreover, we show that the increase in signal-to-noise ratio provided by the gadodiamide is higher for peak resonances with lower than average intensity in BEST experiments. It is interesting to note that these residues are on average the weakest ones in those experiments. In this case, the gadodiamide-mediated increase can reach a value of 60% for low and 30% for high molecular weight proteins respectively. An investigation into the origin of this “paramagnetic gain” in BEST experiments is presented.

  20. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jamali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the

  1. The relationship between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    1. We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. 2. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. 3. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux, however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. 4. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for CH4 and 3-fold for CO2. 5. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a~mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but these relationships vary greatly among termite species. Consequently, there is no generic relationship that will allow for the prediction of CH4 fluxes from termite mounds of all species.

  2. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but

  3. Performance of single-junction and dual-junction InGaP/GaAs solar cells under low concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aurangzeb; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    A study of the performance of single-junction InGaP/GaAs and dual-junction InGaP/GaAs tandem cells under low concentration ratios (up to 15 suns), before and after 1 MeV electron irradiation is presented. Analysis of the tunnel junction parameters under different concentrated light illuminations reveals that the peak current (J P ) and valley current (J V ) densities should be greater than the short-circuit current density (J sc ) for better performance. The tunnel junction behavior against light intensity improved after irradiation. This led to the suggestion that the peak current density (J P ) and valley current density (J V ) of the tunnel junction were enhanced after irradiation or the peak current was shifted to higher concentration. The recovery of the radiation damage under concentrated light illumination conditions suggests that the performance of the InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cell can be enhanced even under low concentration ratios

  4. Effect of adding low-concentration of rhamnolipid on reactor performances and microbial community evolution in MBBRs for low C/N ratio and antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pengcheng; Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of low-concentration of rhamnolipid in efficient treatment of wastewater with poor biodegradability. Six lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were applied to investigate the effect of rhamnolipid concentration (0, 20, 50 mg/L) on pollutants removal, biomass accumulation, microbial morphology and community evolution in synthetic low C/N ratio (3:1) and antibiotic (50 μg/L tetracycline) wastewater. 20 mg/L rhamnolipid treated groups exhibited significant increase (p poorly biodegradable wastewater by biofilm process with moderate amount of rhamnolipid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of semi-empirical relationship between the manganese and hydrogen atoms ratio, physical density and concentration in an aqueous solution of manganese sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Bittencourt, Guilherme, E-mail: bittencourt@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza Patrao, Karla Cristina de, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos Leite, Sandro, E-mail: sandro@ird.gov.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wagner Pereira, Walsan, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes da Fonseca, Evaldo, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    The Manganese sulphate solution has been used for neutron metrology through the method of Manganese Bath. This method uses physical parameters of manganese sulphate solution to obtain its corrections. This work established a functional relationship, using the gravimetric method, between those physical parameters: density, concentration and hydrogen to manganese ratio. Comparisons were done between manganese sulphate solution concentration from the Manganese Bath system of Laboratory of Metrology of Ionising Radiation and estimated values from the functional relationship obtained, showing percentage difference of less than 0.1%. This result demonstrates the usefulness in the correlation of the physical values of the solution to the MB.

  6. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, S.; Paulica, P.; Querze', R.; Viglietta, G.; Trenta, A.

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed

  7. Determination of uranium concentration and burn-up of irradiated reactor fuel in contaminated areas in Belarus using uranium isotopic ratios in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.P.; Matusevich, J.L.; Kudrjashov, V.P.; Ananich, P.I.; Zhuravkov, V.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method is described for the estimation of uranium concentrations, of 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios and burn-up of irradiated reactor uranium in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Experimental results obtained at 12 sampling sites situated on northern and western radioactive fallout tails 4 to 53 km distant from Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. Concentrations of irradiated uranium in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers at the investigated sampling sites varied from 2.1 x 10 -9 g/g to 2.0 x 10 -6 g/g depending mainly on the distance from Chernobyl NPP. A slight variation of the degree of burn-up of spent reactor uranium was revealed by analyzing 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios and the average value amounted to 9.4±0.3 MWd/(kg U). (orig.)

  8. Monthly variation in faeces:blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life: a case study of one infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiqin, E-mail: y.chen16@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); McLachlan, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University (Sweden); Kaserzon, Sarit; Wang, Xianyu; Weijs, Liesbeth; Gallen, Michael [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); Toms, Leisa-Maree L. [School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Li, Yan [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); Aylward, Lesa L. [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia); Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, VA (United States); Sly, Peter D. [Children’s Health and Environment Program, Queensland Children’s Medical Research Institute, Brisbane (Australia); Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland (Australia); Mueller, Jochen F. [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2{sup ′},4,4{sup ′},5,5{sup ′}-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and 2,2{sup ′},4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p′-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K{sub fb}) differed significantly (P<0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K{sub fb} are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K{sub fb}. A more stable K{sub fb} after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K{sub fb} values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K{sub fb} in infants is worthy of further investigation. - Highlights: • Measured POPs concentrations in faecal samples decreased rapidly following weaning. • Ratio of faecal

  9. Monthly variation in faeces:blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life: a case study of one infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiqin; McLachlan, Michael S.; Kaserzon, Sarit; Wang, Xianyu; Weijs, Liesbeth; Gallen, Michael; Toms, Leisa-Maree L.; Li, Yan; Aylward, Lesa L.; Sly, Peter D.; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2 ′ ,4,4 ′ ,5,5 ′ -Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and 2,2 ′ ,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p′-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K fb ) differed significantly (P<0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K fb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K fb . A more stable K fb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K fb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K fb in infants is worthy of further investigation. - Highlights: • Measured POPs concentrations in faecal samples decreased rapidly following weaning. • Ratio of faecal:blood concentrations (K fb ) changed over the first

  10. Pb concentrations and isotope ratios of soil O and C horizons in Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway: Anthropogenic or natural sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.; Fabian, K.; Flem, B.; Schilling, J.; Roberts, D.; Englmaier, P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil O and C horizon samples (N = 752) were collected at a sample density of 1 site/36 km"2 in Nord-Trøndelag and parts of Sør-Trøndelag (c. 25,000 km"2), and analysed for Pb and three of the four naturally occurring Pb isotopes ("2"0"6Pb, "2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb) in a HNO_3/HCl extraction. Soil O and C horizons are decoupled in terms of both Pb concentrations and Pb isotope ratios. In the soil C horizon the Grong-Olden Culmination, a continuous exposure of the Precambrian crystalline basement across the general grain of the Caledonian orogen, is marked by a distinct "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio anomaly. No clear regional or even local patterns are detected when mapping the Pb isotope ratios in the soil O horizon samples. Variation in the isotope ratios declines significantly from the soil C to the O horizon. On average, Pb concentrations in the O horizon are four times higher and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is shifted towards a median of 1.15 in comparison to 1.27 in the C horizon. It is demonstrated that natural processes like weathering in combination with plant uptake need to be taken into account in order to distinguish anthropogenic input from natural influences on Pb concentration and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio in the soil O horizon. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations are on average higher by a factor of 4 in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is considerably lower in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The observed shifts are in conflict with exclusive anthropogenic input of Pb. • The hypothesis of natural Pb-isotope invariance can not be hold.

  11. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and 235U/238U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Krylov, N.G.; Kuznetsova, V.F.; Mavrin, S.V.; Aleinikov, A.Yu.; Hoppes, W.G.; Surano, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios 235 U/ 238 U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45mgkg -1 in lichen at 2.09E-04μgm -3 in air and 0.106mgkg -1 in lichen at 1.13E-05μgm -3 in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C AIR =exp(1.1xC LICHEN -12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle

  12. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  13. Tuning the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO2 nanocrystals leads to high photocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Li, Yuanzhi; Chen, Xiong; Tian, Tingting; Fang, Pengfei; Zheng, Feng; Zhao, Xiujian

    2011-10-19

    TiO(2) nanocrystals with tunable bulk/surface defects were synthesized and characterized with TEM, XRD, BET, positron annihilation, and photocurrent measurements. The effect of defects on photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found for the first time that decreasing the relative concentration ratio of bulk defects to surface defects in TiO(2) nanocrystals could significantly improve the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, thus significantly enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency.

  14. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River

    OpenAIRE

    Shishkina, Elena A.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.; Popova, Irina Ya.; Osipov, Denis I.; Tikhova, Yu.; Andreyev, S.S.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Deryabina, Larisa V.; Tryapitsina, Galina A.; Melnikov, Viktor S.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Teien, Hans-Christian; Sneve, Malgorzata Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Source:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X16300959 Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for 90Sr and 137Cs were not in full agreement w...

  15. 241-SY-101 strain concentration factor development via nonlinear analysis. Volume 1 of 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 waste storage tank at the Hanford-Site has been known to accumulate and release significant quantities of hydrogen gas. An analysis was performed to assess the tank's structural integrity when subjected to postulated hydrogen deflagration loads. The analysis addressed many nonlinearities and appealed to a strain-based failure criteria. The model used to predict the global response of the tank was not refined enough to confidently predict local peak strains. Strain concentration factors were applied at structural discontinuities that were based on steel-lined reinforced-concrete containment studies. The discontinuities included large penetrations, small penetrations, springline geometries, stud/liner connections, and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness transition. The only tank specific strain concentration factor applied in the evaluation was for the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness change in the dome. Review of the tank drawings reveals the possibility that a 4 inches Sch. 40 pipe penetrates the dome thickness transition region. It is not obvious how to combine the strain concentration factors for a small penetration with that of a thickness transition to arrive at a composite strain concentration factor. It is the goal of this effort to make an approximate determination of the relative significance of the 4 inch penetration and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch thickness transition in the 241-SY-101 dome geometry. This is accomplished by performing a parametric study with three general finite-element models. The first represents the thickness transition only, the second represents a 4 inch penetration only, and the third combines the thickness transition with a penetration model

  16. Research to develop guidelines for cathodic protection of concentric neutral cables, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanck, J. A.; Nekoksa, G.

    1982-08-01

    Data associated with the corrosion of concentric neutral (CN) wires of direct buried primary cables were statistically analyzed, and guidelines for cathodic protection of CN wires for the electric utility industry were developed. The cathodic protection are reported. Field tests conducted at 36 bellholes excavated in California, Oklahoma, and North Carolina are described. Details of the electrochemical, chemical, bacteriological, and sieve analyses of native soil and imported backfill samples are also included.

  17. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  18. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  19. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension ({sigma}) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density ({rho}) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of {sigma} in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system {sigma} decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of {sigma} on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  20. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  1. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Kim, Seok Yeon; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Jae Kyun; Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 ± 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV V /LV V ) were calculated. RV V /LV V was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 ± 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV V /LV V and PASP (R = 0.82, p V /LV V were 0.990 and 0.892. RV V /LV V was 1.01 ± 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 ± 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P V /LV V , sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover based complete rations for efficient microbial biomass production using in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover (MS based complete diets for efficient microbial biomass production (EMBP using in vitro gas production technique. Materials and Methods: MS based complete diets with roughage to concentrate ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were formulated, and 200 mg of oven-dried sample was incubated in water bath at 39°C along with media (rumen liquor [RL] - buffer in in vitro gas syringes to evaluate the gas production. The gas produced was recorded at 8 and 24 h of inc ubation. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD, metabolizable energy (ME, truly digestible organic matter (TDOM, partitioning factor (PF, and EMBP were calculated using appropriate formulae. Ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs production were analyzed in RL fluid-media mixture after 24 h of incubation. Results: In vitro gas production (ml at 24 h incubation, IVOMD, ME, TDOM, TVFA concentration, and ammonia nitrogen production were increased (p<0.01 in proportion to the increase in the level of concentrate in the diet. Significantly (p<0.01 higher PF and EMBP was noticed in total mixed ration with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 followed by 70:30 and 40:60. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that the MS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 50-60% for better microbial biomass synthesis which in turn influences the performance of growing sheep.

  3. Evaluation of optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover based complete rations for efficient microbial biomass production using in vitro gas production technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Ramana; Kumari, N Nalini; Monika, T; Sridhar, K

    2016-06-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover (MS) based complete diets for efficient microbial biomass production (EMBP) using in vitro gas production technique. MS based complete diets with roughage to concentrate ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were formulated, and 200 mg of oven-dried sample was incubated in water bath at 39°C along with media (rumen liquor [RL] - buffer) in in vitro gas syringes to evaluate the gas production. The gas produced was recorded at 8 and 24 h of incubation. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), truly digestible organic matter (TDOM), partitioning factor (PF), and EMBP were calculated using appropriate formulae. Ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) production were analyzed in RL fluid-media mixture after 24 h of incubation. In vitro gas production (ml) at 24 h incubation, IVOMD, ME, TDOM, TVFA concentration, and ammonia nitrogen production were increased (p<0.01) in proportion to the increase in the level of concentrate in the diet. Significantly (p<0.01) higher PF and EMBP was noticed in total mixed ration with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 followed by 70:30 and 40:60. Based on the results, it was concluded that the MS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 50-60% for better microbial biomass synthesis which in turn influences the performance of growing sheep.

  4. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei—Implications for comparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine effect of volume of extraction buffer relative to volume of isolated nuclei on repair activity of nuclear extract. • Base excision repair activity of nuclear extracts prepared from the same batch and number of nuclei varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer. • Effect of the volume of extraction buffer on BER activity of nuclear extracts can only be partially reversed after concentration of the more diluted extract by ultrafiltration. - Abstract: The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much attention. Here we have examined BER activity of nuclear cell extracts from HeLa cells, using as substrate a circular DNA molecule with either uracil or an AP-site in a defined position. We show that BER activity of nuclear extracts from the same batch of cells varies inversely with the volume of nuclear extraction buffer relative to nuclei volume, in spite of identical protein concentrations in the BER assay mixture. Surprisingly, the uracil–DNA glycosylase activity (mainly UNG2), but not amount of UNG2, also correlated negatively with the volume of extraction buffer. These studies demonstrate

  5. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing ram lambs fed sweet sorghum bagasse-based complete rations varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Blummel, Michel; Nagalakshmi, Devanaboyina; Monika, Thamatam; Reddy, Belum Venkata Subba; Reddy, Chintalapani Ravinder

    2013-02-01

    Different roughage-to-concentrate ratios of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) (a by-product of the biofuel industry)-based complete diets were assessed. Twenty four growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt., 10.62 ± 0.25 kg) were randomly allotted to four complete rations (CR) varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios viz. 60:40 (CR-I), 50:50 (CR-II), 40:60 (CR-III) and 30:70(CR-IV) for a period of 180 days. The feed intake was comparable among the lambs fed different experimental complete diets. Average daily weight gain (in grams) was 77.31 ± 4.90, 81.76 ± 5.16, 85.83 ± 2.83 and 86.30 ± 3.25, and feed conversion ratio (in kilograms of feed per kilogram gain) averaged 11.42 ± 0.68, 10.57 ± 0.64, 10.17 ± 0.37 and 9.96 ± 0.38 in ram lambs fed CR-I, CR-II, CR-III and CR-IV rations, respectively. Statistically, differences in daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the lambs fed four experimental rations were not significant (P > 0.05). The cost per kilogram gain was significantly (P carcass weights, dressing percentage, wholesale cuts and edible and non-edible portions of experimental animals. Similarly, no significant variation could be seen in bone and meat yield (in per cent) and their ratios in various wholesale cuts among the dietary treatments. The roughage-to-concentrate ratio did not affect the chemical composition of meat; however, the fat content of meat was linearly increased with increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The results of the experiment indicated that SSB can be included at 60 % level in the complete diet for economical mutton production from growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Different Ferromagnetic Alloys Affect the Growth and Development of Rice Seedlings by Changing the C:N Ratio and Plant Hormones Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Yu, Feifan; Lv, Ruitao; Ma, Chuanxin; Zhang, Zetian; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Cao, Weidong; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of thin-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Three different CNTs, including hollow multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Fe-filled carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs), and Fe-Co-filled carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNTs), were evaluated. The CNTs significantly inhibited rice growth by decreasing the concentrations of endogenous plant hormones. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) significantly increased in rice roots after treatments with CNTs, and all three types of CNTs had the same effects on the C:N ratio. Interestingly, the increase in the C:N ratio in roots was largely because of decreased N content, indicating that the CNTs significantly decreased N assimilation. Analyses of the Fe and Co contents in plant tissues, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis proved that the CNTs could penetrate the cell wall and the cell membrane, and then enter the root cells. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first time to study the relationship between carbon nanotubes and carbon nitrogen ratio and plant hormones.

  7. Measurements of total lead concentrations and of lead isotope ratios in whole blood by use of inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, H.T.; Campbell, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of total lead and its isotopic composition in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sensitivities of up to 3 x 10 6 counts s -1 for 208 Pb at a total lead concentration of 5 μmol l -1 (1 μg ml -1 ) enabled total blood lead levels to be measured in 4 min per sample, with a detection limit of 0.072 μmol l -1 (15 μg l -1 ). The agreement between ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for this analysis was excellent: ICP-MS 0.996 x AAS -0.0165 μmol l -1 ; r 0.994. Isotope ratio measurements required 15 min to achieve the required accuracy and precision both of which were generally better than 0.5% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb and 208 Pb: 206 Pb isotopic lead ratios. The ICP-MS data for these ratios in ten quality control blood specimens has a mean bias relative to isotope dilution mass spectrometry of -0.412% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb ratios and of +0.055% for the 208 Pb: 206 Pb ratios. This level of accuracy and that of the total blood lead measurements is sufficient to permit application of these ICP-MS methods to environmental studies. (author)

  8. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  9. CT contrasting theory. Effects of the concentration, volume and infusion rate of iodine contrast medium on TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachi, Jun

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects in the title on TDC (time-density curve) using a phantom. CT machine used was Toshiba Aquilion Multi 64, TDC phantom was the product of Nemoto-Kyorindo Co., and the contrast medium was Eisai iomeprol, in syringe-sealed formulations of 300 and 350 mg I/mL. The medium was infused at 1-5 mL/sec in the phantom equivalent to body weight of 78 kg (total water volume=1 min circulation=6,000 mL, 800 mL/heart) to obtain 30 TDCs. Evaluated were the relationships of the infusion rate (mL/sec), volume (mL) or time (sec) with TDC parameters of the detection time of the medium, slope, time to reach the maximum CT value, the maximum CT value, time to keep the CT concentration and its actual concentration. Results revealed that, regardless to the difference of formulations of the contrast medium, TDC with high reproducibility can be obtainable by making the infusion rate of I per unit time and body weight (mgI/sec/kg) constant when the infusion time is made identical for CT of the same diagnostic purpose. (R.T.)

  10. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  11. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.L., E-mail: ppmasb@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EPS, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Villa, M. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Servicio de Radioisotopos, Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, ETS de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polluted sediment and NORM samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in <3 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace element concentrations, Pb, Th and U isotope ratios with a single instrument. - Abstract: This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb/{sup 208}Pb, {sup 238}U/{sup 234}U and {sup 232}Th/{sup 230}Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA{sup Registered-Sign} extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  12. Association Between Contrast Media Volume-Glomerular Filtration Rate Ratio and Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P 2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Volume concentration of 41 elements in ground level of atmosphere in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Meresova, J.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry in Bratislava. The obtained results confirmed the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. (authors)

  14. Research to develop guidelines for cathodic protection of concentric neutral cables, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanck, J. A.; Nekoksa, G.

    1981-08-01

    Data associated with corrosion of concentric neutrals (CN) of direct buried cables from field tests conducted at 36 bellholes excavated in California, Oklahoma, and North Carolina are presented. The electrochemical, chemical, bacteriological, and sieve analyses of native soil and imported backfill samples are included. Up to 129 values were determined for each bellhole and stored on cards as a data bank. All values were statistically analyzed and correlated with corrosion found. The severity of corrosion correlated best with CN corrosion potentials, CN resistance measurements, coarseness of backfill, and soil resistivity. The guidelines for installation of cathodic protection on CN cables are to be based upon the evaluation of over 100 experimental cathodic protection systems and upon laboratory testing for protection criteria with and without ac effects.

  15. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH

  16. The effect of concentration ratio and type of functional group on synthesis of CNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterial by an in situ sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Largani, Sekineh; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    In this research, MWCNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterials were synthesized by a simple sol-gel process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and functionalized MWCNT with carboxyl(COOH) and hydroxyl(OH) groups. Three different mass ratios of MWCNT:ZnO = 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 were examined. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Successful growth of MWCNT-ZnO hybrids for both COOH and OH functional groups and all the three mass ratios were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of CNTs have rather spherical shapes and hexagonal crystal structure. By increasing the concentration of ZnO, the number and average size of ZnO nanoparticles decorated the body of CNTs in hybrid structures increase. By increasing the ZnO precursor, the distribution of ZnO nanoparticles that appeared on the surface of CNTs becomes more uniform. The SEM observation beside EDX analysis revealed that at the same concentration ratio the amount of ZnO loading on the surface of MWCNT-COOH is more than MWCNT-OH. Moreover, the average size of ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surface of COOH functionalized CNTs is relatively smaller than that of OH functionalized ones.

  17. Influence of the volume-contact area ratio on the growth behavior of the Cu-Sn intermetallic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddaluri, Venkatakamakshi Supraja

    Solder Joints play a very important role in electronic packaging industry by serving as mechanical support and provides integrity to the device. The increasing demand for high performance, environmental and economic feasibility and miniaturization led to the development of high density interconnects. With the reduction in the size/standoff height of the solder reliability issues in the surface mount assemblies and packaging structures under various rigorous environments are becoming significant. One of the most important impact factors that affect the solder joint reliability is the growth rate IMC formed between the solder and substrate with reduction in joint size. IMC formation is required to ensure good bonding and connectivity of the device in packaging. However excess IMC growth rate is detrimental to the device from mechanical aspects due to its brittle nature. Thus there is a need to study effect the IMC growth rate behavior with the solder joint size/standoff height. In this present study, two solder joints of different standoff heights and same composition (pure Sn solder) are used subjected to reflow process at 270°C for 1--7 min to study solid liquid interfacial reaction on joint size and the same experiment is repeated with SAC alloy of composition (96.5% Sn, 3.0% Ag, 0.5% Cu) to investigate the effect of joint size and initial copper concentration on IMC growth rate. The IMC thickness of the Sn 15microm solder joint at 1 min and 7 min is found to be 1.52microm and 2.86microm respectively while that of Sn 150microm solder joint is 1.31microm and 3.16 microm. The thickness is high in low standoff height sample at the early stage of reaction with decrease in IMC growth rate as the time of reflow increases. In case of 25microm SAC alloy solder joint the IMC thickness from 1 and 7 min is found to be 2.1microm and 3.5microm while that of 250microm SAC alloy solder joint its 1.43microm and3.235microm. Similar trend is observed but the IMC thickness is more

  18. Validation of the MIPAS CO2 volume mixing ratio in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and comparison with WACCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, B.; Jurado-Navarro, Á. A.; García-Comas, M.; Gardini, A.; Boone, C. D.; Rezac, L.; Garcia, R. R.

    2017-08-01

    We present the validation of Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) CO2 daytime concentration in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by comparing with Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Fourier transform spectrometer and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) data. MIPAS shows a very good agreement with ACE below 100 km with differences of ˜5%. Above 100 km, MIPAS CO2 is generally lower than ACE with differences growing from ˜5% at 100 km to 20-40% near 110-120 km. Part of this disagreement can be explained by the lack of a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium correction in ACE. MIPAS also agrees very well (˜5%) with SABER below 100 km. At 90-105 km, MIPAS is generally smaller than SABER by 10-30% in the polar summers. At 100-120 km, MIPAS and SABER CO2 agree within ˜10% during equinox but, for solstice, MIPAS is larger by 10-25%, except near the polar summer. Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) CO2 shows the major MIPAS features. At 75-100 km, the agreement is very good (˜5%), with maximum differences of ˜10%. At 95-115 km MIPAS CO2 is larger than WACCM by 20-30% in the winter hemisphere but smaller (20-40%) in the summer. Above 95-100 km WACCM generally overestimates MIPAS CO2 by about 20-80% except in the polar summer where underestimates it by 20-40%. MIPAS CO2 favors a large eddy diffusion below 100 km and suggests that the meridional circulation of the lower thermosphere is stronger than in WACCM. The three instruments and WACCM show a clear increase of CO2 with time, more markedly at 90-100 km.

  19. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  20. Concentration of thorium isotopes and the activity ratios of 230Th/232Th and 228Th/232Th in seawater in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuo; Sugimura, Yukio; Yasujima, Tadahide.

    1978-01-01

    The concentration of thorium isotopes and the activity ratios of 230 Th/ 232 Th and 228 Th/ 232 Th in 500 l sea water samples collected in the Pacific Ocean were determined. Thorium isotopes were analyzed by alpha-ray spectrometry after separating them from other elements with an anion exchange resin. The average content of thorium ( 232 Th) of 0.9 ng l -1 was obtained in the open Pacific water. The average contents of 230 Th and 228 Th were 2.1 x 10 -2 pgl -1 and 1.2 agl -1 respectively. It was found that the ratios of 230 Th/ 232 Th and 228 Th/ 232 Th ranged respectively from 1.0 to 29, and from 0.4 to as high as 128. (author)

  1. Concentrations and isotope ratios of mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Beatriz Ferreira; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) may originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The measurement of spatial and temporal variations of Hg isotope ratios in sediments may enable source identification and tracking of environmental processes. In this study we establish the distribution of mercury concentrations and mercury isotope ratios in surface sediments of three transects along the continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil. The shelf showed on average lower total Hg concentrations (9.2 ± 5.3 ng g -1 ) than the slope (24.6 ± 8.8 ng g -1 ). MMHg average concentrations of shelf 0.15 ± 0.12 ng g -1 and slope 0.13 ± 0.06 ng g -1 were not significantly different. Distinct differences in Hg isotope ratio signatures were observed, suggesting that the two regions were impacted by different sources of Hg. The shelf showed more negative δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg values ranging from -0.59 to -2.19‰ and from -0.76 to 0.08‰, respectively. In contrast, the slope exhibited δ 202 Hg values from -0.29 to -1.82‰ and Δ 199 Hg values from -0.23 to 0.09‰. Mercury found on the shelf, especially along the "D" and "I" transects, is depleted in heavy isotopes resulting in more negative δ 202 Hg compared to the slope. Isotope ratios observed in the "D" and "I" shelf region are similar to Hg ratios commonly associated with plants and vegetation and very comparable to those detected in the estuary and adjoining mangrove forest, which suggests that Hg exported from rivers may be the dominating source of Hg in near coastal regions along the northern part of the shelf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  4. Quantifying sediment source contributions in coastal catchments impacted by the Fukushima nuclear accident with carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon Huon, Sylvain; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accidental release of radioactive contaminants resulted in the significant fallout of radiocesium over several coastal catchments in the Fukushima Prefecture. Radiocesium, considered to be the greatest risk to the short and long term health of the local community, is rapidly bound to fine soil particles and thus is mobilized and transported during soil erosion and runoff processes. As there has been a broad-scale decontamination of rice paddy fields and rural residential areas in the contaminated region, one important long term question is whether there is, or may be, a downstream transfer of radiocesium from forests that covered over 65% of the most contaminated region. Accordingly, carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are used to determine the relative contributions of forests and rice paddies to transported sediment in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the three main identified sources: cultivated soils (rice paddies and fields, n=30), forest soils (n=45), and subsoils (channel bank and decontaminated soils, n = 25). Lag deposit sediment samples were obtained from five sampling campaigns that targeted the main hydrological events from October 2011 to October 2014. In total, 86 samples of deposited sediment were analyzed for particulate organic matter elemental concentrations and isotope ratios, 24 from the Mano catchment, 44 from the Niida catchment, and 18 from the Ota catchment. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to examine the source discrimination potential of this tracing suite and select the appropriate tracers for modelling. The discriminant tracers were modelled with a concentration-dependent distribution mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that cultivated sources (predominantly rice paddies) contribute disproportionately more sediment per unit area than forested regions in these contaminated catchments. Future research will examine if there are

  5. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  6. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤ 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤ 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils.

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O'Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types

  8. Influence of the Ti concentration and of the Ti:Mo molar ratio, in the efficiency of the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator, at basis of gels of titanium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes R, O.; Monroy G, F.; Martinez C, T.

    2003-01-01

    The 99m Tc, continues being the radionuclide more used in nuclear medicine to world scale. The production of this radioisotope, is carried out by means of generators 99 Mo/ 99m Tc that get ready commercially with 99 Mo of high specific activity, adsorbed in alumina (2 mg 99 Mo/g alumina) and that they are elutriated every 23 hours. In an alternative way, it is intended to use gels of titanium molybdates, as matrices of this generators. The gels are synthesized starting from solutions of ammonium molybdates and of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous media. These gels allow to incorporate until 25% of molybdenum in their structure, being been able to use 99 Mo of low specific activity that can be obtained starting from the reaction 98 Mo (n, γ) 99 Mo. With the object of producing generators of medium activity, with the base of gels of titanium molybdates, intends in this work, to study the influence of two synthesis parameters of these gels: the concentration of the titanium solutions and the molar ratio Ti: Mo. The decrease of the concentration of the titanium solution, used during the synthesis of the gels, is converted in an efficiency decrease and radionuclide purity of the generators, as well as an increment so much of the volume of elutriation, as of the pH of the elutriates. The gels that contain an major number of titanium moles, regarding the molybdenum moles, present a greater radionuclide purity, but they diminish their efficiency. The best characteristics for the gels synthesis of titanium molybdates are: a molar ratio 1:1 for Ti and Mo, and to use solutions of titanium whose concentration is near at 1 M. (Author)

  9. Determination of uranium concentration and burn-up of irradiated reactor fuel in contaminated areas in Belarus using uranium isotopic ratios in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V.P.; Matusevich, J.L.; Kudrjashov, V.P.; Ananich, P.I.; Zhuravkov, V.V. [Inst. of Radiobiology, Minsk Univ. (Belarus); Boulyga, S.F. [Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Becker, J.S. [Central Div. of Analytical Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    An analytical method is described for the estimation of uranium concentrations, of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios and burn-up of irradiated reactor uranium in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Experimental results obtained at 12 sampling sites situated on northern and western radioactive fallout tails 4 to 53 km distant from Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. Concentrations of irradiated uranium in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers at the investigated sampling sites varied from 2.1 x 10{sup -9}g/g to 2.0 x 10{sup -6}g/g depending mainly on the distance from Chernobyl NPP. A slight variation of the degree of burn-up of spent reactor uranium was revealed by analyzing {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios and the average value amounted to 9.4{+-}0.3 MWd/(kg U). (orig.)

  10. Impact of cytochrome p450 3A5 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus doses and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany; King, Barry; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Cassinat, Bruno; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Daly, Ann K

    2003-10-27

    Tacrolimus pharmacokinetic characteristics vary greatly among individuals. Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome p450 (CYP), of subfamily CYP3A. CYP3A activity is the sum of the activities of the family of CYP3A genes, including CYP3A5. Subjects with the CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype express large amounts of CYP3A5. Heterozygotes (genotype CYP3A5*1/*3) also express the enzyme. We postulated that CYP3A5 polymorphism is associated with tacrolimus pharmacokinetic variations. CYP3A5 genotype was evaluated in 80 renal transplant recipients and correlated with the daily tacrolimus dose and concentration-to-dose ratio. The frequency of the homozygous CYP3A5*1 genotype (CYP3A5*1/*1) was 5%, and 11% of subjects were heterozygous (CYP3A5*1/*3). The mean doses required to obtain the targeted concentration-to-dose ratio were significantly lower in patients with the CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype. Determination of CYP3A5 genotype is predictive of the dose of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients and may help to determine the initial daily dose needed by individual patients for adequate immunosuppression without excess nephrotoxicity.

  11. EFFECT OF THE VOLUME OF FLUID INGESTED ON URINE CONCENTRATING ABILITY DURING PROLONGED HEAVY EXERCISE IN A HOT ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Otani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the volume of fluid ingested on urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Seven healthy males performed 105 min of intermittent cycle exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (32°C, 60% relative humidity while receiving no fluid ingestion (NF, voluntary fluid ingestion (VF, partial fluid ingestion equivalent to one-half of body mass loss (PF, and full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss (FF. Fluid (5°C, 3.4% carbohydrate, 10.5 mmol·L-1 sodium was ingested just before commencing exercise and at 15, 33, 51, 69, and 87 min of exercise, and the total amount of fluid ingested in PF and FF was divided into six equal volumes. During exercise, body mass loss was 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.2, and 0.1 ± 0.2% in NF, VF, PF, and FF, respectively, whereas total sweat loss was about 2% of body mass in each trial. Subjects in VF ingested 719 ± 240 ml of fluid during exercise; the volume of fluid ingested was 1.1 ± 0.4% of body mass. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and free water clearance was significantly lower in FF than in NF during exercise. Urine flow rate during exercise decreased significantly in NF. There were significant decreases in creatinine and osmolar clearance and was a significant increase in free water clearance during exercise in NF and VF. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly and free water clearance increased significantly during exercise in PF. There was no statistical change in urinary indices of renal function during exercise in FF. The findings suggest that full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss has attenuated the decline in urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration.

  12. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, J.L.; Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polluted sediment and NORM samples. ► An efficient yet fast process allowing multi-parametric determinations in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb/ 208 Pb, 238 U/ 234 U and 232 Th/ 230 Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA ® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area.

  13. Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats ( and Sika deer (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjun Na

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4 emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods Three male growing goats (body weight [BW] = 19.0±0.7 kg and three male growing deer (BW = 19.3±1.2 kg were respectively allotted to a 3×3 Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric CH4 emission. Treatments of low (25:75, moderate (50:50, and high (73:27 F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer. Results Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility decreased linearly with increasing F:C ratio in both goats and Sika deer. In both goats and Sika deer, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/d, g/kg BW0.75, % of gross energy intake, g/kg DM intake (DMI, and g/kg OM intake (OMI decreased linearly as the F:C ratio increased, however, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/kg digested DMI and OMI were not affected by the F:C ratio. Eight equations were derived for predicting the enteric CH4 emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 3.36+4.71×DMI (kg/d−0.0036×neutral detergent fiber concentrate (NDFC, g/kg+0.01563×dry matter digestibility (DMD, g/kg−0.0108×neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD, g/kg. For Sika deer, equation 5 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 66.3+27.7×DMI (kg/d−5.91×NDFC (g/kg−7.11× DMD (g/kg+0.0809×NDFD (g/kg. Conclusion Digested nutrient intake could be considered when determining the CH4 generation factor in goats and Sika deer. Finally, the enteric CH4 prediction model for goats and Sika deer were estimated.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate

  15. The predictive value of the product of contrast medium volume and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunrui; Ma, Shuai; Deng, Bo; Lu, Jianxin; Shen, Wei; Jin, Bo; Shi, Haiming; Ding, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Preexisting renal impairment and the amount of contrast media are the most important risk factors for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We aimed to investigate whether the product of contrast medium volume and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (CMV × UACR) would be a better predictor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing nonemergency coronary interventions. This was a prospective single-center observational study, and 912 consecutive patients who were exposed to contrast media during coronary interventions were investigated prospectively. CI-AKI is defined as a 44.2 μmol/L rise in serum creatinine or a 25% increase, assessed within 48 h after administration of contrast media in the absence of other causes. Fifty patients (5.48%) developed CI-AKI. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) (OR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.000-1.003, p = .012) and contrast medium volume (CMV) (OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.001-1.014, p = .017) were independent risk factors for the development of CI-AKI. The area under the ROC curve of CMV, UACR and CMV × UACR were 0.662 (95% CI = 0.584-0.741, p < .001), 0.761 (95% CI = 0.674-0.847, p < .001) and 0.808 (95% CI = 0.747-0.896, p < .001), respectively. The cutoff value of CMV × UACR to predict CI-AKI was 1186.2, with 80.0% sensitivity and 62.2% specificity. The product of CMV and UACR (CMV × UACR) might be a predictor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing nonemergency coronary interventions, which was superior to CMV or UACR alone.

  16. Different concentrations and volumes of p-phenylenediamine in pet. (equivalent doses) are associated with similar patch test outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hamann, Carsten R; Andersen, Klaus E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern about causing active sensitization when patch testing is performed with p-phenylenediamine (PPD) 1% pet. has led to a recommendation to use PPD 0.3% pet. as a potentially safer preparation. However, the dose per area of allergen delivered, and hence the risk of active...... sensitization, depend on the amount dispensed into the patch test chamber, which can vary widely. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patch testing with equivalent doses of different concentrations of PPD in pet. is associated with similar outcomes. METHODS: Seventeen known PPD-sensitive subjects were patch tested...... with different volumes and concentrations of PPD in pet. that deliver the same allergen dose per unit area (6 mg of PPD 1% pet. and 20 mg of PPD 0.3% pet. in Finn Chambers®, both equivalent to ∼ 0.09 mg/cm2 ). RESULTS: Eleven patients (65%) had positive reactions to both doses; 4 patients (24%) had negative...

  17. Pan-Arctic concentrations of mercury and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in marine zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerleau, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.pomerleau@umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivioq 2, Nuuk 3900, Greenland (Denmark); Stern, Gary A.; Pućko, Monika [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Foster, Karen L. [Foster Environmental, Peterborough, ON K9J 8L2 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Fortier, Louis [Québec-Océan, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    Zooplankton play a central role in marine food webs, dictating the quantity and quality of energy available to upper trophic levels. They act as “keystone” species in transfer of mercury (Hg) up through the marine food chain. Here, we present the first Pan-Arctic overview of total and monomethylmercury concentrations (THg and MMHg) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in selected zooplankton species by assembling data collected between 1998 and 2012 from six arctic regions (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea, southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay and northern Baffin Bay). MMHg concentrations in Calanus spp., Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp. were found to increase with higher δ{sup 15}N and lower δ{sup 13}C. The southern Beaufort Sea exhibited both the highest THg and MMHg concentrations. Biomagnification of MMHg between Calanus spp. and two of its known predators, Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp., was greatest in the southern Beaufort Sea. Our results show large geographical variations in Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures for individual species related to regional ecosystem features, such as varying water masses and freshwater inputs, and highlight the increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea. - Highlights: • Assessment of Pan-Arctic variability in zooplankton Hg concentrations • Increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea • Zooplankton plays a central role in the Hg pathway within Arctic marine food webs.

  18. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  19. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2013-09-02

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  20. Storm/Quiet Ratio Comparisons Between TIMED/SABER NO (sup +)(v) Volume Emission Rates and Incoherent Scatter Radar Electron Densities at E-Region Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband infrared limb emission at 4.3 microns is measured by the TIMED/SABER instrument. At night, these emission observations at E-region altitudes are used to derive the so called NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER). NO+(v) VER can be derived by removing the background CO2(v3) 4.3 microns radiance contribution using SABER-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. SABER observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms in accordance with increased ionization of the neutral atmosphere by auroral electron precipitation, followed by vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)) from fast exothermic ion-neutral reactions, and prompt infrared emission at 4.3 m. Due to charge neutrality, the NO+(v) VER enhancements are highly correlated with electron density enhancements, as observed for example by Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). In order to characterize the response of the storm-time E-region from both SABER and ISR measurements, a Storm/Quiet ratio (SQR) quantity is defined as a function of altitude. For SABER, the SQR is the ratio of the storm-to-quiet NO+(v) VER. SQR is the storm-to-quiet ratio of electron densities for ISR. In this work, we compare SABER and ISR SQR values between 100 to 120 km. Results indicate good agreement between these measurements. SQR values are intended to be used as a correction factor to be included in an empirical storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere model at E-region altitudes.

  1. Effects of concentrate-to-forage ratios and 2-methylbutyrate supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Chinese Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, H

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary concentrate levels and 2-methylbutyrate (2MB) supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers (12 months of age; 389 ± 3.7 kg of body weight) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Moderate-concentrate (400 g/kg diet [MC]) or high-concentrate (600 g/kg diet [HC]) diets were fed with or without 2MB (0 g/day [2MB-] or 15.0 g/day [2MB+]). Dry matter intake and average daily gain increased, but feed conversion ratio decreased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Ruminal pH decreased, but total volatile fatty acid increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Molar proportion of acetate and acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. Propionate molar proportion and ruminal NH 3 -N content increased with the HC diet, but decreased with 2MB supplementation. Neutral detergent fibre degradability decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. Crude protein degradability increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Abundance of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Bufyrivibrio fibrisolvens as well as activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase and pectinase decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. However, abundance of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus as well as activities of α-amylase and protease increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Total PD excretion also increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. The results suggested that growth performance, ruminal fermentation, CP degradability and total PD excretion increased with increasing dietary concentrate level from 40% to 60% or 2MB supplementation. The

  2. A Risk Assessment Model for Bacterial Leaf Spot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum), Caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Based on Concentrations of Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Micronutrient Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Langston, D B; Luo, X; Carlson, S; Kichler, J; Gitaitis, R

    2017-11-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial leaf spot (BLS) of pepper and has a worldwide distribution. BLS is difficult to control and an integrated management strategy that incorporates crop rotation, use of clean seed and clean plants, weed control, resistant varieties, applications of bactericides, biocontrol agents, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducers is generally recommended. However, even with that arsenal of weapons, BLS can still be responsible for severe losses under favorable environmental conditions. Thus, additional tools need to be added to an overall integrated management strategy to combat BLS. In this article, we developed several models from 2012 to 2014 that were based on how macronutrients, micronutrients, and micronutrient ratios affect BLS severity. Factors used to select a model for validation included highly significant P values, high adjusted R 2 values, low variance inflation factor values (macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations affect plant disease resistance genes in the SAR pathway.

  3. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Deuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV and hemoglobin (Hb response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. Methods A total of 20 healthy 3–9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course. The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3–4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year, 6–7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53, and 8–9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55. The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0, shortly after exercise (T1, 15 min after exercise (T2, and 30 min after exercise (T3, respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures with times and groups. Results The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p < 0.001. PCV of the G2 and G3 groups were significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.01. Hb values at G2 (p < 0.01 and G3 (p < 0.001 groups were significantly decreased at T2 as compared to T1. However, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. Conclusion The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for

  4. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen fermentation, amino acid composition of rumen content, bacteria and plasma in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bo; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Tan, Chuanyan; Zhong, Rongzhen; Hea, Zhixiong; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and an alkyl polyglycoside (APG) supplementation on parameters of rumen and blood metabolism were investigated in goats. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was arranged within a 4 x 4 Latin square design (four 22-day periods), using four wether goats equipped with permanent ruminal cannulas. The experimental diets included two F:C levels (40:60 vs. 60:40), and two APG supplementation levels (None or 13 ml APG daily per animal). Rumen contents and blood samples were collected at the end of each period. Dietary F:C alteration affected plasma urea and influenced the proportions of leucine, histidine, arginine, glycine, proline, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, cysteine and tyrosine in rumen content, and the proportions of methionine, threonine and proline in solid-associated bacteria (SAB) significantly. Dietary APG decreased the proportions of valine and phenylalanine in rumen content, and the histidine content of liquid-associated bacteria. The interaction between dietary F:C and APG was significant for the proportions of glycine and alanine in rumen content, and the proportions of lysine and threonine in SAB. The proportion of lysine was greater, but the proportion of threonine was less in SAB for goats fed high F:C diet without APG supplementation. The proportions of plasma free amino acids and glucose concentration were not affected by experimental treatments. These results indicated that dietary APG addition affected the amino acid composition of the rumen content and ruminal bacteria, but this depended on the dietary F:C ratio. It is necessary to validate the effectiveness of dietary APG supplementation in further studies with more animals.

  5. The relationships between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids to ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations with different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, K; Hao, X; Xin, H

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate (F:C) on ruminal odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) contents and to evaluate the relationships between OBCFA and ruminal fermentation parameters as well as bacterial populations tested by real-time PCR technique. The experimental design was a 3 × 3 Latin square. Three rumen-fistulated dry Holstein cows were fed three rations with different dietary F:C ratios (F:C; 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30). The rumen samples were collected every two hours (0600, 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 2400, 0200 and 0400 h) over three consecutive days in each sampling period. The results showed that rumen OBCFA profiles are significantly (p ruminal OBCFAs had strong relationships with ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations. In particular, the iso-fatty acids had potential power to predict butyrate and isoacids metabolized in the rumen, whereas the fatty acids with 17 carbon atoms correlated with ruminal NH 3 -N content. The OBCFA contents have different relationships with fibrolytic and starch bacteria in the rumen. C17:0 and its isomers might be used to predict populations of fibrolytic bacteria. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Relationship between Plasma D-Dimer Concentration and Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Placental Volume in Women at Risk for Placental Vascular Diseases: A Monocentric Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Fanget

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to correlate placental volumes deduced from three-dimensional ultrasound and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL software with systemic concentrations of D-dimer and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR.This was a monocentric experimental prospective study conducted from October 2008 to July 2009. Forty consecutive patients at risk of placental vascular pathology (PVP recurrence or occurrence were included. Placental volumes were systematically measured three times (11-14, 16-18 and 20-22 weeks of gestation (WG by two independent sonographers. D-dimers and sEPCR plasma concentrations were measured using ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.Eleven patients had a PVP. The plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with placental volume (r = 0.45, p < 0.001. A smaller placental volume and placental quotient was evidenced in women who developed a PVP at the three gestational ages, and the difference was more pronounced during the third exam (20 WG. No obvious correlation could be demonstrated between the development of a PVP and the levels of D-dimer and sEPCR. There was no significant difference in the values of placental volumes measured by the two sonographers.The placenta growth could be a major determinant of the elevation of D-dimer during pregnancy. Consideration of placental volume could allow for modulation of the D-dimer concentrations for restoring their clinical interest.

  7. Calculation and analysis of hydrogen volume concentrations in the vent pipe rigid proposed for NPP-L V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V.; Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C.; Royl, P.

    2014-10-01

    In 2012 was modeled of primary and secondary container of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) for the CFD Gas-Flow code. These models were used to calculate hydrogen volume concentrations run release the reactor building in case of a severe accident. The results showed that the venting would produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability at ground level of reload. One of the solutions to avoid reaching critical concentrations (flammable or detonable) inside the reactor building and thus safeguard the contentions is to make a rigid venting. The rigid vent is a pipe connected to the primary container could go to the level 33 of the secondary container and style fireplace climb to the top of the reactor building. The analysis of hydrogen transport inside the vent pipe can be influenced by various environmental criteria and factors vent, so a logical consequence of the 2012 analysis is the analysis of the gases transport within said pipe to define vent ideal conditions. For these evaluations the vent pipe was modeled with a fine mesh of 32 radial interior nodes and a coarse mesh of 4 radial interior nodes. With three-dimensional models were realized calculations that allow observing the influence of heat transfer in the long term, i.e. a complete analysis of exhaust (approx. 700 seconds). However, the most interesting results focus on the first milliseconds, when the H 2 coming from the atmosphere of the primary container faces the air in the vent pipe. These first milliseconds besides allowing evaluating the detonation criteria in great detail in the different tubular sections similarly allow evaluating the pressure wave that occurs in the pipe and that at some point slows to the fluid on the last tubular section and could produce a detonation inside the pipe. Results are presented for venting fixed conditions, showing possible detonations into the pipe. (Author)

  8. Single-step transesterification with simultaneous concentration and stable isotope analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert J; Jahren, A Hope

    2011-05-30

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is increasingly applied to food and metabolic studies for stable isotope analysis (δ(13) C), with the quantification of analyte concentration often obtained via a second alternative method. We describe a rapid direct transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAGs) for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by GC-C-IRMS demonstrating robust simultaneous quantification of amount of analyte (mean r(2) =0.99, accuracy ±2% for 37 FAMEs) and δ(13) C (±0.13‰) in a single analytical run. The maximum FAME yield and optimal δ(13) C values are obtained by derivatizing with 10% (v/v) acetyl chloride in methanol for 1 h, while lower levels of acetyl chloride and shorter reaction times skewed the δ(13) C values by as much as 0.80‰. A Bland-Altman evaluation of the GC-C-IRMS measurements resulted in excellent agreement for pure oils (±0.08‰) and oils extracted from French fries (±0.49‰), demonstrating reliable simultaneous quantification of FAME concentration and δ(13) C values. Thus, we conclude that for studies requiring both the quantification of analyte and δ(13) C data, such as authentication or metabolic flux studies, GC-C-IRMS can be used as the sole analytical method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The impact of furfural concentrations and substrate-to-biomass ratios on biological hydrogen production from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate using mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobi, Chinaza; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of furfural (a furan derivative) on hydrogen production rates and yields at initial substrate-to-microorganism ratios (S°/X°) of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5gCOD/gVSS and furfural concentrations of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5g/L. Fermentation studies were carried out in batches using synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate as substrate and mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge as seed. Contrary to other literature studies where furfural was inhibitory, this study showed that furfural concentrations of up to 1g/L enhanced hydrogen production with yields as high as 19% from the control (batch without furfural). Plots of hydrogen yields against gfurfural/gsugars and hydrogen yields versus gfurfural/gbiomass showed negative linear correlation indicating that these parameters influence biohydrogen production. Regression analysis indicated that gfurfural/gsugars initial exerted a greater effect on the degree of inhibition of hydrogen production than gfurfural/gVSS final . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Covalent co-immobilization of heparin/laminin complex that with different concentration ratio on titanium surface for selectively direction of platelets and vascular cells behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Junying; Huang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extracellular matrix inspired surface modification with fibronectin, heparin and VEGF to construct a favorable microenvironment for selectively anticoagulant and promote endothelialization. • Take the advantage of specific intermolecular interaction, the bioactivity of above biomolecules was more efficiently maintained in compared with the common used covalent immobilization method. • Poly-l-lysine was used as a novel interlayer for surface amination, and in comparison, PLL coating was more feasible and the degradation product had no harm to human body. - Abstract: Surface biofunctional modification of coronary artery stent to improve the hemocompatibility and selectively accelerate endothelium regeneration but prevent restenosis have been become a new hotspot. For this, a novel method was developed in this work by co-immobilization of Ln and heparin complex on poly-L-lysine modified Ti surface. Take the advantage of the specific interaction between Ln and heparin, Ln and heparin complexes with different concentration ratios were set up for creating different exposure density of these two types of biomolecules. According to biocompatibility evaluation results, the Hep/Ln complexes modified surface displayed less platelet adhesion and activation. Especially, on L(150)H and L(200)H surface, the AT III binding quantity, APTT value and anti-coagulation property of modified surface were significantly promoted. Furthermore, the adherent density and proliferation activity of ECs and EPCs were positively correlated with Ln concentration. Notably, the proliferation of both ECs and EPCs on L(100)H, L(150)H and L(200)H surface were greatly promoted. Another hand, the proliferation activity of SMCs was significantly inhibited on Hep/Ln modified surfaces, which was considered mainly due to the inhibitory effect of heparin to SMCs. According to the existing results, this study demonstrated that in a certain range of heparin and laminin concentration ratio

  11. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  12. Probiotic Yoghurts From Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozludzhova Siyka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, yoghurts from ultrafiltered concentrated whole milk with a volume reduction ratio 0, 2 and 3 with three different probiotic yoghurt starters were obtained. Their physiological, microbiological and rheological properties were examined. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts had high concentration of viable cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (over 1010cfu/cm3. For the preparation of concentrated probiotic yoghurts the most appropriate volume reduction ratio was 2. The probiotic yoghurts with starters MZ2 and 1CM had the best structure. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts with all starters are functional foods.

  13. A new adsorption-elution technique for the concentration of aquatic extracellular antibiotic resistance genes from large volumes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Ning; Liu, Lu; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xuan; Yang, Dong; Li, Jing; Liu, Wei-Li; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (eARGs) that help in the transmission and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging environmental contaminants in water, and there is therefore a growing need to assess environmental levels and associated risks of eARGs. However, as they are present in low amounts, it is difficult to detect eARGs in water directly with PCR techniques. Here, we prepared a new type of nucleic acid adsorption particle (NAAP) with high capacity and developed an optimal adsorption-elution method to concentrate eARGs from large volumes of water. With this technique, we were able to achieve an eARG recovery rate of above 95% from 10 L of water samples. Moreover, combining this new method with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the sensitivity of the eARG detection was 10(4) times that of single qPCR, with the detection limit lowered to 100 gene copies (GCs)/L. Our analyses showed that the eARG load, virus load and certain water characteristics such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), and turbidity affected the eARGs recovery rate. However, high eARGs recovery rates always remained within the standard limits for natural surface water quality, while eARG levels in water were lower than the detection limits of single qPCR assays. The recovery rates were not affected by water temperature and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). The eARGs whatever located in the plasmids or the short-length linear DNAs can be recovered from the water. Furthermore, the recovery rate was high even in the presence of high concentrations of plasmids in different natural water (Haihe river, well water, raw water for drinking water, Jinhe river, Tuanbo lake and the Yunqiao reservoir). By this technology, eARGs concentrations were found ranging from (2.70 ± 0.73) × 10(2) to (4.58 ± 0.47) × 10(4) GCs/L for the extracellular ampicillin resistance gene and (5.43 ± 0.41) × 10(2) to (2.14 ± 0.23) × 10(4) GCs/L for the extracellular gentamicin

  14. Effect of mixture ratio, solids concentration and hydraulic retention time on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongsatitkul, Prayoon; Elefsiniotis, Panagiotis; Wareham, David G

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes how the degradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is affected through codigestion with varying amounts of return activated sludge (RAS). Solid waste that had its inorganic fraction selectively removed was mixed with RAS in ratios of 100% OFMSW, 50% OFMSW/50% RAS, and 25% OFMSW/75% RAS. The total solids (TS) concentration was held at 8% and three anaerobic digester systems treating the mixtures were held (for the first run) at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 28 days. Increasing amounts of RAS did not however improve the mixture's digestability, as indicated by little change and/or a drop in the main performance indices [including percentage volatile solids (VS) removal and specific gas production]. The optimum ratio in this research therefore appeared to be 100% OFMSW with an associated 85.1 ± 0.6% VS removal and 0.72 ± 0.01 L total gas g(- 1) VS. In the second run, the effect of increasing percentage of TS (8, 12% and 15%) at a system HRT of 28 days was observed to yield no improvement in the main performance indices (i.e. percentage VS removal and specific gas production). Finally, during the third run, variations in the total system HRT were investigated at an 8% TS, again using 100% OFMSW. Of the HRTs explored (23, 28 and 33 days), the longest HRT yielded the best performance overall, particularly in terms of specific gas production (0.77 ± 0.01 L total gas g(-1) VS).

  15. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  16. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  17. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  18. The combination of ovarian volume and outline has better diagnostic accuracy than prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bili, Eleni; Bili, Authors Eleni; Dampala, Kaliopi; Iakovou, Ioannis; Tsolakidis, Dimitrios; Giannakou, Anastasia; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and ultrasound parameters, such as ovarian volume and outline, in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational, case-controlled study included 43 women with PCOS, and 40 controls. Between day 3 and 5 of the menstrual cycle, fasting serum samples were collected and transvaginal ultrasound was performed. The diagnostic performance of each parameter [total PSA (tPSA), total-to-free PSA ratio (tPSA:fPSA), ovarian volume, ovarian outline] was estimated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, along with area under the curve (AUC), threshold, sensitivity, specificity as well as positive (+) and negative (-) likelihood ratios (LRs). Multivariate logistical regression models, using ovarian volume and ovarian outline, were constructed. The tPSA and tPSA:fPSA ratio resulted in AUC of 0.74 and 0.70, respectively, with moderate specificity/sensitivity and insufficient LR+/- values. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the combination of ovarian volume and outline had a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 97.5% in the diagnosis of PCOS, with +LR and -LR values of 39.1 and 0.02, respectively. In women with PCOS, tPSA and tPSA:fPSA ratio have similar diagnostic performance. The use of a multivariate logistic regression model, incorporating ovarian volume and outline, offers very good diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing women with PCOS patients from controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of intravenous administration of two volumes of calcium solution on plasma ionized calcium concentration and recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia in lactating dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doze, J.G.; Donders, R.; Kolk, J.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of administration of 2 volumes of a calcium solution (calcium oxide and calcium gluconate) on plasma ionized calcium concentration (PICaC) and clinical recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia (NOHC; milk fever) in lactating dairy cows. ANIMALS: 123 cows with

  20. Quality of red cell concentrates in relation to the volume of the buffy coat removed by automated processing in a top and bottom system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersz, R N; Dekker, W J; Reesink, H A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of automated removal of increasing volumes of buffy coat in a 'top and bottom' system on the composition of red cell concentrates (RCC) was investigated. The volume of the buffy coat was adjusted to group 1:50 ml (n = 31), group 2: 70 ml (n = 31) and group 3: 100 ml (n = 31), respectively. The numbers of platelets and leukocytes in the buffy coats were comparable between the groups, whereas the red cell volumes in the buffy coats showed a significant difference (17 +/- 3.6 ml group 1, versus 22 +/- 4.1 ml group 2 and 26 +/- 3.88 ml group 3; p less than 0.001). The volumes, hematocrits and cell counts of the RCC were not significantly different. The plasma volumes were inversely correlated with the volume of buffy coat removed, i.e. 268 +/- 19 ml group 1, versus 257 +/- 15 ml group 2 and 233 +/- 20 ml group 3 (p less than 0.001). We conclude that in the 'top and bottom' system an increase of the volume of the buffy coat from 50 to 100 ml did not improve the quality of the RCC regarding contamination with leukocytes and platelets.

  1. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-undegradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J

    2017-12-01

    The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83.4% OA, 16.6% WS; and high fiber: 66.7% OA, 33.3% WS) administered according to a split-plot 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods). Similar levels of N intake (1.70 g N/kg BW) and RUP (55% of CP) were provided. Data were analyzed as a split-plot, 3 × 3 Latin square design using a mixed model with fixed effects of period and treatment. A repeated measures model was used with data that had multiple measurements over time. No differences were observed for DM, OM, NDF, or ADF apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) between HF- and LF-fed heifers. Heifers receiving LF diets had greater starch dC compared to HF heifers. Increasing the fiber level through WS addition resulted in a linear reduction of OM dC. There was a linear interaction for DM dC with a concurrent linear interaction in NDF dC. Nitrogen intake, dC, and retention did not differ; however, urine and total N excretion increased linearly with added fiber. Predicted microbial CP flow (MP) linearly decreased with WS inclusion mainly in LF heifers, as indicated by a significant interaction between F:C and WS. Rumen pH linearly increased with WS addition, although no F:C effect was detected. Ruminal ammonia concentration had an opposite linear effect with respect to MP as WS increased. Diets with the higher proportion of

  2. Effect of forage conservation method on ruminal lipid metabolism and microbial ecology in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kairenius, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Crosley, L K; Muetzel, S; Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2013-04-01

    The effect of forage conservation method on ruminal lipid metabolism and microbial ecology was examined in 2 complementary experiments in cows. Treatments comprised fresh chopped grass, barn-dried hay, or untreated (UTS) or formic acid-treated silage (FAS) prepared from the same grass sward. Preparation of conserved forages coincided with the collection of samples from cows offered fresh grass. In the first experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (229 d in milk) were used to compare the effects of feeding diets based on grass followed by hay during 2 consecutive 14-d periods separated by a 5-d transition during which extensively wilted grass was fed. In the second experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (53 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 2 blocks and allocated treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods to compare the effects of hay, UTS, and FAS. Cows received 7 or 9 kg/d of the same concentrate in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Conservation of grass by drying, but not ensiling, decreased forage fatty acid content primarily due to losses of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Compared with grass, feeding hay had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen pH, or fermentation characteristics, other than increasing ammonia content, but lowered whole-tract organic matter and fiber digestibility (experiment 1). Relative to hay, silage increased DMI, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and molar proportions of butyrate, and decreased molar acetate proportions (experiment 2). Compared with UTS, FAS increased DMI, had no effect on rumen ammonia or VFA concentrations, but tended to lower rumen pH and the molar ratio of lipogenic to glucogenic VFA. Conservation method had no substantial effect on ruminal or whole-tract digestibility coefficients. Compared with fresh grass and silages, hay decreased lipolysis and biohydrogenation (BH) of dietary unsaturates in the rumen, resulting in similar flows of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3

  3. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratios on Dynamic Profile Changes and Interactions of Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Holstein Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of global ruminal microbiota and metabolites under extensive feeding conditions is a prerequisite for optimizing rumen function and improving ruminant feed efficiency. Furthermore, the gap between the information on the ruminal microbiota and metabolites needs to be bridged. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios (F:C on changes and interactions of ruminal microbiota and metabolites. Four diets with different F:C (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 were limit-fed to 24 Holstein heifers, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing and gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry were used to investigate the profile changes of the ruminal microbes and metabolites, and the interaction between them. The predominant bacterial phyla in the rumen were Bacteroidetes (57.2 ± 2.6% and Firmicutes (26.8 ± 1.6%, and the predominant anaerobic fungi were Neocallimastigomycota (64.3 ± 3.8% and Ascomycota (22.6 ± 2.4%. In total, 44, 9, 25, and 2 genera, respectively, were identified as the core rumen bacteria, ciliate protozoa, anaerobic fungi, and archaea communities across all samples. An increased concentrate level linearly decreased the relative abundance of cellulolytic bacteria and ciliates, namely Fibrobacter, Succinimonas, Polyplastron, and Ostracodinium (q < 0.05, and linearly increased the relative abundance of Entodinium (q = 0.04, which is a non-fibrous carbohydrate degrader. Dietary F:C had no effect on the communities of anaerobic fungi and archaea. Rumen metabolomics analysis revealed that ruminal amino acids, lipids, organic acids, and carbohydrates were altered significantly by altering the dietary F:C. With increasing dietary concentrate levels, the proportions of propionate and butyrate linearly increased in the rumen (P ≤ 0.01. Correlation analysis revealed that there was some utilization relationship or productive association between candidate metabolites and

  4. Mean centering of ratio spectra and concentration augmented classical least squares in a comparative approach for quantitation of spectrally overlapped bands of antihypertensives in formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha Abdel Monem; Fayez, Yasmin Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Two different methods manipulating spectrophotometric data have been developed, validated and compared. One is capable of removing the signal of any interfering components at the selected wavelength of the component of interest (univariate). The other includes more variables and extracts maximum information to determine the component of interest in the presence of other components (multivariate). The applied methods are smart, simple, accurate, sensitive, precise and capable of determination of spectrally overlapped antihypertensives; hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), irbesartan (IRB) and candesartan (CAN). Mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) and concentration residual augmented classical least-squares method (CRACLS) were developed and their efficiency was compared. CRACLS is a simple method that is capable of extracting the pure spectral profiles of each component in a mixture. Correlation was calculated between the estimated and pure spectra and was found to be 0.9998, 0.9987 and 0.9992 for HCT, IRB and CAN, respectively. The methods were successfully determined the three components in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures, and combined dosage forms. The results obtained were compared statistically with each other and to those of the official methods.

  5. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen

  6. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alfalfa nutrient degradation characteristics and rumen microbial populations of steers fed diets with different concentrate-to-forage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gengzhi; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) constitutes an effective additive for animal production; its probiotic effect may be related to the concentrate-to-forage ratio (CTFR). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of S. cerevisiae (SC) on fiber degradation and rumen microbial populations in steers fed diets with different levels of dietary concentrate. Ten Simmental × Local crossbred steers (450 ± 50 kg BW) were assigned to a control group or an SC group. Both groups were fed the same basal diet but the SC group received SC supplementation (8 × 10(9) cfu/h/d through the ruminal fistula) following a two-period crossover design. Each period consisted of four phases, each of which lasted 17 d: 10 d for dietary adaptation, 6 d for degradation study, and 1 d for rumen sample collection. From the 1(st) to the 4(th) phase, steers were fed in a stepwise fashion with increasing CTFRs, i.e., 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10. The kinetics of dry matter and fiber degradation of alfalfa pellets were evaluated; the rumen microbial populations were detected using real-time PCR. The results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) interactions between dietary CTFR and SC for most parameters. Dietary CTFR had a significant effect (P trend for these parameters. SC supplementation significantly (P trend of rumen fungi and protozoa in SC group (P < 0.1); copies of total bacteria in SC group were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of Ruminobacter amylophilus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) but percentage of Selenomonas ruminantium was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the SC group. In a word, dietary CTFR had a significant effect on degradation characteristics of forage and rumen microbial population. S. cerevisiae had positive effects on DM and NDF degradation rate or effective degradability of forage; S. cerevisiae increased rumen total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and lactate-utilizing bacteria but reduced

  7. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. - Highlights: • We studied uptake of Ra-226 from soil into Buchanania obovata. • The influence of group II metals (Sr, Ba and Ca) on Ra uptake was investigated. • The exchangeable Ra fraction of the soil was not a more reliable predictor of Ra uptake than total soil Ra. • Ca outcompetes group II metals Sr, Ba and Ra for root uptake. • Uptake discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra.

  8. Relationship between the Methane Production and the CNCPS Carbohydrate Fractions of Rations with Various Concentrate/roughage Ratios Evaluated Using Incubation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilan Dong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the trial was to study the relationship between the methane (CH4 production and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS carbohydrate fractions of feeds for cattle and the suitability of CNCPS carbohydrate fractions as the dietary variables in modeling the CH4 production in rumen fermentation. Forty-five rations for cattle with the concentrate/roughage ratios of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50 were formulated as feed samples. The Menke and Steingass’s gas test was used for the measurement of CH4 production. The feed samples were incubated for 48 h and the CH4 production was analyzed using gas chromatography. Statistical analysis indicated that the CH4 production (mL was closely correlated with the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g, i.e. CA (sugars; CB1 (starch and pectin; CB2 (available cell wall in a multiple linear pattern: CH4 = (89.16±14.93 CA+ (124.10±13.90 CB1+(30.58±11.72 CB2+(3.28±7.19, R2 = 0.81, p<0.0001, n = 45. Validation of the model using 10 rations indicated that the CH4 production of the rations for cattle could accurately be predicted based on the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions. The trial indicated that the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions CA, CB1 and CB2 were suitable dietary variables for predicting the CH4 production in rumen fermentation in vitro.

  9. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  10. Effects of Mg/Ga and V/III source ratios on hole concentration of N-polar (000\\bar{1}) p-type GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoda, Ryohei; Shojiki, Kanako; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of growth conditions such as Mg/Ga and V/III ratios on the properties of N-polar (000\\bar{1}) p-type GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were studied. Photoluminescence spectra from Mg-doped GaN depended on Mg/Ga and V/III ratios. For the lightly doped samples, the band-to-acceptor emission was observed at 3.3 eV and its relative intensity decreased with increasing V/III ratio. For the heavily doped samples, the donor-acceptor pair emission was observed at 2.8 eV and its peak intensity monotonically decreased with V/III ratio. The hole concentration was maximum for the Mg/Ga ratio. This is the same tendency as in group-III polar (0001) growth. The V/III ratio also reduced the hole concentration. The higher V/III ratio reduced the concentration of residual donors such as oxygen by substituting nitrogen atoms. The surface became rougher with increasing V/III ratio and the hillock density increased.

  11. Plant/soil concentration ratios for paired field and garden crops, with emphasis on iodine and the role of soil adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the effort to predict the risks associated with contaminated soils, considerable reliance is placed on plant/soil concentration ratio (CR) values measured at sites other than the contaminated site. This inevitably results in the need to extrapolate among the many soil and plant types. There are few studies that compare CR among plant types that encompass both field and garden crops. Here, CRs for 40 elements were measured for 25 crops from farm and garden sites chosen so the grain crops were in close proximity to the gardens. Special emphasis was placed on iodine (I) because data for this element are sparse. For many elements, there were consistent trends among CRs for the various crop types, with leafy crops > root crops ≥ fruit crops ∼ seed crops. Exceptions included CR values for As, K, Se and Zn which were highest in the seed crops. The correlation of CRs from one plant type to another was evident only when there was a wide range in soil concentrations. In comparing CRs between crop types, it became apparent that the relationships differed for the rare earth elements (REE), which also had very low CR values. The CRs for root and leafy crops of REE converged to a minimum value. This was attributed to soil adhesion, despite the samples being washed, and the average soil adhesion for root crops was 500 mg soil kg -1 dry plant and for leafy crops was 5 g kg -1 . Across elements, the log CR was negatively correlated with log Kd (the soil solid/liquid partition coefficient), as expected. Although, this correlation is expected, measures of correlation coefficients suitable for stochastic risk assessment are not frequently reported. The results suggest that r ∼ -0.7 would be appropriate for risk assessment. -- Research highlights: →There are few studies that compare CRs among plant types that encompass both field and garden crops. Here, CRs for 40 elements were measured for 25 crops from farm and garden sites chosen so the grain crops were in close proximity

  12. The Effect of Pigment Volume Concentration on Film Formation and the Mechanical Properties of Coatings Based on Water-Dispersion Paint and Varnish Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyanenko, I. M.; Kramarenko, V. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of pigment volume concentration (PVC) on the film formation process and properties of coatings based on the water dispersion of an Acronal 290D styrene-acrylate copolymer and a pigment/filler system used for paint materials in construction was investigated. An analysis of the results obtained is performed within the framework of the concept of the critical PVC. It is shown that the initiation and development of internal stresses occurs the faster, the higher the PVC, but the position of the maximum or the inflection point of the internal stress-drying time curve complies with a universal value of the solid volume content in the compositions. It is found that the internal stresses and Young's modulus of coatings are characterized by an extreme concentration relation that, for the reduced elastic modulus, can be described by a system of equations based on the Halpin-Tsai equation.

  13. Radionuclides and particles in seawater with the large volume in situ filtration and concentration system in the coastal waters off Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the radionuclides in dissolved and particulate state in order to clarify the distributions and behavior of these in seawater. Because the concentrations of radionuclides and particles are very low in the ocean, it is difficult to concentrate and fractionate the particulate matters with the filtration systems in seawater. The large volume in situ filtration and concentration system (LV-FiCS) was developed to collect various forms of trace radionuclides and particles in seawater. The LV-FiCS has been operated during several cruises in the coastal waters off Japan, and several m 3 of seawaters were filtered through different kinds of filters and then pass through the adsorbents to concentrate radionuclides simultaneously. This system could be shown the vertical profiles of thorium with the size-fractionated method and the behavior of these nuclides in the ocean. (author)

  14. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes....... Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation...

  15. Effects of inhalational anaesthesia with low tidal volume ventilation on end-tidal sevoflurane and carbon dioxide concentrations: prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Matta-Martín, M; López-Herrera, D; Luis-Navarro, J C; López-Romero, J L

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how ventilation with low tidal volumes affects the pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane uptake during the first minutes of inhaled anaesthesia. Forty-eight patients scheduled for lung resection were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 received 3% sevoflurane for 3 min via face mask and controlled ventilation with a tidal volume of 2.2, 8 and 12 ml kg(-1), respectively (Phase 1). After tracheal intubation (Phase 2), 3% sevoflurane was supplied for 2 min using a tidal volume of 8 ml kg(-1) (Phase 3). End-tidal sevoflurane concentrations were significantly higher in group 1 at the end of phase 1 and lower at the end of phase 2 than in the other groups as follows: median of 2.5%, 2.2% and 2.3% in phase 1 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (Ptidal carbon dioxide values in group 1 were significantly lower at the end of phase 1 and higher at the end of phase 2 than in the other groups as follows: median of 16.5, 31 and 29.5 mm Hg in phase 1 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (Ptidal volume approximating the airway dead space volume, end-tidal sevoflurane and end-tidal carbon dioxide may not correctly reflect the concentration of these gases in the alveoli, leading to misinterpretation of expired gas data. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio on phenylethanoid glycoside pattern in tissue cultures of Plantago lanceolata L.: a metabolomics driven full-factorial experiment with LC-ESI-MS(3.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Szűcs, Zsolt; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Tissue cultures of a medicinal plant, Plantago lanceolata L. were screened for phenylethanoid glycosides (PGs) and other natural products (NPs) with LC-ESI-MS(3). The effects of N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio were evaluated in a full-factorial (FF) experiment. N concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 60mM, and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratios of 0, 0.11, 0.20 and 0.33 (ratio of NH4(+) in total N source) were tested. Several peaks could be identified as PGs, of which, 16 could be putatively identified from the MS/MS/MS spectra. N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio had significant effects on the metabolome, their effects on individual PGs were different despite these metabolites were of the same biosynthethic class. Chief PGs were plantamajoside and acteoside (verbascoside), their highest concentrations were 3.54±0.83% and 1.30±0.40% of dry weight, on media 10(0.33) and 40(0.33), respectively. NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio and N source concentration effects were examined on a set of 89 NPs. For most NPs, high increases in abundance were observed compared to Murashige-Skoog medium. Abundances of 42 and 10 NPs were significantly influenced by the N source concentration and the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio, respectively. Optimal media for production of different NP clusters were 10(0), 10(0.11) and 40(0.33). Interaction was observed between NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio and N source concentration for many NPs. It was shown in simulated experiments, that one-factor at a time (OFAT) experimental designs lead to sub-optimal media compositions for production of many NPs, and alternative experimental designs (e.g. FF) should be preferred when optimizing medium N source for optimal yield of NPs. If using OFAT, the N source concentration is to be optimized first, followed by NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio, as this reduces the likeliness of suboptimal yield results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: first-pass arterial enhancement as a function of gadolinium-chelate concentration, and the saline chaser volume and injection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarik, Daniela B; Bashir, Mustafa R; Weber, Paul W; Nichols, Eli B; Howle, Laurens E; Merkle, Elmar M; Nelson, Rendon C

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the contrast medium (CM) concentration and the saline chaser volume and injection rate on first-pass aortic enhancement characteristics in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using a physiologic flow phantom. Imaging was performed on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Trio, Siemens Healthcare Solutions, Inc, Erlangen, Germany) using a 2-dimensional fast low angle shot T1-weighted sequence (repetition time, 500 milliseconds; echo time, 1.23 milliseconds; flip angle, 8 degrees; 1 frame/s × 60 seconds). The following CM concentrations injected at 2 mL/s were used with 3 different contrast agents (gadolinium [Gd]-BOPTA, Gd-HP-DO3A, Gd-DTPA): 20 mL of undiluted CM (100%) and 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, 5%, and 2.5% of the full amount, all diluted in saline to a volume of 20 mL to ensure equal bolus volume. The CM was followed by saline chasers of 20 to 60 mL injected at 2 mL/s and 6 mL/s. Aortic signal intensity (SI) was measured, and normalized SI versus time (SI/Tn) curves were generated. The maximal SI (SI(max)), bolus length, and areas under the SI/Tn curve were calculated. Decreasing the CM concentration from 100% to 40% resulted in a decrease of SI(max) to 86.1% (mean). Further decreasing the CM concentration to 2.5% decreased SI(max) to 5.1% (mean). Altering the saline chaser volume had no significant effect on SI(max). Increasing the saline chaser injection rate had little effect (mean increase, 2.2%) on SI(max) when using ≥40% of CM. There was a larger effect (mean increase, 19.6%) when ≤20% of CM were used. Bolus time length was significantly shorter (P < 0.001), and area under the SI/T(n) curve was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) for the CM protocols followed by a saline chaser injected at 6 mL/s compared with a saline chaser injected at 2 mL/s. With 40% of CM and a fast saline chaser, SImax close to that with undiluted CM can be achieved. An increased saline chaser injection rate has a more pronounced effect on

  18. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  19. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  20. [Myocardial uptake ratio of iodine-123 labeled beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) in relation to the concentration of the substrates of energy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, S; Tamaki, N; Kawamoto, M; Tadamura, E; Fujita, T; Nohara, R; Matsumori, A; Sasayama, S; Yonekura, Y; Konishi, J

    1995-06-01

    Iodine-123 beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been used for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in vivo. The whole body BMIPP imaging was acquired in 26 patients (11 with HCM, 11 with CAD and 4 with DCM) to calculate % uptake in the myocardium and to correlate its uptake with biochemical data, including blood sugar (BS), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin in the blood. BMIPP was administered at rest with overnight fasting state, and the anterior and posterior whole body imaging was performed one hour later. The background corrected whole myocardial counts were calculated to obtain %BMIPP uptake. In addition, the heart to mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) was calculated from the mean counts in the heart and the upper mediastinum in the anterior view. The %BMIPP uptake was 3.70 +/- 1.22% and H/M ratio was 2.30 +/- 0.23. The patients with DCM showed higher %BMIPP uptake values (DCM = 5.58 +/- 0.67% vs. CAD = 3.09 +/- 0.97% and HCM = 3.63 +/- 0.86%, both p < 0.01), but similar values of H/M ratio with other patients (DCM = 2.43 +/- 0.20, CAD = 2.22 +/- 0.25 and HCM = 2.32 +/- 0.20). Although the biochemical data varied at the time of the tracer administration, they were not significantly correlated with the %BMIPP uptake or H/M ratio. However, there was a significant correlation between %BMIPP uptake and H/M ratio with the correlation coefficient of 0.80 (p < 0.001). We conclude that the myocardial uptake of BMIPP is not influenced by the plasma substrate level under the fasting state.

  1. Myocardial uptake ratio of iodine-123 labeled beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) in relation to the concentration of the substrates of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Iodine-123 beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been used for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in vivo. The whole body BMIPP imaging was acquired in 26 patients (11 with HCM, 11 with CAD and 4 with DCM) to calculate % uptake in the myocardium and to correlate its uptake with biochemical data, including blood sugar (BS), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin in the blood. BMIPP was administered at rest with overnight fasting state, and the anterior and posterior whole body imaging was performed one hour later. The background corrected whole myocardial counts were calculated to obtain %BMIPP uptake. In addition, the heart to mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) was calculated from the mean counts in the heart and the upper mediastinum in the anterior view. The %BMIPP uptake was 3.70{+-}1.22% and H/M ratio was 2.30{+-}0.23. The patients with DCM showed higher %BMIPP uptake value (DCM=5.58{+-}0.67% vs. CAD=3.09{+-}0.97% and HCM=3.63{+-}0.86%, both p<0.01), but similar values of H/M ratio with other patients (DCM=2.43{+-}0.20, CAD=2.22{+-}0.25 and HCM=2.32{+-}0.20). Although the biochemical data varied at the time of the tracer administration, they were not significantly correlated with the %BMIPP uptake or H/M ratio. However, there was a significant correlation between %BMIPP uptake and H/M ratio with the correlation coefficient of 0.80 (p<0.001). We conclude that the myocardial uptake of BMIPP is not influenced by the plasma substrate level under the fasting state. (author).

  2. Myocardial uptake ratio of iodine-123 labeled beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) in relation to the concentration of the substrates of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide

    1995-01-01

    Iodine-123 beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been used for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in vivo. The whole body BMIPP imaging was acquired in 26 patients (11 with HCM, 11 with CAD and 4 with DCM) to calculate % uptake in the myocardium and to correlate its uptake with biochemical data, including blood sugar (BS), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin in the blood. BMIPP was administered at rest with overnight fasting state, and the anterior and posterior whole body imaging was performed one hour later. The background corrected whole myocardial counts were calculated to obtain %BMIPP uptake. In addition, the heart to mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) was calculated from the mean counts in the heart and the upper mediastinum in the anterior view. The %BMIPP uptake was 3.70±1.22% and H/M ratio was 2.30±0.23. The patients with DCM showed higher %BMIPP uptake value (DCM=5.58±0.67% vs. CAD=3.09±0.97% and HCM=3.63±0.86%, both p<0.01), but similar values of H/M ratio with other patients (DCM=2.43±0.20, CAD=2.22±0.25 and HCM=2.32±0.20). Although the biochemical data varied at the time of the tracer administration, they were not significantly correlated with the %BMIPP uptake or H/M ratio. However, there was a significant correlation between %BMIPP uptake and H/M ratio with the correlation coefficient of 0.80 (p<0.001). We conclude that the myocardial uptake of BMIPP is not influenced by the plasma substrate level under the fasting state. (author)

  3. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  4. Aluminium concentration versus the base cation to aluminium ratio as predictors for aluminium toxicity in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Keltjens, W.G.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered an important factor in forest deterioration caused by soil acidification. A ratio of base cations (BC) to Al in the soil solution lower than 1 is widely used as an indicator for potentially adverse effects on tree health. In our view, the validity of the

  5. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume...... decrease (RVD). Upon return to the original isotonic medium, cells shrank initially followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI). To maintain cell shrinkage, the RVI process was inhibited as follows: Ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA) inhibited the Na(+)/H(+) antiport, Bumetanide inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)/2......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium...

  6. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-11-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798 serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes and generally higher in males than in females except for Adione. The pubertal rise in T in males was more pronounced compared to females, reflecting contribution from the testes. Ratios between steroid metabolites varied and depended on sex and age. All ratios were lower during infancy compared to later in life. Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective randomised controlled study for evaluation of high-volume low-concentration intraperitoneal bupivacaine for post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Low-volume high-concentration bupivacaine irrigation of the peritoneal cavity has been reported to be ineffective for short-term analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intraperitoneal instillation of high-volume low-concentration bupivacaine for post-operative analgesia in LC. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing LC were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study. Patients were divided into two (n = 30 groups. In Group S, intraperitoneal irrigation was done with 500 ml of normal saline. In Group B, 20 ml of 0.5% (100 mg bupivacaine was added to 480 ml of normal saline for intraperitoneal irrigation during and after surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed by numeric pain rating scale (NRS at fixed time intervals. Duration of analgesia (DOA, total rescue analgesic requirement (intravenous tramadol, presence of shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting were recorded for the initial 24 h post-operatively. Results: Mean DOA in Group S was 0.06 ± 0.172 h (3.6 ± 10.32 min and that in Group B was 19.35 ± 8.64 h (P = 0.000. Cumulative requirement of rescue analgesic in 24 h in Group S was 123.33 ± 43.01 mg and that in Group B was 23.33 ± 43.01 mg (P = 0.000. There was no significant difference in incidence of shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting between the groups. Conclusion: High-volume low-concentration of intraperitoneal bupivacaine significantly increases post-operative DOA and reduces opioid requirement after LC.

  9. Ca/P concentration ratio at different sites of normal and osteoporotic rabbit bones evaluated by Auger and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and the consequent high risk of bone fractures. Current practice relates osteoporosis largely with absolute mass loss. The assessment of variations in chemical composition in terms of the main elements comprising the bone mineral and its effect on the bone’s quality is usually neglected. In this study, we evaluate the ratio of the main elements of bone mineral, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P), as a suit...

  10. A review on the relation between the brain-serum concentration ratio of drugs and the influence of P-glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Thomas Broeng; Morling, Niels; Linnet, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    This overview on the brain-serum relationship for drugs illustrates the importance of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. Generally, an inverse relationship exists between the magnitude of the brain-serum ratio and the influence of P-glycoprotein. Concerning the pharma...... the pharmacogenomics of P-glycoprotein, no clear effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been demonstrated in humans....

  11. Effects of the spermatozoa: oocyte ratio, water volume and water temperature on artificial fertilization and sperm activation of cascudo-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Allan Bombardelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water volume and water temperature on the sperm motility duration and the number of spermatozoa, and the water volume on the fertilization rates of oocytes of Rhinelepis aspera. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of semen dilutions (1.74×10-5, 1.74×10-4, 1.74×10-3, 1.74×10-2, 1.74×10-1 and 1.00 mL of sperm.mL-1 of water and water temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 ºC on spermatozoa motility duration. In addition, the effects of insemination dose (7×10³, 7×10(4, 7×10(5, 7×10(6 and 7×10(7 spermatozoa.oocyte-1 and water volume (1.0, 30.0, 60.0, 90.0 and 120.0 mL water.2.0 mL-1 oocytes on the artificial fertilization rates of oocytes were evaluated. The longest sperm motility duration were observed for the semen dilution of 1.74×10-5 mL semen.mL-1 water and in water at 5 ºC. The highest fertilization rates were obtained for insemination doses between 7.00×10³ and 1.23×10(7 spermatozoa. oocyte-1 and water volume of 28.11 mL water.2.0 mL-1 oocytes.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon, CO2, and CH4 concentrations and their stable isotope ratios in thermokarst lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Mu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermokarst lakes are widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, which accounts for 8% of the global permafrost area. These lakes probably promote organic matter biodegradation and thus accelerate the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases. However, little is known about greenhouse gas concentrations and their stable isotopes characteristics of these lakes. In this study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, dissolved CO2 and CH4, as well as the distribution of δ13CCO2, δ13CCH4, and δ13COM (organic matter of lake sediments in thermokarst lakes on the QTP. Results showed that the OM of the lake sediments was highly decomposed. The concentrations of DOC, CO2 and CH4 in the lake water on the QTP were 1.2–49.6 mg L–1, 3.6–45.0 μmol L–1 and 0.28–3.0 μmol L–1, respectively. The highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations were recorded in July while the lowest values in September, which suggested that temperature had an effect on greenhouse gas production, although this pattern may also relate to thermal stratification of the water column. The results implied that thermokast lakes should be paid more attention to regarding carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions on the QTP.

  13. Phytic Acid-to-Iron Molar Ratio Rather than Polyphenol Concentration Determines Iron Bioavailability in Whole-Cowpea Meal among Young Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Moretti, D.; Zimmerman, M.B.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2012-01-01

    Limited data exist on iron absorption from NaFeEDTA and FeSO(4) in legume-based flours. The current study compared iron absorption from NaFeEDTA and FeSO(4) as fortificants within and between red and white varieties of cowpea with different concentrations of polyphenols (PP) but similar phytic acid

  14. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  15. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  16. Last Glacial to Holocene changes of deep and intermediate water carbonate ion concentrations in the Southern Ocean: constraints from foraminiferal Boron/Calcium ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Kersten, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the first records of intermediate and deep water carbonate ion concentrations in the South Pacific were generated in order to study carbon cycle dynamics throughout the past 30,000 years. Benthic foraminiferal B/Ca, an indicator of past seawater carbonate ion saturation is the main paleoceanographic proxy that was used in this study. Down-core proxy studies carried out within the scope of this thesis were used to address currently unresolved questions about the origin, mechani...

  17. The relationship between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    OpenAIRE

    B. Fest; S. K. Arndt; L. B. Hutley; S. J. Livesley; H. Jamali

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) basis, annual CH4 flux estimate...

  18. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  19. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  20. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  1. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  2. Analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block using different volumes and concentrations of local analgesics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ayça Sultan; Ay, Necmiye; Şahbaz, Nuri Alper; Akay, Mehlika Kocabaş; Demiraran, Yavuz; Derbent, Abdurrahim

    2017-02-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of an ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane (US-TAP) block used for postoperative pain relief by comparing the efficacy of two different volumes/concentrations of the local anaesthetic bupivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods This randomized study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. They were randomized to two groups: group A received a 20 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine +10 ml saline solution) and group B received a 30 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine + 20 ml saline solution). The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, the requirement for postoperative rescue analgesics, patient satisfaction scores, postoperative complications, and postoperative pain as measured by a visual analogue scale at 20 min, 12 h, and 24 h were recorded. Results A total of 60 patients enrolled in the study. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to demographic characteristics, duration of anaesthesia and patient satisfaction scores. The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, postoperative VAS scores (20 min, 12 h and 24 h) and the requirement for postoperative analgesics were all significantly lower in group B who received a larger volume but a lower concentration of local anaesthetic solution compared with group A. Conclusion A US-TAP block can form part of a balanced postoperative analgesic regimen following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  3. A new turbine model for enhancing convective heat transfer in the presence of low volume concentration of Ag-Oil Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarimoghaddam, Amin; Aberoumand, Sadegh; Jafarimoghaddam, Reza

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to experimentally investigate and introduce a new model for enhancing convective heat transfer in the presence of Ag/ oil nanofluid. An annular tube was designed with a turbine element attached to the inner tube. The inner tube was a bearing shaft which could rotate with the rotation of turbine element. As the previous works by authors, the setup was conducted with a fully developed laminar flow regime with the Reynolds numbers less than 160. The outer surface of the annular tube was heated by an element with constant heat flux of 204 W. Ag/ oil nanofluid was used in different volume concentrations of 0.011%, 0.044% and 0.171%. The new model could enhance the convective heat transfer coefficient up to 54% (compared to the simple annular tube in the case of base fluid) for the best studied case (nanofluid with the volume concentration of 0.171%) while the friction factor remained low. The new model can be applied for related applications regarding Ag/ oil nanofluid as a new step in enhancing the convective heat transfer coefficient.

  4. Soft interactions and volume exclusion by polymeric crowders can stabilize or destabilize transient structure in disordered proteins depending on polymer concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinga, Farai I; Weis, David D

    2017-08-01

    The effects of macromolecular crowding on the transient structure of intrinsically disordered proteins is not well-understood. Crowding by biological molecules inside cells could modulate transient structure and alter IDP function. Volume exclusion theory and observations of structured proteins suggest that IDP transient structure would be stabilized by macromolecular crowding. Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) of IDPs in highly concentrated polymer solutions would provide valuable insights into IDP transient structure under crowded conditions. Here, we have used mass spectrometry to measure HX by a transiently helical random coil domain of the activator of thyroid and retinoid receptor (ACTR) in solutions containing 300 g L -1 and 400 g L -1 of Ficoll, a synthetic polysaccharide, using a recently-developed strong cation exchange-based cleanup method [Rusinga, et al., Anal Chem 2017;89:1275-1282]. Transiently helical regions of ACTR exchanged faster in 300 g L -1 Ficoll than in dilute buffer. In contrast, one transient helix exchanged more slowly in 400 g L -1 Ficoll. Nonspecific interactions destabilize ACTR helicity in 300 g L -1 Ficoll because ACTR engages with the Ficoll polymer mesh. In contrast, 400 g L -1 Ficoll is a semi-dilute solution where ACTR cannot engage the Ficoll mesh. At this higher concentration, volume exclusion stabilizes ACTR helicity because ACTR is compacted in interstitial spaces between Ficoll molecules. Our results suggest that the interplay between nonspecific interactions and volume exclusion in different cellular compartments could modulate IDP function by altering the stability of IDP transient structures. Proteins 2017; 85:1468-1479. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Anthropogenic impacts on mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in fish muscle tissue of the Truckee River watershed, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Saito, Laurel; Peacock, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The lower Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada (NV), USA and ends in the terminal water body, Pyramid Lake, NV. The river has minimal anthropogenic inputs of contaminants until it encounters the cities of Reno and Sparks, NV, and receives inflows from Steamboat Creek (SBC). SBC originates at Washoe Lake, NV, where there were approximately six mills that used mercury for gold and silver amalgamation in the late 1800s. Since then, mercury has been distributed down the creek to the Truckee River. In addition, SBC receives agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, and treated effluent from the Reno-Sparks water reclamation facility. Fish muscle tissue was collected from different species in SBC and the Truckee River and analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes. Nitrogen (?δ 15 N) and carbon (?δ 13 C) isotopic values in these tissues provide insight as to fish food resources and help to explain their relative Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations, and ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C values in fish muscle from the Truckee River, collected below the SBC confluence, were significantly different than that found in fish collected upstream. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue collected below the confluence for all but three fish sampled were significantly greater (0.1 to 0.65 μg/g wet wt.) than that measured in the tissue collected above the confluence (0.02 to 0.1 μg/g). ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C isotopic values of fish muscle collected from the river below the confluence were higher and lower, respectively, than that measured in fish collected up river, most likely reflecting wastewater inputs. The impact of SBC inputs on muscle tissue isotope values declined down river whereas the impact due to Hg inputs showed the opposite trend

  6. SUPPLEMENTATION EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND SAPONIN EXTRACTS TO DIETS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIO ON In vitro RUMEN FERMENTATION AND METHANOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yogianto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of combining tannin and saponin extracts onruminal methane emission of diets with different proportion of forage to concentrate in the in vitrofermentation. The experiment was conducted in a factorial block design. The first factor was theproportion of forage:concentate in diets (70:30 and 30:70 and the second was addition of tannin andsaponin extracts (control, tannins, saponins, tannins + saponins in the dose of 2 mg/ml. Variablesobserved were gas production kinetics, methane production, dry matter digestibility (DMD, organicmatter digestibility (OMD and ammonia concentration. Results revealed that addition of tannins,saponins and their combination generally lowered total gas and methane production during 24 and 48 hof incubation period in both types of diets (P<0.05, but combination of tannins and saponins comparedwith their separated forms did not show any significant differences. The addition of tannins, saponinsand their combination reduced DMD, OMD and ammonia significantly (P<0.05. It can be concludedthat the addition of tannin, saponin and their combination at a dose of 2 mg/ml could reduce methaneemission but followed by a decline in the DMD, OMD and ammonia.

  7. Dependence of the Internal Structure on Water/Particle Volume Ratio in an Amphiphilic Janus Particle-Water-Oil Ternary System: From Micelle-like Clusters to Emulsions of Spherical Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tomohiro G; Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-31

    Amphiphilic Janus particles (AJP), composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic hemispheres, are one of the simplest anisotropic colloids, and they exhibit higher surface activities than particles with homogeneous surface properties. Consequently, a ternary system of AJP, water, and oil can form extremely stable Pickering emulsions, with internal structures that depend on the Janus structure of the particles and the system composition. However, the detail of these structures has not been fully explored, especially for the composition range where the amount of the minority liquid phase and AJP are comparable, where one would expect the Janus characteristics to be directly reflected. In this study, we varied the volume ratio of the particles and the minority liquid phase, water, by 2 orders of magnitude around the comparable composition range, and observed the resultant structures at the resolution of the individual particle dimensions by optical microscopy. When the volume ratio of water is smaller than that of the Janus particles, capillary interactions between the hydrophilic hemispheres of the particles induce micelle-like clusters in which the hydrophilic sides of the particles face inward. With increasing water content, these clusters grow into a rodlike morphology. When the water volume exceeds that of the particles, the structure transforms into an emulsion state composed of spherical droplets, colloidosomes, because of the surface activity of particles at the liquid-liquid interface. Thus, we found that a change in volume fraction alters the mechanism of structure formation in the ternary system, and large resulting morphological changes in the self-assembled structures reflect the anisotropy of the particles. The self-assembly shows essential commonalities with that in microemulsions of surfactant molecules, however the AJP system is stabilized only kinetically. Analysis of the dependence of the emulsion droplet size on composition shows that almost all the

  8. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  9. Diurnal variations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, PAN, HNO{sub 3} and aldehyde concentrations and NO/NO{sub 2} ratios at Rishiri Island, Japan: Potential influence from iodine chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Yugo [Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)]. E-mail: yugo@jamstec.go.jp; Tanimoto, Hiroshi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsumoto, Jun [Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Furutani, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego (United States); Hashimoto, Shigeru [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Komazaki, Yuichi [Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Yokouchi, Yoko [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kato, Shungo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kajii, Yoshizumi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Akimoto, Hajime [Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    The presence of iodine chemistry, hypothesized due to the overprediction of HO{sub 2} levels by a photochemical box model at Rishiri Island in June 2000, was quantitatively tested against the observed NO/NO{sub 2} ratios and the net production rates of ozone. The observed NO/NO{sub 2} ratios were reproduced reasonably well by considering the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} by IO, whose amount was calculated so as to reproduce the observed HO{sub 2} levels. However, the net production rates of ozone were calculated to be negative when such high mixing ratios of IO were considered, which was inconsistent with the observed buildup of ozone during daytime. These results suggest that iodine chemistry may not be the sole mechanism for the reduced mixing ratios of HO{sub 2}, or that 'hot spots' for iodine chemistry were present. Diurnal variations in the mixing ratios of HCHO, CH{sub 3}CHO, peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and HNO{sub 3} observed during the study are presented along with the simulated ones. The box model simulations suggest that the effect of iodine chemistry on these concentrations is small and that important sources of CH{sub 3}CHO and sinks of PAN are probably missing from our current understanding of the tropospheric chemistry mechanism.

  10. Diurnal variations in H2O2, O3, PAN, HNO3 and aldehyde concentrations and NO/NO2 ratios at Rishiri Island, Japan: Potential influence from iodine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Jun; Furutani, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Komazaki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeru; Yokouchi, Yoko; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The presence of iodine chemistry, hypothesized due to the overprediction of HO 2 levels by a photochemical box model at Rishiri Island in June 2000, was quantitatively tested against the observed NO/NO 2 ratios and the net production rates of ozone. The observed NO/NO 2 ratios were reproduced reasonably well by considering the conversion of NO to NO 2 by IO, whose amount was calculated so as to reproduce the observed HO 2 levels. However, the net production rates of ozone were calculated to be negative when such high mixing ratios of IO were considered, which was inconsistent with the observed buildup of ozone during daytime. These results suggest that iodine chemistry may not be the sole mechanism for the reduced mixing ratios of HO 2 , or that 'hot spots' for iodine chemistry were present. Diurnal variations in the mixing ratios of HCHO, CH 3 CHO, peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and HNO 3 observed during the study are presented along with the simulated ones. The box model simulations suggest that the effect of iodine chemistry on these concentrations is small and that important sources of CH 3 CHO and sinks of PAN are probably missing from our current understanding of the tropospheric chemistry mechanism

  11. Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Pape, Louise; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-08-30

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7yr), characterized by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (CD) symptom scores. There was a significant interaction between CD symptom and CU trait scores in the prediction of GMV in the anterior insula, with a significant positive association between CU traits and GMV in youth low on CD symptoms only. In addition, we found a significant unique positive association between CD symptoms and GMC in the amygdala, and unique negative associations between CU traits and GMC in the amygdala and insula. These findings are in line with accumulating evidence of distinct associations of CD symptoms and CU traits with amygdala and insula GMC in juvenile antisocial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  13. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  14. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  15. Correlation between Packed Cell Volume and ‎Concentration of Clotting Factors FI, FVII, and ‎FVIII in Smokers Polycythemic males in Babylon ‎Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakhel Ghani Omran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking represents a worldwide problem and affects various body functions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the available concentration of some clotting factors in smokers polycythemic male patients. A total number of subjects was 120, 80 smokers males were affected with polycythemia and the remainders 40 males were healthy and served as a control group. The polycythemic patients were subdivided into two groups according to their ages (first group ranged between 30-40 years old and the second group ranged between 41-50 years old. PCV, clotting factor (FI, FVII and FVIII were detected. The results of present study indicated that the levels of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastine time (APTT were significantly increased (p˂ 0.05 in both groups of polycythemia in comparison with control group. Regarding concentration of fibrinogen factor (FI and serum prothrombin conversion accelerator factor (FVII were elevated (P˂ 0.05 in both groups and pointed  out a positive correlation (r = 0.437, r = 0.378, respectively with packed cell volume (PCV when compared with those of control group. On the other hand, concentration of antihemophilic factor (FVIII recorded a significant fall (p˂ 0.05 in both tested groups and indicated a low correlation (r = 0.292. The possible explanation to the changes mentioned above is based on the fact that confirm smoking is a dangerous material containing different toxic substances that affect the vital organs of the body and induce abnormalities of hemostatic mechanism

  16. Prediction of clearance, volume of distribution and half-life by allometric scaling and by use of plasma concentrations predicted from pharmacokinetic constants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, I

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, CL, volume of distribution in the central compartment, VdC, and elimination half-life, t1/2beta) predicted by an empirical allometric approach have been compared with parameters predicted from plasma concentrations calculated by use of the pharmacokinetic constants A, B, alpha and beta, where A and B are the intercepts on the Y axis of the plot of plasma concentration against time and alpha and beta are the rate constants, both pairs of constants being for the distribution and elimination phases, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefpiramide, actisomide, troglitazone, procaterol, moxalactam and ciprofloxacin were scaled from animal data obtained from the literature. Three methods were used to generate plots for the prediction of clearance in man: dependence of clearance on body weight (simple allometric equation); dependence of the product of clearance and maximum life-span potential (MLP) on body weight; and dependence of the product of clearance and brain weight on body weight. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were predicted in man by use of A, B, alpha and beta obtained from animal data. The predicted plasma concentrations were then used to calculate CL, VdC and t1/2beta. The pharmacokinetic parameters predicted by use of both approaches were compared with measured values. The results indicate that simple allometry did not predict clearance satisfactorily for actisomide, troglitazone, procaterol and ciprofloxacin. Use of MLP or the product of clearance and brain weight improved the prediction of clearance for these four drugs. Except for troglitazone, VdC and t1/2beta predicted for man by use of the allometric approach were comparable with measured values for the drugs studied. CL, VdC and t1/2beta predicted by use of pharmacokinetic constants were comparable with values predicted by simple allometry. Thus, if simple allometry failed to predict clearance of a drug, so did the pharmacokinetic constant

  17. Influence of Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio on the down-conversion and up-conversion luminescence and lifetime in GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović T.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the effects of Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio on structural, morphological and luminescence properties of GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ green phosphors prepared by a high-temperature solid state method. The samples with different concentrations (between 0.5 to 2 mol% of dopant Er3+ emitting ions and different concentrations (between 5 to 20 mol% of sensitizer ions (Yb3+ were studied. The phosphors were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and photoluminescence spectroscopy. For all samples, XRD diffraction patterns confirmed a formation of a pure GdVO4 phase, while the SEM showed that the materials are comprised of chunks of deformed particles with an average diameter ranging from approximately 2 μm to 8 μm. Both, down-conversion and up-conversion emission spectra of GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ samples, under near UV and IR excitations, exhibit two strong emission bands in the green spectral region at 525 nm and 552 nm wavelengths corresponding to 2H11/2 →4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 electronic transitions of Er3+ ions. The intensity of the green emission was changed by changing the Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio. This dual-mode luminescence makes these materials ideal as green phosphors for a wide variety of applications in the fields of bioanalysis and biomedical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45020 i br. 172056

  18. Reduced concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the NAA-creatine ratio in the basal ganglia in bipolar disorder: a study using 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Thomas, M Albert; Yue, Kenneth; Binesh, Nader; Davanzo, Pablo; Ventura, Joseph; O'Neill, Joseph; Guze, Barry; Curran, John G; Mintz, Jim

    2007-04-15

    The N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak is prominent in the proton magnetic resonance spectrum and is thought to reflect neuron loss or dysfunction. This study was conducted to explore NAA biochemistry and its clinical correlates in mania. Subjects comprised 16 manic patients and 17 controls who underwent a structured diagnostic interview and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquisition. STEAM (1)H MRS (TR/TE/TM=2000/20/8 ms) was acquired at 3 Tesla from 2 x 2 x 2 cm(3) voxels in anterior cingulate (AC), right basal ganglia (BG), and left occipital-parietal white matter (OP). Absolute metabolite concentrations and ratios to creatine were calculated using the LC Model. The mean absolute concentrations of NAA and NAA-creatine ratio in the BG were significantly lower in manic subjects than in controls. There was a significant inverse correlation between NAA in the BG and the number of prior hospitalizations for mania. These data suggest BG pathology in mania and that NAA decrements may mark prior manic episode burden. Limitations of this study include small sample size and lack of tissue segmentation. Further study is encouraged to clarify state vs. trait aspects of NAA in bipolar disorder.

  19. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy. Importanza del rapporto tra antigene prostatico specifico e volume prostatico nella selezione dei pazienti da sottoporre a biopsia ecoguidata della prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziano, S; Paulica, P; Querze' , R; Viglietta, G; Trenta, A [Ospedale Melpighi, Bologna (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed. 20 refs.

  20. Determination of uranium concentrations and "2"3"4U/"2"3"8U activity ratio in some granitic rock samples by alpha spectrometry: application of a radiochemical procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, Mahmoud R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an application of a radiochemical procedure using alpha spectrometry technique for determination of uranium isotopes "2"3"8U, "2"3"4U and "2"3"5U on 13 granitic samples. These samples were collected from Gabal Gattar area, Northeastern Desert, Egypt. The collected samples were digested using microwave technique with aqua regia and spiked with "2"3"2U for chemical yield and activity calculation. Separation of uranium isotopes from the samples was done by Dowex 1 x 4 (50-100 mesh) resin followed by source preparation using microprecipitation technique. The concentrations of "2"3"8U were ranged between 28.9±0.9 and 134.8±1.8 Bq/g, and the "2"3"4U concentrations were between 24±0.6 and 147.7±2.2 Bq/g. For the "2"3"5U, the activity concentrations were between 1.3±0.2 and 6.7±1.2 Bq/g. The activity ratio of "2"3"4U/"2"3"8U was calculated and varied from 0.80 to 1.30. (author)

  1. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  2. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Mean Platelet Volume, Red Cell Distribution Width to Platelet Count Ratio, Globulin Platelet Index, and 16 Other Indirect Noninvasive Fibrosis Scores: How Much Do Routine Blood Tests Tell About Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh B; Al Kaabi, Saad; Soofi, Madiha E; Mohiuddin, Syed A; John, Anil K; Al Mohannadi, Muneera; Al Ejji, Khalid; Yakoob, Rafie; Derbala, Moutaz F; Wani, Hamidullah; Sharma, Manik; Al Dweik, Nazeeh; Butt, Mohammed T; Kamel, Yasser M; Sultan, Khaleel; Pasic, Fuad; Singh, Rajvir

    2016-07-01

    Many indirect noninvasive scores to predict liver fibrosis are calculated from routine blood investigations. Only limited studies have compared their efficacy head to head. We aimed to compare these scores with liver biopsy fibrosis stages in patients with chronic hepatitis C. From blood investigations of 1602 patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent a liver biopsy before initiation of antiviral treatment, 19 simple noninvasive scores were calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and diagnostic accuracy of each of these scores were calculated (with reference to the Scheuer staging) and compared. The mean age of the patients was 41.8±9.6 years (1365 men). The most common genotype was genotype 4 (65.6%). Significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis were seen in 65.1%, 25.6, and 6.6% of patients, respectively. All the scores except the aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase ratio, Pohl score, mean platelet volume, fibro-alpha, and red cell distribution width to platelet count ratio index showed high predictive accuracy for the stages of fibrosis. King's score (cutoff, 17.5) showed the highest predictive accuracy for significant and advanced fibrosis. King's score, Göteborg university cirrhosis index, APRI (the AST/platelet count ratio index), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) had the highest predictive accuracy for cirrhosis, with the APRI (cutoff, 2) and FIB-4 (cutoff, 3.25) showing the highest diagnostic accuracy.We derived the study score 8.5 - 0.2(albumin, g/dL) +0.01(AST, IU/L) -0.02(platelet count, 10/L), which at a cutoff of >4.7 had a predictive accuracy of 0.868 (95% confidence interval, 0.833-0.904) for cirrhosis. King's score for significant and advanced fibrosis and the APRI or FIB-4 score for cirrhosis could be the best simple indirect noninvasive scores.

  4. Qualidade da carne de cordeiros confinados recebendo diferentes relações de volumoso: concentrado na dieta Quality of meat of confined lambs receiving different concentrate: voluminous ratios in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da carne de cordeiros terminados em regime de confinamento que receberam dietas com diferentes teores de concentrado. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros ½ Ile de France ½ Santa Inês não castrados, com peso inicial de aproximadamente 15 kg, distribuídos em dois lotes, representados pelo tratamento 1 (T1 animais que receberam na dieta relação volumoso:concentrado de 35:65 e (T2 cordeiros que receberam relação volumoso:concentrado de 65:35 até atingirem 32 kg de peso corporal em regime de confinamento, peso pré-determinado para o abate dos animais. Os cordeiros do tratamento 1 e 2 apresentaram valores similares de pH, força de cisalhamento, perdas por cocção e capacidade de retenção de água da carne, com valores médios de 5,70, 1,03 kgf/cm², 35,20 e 59,31%, respectivamente. A relação volumoso:concentrado não influenciou na qualidade centesimal da carne dos cordeiros alimentados com dietas mais concentradas ou mais volumosas, para umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo e matéria mineral. Concluiu-se que os cordeiros terminados em confinamento recebendo diferentes teores de concentrado na dieta apresentaram qualidade da carne similar; portanto, a escolha da dieta vai depender do custo dos ingredientes no momento do confinamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the meat quality of lambs terminated in confinement and fed diets with different concentrate contents. 18 non-castrated ½ Ile de France ½ Santa Inês lambs were used. Their initial weight was approximately 15 kg and they were divided into two separate groups represented by Treatment 1 (T1 - animals fed with diets containing the ratio voluminous:concentrate 35:65 - and Treatment 2 (T2 - lambs fed with diets containing the ratio voluminous:concentrate 65:35 until reaching 32 kg of body weight in confinement, which is the pre-established weight for slaughtering. T1 and T2 lambs presented similar values for pH, shear

  5. Towards a better prediction of peak concentration, volume of distribution and half-life after oral drug administration in man, using allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Vikash K; Vaarties, Karin; De Buck, Stefan S; Fenu, Luca A; Nijsen, Marjoleen; Gilissen, Ron A H J; Sanderson, Wendy; Van Uytsel, Kelly; Hoeben, Eva; Van Peer, Achiel; Mackie, Claire E; Smit, Johan W

    2011-05-01

    It is imperative that new drugs demonstrate adequate pharmacokinetic properties, allowing an optimal safety margin and convenient dosing regimens in clinical practice, which then lead to better patient compliance. Such pharmacokinetic properties include suitable peak (maximum) plasma drug concentration (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and a suitable half-life (t(½)). The C(max) and t(½) following oral drug administration are functions of the oral clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution during the terminal phase by the oral route (V(z)/F), each of which may be predicted and combined to estimate C(max) and t(½). Allometric scaling is a widely used methodology in the pharmaceutical industry to predict human pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance and volume of distribution. In our previous published work, we have evaluated the use of allometry for prediction of CL/F and AUC. In this paper we describe the evaluation of different allometric scaling approaches for the prediction of C(max), V(z)/F and t(½) after oral drug administration in man. Twenty-nine compounds developed at Janssen Research and Development (a division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV), covering a wide range of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties, were selected. The C(max) following oral dosing of a compound was predicted using (i) simple allometry alone; (ii) simple allometry along with correction factors such as plasma protein binding (PPB), maximum life-span potential or brain weight (reverse rule of exponents, unbound C(max) approach); and (iii) an indirect approach using allometrically predicted CL/F and V(z)/F and absorption rate constant (k(a)). The k(a) was estimated from (i) in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments in preclinical species; and (ii) predicted effective permeability in man (P(eff)), using a Caco-2 permeability assay. The V(z)/F was predicted using allometric scaling with or without PPB correction. The t(½) was estimated from

  6. Measurement of the concentration ratio for 13N and 12N isotopes at atmospheric pressure by carbon dioxide absorption of diode laser radiation at ∼2 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironchuk, E S; Nikolaev, I V; Ochkin, Vladimir N; Rodionova, S S; Spiridonov, Maksim V; Tskhai, Sergei N

    2009-01-01

    The ratio of 12 NO 2 and 13 CO 2 concentrations in the human exhaled air is measured by the method of diode laser spectroscopy using a three-channel optical scheme and multipass cell. Unlike the previous measurements in the spectral range of ∼4.3 μm with a resolved rotational structure at low pressure of selected samples, the present measurements are performed in the range of ∼2 μm, in which weaker absorption bands of CO 2 reside. In this case, it is possible to employ lasers and photodetectors operating at room temperature. The thorough simulation of the spectrum with collisional broadening of lines and employment of regression analysis allow one to take measurements at atmospheric pressure with the accuracy of ∼0.04%, which satisfies the requirements to medical diagnostics of ulcers. (laser spectroscopy)

  7. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  8. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  9. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in a sediment core from the sub-aqueous delta of Yangtze River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, S.M., E-mail: span@nju.edu.cn [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tims, S.G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu, X.Y. [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A sediment core collected from the sub-aqueous delta of the Yangtze River estuary was subjected to analyses of {sup 137}Cs and plutonium (Pu) isotopes. The {sup 137}Cs was measured using {gamma}-spectrometry at the laboratories at the Nanjing University and Pu isotopes were determined with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), measurements made at the Australian National University. The results show considerable structure in the depth concentration profiles of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The shape of the vertical {sup 137}Cs distribution in the sediment core was similar to that of the Pu. The maximum {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations were 16.21 {+-} 0.95 mBq/g and 0.716 {+-} 0.030 mBq/g, respectively, and appear at same depth. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio was 0.238 {+-} 0.007 in the sediment core, slightly higher than the average global fallout value. The changes in the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the sediment core indicate the presence of at least two different Pu sources, i.e., global fallout and another source, most likely close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands, and suggest the possibility that Pu isotopes are useful as a geochronological tool for coastal sediment studies. The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories were estimated to be 7100 {+-} 1200 Bq/m{sup 2} and 407 {+-} 27 Bq/m{sup 2}, respectively. Approximately 40% of the {sup 239+240}Pu inventory originated from the PPG close-in fallout and about 50% has derived from land-origin global fallout transported to the estuary by the river. This study confirms that AMS is a useful tool to measure {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio and can provide valuable information on sedimentary processes in the coastal environment.

  10. Measurement of synovial fluid volume using urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Stabler, T V; Kong, S Y; Varju, G; McDaniel, G

    2007-10-01

    To examine the utility of using urea concentrations for determining Synovial Fluid (SF) joint volume in effused and non-effused joints. Knee joint SF was aspirated from 159 human study participants with symptomatic osteoarthritis of at least one knee either directly (165 knees) or by lavage (110 knees). Serum was obtained immediately prior to SF aspiration. Participants were asked to rate individual knee pain, aching or stiffness. SF and serum urea levels were determined using a specific enzymatic method run on an automated CMA600 analyzer. Cell counts were performed on direct SF aspirates when volume permitted. The formula for calculating SF joint volume was as follows: V(j)=C(D)(V(I))/(C-C(D)) with V(j)=volume of SF in entire joint, C(D)=concentration of urea in diluted (lavage) SF, V(I)=volume of saline injected into joint, and C=concentration of urea in undiluted (neat) SF derived below where C=0.897(C(S)) and C(s)=concentration of urea in serum. There was an excellent correlation (r(2)=0.8588) between SF and serum urea in the direct aspirates with a ratio of 0.897 (SF/serum). Neither urea levels nor the SF/serum ratio showed any correlation with Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade, or cell count. While urea levels increased with age there was no change in the ratio. Intraarticular SF volumes calculated for the lavaged knees ranged from 0.555 to 71.71ml with a median volume of 3.048ml. There was no correlation of SF volume to KL grade but there was a positive correlation (P=0.001) between SF volume and self-reported individual knee pain. Our urea results for direct aspirates indicate an equilibrium state between serum and SF with regard to the water fraction. This equilibrium exists regardless of disease status (KL grade), inflammation (cell count), or age, making it possible to calculate intraarticular volume of lavaged joints based upon this urea method. Most of the joint volumes we calculated fell within the previously reported range for normal knees of 0.5-4.0ml

  11. Effects of concentration, temperature and solvent composition on density and apparent molar volume of the binary mixtures of cationic-anionic surfactants in methanol-water mixed solvent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Chatterjee, Sujeet Kumar; Niraula, Tulasi Prasad

    2013-01-01

    The accurate measurements on density of the binary mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate in pure water and in methanol(1) + water (2) mixed solvent media containing (0.10, 0.20, and 0.30) volume fractions of methanol at 308.15, 318.15, and 323.15 K are reported. The concentrations are varied from (0.03 to 0.12) mol.l(-1) of sodium dodecyl sulphate in presence of ~ 5.0×10(-4) mol.l(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The results showed almost increase in the densities with increasing surfactant mixture concentration, also the densities are found to decrease with increasing temperature over the entire concentration range, investigated in a given mixed solvent medium and these values are found to decrease with increasing methanol content in the solvent composition. The concentration dependence of the apparent molar volumes appear to be negligible over the entire concentration range, investigated in a given mixed solvent medium and the apparent molar volumes increase with increasing temperature and are found to decrease with increasing methanol content in the solvent composition.

  12. Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Moran D.; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Pape, Louise; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Popma, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial

  13. Effect of Dietary Concentrate:forage Ratios and Undegraded Dietary Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives in Dorper×thin-tailed Han Crossbred Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate dietary concentrate: forage ratios (C:F and undegraded dietary protein (UDP on nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred castrated lambs with 62.3±1.9 kg body weight at 10 months of age were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of two levels of C:F (40:60 and 60:40 and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of CP, according to a complete 4×4 Latin-square design. Each experimental period lasted for 19 d. After a 7-d adaptation period, lambs were moved into individual metabolism crates for 12 d including 7 d of adaption and 5 d of metabolism trial. During the metabolism trial, total urine was collected for 24 h and spot urine samples were also collected at different times. Urinary PD was measured using a colorimetric method and creatinine was measured using an automated analyzer. Intake of dry matter (DM (p0.05 while urinary N increased as the level of UDP decreased (p0.05 or interaction between dietary treatments (p>0.05. Daily excretion of creatinine was not affected by dietary treatments (p0.05 and a good correlation was found between the PDC index (average value of three times of spot urine and daily excretion of PD (R2 = 0.88. These results suggest that for animals fed ad libitum, the PDC index in spot urine is effective to predict daily excretion of PD. In order to improve the accuracy of the spot sampling technique, an appropriate lag phase between the time of feeding and sampling should be determined so that the sampling time can coincide with the peak concentration of PD in the urine.

  14. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  15. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in 18F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmen, Linda; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu; Visser, Eric P; Bussink, Johan; Punt, Cornelis J A; Oyen, Wim J G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2012-12-01

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before (18)F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of (18)F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two (18)F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV(max), SUV(mean), volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET(SBR)) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV(max) and SUV(mean) were ∼39 and ∼31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET(SBR), from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV(mean). Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with (18)F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV(mean) and SUV(max) was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when (18)F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements, for instance by dynamic PET scanning protocols, is probably necessary to effectively

  16. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in 18F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmen, Linda; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Visser, Eric P.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Wilt, Johannes H.W. de; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu; Bussink, Johan; Punt, Cornelis J.A.; Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before 18 F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of 18 F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two 18 F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV max , SUV mean , volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET SBR ) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV max and SUV mean were ∝39 and ∝31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET SBR , from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV mean . Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with 18 F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV mean and SUV max was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when 18 F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements, for instance by dynamic PET scanning protocols, is probably necessary to effectively use PET for

  17. Comparison of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in the prediction of adverse events after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Guilherme Pinheiro; Araujo, Gustavo Neves de; Carpes, Christian Kunde; Lech, Mateus; Mariani, Stefani; Valle, Felipe Homem; Bergoli, Luiz Carlos Corsetti; Gonçalves, Sandro Cadaval; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Wainstein, Marco V

    2018-07-01

    Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are indirect inflammatory markers. There is some evidence that both are associated with worse outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of the present study was to compare the capacity of NLR and MPV to predict adverse events after primary PCI. In a prospective cohort study, 625 consecutive patients with STEMI, who underwent primary PCI, were followed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) for the occurrence of procedural complications, mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Mean age was 60.7 (±12.1) years, 67.5% were male. The median of NLR was 6.17 (3.8-9.4) and MPV was 10.7 (10.0-11.3). In multivariate analysis, both NLR and MPV remained independent predictors of no-reflow (relative risk [RR] = 2.26; 95%confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.16-4.32; p = 0.01 and RR = 2.68; 95%CI = 1.40-5.10; p  0.05). NLR had an excellent negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.7 for no-reflow and 89.0 for in-hospital MACE. Despite no difference in the ROC curve comparison with MPV, only NLR remained an independent predictor for in-hospital MACE. A low NLR has an excellent NPV for no-reflow and in-hospital MACE, and this could be of clinical relevance in the management of low-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Roughage/concentrate ratio on ruminal ammonia concentration, pH and volatile fatty acids in crossbred dairy cows Relação volumoso:concentrado sobre as concentrações ruminais de amônia, ph e ácidos graxos em vacas leiteiras mestiças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cellyneude de Souza Olivindo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this study was to evaluate the effects of concentrate levels in ruminal ammonia concentration, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA. Twelve canulated cows, no lactating and no pregnant, were randomly distributed in blocks. Cows were fed Russel grass (Cynodon sp hay ad libitum and concentrate in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75% of dry matter. Two experimental periods, which 23 days for diet adaptation, and the 28th day for rumen fluid sampling (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours. Ruminal N-NH3 concentration reduced by increasing the levels of concentrate in diets. Rumen pH reduced with sampling time and concentrate level. Total VFA concentration were not affected, but acetate:propionate ratio increased.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes de concentrados nas rações, sobre as concentrações de amônia e pH ruminal e sobre as concentrações dos ácidos graxos voláteis no rúmen. Foram utilizadas doze fêmeas bovinas, não lactantes e não gestantes, dotadas de cânulas ruminais distribuídas em blocos casualizados em um arranjo fatorial 6 x 3. Estes animais foram alimentados á vontade com feno Russel grass (Cynodon sp e concentrados nas proporções de 25%, 50% ou 75% com base na matéria seca. O experimento constou de dois sub-períodos experimentais com duração de 28 dias cada, sendo 23 dias de adaptação, e o 28 para a colheita de líquido ruminal (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 horas. Observou-se redução linear nas concentrações de N-NH3 com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado; o pH reduziu linearmente em função dos tempos de coleta das amostras e dos níveis de concentrados nas rações. Não houve efeito significativo das proporções de concentrados sobre a concentração de AGVs totais, porém foi observado um efeito linear significativo sobre as relações acetato:propionato.

  19. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijmen, Linda [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology 452, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Visser, Eric P.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu [LaTIM, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); Bussink, Johan [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Punt, Cornelis J.A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology 452, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before {sup 18}F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET{sub SBR}) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were {proportional_to}39 and {proportional_to}31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET{sub SBR}, from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV{sub mean}. Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when {sup 18}F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements

  20. Uncertainty evaluation of the kerma in the air, related to the active volume in the ionization chamber of concentric cylinders, by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Bianco, A.S.; Oliveira, H.P.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2009-01-01

    To implant the primary standard of the magnitude kerma in the air for X-ray between 10 - 50 keV, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) must evaluate all the uncertainties of measurement related with Victtoren chamber. So, it was evaluated the uncertainty of the kerma in the air consequent of the inaccuracy in the active volume of the chamber using the calculation of Monte Carlo as a tool through the Penelope software

  1. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (p...LeukoGating can be established using microscopy as a reference, and is comparable to BT chamber and SPT determination. Leukocyte concentrations can be measured with CVA on flow cytometers in research and clinical settings....

  2. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Li, Yingchuan; Sheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Dongsheng; Jian, Guihua; Li, Yongguang; Feng, Liang; Wang, Niansong

    2018-03-29

    Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR) can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012). Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372), APACHE II score (OR = 1.187), age (OR = 1.028) and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012. Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372, APACHE II score (OR = 1.187, age (OR = 1.028 and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI.

  4. Desempenho de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas completas contendo feno de maniçoba Performance of Santa Inês lambs fed total mixed rations containing different ratios of concentrate to ceara rubbertree hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacilene Maria da Cunha Castro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dieta completa formulada com diferentes proporções de feno de maniçoba. Foram utilizados 32 animais Santa Inês machos, não-castrados (idade inicial de 70 dias e peso vivo de 16,02±2,37 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As dietas foram constituídas de concentrado e feno de maniçoba (FM nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%. As proporções de feno na dieta não influenciaram os consumos de MS, PB e CT, cujas médias diárias foram 1,214; 0,201 e 0,816 kg, respectivamente. Os níveis de feno tiveram efeito linear positivo sobre o consumo de FDN e efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de EM e CNF. O ganho de peso diário foi afetado pelos níveis de feno na dieta, apresentando médias de 290,84; 293,62; 253,35 e 208,48 g, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba. As dietas influenciaram a conversão (Y = 3,332+0,028x e a eficiência alimentar (Y = 0,280,0013x. Pela análise econômica, observaram-se relações custo:benefício de 1,49; 1,57; 1,69 e 1,84 para os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta. O custo operacional efetivo por quilograma de carcaça produzida foi de R$ 3,68; R$ 3,49; R$ 3,23 e R$ 2,98, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba em dietas completas possibilitou a obtenção de desempenho satisfatório dos cordeiros e melhor retorno financeiro.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of concentrate (C to ceara rubbertree hay (CRH; Manihot Glaziovii Muell. Arg. on performance of lambs. Thirty two intact Santa Inês lambs averaging 70 days of age and 16.02±2.371 kg of body weight were fed one of the following four treatments as total mixed rations: 80C:20CRH (diet A, 60C:40CRH (diet B, 40C:60CRH (diet C, or 20C:80CRH (diet D in a completely

  5. Influence of the Ti concentration and of the Ti:Mo molar ratio, in the efficiency of the {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m} Tc generator, at basis of gels of titanium molybdates; Influencia de la concentracion de Ti y de la relacion molar Ti:Mo, en la eficiencia del generador {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m} Tc a base de geles de molibdatos de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes R, O.; Monroy G, F.; Martinez C, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: ocielcr@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc, continues being the radionuclide more used in nuclear medicine to world scale. The production of this radioisotope, is carried out by means of generators {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc that get ready commercially with {sup 99} Mo of high specific activity, adsorbed in alumina (2 mg {sup 99} Mo/g alumina) and that they are elutriated every 23 hours. In an alternative way, it is intended to use gels of titanium molybdates, as matrices of this generators. The gels are synthesized starting from solutions of ammonium molybdates and of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous media. These gels allow to incorporate until 25% of molybdenum in their structure, being been able to use {sup 99} Mo of low specific activity that can be obtained starting from the reaction {sup 98} Mo (n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo. With the object of producing generators of medium activity, with the base of gels of titanium molybdates, intends in this work, to study the influence of two synthesis parameters of these gels: the concentration of the titanium solutions and the molar ratio Ti: Mo. The decrease of the concentration of the titanium solution, used during the synthesis of the gels, is converted in an efficiency decrease and radionuclide purity of the generators, as well as an increment so much of the volume of elutriation, as of the pH of the elutriates. The gels that contain an major number of titanium moles, regarding the molybdenum moles, present a greater radionuclide purity, but they diminish their efficiency. The best characteristics for the gels synthesis of titanium molybdates are: a molar ratio 1:1 for Ti and Mo, and to use solutions of titanium whose concentration is near at 1 M. (Author)

  6. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  7. Comparison of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR CH volume mixing ratio vertical profiles with those measured by ACE-FTS, ESA MIPAS, IMK-IAA MIPAS, and 16 NDACC stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Olsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary instrument on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT is the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations (TANSO Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS. TANSO-FTS uses three short-wave infrared (SWIR bands to retrieve total columns of CO2 and CH4 along its optical line of sight and one thermal infrared (TIR channel to retrieve vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 volume mixing ratios (VMRs in the troposphere. We examine version 1 of the TANSO-FTS TIR CH4 product by comparing co-located CH4 VMR vertical profiles from two other remote-sensing FTS systems: the Canadian Space Agency's Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment FTS (ACE-FTS on SCISAT (version 3.5 and the European Space Agency's Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat (ESA ML2PP version 6 and IMK-IAA reduced-resolution version V5R_CH4_224/225, as well as 16 ground stations with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. This work follows an initial inter-comparison study over the Arctic, which incorporated a ground-based FTS at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL at Eureka, Canada, and focuses on tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements made at middle and tropical latitudes between 2009 and 2013 (mid-2012 for MIPAS. For comparison, vertical profiles from all instruments are interpolated onto a common pressure grid, and smoothing is applied to ACE-FTS, MIPAS, and NDACC vertical profiles. Smoothing is needed to account for differences between the vertical resolution of each instrument and differences in the dependence on a priori profiles. The smoothing operators use the TANSO-FTS a priori and averaging kernels in all cases. We present zonally averaged mean CH4 differences between each instrument and TANSO-FTS with and without smoothing, and we examine their information content, their sensitive altitude range, their correlation, their a priori dependence, and the

  8. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  9. Insulin, androgen, and gonadotropin concentrations, body mass index, and waist to hip ratio in the first years after menarche in girls with regular menstrual cycles, irregular menstrual cycles, or oligomenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.H.A. van; Voorhorst, F.J.; Kaptein, M.B.H.; Hirasing, R.A.; Koppenaal, C.; Schoemaker, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data on changes in hormone concentrations during the first years after menarche are scarce. We studied the relation between gynecological age (age minus age at menarche), hormone concentrations, and body measurements from the 1st to the 6th yr after menarche in 229 observations of girls with regular

  10. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...... to a decrease in calcein fluorescence with high signal-to-noise ratio (>15). Similar results were obtained with the fluorophore BCECF when excited at its isosbestic wavelength (436 nm). The present results demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence self-quenching to measure rapid changes in cell water volume....

  11. Avaliação da relação entre espaço morto e volume corrente como índice preditivo de falha de extubação Evaluation of the dead space to tidal volume ratio as a predictor of extubation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bousso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a relação entre espaço morto e volume corrente (VD/VT como preditivo de falha na extubação de crianças sob ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Entre setembro de 2001 e janeiro de 2003, realizamos uma coorte, na qual foram incluídas todas as crianças (1 dia-15 anos submetidas a ventilação mecânica na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica em que foi possível realizar a extubação e a ventilometria pré-extubação com a medida do índice VD/VT. Considerou-se falha na extubação a necessidade de reinstituição de algum tipo de assistência ventilatória, invasiva ou não, em um período de 48 horas. Para a análise dos pacientes que foram reintubados, definiu-se como sucesso-R a não reintubação. Para as análises estatísticas, utilizou-se um corte do VD/VT de 0,65. RESULTADOS: No período estudado, 250 crianças receberam ventilação mecânica na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Destas, 86 compuseram a amostra estudada. Vinte e uma crianças (24,4% preencheram o critério de falha de extubação, com 11 (12,8% utilizando suporte não-invasivo e 10 (11,6% reintubadas. A idade média foi de 16,8 (±30,1 meses, e a mediana, de 5,5 meses. A média do índice VD/VT de todos os casos foi de 0,62 (±0,18. As médias do índice VD/VT para os pacientes que tiveram a extubação bem sucedida e para os que falharam foram, respectivamente, 0,62 (±0,17 e 0,65 (±0,21 (p = 0,472. Na regressão logística, o índice VD/VT não apresentou correlação estatisticamente significativa com o sucesso ou não da extubação (p = 0,8458, nem para aqueles que foram reintubados (p = 0,5576. CONCLUSÕES: Em uma população pediátrica submetida a ventilação mecânica, por etiologias variadas, o índice VD/VT não possibilitou predizer qual a população de risco para falha de extubação ou reintubação.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ratio of dead space to tidal volume

  12. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  13. Reducing the concentration to 0.4% enantiomeric excess hyperbaric levobupivacaine (s75: r25) provides unilateral spinal anesthesia. Study with different volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; Gouveia, Marildo A; Carneiro, Antonio Fernando; Grigorio, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral spinal anesthesia may be obtained with hypobaric or hyperbaric solution. The objective of this study was to compare different doses of enantiomeric excess hyperbaric levobupivacaine to achieve unilateral spinal anesthesia. One hundred and twenty patients were randomized to receive 4 mg, 6 mg or 8 mg of 0.4% enantiomeric excess levobupivacaine. The solutions were administered at the L3-L4, with the patient in a lateral position and kept at this position according to dose administration for 5, 10 or 15 minutes. Sensory block (pinprick) and motor block (scale 0-3) were compared between the operated and contralateral sides. The onset of analgesia was rapid and comparable between groups. Sensory block was significantly higher in the operated than in nonoperated limb at all times of evaluation. Increasing the dose by 1 mL (2mg) corresponded to an increase of two segments in the mode for the operated side. In the operated side, motor block (MB = 3) of patients occurred in 31 (77.5%) with 4 mg, 38 (95%) with 6 mg, and 40 (100%) with 8 mg. There was a positive correlation between increased dose, blockade duration, and hypotension. All patients were satisfied with the technique used. Spinal anesthesia with different volumes of enantiomeric excess hyperbaric bupivacaine (S75: R25) provided a 78% incidence of unilateral spinal block, with the smallest dose used (4 mg) the most efficient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of gas hydrate with downhole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Ladd, J.

    2000-01-01

    Let 164 of the Ocean Drilling Program was designed to investigate the occurrence of gas hydrate in the sedimentary section beneath the Blake Ridge on the southeastern continental margin of North America. Site 994, and 997 were drilled on the Blake Ridge to refine our understanding of the in situ characteristics of natural gas hydrate. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed on Leg 164 included the Schlumberger quad-combination tool (NGT, LSS/SDT, DIT, CNT-G, HLDT), the Formation MicroScanner (FMS), and the Geochemical Combination Tool (GST). Electrical resistivity (DIT) and acoustic transit-time (LSS/SDT) downhole logs from Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate the presence of gas hydrate in the depth interval between 185 and 450 mbsf on the Blake Ridge. Electrical resistivity log calculations suggest that the gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary section on the Blake Ridge may contain between 2 and 11 percent bulk volume (vol%) gas hydrate. We have determined that the log-inferred gas hydrates and underlying free-gas accumulations on the Blake Ridge may contain as much as 57 trillion m3 of gas.

  15. The influence of the volume phase concentrations of the base material on the corrosion kinetics of Zr-2.5 Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, Ana M.; Bordoni, Roberto A.; Villegas, Marina; Hermida, Jorge D.

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion kinetics in lithiated heavy water at 350 and 265 C degrees of two unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tube materials labelled C and J is presented. Both materials have the same behaviour up to 280 days of the exposure time and follow a para linear kinetic at 350 C degrees. At 265 C degrees, material C shows a larger weight gain and the formation of white oxide nuclei on the surface of the samples after 70 days of exposure. The size and coverage of oxide nuclei increase with the exposure time. X-ray diffraction analysis detected a difference of microstructure between the two materials, a larger volume content of the metastable β-Zr phase was found in C material. The lower β-Zr content of material J leads to a better corrosion behaviour than material C at the lower temperature (265 C degrees). At the higher temperature (350 C degrees), the decomposition Zr-β → ω+β Nb-enriq → α+ω+β Nb-enriq → α+β Nb-enriq → Zr-α + Nb-β induced at the corrosion test temperature occurs at a sufficiently fast rate so that no differences in corrosion behaviour are detected between both materials. (author)

  16. A prospective three-dimensional analysis about the impact of differences in the clinical target volume in prostate cancer irradiation on normal-tissue exposure. A potential for increasing the benefit/risk ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, A.; Toews, N.; Schmidberger, H.; Hess, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: rectal toxicity following external-beam irradiation of prostate cancer correlates with the exposed percentage of rectal volume. Recently, it has been recommended to reduce the volume of the seminal vesicles that should be included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact of this CTV reduction on the expected rectal and bladder dose sparing. Patients and methods: 14 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing external-beam radiotherapy were investigated. The prostate, the prostate + entire seminal vesicles, or the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles were delineated as CTV. Treatment plans were generated and compared concerning rectum and bladder dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Results: the exposure of rectum and bladder volume was significantly lower in case of irradiation of the prostate only compared to inclusion of the proximal or entire seminal vesicles into the CTV. The reduction of the CTV from prostate + entire seminal vesicles to prostate + proximal seminal vesicles led to a significant reduction of the rectal and bladder dose exposure. Conclusion: reduction of the CTV to the prostate only, or to the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles led to significant rectal and bladder dose sparing compared to irradiation of the prostate + entire seminal vesicles. In patients with a higher risk for seminal vesicles involvement, irradiation of the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles should be preferred. In case of a need for irradiation of the entire seminal vesicles, patients should be informed about a higher risk for chronic rectal toxicity and, possibly, for bladder complications. (orig.)

  17. Direct gas injection method: A simple modification to an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable isotope analysis of N and C from N2O and CO2 gases in nanomolar concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple modification to the Elemental Analyzer coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) setup is described. This modification allows the users to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by injecting the gases directly into an online injector placed befor...

  18. Contributions to the chemistry of highly concentrated electrolyte solutions. XXXIX. Investigation of Be/sup 2 +/ complex formation by the method of molar volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedinakova, V [Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Technologie Jadernych Paliv a Radiochemie

    1974-01-01

    The formation of aquo- and acido-complexes of the Be/sup 2 +/ ion in aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes was studied by densimetry. In all the systems studied, HClO/sub 4/, HNO/sub 3/, NaNO/sub 3/, KOH, Ca(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, CaCl/sub 2/, the overall coordination number 4 was confirmed for the complex forms of the Be/sup 2 +/ ion. If BeSO/sub 4/ is used as the differential addition in a solvent not forming complexes, dissociation of the sulfate proceeds under the formation of the aquo-complex (Be(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/. If beryllium perchlorate is used, the Be/sup 2 +/ ion remains in that form, in which it is added to the solution (i.e. the complex form (Be(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2/(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/)), in the whole concentration range of the applied isomolar series Ca(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-CaCl/sub 2/, NaClO/sub 4/-NaBr, and NaClO/sub 4/-NaI.

  19. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, plean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, pproduction of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  20. A different interpretation of Einstein's viscosity equation provides accurate representations of the behavior of hydrophilic solutes to high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2012-08-23

    Viscosities of aqueous solutions of many highly soluble hydrophilic solutes with hydroxyl and amino groups are examined with a focus on improving the concentration range over which Einstein's relationship between solution viscosity and solute volume, V, is applicable accurately. V is the hydrodynamic effective volume of the solute, including any water strongly bound to it and acting as a single entity with it. The widespread practice is to relate the relative viscosity of solute to solvent, η/η(0), to V/V(tot), where V(tot) is the total volume of the solution. For solutions that are not infinitely dilute, it is shown that the volume ratio must be expressed as V/V(0), where V(0) = V(tot) - V. V(0) is the volume of water not bound to the solute, the "free" water solvent. At infinite dilution, V/V(0) = V/V(tot). For the solutions examined, the proportionality constant between the relative viscosity and volume ratio is shown to be 2.9, rather than the 2.5 commonly used. To understand the phenomena relating to viscosity, the hydrodynamic effective volume of water is important. It is estimated to be between 54 and 85 cm(3). With the above interpretations of Einstein's equation, which are consistent with his stated reasoning, the relation between the viscosity and volume ratio remains accurate to much higher concentrations than those attainable with any of the other relations examined that express the volume ratio as V/V(tot).

  1. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: effects of salt concentration and culture medium volume=Cultivo in vitro de Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: efeito da variação das concentrações dos sais e volumes do meio de cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Waldemar Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium othonianum Rizz. is a medicinal plant species that is native to the Brazilian savannah. Adult plants are different from other genus members in this ecosystem due to their size, and efforts to locate the plants may lead to their extraction from the savannah and, frequently, plant death. Micropropagation has played a significant role in the propagation and preservation of specimens of several plant species; therefore, this study evaluated the effect of various salt concentrations and culture medium volumes on the in vitro cultivation of A. othonianum Rizz. Trial (I evaluated two culture media (MS and WPM and three salt concentrations (100, 50 and 25% in a completely randomized design. Trial (II evaluated two culture media and salt concentrations, MS (50% and WPM (100%, and five medium volumes (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mL per test tube as a 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design. After 30 and 60 days of growth, the percentage of plantlet survival, average plantlet and leaf lengths and the average number of leaves and buds per explant were evaluated. The MS (50 and 25% media and WPM (100 and 50% media were the most effective for plantlet regeneration. The best responses were observed in 15- and 25-mL volumes of the MS (50% medium. Therefore, the use of a 15-mL volume is suggested for greater medium economy.O Anacardium othonianum Rizz. é uma espécie frutífera e medicinal nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. As plantas adultas distinguem-se das demais espécies do gênero existente nesse bioma em função do seu porte arbóreo. Sua exploração ocorre de forma extrativista e muitas vezes em caráter predatório. Sob esse contexto, a micropropagação tem dado significativas contribuições na propagação e preservação de caracteres de interesse em diversas espécies de plantas e, desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sais e volumes do meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de A

  2. Application of concentration-volume fractal method in induced polarization and resistivity data interpretation for Cu-Mo porphyry deposits exploration, case study: Nowchun Cu-Mo deposit, SE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Daneshvar Saein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the utilization of the concentration-volume (C-V fractal method based on geoelectrical data including induced polarization (IP and resistivity (RS in targeting areas hosting different sulfidic mineralization zones in Nowchun Cu-Mo porphyry deposit, SE Iran. The C-V fractal model employed in this research in order to separate high and moderate sulfidic zones from low sulfidic zone and barren wall rocks in the deposit is corresponding to chargeability and resistivity. Results obtained from the C-V method indicate that there is a positive correlation between subsurface mineralization and sulfide mineralized zones; additionally, use of the C-V method based on geophysical data is recognized as an accurate approach for delineation of various mineralization zones in the depth for optimization of mineral exploration operation, particularly in porphyry deposits.

  3. Partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium, vanadium, and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.; Herro, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium were measured in vanadium, niobium, and tantalum by a differential pressure technique. One-half of an electrolytically charged sample plat was compressed between hardened steel blocks in a hydraulic press. The activity of hydrogen in the hig pressure region was raised and caused hydrogen to diffuse into the low pressure region. The partia molar volume was calculated from the ratio of the hydrogen concentrations in the high and low pressure regions of the sample. Small isotope effects were found in the partial molar volume. Hydrogen had the larger volume in niobium and tantalum, but the reverse was true in vanadium

  4. Effects of Chitosan Supplementation in Diets with Different Concentrate to Forage Ratios on Methane Production, and Fermentation Characteristics of in Vitro Ruminal Fermentation%不同精粗比饲粮中添加壳聚糖对体外瘤胃发酵甲烷产量和发酵特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉鹏; 郭艳丽; 鞠九洲; 秦士贞; 郑琛

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan supplementation in diets with different concentrate to forage ratios on methane production, and fermentation characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation using long-term artificial rumen system-Rusitec system. A 2 × 2 two factors experimental design was adopted. The two factors were dietary concentrate to forage ratios [ 30∶70 ( low concentrate diet) and 70∶30 ( high concentrate diet) ] , and with or without chitosan supplementation ( 0 and 1 500 mg/tank) . Four groups with four replicates were composed. The results showed as follows: compared with the low concentrate diet, high concentrate diet significantly decreased methane production, neutral detergent fiber and crude protein degradation rates, as well as acetic acid and butyric acid contents, acetic acid to acrylic acid ratio and ammonia nitrogen concentration of fermentation fluid (P<0.05), and significantly increased total gas production and propionic acid content (P<0.05); the supplementation of chitosan significantly decreased methane and total gas production, crude protein degradation rate, as well as acetic acid and butyric acid contents, acetic acid to acrylic acid ratio and ammonia nitrogen concentration of fermentation fluid (P<0.05), and significantly in-creased propionic acid content ( P<0.05);there were interaction effects between concentrate to forage ratio and chitosan on methane and total gas production, crude protein degradation rate, ammonia nitrogen concentration of fermentation fluid at 0 and 6 h and acetic acid to acrylic acid ratio of fermentation fluid at 0 and 12 h ( P<0.05) , methane and total gas production, crude protein degradation rate and ammonia nitrogen concentration of fermentation fluid were decreased by the supplementation of chitosan in high concentrate diet at a bigger range than that in low concentrate diet, while total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetic acid to acrylic acid ratio were

  5. Experimental investigation of particle emissions under different EGR ratios on a diesel engine fueled by blends of diesel/gasoline/n-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qingxin; Zhou, Chengzhong; Mo, Chunlan; Wang, Xueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of EGR and blend fuels on particulate emission were studied in CI engine. • EGR ⩽ 20%, gasoline or n-butanol increases total particulate number concentration. • EGR ⩾ 30%, gasoline or n-butanol reduces total particulate number concentration. • As EGR ratio increased, the particulate mass concentrations of four fuels increased. • Gasoline or n-butanol increases the ratio of sub-25 nm particles number concentration. - Abstract: The particle emission characteristics of a high-pressure common-rail engine under different EGR conditions were investigated, using pure diesel (D100), diesel/gasoline (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70G30), diesel/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70B30) and diesel/gasoline/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:15:15, D70G15B15) for combustion. Our results show that, with increasing EGR ratios, the in-cylinder pressure peak decreases and the heat release is delayed for the combustion of each fuel. At an EGR ratio of 30%, the combustion pressure peaks of D70G30, D70B30, D70G15B15 and D100 have similar values; with an EGR ratio of 40%, the combustion pressure peaks and release rate peaks of D70G30 and D70G15B15 are both lower with respect to D100. For small and medium EGR ratios (⩽20%), after the addition of gasoline and/or n-butanol to the fuel, the total particle number concentration (TPNC) increases, while both the soot emissions and the average geometric size of particles decrease. At large EGR ratios (30% and 40%), the TPNC of D70B30, D70G15B15 and D70G20 compared to D100 are reduced by a maximum amount of 74.7%, 66.7% and 28.6%, respectively. As the EGR ratio increases, the total particle mass concentration increases gradually for all four fuels. Blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel induces an increase in the number concentration of sub-25 nm particles (PN25) which may be harmful in terms of health. However, the PN25 decreases with increasing the EGR ratio for all the tested fuels

  6. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  7. The Effect of Inhalation Volume and Breath-Hold Duration on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inhalation depth and breath-hold duration on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on nicotine uptake was studied in ten cigarette smokers. In a first series of experiments, the subjects took seven puffs from a 10 mg ‘tar’ yield, test cigarette and a fixed volume of air (0, 75, 250, 500 or 1000 mL, as required by the protocol was inhaled after each puff in order to give a controlled ‘depth’ of inhalation. The inhalation was drawn from a bag containing the required volume of air. Following a 2 s breath-hold, subjects exhaled normally, with the first exhalation after each puff passing through a single acidified filter pad for collection of the non-retained nicotine and solanesol. Blood samples were taken before and at intervals during and after smoking for the sessions with 0, 75 and 500 mL inhalation volumes for determination of plasma nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Another series of experiments was conducted with a fixed inhalation volume (500 mL and two further breath-hold durations (0 and 10 s in addition to 2 s from above. Nicotine and solanesol retentions were measured for each breath-hold condition. The amounts of nicotine retained within the respiratory system, expressed as a percentage of the amount taken into the mouth, were consistently higher than the corresponding values for solanesol in all five inhalation conditions (0-1000 mL, 2 s breath-hold. Nicotine retention increased from 46.5% at zero inhalation to 99.5% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 98.0% at zero breath-hold to 99.9% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Solanesol retention increased from 34.2% at zero inhalation volume to 71.9% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 51.8% at zero breath-hold to 87.6% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Plasma nicotine decreased from pre-smoking levels after zero inhalation indicating that the nicotine retained within the mouth was poorly

  8. Calculation and analysis of hydrogen volume concentrations in the vent pipe rigid proposed for NPP-L V; Calculo y analisis de concentraciones volumetricas de hidrogeno en el tubo de venteo rigido propuesto para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz I, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In 2012 was modeled of primary and secondary container of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) for the CFD Gas-Flow code. These models were used to calculate hydrogen volume concentrations run release the reactor building in case of a severe accident. The results showed that the venting would produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability at ground level of reload. One of the solutions to avoid reaching critical concentrations (flammable or detonable) inside the reactor building and thus safeguard the contentions is to make a rigid venting. The rigid vent is a pipe connected to the primary container could go to the level 33 of the secondary container and style fireplace climb to the top of the reactor building. The analysis of hydrogen transport inside the vent pipe can be influenced by various environmental criteria and factors vent, so a logical consequence of the 2012 analysis is the analysis of the gases transport within said pipe to define vent ideal conditions. For these evaluations the vent pipe was modeled with a fine mesh of 32 radial interior nodes and a coarse mesh of 4 radial interior nodes. With three-dimensional models were realized calculations that allow observing the influence of heat transfer in the long term, i.e. a complete analysis of exhaust (approx. 700 seconds). However, the most interesting results focus on the first milliseconds, when the H{sub 2} coming from the atmosphere of the primary container faces the air in the vent pipe. These first milliseconds besides allowing evaluating the detonation criteria in great detail in the different tubular sections similarly allow evaluating the pressure wave that occurs in the pipe and that at some point slows to the fluid on the last tubular section and could produce a detonation inside the pipe. Results are presented for venting fixed conditions, showing possible detonations into the pipe. (Author)

  9. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  11. A New Theory for Calculation of Some Biochemical Parameters Concentration in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.; Amien, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    The serum volumes of the blood samples are varied from one patient to another according to the packed cell volume (PCV %), so if the patient sample has low PCV %, it will have high serum volume and vice versa. To calculate a certain clinical parameter such as glucose in the serum of patients using the conventional calculation, it will give the concentration in units per deci liter serum, while by calculating the concentration according to the ratio of serum volume to the total volume of the blood, it will give different results. Thus, the present study aimed to find a new theory used for calculation of some biochemical parameters concentration taking into consideration the ratio of plasma volume to the total blood volume. The present study was conducted on 122 subjects. These subjects were categorized into 4 groups. Group 1 (G1) comprised 40 healthy subjects as control group, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 low PCV % patients, group 3 (G3) comprised 30 subjects with relatively high PCV % and group 4 comprised 22 diabetic patients. Each group of the previous groups was further subdivided into group a (G a ) and group b (G b ). In the later group, the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ), which is the ratio of plasma volume (V p ) to the blood volume (V b ) TSH hormone, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated and the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ) to get the results after correction. Compared the results before and after correction, there was a very highly significant (ρ p /V b ), thus we recommended that biochemical parameters results must be calculated as indicated in the present study to obtain actual results which might be useful in the correct diagnosis, monitoring and follow up of the different diseases

  12. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  13. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  14. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  15. Phantom study of PET/CT guided delineation of radiation therapy volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zheng Rong; Wang Yibin; Geng Jianhua; Wu Ning; Zhao Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a model-based method for calculating the threshold in GTV determination by 18 F-FDG PET in a phantom study. Methods: A phantom was constructed of a 9 L cylindrical tank.Glass spheres with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 16 ml (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 ml) were suspended within the tank. The six spheres were filled with an identical concentration of FDG (203.5 MBq/L) and suspended within 3 different background baths of FDG (6.179, 16.021, 0 MBq/L) solutions, creating 3 target-to-background ratios of 32.96 : 1, 12.69 : 1 and target to zero background. A linear regressive function was constructed which represented the relationship between the threshold and the average activity concentration of the target. A 40% of maximum intensity threshold and the linear regressive function method were applied to define the spheres filled with 18 F-FDG. The volume differences between the two methods and the true volumes of the spheres were compared with t-test. Results: The linear regressive function model was derived as:threshold =(mean target concentration + 2.6227)/1.9752. The results indicated that a smaller deviation occurred when the function was utilized to estimate the volumes of the phantoms as compared to the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method, but there were no significant differences between them (t=0.306, P>0.05). The effect of the linear regressive function on volume was such that when the phantom sphere volumes were ≥ 1 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was 1.01%; but when the phantom sphere volume was 0.5 ml, the average deviation was 9.53%. When the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method was applied to define the phantom spheres of volume ≥2 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was -4.62%; but, the average deviation of that was 19.9% when the volumes of spheres were 0.5 and 1 ml. When the linear regressive function was applied to

  16. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  18. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  19. fineness and concentrate to low quality roughage ratio of complete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the roughage component on ad libirum intake and apparent digestibility of complete diets in respect of the dairy cow. The roughage used was of low quality, ... cent) and a commercial vitamin-mineral mixture were used. Diets were batch mixed in 400 kg lots. The maize straw used (whole maize plant without cob and cob-.

  20. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  1. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshaiah, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, M.I.T.S, Madanapalle, Angallu-517325, A.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene), and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  2. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  3. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  4. Influence of moderator to fuel ratio (MFR) on burning thorium in a subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The conversion ratio (CR) of Th-232 to U-233 calculation results for a subcritical reactor assembly is presented as a function of MFR, burnup, power density (PD) and fissile concentration. The calculated model is based on subcritical assembly which makes configuration of fuel rods and volumes of moderator and coolant changes possible. This comfortable assembly enables investigation of CR in a thorium cycle for different value of MFR. Additionally, the calculation results of U-233 saturation concentration are explained by mathematical model. The value of MFR main influences the saturation concentration of U-233 and fissile and the fissile concentration dependence of CR. The saturation value of CR is included in the range CR ∈ (0.911, 0.966) and is a slowly increasing function of MFR. The calculations were done with a MCNPX 2.7 code

  5. Survey mirrors and lenses and their required surface accuracy. Volume 2. Concentrator optical performance software (COPS) user's manual. Final report for September 15, 1978-December 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical modeling of 11 different concentrating collectors is documented and instructions are given for use of the computer code. The 11 concentrators modeled are: faceted mirror concentration; fixed mirror, two-axis tracking receiver; parabolic trough collector; linear Fresnel; incremental reflector; inflated cylindrical concentrator; CPC-involute reflector with evacuated receiver; CPC-parabolic/involute reflector; V trough collectors, imaging collapsing concentrator; and parabolic dish collector. (MHR)

  6. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  7. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  8. Qubit-qutrit separability-probability ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Paralleling our recent computationally intensive (quasi-Monte Carlo) work for the case N=4 (e-print quant-ph/0308037), we undertake the task for N=6 of computing to high numerical accuracy, the formulas of Sommers and Zyczkowski (e-print quant-ph/0304041) for the (N 2 -1)-dimensional volume and (N 2 -2)-dimensional hyperarea of the (separable and nonse