Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces
Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.
2017-01-01
Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.
The average free volume model for liquids
Yu, Yang
2014-01-01
In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.
47 CFR 24.53 - Calculation of height above average terrain (HAAT).
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of height above average terrain... average terrain (HAAT). (a) HAAT is determined by subtracting average terrain elevation from antenna height above mean sea level. (b) Average terrain elevation shall be calculated using elevation data...
47 CFR 73.813 - Determination of antenna height above average terrain (HAAT).
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of antenna height above average terrain (HAAT). 73.813 Section 73.813 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Determination of antenna height above average terrain (HAAT). HAAT determinations for LPFM stations will be...
Kim, K. M.
2016-06-01
Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza
2009-10-01
Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate different taper models in the estimate of the merchantable height and volume and along the bole volumes of Eucalyptus sp., to the obtention of multiproducts. Considering the data of rigorous scaling of trees of Eucalyptus sp. with 16 years-old, it was appraised the models of taper of Demaerschalk (1972, Ormerod (1973, Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976, Garay (1979 and Biging (1984. Based on graphical analysis of the residues and on the statistics bias (B, average of the differences (MD and deviation pattern of the differences (DPD, it could be verified that, in the estimate of the merchantable height and volume of the models, Biging, Schöepfer and Hradetzky presented the best results, followed by the models of Garay, which have also shown good results. In general, considering the treatment of the volumes of the logs, the Biging model presented the best resuts.
Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit
2006-05-01
We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Brolly
Full Text Available Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to
Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T
2012-01-01
Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing
Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.
Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta
2012-01-16
A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Xiaoguang
2010-09-01
The average vegetation height can be accurately extracted from ICESat GLAS data, however, a certain spatial interval exist in laser strips and dots reduces the mapping accuracy of average canopy height after the interpolation of the GLAS data. The MODIS-BRDF/albedo data consist of canopy structural data, such as LAI, canopy height etc. So the combination of ICESat GLAS and MODIS data can be obtained more accurate distribution of average canopy height and achieve the distribution of continuous canopy height. In this paper, the GLAS / MODIS data were collected in forest-rich three provinces in northeastern China. We firstly filtered GLAS waveform data and get the average vegetation height, and then selected the optional MODIS-BRDF / albedo bands to retrieve the average vegetation height. An artificial neural networks model was esTablelished by training the MODIS BRDF data, and finally obtained the average vegetation height over the whole three provinces. The fusion method between GLAS data and optical remote sensing image was proposed to make up for their shortages and obtained a continuous distribution of average vegetation height. It increases the analysis dimensions of forest ecosystem and produces more accurate data for forest biomass and carbon storage estimates.
Gruber, Matthew; Hartogensis, Oscar
2014-01-01
Displaced-beam scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length $l_o$ and refractive index structure function $C_n^2$ resolve area-average turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum through the Monin-Obukhov similarity equations. Sensitivity studies have been produced for the use of displaced-beam scintillometers over flat terrain. Many real field sites feature variable topography. We develop here an analysis of the sensitivity of displaced-beam scintillometer derived sensible heat fluxes to uncertainties in spacially distributed topographic measurements. Sensitivity is shown to be concentrated in areas near the center of the beam and where the underlying topography is closest to the beam height. Uncertainty may be decreased by taking precise topographic measurements in these areas.
Measurement of maxillary sinus volume and available alveolar bone height using computed tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jae Hak; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2003-03-15
To aid in determining the volume of graft bone required before a maxillary sinus lift procedure and compare the alveolar bone height measurements taken by panoramic radiographs to those by CT images. Data obtained by both panoramic radiographs and CT examination of 25 patients were used in this study. Maxillary sinus volumes from the antral floor to heights of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm , were calculated. Alveolar bone height was measured on the panoramic images at each maxillary tooth site and corrected by magnification rate (PBH). Available bone height (ABH) and full bone height (FBH) was measured on reconstructed CT images. PBH was compared with ABH and FBH at the maxillary incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Volumes of the inferior portion of the sinuses were 0.55 {+-} 0.41 cm{sup 3} for 5 mm lifts, 2.11 {+-} 0.68 cm{sup 3} for 10 mm, 4.26 {+-} 1.32 cm{sup 3} for 15 mm, 6.95 {+-} 2.01 cm{sup 3} for 20 mm. For the alveolar bone measurement, measurements by panoramic images were longer than available bone heights determined by CT images at the incisor and canine areas, and shorter than full bone heights on CT images at incisor, premolar, and molar areas (p<0.001). In bone grafting of the maxillary sinus floor, 0,96 cm{sup 3} or more is required for a 5 mm - lift, 2.79 cm{sup 3} or more for a 10 mm - lift, 5.58 cm{sup 3} or more for a 15 mm - lift, and 8.96 cm{sup 3} or more for a 20 mm - lift. Maxillary implant length determined using panoramic radiograph alone could result in underestimation or overestimation, according to the site involved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madhu Sharma
2016-07-01
Conclusions: Liver volume is a reliable index of liver size and measurement of liver volume with spiral CT is useful method. Spiral CT can be utilized for measurement of liver volume for such purpose. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3020-3023
Volume calculation of the spur gear billet for cold precision forging with average circle method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wangjun Cheng; Chengzhong Chi; Yongzhen Wang; Peng Lin; Wei Liang; Chen Li
2014-01-01
Forging spur gears are widely used in the driving system of mining machinery and equipment due to their higher strength and dimensional accuracy. For the purpose of precisely calculating the volume of cylindrical spur gear billet in cold precision forging, a new theoretical method named average circle method was put forward. With this method, a series of gear billet volumes were calculated. Comparing with the accurate three-dimensional modeling method, the accuracy of average circle method by theoretical calculation was estimated and the maximum relative error of average circle method was less than 1.5%, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Relative errors of the calculated and the experimental for obtaining the gear billet volumes with reference circle method are larger than those of the average circle method. It shows that average circle method possesses a higher calculation accuracy than reference circle method (traditional method), which should be worth popularizing widely in calculation of spur gear billet volume.
Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.
2012-11-01
The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.
Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude
2017-02-01
Understanding volume regulation during mitosis is technically challenging. Indeed, a very sensitive non invasive imaging over time scales ranging from seconds to hours and over large fields is required. Therefore, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) would be a perfect tool for such a project. However, because of asymmetric protein segregation during mitosis, an efficient separation of the refractive index and the height in the phase signal is required. Even though many strategies to make such a separation have been developed, they usually are difficult to implement, have poor sensitivity, or cannot be performed in living cells, or in a single shot. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a new technique called fluorescence exclusion to perform volume measurements. By coupling such technique with a simultaneous phase measurement, we were also able to recover the refractive index inside the cells. Fluorescence exclusion is a versatile and powerful technique that allows the volume measurement of many types of cells. A fluorescent dye, which cannot penetrate inside the cells, is mixed with the external medium in a confined environment. Therefore, the fluorescent signal depends on the inverse of the object's height. We could demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that fluorescence exclusion can accurately measure cell volumes, even for cells much higher than the depth of focus of the objective. A local accurate height and RI measurement can also be obtained for smaller cells. We will also discuss the way to optimize the confinement of the observation chamber, either mechanically or optically.
Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes
2014-08-01
The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.
Zacharias, John; Tang, Boshen
2015-01-01
Objective This research examines whether Beijing residents are more or less likely than Montréal residents to avoid stair climbing, by replicating a study in Montréal, Canada that measured the impacts of distance between stairs and escalator, height between floors and pedestrian volume on stair climbing rate. Method 15 stairways, 14 up-escalators and 13 down-escalators were selected in 13 publicly accessible settings in Beijing. Distance between the bottom or top of nearest stair and escalator combinations varied from 2.1 m to 114.1 m with height between floors varying from 3.3 m to 21.7 m. Simultaneous counts were conducted on stair and escalator pairs, for a total of 37,081 counted individuals. Results In the ascent model, pedestrian volume accounted for 16.3% of variance in stair climbing, 16.4% when height was added and 45.1% when distance was added. In the descent model, 40.9% of variance was explained by pedestrian volume, 41.5% when height was added and 45.5% when distance was added. Conclusion Separating stairs and escalator is effective in increasing stair climbing in Beijing, accounting for 29% of the variance in stair climbing, compared with 43% in Montreal. As in the Montreal case, distance has less effect on stair use rate when descending. Overall, 25.4% of Beijingers opted for stairs when ascending compared with 20.3% of Montrealers, and for descending 32.8% and 31.1% respectively. PMID:26844113
A Derivation of the Nonlocal Volume-Averaged Equations for Two-Phase Flow Transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a detailed derivation of the general transport equations for two-phase systems using a method based on nonlocal volume averaging is presented. The local volume averaging equations are commonly applied in nuclear reactor system for optimal design and safe operation. Unfortunately, these equations are limited to length-scale restriction and according with the theory of the averaging volume method, these fail in transition of the flow patterns and boundaries between two-phase flow and solid, which produce rapid changes in the physical properties and void fraction. The non-local volume averaging equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow; for instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail.
Derivation of a volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vazquez R, R.; Espinosa P, G. [UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Morales S, Jaime B. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)]. e-mail: rvr@xanum.uam.mx
2008-07-01
This paper presents a general theoretical analysis of the problem of neutron motion in a nuclear reactor, where large variations on neutron cross sections normally preclude the use of the classical neutron diffusion equation. A volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation is derived which includes correction terms to diffusion and nuclear reaction effects. A method is presented to determine closure-relationships for the volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation (e.g., effective neutron diffusivity). In order to describe the distribution of neutrons in a highly heterogeneous configuration, it was necessary to extend the classical neutron diffusion equation. Thus, the volume averaged diffusion equation include two corrections factor: the first correction is related with the absorption process of the neutron and the second correction is a contribution to the neutron diffusion, both parameters are related to neutron effects on the interface of a heterogeneous configuration. (Author)
Lattice Boltzmann Model for The Volume-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
Zhang, Jingfeng; Ouyang, Jie
2014-01-01
A numerical method, based on discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, is presented for solving the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. With a modified equilibrium distribution and an additional forcing term, the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered from the lattice Boltzmann equation in the limit of small Mach number by the Chapman-Enskog analysis and Taylor expansion. Due to its advantages such as explicit solver and inherent parallelism, the method appears to be more competitive with traditional numerical techniques. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model can accurately reproduce both the linear and nonlinear drag effects of porosity in the fluid flow through porous media.
The average free volume model for the ionic and simple liquids
Yu, Yang
2014-01-01
In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 60 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. Some typical one atom liquids (molten metals and liquid noble gases) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement between the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于东海; 冯仲科; 曹忠; 蒋君志伟
2016-01-01
by the covariance between 2 adjacent segments’ volumes,and the value range of correlation coefficient is (0.5,0.7); 2) The relative error of DBH, tree height and volume decreases with the increase of the sample size when the different samples are measured by total station. For 10 groups of samples, the relative error of DBH reduces from 0.108% to 0.052%, that of tree height reduces from 0.051% to 0.012% and that of volume reduces from 1.104% to 0.053%. And the average relative error of DBH, tree height and volume is 0.070%, 0.023% and 0.235% respectively. The relative error of DBH and height measurement is less than that of volume when the same sample is measured. The accuracies of DBH are much higher than the DBH measurement standard for national forest resource continuous investigation. The accuracies of tree height and volume of all samples are also much higher than the forest investigation standard for which tree height and volume measurement errors ought to be less than 3%-5%. Volume measurement error is required to be less than 3% for establishing volume tables, so using total station to collect the samples of various specifications can also meet the accuracy of volume tables. In conclusion, total station can satisfy the different needs of forestry survey.%立木材积表是常用的森林调查数表，胸径、树高和材积的测量精度直接影响到编制材积表的精度，该文以全站仪无损测量立木的原理和误差传播理论为基础，推导了测算胸径、树高、材积误差的数学模型，研究了各立木因子间的相关性及其误差变化规律。结果表明：树干各分段高度与分段直径间存在弱相关性，树干总材积的误差受各分段材积的方差和相邻两段材积间的协方差影响。全站仪立木因子测量理论误差材积大于树高和胸径，其中胸径、树高和材积的平均相对误差分别为0.070%、0.023%和0.235%，说明全站仪无损测量立木的理论精度均
Gruber, Matthew A; Hartogensis, Oscar K
2013-01-01
Scintillometers measure $C_n^2$ over large areas of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer. Turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum are inferred through coupled sets of equations derived from the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. One-dimensional sensitivity functions have been produced which relate the sensitivity of heat fluxes to uncertainties in single values of beam height over homogeneous and flat terrain. Real field sites include variable topography and heterogeneous surface properties such as roughness length. We develop here the first analysis of the sensitivity of scintillometer derived sensible heat fluxes to uncertainties in spacially distributed topographic measurements. For large-aperture scintillometers and independent $u_\\star$ measurements, sensitivity is shown to be concentrated in areas near the center of the beam and where the underlying topography is closest to the beam height. Uncertainty may be greatly reduced by focusing precise topographic measurements in these areas. The new two...
Measuring tree height and preparation volume table using an innovative method.
Lotfalian, Majid; Nouri, Zahra; Kooch, Yahya; Zobeiri, Mahmoud
2007-10-15
Zarbin (Cupressus sempervirence var. horizontalis) with its unique characteristics is one of the worthiest species which can be found in the central area of Alborz in the North of Iran. Especially in the Roodbar-manjil area, Chaloos-Hassanabad valley as well as it extends from Zarringol area to Gorgan. Although the distribution areas of this species have been protected, these forests have been invaded by the villagers who use this useful wood. For this reason in the Roodbar area, trees with DBH>30 cm are extremely rare. To recognize and to be aware of the stand quantity, the current research tries to calculate the species volume table in Roodbar area, to be the basis for any calculation of the volume of stand in the region. For this purpose, trees have been sampled using the line sampling method. After estimating the form factor, Tarif table have been prepared. In this study, a new method for measuring tree height is presented, in which, instead of measuring slope distance from observer to tree (which is difficult in young conifers because of existence branches in lower height) distance between the eye level of observer to tree butt is measured. Which doing of it is easier, time of field work is decreased and accuracy of measurement and calculation is increased.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Gruber
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Scintillometer measurements allow for estimations of the refractive index structure parameter Cn2 over large areas in the atmospheric surface layer. Turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum are inferred through coupled sets of equations derived from the Monin–Obukhov similarity hypothesis. One-dimensional sensitivity functions have been produced that relate the sensitivity of heat fluxes to uncertainties in single values of beam height over homogeneous and flat terrain. However, real field sites include variable topography and heterogeneous surfaces. We develop here the first analysis of the sensitivity of scintillometer derived sensible heat fluxes to uncertainties in spatially distributed topographic measurements. For large-aperture scintillometers and independent friction velocity u* measurements, sensitivity is shown to be concentrated in areas near the center of the beam path and where the underlying topography is closest to the beam height. Uncertainty may be greatly reduced by focusing precise topographic measurements in these areas. A new two-dimensional variable terrain sensitivity function is developed for quantitative error analysis. This function is compared with the previous one-dimensional sensitivity function for the same measurement strategy over flat and homogeneous terrain. Additionally, a new method of solution to the set of coupled equations is produced that eliminates computational error. The results are produced using a new methodology for error analysis involving distributed parameters that may be applied in other disciplines.
Zhang, Zhongrui; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J.; Cai, Liang; Yang, Yusheng; Cheng, Dongliang
2016-08-01
Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that the scaling exponents among plant height H, diameter D, and biomass M will covary across phyletically diverse species. However, the relationships between scaling exponents and normalization constants remain unclear. Therefore, we developed a predictive model for the covariation of H, D, and stem volume V scaling relationships and used data from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Jiangxi province, China to test it. As predicted by the model and supported by the data, normalization constants are positively correlated with their associated scaling exponents for D vs. V and H vs. V, whereas normalization constants are negatively correlated with the scaling exponents of H vs. D. The prediction model also yielded reliable estimations of V (mean absolute percentage error = 10.5 ± 0.32 SE across 12 model calibrated sites). These results (1) support a totally new covariation scaling model, (2) indicate that differences in stem volume scaling relationships at the intra-specific level are driven by anatomical or ecophysiological responses to site quality and/or management practices, and (3) provide an accurate non-destructive method for predicting Chinese fir stem volume.
Zhang, Zhongrui; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J; Cai, Liang; Yang, Yusheng; Cheng, Dongliang
2016-08-24
Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that the scaling exponents among plant height H, diameter D, and biomass M will covary across phyletically diverse species. However, the relationships between scaling exponents and normalization constants remain unclear. Therefore, we developed a predictive model for the covariation of H, D, and stem volume V scaling relationships and used data from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Jiangxi province, China to test it. As predicted by the model and supported by the data, normalization constants are positively correlated with their associated scaling exponents for D vs. V and H vs. V, whereas normalization constants are negatively correlated with the scaling exponents of H vs. D. The prediction model also yielded reliable estimations of V (mean absolute percentage error = 10.5 ± 0.32 SE across 12 model calibrated sites). These results (1) support a totally new covariation scaling model, (2) indicate that differences in stem volume scaling relationships at the intra-specific level are driven by anatomical or ecophysiological responses to site quality and/or management practices, and (3) provide an accurate non-destructive method for predicting Chinese fir stem volume.
Volume Averaging Theory (VAT) based modeling and closure evaluation for fin-and-tube heat exchangers
Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan
2012-10-01
A fin-and-tube heat exchanger was modeled based on Volume Averaging Theory (VAT) in such a way that the details of the original structure was replaced by their averaged counterparts, so that the VAT based governing equations can be efficiently solved for a wide range of parameters. To complete the VAT based model, proper closure is needed, which is related to a local friction factor and a heat transfer coefficient of a Representative Elementary Volume (REV). The terms in the closure expressions are complex and sometimes relating experimental data to the closure terms is difficult. In this work we use CFD to evaluate the rigorously derived closure terms over one of the selected REVs. The objective is to show how heat exchangers can be modeled as a porous media and how CFD can be used in place of a detailed, often formidable, experimental effort to obtain closure for the model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Stratigaki, V.
2011-01-01
differences between the extreme wave conditions in which the device is designed to survive and the average wave conditions for which the device is to be optimised. Indeed, the ratio between extreme loads and operational loads has been identified to be a fundamental factor for the design and the cost analysis......The wave energy sector is in need of showing positive experience from the real sea trial in order to prove its feasibility. For this purpose, an accurate knowledge of wave conditions at the selected location of installation is fundamental. A design challenge for wave energy devices is the large...
Mapping Canopy Height and Growing Stock Volume Using Airborne Lidar, ALOS PALSAR and Landsat ETM+
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wayne Walker
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We have investigated for forest plantations in Chile the stand-level retrieval of canopy height (CH and growing stock volume (GSV using Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS, ALOS PALSAR and Landsat. In a two-stage up-scaling approach, ensemble regression tree models (randomForest were used to relate a suite of ALS canopy structure indices to stand-level in situ measurements of CH and GSV for 319 stands. The retrieval of CH and GSV with ALS yielded high accuracies with R2s of 0.93 and 0.81, respectively. A second set of randomForest models was developed using multi-temporal ALOS PALSAR intensities and repeat-pass coherences in two polarizations as well as Landsat data as predictor and stand-level ALS based estimates of CH and GSV as response variables. At three test sites, the retrieval of CH and GSV with PALSAR/Landsat reached promising accuracies with R2s in the range of 0.7 to 0.85. We show that the combined use of multi-temporal PALSAR intensity, coherence and Landsat yields higher retrieval accuracies than the retrieval with any of the datasets alone. Potential limitations for the large-area application of the fusion approach included (1 the low sensitivity of ALS first/last return data to forest horizontal structure, affecting the retrieval of GSV in less managed types of forest, and (2 the dense ALS sampling required to achieve high retrieval accuracies at larger scale.
Davit, Yohan
2013-12-01
A wide variety of techniques have been developed to homogenize transport equations in multiscale and multiphase systems. This has yielded a rich and diverse field, but has also resulted in the emergence of isolated scientific communities and disconnected bodies of literature. Here, our goal is to bridge the gap between formal multiscale asymptotics and the volume averaging theory. We illustrate the methodologies via a simple example application describing a parabolic transport problem and, in so doing, compare their respective advantages/disadvantages from a practical point of view. This paper is also intended as a pedagogical guide and may be viewed as a tutorial for graduate students as we provide historical context, detail subtle points with great care, and reference many fundamental works. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid
Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.
1992-01-01
An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Weiss, George H.
1996-07-01
In order to extend the greatly simplified Smoluchowski model for chemical reaction rates it is necessary to incorporate many-body effects. A generalization with this feature is the so-called trapping model in which random walkers move among a uniformly distributed set of traps. The solution of this model requires consideration of the distinct number of sites visited by a single n-step random walk. A recent analysis [H. Larralde et al., Phys. Rev. A 45, 1728 (1992)] has considered a generalized version of this problem by calculating the average number of distinct sites visited by N n-step random walks. A related continuum analysis is given in [A. M. Berezhkovskii, J. Stat. Phys. 76, 1089 (1994)]. We consider a slightly different version of the general problem by calculating the average volume of the Wiener sausage generated by Brownian particles generated randomly in time. The analysis shows that two types of behavior are possible: one in which there is strong overlap between the Wiener sausages of the particles, and the second in which the particles are mainly independent of one another. Either one or both of these regimes occur, depending on the dimension.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Matsueda
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (XCO2 during the period from January 2007 to May 2008 over Tsukuba, Japan, were derived by using CO2 concentration data observed by Japan Airlines Corporation (JAL commercial airliners, based on the assumption that CO2 profiles over Tsukuba and Narita were the same. CO2 profile data for 493 flights on clear-sky days were analysed in order to calculate XCO2 with an ancillary dataset: Tsukuba observational data (by rawinsonde and a meteorological tower or global meteorological data (NCEP and CIRA-86. The amplitude of seasonal variation of XCO2 (Tsukuba observational from the Tsukuba observational data was determined by least-squares fit using a harmonic function to roughly evaluate the seasonal variation over Tsukuba. The highest and lowest values of the obtained fitted curve in 2007 for XCO2 (Tsukuba observational were 386.4 and 381.7 ppm in May and September, respectively. The dependence of XCO2 on the type of ancillary dataset was evaluated. The average difference between XCO2 (global from global climatological data and XCO2 (Tsukuba observational, i.e., the bias of XCO2 (global based on XCO2 (Tsukuba observational, was found to be -0.621 ppm with a standard deviation of 0.682 ppm. The uncertainty of XCO2 (global based on XCO2 (Tsukuba observational was estimated to be 0.922 ppm. This small uncertainty suggests that the present method of XCO2 calculation using data from airliners and global climatological data can be applied to the validation of GOSAT products for XCO2 over airports worldwide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto, E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.m [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Apartado Postal 55-535, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)
2010-05-15
The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to obtain a new formulation for multiphase flow conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, based on the non-local form of the averaged volume conservation equations. The simplification of the local averaging volume of the conservation equations to obtain practical equations is subject to the following length-scale restrictions: d << l << L, where d is the characteristic length of the dispersed phases, l is the characteristic length of the averaging volume, and L is the characteristic length of the physical system. If the foregoing inequality does not hold, or if the scale of the problem of interest is of the order of l, the averaging technique and therefore, the macroscopic theories of multiphase flow should be modified in order to include appropriate considerations and terms in the corresponding equations. In these cases the local form of the averaged volume conservation equations are not appropriate to describe the multiphase system. As an example of the conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, the natural circulation boiling water reactor was consider to study the non-local effects on the thermal-hydraulic core performance during steady-state and transient behaviors, and the results were compared with the classic local averaging volume conservation equations.
Altinok, Ilhan; Capkin, Erol; Boran, Halis
2011-06-01
Effects of water volume and water column height on toxicity of cypermethrin, carbaryl, dichlorvos, tetradifon, maneb, captan, carbosulfan endosulfan and HgCl₂ to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, 3.2 ± 0.7 g) were evaluated in different glass aquaria under static conditions. When fish were exposed to the chemical compounds in 23 cm water column height (25 L), their mortality ranged between 0% and 58%. At the same water volume, but lower water column height (9 cm), mortality of fish increased significantly and was in a range from 60% to 95%. At the same water column height, toxic effects of chemicals were significantly higher in 25 L water volume than that of 8.5 L, water except maneb which has lowest (-0.45) octanol-water partition coefficient value. Mortality rates ratio of 9 and 23 cm water column height ranged between 1.12 and 90 while mortality rates ratio of 9 and 25 L water volume ranged between 1.20 and 4.0. Because actual exposure concentrations were not affected by either water volume or water column height, we propose that increased pesticides' toxicity was related to an increase in bioassay volume, since more pesticide molecules were able to interact with or accumulate the fish. However, there seem to be no relationship between the effects of water volume, water column height and Kow value of chemicals with regard to toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout.
Kabala, Z. J.
1997-08-01
Under the assumption that local solute dispersion is negligible, a new general formula (in the form of a convolution integral) is found for the arbitrary k-point ensemble moment of the local concentration of a solute convected in arbitrary m spatial dimensions with general sure initial conditions. From this general formula new closed-form solutions in m=2 spatial dimensions are derived for 2-point ensemble moments of the local solute concentration for the impulse (Dirac delta) and Gaussian initial conditions. When integrated over an averaging window, these solutions lead to new closed-form expressions for the first two ensemble moments of the volume-averaged solute concentration and to the corresponding concentration coefficients of variation (CV). Also, for the impulse (Dirac delta) solute concentration initial condition, the second ensemble moment of the solute point concentration in two spatial dimensions and the corresponding CV are demonstrated to be unbound. For impulse initial conditions the CVs for volume-averaged concentrations axe compared with each other for a tracer from the Borden aquifer experiment. The point-concentration CV is unacceptably large in the whole domain, implying that the ensemble mean concentration is inappropriate for predicting the actual concentration values. The volume-averaged concentration CV decreases significantly with an increasing averaging volume. Since local dispersion is neglected, the new solutions should be interpreted as upper limits for the yet to be derived solutions that account for local dispersion; and so should the presented CVs for Borden tracers. The new analytical solutions may be used to test the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations or other numerical algorithms that deal with the stochastic solute transport. They may also be used to determine the size of the averaging volume needed to make a quasi-sure statement about the solute mass contained in it.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Lisa J. Samuelson; Wendell P. Cropper Jr.; Daniel J. Leduc; Timothy A. Martin
2014-01-01
Accurate and efficient estimation of forest growth and live biomass is a critical element in assessing potential responses to forest management and environmental change. The objective of this study was to develop models to predict longleaf pine tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and merchantable stem volume (V) using data obtained from field measurements. We used longleaf pine tree data from 3,376 planted trees on 127 permanent plots located in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain region to fit equations to predict dbh and V as functions of tree height (H) and crown area (CA). Prediction of dbh as a function of H improved when CA was added as an additional independent variable. Similarly, predic-tions of V based on H improved when CA was included. Incorporation of additional stand variables such as age, site index, dominant height, and stand density were also evaluated but resulted in only small improve-ments in model performance. For model testing we used data from planted and naturally-regenerated trees located inside and outside the geographic area used for model fitting. Our results suggest that the models are a robust alternative for dbh and V estimations when H and CA are known on planted stands with potential for naturally-regenerated stands, across a wide range of ages. We discuss the importance of these models for use with metrics derived from remote sensing data.
Chen, Chieh-Fan; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Huei-Yin; Yang, Shu-Mei; Chen, I-Te; Shi, Hon-Yi
2011-01-01
This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chieh-Fan Chen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume.
Accuracy Assessment of Timber Volume Maps Using Forest Inventory Data and LiDAR Canopy Height Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Hill
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Maps of standing timber volume provide valuable decision support for forest managers and have therefore been the subject of recent studies. For map production, field observations are commonly combined with area-wide remote sensing data in order to formulate prediction models, which are then applied over the entire inventory area. The accuracy of such maps has frequently been described by parameters such as the root mean square error of the prediction model. The aim of this study was to additionally address the accuracy of timber volume classes, which are used to better represent the map predictions. However, the use of constant class intervals neglects the possibility that the precision of the underlying prediction model may not be constant across the entire volume range, resulting in pronounced gradients between class accuracies. This study proposes an optimization technique that automatically identifies a classification scheme which accounts for the properties of the underlying model and the implied properties of the remote sensing support information. We demonstrate the approach in a mountainous study site in Eastern Switzerland covering a forest area of 2000 hectares using a multiple linear regression model approach. A LiDAR-based canopy height model (CHM provided the auxiliary information; timber volume observations from the latest forest inventory were used for model calibration and map validation. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.64 and the cross-validated root mean square error (RMSECV = 123.79 m3 ha−1 were only slightly smaller than those of studies in less steep and heterogeneous landscapes. For a large set of pre-defined number of classes, the optimization model successfully identified those classification schemes that achieved the highest possible accuracies for each class.
Kováčik, L; Kereïche, S; Matula, P; Raška, I
2014-01-01
Electron tomographic reconstructions suffer from a number of artefacts arising from effects accompanying the processes of acquisition of a set of tilted projections of the specimen in a transmission electron microscope and from its subsequent computational handling. The most pronounced artefacts usually come from imprecise projection alignment, distortion of specimens during tomogram acquisition and from the presence of a region of missing data in the Fourier space, the "missing wedge". The ray artefacts caused by the presence of the missing wedge can be attenuated by the angular image filter, which attenuates the transition between the data and the missing wedge regions. In this work, we present an analysis of the influence of angular filtering on the resolution of averaged repetitive structural motives extracted from three-dimensional reconstructions of tomograms acquired in the single-axis tilting geometry.
Volume-Averaged Model of Inductively-Driven Multicusp Ion Source
Patel, Kedar K.; Lieberman, M. A.; Graf, M. A.
1998-10-01
A self-consistent spatially averaged model of high-density oxygen and boron trifluoride discharges has been developed for a 13.56 MHz, inductively coupled multicusp ion source. We determine positive ion, negative ion, and electron densities, the ground state and metastable densities, and the electron temperature as functions of the control parameters: gas pressure, gas flow rate, input power and reactor geometry. Neutralization and fragmentation into atomic species are assumed for all ions hitting the wall. For neutrals, a wall recombination coefficient for oxygen atoms and a wall sticking coefficient for boron trifluoride (BF_3) and its dissociation products are the single adjustable parameters used to model the surface chemistry. For the aluminum walls of the ion source used in the Eaton ULE2 ion implanter, complete wall recombination of O atoms is found to give the best match to the experimental data for oxygen, whereas a sticking coefficient of 0.62 for all neutral species in a BF3 discharge was found to best match experimental data.
Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua
2015-08-01
The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Björn eNitzsche
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.
Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H; Fonov, Vladimir S; Boltze, Johannes
2015-01-01
Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
T. Wang; B.Pustal; M. Abondano; T. Grimmig; A. B(u)hrig-Polaczek; M. Wu; A. Ludwig
2005-01-01
The cooling channel process is a rehocasting method by which the prematerial with globular microstructure can be produced to fit the thixocasting process. A three-phase model based on volume averaging approach is proposed to simulate the cooling channel process of A356 Aluminum alloy. The three phases are liquid, solid and air respectively and treated as separated and interacting continua, sharing a single pressure field. The mass, momentum, enthalpy transport equations for each phase are solved. The developed model can predict the evolution of liquid, solid and air fraction as well as the distribution of grain density and grain size. The effect of pouring temperature on the grain density, grain size and solid fraction is analyzed in detail.
Heyes, D. M.; Smith, E. R.; Dini, D.; Zaki, T. A.
2011-07-01
It is shown analytically that the method of planes (MOP) [Todd, Evans, and Daivis, Phys. Rev. E 52, 1627 (1995)] and volume averaging (VA) [Cormier, Rickman, and Delph, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 99 (2001), 10.1063/1.1328406] formulas for the local pressure tensor, Pα, y(y), where α ≡ x, y, or z, are mathematically identical. In the case of VA, the sampling volume is taken to be an infinitely thin parallelepiped, with an infinite lateral extent. This limit is shown to yield the MOP expression. The treatment is extended to include the condition of mechanical equilibrium resulting from an imposed force field. This analytical development is followed by numerical simulations. The equivalence of these two methods is demonstrated in the context of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of boundary-driven shear flow. A wall of tethered atoms is constrained to impose a normal load and a velocity profile on the entrained central layer. The VA formula can be used to compute all components of Pαβ(y), which offers an advantage in calculating, for example, Pxx(y) for nano-scale pressure-driven flows in the x-direction, where deviations from the classical Poiseuille flow solution can occur.
Fatigue strength of Al7075 notched plates based on the local SED averaged over a control volume
Berto, Filippo; Lazzarin, Paolo
2014-01-01
When pointed V-notches weaken structural components, local stresses are singular and their intensities are expressed in terms of the notch stress intensity factors (NSIFs). These parameters have been widely used for fatigue assessments of welded structures under high cycle fatigue and sharp notches in plates made of brittle materials subjected to static loading. Fine meshes are required to capture the asymptotic stress distributions ahead of the notch tip and evaluate the relevant NSIFs. On the other hand, when the aim is to determine the local Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged in a control volume embracing the point of stress singularity, refined meshes are, not at all, necessary. The SED can be evaluated from nodal displacements and regular coarse meshes provide accurate values for the averaged local SED. In the present contribution, the link between the SED and the NSIFs is discussed by considering some typical welded joints and sharp V-notches. The procedure based on the SED has been also proofed to be useful for determining theoretical stress concentration factors of blunt notches and holes. In the second part of this work an application of the strain energy density to the fatigue assessment of Al7075 notched plates is presented. The experimental data are taken from the recent literature and refer to notched specimens subjected to different shot peening treatments aimed to increase the notch fatigue strength with respect to the parent material.
Chaynikov, S.; Porta, G.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.
2012-04-01
We focus on a theoretical analysis of nonreactive solute transport in porous media through the volume averaging technique. Darcy-scale transport models based on continuum formulations typically include large scale dispersive processes which are embedded in a pore-scale advection diffusion equation through a Fickian analogy. This formulation has been extensively questioned in the literature due to its inability to depict observed solute breakthrough curves in diverse settings, ranging from the laboratory to the field scales. The heterogeneity of the pore-scale velocity field is one of the key sources of uncertainties giving rise to anomalous (non-Fickian) dispersion in macro-scale porous systems. Some of the models which are employed to interpret observed non-Fickian solute behavior make use of a continuum formulation of the porous system which assumes a two-region description and includes a bimodal velocity distribution. A first class of these models comprises the so-called ''mobile-immobile'' conceptualization, where convective and dispersive transport mechanisms are considered to dominate within a high velocity region (mobile zone), while convective effects are neglected in a low velocity region (immobile zone). The mass exchange between these two regions is assumed to be controlled by a diffusive process and is macroscopically described by a first-order kinetic. An extension of these ideas is the two equation ''mobile-mobile'' model, where both transport mechanisms are taken into account in each region and a first-order mass exchange between regions is employed. Here, we provide an analytical derivation of two region "mobile-mobile" meso-scale models through a rigorous upscaling of the pore-scale advection diffusion equation. Among the available upscaling methodologies, we employ the Volume Averaging technique. In this approach, the heterogeneous porous medium is supposed to be pseudo-periodic, and can be represented through a (spatially) periodic unit cell
Li, Ri; Zhou, Liming; Wang, Jian; Li, Yan
2017-02-01
Based on solidification theory and a volume-averaged multiphase solidification model, the solidification process of NH4Cl-70 pct H2O was numerically simulated and experimentally verified. Although researchers have investigated the solidification process of NH4Cl-70 pct H2O, most existing studies have been focused on analysis of a single phenomenon, such as the formation of channel segregation, convection types, and the formation of grains. Based on prior studies, by combining numerical simulation and experimental investigation, all phenomena of the entire computational domain of the solidification process of an NH4Cl aqueous solution were comprehensively investigated for the first time in this study. In particular, the sedimentation of equiaxed grains in the ingot and the induced convection were reproduced. In addition, the formation mechanism of segregation was studied in depth. The calculation demonstrated that the equiaxed grains settled from the wall of the mold and gradually aggregated at the bottom of the mold; when the volume fraction reached a critical value, the columnar grains stopped growing, thus completing the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Because of solute partitioning, negative segregation occurred at the bottom region of the ingot concentrated with grains, whereas a wide range of positive segregation occurred in the unsolidified, upper part of the ingot. Experimental investigation indicated that the predicted results of the sedimentation of the equiaxed grains in the ingot and the convection types agreed well with the experimental results, thus revealing that the sedimentation of solid phase and convection in the solidification process are the key factors responsible for macrosegregation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王鑫; 苗洪利
2015-01-01
Satelite altimeter can measure global ocean dynamic environment around the clock.The important data product is the sea surface height (SSH). In this paper we compute the SSH of al the points based on the satelite altimeter data. Then we use the reference orbit to colinear processing with SSH and average the result. Finaly we get the mean sea surface height (MSSH). This method can get the sea surface height information of different time ranges in a short period of time. And it can provide the data support for the long term change of sea level.%卫星高度计可以实现全球范围的全天候海洋动力环境测量，其中重要的数据产品为海表面高度(SSH)。本文基于高度计测量数据，计算出每个测量点的海表面高度。利用参考轨道对数据采用共线处理得到全球的平均共线海表面高度。这一方法可以在短时间内获得全球范围的不同时间尺度下的海表面高度信息，能够为海平面长期变化研究提供数据支持。
Yao, Dezhong
2017-02-14
Currently, average reference is one of the most widely adopted references in EEG and ERP studies. The theoretical assumption is the surface potential integral of a volume conductor being zero, thus the average of scalp potential recordings might be an approximation of the theoretically desired zero reference. However, such a zero integral assumption has been proved only for a spherical surface. In this short communication, three counter-examples are given to show that the potential integral over the surface of a dipole in a volume conductor may not be zero. It depends on the shape of the conductor and the orientation of the dipole. This fact on one side means that average reference is not a theoretical 'gold standard' reference, and on the other side reminds us that the practical accuracy of average reference is not only determined by the well-known electrode array density and its coverage but also intrinsically by the head shape. It means that reference selection still is a fundamental problem to be fixed in various EEG and ERP studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okuda Miyuki
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We were able to treat a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who also suffered from sleep-disordered breathing by using the average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator (Philips Respironics: United States. This allows a target tidal volume to be set based on automatic changes in inspiratory positive airway pressure. This removed the need to change the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation settings during the day and during sleep. The Respironics V60 Ventilator, in the average volume-assured pressure support mode, was attached to our patient and improved and stabilized his sleep-related hypoventilation by automatically adjusting force to within an acceptable range. Case presentation Our patient was a 74-year-old Japanese man who was hospitalized for treatment due to worsening of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He was diagnosed with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and full-time biphasic positive airway pressure support ventilation was initiated. Our patient was temporarily provided with portable noninvasive positive pressure ventilation at night-time following an improvement in his condition, but his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease again worsened due to the recurrence of a respiratory infection. During the initial exacerbation, his tidal volume was significantly lower during sleep (378.9 ± 72.9mL than while awake (446.5 ± 63.3mL. A ventilator that allows ventilation to be maintained by automatically adjusting the inspiratory force to within an acceptable range was attached in average volume-assured pressure support mode, improving his sleep-related hypoventilation, which is often associated with the use of the Respironics V60 Ventilator. Polysomnography performed while our patient was on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation revealed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index = 14, suggesting that his chronic
Calculation of the mean yearly mixing height over urban areas, from air pollution data.
Benarie, M M
1975-01-01
Conditions for the usefulness of the ventilation-volume or box model in the representation of long-term averages of pollutant concentrations are discussed. It is shown that yearly averages of mixing heights can be calculated from air pollutant concentration data without reference to meteorological observations. With no pretence to high accuracy, average mixing heights thus obtained are adequate to rapidly characterize an urban area in the low, medium or high bracket of pollutant concentrations. Estimates of yearly average mixing heights for six French and two Japanese towns are given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fugal, M; McDonald, D; Jacqmin, D; Koch, N; Ellis, A; Peng, J; Ashenafi, M; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly
Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie; Heng, Ee Ling; Nyktari, Evangelia; Asimakopoulos, George; de Souza, Anthony; Giri, Shivraman; Pierce, Iain; Jabbour, Andrew; Firmin, David; Frenneaux, Michael; Gatehouse, Peter; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K
2017-06-12
Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. For assessment of T 1 mapping precision, a cohort of 15 healthy volunteers underwent two CMR scans on separate days using an 11 heartbeat MOLLI with a 5(3)3 beat scheme to measure native T 1 and a 4(1)3(1)2 beat post-contrast scheme to measure post-contrast T 1, allowing calculation of partition coefficient and ECV. To assess correlation of T 1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction. A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two mid ventricular level averaged T 1 maps provided improved precision (Intraclass correlation 0.93 vs 0.84) and correlation with histology (R (2) = 0.83 vs 0.36) for diffuse fibrosis compared to a single mid-ventricular level alone. ECV was more precise and correlated better than native T 1 mapping. T 1 mapping sequences with repeated averaging could be considered for applications of 11 heartbeat MOLLI, especially when small changes in native T 1/ECV might affect clinical management.
Theta height and Faltings height
Pazuki, F
2009-01-01
Using original ideas from J.-B. Bost and S. David, we provide an explicit comparison between the Theta height and the stable Faltings height of a principally polarized abelian variety. We also give as an application an explicit upper bound on the number of K-rational points of a curve of genus g>1 over a number filed K under a conjecture of S. Lang and J. Silverman. We complete the study with a comparison between differential lattice structures.
Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C
2015-08-01
In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rathleff, M; Nielsen, RG; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard;
2008-01-01
position and relaxed standing posture. Excessive movement of the navicula is considered a predisposing factor in the development of shin splits. No single direct static measurement of navicula height has yet shown to predict a high degree of mid foot movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate...
Bronte, Emily
2005-01-01
Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his
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Yao-Ching Wang
Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Ganesan, P.
Two programs have been developed to process profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral / sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...
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Bogdan APOSTOL
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Field data was collected using Field-Map real-time GIS-laser equipment, a high-accuracy GNSS receiver and a Vertex IV ultrasound inclinometer. ALS data were collected using a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument and processed using LP360 and Fusion software to extract digital terrain, surface and canopy height models. For the estimation of tree heights, number of trees and tree crown widths from the ALS data, the Canopy Maxima algorithm was used together with local regression equations relating field-measured tree heights and crown widths at each plot. When compared to LiDAR detected trees, about 40-61% of the field-measured trees were correctly identified. Such trees represented, in general, predominant, dominant and co-dominant trees from the upper canopy. However, it should be noted that the volume of the correctly identified trees represented 60-78% of the total plot volume. The estimation of stand volume using the LiDAR data was achieved by empirical modelling, taking into account the individual tree heights (as identified from the ALS data and the corresponding ground reference stem volume. The root mean square error (RMSE between the individual tree heights measured in the field and the corresponding heights identified in the ALS data was 1.7-2.2 meters. Comparing the ground reference estimated stem volume (at trees level with the corresponding ALS estimated tree stem volume, an RMSE of 0.5-0.7 m3 was achieved. The RMSE was slightly lower when comparing the ground
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.;
2008-01-01
In 1996 Cornwall and McPoil discovered that the static measurement of the rearfoot angle while standing on one leg in a relaxed position, could serve as a clinical indicator of the maximum amount of rearfoot eversion during walking. Due to the close relationship between midfoot and rearfoot motio...... the relationship between static measurements, using Navicual Drop Test and One Leg Standing (OLS) and the dynamic measurements of minimal navicula height loaded (NHL) and navicula drop (ΔNH)...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高灵; 王瑞辉; 王睿; 谢耀坚; 吴志华
2014-01-01
对试验地的1470株赤桉进行树高、胸径、冠幅的测量，并计算出样木的单株材积。把胸径分别和冠幅、树高及株材积进行相关性分析并且建立数学模型，用SPSS软件对所选模型进行曲线估计。结果表明：其中幂方程的 R2最大，F 值亦为最大，说明赤桉胸径与树高的幂关系显著，可确定赤桉胸径与树高的最优回归方程为H=1.804D0.673。胸径—冠幅，胸径—材积的最优模型分别为CW=0.674D0.561，V=0.0001614D2.341。分别对3组最优模型进行适应性检验，结果表明：材积的3个最优回归模型预测误差均在±3%以内，方程预测精度较高，可用于估算立木树高、冠幅、材积。%Data were collected from 1 470Eucalyptuscamaldulensis trees including tree height, diameter at breast height and crown width measurements. Individual tree volume was calculated from these parameters for each individual tree. Analyses of the correlations between diameter at breast height, crown width, tree height and individual tree volume were carried out using SPSS software. The results show that the largest of which R2,F value of the maximum power equation also shows diameter at breast height was significantly higher power relationship can be determinedE. camaldulensis optimal diameter and tree height regression equationH = 1.804 D0.673. Similarly come DBH– crown width, DBH - volume optimal model was CW = 0.674D0.561,V= 0.000 161 4D2.341. To ensure the accuracy of the research and analyses of, respectively, three groups of the far right model for adaptive test results showed that three best regression model to predict volume are in error within ± 3.0%, higher prediction accuracy equation can be used to estimate the standing tree height, crown width and volume.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexoff, David L., E-mail: alexoff@bnl.gov; Dewey, Stephen L.; Vaska, Paul; Krishnamoorthy, Srilalan; Ferrieri, Richard; Schueller, Michael; Schlyer, David J.; Fowler, Joanna S.
2011-02-15
Introduction: PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Methods: Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Results: Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean{+-}S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59{+-}1.1%, 64{+-}4.4% and 67{+-}1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. Conclusions: The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexoff, D.L.; Alexoff, D.L.; Dewey, S.L.; Vaska, P.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Ferrieri, R.; Schueller, M.; Schlyer, D.; Fowler, J.S.
2011-03-01
PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean {+-} S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59 {+-} 1.1%, 64 {+-} 4.4% and 67 {+-} 1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barraclough, B; Lebron, S [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, J; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, C; Yan, G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: A novel convolution-based approach has been proposed to address ion chamber (IC) volume averaging effect (VAE) for the commissioning of commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). We investigate the use of various convolution kernels and its impact on the accuracy of beam models. Methods: Our approach simulates the VAE by iteratively convolving the calculated beam profiles with a detector response function (DRF) while optimizing the beam model. At convergence, the convolved profiles match the measured profiles, indicating the calculated profiles match the “true” beam profiles. To validate the approach, beam profiles of an Elekta LINAC were repeatedly collected with ICs of various volumes (CC04, CC13 and SNC 125) to obtain clinically acceptable beam models. The TPS-calculated profiles were convolved externally with the DRF of respective IC. The beam model parameters were reoptimized using Nelder-Mead method by forcing the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. We evaluated three types of DRFs (Gaussian, Lorentzian, and parabolic) and the impact of kernel dependence on field geometry (depth and field size). The profiles calculated with beam models were compared with SNC EDGE diode-measured profiles. Results: The method was successfully implemented with Pinnacle Scripting and Matlab. The reoptimization converged in ∼10 minutes. For all tested ICs and DRFs, penumbra widths of the TPS-calculated profiles and diode-measured profiles were within 1.0 mm. Gaussian function had the best performance with mean penumbra width difference within 0.5 mm. The use of geometry dependent DRFs showed marginal improvement, reducing the penumbra width differences to less than 0.3 mm. Significant increase in IMRT QA passing rates was achieved with the optimized beam model. Conclusion: The proposed approach significantly improved the accuracy of the TPS beam model. Gaussian functions as the convolution kernel performed consistently better than Lorentzian and
Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu
2011-12-01
Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found.
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Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire
2013-02-01
deveriam ter esse exame realizado.PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a Brazilian reference curve of fundal height (FH regarding its capacity of screening the deviations of volume of amniotic fluid using a Brazilian reference curve of amniotic fluid index (AFI as gold standard. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating 753 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the public health services of João Pessoa (PB, from March to October 2006, who had a routine ultrasound exam scheduled for after 26 weeks of gestational age. Cases with diagnoses of twin pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death and major fetal malformations were excluded. Besides socio-demographic information, data regarding fundal height measured in a standard way, estimated fetal weight, AFI and gestational age at the time of the ultrasound exam were also collected. The capacity of the FH curve to predict deviations of the amniotic fluid volume was assessed using the Brazilian curve of AFI according to gestational age as the gold standard. For this purpose, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were estimated for different cut-off points. RESULTS: The measurement of FH identified 10.5% of women as having low FH possibly associated with oligohydramnios and 25.2% as having high FH possibly associated with polyhydramnios. Using a Brazilian reference curve of AFI, the FH was able to poorly predict the occurrence of oligohydramnios (sensitivity ranging from 37 to 28% and to reasonably predict the occurrence of polyhydramnios (sensitivity ranging from 88 to 69%. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of fundal height showed a poor performance for predicting oligohydramnios and a reasonable performance for predicting polyhydramnios. Its use for this purpose is then only supported in settings where the ultrasound exam is not easily or routinely available in order to help define priorities for cases that should have this exam performed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
兰清生
2014-01-01
利用曝光曲线和胶片特性曲线，推导了焊缝内部体积缺陷高度的计算公式，缺陷高度计算公式适应于焊缝表面比较平滑的体积型缺陷计算。通过测量缺陷处底片黑度、缺陷附近焊缝处底片黑度、缺陷附近母材处底片黑度、缺陷附近焊缝高度，可以用公式计算焊缝内部体积缺陷高度，该公式能够应用于未焊透和条状夹渣的高度测定，并在压力容器定期检验时对未焊透和条状夹渣缺陷安全状况进行定级。%Using exposure curve and film characteristic curve, the height formula for internal volume defects in weld was deduced . The formula adapted to the calculation of volume defects in welds with smooth surface. By measuring the film blackness of the defect film blackness of the weld near the defect , film blackness of the base near the defect , and the weld height near the defect , the internal volume defect height can been calculated by the formula . The formula can been applied to determinate the height of lack-penetration and strip-slag, and to grade the defect security conditions for lack-penetration and strip-slag in pressure vessels periodical inspection .
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I. Morino
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT Short-Wavelength InfraRed observation (GOSAT SWIR X_{CO2} and X_{CH4} were compared with the reference data obtained by ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers (g-b FTSs participating in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON.
Through calibrations of g-b FTSs with airborne in-situ measurements, the uncertainty of X_{CO2} and X_{CH4} associated with the g-b FTS was determined to be 0.8 ppm (~0.2% and 4 ppb (~0.2%, respectively. The GOSAT products are validated with these calibrated g-b FTS data. Preliminary results are as follows: The GOSAT SWIR X_{CO2} and X_{CH4} (Version 01.xx are biased low by 8.85 ± 4.75 ppm (2.3 ± 1.2% and 20.4 ± 18.9 ppb (1.2 ± 1.1%, respectively. The precision of the GOSAT SWIR X_{CO2} and X_{CH4} is considered to be about 1%. The latitudinal distributions of zonal means of the GOSAT SWIR X_{CO2} and X_{CH4} show similar features to those of the g-b FTS data.
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Helio Garcia Leite
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido, visando avaliar as seguintes hipóteses: a equações hipsométricas devem ser obtidas por parcela, apenas em função do dap; e b equações volumétricas devem ser locais, em função apenas do dap. Foram utilizados dados de quatro parcelas distribuídas ao acaso em um povoamento de eucalipto de 67,81 ha e de 50 parcelas distribuídas ao acaso em um povoamento de 121,3 ha, da mesma espécie. Em uma análise inicial, a fim de obter valores reais de altura total e de volume sólido, realizou-se uma cubagem rigorosa de todas as árvores das quatro parcelas. Foram utilizados, ainda, dados de 277 árvores cubadas rigorosamente nos povoamentos. Para avaliar a exatidão das estimativas e as hipóteses formuladas, empregou-se o procedimento estatístico proposto por Leite & Oliveira (2002. Com base nos resultados, as hipóteses a e b foram rejeitadas a 1% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se, portanto, que em um inventário florestal a variável Hd deve ser considerada e que as equações volumétricas devem ser regionais.This study was carried out to evaluate the following hypotheses: a hipsometric equations should be obtained by plot, only in function of the dbh and b volumetric equations should be local only in function of the dbh. Data of 4 and 50 plots were randomly distributed in a 67.81 ha and 121.3 ha eucalypt stand, respectively. A rigorous scaling of all the trees in the 4 plots was initially carried out to obtain total height and solid volume. Data of 277 trees rigorously scaled in the stand were also used. The statistical procedure proposed by Leite & Oliveira (2002 was used to evaluate the accuracy of the estimates and hypotheses. Based on the results, hypotheses a and b were rejected at 1% probability. It was concluded that, in a forest inventory, the variable dominant height should be considered and the volumetric equations should be regional.
Heritability of volumetric brain changes and height in children entering puberty.
van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Baal, G Caroline M; Schnack, Hugo G; Peper, Jiska S; Chen, Lei; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E
2013-03-01
The human brain undergoes structural changes in children entering puberty, while simultaneously children increase in height. It is not known if brain changes are under genetic control, and whether they are related to genetic factors influencing the amount of overall increase in height. Twins underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans at age 9 (N = 190) and 12 (N = 125). High heritability estimates were found at both ages for height and brain volumes (49-96%), and high genetic correlation between ages were observed (r(g) > 0.89). With increasing age, whole brain (+1.1%), cerebellum (+4.2%), cerebral white matter (+5.1%), and lateral ventricle (+9.4%) volumes increased, and third ventricle (-4.0%) and cerebral gray matter (-1.6%) volumes decreased. Children increased on average 13.8 cm in height (9.9%). Genetic influences on individual difference in volumetric brain and height changes were estimated, both within and across traits. The same genetic factors influenced both cerebral (20% heritable) and cerebellar volumetric changes (45%). Thus, the extent to which changes in cerebral and cerebellar volumes are heritable in children entering puberty are due to the same genes that influence change in both structures. The increase in height was heritable (73%), and not associated with cerebral volumetric change, but positively associated with cerebellar volume change (r(p) = 0.24). This association was explained by a genetic correlation (r(g) = 0.48) between height and cerebellar change. Brain and body each expand at their own pace and through separate genetic pathways. There are distinct genetic processes acting on structural brain development, which cannot be explained by genetic increase in height.
Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.
Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen
2014-02-01
The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.
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Federico Fallavollita
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of photogrammetric restitution is the reconstruction of the volumes, now lost, located along the road that crosses the village, on the left side of the photo. The reconstruction of points in space from twodimensional images is possible if these photos are projective figure and we have at least two projective oriented stars. The first image is a vintage photograph, the second is a figure reconstructed from an aerial photo of AM in 1938 and from the survey of the masonry still present at the site. For the survey, one of the two projective stars is assimilated to a class of vertical straight lines. With regard to photography, the problem is decomposed into two typical phases of photogrammetric processes: the internal orientation and the absolute orientation. For the absolute orientation we used the method of the pyramid vertex which, in use since the Eighteenth Century, consists in determining the projection center from three given points of which are known the positions in space.
Gongadze, Ekaterina; Iglič, Aleš
2013-03-01
Water ordering near a negatively charged electrode is one of the decisive factors determining the interactions of an electrode with the surrounding electrolyte solution or tissue. In this work, the generalized Langevin-Bikerman model (Gongadze-Iglič model) taking into account the cavity field and the excluded volume principle is used to calculate the space dependency of ions and water number densities in the vicinity of a highly charged surface. It is shown that for high enough surface charged densities the usual trend of increasing counterion number density towards the charged surface may be completely reversed, i.e. the drop in the counterions number density near the charged surface is predicted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)
2001-07-01
A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat
Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women
Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn
Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a
Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women
Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn
2008-01-01
Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a curv
[Height vertigo, fear of heights, acrophobia].
Rennert, H
1990-06-01
Height vertigo (acrophobia) is a very frequent phenomenon being of interest for its physiological and psychological background, though usually only of limited significance in neuropsychiatry and otology. The different aspects as to its nature and origin are discussed. If acrophobia has developed into a conditioned reaction of avoidance with pressure of suffering, or acrophobia in persons, who have to work at heights, behavior therapeutic measures with systematic desensibilisation, starting from an imaginative training, are indicated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闭海秀; 黄清经
2014-01-01
Using ground diameter, DBH and tree height of Cunninghamia lanceolata from the control samples of second class investigation in Zhaoping county, Hezhou city, Guaingxi in 2009 as the sample data, and using the SPSS statistical analysis software and the knowledge of mathematical statistics, the correlation about the ground diameter and DBH, tree height and volume was analyzed. The correlations or curve regression models on ground diameter and DBH, and ground diameter and volume were established and the optimal model was selected , which could be used to calculate DBH and volume by ground diam-eter. The results showed that the ground diameter and tree height accumulated in strong positive correla-tion. The best regression model of ground diameter from 6cm to 20cm and DBH was D1. 3 = -0. 199 +0. 851D地. The regression model of ground diameter from 22cm to 40cm and DBH was D1. 3 = -1. 652+0. 913 D地, with precision 98. 7 %. Ground diameter and DBH also had a strong positive linear correla-tion. Regression model of the ground diameter and volume was V =0. 000 082D地2. 486 79 with precision 95. 2 %. The precision of the models built in this time was within permitted, which could be used in practice.%利用广西昭平县2009年二类调查控制样点的数据中的杉木的地径和胸径、树高为样本数据,并通过SPSS统计分析软件和数理统计知识,对地径与胸径、树高和材积的相关关系进行分析,分别建立地径与胸径、地径与材积的相关关系或曲线回归模型,最后选出最优模型,从而可利用模型由地径推算胸径和材积。结果表明,地径与树高存在显著正相关性,且地径6~20 cm 径阶与胸径之间最佳的回归模型为 D1．3=-0．199+0．851D地,地径22~40 cm径阶与胸径之间回归模型为D1．3=-1．652+0．913D地,精度是98．7%；同时地径与胸径也存在显著的正线性相关性,地径与材积的回归模型为V=0．000082D地2．48679,精度为95．2%。本次
Caltrans Average Annual Daily Traffic Volumes (2004)
California Environmental Health Tracking Program — [ from http://www.ehib.org/cma/topic.jsp?topic_key=79 ] Traffic exhaust pollutants include compounds such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates (fine...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monroy Anton, J. L.; Solar Tortosa, M.; Lopez Munoz, M.; Navarro Bergada, A.; Estornell Gualde, M. A.; Melchor Iniguez, M.
2013-07-01
Our objective was to evaluate the V20 parameters and dose average compared to a single lung volume designed with a CT study in normal breathing of the patient and the corresponding to a lung volume composed, designed from three studies of CT in different phases of the respiratory cycle. Check if there are important differences in these cases that determine the necessity of creating a composite lung volume to evaluate dose volume histogram. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fazleev, M.P.; Chekhov, O.S.; Ermakov, E.A.
1985-06-20
This paper discusses the results of an investigation of the gas content averaged over the volume, hydrodynamic programs, and foaming in the K/sub 2/O-V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ melt plus gas system, which is used as a catalyst in several thermocatalytic processes. The experimental setup is described and a comparison of literature data on the gas content of different gas-liquid systems under comparable conditions is presented. The authors were able to determine the boundaries of the hydrodynamic modes in a bubbling reactor and derive equations for the calculation of the gas content. It was found that the gas content of the melt increased when V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ was reduced to V/sub 2/O/sub 4/ in the reaction portion of the reaction-regeneration cycle. Regeneration of the melt restores the value of gas content to its original level.
Prediction of height from knee height in children with cerebral palsy and non-disabled children.
Bell, Kristie L; Davies, Peter S W
2006-01-01
Measurement of height or length is essential in the assessment of nutritional status. In some conditions, for example cerebral palsy (CP), such measurements may be difficult or impossible. Proxy measurements such as knee height have been used to predict height in such cases. We have evaluated two equations in the literature that predict stature from knee height in a group of 17 children with CP and 20 non-disabled children. The two equations performed well on average in the non-disabled children, with the mean predicted height being within 1% of the mean measured height. Nevertheless, the limits of agreement were relatively large. This was also the case for the children with CP. Thus the equations may be accurate at the group level; however they may lead to unacceptable error at the individual level..
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Biomechanik; Kramer, M.; Hartwig, E. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Unfallchirurgische Forschung und Biomechanik
2001-02-01
The relation between height of lumbar discs (measured from lateral radiographic views) and disc degeneration (classified from MR images) deserves attention in view of the wide, often parallel or interchanged use of both methods. The time sequence of degenerative signs and decrease of disc height is controversial. To clarify the issue, this cross-sectional study documents the relation between disc degeneration and disc height in a selected cohort. Forty-three subjects were selected at random from a cohort examined for potential disc-related disease caused by long-term lifting and carrying. From each subject a lateral radiographic view of the lumbar spine as well as findings from an MR investigation of (in most cases) levels T12/L1 to L5/S1 were available; thus, n = 237 lumbar discs were available for measurement and classification. Disc height was measured from the radiographic views with a new protocol compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Degeneration as well as disc height were classified twice from MR images by independent observers in a blinded fashion. Disc degeneration classified from MR images is not related to a measurable disc height loss in the first stage of degeneration, whereas progressive degeneration goes along with progressive loss of disc height, though with considerable interindividual variation. Loss of disc height classified from MR images is on average compatible with loss of disc height measured from radiographs. In individual discs, however, classification of height loss from MR images is imprecise. The first sign of disc degeneration (a moderate loss of nucleus signal) precedes disc height decrease. As degeneration progresses, disc height decreases. Disc height decrease and progress of degeneration, however, appear to be only loosely correlated. (orig.)
Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption.
Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas
2013-09-01
Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case-control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2-3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance - contrary to various specific phobias - is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马春玲
2001-01-01
本文剖析了小说主人公的悲惨命运及时代特征%Through the story of Wuthering Heights,the article analyzes the tragic fate of Heathcliff and the characteristic of the 19th century England.
Narrators in Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘俊红
2009-01-01
Wuthering Heights is Emily Bront e's only novel. The narrative is non-linear, involving several flashbacks an dtwo primary narrators. Emily Bronte has adopted the device of introducing two narrators--Mr. Lockwood and Ellen "Nel-ly" Dean so as to achieve certain purpose.
Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics
Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried
2016-01-01
We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.
Intralocus sexual conflict over human height
Stulp, Gert; Kuijper, Bram; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon
2012-01-01
Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) occurs when a trait under selection in one sex constrains the other sex from achieving its sex-specific fitness optimum. Selection pressures on body size often differ between the sexes across many species, including humans: among men individuals of average height en
TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Dynamic Height
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Dynamic Height data (a measure of the elevation of the sea level, calculated by integrating the specific volume anomaly of the sea water...
TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Dynamic Height
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Dynamic Height data (a measure of the elevation of the sea level, calculated by integrating the specific volume anomaly of the sea water...
TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Dynamic Height
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Dynamic Height data (a measure of the elevation of the sea level, calculated by integrating the specific volume anomaly of the sea water...
Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...
ÇATAL, Yılmaz
2012-01-01
The height of a tree is important for assessing tree volume and site index. Diameter of breast height-tree height releation equations are often used to predict the mean tree height for trees in case only diameter at breast height is measured. This study aim describes between the tree heights with diameter of breast height relationships for artificially grown black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) and Taurus cedar (C...
Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)
1997-10-01
Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomas Ulitinas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the task in truss height and in the optimization of the cross-sections of their elements. Element cross-sections are designed of steel profiles considering requirements for strength, stability and rigidity. A mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem. It is solved as an iterative process, using mathematical software package “MATLAB” routine “fmincon”. The ratio of buckling is corrected in the each iteration. Optimization results are compared with those obtained applying software package “Robot Millennium”.Article in Lithuanian
Urban Skylines: building heights and shapes as measures of city size
Schläpfer, Markus; Bettencourt, Luís M A
2015-01-01
The shape of buildings plays a critical role in the energy efficiency, lifestyles, land use and infrastructure systems of cities. Thus, as most of the world's cities continue to grow and develop, understanding the interplay between the characteristics of urban environments and the built form of cities is essential to achieve local and global sustainability goals. Here, we compile and analyze the most extensive data set of building shapes to date, covering more than 4.8 million individual buildings across several major cities in North America. We show that average building height increases systematically with city size and follows theoretical predictions derived from urban scaling theory. We also study the allometric relationship between surface area and volume of buildings in terms of characteristic shape parameters. This allows us to demonstrate that the reported trend towards higher (and more voluminous) buildings effectively decreases the average surface-to-volume ratio, suggesting potentially significant ...
Siegel, Irving H.
The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gramkow, Claus
1999-01-01
In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...
Young, Vershawn Ashanti
2004-01-01
"Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gramkow, Claus
2001-01-01
In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Covariant approximation averaging
Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2014-01-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roger Chao
2012-03-01
Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.
Averaging processes in granular flows driven by gravity
Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne
2016-04-01
One of the more promising theoretical frames to analyse the two-phase granular flows is offered by the similarity of their rheology with the kinetic theory of gases [1]. Granular flows can be considered a macroscopic equivalent of the molecular case: the collisions among molecules are compared to the collisions among grains at a macroscopic scale [2,3]. However there are important statistical differences in dealing with the two applications. In the two-phase fluid mechanics, there are two main types of average: the phasic average and the mass weighed average [4]. The kinetic theories assume that the size of atoms is so small, that the number of molecules in a control volume is infinite. With this assumption, the concentration (number of particles n) doesn't change during the averaging process and the two definitions of average coincide. This hypothesis is no more true in granular flows: contrary to gases, the dimension of a single particle becomes comparable to that of the control volume. For this reason, in a single realization the number of grain is constant and the two averages coincide; on the contrary, for more than one realization, n is no more constant and the two types of average lead to different results. Therefore, the ensamble average used in the standard kinetic theory (which usually is the phasic average) is suitable for the single realization, but not for several realization, as already pointed out in [5,6]. In the literature, three main length scales have been identified [7]: the smallest is the particles size, the intermediate consists in the local averaging (in order to describe some instability phenomena or secondary circulation) and the largest arises from phenomena such as large eddies in turbulence. Our aim is to solve the intermediate scale, by applying the mass weighted average, when dealing with more than one realizations. This statistical approach leads to additional diffusive terms in the continuity equation: starting from experimental
Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard W. Johnson
2012-09-01
A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical
Height Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study
Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.
2014-11-01
Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements.We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements.This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.
Height and Tilt Geometric Texture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2009-01-01
We propose a new intrinsic representation of geometric texture over triangle meshes. Our approach extends the conventional height field texture representation by incorporating displacements in the tangential plane in the form of a normal tilt. This texture representation offers a good practical...... compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...
Research on ionospheric tomography based on variable pixel height
Zheng, Dunyong; Li, Peiqing; He, Jie; Hu, Wusheng; Li, Chaokui
2016-05-01
A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel height was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The method considers the height of each pixel as an unknown variable, which is retrieved during the inversion process together with the electron density values. In contrast to conventional computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT), which parameterizes the model with a fixed pixel height, the variable-pixel-height computerized ionospheric tomography (VHCIT) model applies a disturbance to the height of each pixel. In comparison with conventional CIT models, the VHCIT technique achieved superior results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of VHCIT was performed. According to the results of the statistical analysis of the average root mean square errors, the proposed model offers an improvement by 15% compared with conventional CIT models.
Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...
Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...
Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.
2015-12-04
A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.
An algorithm to estimate PBL heights from wind profiler data
Molod, A.; Salmun, H.
2016-12-01
An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourlyarchived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughoutthe central United States from the period 1992-2012. The long period of record allows ananalysis of climatological mean PBL heights as well as some estimates of year to yearvariability. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heightscompare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourlytemperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky MERRA estimates show that the windprofiler (WP) and the Richardson number based PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m.The geographical distribution of daily maximum WP PBL heights corresponds well with theexpected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Windprofiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, but the WP estimatesshow a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference than either of the other two PBL height estimates.The algorithm presented here is shown to provide a reliable summer, fall and springclimatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States. The reliabilityof the algorithm has prompted its use to obtain hourly PBL heights from other archived windprofiler data located throughout the world.
Socioeconomic development and secular trend in height in China.
Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin
2015-12-01
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in height among children and adolescents in China. Body height and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average height of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of height trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of height trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on height increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in height in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of height at puberty for a population.
Glacial effects limiting mountain height.
Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E
2009-08-13
The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.
Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.
The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...
Whole-Genome Analyses of lung function, height and smoking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janss, Luc; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sorensen, Daniel
2014-01-01
A joint analysis of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume after one second) and height is reported using novel methodology, as well as a single-trait analysis of smoking status. A first goal of the study was to incorporate dense genetic marker information in a random regression (Bayesian) model...... to quantify the relative contributions of genomic and environmental factors to the relationship between FEV1 and height. Smoking status was analysed using a probit random regression model and a second goal of the study was to estimate the genomic heritability of smoking status. Estimates of genomic...... heritabilities for height and FEV1 are equal to 0.47 and to 0.30, respectively. The estimates of the genomic and environmental correlations between height and FEV1 are 0.78 and 0.34, respectively. The posterior mean of the genomic heritability of smoking status is equal to 0.14 and provides evidence...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...
Validation of SCIAMACHY O2 A band cloud heights using Cloudnet radar/lidar measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Wang
2013-10-01
Full Text Available For the first time two SCIAMACHY O2 A band cloud height products are validated using ground-based radar/lidar measurements between January 2003 and December 2011. The products are the ESA Level 2 (L2 version 5.02 cloud top height and the FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band version 6 cloud height. The radar/lidar profiles are obtained at the Cloudnet sites of Cabauw and Lindenberg, and are averaged for one hour centered at the SCIAMACHY overpass time to achieve an optimal temporal and spatial match. In total we have about 220 cases of single layer clouds and 200 cases of multi-layer clouds. The FRESCO cloud height and ESA L2 cloud top height are compared with the Cloudnet cloud top height and Cloudnet cloud middle height. We find that the ESA L2 cloud top height has a better agreement with the Cloudnet cloud top height than the Cloudnet cloud middle height. The ESA L2 cloud top height is on average 0.44 km higher than the Cloudnet cloud top height, with a standard deviation of 3.07 km. The FRESCO cloud height is closer to the Cloudnet cloud middle height than the Cloudnet cloud top height. The mean difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is −0.14 km with a standard deviation of 1.88 km. The SCIAMACHY cloud height products are further compared to the Cloudnet cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height in 1 km bins. For single layer clouds, the difference between the ESA L2 cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud top height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 3–7 km, which is 24 % percent of the data. The difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 0–6 km, which is 85 % percent of the data. The results are similar for multi-layer clouds, but the percentage of cases having a bias within 1 km is smaller than for single layer clouds. Since globally about 60 % of all clouds are low clouds
replacing orthometric heights with ellipsoidal heights in engineering ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
This work investigates the use of ellipsoidal heights in place of orthometric ... be represented mathematically, and therefore enables computation to be .... suitable locations along the levelling routes. The ..... 5.3 Assumptions and theoretical approximations made ... tectonics movement, deformation and land subsidence.
Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height
Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.
2011-12-01
Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.
Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa
2014-02-01
Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.
Tehsin, Sara; Rehman, Saad; Awan, Ahmad B.; Chaudry, Qaiser; Abbas, Muhammad; Young, Rupert; Asif, Afia
2016-04-01
Sensitivity to the variations in the reference image is a major concern when recognizing target objects. A combinational framework of correlation filters and logarithmic transformation has been previously reported to resolve this issue alongside catering for scale and rotation changes of the object in the presence of distortion and noise. In this paper, we have extended the work to include the influence of different logarithmic bases on the resultant correlation plane. The meaningful changes in correlation parameters along with contraction/expansion in the correlation plane peak have been identified under different scenarios. Based on our research, we propose some specific log bases to be used in logarithmically transformed correlation filters for achieving suitable tolerance to different variations. The study is based upon testing a range of logarithmic bases for different situations and finding an optimal logarithmic base for each particular set of distortions. Our results show improved correlation and target detection accuracies.
2017-04-21
cannot fund your publication, the 59th Clinical Research Division may pay for your basic journal publishing charges (to include costs for tables and...source for your study [ e .g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP...CRD for processing (S9crdpubspres@us.af.mil). This should be accomplished no later than 30 days before final clearance is required to publish/present
Down on heights? One in three has visual height intolerance.
Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Brandt, Thomas
2013-02-01
The distressing phenomenon of visual height intolerance (vHI) occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing control of balance and falling from some height. Epidemiological data of this condition in the general population are lacking. Assignment of prevalence, determinants, and compensation of vHI was performed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 3,517 individuals representing the German population. Life-time prevalence of vHI is 28 % (females 32 %). A higher prevalence is associated independently with a family history of vHI, anxiety disorders, migraine, or motion sickness susceptibility. Women aged 50-59 have a higher prevalence than younger women or men of all ages. Initial attacks occur most often (30 %) in the second decade; however, attacks can manifest throughout life. The main symptoms are fearfulness, inner agitation, a queasy-stomach feeling, subjective postural instability with to-and-fro vertigo, and weakness in the knees. Climbing a tower is the first most common precipitating stimulus; the spectrum of such stimuli widens with time in more than 50 % of afflicted individuals. The most frequent reaction to vHI is to avoid the triggering stimuli (>50 %); 11 % of susceptible individuals consult a doctor, most often a general practitioner, neurologist, ENT doctor, or psychiatrist. In brief, visual height intolerance affects one-third of the general population, considerably restricting the majority of these individuals in their daily activities. The data show that the two terms do not indicate a categorical distinction but rather a continuum from slight forms of visual height intolerance to the specific phobia of fear of heights.
Canonical Height Functions For Monomial Maps
Lin, Jan-Li
2012-01-01
We show that the canonical height function defined by Silverman does not have the Northcott finiteness property in general. We develop a new canonical height function for monomial maps. In certain cases, this new canonical height function has nice properties.
Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels
2014-03-01
Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height
Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri
2007-01-01
of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...
A century of trends in adult human height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude
2016-01-01
in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....
Geoid height versus topography for oceanic plateaus and swells
Sandwell, David T.; Mackenzie, Kevin R.
1989-01-01
Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and topography is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to topography between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/topography ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/topography ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.
Density Effects on Plant Height Growth and Inequality in Sunflower Populations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sa Xiao; Shu-Yan Chen; Lu-Qiang Zhao; Gang Wang
2006-01-01
Comparisons between competing and non-competing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) populations demonstrate pronounced effects of density on plant height growth, height-to-crown width ratio, and a population's height inequality. In the present study, non-destructive measurements of height and the projected crown area of sunflower plants were taken at seven times from emergence to fruit maturation in even-aged monospecific stands with initial densities of 1, 4, 16, and 64 plants/m2. The mean height of populations increased and then decreased with increasing population density; the height inequalities of uncrowded populations decreased during stand growth, whereas the height inequalities of crowded populations decreased first and then increased during stand development. The interindividual relationships between the relative height growth rate and height within uncrowded populations became significantly negative during population growth, whereas these relationships were negative first and then became positive during the development of crowded populations. In the uncrowded populations, the static interindividual relationship between height-to-crown width ratio and volume was positive, whereas for the crowded population these relationships became negative with increasing competition for light. The data suggest that the plastic responses of plant height and height-to-crown width ratio to light competition will become more intense with increasing competition intensity. The results of the present study argue strongly for the importance of size-dependent individual-level plastic responses due to size-asymmetric light competition in generating the variations in population height inequality.
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...
Average Convexity in Communication Situations
Slikker, M.
1998-01-01
In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin
Control of Carbon Nanotube Density and Tower Height in an Array
Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method for controlling density or tower height of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown in spaced apart first and second regions on a substrate. CNTs having a first density range (or first tower height range) are grown in the first region using a first source temperature range for growth. Subsequently or simultaneously, CNTs having a second density range (or second tower height range), having an average density (or average tower height) in the second region different from the average density (or average tower height) for the first region, are grown in the second region, using supplemental localized hearing for the second region. Application for thermal dissipation and/or dissipation of electrical charge or voltage in an electronic device are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Struzik Artur
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.
Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Hou
2014-01-01
fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Abiotic Controls on Macroscale Variations of Humid Tropical Forest Height
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Yang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Spatial variation of tropical forest tree height is a key indicator of ecological processes associated with forest growth and carbon dynamics. Here we examine the macroscale variations of tree height of humid tropical forests across three continents and quantify the climate and edaphic controls on these variations. Forest tree heights are systematically sampled across global humid tropical forests with more than 2.5 million measurements from Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS satellite observations (2004–2008. We used top canopy height (TCH of GLAS footprints to grid the statistical mean and variance and the 90 percentile height of samples at 0.5 degrees to capture the regional variability of average and large trees globally. We used the spatial regression method (spatial eigenvector mapping-SEVM to evaluate the contributions of climate, soil and topography in explaining and predicting the regional variations of forest height. Statistical models suggest that climate, soil, topography, and spatial contextual information together can explain more than 60% of the observed forest height variation, while climate and soil jointly explain 30% of the height variations. Soil basics, including physical compositions such as clay and sand contents, chemical properties such as PH values and cation-exchange capacity, as well as biological variables such as the depth of organic matter, all present independent but statistically significant relationships to forest height across three continents. We found significant relations between the precipitation and tree height with shorter trees on the average in areas of higher annual water stress, and large trees occurring in areas with low stress and higher annual precipitation but with significant differences across the continents. Our results confirm other landscape and regional studies by showing that soil fertility, topography and climate may jointly control a significant variation of forest height and
Effective Height Upper Bounds on Algebraic Tori
Habegger, Philipp
2012-01-01
The main emphasis will be on height upper bounds in the algebraic torus G^{n}_{m}. By height we will mean the absolute logarithmic Weil height. Section 3.2 contains a precise definition of this and other more general height functions. The first appendix gives a short overview of known results in the abelian case. The second appendix contains a few height bounds in Shimura varieties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Öberg
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This study investigates regional differences in height in Sweden during the twentieth century using data from universal conscript inspections (for men. We find substantive differences (2-3 cm in height between the counties. Men in the southern, southeastern and northernmost parts of Sweden were shorter. Men in the Stockholm and Göteborg regions were taller and we find no “urban penalty” in height. The differences in height between counties declined over the course of the twentieth century and the average height increased more in the counties with an initially shorter average height. We find the expected positive associations between height and the real wage in manufacturing and the regional GDP per capita respectively. The real wage in the manufacturing sector is more consistently associated with the county average height than that for the agricultural sector. Contrary to expectations, we find that the men were consistently taller in counties with higher food prices and where the relative price of animal foods was higher. The average height was negatively associated with the infant mortality rate during the men’s childhood in the mid-twentieth century. The association was less clear in the early twentieth century.
A century of trends in adult human height.
2016-07-26
Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.
Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.
1998-01-01
wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....
Etymological study of Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张倩; 张露
2013-01-01
In Wuthering Heights, the main characters and places have been delicately designed and cautiously named, which have their special implications based on the characters’identity, status and personalities or the features of the places. Therefore, through analyzing the implied meanings of the characters and place names in this novel, this essay illustrates that the author pur-posefully failed Heathcliff’s revenge. Meanwhile, the theme of this novel-Emily’s ultimate concern for the social inequality-is naturally exposed to the reader.
Quantized average consensus with delay
Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio
2012-01-01
Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co
The monthly-averaged and yearly-averaged cosine effect factor of a heliostat field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Elsayed, M.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Thermal Engineering)
1992-01-01
Calculations are carried out to determine the dependence of the monthly-averaged and the yearly-averaged daily cosine effect factor on the pertinent parameters. The results are plotted on charts for each month and for the full year. These results cover latitude angles between 0 and 45[sup o]N, for fields with radii up to 50 tower height. In addition, the results are expressed in mathematical correlations to facilitate using them in computer applications. A procedure is outlined to use the present results to preliminary layout the heliostat field, and to predict the rated MW[sub th] reflected by the heliostat field during a period of a month, several months, or a year. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾伟生
2012-01-01
利用我国南方的杉木实测数据，采用误差变量联立方程组方法，同时建立了胸径一元材积模型、地径一元材积模型和胸径一地径回归模型。结果表明：地径与胸径之间相关紧密，其回归模型的确定系数可以达到0．96以上；地径一元材积模型的预估精度要明显低于胸径一元材积模型。%Based on the data of Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) in southern China, three models, DBH (Diameter at Breast Height ) -based volume model, DRC (Diameter on Root Collar)-based volume model, and DBH-DRC regression model, were constructed using the error-in-variabl~ simultaneous equations approach. The results showed that DBH is closely related to DRC, determination coefficient of the regression is more than 0. 96 ; and the prediction precision of DRC-based volume model is clearly lower than that of DBH-based volume model.
Climatology and evolution of the mixing height over water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sempreviva, A.M. [Istituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera, CNR, Rome (Italy); Grynig, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-10-01
In this paper we present results from an experimental investigation on the height of the mixed layer h, using a meteorological station located on the Danish island of Anholt. The station was operational for two years from September 1990 to October 1992. We present the analysis of two years of radio-sounding showing the average daily evolution of h. Furthermore observations of the mixed layer growth under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions during six consecutive days has been modelled using a simple zero-order mixed-layer height model. Finally we have compared the evolution of the mixing height from the model with the evolution of the correlation coefficient between temperature and humidity to study the influence of the deepness of the convective layer on the mechanism of the correlation between temperature and humidity in the surface layer. (au)
Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse-O'Connor, Andreas
2008-01-01
In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...
47 CFR 73.812 - Rounding of power and antenna heights.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rounding of power and antenna heights. 73.812... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.812 Rounding of power and antenna...) Antenna radiation center, antenna height above average terrain (HAAT), and antenna supporting...
Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height
Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis
2000-03-01
We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.
Height to Live Crown of Vegetation in Acadia National Park (acad_ht_crwn)
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a raster dataset in which cell values represent average height to live crown base, in feet, of woody terrestrial vegetation in Acadia National Park.
Simple and accurate optical height sensor for wafer inspection systems
Shimura, Kei; Nakai, Naoya; Taniguchi, Koichi; Itoh, Masahide
2016-02-01
An accurate method for measuring the wafer surface height is required for wafer inspection systems to adjust the focus of inspection optics quickly and precisely. A method for projecting a laser spot onto the wafer surface obliquely and for detecting its image displacement using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector is known, and a variety of methods have been proposed for improving the accuracy by compensating the measurement error due to the surface patterns. We have developed a simple and accurate method in which an image of a reticle with eight slits is projected on the wafer surface and its reflected image is detected using an image sensor. The surface height is calculated by averaging the coordinates of the images of the slits in both the two directions in the captured image. Pattern-related measurement error was reduced by applying the coordinates averaging to the multiple-slit-projection method. Accuracy of better than 0.35 μm was achieved for a patterned wafer at the reference height and ±0.1 mm from the reference height in a simple configuration.
Height and Body Mass on the Mating Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David A. Frederick
2015-09-01
Full Text Available People with traits that are attractive on the mating market are better able to pursue their preferred mating strategy. Men who are relatively tall may be preferred by women because taller height is a cue to dominance, social status, access to resources, and heritable fitness, leading them to have more mating opportunities and sex partners. We examined height, education, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI as predictors of sexual history among heterosexual men and women (N = 60,058. The linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported height and sex partner number were small for men when controlling for education, BMI, and ethnicity (linear β = .05; curvilinear β = −.03. The mean and median number of sex partners for men of different heights were: very short (9.4; 5, short (11.0; 7, average (11.7; 7, tall (12.0; 7, very tall (12.1; 7, and extremely tall (12.3; 7. Men who were “overweight” reported a higher mean and median number of sex partners than men with other body masses. The results for men suggested limited variation in reported sex partner number across most of the height continuum, but that very short men report fewer partners than other men.
Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections
Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter
2013-07-16
Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.
Height-integrated conductivity in auroral substorms - 2. Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.
2000-01-01
Calculations of height-integrated conductivity from 31 individual Dynamics Explorer (DE 2) substorm crossings presented by Gjerloev and Hoffman [this issue] are used to compile empirical models of the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities (conductances) in a bulge-type auroral substorm....... Global auroral images obtained by Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) were used to select substorms displaying a typical bulge-type emission pattern and each individual DE 2 pass was positioned with respect to key features in the observed emission pattern. The conductances were calculated for each DE 2 pass using...... electron precipitation data and a monoenergetic conductance model. All passes were divided into six different sectors, and average conductance profiles were carefully deduced for each of these sectors. Using a simple boxcar filter, smoothed average sector passes were calculated and from linear...
Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.
Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal
2010-01-26
Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.
Global Unification Problem of the Height System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XU Houze
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Some fundamental problems on the establishment of the global unified height system, including the geometry and gravity definition of the normal height, the global unification of the regional height systems obtained from leveling measurements, and the determination of geoid potential W0 are discussed. The main conclusions are summarized:①The definition of normal height in the sense of geometry leveling and gravity theory is different, so that h-ζ≠HL, here h, ζ and HL are geodetic height, height anomaly and levelling height respectively. Instead of it, we found HL=h-ζ+∂γ/∂hζH, in the mountain area, the last correction term have to be added. ②Based on the merging of GNSS/gravity/regional leveling, the regional leveling height can be transformed into a global relative unified height system, however the value of geoid potential W0 is still needed in order to establish an absolute height system. ③W0 can be determinated from the modern geodetic techniques with a certain accuracy, but it is time variable, so that people may only define a global absolute unified height system in a fixed epoch.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ovidiu Galescu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Blood pressure (BP percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP. To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%. Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (<0.001, 2=0.85, 2=0.86 and girls (<0.001, 2=0.85, 2=0.90. The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83–100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children.
Dynamic height: A key variable for identifying the spawning habitat of small pelagic fishes
Asch, Rebecca G.; Checkley, David M., Jr.
2013-01-01
Small pelagic fishes off southern California exhibit interannual variations in the regions they occupy. An enhanced understanding of these fluctuations could improve fisheries management and predictions of fish's responses to climate change. We investigated dynamic height as a variable for identifying the spawning habitat of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). During cruises between 1998 and 2004, dynamic height was calculated from temperature and salinity profiles, while fish egg concentration was measured with obliquely towed bongo nets and the Continuous, Underway Fish Egg Sampler. Dynamic height ranged between 68 and 108 cm, with values increasing offshore. The greatest probability of encountering anchovy, sardine, and jack mackerel eggs occurred at dynamic heights of 79-83 cm, 84-89 cm, and 89-99 cm, respectively. Four mechanisms were proposed to explain how dynamic height affects egg distribution: (1) dynamic height is a proxy for upper water column temperature and salinity, which are known to influence spawning habitat. (2) Low dynamic heights are indicative of coastal upwelling, which increases primary and secondary productivity. (3) Egg concentration is greater at dynamic heights coincident with geostrophic currents that transport larvae to favorable habitats. (4) Eddies delineated by dynamic height contours retain eggs in productive habitats. To evaluate these mechanisms, a generalized linear model was constructed using dynamic height, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, zooplankton volume, geostrophic currents, and eddies as independent variables. Dynamic height explained more variance than any other variable in models of sardine and anchovy spawning habitat. Together temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll accounted for 80-95% of the dynamic height effect, emphasizing the importance of the first two mechanisms. However, dynamic height remained statistically significant in the
Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants
Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.
1971-01-01
Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)
Ergodic averages via dominating processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie
2006-01-01
We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...
QTL Analysis for Plant Height with Molecular Markers in Maize
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Jian-bing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yi-qin; SHI Yong-gang; ZHENG Yong-lian; LI Jian-sheng
2003-01-01
Plant height has become one of important agronomic traits with the increase of planting densityrecently and the rapid developments of molecular markers have provided powerful tools to localize importantagronomic QTL at the genomic level. The purposes of this investigation are to map plant height QTL with mo-lecular markers and to analyze their genetic effects in maize. An F2:3 population from an elite combination(Zong3 × 87-1) was utilized for evaluating plant height in two locations, Wuhan and Xiangfan, with a ran-domized complete block design. The mapping population included 266 F2:3 family lines. A genetic linkagemap, containing 150 SSR and 24 RFLP markers, was constructed, spanning a total of 2 531.6 cm with an av-erage interval of 14.5 cm. Totally 10 QTL affecting plant height were mapped on six different chromosomeswith the composite interval mapping. Seven of 10 QTL were detected in two locations. The contributions tophenotypic variations for the single QTL varied between 5.3 and 17.1%. Additive, partial dominance, domi-nance, and overdominance actions existed among all detected QTL affecting plant heights. A large number ofdigenic interactions for plant height were detected by two-way analyses of variance. 107 and 98 two-locus com-binations were found to be significant at a 0.01 probability level in two locations respectively. 23 of them weresimultaneously detected in both locations. They accounted for phenotypic variations of 4.5 -11%. It was no-ticed that a locus, umc1122, had digenic interactive effects with other four different loci for plant height,which distributed on three chromosomes. A few of plant height QTL was involved in significant digenic inter-actions, but most significant interactions occurred between markers that are not adjacent to mapped QTL.These results demonstrated that epistatic interactions might play an equal importance role as the single-locuseffects in determining plant height of maize.
Development of large Area Covering Height Model
Jacobsen, K.
2014-04-01
Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting
Imagery and fear influence height perception.
Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A
2009-04-01
The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).
Statistical distribution of nonlinear random wave height
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU; Yijun; GUO; Peifang; SONG; Guiting; SONG; Jinbao; YIN; Baoshu; ZHAO; Xixi
2006-01-01
A statistical model of random wave is developed using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics. A new nonlinear probability distribution function of wave height is presented. The results indicate that wave steepness not only could be a parameter of the distribution function of wave height but also could reflect the degree of wave height distribution deviation from the Rayleigh distribution. The new wave height distribution overcomes the problem of Rayleigh distribution that the prediction of big wave is overestimated and the general wave is underestimated. The prediction of small probability wave height value of new distribution is also smaller than that of Rayleigh distribution. Wave height data taken from East China Normal University are used to verify the new distribution. The results indicate that the new distribution fits the measurements much better than the Rayleigh distribution.
High average power supercontinuum sources
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J C Travers
2010-11-01
The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.
Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging
Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio
2010-01-01
Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...
Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2015-01-01
This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...
Adult height, nutrition, and population health.
Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre
2016-03-01
In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate different taper models in the estimate of the merchantable height and volume and along the bole volumes of Eucalyptus sp., to the obtention of multiproducts. Considering the data of rigorous scaling of trees of Eucalyptus sp. with 16 years-old, it was appraised the models of taper of Demaerschalk (1972, Ormerod (1973, Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976, Garay (1979 and Biging (1984. Based on graphical analysis of the residues and on the statistics bias (B, average of the differences (MD and deviation pattern of the differences (DPD, it could be verified that, in the estimate of the merchantable height and volume of the models, Biging, Schöepfer and Hradetzky presented the best results, followed by the models of Garay, which have also shown good results. In general, considering the treatment of the volumes of the logs, the Biging model presented the best resuts.
HEIGHT VARIATION OF THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR SPICULES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo, E-mail: dorozco@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2015-04-20
Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm height.
Height variation of the vector magnetic field in solar spicules
Suarez, D Orozco; Bueno, J Trujillo
2015-01-01
Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He I 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid inclinations (about 50 degree) above 2 Mm height.
Wagner, Dale R
2015-10-01
Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p < 0.001). The difference in the percentage of body fat (BF) was within ±2% BF for 76% of the sample, but athletes at the extremes of height should have TGV measured.
A depth-averaged 2-D model of flow and sediment transport in coastal waters
Sanchez, Alejandro; Wu, Weiming; Beck, Tanya M.
2016-11-01
A depth-averaged 2-D model has been developed to simulate unsteady flow and nonuniform sediment transport in coastal waters. The current motion is computed by solving the phase-averaged 2-D shallow water flow equations reformulated in terms of total-flux velocity, accounting for the effects of wave radiation stresses and general diffusion or mixing induced by current, waves, and wave breaking. The cross-shore boundary conditions are specified by assuming fully developed longshore current and wave setup that are determined using the reduced 1-D momentum equations. A 2-D wave spectral transformation model is used to calculate the wave height, period, direction, and radiation stresses, and a surface wave roller model is adopted to consider the effects of surface roller on the nearshore currents. The nonequilibrium transport of nonuniform total-load sediment is simulated, considering sediment entrainment by current and waves, the lag of sediment transport relative to the flow, and the hiding and exposure effect of nonuniform bed material. The flow and sediment transport equations are solved using an implicit finite volume method on a variety of meshes including nonuniform rectangular, telescoping (quadtree) rectangular, and hybrid triangular/quadrilateral meshes. The flow and wave models are integrated through a carefully designed steering process. The model has been tested in three field cases, showing generally good performance.
Mirror averaging with sparsity priors
Dalalyan, Arnak
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.
Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation
Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise
2016-01-01
Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systemat
47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...
Wave Prediction Model To Study On The Wave Height Variation In Terengganu Coast Of Malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nur Amalina Abdul Latif
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this study the significant wave height at the Terengganu and the change of wave height at Kuala Terengganu to Merang shoreline were simulated by using the 2D Near-Shore Wave 2D NSW model. The significant wave height by the 2D NSW model at Kuala Terengganu to Merang shoreline from 2008-2012 were simulated. The model was forced by ECMWF European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast data. The simulated significant wave height by the 2D NSW model at Airport Kuala Terengganu AWAC station was compared with the observed significant wave height. The mean annual significant wave height indicate the higher wave height with average mean value in a range of 1.08-1.10 m in Kuala Terengganu to Batu Rakit area and lower in Merang area with average mean value in a range of 0.74 m. The detailed 5 years simulation period demonstrates that the strong variability of wave height exists during North-East monsoon. The findings of this study could be useful for the erosive calculation shoreline protection and coastal zone management activities.
Dust inhalation exposures from the handling of small volumes of powders.
Cowherd, C; Grelinger, M A; Wong, K F
1989-03-01
Worker exposure to airborne particulates was stimulated in a laboratory under controlled conditions. Small volumes, 3.8 L (1 gal.), of finely divided powders were transferred at 1-min intervals to 23-L (6-gal.) containers over 30-min time intervals. A high-volume filter array in the exit vent of the specially designed exposure laboratory was used both to control the ventilation rate and to determine the emission factor of the pouring operation. The room ventilation rate, method of transfer, and drop height were varied, and the resulting particulate concentrations were monitored by personal and area samplers. The four powders studied were talc, sodium chloride, Portland cement, and Direct Yellow 4 dye. Based on this study, a model was developed to predict potential worker exposure from the pouring of small volumes of powders. The model is based on the following major conclusions. First, the space- and time-averaged concentration of suspended particulate matter at breathing height agrees well with the mean concentration of suspended particulate matter in the room air effluent. Second, material-specific suspended particulate emission factors vary approximately in direct proportion to the drop height. Third, emission factors for scooping/dumping operations agree well with factors for pouring operations for a given drop height. Fourth, emission factors compare well with dustiness indexes that were determined using a bench-scale dustiness test chamber described in a companion paper. Parameters of the exposure model include dustiness index, drop height of the pouring operation, total quantity of material poured, averaging time, and the fraction of respirable material. For the validation of the model, additional data would be necessary.
40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?
2010-07-01
... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or imported...: ER26FE07.012 Where: Bavg = Average benzene concentration for the applicable averaging period (volume...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李日; 王健; 周黎明; 潘红
2014-01-01
采用欧拉方法和体积平均思想，建立了以液相为主相、等轴晶和柱状晶视为两类不同第二相的三相模型，耦合凝固过程质量、动量、能量、溶质的守恒方程和晶粒的传输方程.以Al-4.7 wt.%Cu二元合金铸锭为例，模拟了合金铸锭二维的流场、温度场、溶质场、柱状晶向等轴晶转变过程以及等轴晶的沉积过程，并将模拟的铸锭组织和偏析结果与实验所得结果对比.温度场、流场和组织的模拟结果与理论基本一致，但由于模型没有考虑收缩以及浇注时的强迫对流，导致铸锭外层的偏析模拟值比实测值低，内层的模拟值比实测值高.所以收缩和逆偏析在模拟中是不可忽略的，这也是本文模型的改进方向.另外在所得模拟结果的基础上分析了体积平均法计算铸锭凝固过程的优点和不足之处.%Adopting the Euler and the volume averaging methods, a three-phase mathematical model with parent melt as the primary phase, columnar dendrites and equiaxed grains as two different secondary phases is developed, and the coupled macroscopic mass, momentum, energy and species conservation equations are obtained separately. Taking the Al-4.7 wt%Cu binary alloy ingots for example, the flow field, temperature field, solute field, columnar-to-equiaxed-transition and grain sedimentation in two-dimension are simulated, and the simulated result of ingot and macrosegregation result are compared with their experimental values. The simulation results of temperature field, flow field and structure are basically consistent with the theoretical results, but the result of solute field shows that the simulated values is lower than the measured value on the edge, this is because the model does not take the shrinkage and forced convection into account, and the inner results is higher than the results on edge. The shrinkage and inverse segregation therefore should not be neglected. This model are still
Increased height in diabetes mellitus corresponds to the predicted and the adult height
Scheffer-Marinus, PD; Links, TP; Drayer, NM
1999-01-01
This study was conducted to analyse the effect of childhood-onset diabetes mellitus on adult height. The height at time of diagnosis of 35 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was compared with growth reference data. Predictions of the adult height were made at the time of diagno
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gryning, S.E.
2005-11-01
over land, especially extensive data sets from the Lower Fraser Valley in Vancouver, Canada were useful. The performance of the model over water was examined on measurements of marine boundary layer developments over Christiansoe in the Baltic Sea. The model is found to perform relative well for both small and large distance downwind from the shoreline. The validation covers a scale of 100 km. In some practical applications meteorological data are taken as the output from operational Numerical Weather Prediction models. The mixing height is not a part of the model output but has to be determined from the available data. This aspect is dealt with in chapter 4. Methods that are used to determine the mixing height from the available data are examined and improvements suggested. Numerical Weather Prediction models have a rather coarse resolution. The issue of grid resolution and its effect on the estimated mixing height is discussed. It is found that the mixing height in the coastal zone is not resolved. In chapter 5 a new method for determining the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over chessboard type patchy landscapes is presented. It is based on inversion of the model for the growth of the mixed-layer in combination with a parameterized form of the blending height concept. An example from sub-arctic Lapland illustrates that the forest dominates both the aggregated (area averaged) momentum and heat fluxes, but in quite different ways. Chapter 6 provides a description of present problems and gives an outlook for future research in the field. (au)
Garza, Cutberto; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes
2013-09-01
Linear growth from birth to 2 years of children enrolled in the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was similar despite substantial parental height differences among the six study sites. Within-site variability in child length attributable to parental height was estimated by repeated measures analysis of variance using generalized linear models. This approach was also used to examine relationships among selected traits (e.g. breastfeeding duration and child morbidity) and linear growth between 6 and 24 months of age. Differences in intergenerational adult heights were evaluated within sites by comparing mid-parental heights (average of the mother's and father's heights) to the children's predicted adult height. Mid-parental height consistently accounted for greater proportions of observed variability in attained child length than did either paternal or maternal height alone. The proportion of variability explained by mid-parental height ranged from 11% in Ghana to 21% in India. The average proportion of between-child variability accounted for by mid-parental height was 16% and the analogous within-child estimate was 6%. In the Norwegian and US samples, no significant differences were observed between mid-parental and children's predicted adult heights. For the other sites, predicted adult heights exceeded mid-parental heights by 6.2-7.8 cm. To the extent that adult height is predicted by height at age 2 years, these results support the expectation that significant community-wide advances in stature are attainable within one generation when care and nutrition approximate international recommendations, notwithstanding adverse conditions likely experienced by the previous generation.
A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates.
Richards, John E; Sanchez, Carmen; Phillips-Meek, Michelle; Xie, Wanze
2016-01-01
This article summarizes a life-span neurodevelopmental MRI database. The study of neurostructural development or neurofunctional development has been hampered by the lack of age-appropriate MRI reference volumes. This causes misspecification of segmented data, irregular registrations, and the absence of appropriate stereotaxic volumes. We have created the "Neurodevelopmental MRI Database" that provides age-specific reference data from 2 weeks through 89 years of age. The data are presented in fine-grained ages (e.g., 3 months intervals through 1 year; 6 months intervals through 19.5 years; 5 year intervals from 20 through 89 years). The base component of the database at each age is an age-specific average MRI template. The average MRI templates are accompanied by segmented partial volume estimates for segmenting priors, and a common stereotaxic atlas for infant, pediatric, and adult participants. The database is available online (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/).
Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys
Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan
2016-06-01
Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.
Forest Height Inversion Using Dual-pol Polarimetric SAR Interferometry
Fu, W. X.; Guo, H. D.; Xie, C.; Lu, Y. C.; Li, X. W.
2014-03-01
Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PolInSAR) has been extensively applied for forest parameter inversion over different frequencies and polarimetric conditions. So far, most research was based on full-pol SAR images with relatively small coverage. A spaceborne SAR system will have the potential for PolInSAR applications used for global forest monitoring. Spaceborne dual-pol SAR images usually have higher resolution and larger swath than full-pol mode. In this paper, forest height retrieval was attempted by PolInSAR from a L-band spaceborne dual-pol SAR pairs using HH and HV channels. The random volume over ground (RVoG) model was used to retrieve the height and the coherence optimization method was extended to the dual-pol PolInSAR, which makes use of polarimetry to enhance the quality of SAR interferograms. The three-stage process is also used in the dual-pol PolInSAR technique. Finally, the experimental test was performed for forest height estimation on the dual-pol L-band SAR data of the Saihanba forest acquired by the ALOS PALSAR sensor in 2009.
Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights
Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin
2016-07-01
A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.
Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights
Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin
2016-11-01
A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...
Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...
Height as a basis for interpersonal attraction.
Hensley, W E
1994-01-01
Beginning with the observation of a male-taller basis in date/mate selection, this study investigated a complementary vs. a step function in choosing a dating partner. In addition, the relative advantages or disadvantages of height were examined for both genders in the dating marketplace. Our sample of college students (N = 594) indicated that while we may use a complementary standard in hypothetical date selection, the actual height of a chosen person is more likely to be made on a step function. Second, there appears to be no dating consequences for a female in a height-related sense, but taller males do enjoy a noticeable dating advantage. Finally, there appears to be a "ceiling effect" demonstrated here for the first time; the height advantage for a male seems to diminish when he is taller than six feet. Suggestions are offered which integrate the present findings into past research.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...
Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李敏
2015-01-01
Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization:negation of the self.
Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李敏
2015-01-01
Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in 19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization: negation of the self.
Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan
Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Heights
Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; Stroker, Kelly; Arcos, Nicolas
2017-08-01
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 M w earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 coastal tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were definition (maximum peak or amplitude) would have validated the forecasts issued by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height for each tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum
[Fear of Heights in Primary School Children].
Huppert, D
2016-03-01
The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance in adults is 28 percent, whereas in primary school children, as recently shown, it develops in 34 percent. Triggers and symptoms are similar in children and adults. A significant difference in visual height intolerance of prepubertal children compared to adults is the good prognosis with mostly spontaneous remission within a few years, possibly facilitated by repeated exposure to the triggering situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
A new model to estimate significant wave heights with ERS-1/2 scatterometer data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Jie; HE Yijun; William Perrie; SHEN Hui; CHU Xiaoqing
2009-01-01
A new model is proposed to estimate the significant wave heights with ERS-1/2 scatterometer data. The results show that the relationship between wave parameters and radar backscattering cross section is similar to that between wind and the radar backscattering cross section. Therefore, the relationship between significant wave height and the radar backscattering cross section is established with a neural network algorithm, which is, if the average wave period is ≤7s, the root mean square of significant wave height retrieved from ERS-1/2 data is 0.51 m, or 0.72 m if it is >7s otherwise.
Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.
Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A
2009-01-01
Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.
LOW FLYING HEIGHT MEASUREMENT WITH MULTI-WAVELENGTH INTERFEROMETRY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Wei; LAI Wuxing; SHI Tielin; TAO Wei; CHENG Xinjian
2008-01-01
A method for measurement of ultra-low flying height in head-disk spacing is described. Three different wavelengths are selected out from white light by filters to measure the spacing simultaneously. Besides solving the ambiguity problem, a more reliable result is achieved by using weighted average of measurement results from three different wavelengths, where the weight is dependent upon spacing. Fringe-bunching correction algorithm (FBC) and spot-tilling technique are adopted to suppress calibration and random errors. Moreover, incident bandwidth correction (IBC) method is introduced to compensate the error caused by low monochromaticity of incident light. Based on dynamic flying height tester (DFHT II), with the redesigned of photo-electric conversion and signal acquirement module, an instrument has been developed. And comparing the experimental data from the instrument with those from a KLA-FHT D6, the discrepancy is less than 5%. It indicates that the instrument is suitable to perform ultra-low flying height measurement and satisfies the requirement of magnetic heads manufacturing.
Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruna Galobardes
Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.
Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.
Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik
2008-05-01
Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mei Guangyi
Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H, diameter at breast height (DBH, and aboveground height (h to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.
Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio
2015-01-01
A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.
Severe cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children.
Zahavi, A; Luckman, J; Yassur, I; Michowiz, S; Goldenberg-Cohen, N
2016-04-01
Falls from heights are the most common traumatic event associated with emergency department visits in children. This study investigated the incidence and clinical course of cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children. The computerized records of a tertiary pediatric medical center were searched for all patients admitted to the emergency department in 2004-2014 with a head injury caused by falling from a height. Those with cranial neuropathies involving optic and eye-motility disturbances were identified, and their clinical, imaging, and outcome data were evaluated. Of the estimated 61,968 patients who presented to the emergency department during the study period because of a fall, 18,758 (30.3 %) had head trauma. Only 12 (seven boys, five girls, average age 6.7 years) had a visual disturbance. Eight were diagnosed with traumatic optic neuropathy, one after a 6-month delay, including two with accompanying cranial nerve (CN) III injuries. Five patients had anisocoria or an abnormal pupillary response to light at presentation, one patient had CN VI paralysis and temporary vision loss, and one patient had an isolated CN III injury diagnosed on follow-up. Visual improvement varied among the patients. Cranial neuropathies due to falls from heights are rare in children and are associated with high visual morbidity. Vision or ocular motility impairment, especially monocular vision loss, may be missed during acute intake to the emergency department, and a high index of suspicion is needed. Assessment of the pupillary response to light is essential.
Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao
2011-01-01
Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.
A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.
Subramanya, K; Dean, D
2000-12-01
Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.
The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H.
1990-10-01
Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.
Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)
1997-10-01
Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjith Gopalakrishnan
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Generating accurate and unbiased wall-to-wall canopy height maps from airborne lidar data for large regions is useful to forest scientists and natural resource managers. However, mapping large areas often involves using lidar data from different projects, with varying acquisition parameters. In this work, we address the important question of whether one can accurately model canopy heights over large areas of the Southeastern US using a very heterogeneous dataset of small-footprint, discrete-return airborne lidar data (with 76 separate lidar projects. A unique aspect of this effort is the use of nationally uniform and extensive field data (~1800 forested plots from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the US Forest Service. Preliminary results are quite promising: Over all lidar projects, we observe a good correlation between the 85th percentile of lidar heights and field-measured height (r = 0.85. We construct a linear regression model to predict subplot-level dominant tree heights from distributional lidar metrics (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 3.0 m, n = 1755. We also identify and quantify the importance of several factors (like heterogeneity of vegetation, point density, the predominance of hardwoods or softwoods, the average height of the forest stand, slope of the plot, and average scan angle of lidar acquisition that influence the efficacy of predicting canopy heights from lidar data. For example, a subset of plots (coefficient of variation of vegetation heights <0.2 significantly reduces the RMSE of our model from 3.0–2.4 m (~20% reduction. We conclude that when all these elements are factored into consideration, combining data from disparate lidar projects does not preclude robust estimation of canopy heights.
Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gayle Brewer
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.
Yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency of heliostat surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elsayed, M.M.; Habeebuallah, M.B.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))
1992-08-01
An analytical expression for estimating the instantaneous usefulness efficiency of a heliostat surface is obtained. A systematic procedure is then introduced to calculate the usefulness efficiency even when overlapping of blocking and shadowing on a heliostat surface exist. For possible estimation of the reflected energy from a given field, the local yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency is calculated. This efficiency is found to depend on site latitude angle, radial distance from the tower measured in tower heights, heliostat position azimuth angle and the radial spacing between heliostats. Charts for the local yearly-averaged daily usefulness efficiency are presented for {phi} = 0, 15, 30, and 45 N. These charts can be used in calculating the reflected radiation from a given cell. Utilization of these charts is demonstrated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
申世永; 张彩霞; 吕妮; 艾宇
2012-01-01
通过对60株榆林市榆阳区内生长的合作杨（Populus simonii×P.pyramidalis cv.‘Opera8177）’生长情况的调查,结果表明：随着树木生长加粗,胸径、地径基本同步增粗,胸径/地径比值变化很小,数值是0.84倍左右,其范围在0.82～0.86;树高的生长量随树木的生长加粗呈现放缓的规律,随着树木生长加粗,树高/地径比值逐渐变小,地径8 cm时,树高/地径比值是58.92倍,地径48 cm时,树高/地径比值是33.38倍。%Growth of 60 trees of Populus simonii×P.pyramidalis cv.＇Opera8177＇ was investigated in Yuyang district of Yulin city.Result shows that DBH,ground diameter synchronous thicken with the growth of the trees;the ratio between DBH ground diameter changes very little;the value whose range is between 0.82-0.86 is 0.84 times.Growth of tree height appears slow law with the growth of trees;the ratio between tree height ground diameter gradually become smaller with the growth of the trees;the ratio between tree height ground diameter are 58.92 33.38 times while the ground diameter are 8 48 cm,respectively.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...
Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruth McQuillan
Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.
Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.
Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu
2017-08-01
Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Reconstruction of head-to-knee voxel model for Syrian adult male of average height and weight
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bashira Taleb
2015-06-01
Conclusion: Comparisons with SAFs data of Zubal model accentuated the fact that the organ masses and the specific anatomy have a significant effect on SAFs. SyrMan model can be considered as the first model built in the Middle East region, and it is an important step toward the Syrian Reference Man.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄晓东; 冯仲科; 解明星; 陈金星; 刘金成
2015-01-01
Diameter at breast height and tree height are the foundations of evaluating site quality and tree’s growing situation. A portable mini multifunctional smart station has been developed based on the image automatic recognition theory, the photogrammetry theory, the similar triangles theory and the triangular function theory, which can measure the diameter at breast height and tree height. Simultaneously, this device integrates charge coupled device (CCD) image sensor with inclinometer, central processing unit, memory, liquid crystal screen, power supply and laser ranging sensor. After assembling the components, the station can be used to automatically measure the diameter and tree height accurately. It can be used to observe the plot after being mounted on the holder. During the measuring process, light spot needs to be aimed at the position of the diameter at breast height that is to be measured. The CCD sensor can automatically transform the light into electric charge signal and then into digital signal by the inner analog digital converter (ADC). After the hue correction and white balance processing by the digital signal processor, the digital signal is finally transformed into the visual image on the screen. When measuring, it can acquire 2 values, namely the inclination and the distance from the measuring point to the point needing measuring. Moreover, it can record and save the image information measured. The measurements of forest stand mean height, volume of wood and tree number density can be realized on the above basis. This device realizes the automatic measurement of the diameter at breast height, tree height and diameter at any part, and the basic measurement, a total of 4 functions through its imbedded running program. The distance measuring range for this device is between 0.05 and 120 m, and its effective reflection distance is between 0.05 and 100 m. The minimum display value is 0.001 m and its measuring precision is ±1.5 mm. The measuring range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marjolein Bonthuis
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO, Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990 national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85 was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth
The mental space of pitch height.
Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian
2005-12-01
Through stimulus-response compatibility we tested whether sound frequency (pitch height) elicits a mental spatial representation. Musically untrained and, mostly, trained participants were shown a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes or SMARC effect). When response alternatives were either vertically or horizontally aligned, performance was better when the lower (or leftward) button had to be pressed in response to a low sound and the upper (or rightward) button had to be pressed in response to a high sound, even when pitch height was irrelevant to the task.
Light shift averaging in paraffin-coated alkali vapor cells
Zhivun, Elena; Sudyka, Julia; Pustelny, Szymon; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry
2015-01-01
Light shifts are an important source of noise and systematics in optically pumped magnetometers. We demonstrate that the long spin coherence time in paraffin-coated cells leads to spatial averaging of the light shifts over the entire cell volume. This renders the averaged light shift independent, under certain approximations, of the light-intensity distribution within the sensor cell. These results and the underlying mechanism can be extended to other spatially varying phenomena in anti-relaxation-coated cells with long coherence times.
Modification of averaging process in GR: Case study flat LTB
Khosravi, Shahram; Mansouri, Reza
2007-01-01
We study the volume averaging of inhomogeneous metrics within GR and discuss its shortcomings such as gauge dependence, singular behavior as a result of caustics, and causality violations. To remedy these shortcomings, we suggest some modifications to this method. As a case study we focus on the inhomogeneous model of structured FRW based on a flat LTB metric. The effect of averaging is then studied in terms of an effective backreaction fluid. This backreaction fluid turns out to behave like a dark matter component, instead of dark energy as claimed in literature.
South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
2003-01-01
This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin-Ping Zhang
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human height is a highly heritable trait considered as an important factor for health. There has been limited success in identifying the genetic factors underlying height variation. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with adult height by a genome-wide association study of copy number variants (CNVs in Chinese. METHODS: Genome-wide CNV association analyses were conducted in 1,625 unrelated Chinese adults and sex specific subgroup for height variation, respectively. Height was measured with a stadiometer. Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform was used to identify copy number polymorphisms (CNPs. We constructed a genomic map containing 1,009 CNPs in Chinese individuals and performed a genome-wide association study of CNPs with height. RESULTS: We detected 10 significant association signals for height (p<0.05 in the whole population, 9 and 11 association signals for Chinese female and male population, respectively. A copy number polymorphism (CNP12587, chr18:54081842-54086942, p = 2.41 × 10(-4 was found to be significantly associated with height variation in Chinese females even after strict Bonferroni correction (p = 0.048. Confirmatory real time PCR experiments lent further support for CNV validation. Compared to female subjects with two copies of the CNP, carriers of three copies had an average of 8.1% decrease in height. An important candidate gene, ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L, was detected at this region, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to bone formation regulators. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the important genetic variants underlying height variation in Chinese.
Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo
2016-01-01
Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.
Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hakl, H
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...
Height as a Basis for Interpersonal Attraction.
Hensley, Wayne E.
Based on the observation that taller males seem to have an advantage in date/mate selection, a study investigated the role that height plays in the choice of a partner. Subjects, 594 student volunteers from communication classes at a large Mid-Atlantic university, completed a questionnaire designed to assess such factors as respondent sex, present…
Statistical analysis on extreme wave height
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Teena, N.V.; SanilKumar, V.; Sudheesh, K.; Sajeev, R.
the distributions fitted to the GEV with annual maximum approach and GPD with peaks over threshold approach have indicated that both GEV and GPD models gave similar or comparable wave height for the study area since there is no multiple storm event in a year...
Lang's Height Conjecture and Szpiro's Conjecture
Silverman, Joseph H
2009-01-01
It is known that Szpiro's conjecture, or equivalently the ABC-conjecture, implies Lang's conjecture giving a uniform lower bound for the canonical height of nontorsion points on elliptic curves. In this note we show that a significantly weaker version of Szpiro's conjecture, which we call "prime-depleted," suffices to prove Lang's conjecture.
An Analysis of Personality in Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Feng
2011-01-01
Compared to other two sisters,Emily Bronte has a few of works,just only one novel and some poets.However,it is the novel Wuthering Heights arousing more and more critics＇ attention after more than 100 years since it was born.The reason that a great works
The Artistic Glamour of Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Wenyan
2012-01-01
Emily Bronte＇s Wuthering Heights is a classical masterpiece,known as＂the most peculiar novel＂in the English literature.The paper focuses on its structure and main idea,so as to reveal its thrilling artistic glamour and its artistic style.
Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain
The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...
Scale height determination of spiral galaxies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
计朝晖; 商朝晖; 彭秋和
1997-01-01
The method adopted here is based on the rigorous solution of Poison’s equation for logarithmic disturbance density within finite thickness galaxies. After their spiral arms are fitted directly with logarithmic spirals, the morphological parameters, scale heights and their relative errors for 32 spiral galaxies, such as NGC4814, are ob-tained.
The Roles of Symbols in Wuthering Heights
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙贻红
2015-01-01
In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte portrays the love story between Catherine and Heathcliff whose sincere love is killed for their different social status and only prevails beyond the real world. The roles of symbols in revealing this theme will be traced in this article.
Environmental Assessment: Disposition of Maxwell Heights Annex
2005-07-01
Maxwell Support Division May 4, 2005 Mr. David Rabon Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma P.O. Box 948 Tahlequah...Oklahoma 74465 RE: Disposal of the Existing Property and Facilities of the Maxwell Heights Annex Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama Dear Mr. Rabon , The
Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider
Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.
2017-04-01
A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information
Height, sitting height, and leg length in relation with breast cancer risk in the E3N cohort
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie
2012-01-01
If height is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, leg length and sitting height are usually considered as better candidate biomarkers of growth hormone exposure than height, respectively...
Height convergence and internal migration in mid-twentieth-century Italy.
Lanari, Donatella; Bussini, Odoardo
2014-01-01
Height convergence across Italian regions during the second half of the twentieth century is a widely recognized fact. However, it has been suggested that this process was partly affected by the massive migratory flow of people from southern to northern Italy in the 1950s and 1960s, which greatly slowed the height growth rate in the receiving regions, since immigrants were on average shorter than the receiving northern population. The main aims of this study were to estimate the speed of height convergence of Italian military conscripts in the second half of the twentieth century, and to estimate the contribution of internal migration from the south to the north of Italy to height convergence. We hypothesized that migrants from southern Italy reduced height levels among northerners relative to what they would have been without considering migration. We used cohort data on Italian conscripts born in 1951 and 1980. Results indicate that internal migration may explain from 24 to 32.7 percent of height convergence, meaning that ignoring migration flows yields an overestimation of the height changes for conscripts living in the south of Italy.
Triggered lightning sky waves, return stroke modeling, and ionosphere effective height
Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.; Cummer, S. A.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.
2017-03-01
Ground waves and sky waves measured 209 km and 250 km south of six triggered lightning flashes containing 30 strokes that occurred in the half-hour before sunset on 27 August 2015 are presented and analyzed. We use a cross-correlation technique to find the ionospheric effective reflection height and compare our results to previous techniques that calculate effective height based on the time delay between ground wave and sky wave time domain features. From the first flash to the last flash there is, on average, a 1.6 km increase in effective ionospheric height, whereas no change in effective ionospheric height can be discerned along the individual strokes of a given flash. We show to what extent the triggered lightning radiation source can be described (using channel-base current, channel geometry, and channel luminosity versus time and height) and speculate that a well-characterized source could allow a more accurate determination of the electromagnetic fields radiated toward the ionosphere than has been done to date. We show that both channel geometry and the change in return stroke current amplitude and waveshape with channel height (inferred from measured channel luminosity versus height and time) determine the waveshape of the ground wave (and presumably the upward propagating wave that results in the sky wave) and that the waveshape of the ground wave does not appear to be related to the current versus time waveform measured at the channel base other than a roughly linear relationship between the two peak values.
Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.
2017-07-01
Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.
Miller, A. J.; Nagatani, R. M.; Laver, J. D.; Korty, B.
1979-01-01
Midlatitude 100-mb height fields are employed to determine the effects of ground based sampling locations on measurements of variations in the total ozone content of the atmosphere. The precision of the zonal average heights computed by the technique of Angell and Korshover (1978) from data over ozone sampling areas at 50 deg N is compared to the zonal average computed from the entire data set. Linear regressions of ozone contents determined by an analysis of backscatter UV satellite data with respect to 100 mb heights are utilized to transform zonal differences in height to ozone levels. The zonal average total ozone sampling error is found to be on the order of 2% for midlatitudes of the Northern hemisphere, indicating that the general shape of ozone trends determined by ground-based observations appears to be real and the increase of ozone from the mid-1960's to the early 1970's may be greater than previously suggested.
Level sets of multiple ergodic averages
Ai-Hua, Fan; Ma, Ji-Hua
2011-01-01
We propose to study multiple ergodic averages from multifractal analysis point of view. In some special cases in the symbolic dynamics, Hausdorff dimensions of the level sets of multiple ergodic average limit are determined by using Riesz products.
Route Height Connection Across the Sea by Using the Vertical Deflections and Ellipsoidal Height Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Jin-yun; CHEN Yong-ning; LIU Xin; ZHONG Shi-xia; MAI Zhao-qiu
2013-01-01
Distance between the main land and island is so long that it is very difficult to precisely connect the height datum across the sea with the traditional method like the trigonometric leveling,or it is very expensive and takes long time to implement the height transfer with the geopotential technique.We combine the data of GPS surveying,astro-geodesy and EGM2008 to precisely connect the orthometric height across the sea with the improved astronomical leveling method in the paper.The Qiongzhou Strait is selected as the test area for the height connection over the sea.We precisely determine the geodetic latitudes,longitudes,heights and deflections of the vertical for four points on both sides across the strait.Modeled deflections of the vertical along the height connecting routes over the sea are determined with EGM2008 model based on the geodetic positions and heights of the sea segmentation points from DNSC08MSS model.Differences of the measured and modeled deflections of the vertical are calculated at four points on both sides and linearly change along the route.So the deflections of the vertical along the route over the sea can be improved by the linear interpolation model.The results are also in accord with those of trigonometirc levelings.The practical case shows that we can precisely connect the orthometric height across the Qiongzhou Strait to satisfy the requirement of order 3 leveling network of China.The method is very efficient to precisely connect the height datum across the sea along the route up to 80 km.
Derivation of an effective height for scintillometers: La Poza Experiment in Northwest Mexico
Hartogensis, O.K.; Watts, C.J.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Bruin, de H.A.R.
2003-01-01
The large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) is by now a generally accepted device for routinely obtaining the area-averaged sensible heat flux, H, on a scale of up to 10 km. It is an optical instrument that consists of a transmitter and receiver. In practice, the LAS beam height often varies along the p
Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit
金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹
2006-01-01
Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.
Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices
del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann
2008-01-01
Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.
Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries.
Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T
2016-05-01
The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male height in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male height are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male height in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature.
Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H
2011-02-16
Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yassine Messaoud
Full Text Available Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂ concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S. in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation. As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree
Gradual Height Decrease of Augmented Vertebrae after Vertebroplasty at the Thoracolumbar Junction.
Oh, Han San; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Hyun Gon; Park, Kwan Ho
2016-04-01
Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for vertebral compression fracture, but may progress gradual vertebral height decrease in spite of vertebroplasty. Gradual vertebral height decrease also may induce aggravation of kyphotic change without severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease in the absence of recurrent severe back pain. A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who were diagnosed with a first osteoporotic compression fracture at a single level at the thoracolumbar junction. All patients were taken vertebroplasty. Possible risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease, such as sex, age, bone mineral density, body mass index, level of compression fracture, volume of injected cement, cement leakage into disc space, and air clefts within fractured vertebrae, were analyzed. Gradual vertebral height decrease of augmented vertebrae occurred commonly when more than 4 cc of injected cement was used, and when air clefts within fractured vertebrae were seen on admission. In addition, the sagittal Cobb angle more commonly increased during the follow-up period in such cases. Injection of more than 4 cc of cement during vertebroplasty and air cleft within fractured vertebrae on admission induced gradual vertebral height decrease in augmented vertebrae. Thus, longer follow-up will be needed in such cases, even when patients do not complain of recurrent severe back pain.
Average-Time Games on Timed Automata
Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh
2009-01-01
An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...
Helicity at Photospheric and Chromospheric Heights
Tiwari, S K; Sankarasubramanian, K
2009-01-01
In the solar atmosphere the twist parameter $\\alpha$ has the same sign as magnetic helicity. It has been observed using photospheric vector magnetograms that negative/positive helicity is dominant in the northern/southern hemisphere of the Sun. Chromospheric features show dextral/sinistral dominance in the northern/southern hemisphere and sigmoids observed in X-rays also have a dominant sense of reverse-S/forward-S in the northern/southern hemisphere. It is of interest whether individual features have one-to-one correspondence in terms of helicity at different atmospheric heights. We use UBF \\Halpha images from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) and other \\Halpha data from Udaipur Solar Observatory and Big Bear Solar Observatory. Near-simultaneous vector magnetograms from the DST are used to establish one-to-one correspondence of helicity at photospheric and chromospheric heights. We plan to extend this investigation with more data including coronal intensities.
BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
Adaptive Layer Height During DLP Materials Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, David Bue; Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov
2016-01-01
for considerable process speedup during the Additive Manufacture of components that contain areas of low cross-section variability, at no loss of surface quality. The adaptive slicing strategy was tested with a purpose built vat polymerisation system and numerical engine designed and constructed to serve as a Next......This research aim to show how manufacturing speeds during vat polymerisation can be vastly increased through an adaptive layer height strategy that takes the geometry into account through analysis of the relationship between layer height, cross-section variability and surface structure. This allows......-Gen technology platform. By means of assessing hemispherical manufactured test specimen and through 3D surface mapping with variable-focus microscopy and confocal microscopy, a balance between minimal loss of surface quality with a maximal increase of manufacturing rate has been identified as a simple angle...
Accurate barrier heights using diffusion Monte Carlo
Krongchon, Kittithat; Wagner, Lucas K
2016-01-01
Fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) has been performed on a test set of forward and reverse barrier heights for 19 non-hydrogen-transfer reactions, and the nodal error has been assessed. The DMC results are robust to changes in the nodal surface, as assessed by using different mean-field techniques to generate single determinant wave functions. Using these single determinant nodal surfaces, DMC results in errors of 1.5(5) kcal/mol on barrier heights. Using the large data set of DMC energies, we attempted to find good descriptors of the fixed node error. It does not correlate with a number of descriptors including change in density, but does correlate with the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbital energies in the mean-field calculation.
Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K
2012-01-01
Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....
Effect of parallactic refraction correction on station height determination
Lerch, F. J.; Huston, H. A.
1973-01-01
The effect of omitting the parallactic refraction correction for satellite optical observations in the determination of station coordinates is analyzed for a large satellite data distribution. A significant error effect is seen in station heights. A geodetic satellite data distribution of 23 close earth satellites, containing 30,000 optical observations obtained by 13 principal Baker-Nunn camera sites, is employed. This distribution was used in a preliminary Goddard Earth Model (GEM 1) for the determination of the gravity field of the earth and geocentric tracking station locations. The parallactic refraction correction is modeled as an error on the above satellite data and a least squares adjustment for station locations is obtained for each of the 13 Baker-Nunn sites. Results show an average station height shift of +8 meters with a dispersion of plus or minus 0.7 meters for individual sites. Station latitude and longitude shifts amounted to less than a meter. Similar results are obtained from a theoretical method employing a probability distribution for the satellite optical observations.
Measuring Ice Sheet Height with ICESat-2
Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.
2015-12-01
ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet height and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface height based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface height of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice heights. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.
Feynman amplitudes and limits of heights
Amini, O.; Bloch, S. J.; Burgos Gil, J. I.; Fresán, J.
2016-10-01
We investigate from a mathematical perspective how Feynman amplitudes appear in the low-energy limit of string amplitudes. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the integrands. We derive this from results describing the asymptotic behaviour of the height pairing between degree-zero divisors, as a family of curves degenerates. These are obtained by means of the nilpotent orbit theorem in Hodge theory.
Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy
Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut
2017-04-01
Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.
Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.
Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe
2016-01-21
By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures.
A global boundary-layer height climatology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)
A brief treatment for fear of heights.
Arroll, Bruce; Henwood, Suzanne M; Sundram, Fred I; Kingsford, Douglas W; Mount, Vicki; Humm, Steve P; Wallace, Henry B; Pillai, Avinesh
2017-01-01
Objective To assess the effectiveness of a novel imaginal intervention for people with acrophobia. Methods The design was a randomized controlled trial with concealed randomization and blinded to other participants' intervention. The intervention was a single novel imaginal intervention session or a 15-min meditation. The setting was in Auckland, New Zealand. The participants were a convenience sample of the public with a score >29 on the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ), a questionnaire validated against actual height exposure. The primary outcomes were the proportion of participants with a score fear of heights is very much improved. There was a 4.5-point difference in the HIQ score at eight weeks (p = 0.055) on the multiple regression analysis. Conclusions This is the first randomized trial of this novel imaginal intervention which is probably effective, brief, easily learnt, and safe. It may be worth considering doing this prior to some of the longer or more expensive exposure therapies. This study will be of interest to family doctors, psychiatrists, and psychologists.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalya Pya
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Measurements of tree heights and diameters are essential in forest assessment and modelling. Tree heights are used for estimating timber volume, site index and other important variables related to forest growth and yield, succession and carbon budget models. However, the diameter at breast height (dbh can be more accurately obtained and at lower cost, than total tree height. Hence, generalized height-diameter (h-d models that predict tree height from dbh, age and other covariates are needed. For a more flexible but biologically plausible estimation of covariate effects we use shape constrained generalized additive models as an extension of existing h-d model approaches. We use causal site parameters such as index of aridity to enhance the generality and causality of the models and to enable predictions under projected changeable climatic conditions. Methods: We develop unconstrained generalized additive models (GAM and shape constrained generalized additive models (SCAM for investigating the possible effects of tree-specific parameters such as tree age, relative diameter at breast height, and site-specific parameters such as index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature during vegetation period, on the h-d relationship of forests in Lower Saxony, Germany. Results: Some of the derived effects, e.g. effects of age, index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature have significantly non-linear pattern. The need for using SCAM results from the fact that some of the model effects show partially implausible patterns especially at the boundaries of data ranges. The derived model predicts monotonically increasing levels of tree height with increasing age and temperature sum and decreasing aridity and social rank of a tree within a stand. The definition of constraints leads only to marginal or minor decline in the model statistics like AIC. An observed structured spatial trend in tree height is modelled via 2-dimensional surface
Orthopedic stretcher with average-sized person can pass through 18-inch opening
Lothschuetz, F. X.
1966-01-01
Modified Robinson stretcher for vertical lifting and carrying, will pass through an opening 18 inches in diameter, while containing a person of average height and weight. A subject 6 feet tall and weighing 200 pounds was lowered and raised out of an 18 inch diameter opening in a tank to test the stretcher.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viyachai Taweesak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arkadiusz Tomczak
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between breast height diameter, tree height and stem total volume of Scots pines, on the one hand, and volume and proportion of juvenile wood, on the other. The investigations comprised pure pine stands of the IInd, IIIrd, IVth and Vth age classes developed in conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest. A distinct curvilinear correlation was found between volume and proportion of juvenile wood in tree stems and breast height diameter, height and stem total volume. Because of high values of determination coefficients (R2, which characterised the above-mentioned correlations, it seems appropriate to use these regularities to assess the quality of the timber raw material regarding the proportions of its volume and juvenile wood in stems of Scots pine trees.
Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights
Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas
2014-01-01
Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595
MEMS Young's Modulus and Step Height Measurements With Round Robin Results.
Marshall, Janet; Allen, Richard A; McGray, Craig D; Geist, Jon
2010-01-01
This paper presents the results of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Young's modulus and step height round robin experiment, completed in April 2009, which compares Young's modulus and step height measurement results at a number of laboratories. The purpose of the round robin was to provide data for the precision and bias statements of two \\ related Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) standard test methods for MEMS. The technical basis for the test methods on Young's modulus and step height measurements are also provided in this paper. Using the same test method, the goal of the round robin was to assess the repeatability of measurements at one laboratory, by the same operator, with the same equipment, in the shortest practical period of time as well as the reproducibility of measurements with independent data sets from unique combinations of measurement setups and researchers. Both the repeatability and reproducibility measurements were done on random test structures made of the same homogeneous material. The average repeatability Young's modulus value (as obtained from resonating oxide cantilevers) was 64.2 GPa with 95 % limits of ± 10.3 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 3.1 GPa. The average reproducibility Young's modulus value was 62.8 GPa with 95 % limits of ± 11.0 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 3.0 GPa. The average repeatability step height value (for a metal2-over-poly1 step from active area to field oxide) was 0.477 μm with 95 % limits of 7.9 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 0.014 μm. The average reproducibility step height value was 0.481 μm with 95 % limits of ± 6.2 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 0.014 μm. In summary, this paper demonstrates that a reliable methodology can be used to measure Young's modulus and step height. Furthermore, a micro and nano technology (MNT) 5-in-1 standard reference material (SRM) can be used by
J.J. Lee (Jessica); J.C. Escher (Johanna); M.J. Shuman (Melissa); P.W. Forbes (Peter); L.C. Delemarre (Luçan); B.W. Harr (Brian); M. Kruijer (Marjan); M. Moret (Marlous); S. Allende-Richter (Sophie); R.J. Grand (Richard)
2010-01-01
textabstractBackground: This study was designed to elucidate the contribution of parental height to the stature of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who often exhibit growth impairment. Accordingly, we compared patients' final adult heights and target heights based on measured parental
Crane, R. K.
1975-01-01
An experiment was conducted to study the relations between the empirical distribution functions of reflectivity at specified locations above the surface and the corresponding functions at the surface. A bistatic radar system was used to measure continuously the scattering cross section per unit volume at heights of 3 and 6 km. A frequency of 3.7 GHz was used in the tests. It was found that the distribution functions for reflectivity may significantly change with height at heights below the level of the melting layer.
Spreading of oil and the concept of average oil thickness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada); Quintero-Marmol, A.M. [Pemex E and P, Campeche (Mexico); Bannerman, K. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
2004-07-01
The area of on oil slick on water can be readily measured using simple techniques ranging from visual observations to satellite-based radar systems. However, it is necessary to know the volume of spilled oil in order to determine the environmental impacts and best response strategy. The volume of oil must be known to determine spill quantity, response effectiveness and weathering rates. The relationship between volume and area is the average thickness of the oil over the spill area. This paper presents the results of several experiments conducted in the Gulf of Mexico that determined if average thickness of the oil is a characteristic of a specific crude oil, independent of spill size. In order to calculate the amount of oil on water from the area of slick requires information on the oil thickness, the inhomogeneity of the oil thickness and the oil-to-water ratio in the slick if it is emulsified. Experimental data revealed that an oil slick stops spreading very quickly after the application of oil. After the equilibrium thickness has been established, the slick is very sensitive to disturbances on the water surface, such as wave action, which causes the oil circle to dissipate into several small irregular shapes. It was noted that the spill source and oceanographic conditions are both critical to the final shape of the spill. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.
Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights
Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen
2017-06-01
Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.
WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘永平; 许贵桥
2003-01-01
This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.
Estimating Aerodynamic Parameters of Urban-Like Surfaces with Heterogeneous Building Heights
Millward-Hopkins, J. T.; Tomlin, A. S.; Ma, L.; Ingham, D.; Pourkashanian, M.
2011-12-01
There are many geometrical factors than can influence the aerodynamic parameters of urban surfaces and hence the vertical wind profiles found above. The knowledge of these parameters has applications in numerous fields, such as dispersion modelling, wind loading calculations, and estimating the wind energy resource at urban locations. Using quasi-empirical modelling, we estimate the dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length and zero-plane displacement for idealized urban surfaces, on the two most significant geometrical characteristics; surface area density and building height variability. A validation of the spatially-averaged, logarithmic wind profiles predicted by the model is carried out, via comparisons with available wind-tunnel and numerical data for arrays of square based blocks of uniform and heterogeneous heights. The model predicts two important properties of the aerodynamic parameters of surfaces of heterogeneous heights that have been suggested by experiments. Firstly, the zero-plane displacement of a heterogeneous array can exceed the surface mean building height significantly. Secondly, the characteristic peak in roughness length with respect to surface area density becomes much softer for heterogeneous arrays compared to uniform arrays, since a variation in building height can prevent a skimming flow regime from occurring. Overall the simple model performs well against available experimental data and may offer more accurate estimates of surface aerodynamic parameters for complex urban surfaces compared to models that do not include height variability.
Assessment of pulse height selection methods for several spectrum shapes in radiation detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainardi, Raul T. E-mail: mainardi@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Plivelic, Tomas S. E-mail: tomas@lnls.br; Derosa, Pedro A. E-mail: derosa@engr.sc.edu
2003-03-01
The minimum pulse height selection method developed more than forty years ago to process the information provided by detectors with an energy spectrum responding to a Landau distribution is extended in this work to consider other information processing criteria such as the maximum pulse height and the pulse height closest to the mode. The latter is a selection method whereby the mode is calculated for a distribution and then, a pulse closest to it is selected from a given set and stored. We analyze the combined resolution of a set of identical sampling detectors in terms of the number of detectors and the shape of the characteristic pulse height distribution from a single detector. To make this treatment as general as possible, five analytical forms are tested as symmetric and asymmetric pulse height distributions, applying to each of them the three selection methods mentioned above. We also compare these results with the average of the pulse heights in each case. For these evaluations, analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. It was thus possible to select the most appropriate selection method based on the shape parameters of a distribution.
Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱位秋
1996-01-01
A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.
NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)
California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...
Forecasts of time averages with a numerical weather prediction model
Roads, J. O.
1986-01-01
Forecasts of time averages of 1-10 days in duration by an operational numerical weather prediction model are documented for the global 500 mb height field in spectral space. Error growth in very idealized models is described in order to anticipate various features of these forecasts and in order to anticipate what the results might be if forecasts longer than 10 days were carried out by present day numerical weather prediction models. The data set for this study is described, and the equilibrium spectra and error spectra are documented; then, the total error is documented. It is shown how forecasts can immediately be improved by removing the systematic error, by using statistical filters, and by ignoring forecasts beyond about a week. Temporal variations in the error field are also documented.
Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman eSchniepp
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Material and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite® on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast, during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/ up/ down; eyes open /closed, and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors height situation and gait condition was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters.Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p<0.01, which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2=0.453, p<0.05. . These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. . Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level.Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI.
Comparison of Methods of Height Anomaly Computation
Mazurova, E.; Lapshin, A.; Menshova, A.
2012-04-01
As of today, accurate determination of height anomaly is one of the most difficult problems of geodesy, even with sustainable perfection of mathematical methods, computer possibilities. The most effective methods of height anomaly computation are based on the methods of discrete linear transformations, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform (FWT). The main drawback of the classical FFT is weak localization in the time domain. If it is necessary to define the time interval of a frequency presence the STFT is used that allows one to detect the presence of any frequency signal and the interval of its presence. It expands the possibilities of the method in comparison with the classical Fourier Transform. However, subject to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to tell precisely what frequency signal is present at a given moment of time (it is possible to speak only about the range of frequencies); and it is impossible to tell at what precisely moment of time the frequency signal is present (it is possible to speak only about a time span). A wavelet-transform gives the chance to reduce the influence of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle on the obtained time-and-frequency representation of the signal. With its help low frequencies have more detailed representation relative to the time, and high frequencies - relative to the frequency. The paper summarizes the results of height anomaly calculations done by the FFT, STFT, FWT methods and represents 3-D models of calculation results. Key words: Fast Fourier Transform(FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Fast Wavelet Transform(FWT), Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Experimental Investigation of Wave Heights in A Directional Wave Field Through Image Sequences
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chung-Ren CHOU; Teng-Wei LIN; Ruey-Syan SHIH; John Z. YIM
2005-01-01
Measurements of wave heights with image sequences from a Charged Coupled Device(CCD) camera were made. Sinusoidal, as well as unidirectional and directional, waves were used for the experiments. A transfer function was obtained by calibration of the magnitudes of the gray values of the images against the results of wave gauge measurements for directional waves. With this transfer function, wave heights for regular waves were deduced. It is shown that the average relative errors are smaller than 16% for both unidirectional and directional waves.
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
Scale heights of 84 northern spiral galaxies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马骏; 彭秋和
1997-01-01
Using the method proposed by Peng (1988) on the basis of density waves theory and the solution of three-dimensional Poisson s equation for a logarithmic disturbance of density,and analyzing the spiral patterns,the scale heights of 84 northern spiral galaxies,whose images are taken from the Digitized Sky Survey at Xinglong Observational Station of Beijing Observatory,are measured.The spiral arms of all these galaxies have been fitted on their photographs with some logarithmic spiral curves for getting their correct inclinations.
Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siew Ghim Gooi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.
The Impact of Forest Density on Forest Height Inversion Modeling from Polarimetric InSAR Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changcheng Wang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Forest height is of great significance in analyzing the carbon cycle on a global or a local scale and in reconstructing the accurate forest underlying terrain. Major algorithms for estimating forest height, such as the three-stage inversion process, are depending on the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG model. However, the RVoG model is characterized by a lot of parameters, which influence its applicability in forest height retrieval. Forest density, as an important biophysical parameter, is one of those main influencing factors. However, its influence to the RVoG model has been ignored in relating researches. For this paper, we study the applicability of the RVoG model in forest height retrieval with different forest densities, using the simulated and real Polarimetric Interferometric SAR data. P-band ESAR datasets of the European Space Agency (ESA BioSAR 2008 campaign were selected for experiments. The test site was located in Krycklan River catchment in Northern Sweden. The experimental results show that the forest density clearly affects the inversion accuracy of forest height and ground phase. For the four selected forest stands, with the density increasing from 633 to 1827 stems/Ha, the RMSEs of inversion decrease from 4.6 m to 3.1 m. The RVoG model is not quite applicable for forest height retrieval especially in sparsely vegetated areas. We conclude that the forest stand density is positively related to the estimation accuracy of the ground phase, but negatively correlates to the ground-to-volume scattering ratio.
Steinman, Shari A; Teachman, Bethany A
2014-06-01
Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease height fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Extremely height fearful individuals (N = 110) participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after 2 sessions of CBM-I and were compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. In line with hypotheses, participants in the 3 active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in height-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a height stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in height fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.
Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models
de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.
1998-01-01
Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared
Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case
Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.
2007-01-01
We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situ
Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case
Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.
We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW
Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium
Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.
1951-01-01
By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
New results on averaging theory and applications
Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume
2016-08-01
The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.
Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave
Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi
2017-08-01
A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.
Growth evaluation: parent and child specific height standards.
Sorva, R; Tolppanen, E M; Lankinen, S; Perheentupa, J
1989-01-01
Data on the growth of 1063 children and their parents were analysed. Of the variation in height at prepuberty about 20%, and of the final height 30-46%, were explained by the variation in parental heights; the children's own height at the age of 1.0 year increased the proportion explained to half. Two equations were developed for increasing the accuracy of the evaluation of growth. One defines parent specific mean height standard deviation score, and the other includes the parents' heights an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Pirotti
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following characteristics: ellipsoidal canopy shape (Pinus pinaster, even-aged and single-layer structure. The process consists of three steps: extracting a correlation map from CHM by applying a template whose size and shape resembles the canopy to be detected, applying a threshold mask to the correlation map to keep a subset of candidate-pixels, and then applying a local maximum filter to the remaining pixel groups. The method performs satisfactorily considering the experimental conditions. The mean tree extraction percentage is 65% with a coefficient of agreement of 0.4. The mean absolute error of height is ~0.5 m for all plots except one. It can be considered a valid approach for extracting tree density and height in regularly spaced stands (i.e., poplar plantations which are fundamental for extracting related forest parameters such as volume and biomass.
Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Azcorra, Hugo; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico
2013-05-01
Variation in height among young adults has been linked to the living conditions of different social groups. The aim of this study was to measure variation in the height and knee height of young adults by head of household employment level and family income. The sample comprised 180 individuals (90 girls) aged 16 and 17 years living in the city of Merida, Mexico. Height and knee height were measured by anthropometry, and individuals' family social and economic data collected from their mothers. Variation in these measurements was analysed by three categories of employment and family income terciles. One-way ANOVAs were done by sex to compare mean height and knee height by employment and family income. Coefficients of variation were calculated and a Bartlett test applied. Significant differences in height and knee height were observed only between family income terciles. Both sexes were taller at the highest levels of family income (p<0.05) and men had the highest (p<0.05) knee height. Highest family income individuals exhibited the least variation in height and knee height. Similarity in socioeconomic conditions for families in the lowest family income tercile and with employee heads of household was not associated with lower variation of height and knee height.
2012-01-01
Objective. To compare the cutaneous lip height at early and late postoperative periods and to objectively determine the average amount of lip height improvement during the first year of unilateral complete cleft lip repair using Cutting extended Mohler technique. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, 26 unilateral complete cleft patients and 50 noncleft subjects were included. Photographs were taken between 12 and 16 weeks (T1) and also taken between 12 and 13 months after surgery (T2). ...
Smirnov, A. S.; Belozerov, G. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Konovalov, A. V.; Shveikin, V. P.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.
2016-07-01
The paper deals with a procedure of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. Unlike standard procedures of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis, the proposed procedure is iterative with consecutive application of mechanical and electrochemical polishing. This procedure significantly improves the results of an indexed MMC matrix in comparison with the standard procedure of specimen preparation. The procedure was verified on a MMC with pure aluminum (99.8% Al) as the matrix, SiC particles being used as reinforcing elements. The average size of the SiC particles is 14 μm, and their volume fraction amounts to 50% of the total volume of the composite. It has been experimentally found that, for making the EBSD analysis of a material matrix near reinforcing particles, the difference in height between the particles and the matrix should not exceed 2 µm.
Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height.
Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; Leroy, T; Cox, M; Vranken, E; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Berckmans, D; Odberg, F; Sonck, B
2008-07-01
1. The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31 and 36 cm). Day- and night-time perching behaviour was observed on 4 consecutive days with a different cage height each day: 150, 55, 50 and 45 cm. 2. Given that a minimum perch-roof distance of 19 to 24 cm was available, hens preferred to roost on the highest perches at night. 3. Lowering cage height not only forced hens to use lower perches, but also reduced time spent on the perches during the day (two-hen and 14-hen test) and night (14-hen test). Moreover, it affected daytime behavioural activities (more standing and less preening) on the perches in the two-hen tests (but not in the 14-hen tests). 4. During the day lower perches were used more for standing and walking, higher perches more for sitting and sleeping. This behavioural differentiation was most pronounced in the highest cages. 5. Perch preference and perching behaviour depend on both the floor-perch distance and the perch-roof distance. Higher cages provide more opportunity for higher perches (which hens prefer), for better three-dimensional spacing (and consequently reduced density at floor level) and for behavioural differentiation according to perch height.
Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.
Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine
2003-06-01
This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Shome
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper compares the height, weight and BMI of the 15-19 groups of male and female of four eastern region states of India namely Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa using Third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 data. The sample sizes of Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa are 176, 236, 375 and 229 for male and 631, 893, 1052 and 829 for female respectively. Data on socio-demographic background of the households like place of residence, social group, education of males and females, and wealth index of the family are taken to see the differential effects of these variables on the teenager's height and weight. It is well recognized that height and weight are interrelated. These are also related with socioeconomic variables. But, does the relation remain same over all teenager's (15-19 years height and weight groups in different eastern region states? The objective of this paper is to find the effect of the socio-economic variables on heights and weights for different groups of persons formed according to the different levels of heights and weights and to see whether there are gender differences in the variation of heights and weights in the four eastern region states. Descriptive studies show a clear positive relation of height and weight with the economic level. In case of BMI, it is the age group which seems to be the most influential factor. The notable feature is that percentages of short height in all the four eastern region states are higher in comparison to India (29.5% in case of male. For underweight, the percentage of West Bengal only is lower than national average. The result is similar in case of short height for the females also and for underweight all eastern region state's female shows higher percentage than national average.
Lagrosas, N.; Tan, F.; Antioquia, C. T.
2014-12-01
Fabricated all sky imagers are efficient and cost effective instruments for cloud detection and classification. Continuous operation of this instrument can result in the determination of cloud occurrence and cloud base heights for the paired system. In this study, a fabricated paired sky imaging system - consisting two commercial digital cameras (Canon Powershot A2300) enclosed in weatherproof containers - is developed in Manila Observatory for the purpose of determining cloud base heights at the Manila Observatory area. One of the cameras is placed on the rooftop of Manila Observatory and the other is placed on the rooftop of the university dormitory, 489m from the first camera. The cameras are programmed to simultaneously gather pictures every 5 min. Continuous operation of these cameras were implemented since the end of May of 2014 but data collection started end of October 2013. The data were processed following the algorithm proposed by Kassianov et al (2005). The processing involves the calculation of the merit function that determines the area of overlap of the two pictures. When two pictures are overlapped, the minimum of the merit function corresponds to the pixel column positions where the pictures have the best overlap. In this study, pictures of overcast sky prove to be difficult to process for cloud base height and were excluded from processing. The figure below shows the initial results of the hourly average of cloud base heights from data collected from November 2013 to July 2014. Measured cloud base heights ranged from 250m to 1.5km. These are the heights of cumulus and nimbus clouds that are dominant in this part of the world. Cloud base heights are low in the early hours of the day indicating low convection process during these times. However, the increase in the convection process in the atmosphere can be deduced from higher cloud base heights in the afternoon. The decrease of cloud base heights after 15:00 follows the trend of decreasing solar
Two global climatologies of daily fire emission injection heights since 2003
Remy, Samuel; Veira, Andreas; Paugam, Ronan; Sofiev, Mikhail; Kaiser, Johannes; Marenco, Franco; Burton, Sharon P.; Benedetti, Angela
2016-04-01
The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) assimilates Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from satellite-based MODIS sensors to produce daily estimates of biomass burning emission. It has been extended to include information about injection heights of biomass burning species provided by two distinct algorithms, which also use meteorological information from the operational weather forecasts of ECMWF. Injection heights are provided by the semi-empirical Sofiev parameterization and an analytical one-dimension Plume Rise Model (PRM). The two algorithms provide estimates for injection heights for each satellite pixel. Similarly to FRP observations, these estimates are then gridded, averaged and assimilated, using a simple observation operator, so as to fill the observational gaps. A global database of daily biomass burning emissions and injection heights at 0.1° resolution has thus been produced for 2003-2015. The database is being extended in near-real-time with the operational GFAS service of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). The two injection height datasets were compared against a new dataset of satellite-based plume height observations. The Sofiev parameterization showed a better overall agreement against observations, while the PRM was better at capturing the variability of injection heights and at estimating the injection heights of large fires. The results from both also show a differentiation depending on the type of vegetation. A positive trend with time in median injection heights from the PRM was noted, less marked from the Sofiev parameterization. This is provoked by a negative trend in number of small fires, especially in some regions such as South America. The use of biomass burning emission heights in atmospheric composition forecasts was assessed in two case studies: the SAMBBA campaign which took place in September 2012 in Brazil, and a series of large fire events in the Western U.S. in August 2013. For these case studies
The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve
Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.
2012-11-01
Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.
Wang, Yan Ming; Weston, Neil D.; Mader, Mader
2014-05-01
The accuracy of the differential ellipsoid heights on 218 benchmarks along the Geoid Slope Verification Survey 2011 (GSVS11) were estimated with an average accuracy of ±4.4mm using NOAA's Web-based GPS Network Processing and Adjustment tool OPUS-Projects. The differential ellipsoidal heights were also computed using leveling data and deflections of the vertical (DoV), providing a data set for verification of the formal error estimation of the OPUS-Projects ellipsoidal heights. Details of the GPS data processing and its formal accuracy estimation are shown; and the OPUS-Projects ellipsoidal heights are compared and analyzed with respect to the DoV/leveling heights. Taking advantage of the distinctive error characteristics of each data set, the differences between the OPUS-Projects heights and the DoV/leveling heights will be discussed.
Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting
Page, Don N
2008-01-01
Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.
Average-passage flow model development
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.
FREQUENTIST MODEL AVERAGING ESTIMATION: A REVIEW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haiying WANG; Xinyu ZHANG; Guohua ZOU
2009-01-01
In applications, the traditional estimation procedure generally begins with model selection.Once a specific model is selected, subsequent estimation is conducted under the selected model without consideration of the uncertainty from the selection process. This often leads to the underreporting of variability and too optimistic confidence sets. Model averaging estimation is an alternative to this procedure, which incorporates model uncertainty into the estimation process. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in model averaging from the frequentist perspective, and some important progresses have been made. In this paper, the theory and methods on frequentist model averaging estimation are surveyed. Some future research topics are also discussed.
Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds
Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.
2002-01-01
Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752
Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging
Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L
2010-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.
The Average Lower Connectivity of Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ersin Aslan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For a vertex v of a graph G, the lower connectivity, denoted by sv(G, is the smallest number of vertices that contains v and those vertices whose deletion from G produces a disconnected or a trivial graph. The average lower connectivity denoted by κav(G is the value (∑v∈VGsvG/VG. It is shown that this parameter can be used to measure the vulnerability of networks. This paper contains results on bounds for the average lower connectivity and obtains the average lower connectivity of some graphs.
Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P
2008-10-31
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.
Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
2005-01-01
of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...
Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F
2017-01-01
A number of studies have indicated that gay men tend to be shorter, on average, than heterosexual men. Less evidence exists that lesbian women are taller, on average, than heterosexual women. The most popular explanation of the association between sexual orientation and height involves prenatal factors, such that, for example, gay men may have been exposed to lower than typical androgens during fetal development, which impacts their height and sexual orientation as adults. An alternative explanation involves stress, given that stress has been associated with sexual minority identification and with lower height. Another alternative explanation involves nutrition, although its relationship is less clear with sexual minority identification. Using the Add Health data, which is a large, nationally representative and longitudinal sample of American adolescents (n = 14,786), we tested a mediation model, such that sexual orientation → pubertal stress/nutrition → height. Within men, we found that gay men (n = 126) were shorter, on average, than heterosexual men (n = 6412). None of the 24 pubertal stress-related and 15 pubertal nutrition-related variables assessed in the Add Health data mediated the relationship between sexual orientation and height in men. Within women, lesbians (n = 75) did not differ significantly in stature compared to heterosexual women (n = 6267). Thus, prenatal mechanisms (e.g., hormones, maternal immune response) are likely better candidates for explaining the height difference between gay men and heterosexual men.
Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos
2014-01-01
machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...
Childhood conditions and education as determinants of adult height and obesity among Greenland Inuit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerregaard, Peter
2011-01-01
Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N...... = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence......, alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm...
Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition
Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia
2016-05-01
The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.
Estimation of wind speed and wave height during cyclones
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
SanilKumar, V.; Mandal, S.; AshokKumar, K.
reported by ships were comparable. Empirical expressions relating wind speed, wave height and wave period to storm parameters were derived. The design wave height for different return periods was obtained by fitting a two-parameter Weibull distribution...
Monitoring the Madden-Julian oscillation with geopotential height
Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin; Qian, Weihong
2017-09-01
This paper examines the three-dimensional geopotential height structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and proposes that the MJO convection signals can be well reflected by upper-tropospheric zonal anomalous height gradient (ZAHG, \
Fundal Height: An Accurate Indicator of Fetal Growth?
Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week What's the significance of a fundal height measurement? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/fundal-height/faq- ...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAND LENGTH AND HEIGHT IN ADULT MALES OF NORTH INDIAN PUNJABI POPULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maheshwar
2013-02-01
.373 ± 11.515 and 196.267 ± 11.546 mm respectively. CONCLUSION: The height and hand length measurements were statistica lly significant ( p<0.0001 . Hand length is a good predictor of height. The correlation between hand length and height ( r= 0. 654; p<0.0001 was high and significant in all the subjects. The findings could also be of practical ORIGINAL ARTICLE Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences/ Volume 2/ Issue 9/ March 4, 2013 Page-1 006 significance in the field of forensic medicine in c ase of identification of persons having amputated lower limbs due to accident, or mass disas ter.
Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...
Appeals Council Requests - Average Processing Time
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual data from 1989 through 2015 for the average processing time (elapsed time in days) for dispositions by the Appeals Council (AC) (both...
Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...
Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...
Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures
Page, Don N
2014-01-01
The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...
A practical guide to averaging functions
Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa
2016-01-01
This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...
Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)
2014-11-28
Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.
Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections
Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth
2014-11-01
Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.
Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...
Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...
Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.
Mayerhöfer, Thomas G
2005-09-01
A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.
Cosmic Inhomogeneities and the Average Cosmological Dynamics
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.
2008-01-01
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a `dark energy'. However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the \\emph{in}homogeneous Universe, the averaged \\emph{homogeneous} Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic ini...
Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomáš Balogh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.
On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Draxl, Caroline
Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...
Simulation of sludge blanket height in clarifiers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Zhen; WU Zhi-chao; WANG Zhi-wei; GU Guo-wei
2009-01-01
Sludge blanket height (SBH) is an important parameter in the clarifier design,operation and control.Based on an overview and classification of SBH algorithms,a modifed SBH algorithm is proposed by incorporating a threshold concentration limit into a relative concentration sharp change algorithm to eliminate the disturbance of compression interfaces on the correct simulation of SBH.Pilot-scale test data are adopted to compare reliability of three SBH algorithms reported in literature and the modified SBH algorithm developed in this paper.Calculated results demonstrate that the three SBH algorithms give results with large deviation (＞50%) from measured SBH,especially under low solid flux conditions.The modified algorithm is computationally efficient and reliable in matching the measured data.It is incorporated into a onedimensional clarifier model for stable simulation of pilot-scale experimental clarifier data and into dynamic simulation of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) clarifier data.
Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.
Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi
2015-02-01
With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of different medial arch support heights on rearfoot kinematics
Mayer, Frank; Baur, Heiner
2017-01-01
Background Foot orthoses are usually assumed to be effective by optimizing mechanically dynamic rearfoot configuration. However, the effect from a foot orthosis on kinematics that has been demonstrated scientifically has only been marginal. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different heights in medial arch-supported foot orthoses on rear foot motion during gait. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic runners (36±11years, 180±5cm, 79±10kg; 41±22km/week) participated in the study. Trials were recorded at 3.1 mph (5 km/h) on a treadmill. Athletes walked barefoot and with 4 different not customized medial arch-supported foot orthoses of various arch heights (N:0 mm, M:30 mm, H:35 mm, E:40mm). Six infrared cameras and the `Oxford Foot Model´ were used to capture motion. The average stride in each condition was calculated from 50 gait cycles per condition. Eversion excursion and internal tibia rotation were analyzed. Descriptive statistics included calculating the mean ± SD and 95% CIs. Group differences by condition were analyzed by one factor (foot orthoses) repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results Eversion excursion revealed the lowest values for N and highest for H (B:4.6°±2.2°; 95% CI [3.1;6.2]/N:4.0°±1.7°; [2.9;5.2]/M:5.2°±2.6°; [3.6;6.8]/H:6.2°±3.3°; [4.0;8.5]/E:5.1°±3.5°; [2.8;7.5]) (p>0.05). Range of internal tibia rotation was lowest with orthosis H and highest with E (B:13.3°±3.2°; 95% CI [11.0;15.6]/N:14.5°±7.2°; [9.2;19.6]/M:13.8°±5.0°; [10.8;16.8]/H:12.3°±4.3°; [9.0;15.6]/E:14.9°±5.0°; [11.5;18.3]) (p>0.05). Differences between conditions were small and the intrasubject variation high. Conclusion Our results indicate that different arch support heights have no systematic effect on eversion excursion or the range of internal tibia rotation and therefore might not exert a crucial influence on rear foot alignment during gait. PMID:28257426
The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique
Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer
2011-01-01
Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...
Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data
Charles E. Thomas
1981-01-01
Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.
What's the Right Weight for My Height? (For Teens)
... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What's the Right Weight for My Height? KidsHealth > For Teens > What's the Right Weight for My Height? A A A What's ... el peso adecuado para mi altura? "What's the right weight for my height?" is one of the ...
The Perceptual Distortion of Height in Intercollegiate Debate.
Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn
Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of height among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' heights upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' heights upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…
47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...
Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark
2016-03-01
Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as
Hight Determination Techniques for the Next National Height System of Finland- A Case Study
Saari, T.; Saaranen, V.; Kaartinen, H.; Poutanen, M.; Kukko, A.; Nyberg, S.
2014-11-01
Precise levelling is known for its accuracy and reliability in height determination, but the process itself is slow, laborious and expensive. FGI has started a project to develop methods for height determination that could decrease the creation time of national height systems without losing the required accuracy. In this pilot project, we studied precise levelling and alternative techniques: MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) levelling, which included static GPS (Global Positioning System) and VRS (Virtual Reference Station) measurements. We compared the techniques in a field test, where the height difference of two known benchmarks were measured. All of the height differences were within 16 mm from each other, where the results from the precise levelling and the GPS levelling differed from 0.5-1.0 mm. Results from the MLS measurements were more than 5.0 mm off from the others and the average of the VRS measurements was 10.0 mm off. The uncertainties are compatible with the results, since the largest RMS values were calculated from the MLS and the VRS measurements. This research highlighted the differences of the techniques, but none of them is yet to be abandoned. The study should be expanded into a larger scale to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jordon, P.W.; Nobel, P.S.
1982-01-01
In three populations of Ferocactus acanthodes and two of Carnegiea gigantea, multiple discrete peaks in the height distribution were observed, suggesting that seedling establishment was intermittent. To identify periods of establishment, we determined the relationship between stem height and age for each site, based on observed growth rates in the field, gas-exchange data, and weather records. The average yearly growth for the globular F. acanthodes was relatively constant at about 9 mm yr/sup -1/, but for the club-shaped C. gigantea, it increased with age from 2 mm yr/sup -1/ in the first year to 44 mm yr/sup -1/ at 13 yr. In years suitable for establishment, seedlings grow to sufficient size that stored water is not depleted by cuticular transpiration during the ensuing drought. The pattern of such suitable years over the last 3 decades correlated with the measured height distributions when the relation between stem height and age was considered. At a Sonoran Desert site, major peaks in the height distribution were centered at 0.05 m and 0.19 m, which corresponded to suitable conditions for establishment in 1976 and 1959, respectively. Rainfall records from various weather stations indicated that both species occurred where at least 10% of the years are suitable for seedling establishment.
Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan
2014-01-01
Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslava Varella Valentova
Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.
Averaged controllability of parameter dependent conservative semigroups
Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique
2017-02-01
We consider the problem of averaged controllability for parameter depending (either in a discrete or continuous fashion) control systems, the aim being to find a control, independent of the unknown parameters, so that the average of the states is controlled. We do it in the context of conservative models, both in an abstract setting and also analysing the specific examples of the wave and Schrödinger equations. Our first result is of perturbative nature. Assuming the averaging probability measure to be a small parameter-dependent perturbation (in a sense that we make precise) of an atomic measure given by a Dirac mass corresponding to a specific realisation of the system, we show that the averaged controllability property is achieved whenever the system corresponding to the support of the Dirac is controllable. Similar tools can be employed to obtain averaged versions of the so-called Ingham inequalities. Particular attention is devoted to the 1d wave equation in which the time-periodicity of solutions can be exploited to obtain more precise results, provided the parameters involved satisfy Diophantine conditions ensuring the lack of resonances.
Average Temperatures in the Southwestern United States, 2000-2015 Versus Long-Term Average
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how the average air temperature from 2000 to 2015 has differed from the long-term average (1895–2015). To provide more detailed information,...
Instrument modifications that produced reduced plate heights supercritical fluid chromatography.
Berger, Terry A
2016-04-29
The concept of peak fidelity was shown to be helpful in modeling tubing and detector cell dimensions. Connection tubing and flow cell variances were modeled to determine appropriate internal ID's, lengths, and volumes. A low dispersion plumbing configuration, based on these calculations, was assembled to replace the standard plumbing and produced the reported results. The modifications made were straightforward using commercially available parts. The full theoretical efficiency of a 3×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm totally porous particles was achieved for the first time in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Peak fidelity of >0.95 was maintained to below k=2. A reduced plate height as low as 1.87 was measured. Thus, true "ultra high performance" SFC was achieved, with the results a major improvement from all previous SFC reports. Since there were no efficiency losses, none could be attributed to thermal gradients caused by the expansion of the fluid over large pressure drops, under the conditions used. Similarly, changes in diffusion coefficients caused by significant decreases in density during expansion are apparently balanced by the increase in linear velocity, keeping the ratio between the diffusion coefficient and the linear velocity a constant. Changing modifier concentration to change retention was shown to not be a significant problem. All these issues have been a concern in the past. Diffusion coefficients, and viscosity data needs to be collected at high pressures before the actual limits of SFC can be discovered.
Sliding Mode Robustness Control Strategy for Shearer Height Adjusting System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuping Su
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper firstly established mathematical model of height adjusting hydro cylinder of the shearer, as well as the state space equation of the shearer height adjusting system. Secondly we designed a shearer automatic height adjusting controller adopting the sliding mode robustness control strategy. The height adjusting controller includes the sliding mode surface switching function based on Ackermann formula, as well as sliding mode control function with the improved butterworth filter. Then simulation of the height adjustment controller shows that the sliding mode robustness control solves buffeting of typical controller, and achieves automatic control for the rolling drum of the shearer.
Preliminary investigation on the relation between maximum wave height and wave spectra
Tao, Aifeng; Wen, Cheng; Wu, Yuqing; Wu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Cao, Guangsui
2016-04-01
The maximum wave height is important not only for the determination of design wave parameters but also for the marine disaster defense. While it cannot be predicted straightforwardly at present, since the general numerical models for wave forecasting are all based on phase averaged spectra model. Then it becomes very useful to make clear the relationship between the maximum wave height and wave spectra parameters, such as average wave steepness, spectra width and spectra type, such as one single peak spectra or multi peaks spectra. In order to perform this research procedure, plenty of observed wave data are required. We collected ten years wave data measured from a ship in North Sea, one year wave pressure data from nine points around Korea, four years buoy data from three points along Chinese coast. The preliminary investigation results on the relations between maximum waves and spectra via the mention observed data will be present here.
Holland, A.; Moses, C.; Sear, D. A.; Cope, S.
2016-12-01
As sediments containing significant gravel portions are increasingly used for beach replenishment projects globally, the total number of beaches classified as `mixed sand and gravel' (MSG) increases. Calculations for required replenishment sediment volumes usually assume a uniform layer of sediment transport across and along the beach, but research into active layer (AL) depth has shown variations both across shore and according to sediment size distribution. This study addresses the need for more accurate calculations of sediment transport volumes on MSG beaches by using more precise measurements of AL depth and width, and virtual velocity of tracer pebbles. Variations in AL depth were measured along three main profile lines (from MHWS to MLWN) at Eastoke, Hayling Island (Hampshire, UK). Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged pebbles were deployed in columns, and their new locations repeatedly surveyed with RFID technology. These data were combined with daily dGPS beach profiles and sediment sampling for detailed analysis of the influence of beach morphodynamics on sediment transport volumes. Data were collected over two consecutive winter seasons: 2014-15 (relatively calm, average wave height sandy lower foreshore reduced the AL to 10% of wave height in this area. The disparity in AL depth across the beach profile indicates that traditional models are not accurately representing bulk sediment transport on MSG beaches. It is anticipated that by improving model inputs, beach managers will be better able to predict necessary volumes and sediment grain size proportions of replenishment material for effective management of MSG beaches.
Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy
Wiltshire, David L
2013-01-01
These lecture notes review the theoretical problems associated with coarse-graining the observed inhomogeneous structure of the universe at late epochs, of describing average cosmic evolution in the presence of growing inhomogeneity, and of relating average quantities to physical observables. In particular, a detailed discussion of the timescape scenario is presented. In this scenario, dark energy is realized as a misidentification of gravitational energy gradients which result from gradients in the kinetic energy of expansion of space, in the presence of density and spatial curvature gradients that grow large with the growth of structure. The phenomenology and observational tests of the timescape model are discussed in detail, with updated constraints from Planck satellite data. In addition, recent results on the variation of the Hubble expansion on < 100/h Mpc scales are discussed. The spherically averaged Hubble law is significantly more uniform in the rest frame of the Local Group of galaxies than in t...
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Alexander Bentley
Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC
Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel
2008-11-01
Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking
Liu, Shu-Jun
2012-01-01
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering and analysis of bacterial convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A
2001-05-23
We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.
The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.
1997-10-01
This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)
Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula
2002-01-01
Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200
Occurrence and average behavior of pulsating aurora
Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Kadokura, A.; Kauristie, K.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Massetti, S.; Stauning, P.; Raita, T.
2017-05-01
Motivated by recent event studies and modeling efforts on pulsating aurora, which conclude that the precipitation energy during these events is high enough to cause significant chemical changes in the mesosphere, this study looks for the bulk behavior of auroral pulsations. Based on about 400 pulsating aurora events, we outline the typical duration, geomagnetic conditions, and change in the peak emission height for the events. We show that the auroral peak emission height for both green and blue emission decreases by about 8 km at the start of the pulsating aurora interval. This brings the hardest 10% of the electrons down to about 90 km altitude. The median duration of pulsating aurora is about 1.4 h. This value is a conservative estimate since in many cases the end of event is limited by the end of auroral imaging for the night or the aurora drifting out of the camera field of view. The longest durations of auroral pulsations are observed during events which start within the substorm recovery phases. As a result, the geomagnetic indices are not able to describe pulsating aurora. Simultaneous Antarctic auroral images were found for 10 pulsating aurora events. In eight cases auroral pulsations were seen in the southern hemispheric data as well, suggesting an equatorial precipitation source and a frequent interhemispheric occurrence. The long lifetimes of pulsating aurora, their interhemispheric occurrence, and the relatively high-precipitation energies make this type of aurora an effective energy deposition process which is easy to identify from the ground-based image data.
The modulated average structure of mullite.
Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X
2015-06-01
Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real
A singularity theorem based on spatial averages
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J M M Senovilla
2007-07-01
Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.
Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context
Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary
2014-09-01
This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.
SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
K. L. Goluoglu
2000-06-09
The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.
An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.
2004-01-01
Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...
Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.
2014-01-01
As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...
Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.
Cade, Brian S
2015-09-01
Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t
Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences
Cade, Brian S.
2015-01-01
Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the
Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars
Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.
2010-01-01
The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARM SPAN AND HEIGHT IN ADU LT MALES OF NORTH INDIAN PUNJABI POPULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maheshwar
2013-01-01
significance in the field of forensic medicine in case of identification of persons having amputated lower limbs due to accident, or mass disaster. The present study will also be useful to recognize c ertain disorders such as Marfan's syndrome and other growth abnormalities. The criteria for e xclusion Marfan's syndrome are as follows:- ORIGINAL ARTICLE Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences/ Volume 2/ Issue 4/ January 28, 2013 Page-33 3 1. Arm span greater than height. This means that when y our arms are stretched to the side, the distance from finger tip to finger tip is greater than your height. 2. Reduced upper to lower segment ratio. This is when th e length of your torso (from shoulders to legs is shorter than the length of yo ur legs. 3. Curvature of the spine (scoliosis with a curve grea ter than 20 degrees. This work will be of utmost importance for dieticia ns to assess nutritional requirements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. H. de Rooij
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Current theories for water flow in porous media are valid for scales much smaller than those at which problem of public interest manifest themselves. This provides a drive for upscaled flow equations with their associated upscaled parameters. Upscaling is often achieved through volume averaging, but the solution to the resulting closure problem imposes severe restrictions to the flow conditions that limit the practical applicability. Here, the derivation of a closed expression of the effective hydraulic conductivity is forfeited to circumvent the closure problem. Thus, more limited but practical results can be derived. At the Representative Elementary Volume scale and larger scales, the gravitational potential and fluid pressure are treated as additive potentials. The necessary requirement that the superposition be maintained across scales is combined with conservation of energy during volume integration to establish consistent upscaling equations for the various heads. The power of these upscaling equations is demonstrated by the derivation of upscaled water content-matric head relationships and the resolution of an apparent paradox reported in the literature that is shown to have arisen from a violation of the superposition principle. Applying the upscaling procedure to Darcy's Law leads to the general definition of an upscaled hydraulic conductivity. By examining this definition in detail for porous media with different degrees of heterogeneity, a series of criteria is derived that must be satisfied for Darcy's Law to remain valid at a larger scale.
MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis
Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.
2017-01-01
In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been
Parameterized Traveling Salesman Problem: Beating the Average
Gutin, G.; Patel, V.
2016-01-01
In the traveling salesman problem (TSP), we are given a complete graph Kn together with an integer weighting w on the edges of Kn, and we are asked to find a Hamilton cycle of Kn of minimum weight. Let h(w) denote the average weight of a Hamilton cycle of Kn for the weighting w. Vizing in 1973 asked
On averaging methods for partial differential equations
Verhulst, F.
2001-01-01
The analysis of weakly nonlinear partial differential equations both qualitatively and quantitatively is emerging as an exciting eld of investigation In this report we consider specic results related to averaging but we do not aim at completeness The sections and contain important material which
Discontinuities and hysteresis in quantized average consensus
Ceragioli, Francesca; Persis, Claudio De; Frasca, Paolo
2011-01-01
We consider continuous-time average consensus dynamics in which the agents’ states are communicated through uniform quantizers. Solutions to the resulting system are defined in the Krasowskii sense and are proven to converge to conditions of ‘‘practical consensus’’. To cope with undesired chattering
Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai
2000-01-01
Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...
A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity
Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio
2014-01-01
In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…
Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic li...
Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...
Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...
Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis
Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…
A dynamic analysis of moving average rules
Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.
2006-01-01
The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
High average-power induction linacs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.
1989-03-15
Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.
High Average Power Optical FEL Amplifiers
Ben-Zvi, I; Litvinenko, V
2005-01-01
Historically, the first demonstration of the FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL amplifier and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance a 100 kW average power FEL. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting energy recovery linacs combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs with some advantages. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Li...
Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;
2011-01-01
We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...
Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia V. Skripnik
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.
Materials for high average power lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marion, J.E.; Pertica, A.J.
1989-01-01
Unique materials properties requirements for solid state high average power (HAP) lasers dictate a materials development research program. A review of the desirable laser, optical and thermo-mechanical properties for HAP lasers precedes an assessment of the development status for crystalline and glass hosts optimized for HAP lasers. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
A dynamic analysis of moving average rules
C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes
2006-01-01
The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Bayram TEMUR
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate whether incomes of the family, tea, smoke and soda have effect on the weight, height and bone mineral density of athletes. 80 athletes whose average age was 16.62- 0.92 were included. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4 of the subjects was measured by Dual energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DEXA (g/cm. Values of the family income and the daily consumption of tea, smoke and soda in the families of the athletes were researched. Values of weight and height of the athletes were also determined. In the analyses of the data obtained in the study, SPSS 15.0 package program was used. The results of this study demonstrated that there is no relation between the values of smoke, tea and soda with the values of weight, height and BMD. However, despite the lack of a relationship between the BMD values and the family income level, significant correlation was obtained between the BMD values with the height values (p≤0.01 and the weight values (p≤0.05. Consequently it was determined that tea, smoke and soda do not have effects on weight, height and BMD. Hence, it is thought that the lack of effect of smoking on weight, height and BMD could be due to the less daily smoking (1.67-0.79 and less smoking average in the subjects (26.3%.
Advanced Augmented White Cane with obstacle height and distance feedback.
Pyun, Rosali; Kim, Yeongmi; Wespe, Pascal; Gassert, Roger; Schneller, Stefan
2013-06-01
The white cane is a widely used mobility aid that helps visually impaired people navigate the surroundings. While it reliably and intuitively extends the detection range of ground-level obstacles and drop-offs to about 1.2 m, it lacks the ability to detect trunk and head-level obstacles. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been proposed to overcome these limitations, but have found minimal adoption due to limitations such as low information content and low reliability thereof. Although existing ETAs extend the sensing range beyond that of the conventional white cane, most of them do not detect head-level obstacles and drop-offs, nor can they identify the vertical extent of obstacles. Furthermore, some ETAs work independent of the white cane, and thus reliable detection of surface textures and drop-offs is not provided. This paper introduces a novel ETA, the Advanced Augmented White Cane, which detects obstacles at four vertical levels and provides multi-sensory feedback. We evaluated the device in five blindfolded subjects through reaction time measurements following the detection of an obstacle, as well as through the reliability of dropoff detection. The results showed that our aid could help the user successfully detect an obstacle and identify its height, with an average reaction time of 410 msec. Drop-offs were reliably detected with an intraclass correlation > 0.95. This work is a first step towards a low-cost ETA to complement the functionality of the conventional white cane.
Maximum relative height of elastic interfaces in random media.
Rambeau, Joachim; Bustingorry, Sebastian; Kolton, Alejandro B; Schehr, Grégory
2011-10-01
The distribution of the maximal relative height (MRH) of self-affine one-dimensional elastic interfaces in a random potential is studied. We analyze the ground-state configuration at zero driving force, and the critical configuration exactly at the depinning threshold, both for the random-manifold and random-periodic universality classes. These configurations are sampled by exact numerical methods, and their MRH distributions are compared with those with the same roughness exponent and boundary conditions, but produced by independent Fourier modes with normally distributed amplitudes. Using Pickands' theorem we derive an exact analytical description for the right tail of the latter. After properly rescaling the MRH distributions we find that corrections from the Gaussian independent modes approximation are, in general, small, as previously found for the average width distribution of depinning configurations. In the large size limit all corrections are finite except for the ground state in the random-periodic class whose MRH distribution becomes, for periodic boundary conditions, indistinguishable from the Airy distribution. We find that the MRH distributions are, in general, sensitive to changes of boundary conditions.
Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.
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Paul D McGreevy
Full Text Available Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301 of various common breeds (n = 49 collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ. Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14, bodyweight alone (n = 5, CI alone (n = 3, bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2, height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3 or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6. For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001 with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001 but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020. The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To compare the cutaneous lip height at early and late postoperative periods and to objectively determine the average amount of lip height improvement during the first year of unilateral complete cleft lip repair using Cutting extended Mohler technique. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, 26 unilateral complete cleft patients and 50 noncleft subjects were included. Photographs were taken between 12 and 16 weeks (T1 and also taken between 12 and 13 months after surgery (T2. The cutaneous lip height distance (photogrammetric lip analysis obtained in these two periods of time were measured and statistically analyzed. Results. The average lip heights were in T1 and in T2 (. The average lip height asymmetry in the noncleft individuals was . Conclusion. Since all principles to obtain a symmetrical Cupid’s bow were performed, the postoperative pull-up of Cupid’s bow is probably owed to the scar contracture, which improves by 2 times during the first year after surgery.
Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Giancolli, André Pecci; Denadai, Rafael; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Somensi, Renato Salazar; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Alonso, Nivaldo
2012-01-01
Objective. To compare the cutaneous lip height at early and late postoperative periods and to objectively determine the average amount of lip height improvement during the first year of unilateral complete cleft lip repair using Cutting extended Mohler technique. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, 26 unilateral complete cleft patients and 50 noncleft subjects were included. Photographs were taken between 12 and 16 weeks (T1) and also taken between 12 and 13 months after surgery (T2). The cutaneous lip height distance (photogrammetric lip analysis) obtained in these two periods of time were measured and statistically analyzed. Results. The average lip heights were 24% ± 9% in T1 and 8% ± 6% in T2 (P < 0.01). The average lip height asymmetry in the noncleft individuals was 4.52% ± 1.89%. Conclusion. Since all principles to obtain a symmetrical Cupid's bow were performed, the postoperative pull-up of Cupid's bow is probably owed to the scar contracture, which improves by 2 times during the first year after surgery.
Height System Unification in North America
Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak
2015-04-01
GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good
Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
2004-01-01
topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000
Nontidal ocean loading: amplitudes and potential effects in GPS height time series
van Dam, T.; Collilieux, X.; Wuite, J.; Altamimi, Z.; Ray, J.
2012-11-01
Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) changes are caused by a redistribution of the ocean's internal mass that are driven by atmospheric circulation, a change in the mass entering or leaving the ocean, and/or a change in the integrated atmospheric mass over the ocean areas. The only previous global analysis investigating the magnitude of OBP surface displacements used older OBP data sets (van Dam et al. in J Geophys Res 129:507-517, 1997). Since then significant improvements in meteorological forcing models used to predict OBP have been made, augmented by observations from satellite altimetry and expendable bathythermograph profiles. Using more recent OBP estimates from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project, we reassess the amplitude of the predicted effect of OBP on the height coordinate time series from a global distribution of GPS stations. OBP-predicted loading effects display an RMS scatter in the height of between 0.2 and 3.7 mm, larger than previously reported but still much smaller (by a factor of 2) than the scatter observed due to atmospheric pressure loading. Given the improvement in GPS hardware and data analysis techniques, the OBP signal is similar to the precision of weekly GPS height coordinates. We estimate the effect of OBP on GPS height coordinate time series using the MIT reprocessed solution, mi1. When we compare the predicted OBP height time series with mi1, we find that the scatter is reduced over all stations by 0.1 mm on average with reductions as high as 0.7 mm at some stations. More importantly we are able to reduce the scatter on 65 % of the stations investigated. The annual component of the OBP signal is responsible for 80 % of the reduction in scatter on average. We find that stations located close to semi-enclosed bays or seas are affected by OBP loading to a greater extent than other stations.
Post, C L; Victora, C G; Barros, A J
2000-01-01
The sample for this study consisted of 386 children from six to 59 months of age. The objective was to study the association between wasting and abdominal circumference. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were taken: weight, height or length, crown-rump length, 4 circumferences, 4 skin fold thicknesses, and 2 breadths. Muscle, fat, and total upper arm areas and leg length were calculated. Indices of body proportionality were obtained by dividing the anthropometric variables by height. Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height deficits were 25.9%, 14.4%, and 3.5%, respectively. The smallest and lightest children were those with the highest abdominal circumferences divided by height. According to this study, abdominal circumference for Brazilian children without height-for-age deficit is, on average, 1.2 cm larger than for US children. Using this as a basis, the study calculated that prevalence of weight-for-height deficit would increase from 3.5% to 7.0% by increasing 2 cm in the abdominal circumference. The low prevalence of wasting and the high prevalence of stunting as indicated by several Brazilian studies could be explained partially by larger mean abdominal circumference values.
Observation of bright-band height data from TRMM-PR for satellite communication in South Africa
Olurotimi, E. O.; Sokoya, O.; Ojo, J. S.; Owolawi, P. A.
2017-07-01
The deleterious effects of rain on a satellite link operating at a frequency above 10 GHz can be estimated using various parameters such as rain rate, drop size distribution, and rain height. In order to accurately account for rain fade along satellite link, real-time measurement of rain height data are needed. In this paper, Bright-Band Height (BBH) and 0 °C isotherm height (ZDIH) over some selected stations in South Africa were processed and used to determine rain height based on the precipitation data of 5-year (2011-2015) collected by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission-Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) satellite. These results are then compared with the previous ITU-R P.839-2 and the recent ITU-R P.839-4. The results show that the BBH vary over the years and locations, and will mostly lie between 3.4557 and 4.2244 km. The average rain height observed also lies between 4.085 and 4.457 km across the studied locations. Comparison between the two versions of Recommendation P.839 showed that the ITU-R P.839-2 performs better with respect to three chosen locations such as Durban, Johannesburg, and Kimberley. However, the most recent version (ITU-R P.839-4) appears to be better in the case of a location like Cape Town. The overall results suggest the use of locally derived rain height values for rain attenuation prediction.
Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier
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Aaron Meehan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-01-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...
ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE
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Carmen BOGHEAN
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.
Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry
Vladimirov, A. P.
2014-05-01
For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.
Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe
Agrawal, D. C.
2013-01-01
The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…
Endogenous average cost based access pricing
Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis
2006-01-01
We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...
The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities without averaging
Chatterjee, Sourav
2009-01-01
The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities are one of the most mysterious features of spin glasses. We prove the GG identities in a large class of models that includes the Edwards-Anderson model, the random field Ising model, and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the presence of a random external field. Previously, the GG identities were rigorously proved only `on average' over a range of temperatures or under small perturbations.
Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe
Agrawal, D. C.
2013-01-01
The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…
Average Light Intensity Inside a Photobioreactor
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Herby Jean
2011-01-01
Full Text Available For energy production, microalgae are one of the few alternatives with high potential. Similar to plants, algae require energy acquired from light sources to grow. This project uses calculus to determine the light intensity inside of a photobioreactor filled with algae. Under preset conditions along with estimated values, we applied Lambert-Beer's law to formulate an equation to calculate how much light intensity escapes a photobioreactor and determine the average light intensity that was present inside the reactor.
Olesk, Aire; Voormansik, Kaupo; Tamm, Tanel; Noorma, Mart; Praks, Jaan
2015-10-01
The aim of this study is to assess the performance of single-pass X-band bistatic SAR interferometric forest height estimation of boreal and temperate deciduous forests under variable seasonal conditions. For this, twelve acquisitions of single- and dual-polarized TanDEM-X coherence images over 118 forest stands were analyzed and compared against LiDAR forest height maps. Strong correlations were found between interferometric coherence magnitude and LiDAR derived forest stand height for pine forests (r2=0.94) and spruce forest (r2=0.87) as well as for deciduous trees (r2=0.94) during leaf-off conditions with temperatures below 0°C. It was found that coherence magnitude based forest height estimation is influenced by leaf-on and leaf-off conditions as well as daily temperature fluctuations, height of ambiguity and effective baseline. These factors alter the correlation and should be taken into account for accurate coherence-based height retrieval. Despite the influence of the mentioned factors, generally a strong relationship in regression analysis between X-band SAR coherence and LiDAR derived forest stand height can be found. Moreover, a simple semi empirical model, derived from Random Volume over Ground model, is presented. The model takes into account all imaging geometry dependent parameters and allows to derive tree height estimate without a priori knowledge. Our results show that X-band SAR interferometry can be used to estimate forest canopy height for boreal and deciduous forests in both summer and winter, but the conditions should be stable.
Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature
Ballatore, P.
Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.
Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel
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Mikael Johnson
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.
On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers
Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore
2016-01-01
In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...
A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.
Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor
2013-02-25
Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.
Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy
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Robert Schoen
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.
Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang
2009-01-01
To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.
Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy
2004-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.
Transferability of Models for Estimating Paddy Rice Biomass from Spatial Plant Height Data
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Nora Tilly
2015-07-01
Full Text Available It is known that plant height is a suitable parameter for estimating crop biomass. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity of spatial plant height data, which is derived from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale. Beyond that, the spatial and temporal transferability of established biomass regression models were investigated to prove the robustness of the method and evaluate the suitability of linear and exponential functions. In each growing season of two years, three campaigns were carried out on a field experiment and on a farmer’s conventionally managed field. Crop surface models (CSMs were generated from the TLS-derived point clouds for calculating plant height with a very high spatial resolution of 1 cm. High coefficients of determination between CSM-derived and manually measured plant heights (R2: 0.72 to 0.91 confirm the applicability of the approach. Yearly averaged differences between the measurements were ~7% and ~9%. Biomass regression models were established from the field experiment data sets, based on strong coefficients of determination between plant height and dry biomass (R2: 0.66 to 0.86 and 0.65 to 0.84 for linear and exponential models, respectively. The spatial and temporal transferability of the models to the farmer’s conventionally managed fields is supported by strong coefficients of determination between estimated and measured values (R2: 0.60 to 0.90 and 0.56 to 0.85 for linear and exponential models, respectively. Hence, the suitability of TLS-derived spatial plant height as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale was verified and the transferability demonstrated.
Kitazawa, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Akiyama, H.; Ebinuma, T.; Isoguchi, O.; Kimura, N.; Konda, M.; Kouguchi, N.; Tamura, H.; Tomita, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Waseda, T.
2016-12-01
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location to high precision using radio signals transmitted from satellites, GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) involves making measurements from the reflections from the Earth of navigation signals from GNSS satellites. Reflected signals from sea surface are considered that those are useful to observe sea state and sea surface height. We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under the contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) and launched a Japanese research consortium, GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height). It is aiming to evaluate the capabilities of GNSS-R observations for oceanographic phenomena with different time scales, such as ocean waves (1/10 to tens of seconds), tides (one or half days), and sea surface dynamic height (a few days to years). In situ observations of ocean wave spectrum, wind speed vertical profile, and sea surface height will be quantitatively compared with equivalent estimates from simultaneous GNSS-R measurements. The GROWTH project will utilize different types of observation platforms; marine observation towers (about 20 m height), multi-copters (about 100 to 150 m height), and much higher-altitude CYGNSS data. Cross-platform data, together with in situ oceanographic observations, will be compared after adequate temporal averaging that accounts differences of the footprint sizes and temporal and spatial scales of oceanographic phenomena. This paper will provide overview of the GROWTH project, preliminary test results, obtained by the multi-sensor platform at observation towers, suggest actual footprint sizes and identification of swell. Preparation status of a ground station which will be supplied to receive CYGNSS data
Long Distance Transference of Height Daum Across Seas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper focuses on studying long distance transference of height datum across seas by combining ellipsoidal height derived from GPS with gravimetric geoid height.The Yellow Sea Height Datum is transferred to Yangshan Island which is 30 km away from Luchaogang in Shanghai.The stations heights derived in this way are compared with those determined from two independent sets of the tidal observations taken in two years,and the difference values are 1.0 cm and 6.0 cm,respectively.Moreover,the derived height differences between two sections on the island are also compared with the values derived from precise leveling with respect to the same section.The result shows that the inconsistencies are only 0.2 cm and 0.7 cm,respectively.
Exponential reduction of finite volume effects with twisted boundary conditions
Cherman, Aleksey; Wagman, Michael L; Yaffe, Laurence G
2016-01-01
Flavor-twisted boundary conditions can be used for exponential reduction of finite volume artifacts in flavor-averaged observables in lattice QCD calculations with $SU(N_f)$ light quark flavor symmetry. Finite volume artifact reduction arises from destructive interference effects in a manner closely related to the phase averaging which leads to large $N_c$ volume independence. With a particular choice of flavor-twisted boundary conditions, finite volume artifacts for flavor-singlet observables in a hypercubic spacetime volume are reduced to the size of finite volume artifacts in a spacetime volume with periodic boundary conditions that is four times larger.
Plasma volume nomograms for use in therapeutic plasma exchange.
Buffaloe, G W; Heineken, F G
1983-01-01
Nomograms have been developed for the convenient estimation of the plasma volumes of patients undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), based on equations employing height, body weight, and hematocrit. These nomograms are offered as an aid to prescribing continuous-flow TPE procedure exchange volumes.
The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy
Belkhir, Walid
2009-01-01
The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...
[Regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction].
Wei, Lingzhu; Cheng, Jianhui; Li, Lin; Wu, Jiang
2012-02-01
Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits that could affect both crop yield and quality. Among all the hormones, gibberellins are crucial to regulate plant height. Cloning and molecular mechanism research of the plant height genes associated gibberellins have extremely important value for the regulation of crop growth and agricultural production, and have been widely used in rice, wheat and other grain crops breeding. In order to promote utilization of gibberellins in fruit trees, flowers and other horticultural crops breeding, we reviewed the regulation of plant height by gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction at the molecular level in this paper.
Significant wave heights from Sentinel-1 SAR: Validation and applications
Stopa, J. E.; Mouche, A.
2017-03-01
Two empirical algorithms are developed for wave mode images measured from the synthetic aperture radar aboard Sentinel-1 A. The first method, called CWAVE_S1A, is an extension of previous efforts developed for ERS2 and the second method, called Fnn, uses the azimuth cutoff among other parameters to estimate significant wave heights (Hs) and average wave periods without using a modulation transfer function. Neural networks are trained using colocated data generated from WAVEWATCH III and independently verified with data from altimeters and in situ buoys. We use neural networks to relate the nonlinear relationships between the input SAR image parameters and output geophysical wave parameters. CWAVE_S1A performs well and has reduced precision compared to Fnn with Hs root mean square errors within 0.5 and 0.6 m, respectively. The developed neural networks extend the SAR's ability to retrieve useful wave information under a large range of environmental conditions including extratropical and tropical cyclones in which Hs estimation is traditionally challenging.Plain Language SummaryTwo empirical algorithms are developed to estimate integral wave parameters from high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ocean images measured from recently launched the Sentinel 1 satellite. These methods avoid the use of the complicated image to wave mapping typically used to estimate sea state parameters. In addition, we are able to estimate wave parameters that are not able to be measured using existing techniques for the Sentinel 1 satellite. We use a machine learning technique to create a model that relates the ocean image properties to geophysical wave parameters. The models are developed using data from a numerical model because of the sufficiently large sample of global ocean conditions. We then verify that our developed models perform well with respect to independently measured wave observations from other satellite sensors and buoys. We successfully created models that
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard E. Tracy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.
Height of burst explosions: a comparative study of numerical and experimental results
Omang, M.; Christensen, S. O.; Børve, S.; Trulsen, J.
2009-06-01
In the current work, we use the Constant Volume model and the numerical method, Regularized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (RSPH) to study propagation and reflection of blast waves from detonations of the high explosives C-4 and TNT. The results from simulations of free-field TNT explosions are compared to previously published data, and good agreement is found. Measurements from height of burst tests performed by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency are used to compare against numerical simulations. The results for shock time of arrival and the pressure levels are well represented by the numerical results. The results are also found to be in good agreement with results from a commercially available code. The effect of allowing different ratios of specific heat capacities in the explosive products are studied. We also evaluate the effect of changing the charge shape and height of burst on the triple point trajectory.
Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirilenko, D.A., E-mail: Demid.Kirilenko@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, 194021 St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Brunkov, P.N. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, 194021 St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); ITMO University, Kronverksky pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm{sup −1}. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq{sup 4} law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q{sup −3.15} but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yorifuji, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe
2017-01-01
. RESULTS: The average height of the exposed group was 6.5cm below that of the unexposed group (p=0.02), while the latter was in accordance with national data for both sexes. In addition, the exposed participants had a higher mean (SD) serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 233 (63) U/L than...
Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range.
Bilyeu, Danielle M; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson
2008-01-01
Excessive levels of herbivory may disturb ecosystems in ways that persist even when herbivory is moderated. These persistent changes may complicate efforts to restore ecosystems affected by herbivores. Willow (Salix spp.) communities within the northern range in Yellowstone National Park have been eliminated or degraded in many riparian areas by excessive elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing. Elk browsing of riparian willows appears to have diminished following the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupis L.), but it remains uncertain whether reduced herbivory will restore willow communities. The direct effects of elk browsing on willows have been accompanied by indirect effects from the loss of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) activity, including incision of stream channels, erosion of fine sediments, and lower water tables near streams historically dammed by beaver. In areas where these changes have occurred, lowered water tables may suppress willow height even in the absence of elk browsing. We conducted a factorial field experiment to understand willow responses to browsing and to height of water tables. After four years of protection from elk browsing, willows with ambient water tables averaged only 106 cm in height, with negligible height gain in two of three study species during the last year of the experiment. Willows that were protected from browsing and had artificially elevated water tables averaged 147 cm in height and gained 19 cm in the last year of the experiment. In browsed plots, elevated water tables doubled height gain during a period of slightly reduced browsing pressure. We conclude that water availability mediates the rate of willow height gain and may determine whether willows grow tall enough to escape the browse zone of elk and gain resistance to future elk browsing. Consequently, in areas where long-term beaver absence has resulted in incised stream channels and low water tables, a reduction in elk browsing alone may not be sufficient for recovery
Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew
2017-09-01
We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
It is an attractive method to combine GPS observations with the information from other surveying system to improve the ambiguity resolution. This research is conducted to investigate how to obtain the prior height information in bathymetric surveying by GPS positioning and how to use the prior height information and to obtain a robust result. The authors deal with the collection and the description of the prior height and the method using height validation to improve the ambiguity resolution. The principle of the method, the relationships between the height threshold and the ambiguity search space are presented. A method to determine the threshold for the height validation is suggested. The field tests are carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed methods.
De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.
2011-01-01
This article is concerned with the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) estimator and the Weighted Average Least Squa
Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks
Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho
2017-04-01
Sediment characteristics and transport processes in sewers are markedly different from river. There is a wide range of particle densities and smaller particle size variation in sewers. Sediment supply and the available erodible material are more limited in sewers, and the diverse hydraulic characteristics in sewer systems are more unsteady. Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for engineers. The effects of sediment formation in sewer systems, an appropriate sediment transport modelling with the ability to determine the location and depth of sediment deposit is needed. It is necessary to design efficiently considering the transfer and settling phenomena of the sediment coming into the sewer systems. During transport in the sewer, the minimum shear flow velocity and possible shear stress at which the sediment is transported smoothly. However, the interaction of sediment and fluid within the sewer systems has been very complex and the rigorous theoretical handling of this problem has not been developed. It is derived from the empirical values obtained from the river bed. The basic theory that particles float is based on the balance between sedimentation of particles by gravity and turbulent diffusion of fluids. There are many variables related. Representative parameters include complex phenomena due to collisions between particles, particles and fluids, and interactions between particles and tube walls. In general, the main parameters that form the boundary between the main transport and sediment are particle size, density, volume fraction, pipe diameter and gravity. As the particle size and volume concentration increase, the minimum feed rate increases and the same tendency is observed for the change of the capillary diameter. Based on this tendency, this study has developed a sediment deposition height capacity formula to take into consideration the sewer discharge
Ergonomic suitability of kitchen furniture regarding height accessibility.
Hrovatin, Jasna; Prekrat, Silvana; Oblak, Leon; Ravnik, David
2015-03-01
It is possible to significantly ease kitchen chores with properly sized and appropriately arranged cupboards. In designing kitchen furniture and the optimal depth and the height of storage capacities, accessibility should be taken into consideration. It is known that the optimal storage zone is between 800 and 1100 mm and that there is reduced visibility and accessibility at the level between 1400 and 1700 mm, which is even more prominent for the elderly. This suggests that wall cabinets are not recommended for the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent kitchens manufactured by Slovenian furniture manufacturers are suitable for users of different age groups with regard to the accessibility of goods stored in the cupboards. Furthermore, based on the measurement analysis, recommendations are provided for designing kitchen furniture that would meet the needs of the elderly. The study, carried out using a computer simulation model, analyzed the products of three Slovenian kitchen manufacturers. The cross section of accessibility in the wall cabinets was determined for different age groups of men and women. The results show that the efficacy of the volume in wall cabinets higher than 600 mm, in comparison to places where objects are easily reachable, is 30% lower for women, thus indicating the inefficiency of storage space in wall cabinets. In terms of accessibility, existing kitchens are not optimal for the elderly, and a model with a deeper worktop and wall cabinets lowered onto the worktop is proposed. Accessibility in such wall cabinets is increased by up to 70% if the body is moved forward by 30°.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Chen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We report the average properties and small-scale variation features of the mesospheric Na and Fe layers at 30° N from extensive simultaneous and common-volume Na and Fe lidar measurements at Wuhan, China. The annual mean Na and Fe density profiles are derived in terms of an averaging method taken from an early literature. The mean Na and Fe profiles preserve the sharp gradients present in most individual density profiles near the layer bottom. Near the bottommost of the layers the mean Na and Fe scale heights are respectively −0.42 and −0.30 km. The mean layer parameters coincide well with the previous report. The Na and Fe densities in the lowest several kilometers of the layers consistently exhibit nearly the same time variations. A clear-cut distinction between the Na and Fe time variations always appears in an altitude range near 90 km. A relatively weak positive correlation between them persistently occurs also in an altitude range near 100 km. The mean increase and decrease rates for both Na and Fe are altitude dependent and have a single-peak structure. The time constant of the layer variation is ~0.07–2.0 h for Na and ~0.02–1.7 h for Fe, suggesting that the variability is dominated by small-scale processes. However, there is also a slow net increase in each of the annual mean column abundances (Na and Fe during night.
A sixth order averaged vector field method
Li, Haochen; Wang, Yushun; Qin, Mengzhao
2014-01-01
In this paper, based on the theory of rooted trees and B-series, we propose the concrete formulas of the substitution law for the trees of order =5. With the help of the new substitution law, we derive a B-series integrator extending the averaged vector field (AVF) method to high order. The new integrator turns out to be of order six and exactly preserves energy for Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the energy-preserving property of the s...
Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians
Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H
2002-01-01
For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.
Sparsity averaging for radio-interferometric imaging
Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves
2014-01-01
We propose a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of the compressed sensing (CS) theory with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Natural images are often complicated and several types of structures can be present at once. It is well known that piecewise smooth images exhibit gradient sparsity, and that images with extended structures are better encapsulated in wavelet frames. Therefore, we here conjecture that promoting average sparsity or compressibility over multiple frames rather than single frames is an extremely powerful regularization prior.
Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benet, L [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Flores, J [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Hernandez-Saldana, H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Izrailev, F M [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Leyvraz, F [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Seligman, T H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
2003-02-07
Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H
2003-01-01
Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA
2014-01-01
As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), whic...
Ichikawa, Kaoru; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Ebinuma, Takuji; Isoguchi, Osamu; Kimura, Noriaki; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Konda, Masanori; Kouguchi, Nobuyuki; Tamura, Hitoshi; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Waseda, Takuji
2016-04-01
There has been considerable interest in GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R) as a new remote-sensing method. We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under the contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) and launched a Japanese research consortium, GROWTH. It is aiming to evaluate the capabilities of GNSS-R observations for oceanographic phenomena with different time scales, such as ocean waves (1/10 to tens of seconds), tides (one or half days), and sea surface dynamic height (a few days to years). In situ observations of ocean wave spectrum, wind speed vertical profile, and sea surface height will be quantitatively compared with equivalent estimates from simultaneous GNSS-R measurements. The GROWTH project will utilize different types of observation platforms; marine observation towers (about 20 m height), multi-copters (about 100 to 200 m height), and much higher-altitude CYGNSS data. Cross-platform data, together with in situ oceanographic observations, will be compared after adequate temporal averaging that accounts differences of the footprint sizes and temporal and spatial scales of oceanographic phenomena. This paper will provide overview of the GROWTH project, preliminary test results obtained by the multi-sensor platform at observation towers, and preparation status of a ground station that will be supplied to receive CYGNSS data at Japan.
In-Field High-Throughput Phenotyping of Cotton Plant Height Using LiDAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shangpeng Sun
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A LiDAR-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP system was developed for cotton plant phenotyping in the field. The HTP system consists of a 2D LiDAR and an RTK-GPS mounted on a high clearance tractor. The LiDAR scanned three rows of cotton plots simultaneously from the top and the RTK-GPS was used to provide the spatial coordinates of the point cloud during data collection. Configuration parameters of the system were optimized to ensure the best data quality. A height profile for each plot was extracted from the dense three dimensional point clouds; then the maximum height and height distribution of each plot were derived. In lab tests, single plants were scanned by LiDAR using 0.5° angular resolution and results showed an R2 value of 1.00 (RMSE = 3.46 mm in comparison to manual measurements. In field tests using the same angular resolution; the LiDAR-based HTP system achieved average R2 values of 0.98 (RMSE = 65 mm for cotton plot height estimation; compared to manual measurements. This HTP system is particularly useful for large field application because it provides highly accurate measurements; and the efficiency is greatly improved compared to similar studies using the side view scan.
The Tromsø Study: body height, body mass index and fractures.
Joakimsen, R M; Fønnebø, V; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A; Søgaard, A J
1998-01-01
Tall persons suffer more hip fractures than shorter persons, and high body mass index is associated with fewer hip and forearm fractures. We have studied the association between body height, body mass index and all non-vertebral fractures in a large, prospective, population-based study. The middle-aged population of Tromsø, Norway, was invited to surveys in 1979/80, 1986/87 and 1994/95 (The Tromsø Study). Of 16,676 invited to the first two surveys, 12,270 attended both times (74%). Height and weight were measured without shoes at the surveys, and all non-vertebral fractures in the period 1988-1995 were registered (922 persons with fractures) and verified by radiography. The risk of a low-energy fracture was found to be positively associated with increasing body height and with decreasing body mass index. Furthermore, men who had gained weight had a lower risk of hip fractures, and women who had gained weight had a lower risk of fractures in the lower extremities. High body height is thus a risk factor for fractures, and 1 in 4 low-energy fractures among women today might be ascribed to the increase in average stature since the turn of the century. Low body mass index is associated with a higher risk of fractures, but the association is probably too weak to have any clinical relevance in this age category.
GROUND FILTERING LiDAR DATA BASED ON MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF HEIGHT DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Rashidi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a necessary step to generate digital terrain model (DTM from LiDAR dataset. In this research, a new method based on multi-scale analysis of height difference threshold is proposed for ground filtering of LiDAR data. The proposed method utilizes three windows with different sizes in small, average and large to cover the entire LiDAR point clouds, then with a height difference threshold, point clouds can be separated to ground and non-ground in each local window. Meanwhile, the best threshold values for size of windows are considered based on physical characteristics of the ground surface and size of objects. Also, the minimum of height of object in each window selected as height difference threshold. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, two datasets in rural and urban area were applied. The overall accuracy in rural and urban area was 96.06% and 94.88% respectively. These results of the filtering showed that the proposed method can successfully filters non-ground points from LiDAR point clouds despite of the data area.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulla Sovio
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1 and puberty (PHV2 and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person from 0-20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05. We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030 and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045. We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulla Sovio
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1 and puberty (PHV2 and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person from 0-20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05. We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030 and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045. We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth.
Yu, Tao; Zuo, Xiaomin; Xia, Chunliang; Li, Mingyuan; Huang, Cong; Mao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhao, Biqiang; Liu, Libo
2017-04-01
A new method for estimating daily averaged peak height of the OH airglow layer from a ground-based meteor radar (MR) and a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is presented. The first results are derived from 4 year simultaneous measurements of winds by a MR and a FPI at two adjacent stations over center China and are compared with observations from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument. The OH airglow peak heights, which are derived by using correlation analysis between winds of the FPI and MR, are found to generally peak at an altitude of 87 km and frequently varied between 80 km and 90 km day to day. In comparison with SABER OH 1.6 μm observations, reasonable similarity of airglow peak heights is found, and rapid day-to-day variations are also pronounced. Lomb-Scargle analysis is used to determine cycles of temporal variations of airglow peak heights, and there are obvious periodic variations both in our airglow peak heights and in the satellite observations. In addition to the annual, semiannual, monthly, and three monthly variations, the shorter time variations, e.g., day-to-day and several days' variations, are also conspicuous. The day-to-day variations of airglow height obviously could reduce observation accuracy and lead to some deviations in FPI measurements. These FPI wind deviations arising from airglow height variations are also estimated to be about 3-5 m/s from 2011 to 2015, with strong positive correlation with airglow peak height variation. More attention should be paid to the wind deviations associated with airglow height variation when using and interpreting winds measured by FPI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramakrishna R. Nemani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A methodology to generate spatially continuous fields of tree heights with an optimized Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL model is reported in this first of a multi-part series of articles. Model optimization is performed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS waveform data. This methodology is demonstrated by mapping tree heights over forested lands in the continental USA (CONUS at 1 km spatial resolution. The study area is divided into 841 eco-climatic zones based on three forest types, annual total precipitation classes (30 mm intervals and annual average temperature classes (2 °C intervals. Three model parameters (area of single leaf, α, exponent for canopy radius, η, and root absorption efficiency, γ were selected for optimization, that is, to minimize the difference between actual and potential tree heights in each of the eco-climatic zones over the CONUS. Tree heights predicted by the optimized model were evaluated against GLAS heights using a two-fold cross validation approach (R2 = 0.59; RMSE = 3.31 m. Comparison at the pixel level between GLAS heights (mean = 30.6 m; standard deviation = 10.7 and model predictions (mean = 30.8 m; std. = 8.4 were also performed. Further, the model predictions were compared to existing satellite-based forest height maps. The optimized ASRL model satisfactorily reproduced the pattern of tree heights over the CONUS. Subsequent articles in this series will document further improvements with the ultimate goal of mapping tree heights and forest biomass globally.
Source of non-arrhenius average relaxation time in glass-forming liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
1998-01-01
A major mystery of glass-forming liquids is the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time. This paper briefly reviews the classical phenomenological models for non-Arrhenius behavior the free volume model and the entropy model and critiques against these models. We...... are anharmonic, the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time is a consequence of the fact that the instantaneous shear modulus increases upon cooling....
Talla baja y enfermedades raras Low height and rare diseases
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M.J. Chueca
2008-01-01
Full Text Available La baja talla constituye el primer motivo de consulta en endocrinología pediátrica. En un alto porcentaje su etiología es clara y obedece fundamentalmente a variantes de normalidad. Sin embargo, en aproximadamente un 20% esta baja talla es patológica y obliga a estudios exhaustivos. La asociación de enfermedades raras (ER con talla baja es altamente frecuente. En este trabajo repasamos las etiologías de la baja talla en enfermedades raras, describiendo: - las formas genéticas de la hormona de crecimiento (GH bien sean aisladas o asociadas a malformaciones de la línea media u otras. - aquellas de gran importancia por su repercusión clínica como el Síndrome de Turner, Síndrome de Noonan y el Síndrome de Willi-Prader. - Las frecuentes displasias óseas, con alteración genética en algunos casos para el gen SHOX, situado en el brazo corto del cromosoma Xp. La importancia de estos diagnósticos radica en la posibilidad de hacer un tratamiento precoz y eficaz, en algunos de ellos, con GH. En conclusión, el diagnóstico de enfermedades raras con baja talla es un reto actual y habitual en endocrinología pediátrica por los grandes avances de la genética molecular y la posibilidad de tratamiento en algunas de ellas. Implica siempre un abordaje multidisciplinario por la asociación frecuente de patología que presenta y a su vez, ofrece la posibilidad de realizar el oportuno consejo genético.Low stature is the main reason of consultation in paediatric endocrinology. In a high percentage of cases, its etiology is clear and fundamentally answers to variants of normality. However, in approximately 20% of cases low stature is pathological and requires exhaustive studies. The association of rare diseases (RD with low height is very frequent. In this article we review the etiology of low height, describing: - The genetic forms of the growth hormone (GH, whether isolated or associated with malformations of the average line or others. - Those
Tree height integrated into pan-tropical forest biomass estimates
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T. R. Feldpausch
2012-03-01
$. African forests store a greater portion of total biomass in large-diameter trees and trees are on average larger in diameter. This contrasts to forests on all other continents where smaller-diameter trees contain the greatest fractions of total biomass. After accounting for variation in $H$, total biomass per hectare is greatest in Australia, the Guyana Shield, and Asia and lowest in W. Africa, W. Amazonia, and the Brazilian Shield (descending order. Thus, if closed canopy tropical forests span 1668 million km^{2} and store 285 Pg C, then the overestimate is 35 Pg C if H is ignored, and the sampled plots are an unbiased statistical representation of all tropical forest in terms of biomass and height factors. Our results show that tree $H$ is an important allometric factor that needs to be included in future forest biomass estimates to reduce error in estimates of pantropical carbon stocks and emissions due to deforestation.
Detrending moving average algorithm for multifractals
Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-07-01
The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is a widely used technique to quantify the long-term correlations of nonstationary time series and the long-range correlations of fractal surfaces, which contains a parameter θ determining the position of the detrending window. We develop multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) algorithms for the analysis of one-dimensional multifractal measures and higher-dimensional multifractals, which is a generalization of the DMA method. The performance of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional MFDMA methods is investigated using synthetic multifractal measures with analytical solutions for backward (θ=0) , centered (θ=0.5) , and forward (θ=1) detrending windows. We find that the estimated multifractal scaling exponent τ(q) and the singularity spectrum f(α) are in good agreement with the theoretical values. In addition, the backward MFDMA method has the best performance, which provides the most accurate estimates of the scaling exponents with lowest error bars, while the centered MFDMA method has the worse performance. It is found that the backward MFDMA algorithm also outperforms the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The one-dimensional backward MFDMA method is applied to analyzing the time series of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and its multifractal nature is confirmed.
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-10-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
Averaged null energy condition from causality
Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein
2017-07-01
Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.
MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert
2003-05-01
A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.
Intensity contrast of the average supergranule
Langfellner, J; Gizon, L
2016-01-01
While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...
Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions
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Muhammad El-Taha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting {X(t, t≥0} is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process with state space S=(-∞,∞. Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Zacharias
2015-01-01
Conclusion: Separating stairs and escalator is effective in increasing stair climbing in Beijing, accounting for 29% of the variance in stair climbing, compared with 43% in Montreal. As in the Montreal case, distance has less effect on stair use rate when descending. Overall, 25.4% of Beijingers opted for stairs when ascending compared with 20.3% of Montrealers, and for descending 32.8% and 31.1% respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sicong Ren
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Background While appropriate pillow height is crucial to maintaining the quality of sleep and overall health, there are no universal, evidence-based guidelines for pillow design or selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pillow height on cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment. Methods Ten healthy subjects (five males aged 26 ± 3.6 years were recruited. The average height, weight, and neck length were 167 ± 9.3 cm, 59.6 ± 11.9 kg, and 12.9 ± 1.2 cm respectively. The subjects lay on pillows of four different heights (H0, 110 mm; H1, 130 mm; H2, 150 mm; and H3, 170 mm. The cranio-cervical pressure distribution over the pillow was recorded; the peak and average pressures for each pillow height were compared by one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Cervical spine alignment was studied using a finite element model constructed based on data from the Visible Human Project. The coordinate of the center of each cervical vertebra were predicted for each pillow height. Three spine alignment parameters (cervical angle, lordosis distance and kyphosis distance were identified. Results The average cranial pressure at pillow height H3 was approximately 30% higher than that at H0, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05. The average cervical pressure at pillow height H0 was 65% lower than that at H3, and significantly different from those at H1 and H2 (p < 0.05. The peak cervical pressures at pillow heights H2 and H3 were significantly different from that at H0 (p < 0.05. With respect to cervical spine alignment, raising pillow height from H0 to H3 caused an increase of 66.4% and 25.1% in cervical angle and lordosis distance, respectively, and a reduction of 43.4% in kyphosis distance. Discussion Pillow height elevation significantly increased the average and peak pressures of the cranial and cervical regions, and increased the extension and lordosis of the cervical spine. The cranio-cervical pressures and cervical
Height-reducing variants and selection for short stature in Sardinia
Mulas, Antonella; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Marcus, Joseph H.; Marongiu, Michele; Maschio, Andrea; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Floris, Matteo; Meloni, Antonella; Delitala, Alessandro; Concas, Maria Pina; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Soranzo, Nicole; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Uzzau, Sergio; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Novembre, John; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco
2015-01-01
We report sequencing-based whole-genome association analyses to evaluate the impact of rare and founder variants on stature in 6,307 individuals on the island of Sardinia. We identified two variants with large effects. One is a stop codon in the GHR gene, relatively frequent in Sardinia (0.87% vs Laron syndrome. We find that it reduces height in heterozygotes by an average of 4.2 cm (−0.64 s.d). The other variant, in the imprinted KCNQ1 gene (MAF = 7.7% vs <1% elsewhere) reduces height by an average of 1.83 cm (−0.31 s.d.) when maternally inherited. Additionally, polygenic scores indicate that known height-decreasing alleles are at systematically higher frequency in Sardinians than would be expected by genetic drift. The findings are consistent with selection toward shorter stature in Sardinia and a suggestive human example of the proposed “island effect” reducing the size of large mammals. PMID:26366551
Tsunami focusing and leading wave height
Kanoglu, Utku
2016-04-01
and Synolakis, 1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112) with a finite crest length, which is most common tsunami initial waveform. We fit earthquake initial waveform calculated through Okada (1985, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1040) to the N-wave form presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994). First, we investigate focusing phenomena as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015) and compare our results with their non-dispersive and dispersive linear analytical solutions. We confirm focusing phenomena, which amplify the wave height in the leading depression side. We then study sequencing of an N-wave profile with a finite crest length. Our preliminary results show that sequencing is more pronounced on the leading depression side. We perform parametric study to understand sequencing in terms of N-wave, hence earthquake, parameters. We then discuss the results both in terms of tsunami focusing and leading wave amplitude. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI Jun-hong; OUYANG Hua; WANG Qing-gai; ZHOU Cai-ping; XU Xiao-feng
2005-01-01
Horizontal and vertical variations of daily average CO2 concentration above the wetland surface were studied in Xianghai National Nature Reserve of China in August, 2000. The primary purpose was to study spatial distribution characteristics of CO2 concentration on the four levels of height(0. 1 m, 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 2 m) and compare the differences of CO2 concentration under different land covers. Results showed that daily average CO2 concentration above wetland surface in Xianghai National Natural Reserve was lower than that above other wetlands in northeast China as well as the worldwide average, suggesting that Xianghai wetland absorbed CO2 in August and acted as"sink" of CO2. The horizontal variations on the four levels of height along the latitude were distinct, and had the changing tendency of"decreasing after increasing" with the increase of height. The areas with obvious variations were consistent on different levels of height,and those with the highest variations appeared above surface of shore, sloping field, Typha wetland and Phragmites wetland; the vertical variations were greatly different, with the higher variations in Phragmites wetland and Typha wetland, and the lands near the shore and the sloping field with the lower variations. Spatial variations of daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface were affected by surface qualities and land covers.
Development of MCNPX-ESUT computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution
Abolfazl Hosseini, Seyed; Vosoughi, Naser; Zangian, Mehdi
2015-05-01
In this paper, the development of the MCNPX-ESUT (MCNPX-Energy Engineering of Sharif University of Technology) computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution is reported. Since liquid organic scintillators like NE-213 are well suited and routinely used for spectrometry in mixed neutron/gamma fields, this type of detectors is selected for simulation in the present study. The proposed algorithm for simulation includes four main steps. The first step is the modeling of the neutron/gamma particle transport and their interactions with the materials in the environment and detector volume. In the second step, the number of scintillation photons due to charged particles such as electrons, alphas, protons and carbon nuclei in the scintillator material is calculated. In the third step, the transport of scintillation photons in the scintillator and lightguide is simulated. Finally, the resolution corresponding to the experiment is considered in the last step of the simulation. Unlike the similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and PHRESP, the developed computer code is applicable to both neutron and gamma sources. Hence, the discrimination of neutron and gamma in the mixed fields may be performed using the MCNPX-ESUT computer code. The main feature of MCNPX-ESUT computer code is that the neutron/gamma pulse height simulation may be performed without needing any sort of post processing. In the present study, the pulse height distributions due to a monoenergetic neutron/gamma source in NE-213 detector using MCNPX-ESUT computer code is simulated. The simulated neutron pulse height distributions are validated through comparing with experimental data (Gohil et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 664 (2012) 304-309.) and the results obtained from similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and Geant4. The simulated gamma pulse height distribution for a 137Cs
Observed Variability of Global Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height from 1971 to 2014
Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kaicun
2015-04-01
It is important to determine the mixing layer height (MLH) for understanding the transport process in the troposphere, weather prediction, and climate monitoring. MLH is a key parameter in air pollution models which determines the volume available for pollutants to dispersion. The long-term variation of MLH can drive the change of surface air quality. Many methods have been proposed to estimate MLH from the temperature or atmospheric composition profiles provided by radiosonde and remote sounding systems. Radiosonde data are usually considered as a reference by other methods owing to its long-term history and direct observation. However, disagreements exist between MLHs derived from different variable profiles of radiosonde data. In this study, a method integrating the information of potential temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, atmospheric refractivity and the effect of cloud on the boundary layer turbulence was applied to the global radiosonde data to generate long-term variation of the global MLH from 1971 to 2014. The radiosonde observations were released by the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) of National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The MLHs in the North America are fairly deep, with an average value between 1800 and 2200 m, however, the Europe and the Eastern Asia have shallow MLHs between 1200 and 1500 m. The majority of the North America and Australia stations showed a negative trend during the period of 1971 to 2014, while, for the Europe and Japan, the MLHs increased over time. The MLH had a negative correlation with surface relative humidity and a positive association with surface air temperature. Besides the effect of thermodynamic factors, the dynamical factors including the surface wind speed and its shear in the boundary layer influence the development of the boundary layer. However, there is no significant correlation between the surface wind speeds and MLH in this study. Weak negative association was found between
A century of trends in adult human height
Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)
2016-01-01
textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The larges
Height inequality of algebraic points on curves over functional fields
Tan, S L
1995-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give a linear and effective height inequality for algebraic points on curves over functional fields. Our height inequality can be viewed as the logarithmic canonical class inequality of a punctured curve over a functional field (a fibered surface minus a section). This paper will appear in J. reine angew. Math.
Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine
2014-01-01
Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye heigh...
High and mighty : Height increases authority in professional refereeing
Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.
2012-01-01
Throughout the animal kingdom, larger males are more likely to attain social dominance. Several lines of evidence suggest that this relationship extends to humans, as height is positively related to dominance, status and authority. We hypothesized that height is also a determinant of authority in pr
Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR
Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...
Effect of severing method and stump height on coppice growth
John B. Crist; James A. Mattson; Sharon A. Winsauer
1983-01-01
In this study we evaluated the effect of stem severing method and stump height on coppice growth in a short-rotation intensively cultured Populus plantation 1, 2, and 3 years after cutting. Initially, stumps 46 cm high had smaller and significantly more sprouts than either 8 or 15 cm high stumps. However, the dominant sprouts were not affected by the stump height....
A century of trends in adult human height
Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)
2016-01-01
textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The larges