WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume 500-600 ml

  1. Method for the Thermal Characterization of PCM Systems in the Volume Range from 100 ml to 1000 ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, A.; Vidi, S.; Klinker, F.; Hemberger, F.; Brütting, M.; Ebert, H.-P.; Mehling, H.

    2017-05-01

    The storage of latent heat in phase change materials (PCM) is of great interest in many applications, for example in building applications. However, there is no standard method for the determination of the thermophysical properties of application-sized PCM specimens, i.e., specimens with sizes around 100 ml to 1000 ml. In order to close this metrological gap, a commercially available heat flow meter was modified to perform enthalpy measurements. The feasibility of this method was proven by performing comparative measurements on a stainless steel specimen using both the standard method DSC and the modified heat flow meter. Furthermore, measurements on a gypsum board with microencapsulated PCM were performed with the heat flow meter in order to determine the enthalpy. The coincidence with literature values is within ±4% which demonstrates that this method is a good choice for performing measurements on application-sized PCM specimens.

  2. [The effect of cerebrolysin in dosage 50 ml on the volume of lesion in ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamalov, N A; Stakhovskaia, L V; Burenchev, D V; Kichuk, I V; Tvorogova, T V; Botsina, A Iu; Smychkov, A S; Kerbikov, O B; Moessler, H; Novak, P; Skvortsova, V I

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess safety and efficacy of cerebrolysin used in dosage 50 ml in acute ischemic stroke. Forty-seven patients with ischemic stroke, aged 45-85 years, who were admitted to a clinical unit within the first 12 h after stroke onset were included in the study. A quantitative time-related MRI analysis of the dynamics of neurological deficit revealed the more rapid decrease of stroke volume to the 28th day in the group treated with cerebrolysin (45.4% versus 43.6% in the placebo-group (p cerebrolysin was found. The results of this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study suggest the positive effect of cerebrolysin on the dynamics of volume lesion in patients with ischemic stroke.

  3. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-02

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  4. Tolerability of Vidaza (azacitidine) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3 ml per injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruccio, Lauren F; Murray, Cindy; Yee, Karen W; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Ng, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    The azacitidine (Vidaza®) product monograph indicates that doses greater than 4 ml should be divided equally into two syringes and injected into different sites. Although 2 ml is a more commonly used maximum volume for subcutaneous injections, there is a lack of evidence to support the use of any given maximum volume with azacitidine. Applying the status quo of 2 ml to azacitidine results in patients receiving 3-4 injections per visit. This prospective study evaluated the frequency and type of injection site reactions when the maximum subcutaneous injection volume was increased from 2 to 3 ml per injection site. Among 30 patients, 309 doses were administered, and injection site reactions were noted in 92.9% of all doses, with the majority (82.2%) being grade 1; only 10.7% of doses resulted in grade 2 reactions, and there were no grade 3 or 4 reactions. There was no increase in frequency or severity of injection site reactions when the maximum volume was increased to 3 ml. The median number of injections that patients received per visit decreased from 3 to 2 after the volume was increased, and there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of pain. Decreasing the number of injections also facilitates ease of rotation of injection sites and decreases pharmacy preparation time. This is the first time that injection site reaction data relating to injection volume have been reported for azacitidine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. SIM.M.FF-S7: Final report on SIM/ANDIMET supplementary comparison for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 100 μL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Vega, M. C.; Santalla, E.; Sica, A.; Cantero, D.; Salazar, M.; Morales, A.; Solano, P.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    A SIM/ANDIMET comparison for liquid volume using two 100 mL pycnometers and two 100 μL piston pipettes was performed between January 2012 and October 2013. The National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Bolivia was the coordinating laboratory and the Mexican NMI provided technical assistance. The participating labs were IBMETRO (Bolivia), INM (Colombia), INEN (Ecuador), INDECOPI (Peru), LACOMET (Costa Rica), LATU (Uruguay), INTN (Paraguay), and CENAM (Mexico). Based on measurements made by CENAM at the beginning and end of the comparison, the transfer standards were stable during the comparison within 0.0001 mL for the 100 mL pycnometers and 0.03 μL for the 100 μL pipettes. For 100 mL, six of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.003 % and had standardized degrees of equivalence (EN) less than 1. Two participants (INEN and INM) had EN values greater than 1. For the 100 μL pipettes, the results were corrected for the influence of altitude and seven of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.3 %. Results from INEN and some from INM and IBMETRO had EN values greater than 1 for the 100 μL pipettes. Uncertainties recommended by Guideline DKD-R 8-1 for micropipettes were included. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems Program. ML-1 analytical design report. Volume II. Systems analysis: heat transfer and fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1961-01-01

    The analysis preceding and supporting the design of the cooling system of the ML-1, a mobile, low-power, nuclear power plant, is described in sufficient detail for an engineer to follow the development of the design. Test results and similar data are used to support the calculations whenever possible.

  7. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing...... using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data...

  8. CLAS App ML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, Bridget; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Orrego, Carola; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This is a multi-language (ML) update of the CLAS App original design by Bridget Maher from the School of Medicine at University College Cork, Ireland. The current version has an improve counting mechanism and has been translated from English to Spanish, Catalan and German languages within the Europe

  9. qcML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara;

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data ...... use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml....

  10. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block (ACB) is predominantly a sensory nerve block, but excess volume may spread to the femoral triangle and reduce quadriceps strength. We hypothesized that reducing the local anesthetic volume from 30 to 10 mL may lead to fewer subjects with quadriceps...

  11. A Formal Foundation for XrML

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Joseph Y

    2008-01-01

    XrML is becoming a popular language in industry for writing software licenses. The semantics for XrML is implicitly given by an algorithm that determines if a permission follows from a set of licenses. We focus on a fragment of the language and use it to highlight some problematic aspects of the algorithm. We then correct the problems, introduce formal semantics, and show that our semantics captures the (corrected) algorithm. Next, we consider the complexity of determining if a permission is implied by a set of XrML licenses. We prove that the general problem is undecidable, but it is polynomial-time computable for an expressive fragment of the language. We extend XrML to capture a wider range of licenses by adding negation to the language. Finally, we discuss the key differences between XrML and MPEG-21, an international standard based on XrML.

  12. On the magnetic ordering in interleaved Fe(3 ML)/V(y ML)/Fe(2 ML)/V(y ML) superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Eftimova, K; Hjörvarsson, B; Svedlindh, P

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic properties of superlattice films with alternating Fe thicknesses, Fe(3 ML)/V(y ML)/Fe(2 ML)/V(y ML) with 4 <= y <= 15, prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates are studied by superconducting quantum interference device measurements. By investigating the basic magnetic observables of the films: the transition temperature T sub c , the magnetic remanence M sub r , and the saturation field H sub s , which change in a correlated manner as a function of the vanadium spacer thickness, y, we find antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling in Fe(3 ML)/V(y ML)/Fe(2 ML)/V(y ML) for 9 < y < 11. The derived values of the spin wave parameter B and the ground state magnetic moment m sub s sub 0 also change synchronously with T sub c , M sub r , and H sub s. The peak of the AFM coupling energy per unit area, I, is estimated to be approx 0.06 mJ m sup - sup 2 using the H sub s versus y dependence.

  13. [Humalog® 200 U/ml KwikPen™].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2015-10-01

    Insulin lispro (Humalog®) was the first short-acting insulin analogue to be indicated for the treatment of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. After subcutaneous injection, insulin lispro has a more favourable pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics profile than human insulin, characterized by a faster resorption and a more rapid and less prolonged glucose-lowering activity. These properties allow a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia and a reduction of the risk of delayed hypoglycaemia, especially at night. The patient's quality of life is also improved because insulin lispro can be injected within the 15 minutes before meal and even possibly after meal when the amount of food intake is unpredictable. Already commercialized as Humalog® 100 U/ml, insulin lispro is now also available as Humalog® 200 U/ml. A pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics study confirmed the bioequivalence of the two formulations, based upon the analysis of both plasma free insulin concentrations and glucose infusion rates to maintain normoglycaemia. Humalog® 200 U/ml is available in a novel disposable 3 ml pen (KwikPen™), with lower glide force and injection volume; thus this new pen is more convenient for the patient compared with the current pen used to inject Humalog® 100 U/ml. The new formulation Humalog® 200 U/ml is indicated in Europe for adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who require more than 20 units of prandial insulin per day to cover their meals.

  14. Challenges in SysML Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nikolaidou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Systems Modeling Language (SysML is a standard proposed by the OMG for systems-of-systems (SoS modeling and engineering. To this end, it provides the means to depict SoS components and their behavior in a hierarchical, multi-layer fashion, facilitating alternative engineering activities, such as system design. To explore the performance of SysML, simulation is one of the preferred methods. There are many efforts targeting simulation code generation from SysML models. Numerous simulation methodologies and tools are employed, while different SysML diagrams are utilized. Nevertheless, this process is not standardized, although most of current approaches tend to follow the same steps, even if they employ different tools. The scope of this paper is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the similarities and differences of existing approaches and identify current challenges in fully automating SysML models simulation process.

  15. A Monadic Formalization of ML5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Licata

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ML5 is a programming language for spatially distributed computing, based on a Curry-Howard correspondence with the modal logic S5. Despite being designed by a correspondence with S5 modal logic, the ML5 programming language differs from the logic in several ways. In this paper, we explain these discrepancies between ML5 and S5 by translating ML5 into a slightly different logic: intuitionistic S5 extended with a lax modality that encapsulates effectful computations in a monad. This translation both explains the existing ML5 design and suggests some simplifications and generalizations. We have formalized our translation within the Agda proof assistant. Rather than formalizing lax S5 as a proof theory, we emph{embed} it as a universe within the the dependently typed host language, with the universe elimination given by implementing the modal logic's Kripke semantics. This representation technique saves us the work of defining a proof theory for the logic and proving it correct, and additionally allows us to inherit the equational theory of the meta-language, which can be exploited in proving that the semantics validates the operational semantics of ML5.

  16. Comparing Multitarget Multisensor ML-PMHT with ML-PDA for VLO Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    closely spaced with similar motion dynamics. Keywords: ML-PDA, ML-PMHT, multitarget ML-PMHT, maximum likelihood, multistatic, bistatic , sonar, tracking...motion dynamics. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 8 19a

  17. morePhyML: improving the phylogenetic tree space exploration with PhyML 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis

    2011-12-01

    PhyML is a widely used Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree inference software based on a standard hill-climbing method. Starting from an initial tree, the version 3 of PhyML explores the tree space by using "Nearest Neighbor Interchange" (NNI) or "Subtree Pruning and Regrafting" (SPR) tree swapping techniques in order to find the ML phylogenetic tree. NNI-based local searches are fast but can often get trapped in local optima, whereas it is expected that the larger (but slower to cover) SPR-based neighborhoods will lead to trees with higher likelihood. Here, I verify that PhyML infers more likely trees with SPRs than with NNIs in almost all cases. However, I also show that the SPR-based local search of PhyML often does not succeed at locating the ML tree. To improve the tree space exploration, I deliver a script, named morePhyML, which allows escaping from local optima by performing character reweighting. This ML tree search strategy, named ratchet, often leads to higher likelihood estimates. Based on the analysis of a large number of amino acid and nucleotide data, I show that morePhyML allows inferring more accurate phylogenetic trees than several other recently developed ML tree inference softwares in many cases.

  18. An Action Compiler Targeting Standard ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present an action compiler that can be used in connection with an action semantics based compiler generator. Our action compiler produces code with faster execution times than code produced by other action compilers, and for some non-trivial test examples it is only a factor two slower than th...... the code produced by the Gnu C Compiler. Targeting Standard ML makes the description of the code generation simple and easy to implement. The action compiler has been tested on a description of the Core of Standard ML and a subset of C....

  19. FieldML: concepts and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, G Richard; Nielsen, Poul M F; Blackett, Shane A; Bradley, Chris P; Hunter, Peter J

    2009-05-28

    The field modelling language FieldML is being developed as a standard for modelling and interchanging field descriptions in software, suitable for a wide range of computation techniques. It comprises a rich set of operators for defining generalized fields as functions of other fields, starting with basic domain fields including sets of discrete objects and coordinate systems. It is extensible by adding new operators and by their arbitrary combination in expressions, making it well suited for describing the inherent complexity of biological materials and organ systems. This paper describes the concepts behind FieldML, including a simple example of a spatially varying finite-element field. It outlines current implementations in established, open source computation and visualization software, both drawing on decades of bioengineering modelling software development experience.

  20. AllerML: markup language for allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Gendel, Steven M; Power, Trevor D; Schein, Catherine H; Braun, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the potential allergenicity of novel, recombinant proteins into food crops. Guidelines, proposed by WHO/FAO and EFSA, include the use of bioinformatics screening to assess the risk of potential allergenicity or cross-reactivities of all proteins introduced, for example, to improve nutritional value or promote crop resistance. However, there are no universally accepted standards that can be used to encode data on the biology of allergens to facilitate using data from multiple databases in this screening. Therefore, we developed AllerML a markup language for allergens to assist in the automated exchange of information between databases and in the integration of the bioinformatics tools that are used to investigate allergenicity and cross-reactivity. As proof of concept, AllerML was implemented using the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP; http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) database. General implementation of AllerML will promote automatic flow of validated data that will aid in allergy research and regulatory analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  2. International Conference ML4CPS 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Niggemann, Oliver; Kühnert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The work presents new approaches to Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, experiences and visions. It contains some selected papers from the international Conference ML4CPS – Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, which was held in Karlsruhe, September 29th, 2016. Cyber Physical Systems are characterized by their ability to adapt and to learn: They analyze their environment and, based on observations, they learn patterns, correlations and predictive models. Typical applications are condition monitoring, predictive maintenance, image processing and diagnosis. Machine Learning is the key technology for these developments. The Editors Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Beyerer is Professor at the Department for Interactive Real-Time Systems at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. In addition he manages the Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB. Prof. Dr. Oliver Niggemann is Professor for Embedded Software Engineering. His research interests are in the field of Di...

  3. The Ml Magnitude Scale In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, P.; Lolli, B.; Filippucci, M.; de Simoni, B.

    To improve the reliability of Ml magnitude estimates in Italy, we have updated the database of real Wood-Anderson (WA) and of simulated Wood Anderson (SWA) am- plitudes recently revised by Gasperini (2002). This was done by the re-reading of orig- inal WA seismograms, made available by the SISMOS Project of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (INGV), as well as by the analysis of further Very Broad Band (VBB) recordings of the MEDNET network of INGV for the period from 1996 to 1998. The full operability, in the last five years, of a VBB station located exactly at the same site (TRI) of a former WA instrument allowed us to reliably infer a new attenuation function from the joined WA and SWA dataset. We found a significant deviation of the attenuation law from the standard Richter table at distances larger than 400 km where the latter overestimates the magnitude up to about 0.3 units. We also computed regionalized attenuation functions accounting for the differences in the propagation properties of seismic waves between the Adriatic (less attenuating) and Tyrrhenian (more attenuating) sides of the Italian peninsula. Using this improved Ml magnitude database we were also able to further improve the computation of duration (Md) and amplitude (Ma) magnitudes computed from short period vertical seismometers of the INGV as well as to analyze the time variation of the station calibrations. We found that the absolute amplification of INGV stations is underestimated almost exactly by a factor 2 starting from the entering upon in operation of the digital acquisition system at INGV in middle 1984.

  4. Allelism of Genes in the Ml-a locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Jensen, Hans Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1980-01-01

    Seven barley lines or varieties, each with a different gene at the Ml-a locus for resistance to Erysiphe graminis were intercrossed. Progeny testing of the F2s using two different fungal isolates per cross provided evidence that there are two or more loci in the Ml-a region. Apparent recombinants...... were also screened for recombination between the Hor1 and Hor2 loci which are situated either side of the Ml-a locus. The cross between Ricardo and Iso42R (Rupee) yielded one possible recombinant, with Ml-a3 and Ml-a(Rul) in the coupling phase; other recombinants had wild-type genes in the coupling...... phase. Iso20R, derived from Hordeum spontaneum 'H204', carrying Ml-a6, had an additional gene, in close coupling with Ml-a6, tentatively named Ml-aSp2 or Reglv, causing an intermediate infection type with isolate EmA30. It is suggested that Ml-a(Ar) in Emir and Ml-a(Rul), shown to differ from other Ml...

  5. jmzML, an open-source Java API for mzML, the PSI standard for MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Richard G; Reisinger, Florian; Martens, Lennart

    2010-04-01

    We here present jmzML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzML data standard. Based on the Java Architecture for XML Binding and XPath-based XML indexer random-access XML parser, jmzML can handle arbitrarily large files in minimal memory, allowing easy and efficient processing of mzML files using the Java programming language. jmzML also automatically resolves internal XML references on-the-fly. The library (which includes a viewer) can be downloaded from http://jmzml.googlecode.com.

  6. ACL2(ml: Machine-Learning for ACL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónathan Heras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ACL2(ml is an extension for the Emacs interface of ACL2. This tool uses machine-learning to help the ACL2 user during the proof-development. Namely, ACL2(ml gives hints to the user in the form of families of similar theorems, and generates auxiliary lemmas automatically. In this paper, we present the two most recent extensions for ACL2(ml. First, ACL2(ml can suggest now families of similar function definitions, in addition to the families of similar theorems. Second, the lemma generation tool implemented in ACL2(ml has been improved with a method to generate preconditions using the guard mechanism of ACL2. The user of ACL2(ml can also invoke directly the latter extension to obtain preconditions for his own conjectures.

  7. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  8. ML(n)BiCGStab: Reformulation, Analysis and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Man-Chung

    2010-01-01

    With the aid of index functions, we re-derive the ML(n)BiCGStab algorithm in a paper by Yeung and Chan in 1999 in a more systematic way. It turns out that there are n ways to define the ML(n)BiCGStab residual vector. Each definition will lead to a different ML(n)BiCGStab algorithm. We demonstrate this by presenting a second algorithm which requires less storage. In theory, this second algorithm serves as a bridge that connects the Lanczos-based BiCGStab and the Arnoldi-based FOM while ML(n)BiCG a bridge connecting BiCG and FOM. We also analyze the breakdown situations from the probabilistic point of view and summarize some useful properties of ML(n)BiCGStab. Implementation issues are also addressed.

  9. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  10. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of erysiphe-graminis-f-sp-hordei on barley hordeum-vulgare lines with resistance genes ml-a-1 ml-a-6 ml-a-12 and ml-g

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of 4 barley lines with powdery mildew resistance genes Ml-al, Ml-a6, Mla12 or Ml-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3 which is avirulent to the 4 host lines. Inoculation density was 1.2 infectious conidia/mm2, and in total 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence...... 2 .times. 10-8. A reconstruction experiment showed that the density of avirulent inoculum did not reduce the survival rate of rare virulent genotypes....

  11. Preparing for the future: opportunities for ML in ATLAS & CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    ML is an established tool in HEP and there are many examples which demonstrate its importance for the kind of classification and regression problem we have in our field. However, there is also a big potential for future applications in yet untapped areas. I will summarise these opportunities and highlight recent, ongoing and planned studies of novel ML applications in HEP. Certain aspects of the problems we are faced with in HEP are quite unique and represent interesting benchmark problems for the ML community as a whole. Hence, efficient communication and close interaction between the ML and HEP community is expected to lead to promising cross-fertilisation. This talk attempts to serve as a starting point for such a prospective collaboration.

  12. QuakeML - An XML Schema for Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, A.; Schorlemmer, D.; Maraini, S.; Baer, M.; Wiemer, S.

    2004-12-01

    We propose an extensible format-definition for seismic data (QuakeML). Sharing data and seismic information efficiently is one of the most important issues for research and observational seismology in the future. The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is playing an increasingly important role in the exchange of a variety of data. Due to its extensible definition capabilities, its wide acceptance and the existing large number of utilities and libraries for XML, a structured representation of various types of seismological data should in our opinion be developed by defining a 'QuakeML' standard. Here we present the QuakeML definitions for parameter databases and further efforts, e.g. a central QuakeML catalog database and a web portal for exchanging codes and stylesheets.

  13. Automation of Safety Analysis with SysML Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project was a small proof-of-concept case study, generating SysML model information as a side effect of safety analysis. A prototype FMEA Assistant was...

  14. Low ML Decoding Complexity STBCs via Codes over GF(4)

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Lakshmi Prasad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a new framework for constructing low ML decoding complexity Space-Time Block Codes (STBCs) using codes over the finite field $\\mathbb{F}_4$. Almost all known low ML decoding complexity STBCs can be obtained via this approach. New full-diversity STBCs with low ML decoding complexity and cubic shaping property are constructed, via codes over $\\mathbb{F}_4$, for number of transmit antennas \\mbox{$N=2^m$}, \\mbox{$m \\geq 1$}, and rates \\mbox{$R>1$} complex symbols per channel use. When \\mbox{$R=N$}, the new STBCs are information-lossless as well. The new class of STBCs have the least known ML decoding complexity among all the codes available in the literature for a large set of \\mbox{$(N,R)$} pairs.

  15. WeedML: a Tool for Collaborative Weed Demographic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Niels

    2010-01-01

    WeedML is a proposed standard to formulate models of weed demography, or maybe even complex models in general, that are both transparent and straightforward to re-use as building blocks for new models. The paper describes the design and thoughts behind WeedML which relies on XML and object-oriented systems development. Proof-of-concept software is provided as open-source C++ code and executables that can be downloaded freely.

  16. AstroML: Machine learning and data mining in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderPlas, Jacob; Fouesneau, Morgan; Taylor, Julia

    2014-07-01

    Written in Python, AstroML is a library of statistical and machine learning routines for analyzing astronomical data in python, loaders for several open astronomical datasets, and a large suite of examples of analyzing and visualizing astronomical datasets. An optional companion library, astroML_addons, is available; it requires a C compiler and contains faster and more efficient implementations of certain algorithms in compiled code.

  17. The jmzQuantML programming interface and validator for the mzQuantML data standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Da; Krishna, Ritesh; Jones, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    The mzQuantML standard from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has recently been released, capturing quantitative data about peptides and proteins, following analysis of MS data. We present a Java application programming interface (API) for mzQuantML called jmzQuantML. The API provides robust bridges between Java classes and elements in mzQuantML files and allows random access to any part of the file. The API provides read and write capabilities, and is designed to be embedded in other software packages, enabling mzQuantML support to be added to proteomics software tools (http://code.google.com/p/jmzquantml/). The mzQuantML standard is designed around a multilevel validation system to ensure that files are structurally and semantically correct for different proteomics quantitative techniques. In this article, we also describe a Java software tool (http://code.google.com/p/mzquantml-validator/) for validating mzQuantML files, which is a formal part of the data standard. © 2014 The Authors. Proteomics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. QuakeML 2.0: Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, Fabian; Kästli, Philipp; Heiniger, Lukas; Saul, Joachim; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Clinton, John

    2016-04-01

    QuakeML is a community-backed data model for seismic event parameter description. Its current version 1.2, released in 2013, has become the gold standard for parametric data dissemination at seismological data centers, and has been adopted as an FDSN standard. It is supported by several popular software products and data services, such as FDSN event web services, QuakePy, and SeisComP3. Work on the successor version 2.0 is under way since 2015. The scope of QuakeML has been expanded beyond event parameter description. Thanks to a modular architecture, many thematic packages have been added, which cover peak ground motion, site and station characterization, hydraulic parameters of borehole injection processes, and macroseismics. The first three packages can be considered near final and implementations of program codes and SQL databases are in productive use at various institutions. A public community review process has been initiated in order to turn them into community-approved standards. The most recent addition is a package for single station quake location, which allows a detailed probabilistic description of event parameters recorded at a single station. This package adds some information elements such as angle of incidence, frequency-dependent phase picks, and dispersion relations. The package containing common data types has been extended with a generic type for probability density functions. While on Earth, single station methods are niche applications, they are of prominent interest in planetary seismology, e.g., the NASA InSight mission to Mars. So far, QuakeML is lacking a description of seismic instrumentation (inventory). There are two existing standards of younger age (FDSN StationXML and SeisComP3 Inventory XML). We discuss their respective strengths, differences, and how they could be combined into an inventory package for QuakeML, thus allowing full interoperability with other QuakeML data types. QuakeML is accompanied by QuakePy, a Python package

  19. Reliability study of complex physical systems using SysML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.david@ensi-bourges.f [Institut PRISME - ENSIB, 88 Boulevard Lahitolle, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Idasiak, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.idasiak@ensi-bourges.f [Institut PRISME - ENSIB, 88 Boulevard Lahitolle, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Kratz, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.kratz@ensi-bourges.f [Institut PRISME - ENSIB, 88 Boulevard Lahitolle, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France)

    2010-04-15

    The development of safety critical systems becomes even harder since the complexity of these systems grows continuously. Moreover, this kind of process involves the use of powerful design methods and precise reliability techniques that utilize dissimilar models and construction policy. In this article we propose a method to unify and enhance this process by linking functional design phase using SysML with commonly used reliability techniques such as FMEA and dysfunctional models construction in AltaRica Data Flow. We present how SysML models can be analyzed automatically in order to produce an FMEA and expose a parallel between SysML models and AltaRica Data Flow ones. The given approach is structured around a database of dysfunctional behaviors that supports the studies and is updated by the obtained results. We exemplify the approach to analyze a system of level controlling of a tank.

  20. Complexity Reduction in ML Decoding For MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Jothikumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a combined Breadth first tree search ML (Maximum Likelihood-ZF (Zero Forcing method of detection for Spatial Multiplexed MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output systems with reduced complexity. The detection of real and imaginary parts of QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation modulated symbol is carried out in successive level of tree which makes parallel processing possible. Reduction in complexity compared to conventional ML for a 2x2 system is 80% and for a 4x4 system is 83%

  1. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

  2. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  3. Malignant lymphomas (ML and HIV infection in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakigonja Amos R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is reported to be associated with some malignant lymphomas (ML so called AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL, with an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. The ML frequency, pathogenicity, clinical patterns and possible association with AIDS in Tanzania, are not well documented impeding the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Methods Sections of 176 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies of ML patients at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH/Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS, Tanzania from 1996–2001 were stained for hematoxylin and eosin and selected (70 cases for expression of pan-leucocytic (CD45, B-cell (CD20, T-cell (CD3, Hodgkin/RS cell (CD30, histiocyte (CD68 and proliferation (Ki-67 antigen markers. Corresponding clinical records were also evaluated. Available sera from 38 ML patients were screened (ELISA for HIV antibodies. Results The proportion of ML out of all diagnosed tumors at MNH during the 6 year period was 4.2% (176/4200 comprising 77.84% non-Hodgkin (NHL including 19.32% Burkitt's (BL and 22.16% Hodgkin's disease (HD. The ML tumors frequency increased from 0.42% (1997 to 0.70% (2001 and 23.7% of tested sera from these patients were HIV positive. The mean age for all ML was 30, age-range 3–91 and peak age was 1–20 years. The male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Supra-diaphragmatic presentation was commonest and histological sub-types were mostly aggressive B-cell lymphomas however, no clear cases of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL were diagnosed. Conclusion Malignant lymphomas apparently, increased significantly among diagnosed tumors at MNH between 1996 and 2001, predominantly among the young, HIV infected and AIDS patients. The frequent aggressive clinical and histological presentation as well as the dominant B-immunophenotype and the HIV serology indicate a pathogenic association with AIDS. Therefore

  4. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-10-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty.

  5. Disposition and Tissue Distribution of ML12 in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luqin SI; Gao LI; Sanlan WU; Jiangeng HUANG; Dapeng WU; Quan GAN

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the disposition and tissue distribution of ML12 after intravenous (iv) ad- ministration in rats, the compound in plasma or in tissue was extracted into ethyl acetate under basic condition and was determined by HPLC after extracted by dilute sulfuric acid. Excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of fluorescence detection were 278 nm and 307 nm, respectively. The data were processed with the software 3P97 to calculate the main pharmaceutical parameters of ML12, At dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg, the elimination of the drug from plasma was found to be kinetically linear, but when the dosage was 20 mg/kg, a non-linear feature was observed. The highest level of MLI2 was found in the kidney. Distribution of MLI2 after iv administration was extensive and the concentration-time profile was found to he fitted to an open two-compartment model.

  6. Modeling Off-Nominal Behavior in SysML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Donahue, Kenneth; Ingham, Michel; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew K.; Post, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Specification and development of fault management functionality in systems is performed in an ad hoc way - more of an art than a science. Improvements to system reliability, availability, safety and resilience will be limited without infusion of additional formality into the practice of fault management. Key to the formalization of fault management is a precise representation of off-nominal behavior. Using the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission for source material, we have modeled the off-nominal behavior of the SMAP system during its initial spin-up activity, using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In the course of developing these models, we have developed generic patterns for capturing off-nominal behavior in SysML. We show how these patterns provide useful ways of reasoning about the system (e.g., checking for completeness and effectiveness) and allow the automatic generation of typical artifacts (e.g., success trees and FMECAs) used in system analyses.

  7. Validation of TERRA-ML with discharge measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Grasselt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the runoff-simulation performance of a water transport model (routing scheme coupled to the Land Surface Parameterization module TERRA-ML of the operational COSMO (Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling weather forecast model. In addition to the successful implemention of the routing scheme, we also included an alternative vertical soil water transport parameterisation in TERRA-ML in order to estimate the uncertainty caused by the component of the LSP central to runoff generation. A combination of two data sets, both operational products by DWD, is used for precipitation input. These are the hourly precipitation data set RADOLAN RW, which is based on radar data and is calibrated by rain gauges, as well as the daily REGNIE data set, which is only based on gauge data. The mesoscale Sieg river catchment located in Western Germany is used as the evaluation testbed. The extended TERRA-ML was run in standalone mode (decoupled from the atmospheric part of the COSMO model with 1 × 1 km spatial resolution from April to September 2005 based on and provided with spatially more detailed descriptions of topography, land use and soil texture. The model was driven by operational COSMO analysis data and two different sources of observed precipitation (gauge and radar measurements. The results are compared to discharge measurements. They indicate a good representation of the observed discharge by the extended TERRA-ML system. The additionally implemented linear vertical soil water parameterization overestimates total discharge less (6 % than the default exponential parameterization (20 % when compared to a gauging station located at the lower reaches of the river Sieg. Suggestions are given on how to further enhance the modelled discharge by improvements in the LSP scheme.

  8. The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML)

    CERN Document Server

    Vianello, Giacomo; Younk, Patrick; Tibaldo, Luigi; Burgess, James M; Ayala, Hugo; Harding, Patrick; Hui, Michelle; Omodei, Nicola; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical sources are now observed by many different instruments at different wavelengths, from radio to high-energy gamma-rays, with an unprecedented quality. Putting all these data together to form a coherent view, however, is a very difficult task. Each instrument has its own data format, software and analysis procedure, which are difficult to combine. It is for example very challenging to perform a broadband fit of the energy spectrum of the source. The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML) aims to solve this issue, providing a common framework which allows for a coherent modeling of sources using all the available data, independent of their origin. At the same time, thanks to its architecture based on plug-ins, 3ML uses the existing official software of each instrument for the corresponding data in a way which is transparent to the user. 3ML is based on the likelihood formalism, in which a model summarizing our knowledge about a particular region of the sky is convolved with the instrument...

  9. PCP-ML: protein characterization package for machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickholt, Jesse; Wang, Zheng

    2014-11-18

    Machine Learning (ML) has a number of demonstrated applications in protein prediction tasks such as protein structure prediction. To speed further development of machine learning based tools and their release to the community, we have developed a package which characterizes several aspects of a protein commonly used for protein prediction tasks with machine learning. A number of software libraries and modules exist for handling protein related data. The package we present in this work, PCP-ML, is unique in its small footprint and emphasis on machine learning. Its primary focus is on characterizing various aspects of a protein through sets of numerical data. The generated data can then be used with machine learning tools and/or techniques. PCP-ML is very flexible in how the generated data is formatted and as a result is compatible with a variety of existing machine learning packages. Given its small size, it can be directly packaged and distributed with community developed tools for protein prediction tasks. Source code and example programs are available under a BSD license at http://mlid.cps.cmich.edu/eickh1jl/tools/PCPML/. The package is implemented in C++ and accessible as a Python module.

  10. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J; Mirams, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush-Larsen and Generalized Rush-Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a 'gold standard' for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior.

  11. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium and Poster Session of the 5th International Symposium on Rules (RuleML 2011@IJCAI)

    CERN Document Server

    Damásio, Carlos Viegas; Straccia, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the first edition of the Doctoral Consortium of the 5th International Symposium on Rules (RuleML 2011@IJCAI) held on July 19th, 2011 in Barcelona, as well as the poster session papers of the RuleML 2011@IJCAI main conference.

  12. SysML model of exoplanet archive functionality and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Solange

    2016-08-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Archive is an online service that serves data and information on exoplanets and their host stars to help astronomical research related to search for and characterization of extra-solar planetary systems. In order to provide the most up to date data sets to the users, the exoplanet archive performs weekly updates that include additions into the database and updates to the services as needed. These weekly updates are complex due to interfaces within the archive. I will be presenting a SysML model that helps us perform these update activities in a weekly basis.

  13. Simple ML Detector for Multiple Antennas Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Taqwa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to support providing broadband wireless communication services against limited and expensive frequency bandwidth, we have to develop a bandwidth efficient system. Therefore, in this paper we propose a closed-loop MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output system using ML (Maximum Likelihood detector to optimize capacity and to increase system performance. What is especially exciting about the benefits offered by MIMO is that a high capacity and performance can be attained without additional frequency-spectral resource. The grand scenario of this concept is the attained advantages of transformation matrices having capability to allocate transmitted signals power suit to the channel. Furthermore, product of these matrices forms parallel singular channels. Due to zero inter-channels correlation, thus we can design ML detector to increase the system performance. Finally, computer simulations validates that at 0 dB SNR our system can reach optimal capacity up to 1 bps/Hz and SER up to 0.2 higher than opened-loop MIMO.

  14. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  15. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A; Olsen, Karen J; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this "scientific meta-data" and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML-a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML.

  16. Clinical application of l-123 MlBG cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-01

    Cardiac neurotransmission imaging allows in vivo assessment of presynaptic reuptake, neurotransmitter storage and postsynaptic receptors. Among the various neurotransmitter, I-123 MlBG is most available and relatively well-established. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an analogue of the false neurotransmitter guanethidine. It is taken up to adrenergic neurons by uptake-1 mechanism as same as norepinephrine. As tagged with I-123, it can be used to image sympathetic function in various organs including heart with planar or SPECT techniques. I-123 MIBG imaging has a unique advantage to evaluate myocardial neuronal activity in which the heart has no significant structural abnormality or even no functional derangement measured with other conventional examination. In patients with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, this imaging has most sensitive technique to predict prognosis and treatment response of betablocker or ACE inhibitor. In diabetic patients, it allow very early detection of autonomic neuropathy. In patients with dangerous arrhythmia such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, MIBG imaging may be only an abnormal result among various exams. In patients with ischemic heart disease, sympathetic derangement may be used as the method of risk stratification. In heart transplanted patients, sympathetic reinnervation is well evaluated. Adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity is detected earlier than ventricular dysfunction with sympathetic dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disorder such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies has also cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity with l-123 MlBG imaging may be improve understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac disease and make a contribution to predict survival and therapy efficacy.

  17. The Native Plasmid pML21 Plays a Role in Stress Tolerance in Enterococcus faecalis ML21, as Analyzed by Plasmid Curing Using Plasmid Incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fang-Lei; Chen, Li-Li; Zeng, Zhu; Feng, Xiu-Juan; Yu, Rui; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Hui-Qin; Chen, Shang-Wu

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the role of the native plasmid pML21 in Enterococcus faecalis ML21's response to abiotic stresses, the plasmid pML21 was cured based on the principle of plasmid incompatibility and segregational instability, generating E. faecalis mutant strain ML0. The mutant and the wild strains were exposed to abiotic stresses: bile salts, low pH, H2O2, ethanol, heat, and NaCl, and their survival rate was measured. We found that curing of pML21 lead to reduced tolerance to stress in E. faecalis ML0, especially oxidative and osmotic stress. Complementation analysis suggested that the genes from pML21 played different role in stress tolerance. The result indicated that pML21 plays a role in E. faecalis ML21's response to abiotic stresses.

  18. Our Prostate Biopsy Results in The Patients with Prostate Specific Antigen Levels Below 4 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the re¬sults of prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. Material and Method: The medical records of 524 pa¬tients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy be¬tween January 2010 and February 2013 in our clinic, due to suspi¬cion of prostate cancer were evaluated and histopathologic results of 43 patients whose PSA levels under 4 ng/ml were retrospectively revieved. Results: The mean age of patients was 64.63 ±7:42 and the mean level of PSA was 2.89 ±0.88ng /ml. A digital rectal examination (DRE had suspicious findings in 41(95.34% patients. Prostate adenocarcinoma was determined in 13 of (30.23% patients according to the biopsy result. The mean PSA value of these patients was 2.89 ±0.88 ng/ml and the mean gleason score of these patients was 6.41 ±0.87. The mean prostate volume of these patients was 41.46 ±11.95 cm3. Discussion: In our study, prostate cancer was identified in 30.3% of patients whose PSA levels were below 4 ng/ml. DRE, is still important for the evaluation of the prostate. According to our results, significant number of cancers can be detected in PSA below 4 ng/ml levels.

  19. The Chances of Subsequent Cancer Detection in Patients with a PSA > 20 ng/ml and an Initial Negative Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS–guided prostate biopsy is known to carry a significant false-negative rate, leading some patients to have multiple biopsies. We investigated cancer detection rates in patients with a PSA >20 ng/ml and a negative initial biopsy. We reviewed our database of 2396 TRUS-guided biopsies done between 1997 and 2002 in order to give a follow-up of at least 6 years. PSA, PSA density (PSAD, PSA velocity (PSAV, prostate volume, and DRE findings were analysed in relation to cancer status. Of the patients, 388 (16% had a PSA >20 ng/ml, including 99 (26% with benign biopsies. Of those, 67 were rebiopsied, including 19 (28% with cancer on the first rebiopsy and four (6% on further biopsies. PSAD, DRE, and volume significantly differed between rebiopsied patients with and without cancer (p 20 ng/ml and have an initial negative biopsy have a high chance of malignancy being detected on a second biopsy. However, if a second biopsy is also negative, then the chances of subsequent biopsies showing signs of cancer are very low if the DRE is normal and particularly if the PSAD is >0.35 ng/ml/cm3.

  20. Electrochemical properties and structure of MlNi5-xSnx system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical properties and structure of MlNiSnx (x=0-0.5) hydrogen storage alloys were investigated by pressure-composition isotherms, electrochemical measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic parameters. With a small amount of tin substitution, the cycle life increases by 52% (0.5C) and 42% (1.0C), but maximum discharge capacity decreases only by 3.0% and 3.5%, respectively. The cycle life is obviously improved by the low volume expansion and the formed SnO2 surface layers upon electrochemical cycling. The substitution of Ni by Sn leads to an increase of theunit cell volume and charge-discharge cycle life and decrease of the plateau pressure, hysteresis and the hydrogen storage capacity. The standard enthalpy of hydride formation decreases with increasing tin substitution. The main factor that influences the standard enthalpy of the hydriding reaction is the number of the outer orbit electrons and not the atomic size factor.

  1. Golden Dragon’s Copper Tube Production Volume will Reach 210,000 tons in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Li Changjie,general manager of Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc.,said at the end of November that the company’s copper tube production volume in 2008 will reach 210,000 tons,and its sales income is ex- pected to reach about 16 billion yuan,with a tax revenue of 500-600 million yuan.Origi- nally,the company had planned to produce 250,000 tons of copper tube,and achieve a sales income of 20 billion yuan.In October, when the company’s production should have entered the peak season,the copper price had a sharp slump,and so did the copper demand,

  2. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-03

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml .

  3. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA: generating enriched ISA-Tab metadata files from metabolomics XML data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Martin; Lawson, Thomas N; Weber, Ralf J M; Moreno, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Viant, Mark R; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M

    2017-08-15

    Submission to the MetaboLights repository for metabolomics data currently places the burden of reporting instrument and acquisition parameters in ISA-Tab format on users, who have to do it manually, a process that is time consuming and prone to user input error. Since the large majority of these parameters are embedded in instrument raw data files, an opportunity exists to capture this metadata more accurately. Here we report a set of Python packages that can automatically generate ISA-Tab metadata file stubs from raw XML metabolomics data files. The parsing packages are separated into mzML2ISA (encompassing mzML and imzML formats) and nmrML2ISA (nmrML format only). Overall, the use of mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA reduces the time needed to capture metadata substantially (capturing 90% of metadata on assay and sample levels), is much less prone to user input errors, improves compliance with minimum information reporting guidelines and facilitates more finely grained data exploration and querying of datasets. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA are available under version 3 of the GNU General Public Licence at https://github.com/ISA-tools. Documentation is available from http://2isa.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. reza.salek@ebi.ac.uk or isatools@googlegroups.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Desempenho de idosos brasileiros no teste de deglutição de 100 ml de água Performance of Brazilian elderly on the 100 ml water swallowing test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Maria Martins Moreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de idosos brasileiros, residentes em uma instituição de longa permanência, no teste de deglutição de 100 ml de água com os resultados obtidos em idosos ingleses. MÉTODOS: Dezoito idosos residentes numa instituição de longa permanência, considerados normais para a função de deglutição (13 mulheres e cinco homens, com idade média de 83,46 anos foram solicitados a beber 100 ml de água de um copo plástico, reproduzindo o estudo inglês. O avaliador observou lateralmente o número de goles, tempo gasto e intercorrências, gerando três índices: volume por deglutição (ml, tempo por deglutição (s e capacidade de deglutição (ml/s. RESULTADOS: A capacidade de deglutição para homens foi menor do que a das mulheres, divergindo do estudo original. O tempo médio de cada deglutição e o volume médio por deglutição foi semelhante para ambos os gêneros. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade de deglutição em idosos é inferior à de adultos normais, indicando lentificação da deglutição. A diferença entre gêneros encontrada no estudo original não foi reproduzida, entretanto nossa amostra foi mais idosa.PURPOSE: To compare the performance of Brazilian elderly patients living in a long-term care facility on the 100 ml water swallowing test with the results obtained with British elderly. METHODS: Eighteen elderly subjects (13 women and five men, mean age 83.46, residents in a long-term care facility and considered normal regarding the swallowing function, were selected to take part in this study. As in a British study, they were laterally observed by the examiner while swallowing 100 ml of water from a plastic cup. The examiner observed the number of sips, the time taken, and complications during the test, which generated the following indices: volume per swallow (ml, time per swallow (s, and swallowing capacity (ml/s. RESULTS: The elderly men had lower swallowing capacity than the women in the research

  5. Localization of powdery mildew resistance gene Ml-ra on barley chromosome 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the powdery mildew resistance gene called Ml-(41/145) represents a unique, unnamed locus, which we suggest to be designated Ml-ra with reference to variety 'Ragusa b' [Hordeum vulgare]. Ml-ra is located on the short arm of chormosome 5 near powdery mildew resistance locus...... Ml-a and the seed storage protein loci Hor1 and Hor2. The most likely order of the loci is Hor1, Ml-a, Ml-ra, and Hor2....

  6. Feasibility of 320-row area detector CT coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast material: assessment of image quality and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Rihyeon; Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To assess the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of 320-row area detector CT (320-ADCT) coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast material in comparison with 60-mL protocol. This retrospective study included 183 patients who underwent 320-ADCT coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast and additional 183 sex- and body mass index-matched patients using 60 mL of contrast constituting the control group. Both groups used the same 5-mL/sec injection rate. Quantitative image quality measurements and diagnostic accuracies were calculated and compared. Mean attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the aorta and all coronary arteries were lower in the 40-mL group than in the 60-mL group (all, p < 0.05), except for the CNR at proximal coronary arteries at 100 kVp (p = 0.073). However, the proportion of coronary segments with vessel attenuation >250 HU was not different between groups (all, p > 0.05), except for distal coronary arteries at 80 kVp (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there were no differences in per-patient and per-segment diagnostic accuracies between the groups (all, p > 0.05). 320-ADCT coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast showed image quality and diagnostic accuracy comparable to the 60-mL protocol, demonstrating the clinical feasibility of lowering the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy through contrast volume reduction. (orig.)

  7. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  8. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    .... In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments...

  9. Virtual Construction of Space Habitats: Connecting Building Information Models (BIM) and SysML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit-Casillas, Raul; Howe, A. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in design, construction and management of complex projects make use of Building Information Models (BIM) connecting different types of data to geometrical models. This information model allow different types of analysis beyond pure graphical representations. Space habitats, regardless their size, are also complex systems that require the synchronization of many types of information and disciplines beyond mass, volume, power or other basic volumetric parameters. For this, the state-of-the-art model based systems engineering languages and processes - for instance SysML - represent a solid way to tackle this problem from a programmatic point of view. Nevertheless integrating this with a powerful geometrical architectural design tool with BIM capabilities could represent a change in the workflow and paradigm of space habitats design applicable to other aerospace complex systems. This paper shows some general findings and overall conclusions based on the ongoing research to create a design protocol and method that practically connects a systems engineering approach with a BIM architectural and engineering design as a complete Model Based Engineering approach. Therefore, one hypothetical example is created and followed during the design process. In order to make it possible this research also tackles the application of IFC categories and parameters in the aerospace field starting with the application upon the space habitats design as way to understand the information flow between disciplines and tools. By building virtual space habitats we can potentially improve in the near future the way more complex designs are developed from very little detail from concept to manufacturing.

  10. Virtual Construction of Space Habitats: Connecting Building Information Models (BIM) and SysML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit-Casillas, Raul; Howe, A. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in design, construction and management of complex projects make use of Building Information Models (BIM) connecting different types of data to geometrical models. This information model allow different types of analysis beyond pure graphical representations. Space habitats, regardless their size, are also complex systems that require the synchronization of many types of information and disciplines beyond mass, volume, power or other basic volumetric parameters. For this, the state-of-the-art model based systems engineering languages and processes - for instance SysML - represent a solid way to tackle this problem from a programmatic point of view. Nevertheless integrating this with a powerful geometrical architectural design tool with BIM capabilities could represent a change in the workflow and paradigm of space habitats design applicable to other aerospace complex systems. This paper shows some general findings and overall conclusions based on the ongoing research to create a design protocol and method that practically connects a systems engineering approach with a BIM architectural and engineering design as a complete Model Based Engineering approach. Therefore, one hypothetical example is created and followed during the design process. In order to make it possible this research also tackles the application of IFC categories and parameters in the aerospace field starting with the application upon the space habitats design as way to understand the information flow between disciplines and tools. By building virtual space habitats we can potentially improve in the near future the way more complex designs are developed from very little detail from concept to manufacturing.

  11. Suppression of phase separation in $(AlAs)_{2ML} (InAs)_{2ML}$ superlattices using $Al_{0.48}In_{0.52}$ As monolayer insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S R; Follstaedt, D M

    2001-01-01

    Al/sub 0.48/In/sub 0.52/As monolayers (ML) are inserted at the binary-compound interfaces of (AlAs)/sub 2/ /sub ML/(InAs)/sub 2/ /sub ML/ short-period superlattices (SPSs) during growth on (001) In P. The insertion of Al/sub 0.48/In/sub 0.52/As interlayers greater than 2 ML thick tends to suppress the phase separation that normally occurs during molecular beam epitaxy of the SPS. The degree of suppression is a sensitive function of both the monolayer-scale thickness, and the intraperiod growth sequence, of the interlayers in the SPS. Given this sensitivity to monolayer-scale variations in the surface-region composition, we propose that cyclical phase transition of the reconstructed surface initiates SPS decomposition. (21 refs).

  12. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban Nobuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96 and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83. Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.

  13. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  14. A NEW ML DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR ORTHOGONAL MULTICODE SYSTEM IN NAKAGAMI FADING CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Maximum-Likelihood (ML) criterion, this paper proposes a novel noncoherent de-tection algorithm for Orthogonal Multicode (OM) system in Nakagami fading channel. Some theoreticalanalysis and simulation results are presented. It is shown that the proposed ML algorithm is at least 0.7 dBbetter than the conventional Matched-Filter (MF) algorithm for uncoded systems, in both non-fading and fad-ing channels. For the consideration of practical application, it is further simplified in complexity. Comparedwith the original ML algorithm, the simplified ML algorithm can provide significant reduction in complexitywith small degradation in performance.

  15. The effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml spot-on treatment in preventing Phlebotomus perniciosus from feeding on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A controlled clinical trial was performed to assess the effectiveness of a pyriprole (125 mg/ml and a metaflumizone (150 mg/ml combined with amitraz (150 mg/ml spot-on treatment (recommended dosage in preventing adult female sandflies (Phlebotomus perniciosus from feeding on dogs. Sandfly mortality was also assessed. Twelve beagle dogs were used in the study. Prior to treatment they were checked for their attractiveness to sandflies, ranked accordingly to generate partner triplets of equivalent sensitivity to sandflies: four control dogs, four treated with the pyriprole and four with the metaflumizone spot-on. The dogs were challenged with 50 unfed adult female sandflies (8-10 days old, in cages for one hour on Day 1 and Day 7. The sandflies were checked for blood feeding and mortality at one hour, 24 hours and 48 hours after exposure to the dogs. A very poor anti-feeding effect (near 7% was seen on sandflies with the metaflumizone combined with amitraz and no antifeeding effect was seen with pyriprole. The sandfly mortality effect as a result of exposure to treated dogs was under 20% for the two spot-on. The two formulations could not be proposed in a leishmaniosis prevention program.

  16. jmzIdentML API: A Java interface to the mzIdentML standard for peptide and protein identification data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Florian; Krishna, Ritesh; Ghali, Fawaz; Ríos, Daniel; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Jones, Andrew R

    2012-03-01

    We present a Java application programming interface (API), jmzIdentML, for the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) mzIdentML standard for peptide and protein identification data. The API combines the power of Java Architecture of XML Binding (JAXB) and an XPath-based random-access indexer to allow a fast and efficient mapping of extensible markup language (XML) elements to Java objects. The internal references in the mzIdentML files are resolved in an on-demand manner, where the whole file is accessed as a random-access swap file, and only the relevant piece of XMLis selected for mapping to its corresponding Java object. The APIis highly efficient in its memory usage and can handle files of arbitrary sizes. The APIfollows the official release of the mzIdentML (version 1.1) specifications and is available in the public domain under a permissive licence at http://www.code.google.com/p/jmzidentml/. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The performance review of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) about Gyeongju earthquakes with Ml 5.1 and Ml 5.8 in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Ho; Chi, Heon-Cheol; Lim, In-Seub; Seong, Yun-Jeong; Park, Jihwan

    2017-04-01

    EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) service to the public has been officially operated by KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) from 2015 in Korea. For the KMA's official EEW service, KIGAM has adopted ElarmS from UC Berkeley BSL and modified local magnitude relation, 1-D travel time curves and association procedures with real time waveform from about 201 seismic stations of KMA, KIGAM, KINS and KEPRI. There were two moderate size earthquakes with magnitude Ml 5.1 and Ml 5.8 close to Gyeongju city located at the southeastern part of Korea on Sep. 12. 2016. We have checked the performance of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) named as TrigDB by KIGAM reviewing of these two Gyeongju earthquakes. The nearest station to epicenters of two earthquakes Ml 5.1(35.7697 N, 129.1904 E) and Ml 5.8(35.7632 N, 129.1898 E) was MKL which detected P phases in about 2.1 and 3.6 seconds after the origin times respectively. The first events were issued in 6.3 and 7.0 seconds from each origin time. Because of the unstable results on the early steps due to very few stations and unexpected automated analysis, KMA has the policy to wait for more 20 seconds for confirming the reliability. For these events KMA published EEW alarms in about 26 seconds after origin times with M 5.3 and M 5.9 respectively.

  18. Simultaneous ML estimation of state and parameters for hyperbolic systems with noisy boundary condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; ten Brummelhuis, P.G.J.; ten Brummelhuis, P.G.J.

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate simultaneously states and parameters of a discrete-time hyperbolic system with noisy boundary conditions is presented. This method is based on maximization of a likelihood (ML) function. The ML function leads to a two-point boundary value problem of considerable complexity.

  19. Morlet Wavelet Analysis of ML >= 3 Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Cheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ML >= 3 earthquakes (ML = local magnitude that occurred in the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA from 1973 - 2013 are selected to study the dominant seismicity period of this area. The epicentral distribution and temporal sequences of earthquake magnitudes are simply described. These earthquakes can be divided into two groups: one for events shallower than 40 km and one for events deeper than 60 km. Shallow earthquakes are located mainly in the 0 - 10 km depth range north of 25.1°N,25.1°N, and down to 35 km for those south of 25.1°N.25.1°N. Deep events are located in the subduction zone, with a dip angle of about 70°.70°. The Morlet wavelet technique is applied to analyze the dominant periods of temporal variations in numbers of monthly earthquakes in the shallow and deep ranges for three magnitude ranges, i.e., ML >= 3, 4, and 5. The results show that for shallow earthquakes the dominant periods are 15.4, 30.8, 66.1, and 132.2 months when ML >= 3 and 30.8 months when ML >= 4; while for deep earthquakes, the dominant periods are 16.5 and 141.7 months when ML >= 3 and 141.7 months when ML >= 4. The dominant period cannot be obtained for both shallow and deep ML >= 5 earthquakes.

  20. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  1. SysML for systems engineering a model-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This new edition of this popular text has been fully updated to reflect SysML 1.3, the latest version of the standard, and the discussion has been extended to show the power of SysML as a tool for systems engineering in an MBSE context.

  2. A MuDDy Experience-ML Bindings to a BDD Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken Friis

    2009-01-01

    Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) are a data structure used to efficiently represent boolean expressions on canonical form. BDDs are often the core data structure in model checkers. MuDDy is an ML interface (both for Standard ML and Objective Caml) to the BDD package BuDDy that is written in C...

  3. Model Based Control System Design Using SysML, Simulink, and Computer Algebra System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sakairi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Modeling Language (SysML is a standard, general-purpose, modeling language for model-based systems engineering (MBSE. SysML supports the specification, analysis, and design of a broad range of complex systems such as control systems. The authors demonstrate how they can integrate a SysML modeling tool (IBM Rational Rhapsody with a proprietary simulation tool (MathWorks Simulink and a Computer Algebra System (CAS to validate system specification. The integration with Simulink enables users to perform systems engineering process in a SysML model, while designing continuous control algorithms and plant behavior in Simulink, and to validate the behavior by simulating the overall composition in Simulink. The integration with a CAS enables the evaluation of mathematical constraints defined in SysML parametric diagrams. The authors also show the overall approach using a Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT and a Cruise Control System as examples.

  4. QuakeML: Status of the XML-based Seismological Data Exchange Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, Fabian; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Kästli, Philipp; Quakeml Working Group

    2010-05-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process that included contributions from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, Nanometrics, and ISTI. QuakeML has mainly been funded through the EC FP6 infrastructure project NERIES, in which it was endorsed as the preferred data exchange format. Currently, QuakeML services are being installed at several institutions around the globe, including EMSC, ORFEUS, ETH, Geoazur (Europe), NEIC, ANSS, SCEC/SCSN (USA), and GNS Science (New Zealand). Some of these institutions already provide QuakeML earthquake catalog web services. Several implementations of the QuakeML data model have been made. QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit using the QuakeML data model, is being developed at ETH. QuakePy is part of the software stack used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) testing center installations, developed by SCEC. Furthermore, the QuakeML data model is part of the SeisComP3 package from GFZ Potsdam. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, seismic inventory, and resource metadata) has been started, but is at an early stage. Contributions from the community that help to widen the thematic coverage of QuakeML are highly welcome. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  5. RiverML: Standardizing the Communication of River Model Data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S.; Maidment, D. R.; Arctur, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    RiverML is a proposed language for conveying a description of river channel and floodplain geometry and flow characteristics through the internet in a standardized way. A key goal of the RiverML project is to allow interoperability between all hydraulic and hydrologic models, whether they are industry standard software packages or custom-built research tools. By providing a common transfer format for common model inputs and outputs, RiverML can shorten the development time and enhance the immediate utility of innovative river modeling tools. RiverML will provide descriptions of cross sections and multiple flow lines, allowing the construction of wireframe representations. In addition, RiverML will support descriptions of network connectivity, properties such as roughness coefficients, and time series observations such as water surface elevation and flow rate. The language is constructed in a modular fashion such that the geometry information, network information, and time series observations can be communicated independently of each other, allowing an arbitrary suite of software packages to contribute to a coherently modeled scenario. Funding for the development of RiverML is provided through an NSF grant to CUAHSI HydroShare project, a web-based collaborative environment for sharing data & models. While RiverML is geared toward the transfer of data, HydroShare will serve as a repository for storing water-related data and models of any format, while providing enhanced functionality for standardized formats such as RiverML, WaterML, and shapefiles. RiverML is a joint effort between the CUAHSI HydroShare development team, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group, and an international community of data providers, data users, and software developers.

  6. The Correlation between Ultrasound Testicular Volume and Conventional Semen Parameters in Albanian Subfertile Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kristo

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Testicular volume has a direct correlation with semen parameters and the critical total testicular volume indicating normal testicular function is approximately 26.6 ml (the mean testicular volume 13.3 ml. The measurement of testicular volume can be helpful for assessing fertility at the initial physical examination.

  7. Evaluation of Lassa virus vaccine immunogenicity in a CBA/J-ML29 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicochea, Marco A; Zapata, Juan C; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Salvato, Maria S; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-02-14

    Lassa fever (LF) is one of the most prevalent viral hemorrhagic fevers in West Africa responsible for thousands of deaths annually. The BSL-4 containment requirement and lack of small animal model to evaluate Lassa virus (LASV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) complicate development of effective LF vaccines. Here we have described a CBA/J-ML29 model allowing evaluation of LASV-specific CMI responses in mice. This model is based on Mopeia virus reassortant clone ML29, an attractive immunogenic surrogate for LASV. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization of CBA/J mice with ML29 protected animals against a lethal homologous intracerebral (i.c.) challenge with 588 LD(50). The ML29-immunized mice displayed negligible levels of LASV-specific antibody titers, but LASV-specific CMI responses were detectable early and peaked on day 8-10 after immunization. A T cell cytotoxicity assay in vivo showed a correlation between LASV-specific cytotoxicity and the timing of protection induced by the ML29 immunization. Notably, CBA/J mice that received CD8+ T cell-depleted splenocytes from ML29-immunized donors all succumbed to a lethal i.c. challenge, demonstrating that CD8+ T cells are critical in protection. The CBA/J-ML29 model can be useful immunological tool for the preliminary evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against LASV outside of BSL-4 containment facilities.

  8. Characterization of ML-IAP protein stability and physiological role in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Moradi, Elham; Dynek, Jasmin N; Zha, Jiping; Fedorova, Anna V; Deshayes, Kurt; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Newton, Kim; Le Couter, Jennifer; Vucic, Domagoj

    2012-11-01

    ML-IAP [melanoma IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis)] is an anti-apoptotic protein that is expressed highly in melanomas where it contributes to resistance to apoptotic stimuli. The anti-apoptotic activity and elevated expression of IAP family proteins in many human cancers makes IAP proteins attractive targets for inhibition by cancer therapeutics. Small-molecule IAP antagonists that bind with high affinities to select BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) domains have been shown to stimulate auto-ubiquitination and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) and c-IAP2 (cellular IAP2). In the present paper, we report ML-IAP proteasomal degradation in response to bivalent, but not monovalent, IAP antagonists. This degradation required ML-IAP ubiquitin ligase activity and was independent of c-IAP1 or c-IAP2. Although ML-IAP is best characterized in melanoma cells, we show that ML-IAP expression in normal mammalian tissues is restricted largely to the eye, being most abundant in ciliary body epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium. Surprisingly, given this pattern of expression, gene-targeted mice lacking ML-IAP exhibited normal intraocular pressure as well as normal retinal structure and function. The results of the present study indicate that ML-IAP is dispensable for both normal mouse development and ocular homoeostasis.

  9. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  10. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. cluML: A markup language for clustering and cluster validity assessment of microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, Nadia; Cunningham, Pádraig

    2005-01-01

    cluML is a new markup language for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment. The XML-based format has been designed to address some of the limitations observed in traditional formats, such as inability to store multiple clustering (including biclustering) and validation results within a dataset. cluML is an effective tool to support biomedical knowledge representation in gene expression data analysis. Although cluML was developed for DNA microarray analysis applications, it can be effectively used for the representation of clustering and for the validation of other biomedical and physical data that has no limitations.

  12. Rare A2ML1 variants confer susceptibility to otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Chiong, Charlotte M; Reyes-Quintos, Ma Rina T; Tantoco, Ma Leah C; Wang, Xin; Acharya, Anushree; Abbe, Izoduwa; Giese, Arnaud P; Smith, Joshua D; Allen, E Kaitlynn; Li, Biao; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Garcia, Marieflor Cristy; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D V; Labra, Patrick John; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa I; Chan, Abner L; Wang, Gao T; Daly, Kathleen A; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Patel, Janak A; Riazuddin, Saima; Sale, Michele M; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ahmed, Zubair M; Abes, Generoso T; Leal, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    A duplication variant within the middle ear-specific gene A2ML1 cosegregates with otitis media in an indigenous Filipino pedigree (LOD score = 7.5 at reduced penetrance) and lies within a founder haplotype that is also shared by 3 otitis-prone European-American and Hispanic-American children but is absent in non-otitis-prone children and >62,000 next-generation sequences. We identified seven additional A2ML1 variants in six otitis-prone children. Collectively, our studies support a role for A2ML1 in the pathophysiology of otitis media.

  13. Geospatial-Enabled RuleML in a Study on Querying Respiratory Disease Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Boley, Harold; Mioc, Darka;

    2009-01-01

    health data query and representation framework is proposed through the formalization of spatial information. We include the geometric representation in RuleML deduction, and apply ontologies and rules for querying and representing health information. Corresponding geospatial built-ins were implemented...... as an extension to OO jDREW. Case studies were carried out using geospatial-enabled RuleML queries for respiratory disease information. The paper thus demonstrates the use of RuleML for geospatial-semantic querying and representing of health information....

  14. Rare A2ML1 variants confer susceptibility to otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Chiong, Charlotte M.; Reyes-Quintos, Ma. Rina T.; Tantoco, Ma. Leah C.; Wang, Xin; Acharya, Anushree; Abbe, Izoduwa; Giese, Arnaud P.; Smith, Joshua D.; Allen, E. Kaitlynn; Li, Biao; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Garcia, Marieflor Cristy; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D.V.; Labra, Patrick John; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa I.; Chan, Abner L.; Wang, Gao T.; Daly, Kathleen A.; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Patel, Janak A.; Riazuddin, Saima; Sale, Michele M.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Abes, Generoso T.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    A duplication variant within middle-ear-specific gene A2ML1 co-segregates with otitis media in an indigenous Filipino pedigree (LOD score=7.5 at reduced penetrance) and lies within a founder haplotype that is also shared by three otitis-prone European- and Hispanic-American children, but is absent in non-otitis-prone children and >62,000 next-generation sequences. Seven additional A2ML1 variants were identified in six otitis-prone children. Collectively our studies support a role for A2ML1 in the pathophysiology of otitis media. PMID:26121085

  15. Hybrid propulsion with highest electric power density for the ML 450 BlueHYBRID; Hybridantrieb mit hoechster elektrischen Leistungsdichte fuer den ML 450 BlueHYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Nietfeld, Franz; Inderka, Robert [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ML 450 BlueHYBRID is an elementary milestone in the strategy to the sustainable mobility at Daimler AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany). This hybrid system based on the current M-class and is equipped with the innovative Two-Mode-Hybrid-System AHS-C with two high speed electrical engines. The entire propulsion system, the battery and power electronics and the strategy of operation particularly developed for this vehicle integrally provide for a significant reduction of consumption and emission. At the same time, the comfort of the total vehicle increases. In the ML 450 BlueHYBRID, a high volt battery on basis of nickel metal hydride is used. This battery consists of an extremely compact building method and enables an optimal packaging in the vehicle. For the first time, the cooling is performed with a liquid. This enables a stable operation in all situations. For the first time, the cooling takes place with a liquid and enables a stable enterprise in all situations. In connection with the AHS-C Two-Mode-Hybrid system, the battery system enables all hybrid-specific operation conditions such as a purely electrical tour, engine start stop, recupation, boosting. The ML 450 BlueHYBRID serially is produced in Tuscaloose (Alabama, USA). The manufacturing of the hybrid vehicle completely is integrated in the operation of work and is based on the existing serial production plants with hybrid-specific supplements and adjustments in assembly stations.

  16. Comparison of actual tidal volume in neonatal lung model volume control ventilation using three ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, H; Endo, Y; Ejima, Y; Matsubara, M; Kurosawa, S

    2011-07-01

    In neonates, small changes in tidal volumes (V(T)) may lead to complications. Previous studies have shown a significant difference between ventilator-measured tidal volume and tidal volume delivered (actual V(T)). We evaluated the accuracy of three different ventilators to deliver small V(T) during volume-controlled ventilation. We tested Servo 300, 840 ventilator and Evita 4 Neoflow ventilators with lung models simulating normal and injured neonatal lung compliance models. Gas volume delivered from the ventilator into the test circuit (V(TV)) and actual V(T) to the test lung were measured using Ventrak respiration monitors at set V(T) (30 ml). The gas volume increase of the breathing circuit was then calculated. Tidal volumes of the SV300 and PB840 in both lung models were similar to the set V(T) and the actual tidal volumes in the injured model (20.7 ml and 19.8 ml, respectively) were significantly less than that in the normal model (27.4 ml and 23.4 ml). PB840 with circuit compliance compensation could not improve the actual V(T). V(TV) of the EV4N in the normal and the injured models (37.8 ml and 46.6 ml) were markedly increased compared with set V(T), and actual V(T) were similar to set V(T) in the normal and injured model (30.2 ml and 31.9 ml, respectively). EV4N measuring V(T) close to the lung could match actual V(T) to almost the same value as the set V(T) however the gas volume of the breathing circuit was increased. If an accurate value for the patient's actual V(T) is needed, this V(T) must be measured by a sensor located between the Y-piece and the tracheal tube.

  17. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  18. Executable SysML Model Development Accelerator for the Constellation Program Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is aimed at investigating ways to accelerate the creation of SysML based models that can be used for model checking and more generally for...

  19. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  20. Parameter estimation for MIMO system based on MUSIC and ML methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei DONG; Jiandong LI; Zhuo LU; Linjing ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The frequency offset and channel gain estimation problem for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)systems in the case of flat-fading channels is addressed.Based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and the maximum likelihood (ML) methods, a new joint estimation algorithm of frequency offsets and channel gains is proposed. The new algorithm has three steps. A subset of frequency offsets is first estimated with the MUSIC algorithm. All frequency offsets in the subset are then identified with the ML method. Finally, channel gains are calculated with the ML estimator. The algorithm is a one-dimensional search scheme and therefore greatly decreases the complexity of joint ML estimation, which is essentially a multi-dimensional search scheme.

  1. THEORY OF PLASTICO ML IN γ–IRRADIATED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMITA RAJPUT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of some theoretical approach made to the studies of mechanoluminescence (ML in coloured alkali halide crystals. It is shown that moving dislocations produced during plastic deformation of crystalline materials cause light emission due to several processes like mechanical or electrostatic interaction of dislocations with defect centres, the dielectric breakdown of adsorbed gaseous molecules by the surface accumulated dislocation charges, the generation of holes during decay of mobile dislocations on the surfaces of crystals, etc. On the basis of rate equations, expressions are derived for the rise and decay of ML intensity at a given strain rate. The estimated values of ML intensities for different crystals are found to be comparable with the experimentally observed values. The expression derived are able to explain the dependence of ML intensity on several parameters like strain-rate, defect centre density, temperature, applied stress, crystal- size etc.

  2. A Concatenated ML Decoder for ST/SFBC-OFDM Systems in Double Selective Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明齐; 张文军

    2004-01-01

    This paper presented a concatenated maximum-likelihood (ML) decoder for space-time/space-frequency block coded orthogonal frequency diversion multiplexing (ST/SFBC-OFDM) systems in double selective fading channels. The proposed decoder first detects space-time or space-frequency codeword elements separately. Then, according to the coarsely estimated codeword elements, the ML decoding is performed in a smaller constellation element set to searching final codeword. It is proved that the proposed decoder has optimal performances if and only if subchannels are constant during a codeword interval. The simulation results show that the performances of proposed decoder is close to that of the optimal ML decoder in severe Doppler and delay spread channels. However, the complexity of proposed decoder is much lower than that of the optimal ML decoder.

  3. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from different fields of research

  4. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  5. Using CellML with OpenCMISS to simulate multi-scale physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Phillip Nickerson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OpenCMISS is an open-source modeling environment aimed, in particular, at the solution of bioengineering problems. OpenCMISS consists of two main parts: a computational library (OpenCMISS-Iron and a field manipulation and visualisation library (OpenCMISS-Zinc. OpenCMISS is designed for the solution of coupled multi-scale, multi-physics problems in a general-purpose parallel environment.CellML is an XML format designed to encode biophysically based systems of ordinary differential equations and both linear and non-linear algebraic equations. A primary design goal of CellML is to allow mathematical models to be encoded in a modular and reusable format to aide reproducibility and interoperability of modeling studies.In OpenCMISS we make use of CellML models to enable users to configure various aspects of their multi-scale physiological models. This avoids the need for users to be familiar with the OpenCMISS internal code in order to perform customised computational experiments. Examples of this are: cellular electrophysiology models embedded in tissue electrical propagation models; material constitutive relationships for mechanical growth and deformation simulations; time-varying boundary conditions for various problem domains; fluid constitutive relationships and lumped parameter models. In this paper we provide implementation details describing how CellML models are integrated into multi-scale physiological models in OpenCMISS. The external interface OpenCMISS presents to users will also be described, including specific examples exemplifying the extensibility and usability these tools provide the physiological modelling and simulation community. We conclude with some thoughts on future extension of OpenCMISS to make use other community developed information standards, such as FieldML, SED-ML, and BioSignalML. Plans for the integration of accelerator code (GPU and FPGA generated from CellML models is also discussed.

  6. QuakeML: XML for Seismological Data Exchange and Resource Metadata Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Kästli, P.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; QuakeML Working Group

    2007-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange format for seismology that is under development. Current collaborators are from ETH, GFZ, USC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, and ISTI. QuakeML development was motivated by the lack of a widely accepted and well-documented data format that is applicable to a broad range of fields in seismology. The development team brings together expertise from communities dealing with analysis and creation of earthquake catalogs, distribution of seismic bulletins, and real-time processing of seismic data. Efforts to merge QuakeML with existing XML dialects are under way. The first release of QuakeML will cover a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Further extensions are in progress or planned, e.g., for macroseismic information, location probability density functions, slip distributions, and ground motion information. The QuakeML language definition is supplemented by a concept to provide resource metadata and facilitate metadata exchange between distributed data providers. For that purpose, we introduce unique, location-independent identifiers of seismological resources. As an application of QuakeML, ETH Zurich currently develops a Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit as a contribution to CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability). We follow a collaborative and transparent development approach along the lines of the procedures of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). QuakeML currently is in working draft status. The standard description will be subjected to a public Request for Comments (RFC) process and eventually reach the status of a recommendation. QuakeML can be found at http://www.quakeml.org.

  7. The mzIdentML Data Standard for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Results

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.R.; Eisenacher, M.; Mayer, G.; Kohlbacher, O.; Siepen, J.; Hubbard, S. J.; Selley, J. N.; Searle, B.C.; Shofstahl, J.; Seymour, S. L.; R. Julian; Binz, P.-A.; Deutsch, E. W.; Hermjakob, H.; Reisinger, F

    2012-01-01

    We report the release of mzIdentML, an exchange standard for peptide and protein identification data, designed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative. The format was developed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative in collaboration with instrument and software vendors, and the developers of the major open-source projects in proteomics. Software implementations have been developed to enable conversion from most popular proprietary and open-source formats, and mzIdentML will soon be supported b...

  8. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltemath Dagmar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML. SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s used

  9. ML-o-Scope: A Diagnostic Visualization System for Deep Machine Learning Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    images scraped from the web . Despite its small size, CIFAR- 10’s origins make it a rich and challenging data set for object classification. ML-o-scope... Web Services, Google, SAP, The Thomas and Stacey Siebel Foundation, Apple, Inc., Cisco, Cloudera, EMC, Ericsson, Facebook, GameOnTalis, Guavus, HP...exploratory analysis ap- plied to convolutional neural network pipeline optimiza- tion. ML-o-scope is a light-weight web application that allows users

  10. Using CellML with OpenCMISS to Simulate Multi-Scale Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, David P.; Ladd, David; Hussan, Jagir R.; Safaei, Soroush; Suresh, Vinod; Hunter, Peter J.; Bradley, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    OpenCMISS is an open-source modeling environment aimed, in particular, at the solution of bioengineering problems. OpenCMISS consists of two main parts: a computational library (OpenCMISS-Iron) and a field manipulation and visualization library (OpenCMISS-Zinc). OpenCMISS is designed for the solution of coupled multi-scale, multi-physics problems in a general-purpose parallel environment. CellML is an XML format designed to encode biophysically based systems of ordinary differential equations and both linear and non-linear algebraic equations. A primary design goal of CellML is to allow mathematical models to be encoded in a modular and reusable format to aid reproducibility and interoperability of modeling studies. In OpenCMISS, we make use of CellML models to enable users to configure various aspects of their multi-scale physiological models. This avoids the need for users to be familiar with the OpenCMISS internal code in order to perform customized computational experiments. Examples of this are: cellular electrophysiology models embedded in tissue electrical propagation models; material constitutive relationships for mechanical growth and deformation simulations; time-varying boundary conditions for various problem domains; and fluid constitutive relationships and lumped-parameter models. In this paper, we provide implementation details describing how CellML models are integrated into multi-scale physiological models in OpenCMISS. The external interface OpenCMISS presents to users is also described, including specific examples exemplifying the extensibility and usability these tools provide the physiological modeling and simulation community. We conclude with some thoughts on future extension of OpenCMISS to make use of other community developed information standards, such as FieldML, SED-ML, and BioSignalML. Plans for the integration of accelerator code (graphical processing unit and field programmable gate array) generated from CellML models is also

  11. A critical ('stress') evaluation of the combined ML Copper 250-short IUD in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, N D

    1981-10-01

    IUD tolerability is related to the size and shape of the carrier frame of the copper-containing IUD. This study evaluates a critically selected group of 30 nulliparous women (those with uterine cavity length of 3.5 cm or less) who underwent insertion of the combined Multiload Copper 250-short (ML Cu 250-short) IUD. The women were aged 18 to 36 years. They were followed up between 6 months and 1 year. 1 patient with a very small infantile uterus (3.5 cm) had 2 IUD insertions and expulsions and was deemed not fit for intrauterine contraception. Another patient requested removal because of persistent bleeding, probably due to a fragile endometrium or a local bleeding disorder. 6 patients (20%) reported pre- and inter-menstrual pain, while 12 (40%) patients, including the patient who requested device removal, complained of prolonged bleeding following insertion of the ML Cu 250-short. Bleeding continued in majority of the cases for about 14 days following insertion. The bleeding pattern returned to normal after 2 months. No infections or pregnancies were reported. 4 of the patients who continued to use the device experienced some pain and/or discomfort. None of the patients who had experienced pain with previous devices experienced pain with the ML Cu 250-short. The length and width of the ML Cu 250-short appears optimal for the endometrial cavity of nulliparous women. The horizontal width of the ML Cu 250-short (18 mm) most closely approximates the 20 mm nulliparous uterine cavity width while the ML Cu 250-mini with a fundal horizontal length of 12 mm appears destined for use only by women with very narrow uterus. Hassons' wing sound 11 allows clinical graphical representation of the uterine cavity, enabling the inserter to select anatomically optimal device immediately in the clinic. The ML Copper 250-short appears highly suitable for use by nulliparous women.

  12. The ML 3.5 earthquake sequence induced by the hydrothermal energy project in St. Gallen, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T.; Wiemer, S.; Deichmann, N.; Diehl, T.; Edwards, B.; Guilhem, A.; Haslinger, F.; Király, E.; Kissling, E. H.; Mignan, A.; Plenkers, K.; Roten, D.; Seif, S.; Woessner, J.

    2013-12-01

    within a few days but two weeks later was still far from reaching the background level. Here we report on the results of our analysis of the induced seismic sequence at Sankt Gallen: ML 3.5 event initiated near the borehole, had a comparatively low stress drop (3.5 bar) and a rupture length of ~1.1 km. Peak ground motions observed for the ML 3.5 eventare very similar to the ones observed in the ML 3.4 event induced in 2006 in Basel. Yet, macroseismic intensities in St. Gallen only reach IV (EMS) versus V (EMS) in Basel. Precise earthquake relative locations indicate that seismicity extends bi-laterally from the injection point, following the trend of the mapped fault segments. Fault plane solutions of the two largest events indicate a left lateral strike slip fault whose orientation agrees well with the aftershock locations and the imaged fault zone. The St. Gallen sequence shows the highest seismic productivity per injected fluid volume when compared to other injection-induced sequences, and challenges proposed relations between injected fluid volume and maximum observed magnitude or between hydraulic energy and released seismic energy.

  13. Synovial volume--a marker of disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis? Quantification by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Gideon, P; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    MR-images. Ten knees with clinically active gonarthritis (CAG), 8 knees with clinically inactive gonarthritis (CIG) and 5 healthy controls (HC) were examined. The synovial volume of CAG-, CIG- and HC-knees were significantly different. The median volumes were 79 ml, 21 ml and 3 ml, respectively...

  14. In vitro and in vivo accuracy of sonographic gallbladder volume determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I B; Monrad, H; Grønvall, S;

    1993-01-01

    being more precise. The absolute deviation was independent of the size of the volume and of the shape of the gallbladder. In vivo Simpson's method was validated on 11 patients with cholecystitis. The gallbladder volumes (mean 65 mL; Range 20 mL to 130 mL) measured by sonography differed from...

  15. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  16. Serologic follow-up of IgG responses against recombinant mycobacterial proteins ML0405, ML2331 and LID-1 in a leprosy hyperendemic area in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Rada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a slowly evolving disease that occurs mainly in adults. In this study, the Mamaría Village, state of Portuguesa was selected because it had one of the highest prevalence rates (13.25% of leprosy cases in 1997. Between 1998-2004, 20.2% of the 89 cases registered in this village were less than 15 years old and 61.8% were males. Pau-cibacillary (PB lesions were the predominant clinical forms identified, although also multibacillary (MB forms were found. Additionally, 76% of the patients were bacteriologically negative. At the time of diagnosis, 75% of the patients presented with grade 0 disabilities, 23% with grade 1 and 2% with grade 2. Serum samples were collected from 18 PB and 15 MB patients, in addition to 14 family contacts, at the beginning and end of treatment. All the groups were re-evaluated during a three-year period (2008-2011. The proteins used for evaluation were ML0405, ML2331 and LID-1. These mycobacterial proteins were highly specific for Mycobacterium leprae and the IgG responses decreased in both MB and PB patients during multidrug treatment. Our results suggest that these antigens could be used as markers for successful treatment of non-reactional lepromatous patients.

  17. ML 3.1 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2004-10-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the Aztec 2.1 and AztecOO iterative package [16]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  18. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-09-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a target of the planned ESA mission Don Quijote. Unfortunately, little is known about the physical properties of 1989 ML, in particular its size and albedo are unknown. Its exhibits an X type reflection spectrum, so depending on its albedo, 1989 ML may be an E, M, or P type asteroid. Provisional results from thermal-infrared observations carried out with Spitzer indicate that the albedo of 1989 ML is compatible with an M- or E-type classification. We will discuss our results and their implications for the physical properties and the rotation period of 1989 ML, and its importance as a potential spacecraft target. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  19. ML 3.0 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Az = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the AZTEC 2.1 and AZTECOO iterative package [15]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and non-symmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  20. The evolution of the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Maidment, D.; Tarboton, D. G.; Whiteaker, T.; Hooper, R.; Kirschtel, D.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS, his.cuahsi.org) uses web services as the core data exchange mechanism which provides programmatic connection between many heterogeneous sources of hydrologic data and a variety of online and desktop client applications. The service message schema follows the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML) 1.x specification (see OGC Discussion Paper 07-041r1). Data sources that can be queried via WaterML-compliant water data services include national and international repositories such as USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), USEPA STORET (Storage & Retrieval), USDA SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry), NCDC ISH and ISD(Integrated Surface Hourly and Daily Data), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and DAYMET (Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries). Besides government data sources, CUAHSI HIS provides access to a growing number of academic hydrologic observation networks. These networks are registered by researchers associated with 11 hydrologic observatory testbeds around the US, and other research, government and commercial groups wishing to join the emerging CUAHSI Water Data Federation. The Hydrologic Information Server (HIS Server) software stack deployed at NSF-supported hydrologic observatory sites and other universities around the country, supports a hydrologic data publication workflow which includes the following steps: (1) observational data are loaded from static files or streamed from sensors into a local instance of an Observations Data Model (ODM) database; (2) a generic web service template is configured for the new ODM instance to expose the data as a WaterML-compliant water data service, and (3) the new water data service is registered at the HISCentral registry (hiscentral.cuahsi.org), its metadata are harvested and semantically tagged using concepts from a hydrologic ontology. As a result, the new service is indexed in the CUAHSI central metadata catalog, and becomes

  1. The gel electrophoresis markup language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2010-09-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed the GelML (gel electrophoresis markup language) data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for MS data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.

  2. Analysis of Quasi-Cyclic LDPC codes under ML decoding over the erasure channel

    CERN Document Server

    Cunche, Mathieu; Roca, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that Quasi-Cyclic LDPC codes can efficiently accommodate the hybrid iterative/ML decoding over the binary erasure channel. We demonstrate that the quasi-cyclic structure of the parity-check matrix can be advantageously used in order to significantly reduce the complexity of the ML decoding. This is achieved by a simple row/column permutation that transforms a QC matrix into a pseudo-band form. Based on this approach, we propose a class of QC-LDPC codes with almost ideal error correction performance under the ML decoding, while the required number of row/symbol operations scales as $k\\sqrt{k}$, where $k$ is the number of source symbols.

  3. The WUW ML bundle detector A flow through detector for alpha-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, U; Lochny, M

    1999-01-01

    Using conventional laboratory ware, we designed and manufactured a flow through cell for monitoring alpha-bearing solutions. The cell consists of a bundle of thermoplastic, transparent tubes coated with a thin layer of the meltable scintillator MELTILEX sup T sup M at the inner surface. With appropriate energy windows set, the detector can suppress beta-particles to a great extent due to its geometrical dimensions. For pure alpha-solutions, the detection limits are 5 Bq/ml, for composite nuclide mixtures, the detector is capable to monitor the decontamination of medium active waste (<=10 sup 7 Bq/ml) down to 100 Bq alpha/g solution. At a throughput of 1 ml/s, the pressure build-up amounts to approx 2 bar. We have developed a quality control program to ensure the regularity of the individual bundle loops.

  4. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org .

  5. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Saul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2 is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments provided by a broad international user community. QuakeML is designed as an umbrella schema under which several sub-packages are collected. The present scope of QuakeML 1.2 covers a basic description of seismic events including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Work on additional packages (macroseismic information, ground motion, seismic inventory, and resource metadata has been started, but is at an early stage. Several applications based on the QuakeML data model have been created so far. Among these are earthquake catalog web services at the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC, GNS Science, and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC, and QuakePy, an open-source Python-based seismicity analysis toolkit. Furthermore, QuakeML is being used in the SeisComP3 system from GFZ Potsdam, and in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP testing center installations, developed by Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. QuakeML is still under active and dynamic development. Further contributions from the community are crucial to its success and are highly welcome.

  6. VarioML framework for comprehensive variation data representation and exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Myles

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing of data about variation and the associated phenotypes is a critical need, yet variant information can be arbitrarily complex, making a single standard vocabulary elusive and re-formatting difficult. Complex standards have proven too time-consuming to implement. Results The GEN2PHEN project addressed these difficulties by developing a comprehensive data model for capturing biomedical observations, Observ-OM, and building the VarioML format around it. VarioML pairs a simplified open specification for describing variants, with a toolkit for adapting the specification into one's own research workflow. Straightforward variant data can be captured, federated, and exchanged with no overhead; more complex data can be described, without loss of compatibility. The open specification enables push-button submission to gene variant databases (LSDBs e.g., the Leiden Open Variation Database, using the Cafe Variome data publishing service, while VarioML bidirectionally transforms data between XML and web-application code formats, opening up new possibilities for open source web applications building on shared data. A Java implementation toolkit makes VarioML easily integrated into biomedical applications. VarioML is designed primarily for LSDB data submission and transfer scenarios, but can also be used as a standard variation data format for JSON and XML document databases and user interface components. Conclusions VarioML is a set of tools and practices improving the availability, quality, and comprehensibility of human variation information. It enables researchers, diagnostic laboratories, and clinics to share that information with ease, clarity, and without ambiguity.

  7. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halstead Matt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API, and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions.

  8. The analysis results of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) about Iksan(Ml4.3) and Ulsan(Ml5.0) earthquakes in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.; Pak, J.

    2016-12-01

    EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) service to the public has been officially operated by KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) from 2015 in Korea. For the KMA's official EEW service, KIGAM has adopted ElarmS from UC Berkeley BSL and modified local magnitude relation, 1-D travel time curves and association procedures with real time waveforms from about 160 seismic stations of KMA and KIGAM. We have checked the performance of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) reviewing two moderate size earthquakes: one is Iksan Eq.(Ml4.3) inside of networks and the other is Ulsan Eq.(Ml5.0) happened at the southern east sea of Korea outside of networks. The first trigger time at NPR station of the Iksan Eq. took 2.3 sec and BUY and JEO2 stations were associated to produce the first event version in 10.07 sec from the origin time respectively. Because the epicentral distance of JEO2 station is about 30 km and the estimated travel time is 6.2 sec, the delay time including transmission and processing is estimated as 3.87 sec with assumption that P wave velocity is 5 km/sec and the focal depth is 8 km. The first magnitude was M4.9 which was a little bigger than Ml4.3 by KIGAM. After adding 3 more triggers of stations (CHO, KMSA, PORA), the estimated magnitude became to M4.6 and the final was settled down to M4.3 with 10 stations. In the case of Ulsan the first trigger time took 11.04 sec and the first alert time with 3 stations in 14.8 sec from the origin time (OT) respectively. The first magnitude was M5.2, however, the difference between the first EEW epicenter and the manual final result was about 63 km due to the poor azimuth coverage outside of seismic network. After 16.2 sec from OT the fourth station YSB was used to update the location near to the manual results within 6 km with magnitude 5.0 and location and magnitude were stable with more stations. Ulsan Eq. was the first case announced to the public by EEWS and the process and result were successful, however, we have to

  9. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  10. Molecular PET Imaging of Cyclophosphamide Induced Apoptosis with 18F-ML-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel small-molecular apoptotic PET imaging probe, 18F-ML-8 with a malonate motif structure, is presented and discussed. After study, the small tracer that belongs to a member of ApoSense family is proved to be capable of imaging merely apoptotic regions in the CTX treated tumor-bearing mice. The experimental result is further confirmed by in vitro cell binding assays and TUNEL staining assay. As a result, 18F-ML-8 could be used for noninvasive visualization of apoptosis induced by antitumor chemotherapy.

  11. Model-driven development of smart grid services using SoaML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-driven software devel- opment process which can be applied to the design of smart grid services. The Service Oriented Architecture Modelling Language (SoaML) is used to describe the architecture as well as the roles and interactions between service participants....... The individual modelling steps and an example design of a SoaML model for a voltage control service are presented and explained. Finally, the paper discusses a proof-of-concept implementation of the modelled service in a smart grid testing laboratory....

  12. Disc volume reduction with percutaneous nucleoplasty in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kasch

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. PURPOSE: To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. METHODS: We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. RESULTS: The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml. In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21 volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21 volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs.

  13. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  14. Implementasi Swap Transmisi Ml-E Ke Ml-Tn dan Analisa Performa Jaringan Transmisi Pada Jaringan Ericsson Site Gelora Senayan – Gelora Sudirman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafida .

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Swap adalah suatu aktivitas dimana perangkat jaringan telekomunikasi digantikan dengan perangkat yang baru dari vendor yang berbeda ataupun perangkat dari ven-dor yang sama tetapi dengan kemampuan perangkat yang lebih baik. Paper ini akan membahas mengenai swap perangkat jaringan transmisi sebuah operator telekomu-nikasi dan menganalisa kinerja jaringan tersebut setelah dilakukan swap. Kinerja jaringan sebelum dan setelah swap akan dibandingkan dengan membandingkan parameter-parameter seperti efisiensi, ekspansi kapasitas dan ke-cepatan data, nilai investasi jaringan, dan kualitas jaringan. Hasil pengukuran diperoleh dengan menggunakan BER Test, pengukuran kecepatan upload dan download HSDPA, dan juga aplikasi monitoring performansi yang ada pada perangkat tersebut. Adapun hasil yang diharapkan dari paper ini adalah mampu memberikan informasi bagaimana ethernet dapat memberikan perbedaan yang sangat sig-nifikan terhadap kualitas layanan telekomunikasi, dan juga membuktikan bahwa penggunaan jaringan transmisi baru menggunakan ML-TN akan memberikan keuntungan yang sangat besar bagi vendor telekomunikasi.

  15. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a targ

  16. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  17. The mzQuantML data standard for mass spectrometry-based quantitative studies in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Qi, Da; Mayer, Gerhard; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Sachsenberg, Timo; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Deutsch, Eric W; Reisinger, Florian; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Jones, Andrew R

    2013-08-01

    The range of heterogeneous approaches available for quantifying protein abundance via mass spectrometry (MS)(1) leads to considerable challenges in modeling, archiving, exchanging, or submitting experimental data sets as supplemental material to journals. To date, there has been no widely accepted format for capturing the evidence trail of how quantitative analysis has been performed by software, for transferring data between software packages, or for submitting to public databases. In the context of the Proteomics Standards Initiative, we have developed the mzQuantML data standard. The standard can represent quantitative data about regions in two-dimensional retention time versus mass/charge space (called features), peptides, and proteins and protein groups (where there is ambiguity regarding peptide-to-protein inference), and it offers limited support for small molecule (metabolomic) data. The format has structures for representing replicate MS runs, grouping of replicates (for example, as study variables), and capturing the parameters used by software packages to arrive at these values. The format has the capability to reference other standards such as mzML and mzIdentML, and thus the evidence trail for the MS workflow as a whole can now be described. Several software implementations are available, and we encourage other bioinformatics groups to use mzQuantML as an input, internal, or output format for quantitative software and for structuring local repositories. All project resources are available in the public domain from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative http://www.psidev.info/mzquantml.

  18. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  19. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a

  20. A tailored ML-EM algorithm for reconstruction of truncated projection data using few view angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2013-06-01

    Dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data with a small number of views. In this note, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data with different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views.

  1. Correlation between ELISA and ML Flow assays applied to 60 Brazilian patients affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Da Silva; S. Lyon; A.C. Lyon; M.A.F. Grossi; S.H. Lyon; S. Buhrer-Sekula; C.M.F. Antunes

    2010-01-01

    Serological tests can be helpful in classifying leprosy patients as having either the paucibacillary or the multibacillary form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between two serological assays, i.e. ML Flow and ELISA, in a population of leprosy patients in Brazil. The investigat

  2. Change Impact Analysis for SysML Requirements Models based on Semantics of Trace Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, ten David; Göknil, Arda; Kurtev, Ivan; Berg, van den Klaas; Goede, de Koos; Oldevik, J.; Olsen, G. K.; Neple, T.; Kolovos, D.

    2009-01-01

    Change impact analysis is one of the applications of requirements traceability in software engineering community. In this paper, we focus on requirements and requirements relations from traceability perspective. We provide formal definitions of the requirements relations in SysML for change impact a

  3. Using SensorML to describe scientific workflows in distributed web service environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available for increased collaboration through workflow sharing. The Sensor Web is an open complex adaptive system the pervades the internet and provides access to sensor resources. One mechanism for describing sensor resources is through the use of SensorML. It is shown...

  4. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a targ

  5. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  6. Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 enhances G-CSF-induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Song, Xuguang; Ma, Sha; Wang, Xue; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Huanxin; Wu, Qingyun; Zhao, Kai; Cao, Jiang; Qiao, Jianlin; Sun, Xiaoshen; Li, Depeng; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhengyu; Xu, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    G-CSF is the most often used agent in clinical hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. However, in about 10 % of patients, G-CSF does not efficiently mobilize HSPC in clinically sufficient amounts. Cdc42 activity is involved in HSPC mobilization. In the present study, we explore the impact of Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 on G-CSF-mediated HSPC mobilization in mice. We found that the use of ML141 alone only triggered modest HSPC mobilization effect in mice. However, combination of G-CSF and ML141 significantly promoted HPSC counts and colony forming units in peripheral blood, as compared to mice treated with G-CSF alone. ML141 did not significantly alter the levels of SDF-1 and MMP-9 in the bone marrow, when used alone or in combination with G-CSF. We also found that G-CSF administration significantly increases the level of GTP-bound Cdc42, but does not alter the expression of Cdc42 in the bone marrow. Our data indicate that the Cdc42 signal is a negative regulator in G-CSF-mediated HSPC mobilization, and that inhibition of the Cdc42 signal efficiently improves mobilization efficiency. These findings may provide a new strategy for efficient HSPC mobilization, especially in patients with poor G-CSF response.

  7. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  8. The october 31 (Ml 5.4) and november 1 (Ml 5.0) 2002 Molise earthquakes: first results from fluid geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzino, L.; Cinti, D.; Barbieri, M.; Galli, G.; Voltattorni, N.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2003-04-01

    Two geochemical surveys have been performed in November and December 2002 in the Molise region (southern Italy) and surrounding areas struck by two moderate size earthquakes on October 31 (M_l 5.4) and on November 1 (M_l 5.3). The main goals of this study were: i) to highlight eventual variations either in the physico-chemical features or in the chemistry of thermo-mineral and cold springs (already sampled in 1997) discharging in an area located 50 km far from the epicentral one (Sannio-Matese, Campania region),; ii) to determine the chemical features of the groundwater discharging in the epicentral area, identifying the location and the extension of the various existing aquifers; iii) to collect information about eventual changes occurred in springs and wells (variations in flows, groundwater level in wells, etc.). Moreover, twice a week samplings have been carried out for two months at two important sulphurous springs (Larino spring, in the epicentral area and Telese thermo-mineral spring, in the Sannio area) in order to gather temporal chemical trend during the ongoing seismicity. We sampled a total of 35 sites (8 springs and wells in the Sannio-Matese area and 27 in the epicentral one) measuring in the field: temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, as well as radon, bicarbonate and H_2S contents. In laboratory, analyses of major, minor and trace elements have been performed, together with dissolved gas compositions. On 10 selected samples δ13C and 87/86Sr analyses are in progress. Data collected in the second survey show, for springs and wells located in the epicentral area, an evident pH and Eh increase (probably they returned to normal pre-earthquake values) together with some chemical variations; on the contrary, springs located in the Sannio-Matese area showed no variations. Local people observed sin-earthquake flow increases and variations in turbidity in two springs discharging in the epicentral area. All detected groundwater changes are discussed

  9. The october 31 (Ml 5.4) and november 1 (Ml 5.3) Molise earthquakes (southern italy):first results from geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzino, L.; Cinti, D.; Barbieri, M.; Galli, G.; Voltattorni, N.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2003-04-01

    Two geochemical surveys have been performed in November and December 2002 in the Molise region (southern Italy) and surrounding areas struck by two moderate size earthquakes on October 31 (M_l 5.4) and on November 1 (M_l 5.3). The main goals of this study were: i) to highlight eventual variations either in the physico-chemical features or in the chemistry of thermo-mineral and cold springs (already sampled in 1997) discharging in an area located 50 km far from the epicentral one (Sannio-Matese, Campania region),; ii) to determine the chemical features of the groundwater discharging in the epicentral area, identifying the location and the extension of the various existing aquifers; iii) to collect information about eventual changes occurred in springs and wells (variations in flows, groundwater level in wells, etc.). Moreover, twice a week samplings have been carried out for two months at two important sulphurous springs (Larino spring, in the epicentral area and Telese thermo-mineral spring, in the Sannio area) in order to gather temporal chemical trend during the ongoing seismicity. We sampled a total of 35 sites (8 springs and wells in the Sannio-Matese area and 27 in the epicentral one) measuring in the field: temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, as well as radon, bicarbonate and H_2S contents. In laboratory, analyses of major, minor and trace elements have been performed, together with dissolved gas compositions. On 10 selected samples δ13C and 87/86Sr analyses are in progress. Data collected in the second survey show, for springs and wells located in the epicentral area, an evident pH and Eh increase (probably they returned to normal pre-earthquake values) together with some chemical variations; on the contrary, springs located in the Sannio-Matese area showed no variations. Local people observed sin-earthquake flow increases and variations in turbidity in two springs discharging in the epicentral area. All detected groundwater changes are discussed

  10. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  11. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen (United Kingdom) and National Institute of R-D for Technical Physics I.F.T. Iasi, Mangeron 47 Blvd., Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: o.rotariu@abdn.ac.uk; Ogden, Iain D. [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); MacRae, Marion [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Badescu, Vasile [National Institute of R-D for Technical Physics I.F.T. Iasi, Mangeron 47 Blvd., Iasi (Romania); Strachan, Norval J.C. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels (<1 pathogenic bacteria per ml) will not be consistently detected by this method. Here a flow through immunomagnetic separator (FTIMS) has been designed and tested to process large volume samples (>50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method.

  12. Theoretical analysis of hydrogen chemisorption on Pd(111), Re(0001) and PdML/Re(0001), ReML/Pd(111) pseudomorphic overlayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallassana, Venkataraman; Neurock, Matthew; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    1999-01-01

    with the location of the d-band center of the bare metal surfaces, using a model developed by Hammer and N phi rskov. The DFT-computed adsorption energies were also analyzed on the basis of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level for the clean metal surfaces. The results indicate a clear correlation between...... the d-band center of the surface metal atoms and the hydrogen chemisorption energy. The further the d-band center is from the Fermi level, the weaker is the chemisorption bond of atomic hydrogen on the surface. Although the DOS at the Fermi level may be related to the location of the d-band, it does...... not appear to provide an independent parameter for assessing surface reactivity. The weak chemisorption of hydrogen on the Pd-ML/Re(0001) surface relates to substantial lowering of the d-band center of Pd, when it is pseudomorphically deposited as a monolayer on a Re substrate. [S0163-1829(99)00331-2]....

  13. ML Frame Synchronization for OFDM Systems Using a Known Pilot and Cyclic Prefixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Heon

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular air interface technology that is adopted as a standard modulation scheme for 4G communication systems owing to its excellent spectral efficiency. For OFDM systems, synchronization problems have received much attention along with peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. In addition to frequency offset estimation, frame synchronization is a challenging problem that must be solved to achieve optimal system performance. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) frame synchronizer for OFDM systems. The synchronizer exploits a synchronization word and cyclic prefixes together to improve the synchronization performance. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed frame synchronizer is better than that of conventional schemes. The proposed synchronizer can be used as a reference for evaluating the performance of other suboptimal frame synchronizers. We also modify the proposed frame synchronizer to reduce the implementation complexity and propose a near-ML synchronizer for time-varying fading channels.

  14. Galaxy luminosity functions, M/L ratios, and closure of the Universe - Numbers and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies are reviewed and compared, and the result of Kirshner et al. (1983) giving a 'standard LF' is chosen as a best guess. Departures from the 'standard LF' for specific galaxy types and environments (clusters, groups, field) are discussed briefly. A luminosity density of about 1.4 x 10 to the -2nd h 'galaxies' per cubic megaparsec is obtained. The mean M/L ratio needed to give critical cosmological density (Omega sub 0 = 1) is then 920 h in solar units on the face-on magnitude system. Comparison with measured M/L ratios for galaxies and clusters, and with constraints imposed by inflation and nucleosynthesis, poses two problems of 'invisible mass'.

  15. ML-IKE: a multi-layer IKE protocol for TCP performance enhancement in wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Hang; Cheng, Bo-Wen; Qing, Si-Han; Zou, Guang-Nan; Wen, Wei-Ping

    2009-12-01

    To solve the conflict between TCP accelerating technology based on PEP middle node and IPSec protocol used in the Satellite Network, NASA and the Hughes Research Laboratory (HRL) each independently proposed a solution named Multilayer IPsec protocol which can integrate IPSec with TCP PEPs. The problem is: Traditional IKE protocol can't work with Multilayer IPSec protocol. In this study, the traditional IKE main mode and quick mode are enhanced for layered IPSec protocol, and an improved layered key distribution protocol: ML-IKE is proposed. This key distribution protocol is used for key exchange between peers and middle node, so that different nodes have different security associations (SA), and different security associations correspond to different IP packet fields, so different SA nodes have different authorization to different IP packet fields. ML-IKE protocol is suitable for layered IPSec, thus layered IPSec can be used for automatic key distribution and update.

  16. A best-first tree-searching approach for ML decoding in MIMO system

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chung-An

    2012-07-28

    In MIMO communication systems maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding can be formulated as a tree-searching problem. This paper presents a tree-searching approach that combines the features of classical depth-first and breadth-first approaches to achieve close to ML performance while minimizing the number of visited nodes. A detailed outline of the algorithm is given, including the required storage. The effects of storage size on BER performance and complexity in terms of search space are also studied. Our result demonstrates that with a proper choice of storage size the proposed method visits 40% fewer nodes than a sphere decoding algorithm at signal to noise ratio (SNR) = 20dB and by an order of magnitude at 0 dB SNR.

  17. Design and implementation of CUAHSI WaterML and WaterOneFlow Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.; Maidment, D.

    2007-12-01

    WaterOneFlow is a term for a group of web services created by and for the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) community. CUAHSI web services facilitate the retrieval of hydrologic observations information from online data sources using the SOAP protocol. CUAHSI Water Markup Language (below referred to as WaterML) is an XML schema defining the format of messages returned by the WaterOneFlow web services. \

  18. QuakeML: status of the XML-based seismological data exchange format

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based data exchange standard for seismology that is in its fourth year of active community-driven development. Its development was motivated by the need to consolidate existing data formats for applications in statistical seismology, as well as setting a cutting-edge, community-agreed standard to foster interoperability of distributed infrastructures. The current release (version 1.2) is based on a public Request for Comments process and accounts for suggestions and comments...

  19. RESERVA BIOLOGICA ALBERTO ML. BRENES: Una excepción en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan diversos aspectos históricos, legales, reglamentarios y administrativos que permiten concluir que la Reserva Biológica Alberto Ml. Brenes se constituye en una excepción en la administración y manejo dentro del sistema de áreas silvestres estatales de Costa Rica, y es una de las pocas áreas silvestres administradas, a nivel mundial, por una universidad pública.

  20. ML212: A small-molecule probe for investigating fluconazole resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmen Youngsaye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Molecular Libraries and Probe Production Centers Network (NIH-MLPCN screened >300,000 compounds to evaluate their ability to restore fluconazole susceptibility in resistant Candida albicans isolates. Additional counter screens were incorporated to remove substances inherently toxic to either mammalian or fungal cells. A substituted indazole possessing the desired bioactivity profile was selected for further development, and initial investigation of structure–activity relationships led to the discovery of ML212.

  1. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for mass spectrometry data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications. PMID:20677327

  2. List-mode MLEM Image Reconstruction from 3D ML Position Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Luca; Hunter, William C J; Furenlid, Lars R; Barrett, Harrison H

    2010-10-01

    Current thick detectors used in medical imaging allow recording many attributes, such as the 3D location of interaction within the scintillation crystal and the amount of energy deposited. An efficient way of dealing with these data is by storing them in list-mode (LM). To reconstruct the data, maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) is efficiently applied to the list-mode data, resulting in the list-mode maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (LMMLEM) reconstruction algorithm.In this work, we consider a PET system consisting of two thick detectors facing each other. PMT outputs are collected for each coincidence event and are used to perform 3D maximum-likelihood (ML) position estimation of location of interaction. The mathematical properties of the ML estimation allow accurate modeling of the detector blur and provide a theoretical framework for the subsequent estimation step, namely the LMMLEM reconstruction. Indeed, a rigorous statistical model for the detector output can be obtained from calibration data and used in the calculation of the conditional probability density functions for the interaction location estimates.Our implementation of the 3D ML position estimation takes advantage of graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware and permits accurate real-time estimates of position of interaction. The LMMLEM algorithm is then applied to the list of position estimates, and the 3D radiotracer distribution is reconstructed on a voxel grid.

  3. Clinical Comparative Study of GyneFix IN and ML Cu375 Intrauterine Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦金铃; 张颖; 张春云; 辛秀芳; 王吉英; 王荣梅; 王佩贞

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the effectiveness and side effects of GyneFix IN intrauterine device (IUD) in clinical useMaterials & methods The present study is a randomized clinical control trial, 1 956healthy parous women were randomly allocated into GyneFix IN group (n= 980) and ML Cu375 group (n= 976). Follow-up was arranged at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after insertion. The discontinuation rates were calculated by using life table method.Results At the end of the first year, the pregnancy rate with IUDs and expulsion rate were 0. 4% and 2. 3% respectively in GyneFix IN group. It was the same as in ML Cu375 group (0. 4%, 2. 0%, P> 0. 05). The removal rate for medical reasons and the use-related discontinuation rate were 0. 4% and 3.1% respectively in GyneFix IN group, which were significantly lower than that in ML Cu375 group (1. 5%,4. 2%, P< 0. 01).Conclusion GyneFix IN IUD has high effectiveness, low expulsion rate and can significantly reduce the occurrence of side effects of bleeding and pain.

  4. 采用改进ML-OSIC的MIMO联合检测%MIMO Signal Detection by Combing Modified Layered OSIC and ML Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶

    2015-01-01

    In V-BLAST MIMO system, maximum likelihood detector ( MLD ) can achieve the best error probability performance,while the complexity grows exponentially with the number of antennas and the size of modulation dimension. Ordered successive interference cancellation( OSIC) is proposed for the advantage of high feasibility,however,OSIC has poorer performance compared with MLD,for it is unable to prevent the bit error diffusion. As the complexity of OSIC algorithm mainly comes from the pseudo-inverse compu-tation,this paper proposes a modified layered OSIC method which adopts parallel detection and detection value refinement procedures. If little performance loss can be tolerated,the proposed algorithm will benefit from reducing complexity. Then the modified layered OSIC algorithm and MLD are combined to avoid the bit error diffusion,since exhaustive search in weak layers can improve the entire performance. b layers are chosen to be detected by the modified layered OSIC and MLD is used to detect the remaining error propaga-tion layers. The simulation results indicate that the modified ML-OSIC algorithm gets almost the same per-formance as ML method,while the complexity is less than that of traditional one.%在垂直分层空时码( V-BLAST)多输入多输出( MIMO)系统中,最大似然检测算法( MLD)可以获得最佳的差错概率性能,但是其算法复杂度随着天线数目及其搜索空间数目呈指数增长;排序连续干扰消除( OSIC)算法具有高可行性的优点,但是其误码率由于无法防止误码扩散的原因而下降。基于OSIC算法复杂度主要来源于矩阵求逆运算,提出了一种改进的OSIC算法,该算法采用并行检测与精确检测值相结合的方案,在维持相对满意性能的情况下,减少算法复杂度。考虑到传统OSIC算法的误码扩散,将改进的OSIC算法与ML算法相结合,利用ML的穷尽搜索方式来提高算法的整体性能。为了避免ML算法给系统复

  5. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  6. Relationship between testicular volume and testicular function: comparison of the Prader orchidometric and ultrasonographic measurements in patients with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo Sakamoto; Yoshio Ogawa; Hideki Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between testicular function and testicular volume measured by using Prader orchidometry and ultrasonography (US) to determine the critical testicular volume indicating normal testicular func-tion by each method. Methods: Total testicular volume (right plus left testicular volume) was measured in 794 testes in 397 men with infertility (mean age, 35.6 years) using a Prader orchidometer and also by ultrasonography.Ultrasonographic testicular volumes were calculated as length×width×height×0.71. To evaluate volume-function relationships, patients were divided into 10 groups representing 5-mL increments of total testicular volume by each method from below 10 mL to 50 mL or more. Results: Mean total testicular volume based on Prader orchidometry and US were 36.8 mL and 26.3 mL, respectively. Semen volume, sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone all correlated significantly with total testicular volume measured by either method. Mean sperm density was in the oligozoospermic range in patients with total testicular volume below 35 mL by orchidometry or below 20 mL by ultrasonography. Mean total sperm count was subnormal in patients with total testicular volume below 30 mL by orchidometry or under 20 mL by ultrasonography. Conclusion: Testicular volume measured by either ultrasonography or Prader orchidometry correlated significantly with testicular function.However, critical total testicular volume indicating normal or nearly normal testicular function was 30 mL to 35 mL using Prader orchidometer and 20 mL using ultrasonography. Prader orchidometry morphometrically and function-ally overestimated the testicular volume in comparison to US.

  7. EnzML: multi-label prediction of enzyme classes using InterPro signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ferrari Luna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual annotation of enzymatic functions cannot keep up with automatic genome sequencing. In this work we explore the capacity of InterPro sequence signatures to automatically predict enzymatic function. Results We present EnzML, a multi-label classification method that can efficiently account also for proteins with multiple enzymatic functions: 50,000 in UniProt. EnzML was evaluated using a standard set of 300,747 proteins for which the manually curated Swiss-Prot and KEGG databases have agreeing Enzyme Commission (EC annotations. EnzML achieved more than 98% subset accuracy (exact match of all correct Enzyme Commission classes of a protein for the entire dataset and between 87 and 97% subset accuracy in reannotating eight entire proteomes: human, mouse, rat, mouse-ear cress, fruit fly, the S. pombe yeast, the E. coli bacterium and the M. jannaschii archaebacterium. To understand the role played by the dataset size, we compared the cross-evaluation results of smaller datasets, either constructed at random or from specific taxonomic domains such as archaea, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, plants and vertebrates. The results were confirmed even when the redundancy in the dataset was reduced using UniRef100, UniRef90 or UniRef50 clusters. Conclusions InterPro signatures are a compact and powerful attribute space for the prediction of enzymatic function. This representation makes multi-label machine learning feasible in reasonable time (30 minutes to train on 300,747 instances with 10,852 attributes and 2,201 class values using the Mulan Binary Relevance Nearest Neighbours algorithm implementation (BR-kNN.

  8. ML-Ask: Open Source Affect Analysis Software for Textual Input in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Ptaszynski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present ML-Ask – the first Open Source Affect Analysis system for textual input in Japanese. ML-Ask analyses the contents of an input (e.g., a sentence and annotates it with information regarding the contained general emotive expressions, specific emotional words, valence-activation dimensions of overall expressed affect, and particular emotion types expressed with their respective expressions. ML-Ask also incorporates the Contextual Valence Shifters model for handling negation in sentences to deal with grammatically expressible shifts in the conveyed valence. The system, designed to work mainly under Linux and MacOS, can be used for research on, or applying the techniques of Affect Analysis within the framework Japanese language. It can also be used as an experimental baseline for specific research in Affect Analysis, and as a practical tool for written contents annotation.   Funding statement: This research has been supported by: a Research Grant from the Nissan Science Foundation (years 2009–2010, The GCOE Program founded by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (years 2009–2010, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (Project Number: 22-00358 (years 2010–2012, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Project Number: 24600001 (years 2012–2015, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (Project Number: 25880003 (years 2013–2015, and (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B (Project Number: 15K16044 (years 2015-present, project estimated to end in March 2018.

  9. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  10. LSB steganalysis of speech data based on distance measure and ML decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Steganalysis can be used to classify an object whether or not it contains hidden information.In this article, is presented, a novel approach to detect the presence of least significant bit (LSB) steganographic messages in the voice secure communication system.A distance measure, which has proven to be sensitive to LSB steganography by analysis of variance (ANOVA), is denoted to estimate the difference between the host signal and the stego signal.Then an maximum likelihood (ML) decision is combined to form the classifier.Statistical experiments show that the proposed approach has a highly accurate rate and low computational complexity.

  11. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  12. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate health surveillance, flexible ways to represent, integrate, and deduce health information become increasingly important. In this paper, an ontology is used to support the semantic definition of spatial, temporal and thematic factors of health information. The ontology is realized...... as an interchangeable RuleML knowledge base, consisting of facts and rules. Rules are also used for integrating geographical and health information. The implemented eHealthGeo system uses the OO jDREW reasoning engine to deduce implicit information such as spatial relationships. The system combines this with spatial...

  13. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young's moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.

  14. Vasorelaxant effects of novel Kv7.4 channel enhancers ML213 and NS15370

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Bentzen, B H; Stott, J B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The KCNQ encoded voltage-gated potassium channel family (Kv7.1-Kv7.5) are established regulators of smooth muscle contractility, where Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 predominate. Various Kv7.2-Kv7.5 channel enhancers have been developed that have been shown to cause a vasorelaxation...... in both rodent and human blood vessels. Recently, two novel Kv7 channel enhancers have been identified, ML213 and NS15370, that show increased potency, particularly on Kv7.4 channels. The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of these novel enhancers in different rat blood vessels and compare...... them to Kv7 enhancers (S-1, BMS-204352, retigabine) described previously. We also sought to determine the binding sites of the new Kv7 enhancers. KEY RESULTS: Both ML213 and NS15370 relaxed segments of rat thoracic aorta, renal artery and mesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner...

  15. BER PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MIMO SYSTEMS USING OSTBC WITH ZF AND ML DECODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenitha Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO systems with multiple antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver ends are an efficient solution for wireless communication systems. They provide high data rates by exploiting the spatial domain under the constraints of limited bandwidth and transmit power. Space-Time Block Coding (STBC is a MIMO transmit strategy which exploits transmit diversity and provides high reliability. Implementation of orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs for a two transmitter–two receiver system under AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise channel and flat fading channel is performed. Alamouti code is employed for the STBC. The modulation techniques used are BPSK, QPSK and 16-QAM. Decoding is done using the Zero Forcing (ZF algorithm and Maximum Likelihood (ML algorithm. The BER Performance of each modulation scheme is compared with the un-coded version of the same. Performance comparison between the two decoding techniques is also done. It is found that ML detection offers a slightly better performance for BPSK and QPSK system than ZF detection.

  16. Radical prostatectomy outcome when performed with PSA above 20 ng/ml.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, S S

    2012-02-01

    Many centres currently do not offer radical prostatectomy (RP) to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer due to concerns regarding poor outcome, despite evidence to the contrary. We identified 18 men undergoing RP with serum PSA >20 ng\\/ml (high-risk by National Comprehensive Cancer Network definition) and minimum follow-up of 12 years (mean 13.5). Mean preoperative PSA was 37.0 ng\\/ml (Range 21.1-94.0). Prostatectomy pathology reported extracapsular disease in 16 (88.9%), positive surgical margins in 15 (83%) and positive pelvic lymph nodes in 5 (27.8%). Overall and cancer-specific survival at 5 and 10-years was 83.3%, 88.2%, 72% and 76.5% respectively. With complete follow-up 11 (61.1%) are alive, and 5 (27.8%) avoided any adjuvant therapy. Complete continence (defined as no involuntary urine leakage and no use of pads) was achieved in 60%, with partial continence in the remainder. We conclude that surgery for this aggressive variant of localised prostate cancer can result in satisfactory outcome.

  17. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyapunova, Elena, E-mail: lyapunova@icmm.ru [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ak. Korolev Str. 1, Perm, 614013 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Kuibyishev Str. 48, Ekaterinburg, 620000 (Russian Federation); Nikituk, Alexander, E-mail: nas@icmm.ru; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg, E-mail: naimark@icmm.ru [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ak. Korolev Str. 1, Perm, 614013 (Russian Federation); Rianna, Carmela, E-mail: cr@biophysik.uni-bremen.de; Radmacher, Manfred, E-mail: mr@biophysik.uni-bremen.de [Institute of Biophysics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, NW1, Bremen, 28359 Germany (Germany)

    2016-08-02

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young’s moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.

  18. Electrode characteristics of non-stoichiometric Ml(NiMnAlFe)x alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The phase structure and electrochemical properties of Co-free Ml(Ni0.82Mn0.07Al0.06Fe0.05)x alloys with stoichiometry 4.6≤x≤5.6 were investigated. The results revealed that most of the as-cast non-stoichiometric alloys have the main CaCu5 type structure with a small amount of La2Ni7 and LaNi or AlNi secondary phase, the alloys all have typical dendrite structure, the lattice parameter of the alloys increases with the decrease of stoichiometry. Electrochemical measurements showed that the stoichiometric alloy AB5.0 (the Ml(Ni0.82Mn0.07Al0.06Fe0.05)x alloy with x=5.0) has the highest discharge capacity (310  mAh*g-1), and the over-stoichiometric alloys have relatively higher cycling stability and high-rate dischargeability than others although their maximum discharge capacities are relatively lower compared with the AB5.0 alloy.

  19. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  20. Experimental and Analytical Studies on Improved Feedforward ML Estimation Based on LS-SVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximum likelihood (ML algorithm is the most common and effective parameter estimation method. However, when dealing with small sample and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, threshold effects are resulted and estimation performance degrades greatly. It is proved that support vector machine (SVM is suitable for small sample. Consequently, we employ the linear relationship between least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR’s inputs and outputs and regard LS-SVR process as a time-varying linear filter to increase input SNR of received signals and decrease the threshold value of mean square error (MSE curve. Furthermore, it is verified that by taking single-tone sinusoidal frequency estimation, for example, and integrating data analysis and experimental validation, if LS-SVR’s parameters are set appropriately, not only can the LS-SVR process ensure the single-tone sinusoid and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel characteristics of original signals well, but it can also improves the frequency estimation performance. During experimental simulations, LS-SVR process is applied to two common and representative single-tone sinusoidal ML frequency estimation algorithms, the DFT-based frequency-domain periodogram (FDP and phase-based Kay ones. And the threshold values of their MSE curves are decreased by 0.3 dB and 1.2 dB, respectively, which obviously exhibit the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Anesthetic success of 1.8ml lidocaine 2% for mandibular tooth extraction. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Aravena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anesthetic effect of a 1.8ml cartridge of anesthetic lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100,000 in inferior alveolar nerve block (NAI for the extraction in mandibular teeth. Material and methods: A pilot study with analitic design. Participating patients of Dental Emergency Service volunteers from Valdivia-Chile for mandibular teeth extractions attending between May and July of 2010. The anesthetic technique was performed by a dentist using only one cartridge of anesthetic to the NAI. After 15 minutes, the effect was considered effective when anesthetic not require reinforcement with additional anesthesia during extraction of teeth. We analyzed the relationship between success anesthetic effect with sex, age, diagnosis of tooth and type and level of pain observed (chi-square and logistic regression, p<0.05. Results: 62 patients were selected, of which only 47(75.8% was achieved anesthetic success. There was no statistical association with sex, age, type or dental diagnosis and perceived pain. Conclusion: Using a 1.8ml cartridge of anesthesia was effective in three of four patients treated by extraction of mandibular teeth. It suggests further research in relation to the clinical effectiveness of other anesthetics with the same dose in NAI.

  2. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate health surveillance, flexible ways to represent, integrate, and deduce health information become increasingly important. In this paper, an ontology is used to support the semantic definition of spatial, temporal and thematic factors of health information. The ontology is realized as...... operations and supports health information roll-up and visualization. The eHealthGeo study demonstrates a RuleML approach to supporting semantic health information integration and management.......To facilitate health surveillance, flexible ways to represent, integrate, and deduce health information become increasingly important. In this paper, an ontology is used to support the semantic definition of spatial, temporal and thematic factors of health information. The ontology is realized...... as an interchangeable RuleML knowledge base, consisting of facts and rules. Rules are also used for integrating geographical and health information. The implemented eHealthGeo system uses the OO jDREW reasoning engine to deduce implicit information such as spatial relationships. The system combines this with spatial...

  3. Estudo comparativo da eficácia analgésica pós-operatória de 20, 30 ou 40 mL de ropivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior Estudio comparativo de la eficacia analgésica postoperatoria de 20, 30 o 40 mL de ropivacaína en el bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía posterior A comparative study on the postoperative analgesic efficacy of 20, 30, or 40 mL of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As intervenções cirúrgicas por via artroscópica no ombro estão relacionadas com a dor pós-operatória de grande intensidade. Dentre as técnicas de analgesia, o bloqueio do plexo braquial é a que oferece os melhores resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar qual volume de anestésico local no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior propicia analgesia pós-operatória para essas operações de maneira mais eficiente. MÉTODO: Noventa pacientes submetidos a bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 30. Grupo 1 - volume de 20 mL; Grupo 2 - volume de 30 mL; e Grupo 3 - volume de 40 mL. Em todos os grupos, o anestésico usado foi a ropivacaína a 0,375%. O bloqueio foi avaliado por meio da pesquisa de sensibilidade térmica utilizando-se algodão embebido em álcool e a dor pós-operatória foi avaliada seguindo-se uma escala numérica verbal (ENV nas primeiras 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Nos três grupos a analgesia pós-operatória foi similar segundo os parâmetros avaliados; ENV de dor média, tempo até a primeira queixa de dor e consumo de opióides no pós-operatório. No grupo de 20 mL houve um maior consumo de analgésicos não-opióides após a 12ª hora de pós-operatório. Nos grupos de 30 e 40 mL a extensão do bloqueio foi muito maior. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostrou que o bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior é uma técnica que promove analgesia eficaz para intervenções cirúrgicas no ombro. Os três diferentes volumes estudados promoveram analgesia similar. A maior extensão do bloqueio com volumes maiores não se traduziu em melhor analgesia.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las intervenciones quirúrgicas por vía artroscópica en hombro están relacionadas al dolor postoperatorio de gran intensidad. Entre las técnicas de analgesia, el bloqueo del plexo braquial es el que ofrece los mejores resultados. El objetivo de este estudio

  4. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever in small non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S; Carrion, Ricardo; Salvato, Maria S; Mansfield, Keith; Brasky, Kathleen; Zapata, Juan; Cairo, Cristiana; Goicochea, Marco; Hoosien, Gia E; Ticer, Anysha; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Hammamieh, Rasha; Mayda, Maria; Jett, Marti; Patterson, Jean

    2008-09-26

    A single injection of ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever induces low, transient viremia, and low or moderate levels of ML29 replication in tissues of common marmosets depending on the dose of the vaccination. The vaccination elicits specific immune responses and completely protects marmosets against fatal disease by induction of sterilizing cell-mediated immunity. DNA array analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exposed to ML29 revealed that gene expression patterns in ML29-exposed PBMC and control, media-exposed PBMC, clustered together confirming safety profile of the ML29 in non-human primates. The ML29 reassortant is a promising vaccine candidate for Lassa fever.

  5. XrdML, a new way to store (and exchange) X-ray powder diffraction measurement data

    OpenAIRE

    Degen, Dr. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Recently PANalytical introduced the XrdML file format as a new data platform for powder diffraction experiments. We will explain why an industrial standard (XML) was chosen and show the XML schema used to precisely describe the instrumental and experimental conditions. This schema is used to validate the contents of the XrdML files. Additionally the integration of the XrdML files with the MS Windows operating system and the MS Windows Explorer will be demonstrated.

  6. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems Program. Operation of ML-1 reactor skid in GCRE: safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1964-10-01

    The operation of the ML-1 reactor skid in the modified GCRE facility, utilizing the GCRE reactor coolant circulating and heat removal systems, is described. An evaluation of the safety considerations associated with this mode of operation indicates that the consequences of the maximum credible accident are less severe than those previously approved for operation of the ML-1 reactor at the ML-1 test site or for operation of the GCRE-I reactor in the GCRE facility.

  7. The validity and reliability of computed tomography orbital volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Silviu C; Dreizin, David; Uluer, Mehmet; Mossop, Corey; Grant, Michael P; Nam, Arthur J

    2017-09-01

    Orbital volume calculations allow surgeons to design patient-specific implants to correct volume deficits. It is estimated that changes as small as 1 ml in orbital volume can lead to enophthalmos. Awareness of the limitations of orbital volume computed tomography (CT) measurements is critical to differentiate between true volume differences and measurement error. The aim of this study is to analyze the validity and reliability of CT orbital volume measurements. A total of 12 cadaver orbits were scanned using a standard CT maxillofacial protocol. Each orbit was dissected to isolate the extraocular muscles, fatty tissue, and globe. The empty bony orbital cavity was then filled with sculpting clay. The volumes of the muscle, fat, globe, and clay (i.e., bony orbital cavity) were then individually measured via water displacement. The CT-derived volumes, measured by manual segmentation, were compared to the direct measurements to determine validity. The difference between CT orbital volume measurements and physically measured volumes is not negligible. Globe volumes have the highest agreement with 95% of differences between -0.5 and 0.5 ml, bony volumes are more likely to be overestimated with 95% of differences between -1.8 and 2.6 ml, whereas extraocular muscle volumes have poor validity and should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CO adsorption on Pd(111) at 0.5ML: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Zahra; Le, Duy; Rahman, Talat S.

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known experimentally that at ½ monolayer (ML) coverage CO forms a c(4 × 2) phase on Pd(111). There is, however, a debate about whether this adsorption is at the bridge or at the hollow (FCC and HCP) sites, or at a combination of these two types of sites. Using density functional theory based calculations to evaluate the structural and vibrational properties of the c(4×2) overlayer of CO on Pd(111), with all possible highly symmetric adsorption sites, we conclude that the CO molecules prefer to adsorb either only on the hollow (FCC or HCP) sites or only at sites which are located in-between the bridge and the FCC sites and that there is no stable overlayer structure in which the molecule binds only at the bridge sites or combination of bridge and hollow sites.

  9. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  10. Sensor metadata blueprints and computer-aided editing for disciplined SensorML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliolato, Paolo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The need for continuous, accurate, and comprehensive environmental knowledge has led to an increase in sensor observation systems and networks. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative has been promoted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to foster interoperability among sensor systems. The provision of metadata according to the prescribed SensorML schema is a key component for achieving this and nevertheless availability of correct and exhaustive metadata cannot be taken for granted. On the one hand, it is awkward for users to provide sensor metadata because of the lack in user-oriented, dedicated tools. On the other, the specification of invariant information for a given sensor category or model (e.g., observed properties and units of measurement, manufacturer information, etc.), can be labor- and timeconsuming. Moreover, the provision of these details is error prone and subjective, i.e., may differ greatly across distinct descriptions for the same system. We provide a user-friendly, template-driven metadata authoring tool composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. This results in a form-based user interface that conceals the high complexity of the underlying format. This tool also allows for plugging in external data sources providing authoritative definitions for the aforementioned invariant information. Leveraging these functionalities, we compiled a set of SensorML profiles, that is, sensor metadata blueprints allowing end users to focus only on the metadata items that are related to their specific deployment. The natural extension of this scenario is the involvement of end users and sensor manufacturers in the crowd-sourced evolution of this collection of prototypes. We describe the components and workflow of our framework for computer-aided management of sensor metadata.

  11. Using SysML for verification and validation planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the tool, language, and methodology used for Verification and Validation Planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project. LSST has implemented a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach as a means of defining all systems engineering planning and definition activities that have historically been captured in paper documents. Specifically, LSST has adopted the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) standard and is utilizing a software tool called Enterprise Architect, developed by Sparx Systems. Much of the historical use of SysML has focused on the early phases of the project life cycle. Our approach is to extend the advantages of MBSE into later stages of the construction project. This paper details the methodology employed to use the tool to document the verification planning phases, including the extension of the language to accommodate the project's needs. The process includes defining the Verification Plan for each requirement, which in turn consists of a Verification Requirement, Success Criteria, Verification Method(s), Verification Level, and Verification Owner. Each Verification Method for each Requirement is defined as a Verification Activity and mapped into Verification Events, which are collections of activities that can be executed concurrently in an efficient and complementary way. Verification Event dependency and sequences are modeled using Activity Diagrams. The methodology employed also ties in to the Project Management Control System (PMCS), which utilizes Primavera P6 software, mapping each Verification Activity as a step in a planned activity. This approach leads to full traceability from initial Requirement to scheduled, costed, and resource loaded PMCS task-based activities, ensuring all requirements will be verified.

  12. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  13. Postoperative Urinary Catheterization Thresholds of 500 versus 800 ml after Fast-track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Hornum, Ulla; Troldborg, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No evidence-based threshold exists for postoperative urinary bladder catheterization. The authors hypothesized that a catheterization threshold of 800 ml was superior to 500 ml in reducing postoperative urinary catheterization and urological complications after fast-track total hip ar...

  14. Loss of entorhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes compared to whole brain volume in normal aging: the SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Arnoud J G; Gerritsen, Lotte; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2012-07-30

    In non-demented elderly age-related decline in hippocampal volume has often been observed, but it is not clear if this loss is disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Few studies examined age-related volume loss of the entorhinal cortex. We investigated the association of age with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes in a large sample of middle-aged and older persons without dementia. Within the SMART-Medea study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 453 non-demented subjects (mean age 62±9 years, 81% male) with a history of arterial disease. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were assessed by manual segmentation on three-dimensional fast field-echo sequence T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Automated segmentation was used to quantify volumes of BV and ICV. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were divided by intracranial volume (ICV) as well as total brain volume (BV) to determine whether age-related differences were disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Total crude hippocampal volume was 5.96±0.7 ml and total crude ERC volume was 0.34±0.06 ml. Linear regression analyses adjusted for sex showed that with increasing age, hippocampal volume divided by ICV decreased (B per year older=-0.01 ml; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.004). However, no age-related decline in hippocampal volume relative to BV was observed (B per year older=0.005 ml; 95% CI -0.002 to 0.01). No age-related decline in ERC volume relative to ICV or BV was observed. In this population of nondemented patients with a history of vascular disease no age-related decline in entorhinal cortex volume was observed and although hippocampal volume decreased with age, it was not disproportionate relative to total brain volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative genetic mapping revealed powdery mildew resistance gene MlWE4 derived from wild emmer is located in same genomic region of Pm36 and Ml3D232 on chromosome 5BL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong; WANG Yong; CHEN Yong-xing; LIU Zhi-yong; OUYANG Shu-hong; WANG Li-li; CUI Yu; WU Qiu-hong; LIANG Yong; WANG Zhen-zhong; XIE Jing-zhong; ZHANG De-yun

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating wheat diseases. Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is a promising source of disease resistance for wheat. A powdery mildew resistance gene conferring resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09, originating from wild emmer wheat, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line WE4 through crossing and backcrossing. Genetic analyses indicated that the powdery mildew resistance was control ed by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated MlWE4. By mean of comparative genomics and bulked segregant analysis, a genetic linkage map of MlWE4 was constructed, and MlWE4 was mapped on the distal region of chromosome arm 5BL. Comparative genetic linkage maps showed that genes MlWE4, Pm36 and Ml3D232 were co-segregated with markers XBD37670 and XBD37680, indicating they are likely the same gene or al eles in the same locus. The co-segregated markers provide a starting point for chromosome landing and map-based cloning of MlWE4, Pm36 and Ml3D232.

  16. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine imperative and declarative modelling approaches in computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell,and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two APIs (Application Programming Interfaces written in Python (http://www.python.org, which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  17. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  18. A water-renewal system that accurately delivers small volumes of water to exposure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, D. C.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a system that can accurately deliver small volumes of water (50 ml per cycle) to eight 300-ml beakers. The system is inexpensive <$100), easy to build (<8 h), and easy to calibrate (<15 min), and accurately delivers small volumes of water (<5% variability).

  19. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  20. Fast nearly ML estimation of Doppler frequency in GNSS signal acquisition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinhua; Falletti, Emanuela; Lo Presti, Letizia

    2013-04-29

    It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains.

  1. Investigation of the Calibration Function of Local Earthquake Magnitude (ML) in the Fujian-Taiwan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiankan

    2007-01-01

    The author carefully selected earthquakes with ML =4.0~5.0, 215 occurring in the crust in the Taiwan region. The attenuation characteristics of maximum displacement recorded by the Fujian digital network have been obtained by multi-analysis as follows:logA = 2.07 + 231 /△ (150km ≤⊿ 650km) And the corresponding expression of calibration function is,R(⊿) = 3.45 - 231.1(1/⊿-0.01) (150km ≤⊿≤650km) Then, the author determined the magnitude and its error with the data from the Fujian network using the calibration function brought forward in 1997 and the above formula for 790 earthquakes occurring in the crust in the Taiwan region from September 1997 ~ August 2005. The result indicates that the average error of the network is 0.20 with the former and 0.18 with the latter. The average error is 0.13 with the latter with station correction. Compared with the magnitude determined by Taiwan seismologists, the magnitude value with the former is lower by 0.50 on average and that with the latter is higher by 0.08 on average.

  2. A new synthetic peptide having two target of antibacterial action in E. coli ML35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Curtidor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased resistance of microorganisms to the different antimicrobials available to today has highlighted the need to find new therapeutic agents, including natural and/or synthetic antimicrobial peptides. This study has evaluated the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptide 35409 (RYRRKKKMKKALQYIKLLKE against S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and E. coli ML 35 (ATCC 43827. The results have shown that peptide 35409 inhibited the growth of these three bacterial strains, having 16 fold greater activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, but requiring less concentration regarding E. coli (22 µM. When analyzing this activity against E. coli compared to time taken, it was found that this peptide inhibited bacterial growth during the first 60 min and reduced CFU/mL 1 log after 120 min had elapsed. This antimicrobial peptide permeabilized the E. coli membrane by interaction with membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylethanolamine, inhibited cell division and induced filamentation, suggesting two different targets of action within a bacterial cell. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that peptide 35409 had low hemolytic activity and was not cytotoxic for two human cell lines. We would thus propose, in the light of these findings, that the peptide 35409 sequence should provide a promising template for designing broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides.

  3. DMT-optimal, Low ML-Complexity STBC-Schemes for Asymmetric MIMO Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, K Pavan

    2012-01-01

    For an $n_t$ transmit, $n_r$ receive antenna ($n_t\\times n_r$) MIMO system with quasi-static Rayleigh fading, it was shown by Elia et. al that schemes based on minimal-delay space-time block codes (STBCs) with a symbol rate of $n_t$ complex symbols per channel use (rate-$n_t$) and a {\\it non-vanishing determinant} (NVD) are diversity-multiplexing gain tradeoff (DMT)-optimal for arbitrary values of $n_r$. Further, explicit linear STBC-schemes (LSTBC-schemes) with the NVD property were also constructed. However, for asymmetric MIMO systems (where $n_r < n_t$), with the exception of the Alamouti code-scheme for the $2 \\times 1$ system and rate-1, diagonal STBC-schemes with NVD for an $n_t \\times 1$ system, no known minimal-delay, rate-$n_r$ STBC-scheme has been shown to be DMT-optimal. In this paper, we first obtain an enhanced sufficient criterion for an STBC-scheme to be DMT optimal and using this result, we show that for certain asymmetric MIMO systems, many well-known LSTBC-schemes which have low ML-decod...

  4. New Techniques for Upper-Bounding the ML Decoding Performance of Binary Linear Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao; Bai, Baoming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, new techniques are presented to either simplify or improve most existing upper bounds on the maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding performance of the binary linear codes over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Firstly, the recently proposed union bound using truncated weight spectrums by Ma {\\em et al} is re-derived in a detailed way based on Gallager's first bounding technique (GFBT), where the "good region" is specified by a sub-optimal list decoding algorithm. The error probability caused by the bad region can be upper-bounded by the tail-probability of a binomial distribution, while the error probability caused by the good region can be upper-bounded by most existing techniques. Secondly, we propose two techniques to tighten the union bound on the error probability caused by the good region. The first technique is based on pair-wise error probabilities, which can be further tightened by employing the independence between the error events and certain components of the received random ...

  5. GeoSciML v3.0 - a significant upgrade of the CGI-IUGS geoscience data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.

    2012-04-01

    GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical

  6. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  7. Seismomagnetic effect generated by the October, 1989, ML, 7.1 Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. J.; Johnston, M. J. S.

    A differentially connected array of proton magnetometers operated within the epicentral region of the October 18, 1989, ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake for 12 years from 1974 to 1986. The closest magnetometer station was located 7.3 km from the epicenter of the earthquake and within 3 km of the site where anomalous ULF magnetic noise measurements were observed. Following the earthquake, the magnetometers were reinstalled with sensors replaced in the original undisturbed sensor holders. Comparison of pre-1986 total intensity magnetic field data with data obtained during the months following the earthquake indicate local offsets of about 1 nT may have been generated at stations nearest the epicenter. Tests on other continuous differenced data from 1983 to present indicate that offsets determined could be biased by as much as 0.7 nT. The offsets can be approximately fit with a simple seismomagnetic model of the earthquake for which 1.9 m of right lateral and 1.3 m of dip slip (southwest side up) occurred on a fault patch between 6 km and 18 km deep and 45 km long. The total rock magnetization is assumed to be 1.5 A/m. Since the offset has persisted following the earthquake, an alternate explanation in terms of electokinetic effects is unlikely even though transient ground water flow occurred following the earthquake. Comparison of pre-1986 and similar post-seismic total magnetic field noise does not indicate any change caused by aliasing of ULF (0.01 Hz-10 Hz) magnetic noise in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  8. AstroML: "better, faster, cheaper" towards state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Connolly, Andrew J.; Vanderplas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We present AstroML, a Python module for machine learning and data mining built on numpy, scipy, scikit-learn, matplotlib, and astropy, and distributed under an open license. AstroML contains a growing library of statistical and machine learning routines for analyzing astronomical data in Python, loaders for several open astronomical datasets (such as SDSS and other recent major surveys), and a large suite of examples of analyzing and visualizing astronomical datasets. AstroML is especially suitable for introducing undergraduate students to numerical research projects and for graduate students to rapidly undertake cutting-edge research. The long-term goal of astroML is to provide a community repository for fast Python implementations of common tools and routines used for statistical data analysis in astronomy and astrophysics (see http://www.astroml.org).

  9. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  10. Automatic publishing ISO 19115 metadata with PanMetaDocs using SensorML information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Ulbricht, Damian; Schroeder, Matthias; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. A challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. Geographic sensor information and services are described using the ISO 19115 metadata schema. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also published data through DataCite. The necessary metadata are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML to

  11. ART-ML: a new markup language for modelling and representation of biological processes in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvounis, E C; Exarchos, T P; Fotiou, E; Sakellarios, A I; Iliopoulou, D; Koutsouris, D; Fotiadis, D I

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of biological models available on the internet, a standardized modelling framework is required to allow information to be accessed and visualized. In this paper we propose a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) based format called ART-ML that aims at supporting the interoperability and the reuse of models of geometry, blood flow, plaque progression and stent modelling, exported by any cardiovascular disease modelling software. ART-ML has been developed and tested using ARTool. ARTool is a platform for the automatic processing of various image modalities of coronary and carotid arteries. The images and their content are fused to develop morphological models of the arteries in 3D representations. All the above described procedures integrate disparate data formats, protocols and tools. ART-ML proposes a representation way, expanding ARTool, for interpretability of the individual resources, creating a standard unified model for the description of data and, consequently, a format for their exchange and representation that is machine independent. More specifically, ARTool platform incorporates efficient algorithms which are able to perform blood flow simulations and atherosclerotic plaque evolution modelling. Integration of data layers between different modules within ARTool are based upon the interchange of information included in the ART-ML model repository. ART-ML provides a markup representation that enables the representation and management of embedded models within the cardiovascular disease modelling platform, the storage and interchange of well-defined information. The corresponding ART-ML model incorporates all relevant information regarding geometry, blood flow, plaque progression and stent modelling procedures. All created models are stored in a model repository database which is accessible to the research community using efficient web interfaces, enabling the interoperability of any cardiovascular disease modelling software

  12. Differential mechanisms of action of the mucolipin synthetic agonist, ML-SA1, on insect TRPML and mammalian TRPML1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinghua; Xiong, Jian; Lu, Yungang; Xia, Xuefeng; Zhu, Michael X

    2014-12-01

    Mucolipin synthetic agonist 1 (ML-SA1) was recently identified to activate mammalian TRPML channels and shown to alleviate lipid accumulation in lysosomes of cellular models of lysosome storage diseases, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) and Niemann-Pick's disease type C (NPC). Owning to its potential use in complimenting genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate the cellular and physiological functions of TRPML channels, we examined the effect of ML-SA1 on Drosophila TRPML expressed in HEK293 cells using whole-cell, inside-out, and whole-lysosome electrophysiological recordings. We previously showed that when expressed in HEK293 cells, Drosophila TRPML was localized and functional on both plasma membrane and endolysosome. We show here that in both inside-out patches excised from the plasma membrane and whole-lysosome recordings from enlarged endolysosome vacuoles, ML-SA1 failed to activate TRPML unless exogenous phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] was applied. At 1 μM ML-SA1, the sensitivity of TRPML to PI(3,5)P2 increased approximately by 10-fold and at 10 μM ML-SA1, the deactivation of PI(3,5)P2-evoked TRPML currents was markedly slowed. On the other hand, constitutive activation of TRPML by a mutation that mimics the varitint-waddler (Va) mutation of mouse TRPML3 rendered the insect channel sensitive to activation by ML-SA1 alone. Moreover, different from the insect TRPML, mouse TRPML1 was readily activated by ML-SA1 independent of PI(3,5)P2. Thus, our data reveal that while ML-SA1 acts as a true agonist at mouse TRPML1, it behaves as an allosteric activator of the Drosophila TRPML, showing dependence on and the ability to stabilize open conformation of the insect channels.

  13. Evaluation of QuantiFERON microtube, using 0.9 mL blood, for diagnosing tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Michala V; Kimaro, Godfather; Kroidl, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The performance of QuantiFERON microtube (QFT-MT), using 0.9 mL blood, and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test (QFT-IT) (3 mL blood), for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) was compared in children and adults in an endemic setting. In 152 children with suspected TB and 87 adults with confirmed TB, QFT-IT ...

  14. Determination of a comfortable volume of mouthwash for rinsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess patient comfort when rinsing for 30 s with 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 ml volumes of mouthwash, with the goal of establishing the most agreeable volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a single-blind, clinical trial with duplicate assessments. Par

  15. Importance of the test volume on the lag phase in biodegradation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, F.; Torang, Lars; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Increasing the total volume of test medium resulted in decreased lag times (TL) in biodegradability shake flask batch tests conducted with either surface water or with synthetic mineral medium inoculated with supernatant from settled activated sludge. Experiments were performed with test volumes...... volume tended to increase the lag time, even when a single test batch was redistributed into smaller flasks. With 5 ml supernatant added to different volumes of mineral medium, lag times for PNP were independent of the test volume in a range from 10 to 1,000 ml. At small volumes of 10 ml or less...... small inoculations or with too small test volumes, biodegradation may fail randomly. A straightforward practical implication of the findings is that the test volume in biodegradability tests can significantly influence the lag time and thus sometimes be decisive for the outcome in biodegradation studies....

  16. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  17. Spatial variation of the b-value observed for the periods preceding and following the 24 August 2016, Amatrice earthquake (ML 6.0 (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Montuori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a preliminary spatial and temporal analysis of the b-value variability, observed in the ar-ea where the August 2016 Amatrice earthquake (M_L 6.0 occurred. With comparison of the pre-and post-periods of the mainshock, an investigation of anomalous zone of b-values was performed aiming to find possi-ble links with barriers and/or asperities in the crustal volume where seismic sequence was developed. Prelimi-nary results show an area with high b-value (b=1.6 where the mainshock originated. Conversely, two low b-value (b=0.8 volumes are located at the border of the seismogenic structure. The location of these two areas is consistent with a preliminary fault slip inversion, suggesting the presence of two highly stressed patches of co-seismic deformation located NW and SE of the mainshock, with a high potentiality to rupture causing a possible moderate or larger event: the first one in the North (Norcia, the second one in South, next to the area of Amatrice and Campotosto.

  18. Activation of Relaxin Family Receptor 1 from different mammalian species by relaxin peptide and small molecule agonist ML290

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaohua eHuang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin peptide (RLN, which signals through the relaxin family peptide 1 (RXFP1 GPCR receptor, has shown therapeutic effects in an acute heart failure clinical trial. We have identified a small molecule agonist of human RXFP1, ML290; however, it does not activate the mouse receptor. To find a suitable animal model for ML290 testing and to gain mechanistic insights into the interaction of various ligands with RXFP1, we have cloned rhesus macaque, pig, rabbit, and guinea pig RXFP1s and analyzed their activation by RLN and ML290. HEK293T cells expressing macaque or pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin and ML290 treatment as measured by an increase of cAMP production. Guinea pig RXFP1 responded to relaxin but had very low response to ML290 treatment only at highest concentrations used. The rabbit RXFP1 amino acid sequence was the most divergent, with a number of unique substitutions within the ectodomain and the 7-transmembrane domain (7TM. Two splice variants of rabbit RXFP1 derived through alternative splicing of the forth exon were identified. In contrast to the other species, rabbit RXFP1s were activated by ML290, but not with human, pig, mouse, or rabbit relaxins. Using FLAG-tagged constructs, we have shown that both rabbit RXFP1 variants are expressed on the cell surface. No binding of human Eu-labeled relaxin to rabbit RXFP1 was detected, suggesting that in this species RXFP1 might be non-functional. We used chimeric rabbit-human and guinea pig-human constructs to identify regions important for RLN or ML290 receptor activation. Chimeras with the human ectodomain and rabbit 7TM domain were activated by RLN, whereas substitution of part of the guinea pig 7TM domain with the human sequence only partially restored ML290 activation, confirming the allosteric mode of action for the two ligands. Our data demonstrate that macaque and pig models can be used for ML290 testing.

  19. A STUDY ON MORPHOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME OF ACETABULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Khobragade,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip joint represents an unique functional unit and has complex biomechanical construction. In today’s era where total hip replacement surgeries have made their way it has become imperative for the anatomists to know the variations in acetabular dimensions. Reconstruction of acetabulum in patients with significant acetabular bone deficiency remains a challenge. Hence the present study was carried out with the aim to study the morphometric measurement of volume of acetabulum in both the sexes. Materials and Methods: Material of the study consisted of 110 human hip bones (60 males and 50 females. Volume of Acetabulum (VA was measured on these hip bones on both the sides. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: The mean volume of acetabulum in male was 23.13 ml and female was 17.88 ml. The mean volume of acetabulum on right side was 20.55 ml and left side was 20.91 ml. Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females and the differences were statistically significant. Volume was greater on the left side as compared to the right side but the difference was statistically non significant. Discussion: Analysing the differences on human acetabulum is helpful in understanding not only morphological but also medicolegal aspects. Conclusion: Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females.

  20. VERTAF/Multi-Core: A SysML-Based Application Framework for Multi-Core Embedded Software Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Sheng Lin; Chun-Hsien Lu; Shang-Wei Lin; Yean-Ru Chen; Pao-Ann Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Multi-core processors are becoming prevalent rapidly in personal computing and embedded systems. Nev-ertheless, the programming environment for multi-core processor-based systems is still quite immature and lacks efficient tools. In this work, we present a new VERTAF/Multi-Core framework and show how software code can be automatically generated from SysML models of multi-core embedded systems. We illustrate how model-driven design based on SysML can be seamlessly integrated with Intel's threading building blocks (TBB) and the quantum framework (QF) middleware. We use a digital video recording system to illustrate the benefits of the framework. Our experiments show how SysML/QF/TBB help in making multi-core embedded system programming model-driven, easy, and efficient.

  1. Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Ouyang

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90 via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172.

  2. QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

    2008-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  3. Therapy reduction in patients with Down syndrome and myeloid leukemia: the international ML-DS 2006 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffmann, Madita; Rasche, Mareike; Zimmermann, Martin; von Neuhoff, Christine; Creutzig, Ursula; Dworzak, Michael; Scheffers, Lenie; Hasle, Henrik; Zwaan, C Michel; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning

    2017-06-22

    Children with myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome (ML-DS) have superior outcome compared with non-DS patients, but suffer from higher constitutional cytotoxic drug susceptibility. We analyzed the outcome of 170 pediatric patients with ML-DS enrolled in the prospective, multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized ML-DS 2006 trial by Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO), Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG), and Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (AML-BFM) study group. Compared with the historical control arm (reduced-intensity protocol for ML-DS patients from the AML-BFM 98 trial), treatment intensity was reduced by lowering the cumulative dose of etoposide (950 to 450 mg/m(2)) and intrathecal central nervous system prophylaxis while omitting maintenance therapy. Still, 5-year overall survival (89% ± 3% vs 90% ± 4%; Plog-rank = .64), event-free survival (EFS; 87% ± 3% vs 89% ± 4%; Plog-rank = .71), and cumulative incidence of relapse/nonresponse (CIR/NR; 6% ± 3% vs 6% ± 2%; PGray = .03) did not significantly differ between the ML-DS 2006 trial and the historical control arm. Poor early treatment response (5-year EFS, 58% ± 16% vs 88% ± 3%; Plog rank = .0008) and gain of chromosome 8 (CIR/NR, 16% ± 7% vs 3% ± 2%, PGray = .02; 5-year EFS, 73% ± 8% vs 91% ± 4%, Plog rank = .018) were identified as independent prognostic factors predicting a worse EFS. Five of 7 relapsed patients (71%) with cytogenetic data had trisomy 8. Our study reveals prognostic markers for children with ML-DS and illustrates that reducing therapy did not impair excellent outcome. The trial was registered at EudraCT as #2007-006219-2. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Assessment of response of brain metastases to radiotherapy by PET imaging of apoptosis with {sup 18}F-ML-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Aaron M. [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Neurology, Petach-Tikvah (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Rabin Medical Center, Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy Unit Davvidoff Center, Petach-Tikvah (Israel); Ben-Ami, Miri; Reshef, Ayelet; Davidson, Tal [Aposense Ltd., Petach-Tikvah (Israel); Steinmetz, Adam; Kundel, Yulia; Inbar, Edna; Djaldetti, Ruth; Fenig, Eyal [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Neurology, Petach-Tikvah (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Ziv, Ilan [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Neurology, Petach-Tikvah (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Aposense Ltd., Petach-Tikvah (Israel)

    2012-09-15

    Early assessment of tumor response to therapy is vital for treatment optimization for the individual cancer patient. Induction of apoptosis is an early and nearly universal effect of anticancer therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of {sup 18}F-ML-10, a novel PET radiotracer for apoptosis, as a tool for the early detection of response of brain metastases to whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Ten patients with brain metastases treated with WBRT at 30 Gy in ten daily fractions were enrolled in this trial. Each patient underwent two {sup 18}F-ML-10 PET scans, one prior to the radiation therapy (baseline scan), and the second after nine or ten fractions of radiotherapy (follow-up scan). MRI was performed at 6-8 weeks following completion of the radiation therapy. Early treatment-induced changes in tumor {sup 18}F-ML-10 uptake on the PET scan were measured by voxel-based analysis, and were then evaluated by correlation analysis as predictors of the extent of later changes in tumor anatomical dimensions as seen on MRI scans 6-8 weeks after completion of therapy. In all ten patients, all brain lesions were detected by both MRI and the {sup 18}F-ML-10 PET scan. A highly significant correlation was found between early changes on the {sup 18}F-ML-10 scan and later changes in tumor anatomical dimensions (r = 0.9). These results support the potential of {sup 18}F-ML-10 PET as a novel tool for the early detection of response of brain metastases to WBRT. (orig.)

  5. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-level Rule-based Models in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittig, Arne; Uhrmacher, Adelinde

    2016-08-03

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  6. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males.......06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction...

  7. Body surface area adapted iopromide 300 mg/ml versus 370 mg/ml contrast medium injection protocol: Influence on quantitative and clinical assessment in combined PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Apitzsch, Jonas [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lensing, Carina [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences between combined positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography (PET/CT) enhanced with contrast medium with either an iodine concentration 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients scheduled for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were included. The first (second) 60 patients received contrast medium with 300 (370) mg iodine/ml. Intravenous injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and body surface area (BSA) adapted iodine dose (22.26 g I/m{sup 2}). Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the ascending aorta, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the liver and the right kidney in the venous contrast medium phase. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: Both media caused significantly higher values for HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} for the enhanced PET/CT than the non-enhanced one (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the degree of increase of HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} between the two contrast media at any anatomic site (all p > 0.05). Visual evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT or between the two different contrast media (p = 0.77). Conclusion: When using a constant iodine delivery rate and total iodine dose in a BSA adapted injection protocol, there are no quantitative or qualitative differences in either CT or PET between contrast media with an iodine concentration of 300 mg/ml and 370 mg/ml, respectively.

  8. Hippocampal subfield volumes in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B; Passos, I C; Mwangi, B; Amaral-Silva, H; Tannous, J; Wu, M-J; Zunta-Soares, G B; Soares, J C

    2017-01-24

    Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the link between the in vivo hippocampal subfield volumes and specific mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we used a state-of-the-art hippocampal segmentation approach, and we found that patients with BD had reduced volumes of hippocampal subfields, specifically in the left CA4, GCL, ML and both sides of the hippocampal tail, compared with healthy subjects and patients with MDD. The volume reduction was especially severe in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). We also demonstrated that hippocampal subfield volume reduction was associated with the progression of the illness. For patients with BD-I, the volumes of the right CA1, ML and Sub decreased as the illness duration increased, and the volumes of both sides of the CA2/3, CA4 and hippocampal tail had negative correlations with the number of manic episodes. These results indicated that among the mood disorders the hippocampal subfields were more affected in BD-I compared with BD-II and MDD, and manic episodes had focused progressive effect on the CA2/3 and CA4 and hippocampal tail.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.262.

  9. Contribuição da densidade do PSA para predizer o câncer da próstata em pacientes com valores de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Sócrates de Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o perfil dos pacientes submetidos a biópsia prostática, determinando possíveis padrões que, associados aos níveis de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml, possam levar a uma diminuição de biópsias desnecessárias. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: De 2007 a 2009, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1.282 indivíduos submetidos a biópsia prostática e que apresentavam níveis de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de câncer foi de 28,6%. Pacientes com câncer eram, em média, mais idosos, com valores de PSA e densidade de PSA mais altos e menor volume da próstata. Na análise da densidade de PSA, os pacientes com câncer tiveram média de 0,31 ng/ml/cc, enquanto nos pacientes com resultado negativo a média foi de 0,10 ng/ml/cc. Utilizando como critério de positividade para câncer o ponto de corte de densidade de PSA de 0,15 ng/ml/cc, obtivemos especificidade de 74% e sensibilidade de 70%. Para aumentar a sensibilidade é preciso reduzir o ponto de corte. Com o valor 0,09 ng/ml/cc, obtivemos sensibilidade de 84% (IC 95%: 80-87% e especificidade de 75% (IC 95%: 72-78%. CONCLUSÃO: O uso sistemático da densidade de PSA na indicação de prosseguimento da investigação do paciente com biópsia poderia reduzir a quantidade de procedimentos desnecessários.

  10. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  11. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  12. SEM with Missing Data and Unknown Population Distributions Using Two-Stage ML: Theory and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Lu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the theory and application of the 2-stage maximum likelihood (ML) procedure for structural equation modeling (SEM) with missing data. The validity of this procedure does not require the assumption of a normally distributed population. When the population is normally distributed and all missing data are missing at random…

  13. Study on Kinetics of Hydrogen Absorption by Metal Hydride Slurries Ⅱ. Hydrogenation of Benzene Catalyzed by MlNi5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安越; 陈长聘; 徐国华; 蔡官明; 王启东

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the hydrogenation of benzene into cyclohexane over the hydrogen storage alloy MlNi5 catalyst was studied in the temperature range of 402~463 K. The results show that the reaction order is zero and the energy of activation is 28.9 kJmol-1.

  14. Label-free electrochemical impedance biosensor to detect human interleukin-8 in serum with sub-pg/ml sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Deacon, S E; Nowak, D; George, S E; Szymonik, M P; Tang, A A S; Tomlinson, D C; Davies, A G; McPherson, M J; Wälti, C

    2016-06-15

    Biosensors with high sensitivity and short time-to-result that are capable of detecting biomarkers in body fluids such as serum are an important prerequisite for early diagnostics in modern healthcare provision. Here, we report the development of an electrochemical impedance-based sensor for the detection in serum of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), a pro-angiogenic chemokine implicated in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The sensor employs a small and robust synthetic non-antibody capture protein based on a cystatin scaffold that displays high affinity for human IL-8 with a KD of 35 ± 10 nM and excellent ligand specificity. The change in the phase of the electrochemical impedance from the serum baseline, ∆θ(ƒ), measured at 0.1 Hz, was used as the measure for quantifying IL-8 concentration in the fluid. Optimal sensor signal was observed after 15 min incubation, and the sensor exhibited a linear response versus logarithm of IL-8 concentration from 900 fg/ml to 900 ng/ml. A detection limit of around 90 fg/ml, which is significantly lower than the basal clinical levels of 5-10 pg/ml, was observed. Our results are significant for the development of point-of-care and early diagnostics where high sensitivity and short time-to-results are essential.

  15. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  16. New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, Stéphane; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lefort, Vincent; Anisimova, Maria; Hordijk, Wim; Gascuel, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    PhyML is a phylogeny software based on the maximum-likelihood principle. Early PhyML versions used a fast algorithm performing nearest neighbor interchanges to improve a reasonable starting tree topology. Since the original publication (Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003. A simple, fast and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52:696-704), PhyML has been widely used (>2500 citations in ISI Web of Science) because of its simplicity and a fair compromise between accuracy and speed. In the meantime, research around PhyML has continued, and this article describes the new algorithms and methods implemented in the program. First, we introduce a new algorithm to search the tree space with user-defined intensity using subtree pruning and regrafting topological moves. The parsimony criterion is used here to filter out the least promising topology modifications with respect to the likelihood function. The analysis of a large collection of real nucleotide and amino acid data sets of various sizes demonstrates the good performance of this method. Second, we describe a new test to assess the support of the data for internal branches of a phylogeny. This approach extends the recently proposed approximate likelihood-ratio test and relies on a nonparametric, Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like procedure. A detailed analysis of real alignments sheds light on the links between this new approach and the more classical nonparametric bootstrap method. Overall, our tests show that the last version (3.0) of PhyML is fast, accurate, stable, and ready to use. A Web server and binary files are available from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/.

  17. Subcutaneous Injection Volume of Biopharmaceuticals-Pushing the Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Koulov, Atanas; Joerg, Susanne; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-08-01

    Administration into the subcutaneous (SC) tissue is a typical route of delivery for therapeutic proteins, especially for frequent treatments, long-term regimens, or self-administration. It is currently believed that the maximum volume for SC injections is approximately 1.5 mL. Larger SC injection volumes are considered to be associated with injection pain and adverse events at the injection site. However, no controlled clinical studies and actual evidence exist to support this assumption. In this review, we discuss current and publically available data related to SC administration volumes. We conclude that injection volumes higher than 3.5 mL are worth exploring if required for the development of efficacious drug treatments. Studying tissue back pressure, injection site leakage, local tolerability, and injection-related adverse events, such as injection pain, should be considered for the development of higher SC injection volumes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Volume equivalente: um estudo em indivíduos com otite média crônica Equivalent volume: study in subjects with chronic otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. T. Alencar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O Volume Equivalente do Meato Acústico Externo está na faixa de 0,3ml a 1,0ml em crianças e 0,65ml a 1,75ml em adultos. Em indivíduos com Otite Média Crônica estes valores podem sofrer alterações, de acordo com as condições da doença. OBJETIVO: Estudar o volume equivalente de 52 orelhas de pacientes com Otite Média Crônica com e sem infecção ativa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico prospectivo com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O volume equivalente da orelha foi obtido em 52 orelhas com Otite Média Crônica, com e sem infecção ativa, e num grupo controle de mesma idade e sexo do grupo estudo. O grupo estudo com infecção foi avaliado antes e após tratamento clínico. RESULTADOS: A média do volume equivalente para os grupos estudos sem e com infecção e para o grupo controle foi, respectivamente, 2,86ml; 1,42ml e 0,80ml. A média do volume equivalente para o grupo estudo com infecção antes e após tratamento clínico foi, respectivamente, 1,42ml e 1,82ml. CONCLUSÕES: 1. O Volume Equivalente médio da Orelha é maior em pacientes com Otite Média Crônica. 2. Não foi observada variação no Volume Equivalente antes e após o tratamento clínico.The equivalent ear canal volume ranges from 0.3ml to 1.0ml in children and from 0.65 to 1.75ml in adults. In subjects with chronic otitis media these values can be different, according to the disease status. AIM: To study the equivalent ear canal volume in 52 ears of patients with chronic otitis media with and without active infection. STUDY DESIGN: clinical prospective with transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The equivalent ear canal volume was obtained from 52 ears diagnosed with chronic otitis media with and without active infection and in age and gender matched control group. The study group with active infection was evaluated before and after clinical treatment. RESULTS: Equivalent ear canal volume mean for the studied groups with and without infection and for the

  19. Recommended summer sunlight exposure levels can produce sufficient (> or =20 ng ml(-1)) but not the proposed optimal (> or =32 ng ml(-1)) 25(OH)D levels at UK latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley E; Webb, Ann R; Fraser, Heather I; Kift, Richard; Durkin, Marie T; Allan, Donald; O'Brien, Sarah J; Vail, Andy; Berry, Jacqueline L

    2010-05-01

    Recommendations on limitation of summer sunlight exposure to prevent skin cancer may conflict with requirements to protect bone health through adequate vitamin D levels, the principal source being UVB in summer sunlight. We determined whether sufficient (> or =20 ng ml(-1)) and proposed optimal (> or =32 ng ml(-1)) 25(OH)D levels are attained by following UK guidance advising casual short exposures to UVB in summer sunlight, and performed the study under known conditions to enhance the specificity of future recommendations. During wintertime, when ambient UVB is negligible, 120 white Caucasians, aged 20-60 years, from Greater Manchester, UK (53.5 degrees N) received a simulated summer's sunlight exposures, specifically 1.3 standard erythemal dose, three times weekly for 6 weeks, while wearing T-shirt and shorts. The baseline winter data predict that 5% (confidence interval (CI): 2.7-8.6) of Greater Manchester white Caucasians have deficient (exposures, 90 (CI: 84.9-93.7) and 26.2% (CI: 20.1-33.2) reached 20 and 32 ng ml(-1) 25(OH)D, respectively. Assuming midday UVB levels, sufficient but suboptimal vitamin D status is attained after a summer's short (13 minutes) sunlight exposures to 35% skin surface area; these findings will assist future public health guidance on vitamin D acquisition.

  20. Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes is >50% lower in GrassrootsHealth cohort with median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 41 ng/ml than in NHANES cohort with median of 22 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, S L; Baggerly, L L; French, C B; Heaney, R P; Gorham, E D; Holick, M F; Scragg, R; Garland, C F

    2016-01-01

    Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This study compared incidence rates of type 2 diabetes among participants aged ≥20 years in two U.S. cohorts with markedly different median 25(OH)D concentrations. The median 25(OH)D concentration in the GrassrootsHealth (GRH) cohort was 41 ng/ml (N=4933) while in the 2005-6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) it was 22 ng/ml (N=4078) (PGRH cohort, compared to 9.3 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=6.7, 12.6) in NHANES. In the NHANES cohort, the lowest 25(OH)D tertiles (<17, 17-24 ng/ml) had higher odds of developing diabetes than the highest tertile (OR: 4.9, P=0.02 and 4.8, P=0.01 respectively), adjusting for covariates. Differences in demographics and methods may have limited comparability. Raising serum 25(OH)D may be a useful tool for reducing risk of diabetes in the population.

  1. Potentials and limitations of low-concentration contrast medium (150 mg iodine/ml) in CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radon, M.R., E-mail: mark.radon@gmail.co [Department of diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Kaduthodil, M.J.; Jagdish, J.; Matthews, S.; Hill, C.; Bull, M.J.; Morcos, S.K. [Department of diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of producing diagnostic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) pulmonary angiography with low iodine concentration contrast media (150 mg iodine/ml) in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Materials and methods: Ninety-five randomized patients underwent MDCT (64 row) pulmonary angiography with 100 ml iopromide either at low concentration (LC) of 150 mg iodine/ml (n = 45) or high concentration (HC) of 300 mg iodine/ml (n = 50), delivered at the rate of 5 ml/s via a power injector. Two experienced radiologists, blinded to the concentration used, subjectively assessed the diagnostic quality and confidence using a four-point scale [1 = poor (not diagnostic), 2 = satisfactory, 3 = good, 4 = excellent]. Attenuation values (in HU) were measured in the main proximal branches of the pulmonary arteries. Results: The median diagnostic quality score for both observers was 3.5 (interquartile range 3-4) in the HC group and 2.5 (interquartile range 1.5-3) in the LC group (p < 0.01). The median diagnostic confidence score for both observers was 4 (interquartile range 3-4) in the HC group and 3 (interquartile range 1.5-4) in the LC group (p < 0.01). Both observers rated examinations as diagnostic in 69% of cases in the LC group, compared with 96% of cases in the HC group. Good interobserver agreement was found in both groups (K value 0.72 in the LC group and 0.73 in the HC). Obesity, poor scan timing, and dilution by venous return of non-opacified blood were the main reasons for a reduction in diagnostic quality of examinations in the LC group. Conclusion: Despite a 50% reduction of contrast medium dose in comparison to the standard technique, 150 mg iodine/ml can produce diagnostic MDCT pulmonary angiogram studies in the absence of obesity or high cardiac output and hyper-dynamic pulmonary circulation. Reducing the dose of contrast media would minimize the risk of contrast nephropathy in patients at risk of this complication

  2. Feasibility of contrast material volume reduction in coronary artery imaging using 320-slice volume CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Patrick A.; May, Juliane; Rogalla, Patrik; Hamm, Bernd; Lembcke, Alexander [Charite-University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Butler, Craig [Charite-University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Alberta, Department of Cardiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    To assess reduced volumes of contrast agent on image quality for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) by using single-beat cardiac imaging with 320-slice CT. Forty consecutive male patients (mean age: 55.8 years) undergoing CCTA with body weight {<=}85 kg, heart rate {<=}65 bpm, and ejection fraction {>=}55% were included. Image acquisition protocol was standardized (120 kV, 400 mA, and prospective ECG-triggered single-beat nonspiral CCTA). Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups (G1: received 40 ml, G2: 50 ml, G3: 60 ml, G4: 70 ml). Groups were compared with respect to aortic attenuation, image noise, and image quality. CT values (mean {+-} standard deviation) in the aortic root were measured as 423 {+-} 38 HU in G1, and 471 {+-} 68, 463 {+-} 60, and 476 {+-} 78 HU in G2-4, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in attenuation among the groups (P > 0.068). All 40 CT datasets were rated diagnostic, and image noise and image quality were not statistically different among groups. Using 320-slice volume CT, diagnostic image quality can be achieved with 40 ml of contrast material in CCTA in patients with normal body weight, cardiac function, and low heart rate. (orig.)

  3. ArdenML: The Arden Syntax Markup Language (or Arden Syntax: It's Not Just Text Any More!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, R. Matthew

    2001-01-01

    It is no longer necessary to think of Arden Syntax as simply a text-based knowledge base format. The development of ArdenML (Arden Syntax Markup Language), an XML-based markup language allows structured access to most of the maintenance and library categories without the need to write or buy a compiler may lead to the development of simple commercial and freeware tools for processing Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules (MLMs)

  4. Development, testing, and certification of the Northrup, Inc., ML series concentrating solar collector model NSC-01-0732

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. This report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

  5. Proceedings of the 12th annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop: challenges in the prediction of drainage chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The objective of the Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage (ML/ARD) workshop is to examine developments in the prediction of mine drainage. These proceedings contain 17 papers dealing with the following aspects of drainage chemistry: analytical methods, data interpretation, and case studies. New programme developments and the key results of the workshop are discussed. A case study on the prediction of selenium leaching studies at the Elkview Coal Mine is abstracted separately.

  6. Analysis of a Multilevel Dual Active Bridge (ML-DAB DC-DC Converter Using Symmetric Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Moonem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dual active bridge (DAB converters have been popular in high voltage, low and medium power DC-DC applications, as well as an intermediate high frequency link in solid state transformers. In this paper, a multilevel DAB (ML-DAB has been proposed in which two active bridges produce two-level (2L-5L, 5L-2L and 3L-5L voltage waveforms across the high frequency transformer. The proposed ML-DAB has the advantage of being used in high step-up/down converters, which deal with higher voltages, as compared to conventional two-level DABs. A three-level neutral point diode clamped (NPC topology has been used in the high voltage bridge, which enables the semiconductor switches to be operated within a higher voltage range without the need for cascaded bridges or multiple two-level DAB converters. A symmetric modulation scheme, based on the least number of angular parameters rather than the duty-ratio, has been proposed for a different combination of bridge voltages. This ML-DAB is also suitable for maximum power point tracking (MPPT control in photovoltaic applications. Steady-state analysis of the converter with symmetric phase-shift modulation is presented and verified using simulation and hardware experiments.

  7. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  8. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, morphogenesis and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus ML2-strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2007-02-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus Link was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek's liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 65% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. flavus hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter decreased and hyphal wall appeared as precipitates and disappeared in some regions. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids increased. One of the most important results obtained during this study was the ability of C. citratus essential oil at its sublethal dose to completely inhibit aflatoxin B(1) production from A. flavus. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegradation and storage contaminating fungi and also in fruit juice preservation.

  9. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p < 0.001). There was a moderate, significant inverse correlation of prostate volume to a positive biopsy result (r = -0.24, p = 0.004). The ellipsoid formula gives sufficient approximation of prostate volume on 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets.

  10. Quantitation of mandibular symphysis volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2010-06-01

    Autogenous intramembranous bone graft present several advantages such as minimal resorption and high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins. A method for measuring the amount of bone that can be harvested from the symphysis area has not been reported in real patients. The aim of the present study was to intrasurgically quantitate the volume of the symphysis bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients and compare it with AutoCAD (version 16.0, Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) tomographic calculations. AutoCAD software program quantitated symphysis bone graft in 40 patients using computerized tomographies. Direct intrasurgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared with AutoCAD data. The bone volume was measured at the recipient sites of a subgroup of 10 patients, 6 months post sinus augmentation. The volume of bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 1.4 mL (SD 0.6 mL, range: 0.5-2.7 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intrasurgically averaged 2.3 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range 1.7-2.8 mL). The statistical difference between the two measurement methods was significant. The bone volume measured at the recipient sites 6 months post sinus augmentation averaged 1.9 mL (SD 0.3 mL, range 1.3-2.6 mL) with a mean loss of 0.4 mL. AutoCAD did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular symphysis. The use of the design software program may improve surgical treatment planning prior to sinus augmentation.

  11. Task-based performance analysis of FBP, SART and ML for digital breast tomosynthesis using signal CNR and Channelised Hotelling Observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Sompel, Dominique; Brady, Sir Michael; Boone, John

    2011-02-01

    We assess the performance of filtered backprojection (FBP), the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and the maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) under variations in key imaging parameters, including the number of iterations, number of projections, angular range, initial guess, and radiation dose. This is the first study to compare these algorithms for the application of DBT. We present a methodology for the evaluation of DBT reconstructions, and use it to conduct preliminary experiments investigating trade-offs between the selected imaging parameters. This investigation includes trade-offs not previously considered in the DBT literature, such as the use of a stationary detector versus a C-arm imaging geometry. A real breast CT volume serves as a ground truth digital phantom from which to simulate X-ray projections under the various acquisition parameters. The reconstructed image quality is measured using task-based metrics, namely signal CNR and the AUC of a Channelised Hotelling Observer with Laguerre-Gauss basis functions. The task at hand is the detection of a simulated mass inserted into the breast CT volume. We find that the image quality in limited view tomography is highly dependent on the particular acquisition and reconstruction parameters used. In particular, we draw the following conclusions. First, we find that optimising the FBP filter design and SART relaxation parameter yields significant improvements in reconstruction quality from the same projection data. Second, we show that the convergence rate of the maximum likelihood algorithm, optimised with paraboloidal surrogates and conjugate gradient ascent (ML-PSCG), can be greatly accelerated using view-by-view updates. Third, we find that the optimal initial guess is algorithm dependent. In particular, we obtained best results with a zero initial guess for SART, and an FBP initial guess for ML-PSCG. Fourth, when the exposure per view is constant

  12. Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Thompson, Jennifer; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Chebet, Martin; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Amorut, Denis; Ongodia, Paul; Mpoya, Ayub; Williams, Thomas N; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Gibb, Diana M; Walker, A Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    .... The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg...

  13. PERBEDAAN OSMOLALITAS DAN pH DARAH PADA TINDAKAN TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE (TURP YANG DIBERIKAN NATRIUM LAKTAT HIPERTONIK 3 ML/KGBB DENGAN NATRIUM KLORIDA 0,9% 3 ML/KGBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinami Dewi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP merupakan prosedur baku  dalam  penatalaksanaanhiperplasia prostat yang disertai retensi urin akut berulang atau kronis. Tindakan ini dikerjakandengan fasilitas air sebagai cairan irigasi. Salah satu komplikasi tindakan ini dikenal sebagai sindromTURP.  Kelebihan cairan intravaskular karena absorbsi cairan irigasi akan mengakibatkan terjadinyahiponatremia dilusional yang akan menurunkan  osmolalitas plasma. Perubahan kadar Nadan Lac dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya gangguan keseimbangan asam basa yaitu asidosismetabolik. Penelitian ini merupakan uji klinik, melibatkan 22 pasien dewasa dengan status fisikASA II-III, yang menjalani operasi elektif TURP di ruang Instalasi Bedah Sentral (IBS RSUP SanglahDenpasar dengan anestesi regional dan menggunakan air sebagai fasilitas cairan irigasinya.  Sebelumtindakan TURP, saat mulai puasa, pasien diberikan cairan ringer dextrose 40 ml/kgBB/hari,sesampainya di kamar persiapan IBS dilanjutkan diberikan cairan ringer laktat 10 ml/kgBB.Randomisasi blok dilakukan untuk alokasi subyek ke dalam dua kelompok yaitu  kelompok NLH(kelompok perlakuan yang mendapatkan cairan awal natrium laktat hipertonik 3 ml/kgBB dan-kelompok NaCl (kelompok kontrol yang mendapatkan cairan awal natrium klorida 0,9% 3 ml/kgBB.Dilakukan pemeriksaan osmolalitas dan pH darah sebelum, selama, dan sesudah tindakan TURP.Hasil penelitian mendapatkan perbedaan osmolalitas darah antara kelompok NLH dengan kelompokNaCl pada saat pra-operasi, durante operasi, dan pasca-operasi dengan nilai 285,3248 vs 283,3205,P= 0,0028;  287,0259 vs  284,6813, P= 0,045; dan  288,7668 vs 285,9444, P= 0,033. Juga terdapatperbedaan nilai pH darah antara kelompok NLH dengan kelompok NaCl  pada saat pra-operasi,durante operasi dan post-operasi dengan nilai 7,4864 (0,7018 vs 7,4055 (0,5646, P= 0,07;  7,4636(0,02976 vs  7,4318 (0,03945, P= 0,045; dan 7,4791 (0,03727 vs 7,4327 (0,5569, P= 0,033. Statushemodinamik lebih

  14. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and feeding on gastric volumes in diabetes mellitus with cardio-vagal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Aros, S; Vella, A; Camilleri, M; Low, P A; Burton, D D; Thomforde, G M; Stephens, D

    2003-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases gastric volume in humans possibly through the vagus nerve. Gastric volume response to feeding is preserved after vagal denervation in animals. We evaluated gastric volume responses to GLP-1 and placebo in seven diabetic patients with vagal neuropathy in a crossover study. We also compared gastric volume response to feeding in diabetes with that in healthy controls. We measured gastric volume using SPECT imaging. Data are median (interquartile range). In diabetic patients, GLP-1 did not increase gastric volume during fasting [5 mL (-3; 30)] relative to placebo [4 mL (-14; 50) P = 0.5], or postprandially [Delta postprandial minus fasting volume 469 mL (383; 563) with GLP-1 and 452 mL (400; 493) with placebo P = 0.3]. Change in gastric volume over fasting in diabetic patients on placebo was comparable to that of healthy controls [452 mL (400; 493)], P = 0.5. In contrast to effects in health, GLP-1 did not increase gastric volume in diabetics with vagal neuropathy, suggesting GLP-1's effects on stomach volume are vagally mediated. Normal gastric volume response to feeding in diabetics with vagal neuropathy suggests that other mechanisms compensate for vagal denervation.

  15. Microstructure of alloy MlNi3.75 Co0.75 Mn0.3 Al0.2(Ml-La-rich mischmetal)during electrochemical hydriding-dehydriding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-qing; L(U) Guang-lie; GU Jian-ming; SHENG Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    Evolution of microstructures of alloy MlNi3.75 Co0.75 Mn0.3Al0.2 (Ml-La-rich mischmetal) during the electrochemical hydriding-dehydriding process was studied by using in-situ X-ray diffraction method.It is indicated that both the crystallite sizes of α phase (solid solution phase) andβ phase (hydride phase) decrease with the hydrogen content increasing during this process.β phase is found to be composed of the plate-like and the needle-like crystallites,while the crystallite size of the former changes more rapidly than that of the later during the hydridingdehydriding process.It's also clearly found that strains along (110) plane and (001) plane of α phase and β phase are higher in the α+β region than those in the corresponding single phase region.Based on the microstructural studies,mechanism for the hydride growth has also been proposed.

  16. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  17. Preparation of {sup 123}l and {sup 131}l mlBG by ascorbate reduction: A faster, safer method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.J. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Meta-iodobenzylguanidine labelled with {sup 123}l or {sup 131}l has been prepared in a number of hospital radiopharmacies by the method of van Dormalen and Janssen (Method 1), which uses a copper catalysed exchange reaction accomplished by heating at 140 degree C in a heavy walled glass vial. The product is purified by passage through a small anion exchange column to remove unreacted iodine. More recently, the method of Rossouw (Method 2) has become available which utilizes ascorbic acid and copper (II) ions to effect the iodination at 100 deg C. Since the latter method has a number of potential advantages, the object of this work was to compare the results obtained from each method under conditions of routine preparation. Analysis of preparations using Method 1 gave the following results: {sup 131}l, yield 89.3 {+-} 10.4% (n = 54); {sup 123}l, yield 85.5 {+-} 10.6% (n = 5). The radiochemical purity was determined by both chromatography on Whatman No.1 / butanol, acetic acid, water (60:15:25) and cellulose acetate electrophoresis with the following results (mean values from both techniques): {sup 131}l-mlBG 99.8 {+-} 0.1%;{sup 131}l- iodine 0.2 {+-} -0.1%. For {sup 123}l, {sup 123}l-mlBG 99.2 {+-} 0.2%; {sup 123}l-iodine 0.6 {+-} 0.2%. When prepared by Method 2, the results were: {sup 131}I, yield 86.0 {+-} 9.8% (n = 5); {sup 123}l, yield 97.0 {+-} 5.0% (n = 6). Radiochemical analyses were as follows: {sup 131}l-mlBG 98.9 {+-} 0.1%;{sup 131}l-iodine 1.0 {+-} 0.2%. For {sup 123}l, {sup 123}l-mlBG 97.8 {+-} 0.7%; {sup 123}l-iodine 2.1 {+-} 0.6%. It is concluded that although Method 2 resulted in products of slightly lower purity, the small increase in free iodide for both radionuclides can be tolerated in view of the routine use of thyroid blockade with Lugol`s solution. This method is much preferred as it removes the risk of explosion during the heating step. It is also considerably faster and reduces the chance of spillage as there is no need for passage

  18. Precise determination of focal parameters for July 20, 1995 ML=4.1 earthquake sequence in the Huailai basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On July 20, 1995 an ML= 4.1 earthquake occurred in Huailai basin, northwest of Beijing, with epicenter coordi-nates 40.326°N, 115.448°E and focal depth 5.5 km. Following the main shock, microseismicity sharply increased in the basin. This earthquake sequence was recorded by Sino-European Cooperative Huailai Digital Seismograph Network (HDSN) and the hypocenters were precisely located. Using 8 aftershocks as empirical Green's function (EGF) we calculated the source time function (STF) of the ML=4.1 event respectively, and by superposing these results, we obtained the average time function which has better signal to noise ratio. The final result shows that the ML=4.1 earthquake consisted of two events, one of which was stronger, the other was weaker, STFs from each station demonstrate an obvious 2seismic Doppler effect2. Through a trial-and-error method, the following results were drawn: for the 1st event, the rupture length is 0.44 km, rupture velocity is 4.0 km/s, while for the 2nd event those parameters are 0.25 km, 3.0 km/s, the two events ruptured in the direction of 140° and 90° respectively (measured from the strike of the fault, anticlockwise positive), the two events were separated by 0.57 km in space, and 0.09 s in time. Using single EGF, we also retrieved the source time function of other 13 events with ML32.1 in the Huailai earthquake sequence. These results were reached: each of the 13 events consisted of single event, with the duration of the source time functions ranging between 0.05~0.16 s. Using far-field ground displacement meas-urement method, the scalar seismic moment, stress drop and rupture radii of 25 events with 0.95£ML£4.1 were obtained. The trend that scalar seismic moment and stress drop increase with magnitude was obvious. In the mag-nitude range 0.9£ML£2.4, the obtained radii show no correlativity with magnitude, we tend to believe, in such small magnitude range, precise measurement for radii of such small events is beyond the

  19. Thawed human sperm quality is influenced by the volume of the cryopreserved specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abush, Ayelet; Hauser, Ron; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Yogev, Leah

    2014-03-01

    To test the effect of sperm specimen volume in the freezing-thawing process on specimen quality. Experimental prospective study. Tertiary academic medical center. Fifty high-quality sperm donors donated ∼3 times each. Sperm samples were split into two aliquots and frozen in volumes of 0.25 mL and 0.5 mL. Semen analyses. Eight sperm quality parameters of thawed specimens. Thawed 0.5-mL specimens had a higher percentage of motility and viability, progressive motility concentration, percentage of cells with high mitochondrial membrane potential, and intact chromatin compared with 0.25-mL specimens. Although there were fewer cells with intact acrosomes in the 0.5-mL thawed samples, they had a similar ability to respond to ionophore by acrosome reaction as the 0.25-mL specimens. Both groups had similar percentages of cells with oxidative stress and numbers of cells that bound to the zona pellucida. The remaining air volume in the straw and freezing medium composition had a minimal effect on tested parameters. Better quality thawed human sperm was achieved after cryopreservation of high volumes compared with low volumes of specimens. Air volume in the straw had no influence on specimen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Volumes of chronic traumatic frontal brain lesions measured by MR imaging and CBF tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, P.; Wirsen, A.; Bajc, M.; Schalen, W.; Sjoeholm, H.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Cronqvist, S.; Ingvar, D.H. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Neuroradiology University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1991-07-01

    The volumes (ml) of chronic traumatic frontal brain lesions were compared measured 'morphologically' with MR imaging (T1 and T2 weighted images) and 'functionally' with a tomographic rCBF technique (SPECT with {sup 133}Xe i.v.). The T1 volumes varied between 11 and 220 ml. The correlation between T1 and T2 volumes was 0.95, the T2 volumes being 33% larger than T1 volumes (p<0.001). The functional SPECT volumes were considerably larger (range 16-324 ml) than the MR volumes. The mean volume difference was 81% between T1 and SPECT images (p<0.001), and 35% between T2 and SPECT images (p<0.001). Correlations between the MR and SPECT volumes were also higher for T2 than T1 volumes. The volume difference is most likely explained by a functional decrease in regions around the lesion in which no morphologic change visible on MR images had taken place. MR and SPECT volume measurements were positively related to persistent lack of energy and personality changes, but only moderately related to duration of impaired consciousness and neuropsychologie outcome. (orig.).

  1. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    (11±7%) above the total lung capacity. All cardiac chambers decreased in volume and despite a heart rate increase of 24±29 bpm (39±50%), pulmonary blood flow decreased by 2783±1820mL (43±20%). The pulmonary transit time remained unchanged at 7.5±2.2s and pulmonary blood volume decreased by 354±176m...

  2. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning (NLP/ML): Applying Advances in Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Myers, S.; Palmer, M.; Jenkins, C. J.; Thessen, A.; Martin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Semantics underlie many of the tools and services available from and on the web. From improving search results to enabling data mashups and other forms of interoperability, semantic technologies have proven themselves. But creating semantic resources, especially re-usable semantic resources, is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. Why? Because it is not just a matter of technology but also of obtaining rough consensus if not full agreement amongst community members on the meaning and order of things. One way to develop these resources in a more automated way would be to use NLP/ML techniques to extract the required resources from large corpora of subject-specific text such as peer-reviewed papers where presumably a rough consensus has been achieved at least about the basics of the particular discipline involved. While not generally applied to Earth Sciences, considerable resources have been spent in other fields such as medicine on these types of techniques with some success. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is applying the techniques developed for biomedicine to the cryosphere, geology, and biology in order to spur faster development of the semantic resources needed in these fields. The first area being addressed by the project is the cryosphere, specifically sea ice nomenclature where an existing set of sea ice ontologies are being used as the "Gold Standard" against which to test and validate the NLP/ML techniques. The processes being used, lessons learned and early results will be described.

  3. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J; Plötzing, T; Rohe, D; Pieranski, P

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay "dry". This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  4. Does Glass Size and Shape Influence Judgements of the Volume of Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Attwood, Angela S; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Munafò, Marcus R; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Woods, Andy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: 'wider' (20% wider but same capacity); 'larger' (same width but 25% greater capacity); or 'wider-and-larger' (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125 ml, 175 ml and 250 ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller glasses. This hypothesis awaits testing.

  5. Assembly-style building technology theory and practice of ML ceramsite concrete composite slab%ML 陶粒混凝土叠合板装配式建筑技术理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渊

    2015-01-01

    通过ML陶粒混凝土叠合板生产制作、现场施工等方面的阐述,介绍了ML陶粒混凝土叠合板结构体系的施工技术,在此基础上,对该体系所具有的绿色环保、材料节约、缩短工期、降低施工成本、可持续发展等优点做了详细的说明。%The thesis describes the fabrication and in-situ construction of ML ceramsite concrete composite slab,introduces its construction tech-nologies,and illustrates its merits,such as green environmental protection,saving materials,shortening construction duration,reducing construc-tion cost and sustainable development and so on.

  6. Peritoneal residual volume induces variability of ultrafiltration with icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Holmes, Clifford J; Leypoldt, John K

    2014-01-01

    Icodextrin induces ultrafiltration (UF) during long-dwell exchanges by creating a difference in oncotic pressure between the peritoneal cavity and plasma; however, the mechanisms governing intra-patient and inter-patient variability in UF when icodextrin is used remain largely unexplained. In the present study, we show theoretically that differences in peritoneal residual volume (VR) have a more profound effect on UF with icodextrin use than with glucose use. This phenomenon is attributed to a differential effect of VR on oncotic, rather than osmotic, pressure between the peritoneal cavity and plasma. ♢ The three-pore model was used to calculate the effect on UF of VR between 150 mL and 1200 mL when 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 3.86% glucose solution is used at the end of a 12-hour dwell in the four patient transport groups (that is, fast to slow). Oncotic (with ICO) and osmotic (with glucose) pressure differences averaged over the entire dwell were also calculated. ♢ As expected, at a nominal VR of 300 mL, UF with glucose differed substantially between the four patient transport groups (2 - 804 mL), whereas UF with ICO did not (556 - 573 mL). When VR was increased to 1200 mL from 150 mL, the concentrations of the oncotic and osmotic agents at the start of the dwell with an infusion volume of 2 L decreased to 4.9% from 7.0% with ICO and to 2.5% from 3.6% with glucose. The decrease in UF on average was greater with ICO [to 252 mL from 624 mL: that is, a reduction of 372 mL (60%)] than with glucose [to 292 mL from 398 mL: that is, a reduction of 106 mL (27%)]. Those trends agreed with the calculated reductions in the oncotic pressure difference with ICO [reduction of 12 mmHg (49%)] and the osmotic pressure difference with glucose [reduction of 19 mmHg (33%)]. ♢ When ICO is used, VR modifies the oncotic pressure difference between the peritoneal cavity and plasma to substantially alter UF. This modification suggests that potential causes of increased VR should be

  7. Medium-Range Predictability of Contrail-Cirrus Demonstrated during Experiments Ml-Cirrus and Access-Ii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, U.

    2015-12-01

    The Contrail Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP (doi:10.5194/gmd-5-543-2012) has been applied quasi operationally to predict contrails for flight planning of ML-CIRRUS (C. Voigt, DLR, et al.) in Europe and for ACCESS II in California (B. Anderson, NASA, et al.) in March-May 2014. The model uses NWP data from ECMWF and past airtraffic data (actual traffic data are used for analysis). The forecasts provided a sequence of hourly forecast maps of contrail cirrus optical depth for 3.5 days, every 12 h. CoCiP has been compared to observations before, e.g. within a global climate-aerosol-contrail model (Schumann, Penner et al., ACPD, 2015, doi:10.5194/acpd-15-19553-2015). Good predictions would allow for climate optimal routing (see, e.g., US patent by Mannstein and Schumann, US 2012/0173147 A1). The predictions are tested by: 1) Local eyewitness reports and photos, 2) satellite observed cloudiness, 3) autocorrelation analysis of predictions for various forecast periods, 4) comparisons of computed with observed optical depth from COCS (doi:10.5194/amt-7-3233-2014, 2014) by IR METEOSAT-SEVIRI observations over Europe. The results demonstrate medium-range predictability of contrail cirrus to a useful degree for given traffic, soot emissions, and high-quality NWP data. A growing set of satellite, Lidar, and in-situ data from ML-CIRRUS and ACCENT are becoming available and will be used to further test the forecast quality. The autocorrelation of optical depth predictions is near 70% for 3-d forecasts for Europe (outside times with high Sahara dust loads), and only slightly smaller for continental USA. Contrail cirrus is abundant over Europe and USA. More than 1/3 of all cirrus measured with the research aircraft HALO during ML-CIRRUS was impacted by contrails. The radiative forcing (RF) is strongly daytime and ambience dependent. The net annual mean RF, based on our global studies, may reach up to 0.08 W/m2 globally, and may well exceed 1 W/m2 regionally, with maximum over Europe

  8. Assisted editing od SensorML with EDI. A bottom-up scenario towards the definition of sensor profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Alessandro; Tagliolato, Paolo; Fugazza, Cristiano; Bastianini, Mauro; Pavesi, Fabio; Pepe, Monica; Menegon, Stefano; Basoni, Anna; Carrara, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Sensor observation systems for environmental data have become increasingly important in the last years. The EGU's Informatics in Oceanography and Ocean Science track stressed the importance of management tools and solutions for marine infrastructures. We think that full interoperability among sensor systems is still an open issue and that the solution to this involves providing appropriate metadata. Several open source applications implement the SWE specification and, particularly, the Sensor Observation Services (SOS) standard. These applications allow for the exchange of data and metadata in XML format between computer systems. However, there is a lack of metadata editing tools supporting end users in this activity. Generally speaking, it is hard for users to provide sensor metadata in the SensorML format without dedicated tools. In particular, such a tool should ease metadata editing by providing, for standard sensors, all the invariant information to be included in sensor metadata, thus allowing the user to concentrate on the metadata items that are related to the specific deployment. RITMARE, the Italian flagship project on marine research, envisages a subproject, SP7, for the set-up of the project's spatial data infrastructure. SP7 developed EDI, a general purpose, template-driven metadata editor that is composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. EDI can be customized for managing the creation of generic metadata encoded as XML. Once tailored to a specific metadata format, EDI presents the users a web form with advanced auto completion and validation capabilities. In the case of sensor metadata (SensorML versions 1.0.1 and 2.0), the EDI client is instructed to send an "insert sensor" request to an SOS endpoint in order to save the metadata in an SOS server. In the first phase of project RITMARE, EDI has been used to simplify the creation from scratch of SensorML metadata by the involved researchers and data managers. An interesting by

  9. A liquid-independent volume flow measurement principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, L.F.G.; Volker, A.W.F.; Hunter, T.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    A novel flow measurement principle is presented enabling non-intrusive volume flow measurements of liquids in the ml/min range. It is based on an opto-acoustical time-of-flight principle, where the time interval is recorded in which a thermal label travels a known distance through a flow channel. Bi

  10. Geophysical setting of the 2000 ML 5.2 Yountville, California, earthquake: Implications for seismic Hazard in Napa Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Graymer, R.W.; Jachens, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The epicenter of the 2000 ML 5.2 Yountville earthquake was located 5 km west of the surface trace of the West Napa fault, as defined by Helley and Herd (1977). On the basis of the re-examination of geologic data and the analysis of potential field data, the earthquake occurred on a strand of the West Napa fault, the main basin-bounding fault along the west side of Napa Valley. Linear aeromagnetic anomalies and a prominent gravity gradient extend the length of the fault to the latitude of Calistoga, suggesting that this fault may be capable of larger-magnitude earthquakes. Gravity data indicate an ???2-km-deep basin centered on the town of Napa, where damage was concentrated during the Yountville earthquake. It most likely played a minor role in enhancing shaking during this event but may lead to enhanced shaking caused by wave trapping during a larger-magnitude earthquake.

  11. Preliminary analysis of radon time series before the Ml=6 Amatrice earthquake: possible implications for fluid migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cannelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 24, 2016, a Ml=6.0 earthquake occurred in Central Apennines, Italy, between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice, causing severe destruction and casualties in a wide area around the epicenter. We present a preliminary analysis of continuous radon concentration data collected from the second half of 2012 to the day after the earthquake by a long term radon monitoring station, installed at Cittareale (Rieti, Italy, about 11 km south-west of the epicenter. We combine the field data analysis with the outcome of dedicated laboratory experiments, aimed to study real time radon emission dynamics from rock samples subject to normal and shear stress loads in absence of fluid transport and migration phenomena. Our results suggest the possibility of a minor role played by phenomena related to fluid migration for the Amatrice seismic event with respect to other recent Apennine earthquakes.

  12. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties and processes. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Transiciones de fase y fenómenos colectivos en la interfase 1-3 ML-Sn - Ge (111)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la interfase 1/3 ML-SnGe(111) mediante PES, STM y LEED. Esta interfase es un sistema modelo para el estudio de las correlaciones electrónicas en física del estado sólido.El estudio de la estructura electrónica cerca del nivel de Fermi de la fase (3x3) entre 139 K y 60 K muestra que esta fase es metálica. La celda unidad de la reconstrucción (3×3) consiste un átomo de Sn desplazado hacia arriba y dos desplazados hacia abajo (modelo 1U2D). A partir de medidas de ...

  14. Towards Automated Benchmarking of Atomistic Forcefields: Neat Liquid Densities and Static Dielectric Constants from the ThermoML Data Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchamp, Kyle A; Rustenburg, Ariën S; Bayly, Christopher I; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Chodera, John D

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic molecular simulations are a powerful way to make quantitative predictions, but the accuracy of these predictions depends entirely on the quality of the forcefield employed. While experimental measurements of fundamental physical properties offer a straightforward approach for evaluating forcefield quality, the bulk of this information has been tied up in formats that are not machine-readable. Compiling benchmark datasets of physical properties from non-machine-readable sources require substantial human effort and is prone to accumulation of human errors, hindering the development of reproducible benchmarks of forcefield accuracy. Here, we examine the feasibility of benchmarking atomistic forcefields against the NIST ThermoML data archive of physicochemical measurements, which aggregates thousands of experimental measurements in a portable, machine-readable, self-annotating format. As a proof of concept, we present a detailed benchmark of the generalized Amber small molecule forcefield (GAFF) using t...

  15. Primary standards for measuring flow rates from 100 nl/min to 1 ml/min - gravimetric principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Hugo; Petter, Harm Tido; Lucas, Peter; Batista, Elsa; Filipe, Eduarda; Almeida, Nelson; Ribeiro, Luis Filipe; Gala, João; Martins, Rui; Savanier, Benoit; Ogheard, Florestan; Niemann, Anders Koustrup; Lötters, Joost; Sparreboom, Wouter

    2015-08-01

    Microflow and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled-down) process technology, and special health-care applications. However, traceability in the microflow and nanoflow range does not go below 16 μl/min in Europe. Furthermore, the European metrology organization EURAMET did not yet validate this traceability by means of an intercomparison between different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The NMIs METAS, Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, IPQ, Danish Technological Institute, and VSL have therefore developed and validated primary standards to cover the flow rate range from 0.1 μl/min to at least 1 ml/min. In this article, we describe the different designs and methods of the primary standards of the gravimetric principle and the results obtained at the intercomparison for the upper flow rate range for the various NMIs and Bronkhorst High-Tech, the manufacturer of the transfer standards used.

  16. Effect of intravenous contrast agent volume on colorectal cancer vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, V. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, London (United Kingdom); Bartram, C. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, S. [Department of Academic Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.halligan@ucl.ac.uk

    2009-04-15

    Aim: To determine the effect of two different contrast agent volumes on quantitative and semi-quantitative vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography (CT) in colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: Following ethical approval and informed consent, eight prospectively recruited patients with proven colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent two separate perfusion CT studies on the same day after (a) 100 ml and (b) 50 ml of a 340 mg/ml iodinated contrast medium, respectively. Quantitative (blood volume, blood flow, permeability surface area product) and semi-quantitative (peak enhancement, time to peak enhancement) tumour vascular parameters were determined using commercial software based on distributed parameter analysis and compared using t-testing. Results: Tumour blood volume, blood flow, and permeability surface area product were not substantially different following the injection of 100 ml and 50 ml contrast medium: 6.12 versus 6.23 ml/100 g tissue; 73.4 versus 71.3 ml/min/100 g tissue; 15.6 versus 15.3 ml/min/100 g tissue for 100 and 50 ml, respectively; p > 0.05. Tumour peak enhancement and time to peak were significantly greater following the injection of 100 ml versus 50 ml contrast medium: 41.2 versus 28.5 HU; 16.1 versus 11.8 s for 100 ml and 50 ml, respectively; p = 0.002; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Quantitative parameters do not appear to change substantially with a higher contrast agent volume suggesting a combined diagnostic staging-perfusion CT study following a single injection is feasible for colorectal cancer.

  17. 3D position of radiation sources using an automated gamma camera and ML algorithm with energy-dependent response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Wehe, David

    2004-09-01

    Portable γ-ray imaging systems operating from 100keV to 3MeV are used in nuclear medicine, astrophysics and industrial applications. 2D images of γ-rays are common in many fields using radiation-detection systems (Appl. Opt. 17 (3) (1978) 337; IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. Ns- 31 (1984) 771; IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS- 44 (3) (1997) 911). In this work, the 3D position of a radiation source is determined by a portable gamma-ray imaging system. 2D gamma-ray images were obtained from different positions of the gamma camera and the third dimension, the distance between the detector and the radiation source, was calculated using triangulation. The imaging system consists of a 4×4 array of CsI(Tl) detectors coupled to photodiode detectors that are mounted on an automated table which can precisely position the angular axis of the camera. Lead shields the detector array from the background radiation. Additionally, a CCD camera is attached to the top of the gamma camera and provides coincident 2D visual information. The inferred distances from the center of the two measurement points and a radiation source had less than a 3% error within a range of 3m. The radiation image from the gamma camera and the visual image from CCD camera are superimposed into one combined image using a maximum-likelihood (ML) algorithm to make the image more precise. The response functions for the ML algorithm depend on the energy of incident radiation, and are obtained from both experiments and simulations. The energy-dependent response functions are shown to yield better imaging performance compared with the fixed energy response function commonly used previously.

  18. Analysis on cold-heading-cracking reason of ML45Mn2 steel for gear transmission shaft%齿轮传动轴用钢ML45n2的冷镦开裂原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志义; 王利军; 陈继林; 王宁涛; 翟进坡; 冯忠贤

    2016-01-01

    齿轮传动轴用钢ML45Mn2在冷镦成形过程中出现冷镦开裂问题,对开裂样品宏观形貌、化学成分、气体含量及显微组织进行了分析。结果表明,原工艺(670℃×2 h→730℃×6 h→680℃×7 h→缓冷到500℃出炉)退火后,截面上碳化物分布很不均匀,表层呈现沿晶分布的网状碳化物;碳化物的形状也不规则,是引起开裂的主要原因。改进球化退火工艺(670℃×2 h→740℃×6 h→(13℃/h)670℃×7 h缓冷→500℃出炉)后,碳化物的形态和分布得到明显改善,满足冷镦成形要求。其冷镦开裂率由100%下降到2%以内。%ML45Mn2 Steel for gear transmission shaft was cracking in cold heading process .The macro-morphology, chemical composition, gas content and microstructure of cracking samples were analyzed .The results show that after annealing by original process (670 ℃×2 h→730 ℃×6 h→680 ℃×7 h→furnace cooling to 500 ℃,tapping), the distribution of the carbides on the whole section of the sample is very uneven, the network carbides in surface layer along the grain boundary appears , and the shapes of the carbides are not regular , which are the main reason caused cold heading cracking .After improving the spheroidization annealing process (670 ℃×2 h→740 ℃×6 h→(13 ℃/h) 670 ℃×7 h→furnace cooling to 500 ℃, tapping) , the morphology and distribution of the carbides are obviously improved which can meet the requirement of cold heading process .The cold heading cracking rate can decline from 100%to less than 2%.

  19. Effects of clear liquids on gastric volume and pH in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevde, K; Trivedi, N; Gross, M

    1991-04-01

    The effects of clear liquids on gastric volume and pH were examined in 30 healthy ASA physical status I volunteers. After overnight fasting, a Salem-sump nasogastric tube was inserted and gastric contents were removed for measurement of volume and pH. Gastric contents were then reinserted through the nasogastric tube into the stomach. The volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 10) received 240 mL water, group 2 (n = 10) received 240 mL coffee, and group 3 (n = 10) received 240 mL pulp-free orange juice. All liquids were administered orally. Gastric contents were then again aspirated, measured for volume and pH, and reinserted through the nasogastric tube every half hour until gastric volume was less than 25 mL. All volunteers had gastric volumes less than 25 mL with a slight decrease in pH within 2 h of orally taking one of the three 240-mL liquids. These data suggest that if patients have ingested a moderate amount of clear liquids it is safe to conduct general anesthesia after a 2-h fast in healthy surgical patients.

  20. Can prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) reduce the volume of the peripheral zone? MRI evaluation of zonal anatomy and infarction after PAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Ting [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City (China); Amouyal, Gregory; Pereira, Helena; Del Giudice, Costantino; Dean, Carole [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Correas, Jean-Michel [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital Necker, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Pellerin, Olivier; Sapoval, Marc [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Inserm (Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale) U970, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Thiounn, Nicolas [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Urology, Paris (France)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the impact of prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) on various prostate gland anatomical zones. We retrospectively reviewed paired MRI scans obtained before and after PAE for 25 patients and evaluated changes in volumes of the median lobe (ML), central gland (CG), peripheral zone (PZ) and whole prostate gland (WPV) following PAE. We used manual segmentation to calculate volume on axial view T2-weighted images for ML, CG and WPV. We calculated PZ volume by subtracting CG volume from WPV. Enhanced phase on dynamic contrasted-enhanced MRI was used to evaluate the infarction areas after PAE. Clinical results of International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function questionnaires and the urodynamic study were evaluated before and after PAE. Significant reductions in volume were observed after PAE for ML (26.2 % decrease), CG (18.8 %), PZ (16.4 %) and WPV (19.1 %; p < 0.001 for all these volumes). Patients with clinical failure had smaller volume reductions for WPV, ML and CG (all p < 0.05). Patients with significant CG infarction after PAE displayed larger WPV, ML and CG volume reductions (all p < 0.01). PAE can significantly decrease WPV, ML, CG and PZ volumes, and poor clinical outcomes are associated with smaller volume reductions. (orig.)

  1. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  2. Effect of hydration status on atrial and ventricular volumes and function in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Daryl I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Manitoba, Variety Children' s Heart Centre, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Dragulescu, Andreea [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Memauri, Brett [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Assessment of cardiac chamber volumes is a fundamental part of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. While the effects of inter- and intraobserver variability have been studied and have a recognized effect on the comparability of serial cardiac MR imaging studies, the effect of differences in hydration status has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effects of volume administration on cardiac chamber volumes. Thirteen healthy adults underwent a baseline cardiac MR to evaluate cardiac chamber volumes after an overnight fast. They were then given two saline boluses of 10 ml/kg of body weight and the cardiac MR was repeated immediately after each bolus. From the baseline scan to the final scan there was a significant increase in all four cardiac chamber end-diastolic volumes. Right atrial volumes increased 8.0%, from 61.1 to 66.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left atrial volumes increased 10.0%, from 50.0 to 55.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Right ventricular volumes increased 6.0%, from 91.1 to 96.5 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left ventricular volumes increased 3.2%, from 87.0 to 89.8 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Hydration status has a significant effect on the end-diastolic volumes of all cardiac chambers assessed by cardiac MR. Thus, hydration represents a ''variable'' that should be taken into account when assessing cardiac chamber volumes, especially when performing serial imaging studies in a patient. (orig.)

  3. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  4. Reduction of residual limb volume in people with transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey T. Tantua, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early postoperative phase after transtibial amputation is characterized by rapid residual limb volume reduction. Accurate measurement of residual limb volume is important for the timing of fitting a prosthesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of residual limb volume in people with transtibial amputation and to correlate residual limb volume with residual limb circumference. In a longitudinal cohort study of 21 people who had a transtibial amputation, residual limb volume was measured using a laser scanner and circumference was measured using a tape measure 1 wk postamputation and every 3 wk thereafter until 24 wk postamputation. A linear mixed model analysis was performed with weeks postamputation transformed according to the natural logarithm as predictor. Residual limb volume decreased significantly over time, with a large variation between patients. Residual limb volume did not correlate well with circumference. On average, residual limb volume decreased 200.5 mL (9.7% of the initial volume per natural logarithm of the weeks postamputation. The decrease in residual limb volume following a transtibial amputation was substantial in the early postamputation phase, followed by a leveling off. It was not possible to determine the specific moment at which the residual limb volume stabilized.

  5. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission) is revising its 1981 Policy Statement on Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction..., ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML090410531), and referenced the Policy...

  6. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required.

  7. von Willebrand Factor and Prekallikrein in Plasma Are Associated With Thrombus Volume in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghulam, Qasam M; Bredahl, Kim K; Gram, Jørgen B;

    2016-01-01

    anticoagulant therapy, renal impairment, or nonappearance, thus leaving 30 patients for further analysis. All patients had computed tomography angiography, and intraluminal volume was quantified off-line by OsiriX 6.5. RESULTS: Median intraluminal thrombus volume was 42.7 mL. Spearman correlation analysis...

  8. Measuring the evolution of the M/L ratio from the fundamental plane in CL 0024+16 at Z=0.39

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, M; VanDokkum, PG; Bender, R; Davies, RL

    1996-01-01

    The existence of the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies implies that the M/L ratios of early-types are well behaved. It provides therefore an important tool to measure the evolution of the M/L ratio with redshift. These measurements, in combination with measurements of the evolution of the lum

  9. Developing a Valid Version of an Inventory to Measure Anger in Mexican Adolescents of Middle School Level: The ML-STAXI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Escamilla-Tecalco, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The goals were to develop a valid version of the Multicultural Latin American Inventory of Anger Expression and Hostility (ML-STAXI) for middle school Mexican youth (ML-STAXI-MS) and to test a new Questionnaire about Anger Expression with Physical Aggression (QAEPA). Five hundred and four adolescents (258 males, 246 females); (M[subscript age] =…

  10. Developing a Valid Version of an Inventory to Measure Anger in Mexican Adolescents of Middle School Level: The ML-STAXI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Escamilla-Tecalco, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The goals were to develop a valid version of the Multicultural Latin American Inventory of Anger Expression and Hostility (ML-STAXI) for middle school Mexican youth (ML-STAXI-MS) and to test a new Questionnaire about Anger Expression with Physical Aggression (QAEPA). Five hundred and four adolescents (258 males, 246 females); (M[subscript age] =…

  11. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  12. Root restriction: A tool for improving volume utilization efficiency in bioregenerative life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate root restriction as a tool to increase volume utilization efficiency in spaceflight crop production systems. Bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder) were grown under restricted rooting volume conditions in controlled environment chambers. The rooting volume was restricted to 500 ml and 60 ml in a preliminary trial, and 1500 ml (large), 500 ml (medium), and 250 ml (small) for a full fruiting trial. To reduce the possible confounding effects of water and nutrient restrictions, care was taken to ensure an even and consistent soil moisture throughout the study, with plants being watered/fertilized several times daily with a low concentration soluble fertilizer solution. Root restriction resulted in a general reduction in biomass production, height, leaf area, and transpiration rate; however, the fruit production was not significantly reduced in the root restricted plants under the employed environmental and horticultural conditions. There was a 21% reduction in total height and a 23% reduction in overall crown diameter between the large and small pot size in the fruiting study. Data from the fruiting trial were used to estimate potential volume utilization efficiency improvements for edible biomass in a fixed production volume. For fixed lighting and rooting hardware situations, the majority of improvement from root restriction was in the reduction of canopy area per plant, while height reductions could also improve volume utilization efficiency in high stacked or vertical agricultural systems.

  13. Optimising stroke volume and oxygen delivery in abdominal aortic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, J; Gilsaa, T; Rønholm, E

    2012-01-01

    group, stroke volume was optimised by 250 ml colloid boluses intraoperatively and for the first 6 h post-operatively. The optimisation aimed at an oxygen delivery of 600 ml/min/m(2) in the post-operative period. Haemodynamic data were collected at pre-defined time points, including baseline......BACKGROUND: Post-operative complications after open elective abdominal aortic surgery are common, and individualised goal-directed therapy may improve outcome in high-risk surgery. We hypothesised that individualised goal-directed therapy, targeting stroke volume and oxygen delivery, can reduce......, intraoperatively and post-operatively. Patients were followed up for 30 days. RESULTS: Stroke volume index and oxygen delivery index were both higher in the post-operative period in the intervention group. In this group, 27 of 32 achieved the post-operative oxygen delivery index target vs. 18 of 32 in the control...

  14. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B;

    2010-01-01

    Wound administration of local anaesthetic may be effective for postoperative pain management in knee arthroplasty, but the analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic in relation to volume vs concentration has not been determined. In a double-blinded trial, 48 patients scheduled for total knee...... arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...

  15. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B;

    2010-01-01

    Wound administration of local anaesthetic may be effective for postoperative pain management in knee arthroplasty, but the analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic in relation to volume vs concentration has not been determined. In a double-blinded trial, 48 patients scheduled for total knee...... arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...... was reduced in both groups with ropivacaine administration 24 h postoperatively (p

  16. Analysis of the possibility of SysML and BPMN application in formal data acquisition system description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwikła, G.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.; Monica, Z.; Foit, K.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the study of possible application of selected methods of complex description, that can be used as a support of the Manufacturing Information Acquisition System (MIAS) methodology, describing how to design a data acquisition system, allowing for collecting and processing real-time data on the functioning of a production system, necessary for management of a company. MIAS can allow conversion into Cyber-Physical Production System. MIAS is gathering and pre-processing data on the state of production system, including e.g. realisation of production orders, state of machines, materials and human resources. Systematised approach and model-based development is proposed for improving the quality of the design of MIAS methodology-based complex systems supporting data acquisition in various types of companies. Graphical specification can be the baseline for any model-based development in specified areas. The possibility of application of SysML and BPMN, both being UML-based languages, representing different approaches to modelling of requirements, architecture and implementation of the data acquisition system, as a tools supporting description of required features of MIAS, were considered.

  17. Determination of optimal collimation parameters for a rotating slat collimator system: a system matrix method using ML-EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, F.; Bekaert, V.; Brasse, D.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, Single Photon imaging has become an essential part of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine. Whether to establish a diagnosis or in the therapeutic monitoring, this modality presents performance that continues to improve. For over 50 years, several collimators have been proposed. Mainly governed by collimation parameters, the resolution-sensitivity trade-off is the factor determining the collimator the most suitable for an intended study. One alternative to the common approaches is the rotating slat collimator (RSC). In the present study, we are aiming at developing a preclinical system equipped with a RSC dedicated to mice and rats imaging, which requires both high sensitivity and spatial resolution. We investigated the resolution-sensitivity trade-offs obtained by varying different collimation parameters: (i) the slats height (H), and (ii) the gap between two consecutive slats (g), considering different intrinsic spatial resolutions. One system matrix was generated for each set of collimation parameters (H,g). Spatial resolutions, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and sensitivity obtained for all the set of collimation parameters (H,g) were measured in the 2D projections reconstructed with ML-EM. According to our results, 20 mm high slats and a 1 mm gap were chosen as a good RSC candidate for a preclinical detection module. This collimator will ensure a sensitivity greater than 0.2% and a system spatial resolution below 1 mm, considering an intrinsic spatial resolution below 0.8 mm.

  18. Earthquake-enhanced permeability - evidence from carbon dioxide release following the ML 3.5 earthquake in West Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Matyska, C.; Heinicke, J.

    2017-02-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is characterized by earthquake swarm activity and degassing of CO2 of mantle origin. A fast increase of CO2 flow rate was observed 4 days after a ML 3.5 earthquake in May 2014 in the Hartoušov mofette, 9 km from the epicentres. During the subsequent 150 days the flow reached sixfold of the original level, and has been slowly decaying until present. Similar behavior was observed during and after the swarm in 2008 pointing to a fault-valve mechanism in long-term. Here, we present the results of simulation of gas flow in a two dimensional model of Earth's crust composed of a sealing layer at the hypocentre depth which is penetrated by the earthquake fault and releases fluid from a relatively low-permeability lower crust. This simple model is capable of explaining the observations, including the short travel time of the flow pulse from 8 km depth to the surface, long-term flow increase and its subsequent slow decay. Our model is consistent with other analyse of the 2014 aftershocks which attributes their anomalous character to exponentially decreasing external fluid force. Our observations and model hence track the fluid pressure pulse from depth where it was responsible for aftershocks triggering to the surface where a significant long-term increase of CO2 flow started 4 days later.

  19. Slip heterogeneity and directivity of the ML 6.0, 2016, Amatrice earthquake estimated with rapid finite-fault inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, E.; Scognamiglio, L.; Michelini, A.; Cocco, M.

    2016-10-01

    On 24 August 2016 a magnitude ML 6.0 occurred in the Central Apennines (Italy) between Amatrice and Norcia causing nearly 300 fatalities. The main shock ruptured a NNW-SSE striking, WSW dipping normal fault. We invert waveforms from 26 three-component strong motion accelerometers, filtered between 0.02 and 0.5 Hz, within 45 km from the fault. The inferred slip distribution is heterogeneous and characterized by two shallow slip patches updip and NW from the hypocenter, respectively. The rupture history shows bilateral propagation and a relatively high rupture velocity (3.1 km/s). The imaged rupture history produced evident directivity effects both N-NW and SE of the hypocenter, explaining near-source peak ground motions. Fault dimensions and peak slip values are large for a moderate-magnitude earthquake. The retrieved rupture model fits the recorded ground velocities up to 1 Hz, corroborating the effects of rupture directivity and slip heterogeneity on ground shaking and damage pattern.

  20. Proceedings of the 14. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : challenges in collection and treatment of mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD) are among the largest environmental challenge facing the mining industry. Efforts are underway to open new mines without long-term consequences of acid drainage. This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop focused on the development and application of new technologies that prevent and control acid mine drainage (AMD). It presented a broad range of options that are now available to the mining industry which address this issue. The workshop focused on the collection and treatment of mine drainage. The treatment of effluent during and after closure of a mining property may be complicated by the presence of AMD which may require long term collection and treatment. Known chemical and passive treatment technologies were reviewed with reference to their costs of construction, operation and maintenance, as well as their ability to meet regulations and control toxicity. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 3 has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Variation of stress during the rupture process of the 1995 ML=4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, earthquake sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-zhong; XU Xiang-tong; ZHAI Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    According to the rupture dynamics of earthquakes, variations of the apparent stress and the difference between the static stress drop and the dynamic stress drop during the rupture of earthquakes are analyzed for the July 20, 1995 ML=4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, earthquake sequence. Results obtained show that the apparent stress for mainshock is about 5 MPa, and the average apparent stress for aftershocks 0.047 MPa. During the rupture of the mainshock, the dynamic stress drop is approximately 1.6 times greater than the static stress drop with the difference of nearly 2.7 MPa. The dynamic stress drop is less than the static stress drop for all aftershocks with the average difference of -0.75 MPa. Therefore, when the mainshock occurs the final stress on the focal fault is higher than the dynamic frictional stress, corresponding to that the fault is abruptly locked. When the aftershocks occur the final stress on the focal fault is lower than the dynamic frictional stress, corresponding to that the fault overshoots. It can be seen from the above results that there could be some differences in the physic processes between the mainshock and the aftershocks.

  2. Preliminary engineering analysis of the August 24th 2016, ML 6.0 central Italy earthquake records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iunio Iervolino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An earthquake of estimated local magnitude (ML 6.0 struck central Italy on the 24th of August (01:36:32 UTC in the vicinity of Accumoli (close to Rieti, central Italy initiating a long-lasting seismic sequence that also featured events of larger magnitude within a few months. The earthquake caused widespread building damage and around three-hundred fatalities. Ground motion was recorded by hundreds of seis-mic stations. This work uses accelerometric records for a preliminary discussion, from the earthquake en-gineering perspective, of strong motion caused by the earthquake. Peak and integral ground motion inten-sity measures, are presented. The response spectra at some select stations are analysed with respect to the code-mandated design actions for various return periods at the recording sites. Hazard disaggregation for different return periods is discussed referring to the site of the epicentre of the earthquake. Finally, some preliminary considerations are made concerning the impact of rupture propagation on near-source ground motion; i.e., the records are scanned for traces of pulse-like forward-directivity effects.

  3. Investigation of residual stresses in welded joints of heat-resistant magnesium alloy ML10 after electrodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In repair of aircraft structures of magnesium alloy ML10, the argon arc non-consumable electrode welding is used. In this case, the residual welding stresses occur in repair welds, being one of the causes for reducing the service characteristics of the restored products. Residual stresses arise as a result of welding. Post-weld heat treatment is used to reduce the residual stresses. The heat treatment, which occurs after welding, increases the cost of repair. This leads to the search for alternative methods to control the stressed state of welded joints, one of which is electrodynamic treatment, which reduces the level of residual stresses in repair welds, and as a consequence, the cost of the welding repair in restoring aircraft structures. It was found from the results of experiments carried out, that the electrodynamic treatment allows reduces the initial level of stresses in welded joints, reaching 120 MPa, to 30 MPa, and at definite geometric characteristics of the specimens forming the field of compressive stresses, the values of which are equal to –50 MPa. It is shown that the optimum distance between the zones of treatment, being 5 mm, provides the guaranteed covering the zones of electrodynamic effect and, as a consequence, the maximum efficiency of the electric dynamic treatment.

  4. Feasibility and safety of cavity-directed stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases at a high-volume medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rava, MD PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Excellent local control is achievable with cavity-directed SRS in well-selected patients, particularly for lesions with diameter <3 cm and resection cavity volumes <14 mL. Long-term survival is possible for select patients.

  5. Measurement of testicular volume in smaller testes: how accurate is the conventional orchidometer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chieh; Huang, William J S; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods, including the Seager orchidometer (SO) and ultrasonography (US), for assessing testicular volume of smaller testes (testes volume less than 18 mL). Moreover, the equations used for the calculations--the Hansen formula (length [L] x width [W](2) x 0.52, equation A), the prolate ellipsoid formula (L x W x height [H] x 0.52, equation B), and the Lambert equation (L x W x H x 0.71, equation C)--were also examined and compared with the gold standard testicular volume obtained by water displacement (Archimedes principle). In this study, 30 testes from 15 men, mean age 75.3 (+/-8.3) years, were included. They all had advanced prostate cancer and were admitted for orchiectomy. Before the procedure, all the testes were assessed using SO and US. The dimensions were then input into each equation to obtain the volume estimates. The testicular volume by water displacement was 8.1 +/- 3.5 mL. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the 2 different methods (SO, US) to the gold standard were 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. The calculated testicular volumes were 9.2 +/- 3.9 mL (measured by SO, equation A), 11.9 +/- 5.2 mL (measured by SO, equation C), 7.3 +/- 4.2 mL (measured by US, equation A), 6.5 +/- 3.3 mL (measured by US, equation B) and 8.9 +/- 4.5 mL (measured by US, equation C). Only the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Hansen equation (equation A) and the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Lambert equation (equation C) showed no significant differences when compared with the volumes estimated by water displacement (mean difference 0.81 mL, P = .053, and 0.81 mL, P = .056, respectively). Based on our measurements, we categorized testicular volume by different cutoff values (7.0 mL, 7.5 mL, 8.0 mL, and 8.5 mL) to calculate a new constant for use in the Hansen equation. The new constant was 0.59. We then reexamined the equations using the new 0.59 constant, and found

  6. Eficacia de la aplicación de ozono epidural y paravertebral a una concentración de 50 μg/ml en pacientes con dolor crónico secundario a síndrome postlaminectomía Effectiveness of the administration of epidural and paravertebral ozone at a concentration of 50 μg/ml in patients with chronic pain secondary to postlaminectomy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Riestra Grijalva

    2012-04-01

    álisis del resto de los datos. Se tomará como estadísticamente significativa p Introduction: Chronic pain is a condition that affects the physical and psychological health of patients. Postlaminectomy syndrome is the onset or persistence of back pain and/or radicular pain in a patient who has had one or more surgical procedures on the spine. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the administration of epidural and paravertebral ozone at a concentration of 50 μg/ml in patients with chronic pain associated with lumbar postlaminectomy syndrome. Material and methods: Between July 15 and December 30 2010 a prospective study was carried in 30 patients of both gender, aged between 18 and 85 years, who had a diagnosis of chronic pain secondary to lumbar postlaminectomy syndrome. The average initial EVA score was 6.8/10. The first injection was performed with intravenous sedation under fluoroscopic control of the lumbosacral region; then was administered through a volume flow rate 20 ml of ozone at a concentration of 50 μg/ml in the epidural space and bilateral paravertebral muscles of the lumbar spine (L3, L4 and L5 with 10 ml of ozone at the same concentration at each level. In total, the infiltrated volume was 60 ml. The infiltration of the paravertebral region was repeated at the same volume and concentration, at intervals of 7 days for 3 consecutive weeks. To measure the effectiveness of treatment was evaluated pain intensity considering the average initial and final visual analogue scale (VAS. As measurement for functionality was used the Oswestry Disability Index, which was evaluated prior to infiltration and at 4 and 8 week. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical 7.0, using the Friedman test for the two main variables, and descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation for the analysis of other data. A p < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: We studied 30 patients, all with moderate pain (initial EVA 6.8/10. The ages ranged

  7. SPLENIC VOLUME CHANGE AND THERAPUETIC RESPONSE IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH RADIOMMUNOCONJUGATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S; DeNardo, G L; Yuan, A; Siantar, C H; O' Donnell, R T; DeNardo, S J

    2005-04-06

    Splenomegaly is frequently found in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. This study evaluated the implications of splenic volume change in response to radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Twenty-nine NHL patients treated with radiolabeled-Lym-1 and 9 breast cancer patients (reference group) treated with radiolabeled-ChL6, BrE-3 or m170 were analyzed using CT splenic images obtained before and after RIT. Patient-specific radiation doses to spleen were determined using actual splenic volume determined by CT and body weight. In 13 of 29 NHL patients who had splenic volume {le} 310 ml, there was no or small change (-23 to 15 mL) in splenic volume, despite splenic doses as high as 14.4 Gy. Similarly, in a reference group of 9 breast cancer patients, there was no or small change (-5 to 13 mL), despite splenic doses as high as 11.4 Gy. In contrast, 13 of 29 NHL patients who had splenic volume 380-1400 mL, splenic volume decreased by 68 to 548 mL despite splenic doses as low as 1.40 Gy. Ten of 29 NHL patients with greater than a 15% decrease in splenic volume after RIT had nodal tumor regression (5 CR, 5 PR). In the remaining 19 NHL patients with less than a 15% decrease in splenic volume after RIT, there were 7 non-responders (5 CR and 7 PR). Splenic volume changes were found in NHL patients with splenomegaly. These splenic volume changes is likely due to therapeutic effect on malignant lymphocytes associated with splenomegaly. Nodal tumor response was more likely when splenomegaly decreased after RIT.

  8. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  9. Functional analysis of the extended N-terminal region in PLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) from the mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Jung, Se Hwan; Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2014-01-01

    Mud loach phospholipase C-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) contains all the characteristic domains found in mammalian PLC-δ isozymes (pleckstrin homology domain, EF-hands, X–Y catalytic region, and C2 domain) as well as an extended 26-amino acid (aa)-long N-terminal region that is an alternative splice form of PLC-δ1 and is novel to vertebrate PLC-δ. In the present structure-function analysis, deletion of the extended N-terminal region caused complete loss of phosphatidylinositol (PI)- and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity in MlPLC-δ1. Additionally, recombinant full-length MlPLC-δ1 PLC activity was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by coincubation with the 26-aa protein fragment. Using a protein-lipid overlay assay, both full-length MlPLC-δ1 and the 26-aa protein fragment had substantial affinity for PIP2, whereas deletion of the 26-aa region from MlPLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1-deletion) resulted in lower affinity for PIP2. These results suggest that the novel N-terminal exon of MlPLC-δ1 could play an important role in the regulation of PLC-δ1.

  10. Blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51Cr-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, J M; Bush, M; Seal, U S

    1978-02-01

    Blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell (RBC) method. The mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 SE). Previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. The RBC survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. The RBC survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.

  11. The safety of subcutaneously administered depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (104mg/0.65mL): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Monica V; Gaffield, Mary E

    2016-09-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a progestogen-only contraceptive injectable, has traditionally been formulated as a crystalline suspension delivered intramuscularly (IM) at a dose of 150mg/1.0mL. A new, lower dose formulation of DMPA (104mg/0.65mL) has been developed for subcutaneous administration (SC). Given its increasing global availability and public health relevance, DMPA-SC was prioritized for inclusion as a new method referenced in the World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), 5th Edition. This systematic review evaluated the published peer-reviewed literature regarding the safety of DMPA-SC among women with various characteristics or medical conditions. Results of this review informed the decision-making of a WHO Guideline Development Group in order to include recommendations on contraceptive eligibility within the revised MEC. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library databases to identify all relevant evidence published in peer-reviewed journals regarding the safety of DMPA-SC when used by women of reproductive age, particularly those with select characteristics or conditions specified in the MEC, from inception through June 2015. The quality of each individual study was assessed using the system for grading evidence developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Fourteen studies met criteria for inclusion. Ten reported results relevant to DMPA users of varying age or with obesity, endometriosis or HIV; four compared the safety of DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM when used by general populations of healthy women. A randomized trial evaluating changes in bone mineral density among adult DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM users demonstrated no differences at 2years of follow-up. Limited evidence reported no consistent differences in weight change or bleeding patterns according to age; however, adolescents (<18years) were not included in any studies. Similar contraceptive efficacy, weight change, bleeding patterns

  12. Scaled Energies of ML > = 5.1 Aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake Measured from Local Seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wey Huang and Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the seismic radiation energy, Es, and seismic moment, Mo, of twenty-two larger-sized after shocks with 5.1 < = ML < = 6.5 of the 1999 Ms 7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake from high-quality digital strong-motion data recorded at stations with epicentral distances of less than 50 km through a method proposed by Andrews (1986. We also eliminate the effects on the measures of Es and Mo due to site amplification and finite frequency band width limitation. Comparison of the values of Mo obtained in this study and those listed in the Harvard CMT catalogue shows that _ method to measure Mo from local seismograms is acceptable. The measured values are Es = 2.0 * 10 ^18 _ 8.9 * 10^21 g cm^2 sec^-2 and Mo = 1.3 * 10^23 _ 1.4 * 10^26 g cm sec^-2 cm^-1, which give the scaled energy to be Es/Mo = 7.4 * 10^-6 _ 2.6 * 10^-4. The scaled energies of the 22 events are dependent upon earthquake magnitude, Ms, when both Es and Mo are evaluated from local seismograms; yet, independent of Ms when Mo is estimated from teleseismic data. Scaled energy slightly depends on the depth, h (in km, through the following form: Es/Mo = 1.92 * 10^-5e^0.09h. In addition, the corner frequency, fc, is also measured. Its value ranges from 0.15 to 1.34. The scaling law between Mo and fc is: Mo ~ fc-3.65.

  13. Low within- and between-day variability in exposure to new insulin glargine 300 U/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R H A; Nowotny, I; Teichert, L; Bergmann, K; Kapitza, C

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the variability in exposure and metabolic effect of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) at steady state in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). A total of 50 participants with T1DM underwent two 24-h euglycaemic clamps in steady-state conditions after six once-daily administrations of 0.4 U/kg Gla-300 in a double-blind, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, crossover clamp study. Participants were randomized to receive Gla-300 as a standard cartridge formulation in the first treatment period, and as a formulation with enhanced stability through polysorbate-20 addition in the second treatment period, or vice versa. This design allowed the assessment of bioequivalence between formulations and, subsequently, within- and between-day variability. The cumulative exposure and effect of Gla-300 developed linearly over 24 h, and were evenly distributed across 6- and 12-h intervals. Diurnal fluctuation in exposure (within-day variability) was low; the peak-to-trough ratio of insulin concentration profiles was swing and peak-to-trough fluctuation were high: the between-day within-subject coefficients of variation for total systemic exposure (area under the serum insulin glargine concentration time curve from time 0 to 24 h after dosing) and maximum insulin concentration were 17.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-21] and 33.4% (95% CI 28-41), respectively. Reproducibility of the metabolic effect was lower than that of exposure. Gla-300 provides predictable, evenly distributed 24-h coverage as a result of low fluctuation and high reproducibility in insulin exposure, and appears suitable for effective basal insulin use. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Partition-Based Hybrid Decoding (PHD: A Class of ML Decoding Schemes for MIMO Signals Based on Tree Partitioning and Combined Depth- and Breadth-First Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hybrid maximum likelihood (ML decoding scheme for multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO systems. After partitioning the searching tree into several stages, the proposed scheme adopts thecombination of depth- and breadth-first search methods in an organized way. Taking the number of stages, the size ofsignal constellation, and the number of antennas as the parameter of the scheme, we provide extensive simulationresults for various MIMO communication conditions. Numerical results indicate that, when the depth- and breadth-firstsearch methods are employed appropriately, the proposed scheme exhibits substantially lower computationalcomplexity than conventional ML decoders while maintaining the ML bit error performance.

  15. Intraprocedural blood volume measurement using C-arm CT as a predictor for treatment response of malignant liver tumours undergoing repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schaefer, Patrik; Lehnert, Thomas; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Hammerstingl, Renate; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Cairo University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Kasr Al-Ainy), Cairo (Egypt); Ackermann, Hanns [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Department of Biomedical Statistics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Alexandria University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate feasibility of measuring parenchymal blood volume (PBV) of malignant hepatic tumours using C-arm CT, test the changes in PBV following repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and correlate these changes with the change in tumour size in MRI. 111 patients with liver malignancy were included. Patients underwent MRI and TACE in a 4- to 6-week interval. During intervention C-arm CT was performed. Images were post-processed to generate PBV maps. Blood volume data in C-arm CT and change in size in MRI were evaluated. The correlation between PBV and size was tested using Spearman rank test. Pre-interventional PBV maps showed a mean blood volume of 84.5 ml/1000 ml ± 62.0, follow-up PBV maps after multiple TACE demonstrated 61.1 ml/1000 ml ± 57.5. The change in PBV was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Patients with initial tumour blood volume >100 ml/1000 ml dropped 7.1 % in size and 47.2 % in blood volume; 50-100 ml/1000 ml dropped 4.6 % in size and 25.7 % in blood volume; and <50 ml/1000 ml decreased 2.8 % in size and increased 82.2 % in blood volume. PBV measurement of malignant liver tumours using C-arm CT is feasible. Following TACE PBV decreased significantly. Patients with low initial PBV show low local response rates and further increase in blood volume, whereas high initial tumour PBV showed better response to TACE. (orig.)

  16. Middle ear microbiome differences in indigenous Filipinos with chronic otitis media due to a duplication in the A2ML1 gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Hutchinson, Diane S; Ajami, Nadim J; Reyes-Quintos, Ma. Rina T; Tantoco, Ma. Leah C; Labra, Patrick John; Lagrana, Sheryl Mae; Pedro, Melquiadesa; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo d. V; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa; Chan, Abner L; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Belmont, John W; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Abes, Generoso T; Petrosino, Joseph F; Leal, Suzanne M; Chiong, Charlotte M

    2016-01-01

    .... The goal of this study is to describe differences in the middle ear microbiome between carriers and non-carriers of an A2ML1 duplication variant that increases risk for chronic otitis media among...

  17. Thogoto virus lacking interferon-antagonistic protein ML is strongly attenuated in newborn Mx1-positive but not Mx1-negative mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichlmair, Andreas; Buse, Johanna; Jennings, Stephanie; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg; Staeheli, Peter

    2004-10-01

    The Thogoto virus ML protein suppresses interferon synthesis in infected cells. Nevertheless, a virus mutant lacking ML remained highly pathogenic in standard laboratory mice. It was strongly attenuated, however, in mice carrying the interferon-responsive Mx1 gene found in wild mice, demonstrating that enhanced interferon synthesis is protective only if appropriate antiviral effector molecules are present. Our study shows that the virulence-enhancing effects of some viral interferon antagonists may escape detection in conventional animal models.

  18. Early chest tube removal after video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy with serous fluid production up to 500 ml/day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jensen, Katrine; Petersen, Rene Horsleben

    2014-01-01

    In fast-track pulmonary resections, we removed chest tubes after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy with serous fluid production up to 500 ml/day. Subsequently, we evaluated the frequency of recurrent pleural effusions requiring reintervention.......In fast-track pulmonary resections, we removed chest tubes after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy with serous fluid production up to 500 ml/day. Subsequently, we evaluated the frequency of recurrent pleural effusions requiring reintervention....

  19. A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Varela-Cives

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103 or bilateral (n=40 cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL. than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL. The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL. There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL. There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL. There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or age of initial

  20. Estimation of the total saliva volume produced per day in five-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Ohnishi, M; Imai, K; Kawano, E; Igarashi, S

    1995-08-01

    Fifteen boys and 15 girls were asked to record for 2 days the time spent awake, eating meals or snacks, and sleeping. The salivary flow rates elicited by chewing foods were also determined. The mean flow rate (+/- SD) of unstimulated saliva was 0.26 +/- 0.16 ml/min and that of saliva while chewing six different foods was 3.6 +/- 0.8 ml/min. The mean times spent eating, and awake but not eating, were 80.8 +/- 27.3 and 820 +/- 59 min, respectively, and the volumes of saliva produced during those periods would average about 288 and 208 ml, respectively. If the flow rate is virtually zero during sleep, the estimated total salivary volume produced per day is calculated to be about 500 ml.

  1. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  2. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  3. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaobian; Wan, Yufeng; Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Huaqing; Wang, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet‑induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)‑1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high‑fat diet‑fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high‑fat diet (AS group) or a high‑fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium‑dependent relaxation and endothelium‑independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high‑fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high‑fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high‑fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO‑1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ

  4. Changes in molar volume and heat capacity of actin upon polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, F; Gicquaud, C

    1993-11-01

    We have used densimetry and microcalorimetry to measure the changes in molar volume and heat capacity of the actin molecule during Mg(2+)-induced polymerization. Molar volume is decreased by 720 ml/mol. This result is in contradiction with previous measurements by Ikkai and Ooi [(1966) Science 152, 1756-1757], and by Swezey and Somero [(1985) Biochemistry 24, 852-860]: both of these groups reported increases in actin volume during polymerization, of 391 ml/mol and 63 ml/mol respectively. We also observed a decrease in heat capacity of about 69.5 kJ.K-1.mol-1 during polymerization. This is in agreement with the concept of conformational fluctuation of proteins proposed by Lumry and Gregory [(1989) J.Mol. Liq. 42, 113-144]whereby either ligand binding by a protein or monomer-monomer interaction decreases the protein's conformational flexibility.

  5. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-09-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 +/- 2.3 ml mmHg(1); P = 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank-Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve.

  6. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of right atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P

    1983-09-01

    Contrast echocardiography and inferior vena cava ultrasonography are useful techniques in diagnosing tricuspid regurgitation (TR) but are not helpful in estimating the severity. Using a computerized light-pen method for tracing the right atrial (RA) border during systole and diastole in the apical 4-chamber view, single-plane volume determinations were calculated in 10 normal subjects (Group I), 18 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and no TR (Group II), 14 patients with mitral stenosis and mild TR (Group IIIa), and 8 patients with mitral stenosis and severe TR (Group IIIb). TR was quantitated as absent, mild or severe by contrast right ventriculography. The RA end-systolic volume was 36.4 +/- 13.1 ml in Group I patients, 59.1 +/- 16.8 ml in Group II patients, 76.9 +/- 55.4 ml in Group IIIa patients, and 154.6 +/- 57.3 ml in Group IIIb patients (all Groups versus Group I, p less than 0.001). The mean RA emptying volume, which equals RA end-systolic volume--RA end-diastolic volume, was 15.3 +/- 5.0 for Group I, 17.7 +/- 3.0 for Group II, 30.4 +/- 8.0 for Group IIIa, and 71.6 +/- 25.4 for Group IIIb. All 8 patients with severe TR but none of the 14 patients with mild TR had an RA emptying volume greater than 40 ml (p less than 0.001). In addition, all 28 patients in Groups I and II but only 4 of 14 patients in Group III had an RA emptying volume less than 26 ml (p less than 0.01). The mean RA pressure measured at cardiac catheterization correlated with RA emptying volume (r = 0.71, p less than 0.001). Thus, RA emptying volume is useful for separating severe TR from mild TR in patients with mitral stenosis.

  7. Application of Minimum Effective Cuff Inflating Volume for Laryngeal Mask Airway and its Impact on Postoperative Pharyngeal Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The relationship between the cuff inflating volume and the intracuff pressure for size 4 or 5 LMA Well LeadTM is in a linear correlation manner at the range of 5–30 ml. The minimal cuff inflating volume is adequate for satisfactory airway sealing and consequently associated with lower incidence of postoperative pharyngeal complications for LMA Well Lead.™

  8. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASEEB Akhtar; SHARMA Anita; SHUKLA Prabhat Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil,bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P.fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.

  9. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  10. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammon, Matthias; Janka, Rolf; Dankerl, Peter; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Uder, Michael; Rompel, Oliver [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Gloeckler, Martin; Dittrich, Sven [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  11. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  12. Determination of the autonomously functioning volume of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, D.; Erlenmaier, U.; Pohl, M.; Luig, H. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the autonomously functioning volume in euthyroid and hyperthyroid goitres for prognostic and therapeutic pruposes. To this end, various groups of patients were selected: Individuals without evidence of thyroid disease, euthyroid patients with diffuse goitre of normal structure and function, euthyroid patients with evidence of autonomy and patients with hyperthyroidism due to autonomy. In all of them the thyroid uptake of Technetium-99m was determined under exogeneous suppression (TcU[sub s]) in the euthyroid state and under endogenous suppression (TcU) in the hyperthyroid state. It was demonstrated that: 1. In patients with unifocal autonomy the TcU[sub s] and TcU correlated linearly with the autonomous volume delineated and measured by sonography. 2. A nearly identical result was obtained if the mean autonomous volume in individuals without thyroid disease of 2.2[+-]1.1 ml calculated by TcU[sub s]/TcU x total thyroid volume was used as a basis. 3. The critical autonomous volume, i.e. the volume at which hyperthryroidism will occur, was found to be 16 ml at a cumulated sensitivity and specificity of >0.9. The method can be used to select patients for definitive treatment before hyperthryroidism occurs and to measure the autonomously functioning volume independent of its distribution within the thyroid for treatment with radioiodine. The method is easy to perform and is also an example of how a relative parameter of a function can be converted into an absolute parameter of a functioning volume. (orig.).

  13. Otilonium bromide enhances sensory thresholds of volume and pressure in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimmer, J; Süto, G; Király, A; Mózsik, G

    2001-01-01

    Visceral hyperalgesia has been suggested to play a role in the development of symptoms presented by irritable bowel syndrome patients. Otilonium bromide was developed to block smooth muscle Ca release to control cramping pain of these patients. to determine whether otilonium bromide can influence sensory thresholds of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. 15 patients with Rome-II positive IBS were tested by Synectics Visceral Stimulator Barostat using rapid phasic distension (870 ml/min). The sensory threshold for first sensation, stool, pain and maximum tolerable volume and pressure were measured. All of the parameters were tested before and 1 week after the initiation of otilonium bromide (Spasmomen, Berlin Chemie, 3x40 mg) therapy. The perceptual thresholds for first sensation, stool, pain and maximum tolerable distention were, 8.8+/-1.7 Hgmm, 19.2+/-2.1 Hgmm, 26.3+/-2.8 Hgmm, 28.7+/-2.8 Hgmm for pressure, 90+/-21 ml, 145+/-28 ml, 208+/-25 ml, 213+/-28 ml for volume, before treatment, respectively. Otilonium bromide treatment did not influence the thresholds for first sensation and stool, 7.4+/-1.4 Hgmm, 20.7+/-4.6 Hgmm and 83+/-21 ml, 178+/-35.8 ml, respectively. The pressure threshold of pain was significantly higher 1 week after treatment (26.3+/-2.8 Hgmm vs. 29.1+/-5.5 Hgmm, Potilonium bromide treatment. These data suggest that otilonium bromide enhances sensory thresholds to recto-sigmoideal distention.

  14. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  15. A ML29 reassortant virus protects guinea pigs against a distantly related Nigerian strain of Lassa virus and can provide sterilizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L; Johnson, Curtis; Gonzales, Monica; Moreira, Carmen R; Ticer, Anysha; Brasky, Kathleen; Hubbard, Gene B; Moshkoff, Dmitry; Zapata, Juan; Salvato, Maria S; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2007-05-16

    Lassa virus (LASV) is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people in West Africa annually. Genetic diversity among LASV strains is the highest among the Arenaviridae and represents a great challenge for vaccine development. Guinea pigs vaccinated with a ML29 reassortant vaccine experienced sterilizing immunity and complete protection when challenged on day 30 either with homologous virus or with the distantly related Nigerian isolate. Simultaneous vaccination-challenge or challenge on day 2 after vaccination also protected 60-100% of the animals against both strains, but without sterilizing immunity. These results indicate that simultaneous replication of ML29 and LASV attenuates the virulence of LASV infection.

  16. Addi-Chek filtration, BACTEC, and 10-ml culture methods for recovery of microorganisms from dialysis effluent during episodes of peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, B M; Walshe, J J; Garringer, L; Koscinski, D; Amsterdam, D

    1986-02-01

    The Addi-Chek (filtration; Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.) and BACTEC (radiometric detection of growth in culture media; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) systems were compared with the 10-ml culture (centrifugation) method for the recovery of microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate collected from patients with clinical evidence of peritonitis and containing greater than or equal to 200 leukocytes per mm3. Both alternate methods were comparable, and results were not significantly different from those of the conventional 10-ml culture method. All systems were adversely affected in their capacity to recover organisms when dialysates had been collected during periods of antimicrobial therapy.

  17. Constitutive Activation of AKT Pathway Inhibits TNF-induced Apoptosis in Mitochondrial DNA-Deficient human myelogenous leukemia ML-1a

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Seigo; Naito, Akihiro; Asano, Takayuki; Evans, Teresa T; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G.; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    TNF plus protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide induced apoptosis in human myelogenous leukemia ML-1a but not in C19, respiration minus mitochondrial DNA deficient C19 cells, derived from ML-1a. To investigate how mitochondrial DNA depletion inhibits apoptosis, we investigated AKT. Both AKT and its phosphorylated form were observed only in C19, indicating that depletion of mtDNA increased protein and the active form of AKT. Treatment of C19 with LY294002, which inhibits PI-3 kinase and inh...

  18. Comparison of life cycle assessment for different volume polypropylene jars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krkić Nevena M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When deciding what packaging is the most appropriate for a product there are many factors to be considered. One of them is the impact of the packaging on environment. In this work, life cycle inventory and life cycle assessment of two different volume packagings were compared. The data were collected on the types and amounts of materials and energy consumption in the process of packaging and distribution of hand cream packed in polypropylene jars of 200 and 350 mL. Life cycle inventory (LCI and life cycle impact assessment (LCA were calculated. It was found that the total mass flow was higher for the jars of 350 mL. After analyzing individual flows, it was found that in both cycles (polypropylene jars of 200 and 350 mL,the consumption of fresh water was a dominant flow. This fresh water flow is mostly (95% consumed in the injection molding process of manufacturing jars from polypropylene granules. The LCA analysis showed no significant difference in global warming potential between different volume jars. The process that mostly affected global warming was the production of polypropylene jars from polypropylene granules by injection molding for both jar volumes. Judging by the global warming potential, there is no difference of the environmental impact between investigated jars, but considering the mass flow and water consumption, more environmental friendly were the 200 mL jars.

  19. Blood culture volume and detection of coagulase negative staphylococcal septicaemia in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Jawaheer, G; Neal, T; Shaw, N.

    1997-01-01

    A prospective, blind study was carried out to determine: the amount of blood submitted for culture from neonates; whether small blood volumes resulted in false negative results; and whether there was a temporal relation between volume of blood cultured and time to positivity.
  Seventy three bottles were evaluated. They contained a median of 0.63 ml of blood. Twenty nine bottles (39.7%) contained less than 0.5 ml of blood; 21 bottles (28.8%) were positive. There were three false negative cult...

  20. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  1. Total blood volume in the normally performing Standardbred trotter: age and sex variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S G; Funkquist, P; Nyman, G

    1996-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to elucidate the influences of age and sex on the mass specific blood volume parameters: total blood volume (TBV/BW, ml/kg), plasma volume (PV/ BW, ml/kg), total red cell volume (CV/BW, ml/kg) and maximal packed cell volume (PCV, l/l, i.e. after total mobilisation of the splenic red cell reservoir) and to establish reference values for these in normally performing Standardbred trotting race horses. In total 205 horses were studied. They were all, according to their owners and/or trainers, performing satisfactorily in racing or training for shortly impending racing. Blood volume determination was done with the Evans blue dye dilution technique after exercise induced emptying of the spleen. Both age and sex were found to influence variation of these parameters significantly, with the possible exception of PV/BW, whereas the primary variation appeared to be in CV/BW. It was concluded that taking age and sex dependent variations into consideration will render prediction of normal values for the blood volume parameters in the athletic Standardbred trotter more reliable and the detection of abnormal deviations more precise if five age and sex groups are used for comparisons.

  2. Basal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activity and hippocampal volumes: the SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Arnoud J G; Gerritsen, Lotte; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2010-06-15

    It has frequently been hypothesized that high levels of glucocorticoids have deleterious effects on the hippocampus and increase risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but no large-scale studies in humans have examined the direct relation between hippocampal volumes and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Cross-sectional analyses within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART)-Medea study, an ancillary study to the SMART-MR study on brain changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among patients with arterial disease. In 575 patients (mean age 62 +/- 9 years), diurnal cortisol rhythm was assessed with six saliva samples, collected at awakening; at 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter; and at 10 pm and 11 pm. A low dose of dexamethasone (.5 mg) was administered at 11 pm, and saliva was sampled the next morning at awakening. Volumetric measurements of the hippocampus were performed on a three-dimensional fast field echo T1-weighted scan with isotropic voxels. Mean total relative hippocampal volume was 6.0 +/- .7 mL. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and global brain atrophy showed that participants with higher evening levels and higher awakening levels after dexamethasone had smaller hippocampal volumes [B per SD (4.2) increase = -.09 mL; 95% confidence interval -.15 to -.03 mL and B per SD (2.5) increase = -.07 mL; 95% confidence interval -.13 to -.01 mL, respectively]. The awakening response was not significantly associated with hippocampal volumes. In this population, higher evening cortisol levels and reduced suppression after dexamethasone were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, independent of total brain volume. The cortisol response after awakening was not associated with hippocampal volume.

  3. Effects of fresh frozen plasma, Ringer's acetate and albumin on plasma volume and on circulating glycocalyx components following haemorrhagic shock in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Axel; Statkevicius, Svajunas; Schött, Ulf;

    2016-01-01

    and syndecan-1. Hemodynamic effects of resuscitation were evaluated by measuring lactate and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: Resuscitation with FFP or albumin resulted in plasma volume expansion equalling the blood loss (to 55 ± 5 ml/kg and 54 ± 4 ml/kg (mean ± S.D.), respectively), whereas plasma...

  4. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  5. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  6. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  7. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  8. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml. The summed score of T2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa. However, the sensitivity should be further improved.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Lassa Virus and to the Attenuated Mopeia/Lassa Reassortant 29 (ML29), a Vaccine Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan Carlos; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Crasta, Oswald; Zhang, Yan; Mani, Sachin; Jett, Marti; Poonia, Bhawna; Djavani, Mahmoud; White, David M.; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Salvato, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from LASV challenge and appears to be more attenuated than MOPV. To gain better insight into LASV-induced pathology and mechanism of attenuation we performed gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to LASV and the vaccine candidate ML29. PBMC from healthy human subjects were exposed to either LASV or ML29. Although most PBMC are non-permissive for virus replication, they remain susceptible to signal transduction by virus particles. Total RNA was extracted and global gene expression was evaluated during the first 24 hours using high-density microarrays. Results were validated using RT-PCR, flow cytometry and ELISA. LASV and ML29 elicited differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG), as well as genes involved in apoptosis, NF-kB signaling and the coagulation pathways. These genes could eventually serve as biomarkers to predict disease outcomes. The remarkable differential expression of thrombomodulin, a key regulator of inflammation and coagulation, suggests its involvement with vascular abnormalities and mortality in Lassa fever disease. PMID:24069471

  10. Transcriptome analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to Lassa virus and to the attenuated Mopeia/Lassa reassortant 29 (ML29, a vaccine candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zapata

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from LASV challenge and appears to be more attenuated than MOPV. To gain better insight into LASV-induced pathology and mechanism of attenuation we performed gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC exposed to LASV and the vaccine candidate ML29. PBMC from healthy human subjects were exposed to either LASV or ML29. Although most PBMC are non-permissive for virus replication, they remain susceptible to signal transduction by virus particles. Total RNA was extracted and global gene expression was evaluated during the first 24 hours using high-density microarrays. Results were validated using RT-PCR, flow cytometry and ELISA. LASV and ML29 elicited differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG, as well as genes involved in apoptosis, NF-kB signaling and the coagulation pathways. These genes could eventually serve as biomarkers to predict disease outcomes. The remarkable differential expression of thrombomodulin, a key regulator of inflammation and coagulation, suggests its involvement with vascular abnormalities and mortality in Lassa fever disease.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to Lassa virus and to the attenuated Mopeia/Lassa reassortant 29 (ML29), a vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan Carlos; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L; Crasta, Oswald; Zhang, Yan; Mani, Sachin; Jett, Marti; Poonia, Bhawna; Djavani, Mahmoud; White, David M; Lukashevich, Igor S; Salvato, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from LASV challenge and appears to be more attenuated than MOPV. To gain better insight into LASV-induced pathology and mechanism of attenuation we performed gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to LASV and the vaccine candidate ML29. PBMC from healthy human subjects were exposed to either LASV or ML29. Although most PBMC are non-permissive for virus replication, they remain susceptible to signal transduction by virus particles. Total RNA was extracted and global gene expression was evaluated during the first 24 hours using high-density microarrays. Results were validated using RT-PCR, flow cytometry and ELISA. LASV and ML29 elicited differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG), as well as genes involved in apoptosis, NF-kB signaling and the coagulation pathways. These genes could eventually serve as biomarkers to predict disease outcomes. The remarkable differential expression of thrombomodulin, a key regulator of inflammation and coagulation, suggests its involvement with vascular abnormalities and mortality in Lassa fever disease.

  12. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant losses in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located on the short ...

  13. Middle ear microbiome differences in indigenous Filipinos with chronic otitis media due to a duplication in the A2ML1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Hutchinson, Diane S; Ajami, Nadim J; Reyes-Quintos, Ma Rina T; Tantoco, Ma Leah C; Labra, Patrick John; Lagrana, Sheryl Mae; Pedro, Melquiadesa; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D V; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa; Chan, Abner L; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Belmont, John W; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Abes, Generoso T; Petrosino, Joseph F; Leal, Suzanne M; Chiong, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Previously rare A2ML1 variants were identified to confer otitis media susceptibility in an indigenous Filipino community and in otitis-prone US children. The goal of this study is to describe differences in the middle ear microbiome between carriers and non-carriers of an A2ML1 duplication variant that increases risk for chronic otitis media among indigenous Filipinos with poor health care access. Ear swabs were obtained from 16 indigenous Filipino individuals with chronic otitis media, of whom 11 carry the A2ML1 duplication variant. Ear swabs were submitted for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Genotype-based differences in microbial richness, structure, and composition were identified, but were not statistically significant. Taxonomic analysis revealed that the relative abundance of the phyla Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and genus Fusobacterium were nominally increased in carriers compared to non-carriers, but were non-significant after correction for multiple testing. We also detected rare bacteria including Oligella that was reported only once in the middle ear. These findings suggest that A2ML1-related otitis media susceptibility may be mediated by changes in the middle ear microbiome. Knowledge of middle ear microbial profiles according to genetic background can be potentially useful for therapeutic and prophylactic interventions for otitis media and can guide public health interventions towards decreasing otitis media prevalence within the indigenous Filipino community.

  14. A toolkit for the mzIdentML standard: the ProteoIDViewer, the mzidLibrary and the mzidValidator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghali, F.; Krishna, R.; Lukasse, P.N.J.; Martínez-Bartolomé, S.; Reisinger, F.; Hermjakob, H.; Vizcaíno, J.A.; Jones, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Proteomics Standards Initiative has recently released the mzIdentML data standard for representing peptide and protein identification results, for example, created by a search engine. When a new standard format is produced, it is important that software tools are available that make it

  15. Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer(Triticum dicoccoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7A...

  16. SAND ML: Software para el diagnóstico y control de información de máquinas eléctricas rotatorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago A Dorrbercker Drake

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SAND ML es un software de aplicación que automatiza los procesos asociados a: inventarios yprocesamiento de la información según lo establecido en las normas y procedimientos para el diagnósticode máquinas eléctricas rotatorias, aprobadas por la Unión de la Electricidad de la República de Cuba. Elmismo está concebido en una implementación cliente-servidor, lo cual posibilita, entre otros aspectos, laexistencia de una base de datos a la cual fluye la información procedente de diferentes ensayos viabilizandoasí la emisión de diagnósticos de estado; por otra parte, SAND ML permite al usuario estimar los períodosde muestreo más aconsejables para la repetición de ensayos o ejecución de mantenimientos.  SAND ML is an application software which automates the process related to: Inventories and infor-mationprocessing according to Cuban Standards and Procedures of Electric Rotating Machines Diagnostic.This software has been conceived in a client-server conception. This offers us an updated data base. Inthe other hand, SAND ML gives technical diagnostic and working service prognosis. All those allows tomanagers make a proper decision about maintenance.

  17. Differential activation of vascular smooth muscle Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channels by ML213 and ICA-069673.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Lyubov I; Haick, Jennifer M; Cribbs, Leanne L; Byron, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Recent research suggests that smooth muscle cells express Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 voltage-activated potassium channels, which contribute to maintenance of their resting membrane voltage. New pharmacologic activators of Kv7 channels, ML213 (N-mesitybicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxamide) and ICA-069673 N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide), have been reported to discriminate among channels formed from different Kv7 subtypes. We compared the effects of ML213 and ICA-069673 on homomeric human Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels exogenously expressed in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that, despite its previous description as a selective activator of Kv7.2 and Kv7.4, ML213 significantly increased the maximum conductance of homomeric Kv7.4 and Kv7.5, as well as heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels, and induced a negative shift of their activation curves. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of the ML213 (10 μM) for all three channel combinations. Mutants of Kv7.4 (W242L) and Kv7.5 (W235L), previously found to be insensitive to another Kv7 channel activator, retigabine, were also insensitive to ML213 (10 μM). In contrast to ML213, ICA-069673 robustly activated Kv7.4 channels but was significantly less effective on homomeric Kv7.5 channels. Heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels displayed intermediate responses to ICA-069673. In each case, ICA-069673 induced a negative shift of the activation curves without significantly increasing maximal conductance. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of ICA-069673 in a subunit-specific manner. Kv7.4 W242L responded to ICA-069673-like wild-type Kv7.4, but a Kv7.4 F143A mutant was much less sensitive to ICA-069673. Based on these results, ML213 and ICA-069673 likely bind to different sites and are differentially selective among Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channel subtypes.

  18. Lung volumes during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to influence the mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall. However, the effect of sustained microgravity (microgravity) on lung volumes has not been reported. Pulmonary function tests were performed by four subjects before, during, and after 9 days of microgravity exposure. Ground measurements were made in standing and supine postures. Tests were performed using a bag-in-box-and-flowmeter system and a respiratory mass spectrometer. Measurements included functional residual capacity (FRC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume (RV), inspiratory and expiratory vital capacities (IVC and EVC), and tidal volume (V9sub T)). Total lung capacity (TLC) was derived from the measured EVC and RV values. With preflight standing values as a comparison, FRC was significantly reduced by 15% (approximately 500 ml) in microgravity and 32% in the supine posture. ERV was reduced by 10 - 20% in microgravity and decreased by 64% in the supine posture. RV was significantly reduced by 18% (310 ml) in microgravity but did not significantly change in the supine posture compared with standing. IVC and EVC were slightly reduced during the first 24 h of microgravity but returned to 1-G standing values within 72 h of microgravity exposure. IVC and EVC in the supine posture were significantly reduced by 12% compared with standing. During microgravity, V(sub T) decreased by 15% (approximately 90 ml), but supine V(sub T) was unchanged compared with preflight standing values. TLC decreased by approximately 8% during microgravity and in the supine posture compared with preflight standing. The reductions in FRC, ERV, and RV during microgravity are probably due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm, an increase in intrathoracic blood volume, and more uniform alveolar expansion.

  19. Measurement of Gallbladder Volume with Ultrasonography in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Kapicioglu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and postprandial gallbladder volumes were investigated using ultrasonography in three groups (10 subjects in each of healthy women: third trimester pregnant women, postpartum women up to 10 days after giving birth and nonpregnant controls. The scans were performed at 09:00 after a 12 h fast. After the basal measurement was taken, gallbladder volumes were rescanned in 15 min intervals for 60 mins. At the end of this period, all volunteers received a standard liquid test meal, and scans were performed again for 1 h. The mean basal gallbladder volume was 22.2±4.2 mL in the nonpregnant (control group. In the third trimester group, the basal volume was 37.8±10.5 mL – 70.5% higher than in the nonpregnant group (P<0.001. In the postpartum group, the mean basal volume was 37.9% lower (27.4±6.5 mL than that of the third trimester group (P<0.02. This basal volume was 23.6% greater than that of the control group (P<0.05. After administration of a test meal, the postprandial gallbladder volumes decreased during the first few minutes compared with baseline values. The volumes decreased by 10.2% to 39.8% (23.5±7.3 to 34.0±10.2; P<0.01 in the third trimester group, by 14.9% to 43.2% (16.6±4.3 to 23.3±5.5; P<0.01, 0.001 in the postpartum group and by 19.2% to 51.6% (11.9±3.5 to 17.9±3.6; P<0.02, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001 in the control group. Postprandial mean gallbladder volumes of the third trimester (P<0.02 and postpartum groups (P<0.02 to 0.01 were significantly different from those of the control group. In conclusion, incomplete emptying of the gallbladder after eating during the third trimester of pregnancy may contribute to cholesterol-gallstone formation, and pregnancy may thus increase the risk of gallstones.

  20. Extreme-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) >40 ng/ml: Prognostic Significance of the Preradiation PSA Nadir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Abraham S. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Mydin, Aminudin; Jones, Stuart O.; Christie, Jennifer [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lim, Jan T.W. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T., E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ludgate, Charles M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for clinically localized, extreme-risk prostate adenocarcinoma with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >40 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 64 patients treated at a single institution between 1991 and 2000 with ADT and RT for prostate cancer with a presenting PSA level of >40 ng/ml. The effects of patient age, tumor (presenting PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage), and treatment (total ADT duration and pre-RT PSA level) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 6.45 years (range, 0.09-15.19 years). Actuarial bDFS, PCSS, and OS rates at 5 years were 39%, 87%, and 78%, respectively, and 17%, 64%, and 45%, respectively, at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the pre-RT PSA level ({<=}0.1 versus >0.1 ng/ml) was the single most significant prognostic factor for bDFS (p = 0.033) and OS (p = 0.018) rates, whereas age, T stage, Gleason score, and ADT duration ({<=}6 versus >6 months) were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusion: In prostate cancer patients with high presenting PSA levels, >40 ng/ml, treated with combined modality, neoadjuvant ADT, and RT, the pre-RT PSA nadir, rather than ADT duration, was significantly associated with improved survival. This observation supports the use of neoadjuvant ADT to drive PSA levels to below 0.1 ng/ml before initiation of RT, to optimize outcomes for patients with extreme-risk disease.

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations ≥40 ng/ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L McDonnell

    Full Text Available Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of multiple cancer types across a range of 25(OHD concentrations.To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between 25(OHD and cancer risk could be replicated, and if a 25(OHD response region could be identified among women aged 55 years and older across a broad range of 25(OHD concentrations.Data from two cohorts representing different median 25(OHD concentrations were pooled to afford a broader range of 25(OHD concentrations than either cohort alone: the Lappe cohort (N = 1,169, a randomized clinical trial cohort (median 25(OHD = 30 ng/ml and the GrassrootsHealth cohort (N = 1,135, a prospective cohort (median 25(OHD = 48 ng/ml. Cancer incidence over a multi-year period (median: 3.9 years was compared according to 25(OHD concentration. Kaplan-Meier plots were developed and the association between 25(OHD and cancer risk was examined with multivariate Cox regression using multiple 25(OHD measurements and spline functions. The study included all invasive cancers excluding skin cancer.Age-adjusted cancer incidence across the combined cohort (N = 2,304 was 840 cases per 100,000 person-years (1,020 per 100,000 person-years in the Lappe cohort and 722 per 100,000 person-years in the GrassrootsHealth cohort. Incidence was lower at higher concentrations of 25(OHD. Women with 25(OHD concentrations ≥40 ng/ml had a 67% lower risk of cancer than women with concentrations <20 ng/ml (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.90.25(OHD concentrations ≥40 ng/ml were associated with substantial reduction in risk of all invasive cancers combined.

  2. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  3. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  4. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  5. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  6. The Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy as a Prostate Volume Reduction before Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki,Kenta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available From September 2003 to December 2005, 188 patients who visited our hospital and allied institutions for the purpose of prostate brachytherapy were administrated hormonal therapy for volume reductions before brachytherapy. The pretreatment and posttreatment of prostate volume using a transrectal ultrasound volumetric study and the types and duration of hormonal therapy were analyzed. We administered 91 patients with Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH agonist, 49 patients with anti-androgen (bicaltamide/flutamide, and 48 patients with maximum androgen blockade (MAB. The duration of the hormonal therapy was 1-3 months for 49 patients, 4-6 months for 59 patients, 7-9 months for 40 patients, 10-12 months for 32 patients, and over 13 months for 8 patients. Before the initiation of hormonal therapy, the mean prostate volume was 35.12 ml (11.04-78.71 ml, and the average of prostate volume before and after hormonal therapy was 36.79 ml and 24.79 ml, respectively (a 32.4% reduction. The prostate volume reduction rate was 32.0% for the LH-RH agonist only, 18.1% for the anti-androgen only and 41.2% for the MAB. No statistically significant difference was observed for the duration of hormonal therapy between 3 groups. A three-month course of the neoadjuvant LH-RH agonist indicated a sufficient volume reduction effectiveness for a large prostate volume.

  7. MANAJEMEN KULTUR ROTIFER DENGAN TANGKI VOLUME KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan pembenihan ikan sangat dipengaruhi keberhasilan produksi jasad pakan rotifer secara tepat dan efisien. Penelitian kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil bertujuan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi produksi yang paling optimal dan memenuhi prinsip dasar akuakultur low volume high density. Penelitian menggunakan tangki polyethylene dengan volume 500 L dan volume media awal 100 L, padat tebar awal 200 ind. rotifer per mL dengan sediaan pakan dasar fitoplankton Nannocloropsis occulata, ragi roti (0,05 g/mio.rot./feeding dan suplemen Scott emulsion (0,005 g/mio.rot./feeding. Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap; tahap pertama (I tanpa penambahan air laut, peningkatan volume hanya dari penambahan 15 L Nannochloropsis tiap hari sampai hari kelima, tahap kedua (II dengan penambahan alga 40 L dan air laut 40 L; serta tahap ketiga (III dengan menggandakan pemberian ragi roti. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada percobaan tahap I: total produksi rata-rata 122,37 x 106 ind. rotifer, pada tahap II: 97,67 x 106 ind. rotifer, dan pada tahap III: dicapai rata-rata total produksi tertinggi dengan 187,17 x 106 ind. rotifer per tanki kultur 500 L. Pengelolaan kultur pada tahap III memberikan hasil terbaik dengan simpangan terkecil antar tangki kultur ulangan, dan membuktikan sebagai pengelolaan terbaik untuk kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil.  Success of marine seed production is highly influenced by effective and efficient production performance of life food rotifer. Observation on rotifer culture using small volume tank was aimed to get the optimum production and efficiency, to fulfill the basic principle of aquaculture “low volume high density”. Polyethylene tanks of 500 L. were used as culture container, with initial 100 liter sea water as culture medium and initial density of 200 ind. rotifer per mL. N. occulata, baker yeast (0.05 g/mio.rotifer/feeding and Scott emulsion (0.005 g/mio.rotifer/feeding were used as basic feed, and

  8. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  9. Epidural volume extension in combined spinal epidural anaesthesia for elective caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubert, C; O'Brien, P J; Fernando, R; Walton, N; Philip, S; Addei, T; Columb, M O; Hallworth, S

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the effect of epidural volume extension on spinal blockade in pregnant women undergoing elective caesarean section with a combined spinal-epidural technique. We randomly allocated 90 healthy subjects to three groups to receive spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg (group B7.5), spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg immediately followed by epidural volume extension with saline 5 ml (group B7.5-EVE) or spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg without epidural volume extension (group B10). We evaluated the height of the block every 5 min for 15 min following the spinal injection. The overall sensory block level increased with time (p epidural volume extension with 5 ml saline as part of a combined spinal epidural technique in term parturients undergoing elective caesarean section.

  10. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects leads to normalisation of atrial and ventricular volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthley Matthew I

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs should potentially reduce right heart volumes by removing left-to-right shunting. Due to ventricular interdependence, this may be associated with impaired left ventricular filling and potentially function. Furthermore, atrial changes post-ASD closure have been poorly understood and may be important for understanding risk of atrial arrhythmia post-ASD closure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is an accurate and reproducible imaging modality for the assessment of cardiac function and volumes. We assessed cardiac volumes pre- and post-percutaneous ASD closure using CMR. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 23 underwent CMR pre- and 6 months post-ASD closure. Steady state free precession cine CMR was performed using contiguous slices in both short and long axis views through the ASD. Data was collected for assessment of left and right atrial, ventricular end diastolic volumes (EDV and end systolic volumes (ESV. Data is presented as mean ± SD, volumes as mL, and paired t-testing performed between groups. Statistical significance was taken as p Results There was a significant reduction in right ventricular volumes at 6 months post-ASD closure (RVEDV: 208.7 ± 76.7 vs. 140.6 ± 60.4 mL, p Conclusion ASD closure leads to normalisation of ventricular volumes and also a reduction in right atrial volume. Further follow-up is required to assess how this predicts outcomes such as risk of atrial arrhythmias after such procedures.

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  12. Quantitation of mandibular ramus volume as a source of bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2009-10-01

    When alveolar atrophy impairs dental implant placement, ridge augmentation using mandibular ramus graft may be considered. In live patients, however, an accurate calculation of the amount of bone that can be safely harvested from the ramus has not been reported. The use of a software program to perform these calculations can aid in preventing surgical complications. The aim of the present study was to intra-surgically quantify the volume of the ramus bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients, and compare it to presurgical computerized tomographic calculations. The AutoCAD software program quantified ramus bone graft in 40 consecutive patients from computerized tomographies. Direct intra-surgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared to software data (n = 10). In these 10 patients, the bone volume was also measured at the recipient sites 6 months post-sinus augmentation. The mandibular second and third molar areas provided the thickest cortical graft averaging 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm. The thinnest bone was immediately posterior to the third molar (1.9 +/- 0.3 mm). The volume of ramus bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 0.8 mL (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 mL, range: 0.4-1.2 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intra-surgically averaged 2.5 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range: 1.8-3.0 mL). The difference between the two measurement methods was significant (p AutoCAD software program did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular ramus.

  13. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konings Maurits K

    2012-08-01

    caused a pattern over the thorax quite distinct from that of atrial filling. The in-vivo tests of the HCP with LVot Doppler resulted in a Pearson’s correlation of R = 0.892, and Bland-Altman plotting of SV yielded a mean bias of -1.6 ml and 2SD =14.8 ml. Conclusions The results indicate that the HCP was able to track the changes in ventricular stroke volume reliably. Furthermore, the HCP produced ventricular volume-time curves that were consistent with the literature, and may be a diagnostic tool as well.

  14. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  15. Effect of oral alcohol on left ventricular ejection fraction, volumes, and segmental wall motion in normals and in patients with recent myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Yang, D; Patel, D; Kim, B S; Patel, C; Becker, W H

    1985-11-01

    A first-pass nuclear angiogram and a multiple-gated acquisition study were obtained in 10 normal physicians and in 10 patients with a 7-to-10 day old transmural myocardial infarction. After the scan the subjects drank 2 oz. of whiskey. After 60 minutes, the multiple-gated acquisition study was repeated. In the normal group the left ventricular ejection fraction was 68% before and 72% after alcohol. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from 89 to 97 ml while the left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased from 29 to 27 ml. The stroke volume rose from 61 to 70 ml/beat (p less than 0.05). The cardiac output increased from 4.0 to 5.0 l/min (p less than 0.05). In the infarction group, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 58% before and 56% after alcohol administration. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume fell from 111 to 96 ml, while the left ventricular end-systolic volume declined from 50 to 44 ml. The stroke volume fell from 61 to 52 ml/beat, while the cardiac output fell from 4.5 to 3.8 l/min. In the left ventricular infarction zones, alcohol produced in 9 of the 10 cardiac patients a decline in the left ventricular regional ejection fraction. In the normal group, alcohol produced no significant changes in the regional ejection fraction. The normal and the postinfarction patients responded differently to alcohol.

  16. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  17. FDG PET/CT for rectal carcinoma radiotherapy treatment planning: comparison of functional volume delineation algorithms and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withofs, Nadia; Bernard, Claire; Van der Rest, Catherine; Martinive, Philippe; Hatt, Mathieu; Jodogne, Sebastien; Visvikis, Dimitris; Lee, John A; Coucke, Philippe A; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-09-08

    PET/CT imaging could improve delineation of rectal carcinoma gross tumor volume (GTV) and reduce interobserver variability. The objective of this work was to compare various functional volume delineation algorithms. We enrolled 31 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The FDG PET/CT and the high dose CT (CTRT) were performed in the radiation treatment position. For each patient, the anatomical GTVRT was delineated based on the CTRT and compared to six different functional/metabolic GTVPET derived from two automatic segmentation approaches (FLAB and a gradient-based method); a relative threshold (45% of the SUVmax) and an absolute threshold (SUV > 2.5), using two different commercially available software (Philips EBW4 and Segami OASIS). The spatial sizes and shapes of all volumes were compared using the conformity index (CI). All the delineated metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) were significantly different. The MTVs were as follows (mean ± SD): GTVRT (40.6 ± 31.28ml); FLAB (21.36± 16.34 ml); the gradient-based method (18.97± 16.83ml); OASIS 45% (15.89 ± 12.68 ml); Philips 45% (14.52 ± 10.91 ml); OASIS 2.5 (41.6 2 ± 33.26 ml); Philips 2.5 (40 ± 31.27 ml). CI between these various volumes ranged from 0.40 to 0.90. The mean CI between the different MTVs and the GTVCT was algorithms and the software products. The manipulation of PET/CT images and MTVs, such as the DICOM transfer to the Radiation Oncology Department, induced additional volume variations.

  18. Paradoxical relationship between atriopeptin plasma levels and diuresis-natriuresis induced by acute volume expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, M.; Greenwald, J E; Needleman, P

    1988-01-01

    Surgical removal of one or both atrial appendages was employed in rats to reduce the intrinsic stores of atriopeptin (AP). In conscious rats (with intact baroreceptor reflexes), bilateral or unilateral atrial appendectomy suppressed the diuresis and natriuresis produced by acute volume expansion. Surprisingly, volume expansion (with 4% bovine serum albumin in saline at 1.5 ml/kg per min for 15 min) did not result in an increase in plasma AP immunoreactivity (APir) in control or atrial-appende...

  19. Parameterization of small intestinal water volume using PBPK modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Anil; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Edginton, Andrea

    2015-01-25

    To facilitate accurate predictions of oral drug disposition, mechanistic absorption models require optimal parameterization. Furthermore, parameters should maintain a biological basis to establish confidence in model predictions. This study will serve to calculate an optimal parameter value for small intestinal water volume (SIWV) using a model-based approach. To evaluate physiologic fidelity, derived volume estimates will be compared to experimentally-based SIWV determinations. A compartmental absorption and transit (CAT) model, created in Matlab-Simulink®, was integrated with a whole-body PBPK model, developed in PK-SIM 5.2®, to provide predictions of systemic drug disposition. SIWV within the CAT model was varied between 52.5mL and 420mL. Simulations incorporating specific SIWV values were compared to pharmacokinetic data from compounds exhibiting solubility induced non-proportional changes in absorption using absolute average fold-error. Correspondingly, data pertaining to oral administration of acyclovir and chlorothiazide were utilized to derive estimates of SIWV. At 400mg, a SIWV of 116mL provided the best estimates of acyclovir plasma concentrations. A similar SIWV was found to best depict the urinary excretion pattern of chlorothiazide at a dose of 100mg. In comparison, experimentally-based estimates of SIWV within adults denote a central tendency between 86 and 167mL. The derived SIWV (116mL) represents the optimal parameter value within the context of the developed CAT model. This result demonstrates the biological basis of the widely utilized CAT model as in vivo SIWV determinations correspond with model-based estimates.

  20. The accuracy and optimal slice thickness of multislice helical computed tomography for right and left ventricular volume measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔炜; 近藤武; 安野泰史; 郭玉印; 佐藤贵久; 皿井正義; 篠崎仁史; 柿澤聡士; 杉浦厚司; 大岛慶太; 片田和廣; 菱田仁

    2004-01-01

    Background Multislice helical computed tomography (MSCT) has been used to depict coronary anatomy noninvasively, and proved useful for evaluating ventricular function. The aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of ventricular volume as measured by MSCT. Methods Fourteen human left ventricular (LV) and 15 right ventricular (RV) casts were scanned by MSCT. A series of LV and RV short-axis images were reconstructed later with slice thickness of 2.0 mm, 3.5 mm, 5.0 mm, 7.0 mm, and 10.0 mm. Ventricular volume was calculated by the multislice tomographic Simpson's method. True LV and RV cast volumes were determined by water displacement. Results Both calculated LV and RV volumes correlated highly with the corresponding true volumes (all r>0.95, P<0.01). But with slice thickness from 2.0 mm to 10.0 mm, MSCT scanning overestimated the corresponding true volume by (3.21±5.95) ml to (12.58±8.56) ml for LV and (10.22±8.45) ml to (23.91±12.24) ml for RV (all P<0.01). There was a very high correlation between the overestimation and the selected slice thickness for both LV and RV volume measurements (r=0.998 and 0.996, P<0.01, respectively). However, when slice thickness was reduced to 5.0 mm, the overestimation for both LV and RV volume measurements became nonsignificant for slice thickness from 2.0 mm to 5.0 mm. Conclusions Both LV and RV volumes can be accurately estimated by MSCT. Thinner slice has more accurate calculated volume. However, 5.0 mm slice thickness is thin enough for an accurate measurement of LV or RV volume.

  1. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  2. Optimal injection volume of epinephrine for endoscopic treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-Cherng Liou; Shee-Chan Lin; Horng-Yuan Wang; Wen-Hsiung Chang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To define the optimal injection volume of epinephrine with high efficacy for hemostasis and low complication rate in patients with actively bleeding ulcers.METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative trial was conducted in a medical center. A total of 228 patients with actively bleeding ulcers (spurting or oozing) were randomly assigned to three groups with 20, 30 and 40 mL endoscopic injections of an 1:10000 solution of epinephrine. The hemostatic effects and clinical outcomes were compared between the three groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in all background variables between the three groups. Initial hemostasis was achieved in 97.4%, 98.7% and 100% of patients respectively in the 20, 30 and 40 mL epinephrine groups. There were no significant differences in the rate of initial hemostasis between the three groups. The rate of peptic ulcer perforation was significantly higher in the 40 mL epinephrine group than in the 20 and 30 mL epinephrine groups (P < 0.05). The rate of recurrent bleeding was significantly higher in the 20 mL epinephrine group (20.3%) than in the 30 (5.3%) and 40 mL (2.8 %) epinephrine groups (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of surgical intervention, the amount of transfusion requirements, the days of hospitalization, the deaths from bleeding and 30 d mortality between the three groups. The number of patients who developed epigastric pain due to endoscopic injection, was significantly higher in the 40 mL epinephrine group (51/76) than in the 20 (2/76) and 30 mL (5/76) epinephrine groups (P < 0.001). Significant elevation of systolic blood pressure after endoscopic injection was observed in the 40 mL epinephrine group (P < 0.01). Significant decreasing and normalization of pulse rates after endoscopic injections were observed in the 20 mL and 30 mL epinephrine groups (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Injection of 30 mL diluted epinephrine (1:10000) can effectively prevent recurrent

  3. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels.

  4. Modification of electronic band structure in mL + nL (m = 1, 2; n = 1-5) free-stacking graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianting; He, Rui; Jie, Yinghao; Zhang, Anmin; Ma, Xiaoli; Pan, Linjing; Wang, Le; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Qing-Ming

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we studied stacked mL + nL graphene layers using Raman scattering spectroscopy. Our results indicate that the 2D band from stacked graphene can be considered as a superposition of those from the constituent nL and mL graphene layers, and a blueshift in the 2D band is observed when n or m = 1. The blueshift increases with the number of stacked layers and can be well understood by the reduction of Fermi velocity in the single layer graphene, as studied in the 1L + 1L (or twisted bilayer) case. As the number of stacked layers changes from 1 to 5, the Fermi velocity in the single layer graphene reduces to about 85% of its initial value. This study shows a convenient way to realize the modification of the Fermi velocity in free-stacking graphene and is of significance to the applications of graphene-based heterostructures.

  5. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Che-Min Lin; Tao-Ming Chang; Kuo-Liang Wen; Chun-Hsiang Kuo; Hung-Hao Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB), intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) observed numerous aftershocks in the five da...

  6. 基于SysML的飞控系统模型重用技术%Model reuse technology of the flight control system based on SysML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昕; 曹云峰; 庄丽奎; 王彪; 王西超; 王平

    2013-01-01

    A new model reuse method of flight control system virtual prototype is proposed Based on the Systems Modeling Language(SysML) Components(BSC), namely US-BP(Unit, Structure; Behavior, Process) method, which can improve the methods of virtual prototype-oriented system analysis and description. Taking a certain type of four-rotor UAV as example, the implementation of the flight control system virtual prototype supporting model reuse is described-the simulation, design and implementation are based on SysML components and Simulink components simultaneously. It provides an important technology for the model reuse in the modeling and simulation of the flight control system.%针对飞控系统建模中的模型重用问题,改进面向虚拟样机的系统分析和描述方法,提出一种基于系统工程建模语言(SysML)组件(BSC)的飞行控制系统虚拟样机模型重用方法,即“部件、结构;行为、过程”(US-BP)方法;以某型四旋翼无人机为例,说明了飞控系统虚拟样机支持模型重用的实现方式,即基于 SysML 组件与 Simulink 组件的仿真设计与实现方法。本文为飞控系统建模与仿真领域中的模型重用提供了重要的技术途径。

  7. Caloric effect of a 16-ounce (473-mL) portion-size cap on sugar-sweetened beverages served in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Claire; Vine, Seanna M

    2013-08-01

    New York City recently proposed a restriction to cap the portion size of all sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) sold in food-service establishments at 16 oz (473 mL). One critical question is whether such a policy may disproportionally affect low-income or overweight individuals. The objective was to determine the demographic characteristics of US individuals potentially affected by a 16-oz portion-size cap on SSBs and the potential effect on caloric intake. We analyzed dietary records from the NHANES 2007-2010. We estimated the proportion of individuals who consumed at least one SSB >16 fluid oz (473 mL) in restaurants by age, household income, and weight status. Of all SSBs >16 oz (473 mL) purchased from food-service establishments, 64.7% were purchased from fast food restaurants, 28.2% from other restaurants, and 4.6% from sports, recreation, and entertainment facilities. On a given day, the policy would affect 7.2% of children and 7.6% of adults. Overweight individuals are more likely to consume these beverages, whereas there was no significant difference between income groups. If 80% of affected consumers choose a 16-oz (473-mL) beverage, the policy would result in a change of -57.6 kcal in each affected consumer aged 2-19 y (95% CI: -65.0, -50.1) and -62.6 kcal in those aged ≥20 y (95% CI: -67.9, -57.4). A policy to cap portion size is likely to result in a modest reduction in excess calories from SSBs, especially among young adults and children who are overweight.

  8. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men (32-42 yr) confined to bed rest (BR). One group (n = 5) had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise for 60 min/day (ITE; n = 7), and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise for 60 min/day (IKE; n = 7). Caloric intake was 2,678-2,840 kcal/day; mean body weight (n = 19) decreased by 0.58 +/- 0.35 (SE) kg during BR due to a negative fluid balance (diuresis) on day 1. Mean energy costs for the NOE, and IKE, and ITE regimens were 83 (3.6 +/- 0.2 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), 214 (8.9 +/- 0.5 ml.min-1.kg-1), and 446 kcal/h (18.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.kg-1), respectively. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes (1,752-1,846 ml/day) between groups were unchanged during BR. Resting changes in plasma volume (ml/kg) after BR were -1.5 +/- 2.3% (NS) in ITE, -14.7 +/- 2.8% (P less than 0.05) in NOE, and -16.8 +/- 2.9% (P less than 0.05) in IKE, and mean water balances during BR were +295, -106, and +169 ml/24 h, respectively. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. The significant chronic decreases in plasma volume in the IKE and NOE groups and its maintenance in the ITE group could not be accounted for by water balance or by responses of the plasma osmotic, protein, vasopressin, or aldosterone concentrations or plasma renin activity. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Pulmonary 64-MDCT angiography with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material in an unselected patient population: a feasible protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trad, Henrique Simao; Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Giacometti, Tiago Rangon; Trad, Catherine Yang; Zoghbi Neto, Orlando Salomao; Trad, Clovis Simao, E-mail: hsimtrad@gmail.com [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To propose a protocol for pulmonary angiography using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material, in an unselected patient population, as well as to evaluate vascular enhancement and image quality. Materials and methods: We evaluated 29 patients (22-86 years of age). The body mass index ranged from 19.0 kg/m{sup 2} to 41.8 kg/m{sup 2}. Patients underwent pulmonary CT angiography in a 64-MDCT scanner, receiving 50 mL of iodinated contrast material via venous access at a rate of 4.5 mL/s. Bolus tracking was applied in the superior vena cava. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality and vascular enhancement. Results: The mean density was 382 Hounsfield units (HU) for the pulmonary trunk; 379 and 377 HU for the right and left main pulmonary arteries, respectively; and 346 and 364 HU for the right and left inferior pulmonary arteries, respectively. In all patients, subsegmental arteries were analyzed. There were streak artifacts from contrast material in the superior vena cava in all patients. However, those artifacts did not impair the image analysis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pulmonary angiography using 64-MDCT with 50 mL of iodinated contrast can produce high quality images in unselected patient populations. (author)

  10. Evaluation of radiolabeled ML04, a putative irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor, as a bioprobe for PET imaging of EGFR-overexpressing tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abourbeh, Galith [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dissoki, Samar [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Jacobson, Orit [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Litchi, Amir [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Daniel, Revital Ben [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Laki, Desirediu [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Levitzki, Alexander [Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mishani, Eyal [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)]. E-mail: mishani@md.huji.ac.il

    2007-01-15

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in tumor development and malignancy. Evaluating the degree of EGFR expression in tumors could aid in identifying patients for EGFR-targeted therapies and in monitoring treatment. Nevertheless, no currently available assay can reliably quantify receptor content in tumors. Radiolabeled inhibitors of EGFR-TK could be developed as bioprobes for positron emission tomography imaging. Such imaging agents would not only provide a noninvasive quantitative measurement of EGFR content in tumors but also serve as radionuclide carriers for targeted radiotherapy. The potency, reversibility, selectivity and specific binding characteristics of ML04, an alleged irreversible inhibitor of EGFR, were established in vitro. The distribution of the F-18-labeled compound and the extent of EGFR-specific tumor uptake were evaluated in tumor-bearing mice. ML04 demonstrated potent, irreversible and selective inhibition of EGFR, combined with specific binding to the receptor in intact cells. In vivo distribution of the radiolabeled compound revealed tumor/blood and tumor/muscle activity uptake ratios of about 7 and 5, respectively, 3 h following administration of a radiotracer. Nevertheless, only minor EGFR-specific uptake of the compound was detected in these studies, using either EGFR-negative tumors or blocking studies as controls. To improve the in vivo performance of ML04, administration via prolonged intravenous infusion is proposed. Detailed pharmacokinetic characterization of this bioprobe could assist in the development of a kinetic model that would afford accurate measurement of EGFR content in tumors.

  11. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes cross-react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek Sørensen, Rikke; Faurschou, Mikkel; Troelsen, Lone;

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of melanoma patients host a spontaneous T-cell response specifically against ML-IAP-derived peptides. In this study, we describe that some ML-IAP-specific cytotoxic T cells isolated from melanoma patients cross react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56. SS56 is a recently...... described target of autoantibody responses in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) as well as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe that SS56 is also an auto-antigen for T cells in SS and SLE. Hence, SS56-specific T cells could readily be detected in circulation and among the infiltrating cells of SLE...... skin lesions. SS56-specific T cells were able to lyse target cells presenting the peptide epitope on the surface. Notably, SS56-specific CD8 T cells isolated from an SS patient cross reacted with the ML-IAP epitope. This early evidence of a target for auto-reactive CTL in SS and SLE patients...

  12. Pulmonary 64-MDCT angiography with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material in an unselected patient population: a feasible protocol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Henrique Simão; Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Giacometti, Tiago Rangon; Trad, Catherine Yang; Zoghbi Neto, Orlando Salomão; Trad, Clovis Simão

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose a protocol for pulmonary angiography using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material, in an unselected patient population, as well as to evaluate vascular enhancement and image quality. Materials and Methods We evaluated 29 patients (22-86 years of age). The body mass index ranged from 19.0 kg/m2 to 41.8 kg/m2. Patients underwent pulmonary CT angiography in a 64-MDCT scanner, receiving 50 mL of iodinated contrast material via venous access at a rate of 4.5 mL/s. Bolus tracking was applied in the superior vena cava. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality and vascular enhancement. Results The mean density was 382 Hounsfield units (HU) for the pulmonary trunk; 379 and 377 HU for the right and left main pulmonary arteries, respectively; and 346 and 364 HU for the right and left inferior pulmonary arteries, respectively. In all patients, subsegmental arteries were analyzed. There were streak artifacts from contrast material in the superior vena cava in all patients. However, those artifacts did not impair the image analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that pulmonary angiography using 64-MDCT with 50 mL of iodinated contrast can produce high quality images in unselected patient populations. PMID:27141128

  13. The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küme, Tuncay; Şişman, Ali Rıza; Solak, Ahmet; Tuğlu, Birsen; Çinkooğlu, Burcu; Çoker, Canan

    2012-01-01

    Introductıon: We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. Materials and methods: In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK’s TEa. Results: The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. Conclusions: The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes. PMID:22838185

  14. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  15. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  16. Entorhinal cortex volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam P Jose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entorhinal cortex (ERC, a multimodal sensory relay station for the hippocampus, is critically involved in learning, emotion, and novelty detection. One of the pathogenetic mechanistic bases in schizophrenia is proposed to involve aberrant information processing in the ERC. Several studies have looked at cytoarchitectural and morphometric changes in the ERC, but results have been inconsistent possibly due to the potential confounding effects of antipsychotic treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, we have examined the entorhinal cortex volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients (n=40; M:F=22:18 in comparison with age, sex, and handedness, matched (as a group with healthy subjects (n=42; M:F=25:17 using a valid method. 3-Tesla MR images with 1-mm sections were used and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: Female schizophrenia patients (1.25±0.22 mL showed significant volume deficit in the right ERC in comparison with female healthy controls (1.45±0.34 mL (F=4.9; P=0.03, after controlling for the potential confounding effects of intracranial volume. However, male patients did not differ from male controls. The left ERC volume did not differ between patients and controls. Conclusions: Consistent with the findings of a few earlier studies we found a reduction in the right ERC volume in patients. However, this was limited to women. Contextually, our study finding supports the role for ERC deficit in schizophrenia pathogenesis - perhaps mediated through aberrant novelty detection. Sex-differential observation of ERC volume deficit in schizophrenia needs further studies.

  17. Selective inhibition of the Kir2 family of inward rectifier potassium channels by a small molecule probe: the discovery, SAR and pharmacological characterization of ML133

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Ran; Wu, Meng; Yu, Haibo; Long, Shunyou; Stevens, Amy; Engers, Darren W.; Sackin, Henry; Daniels, J. Scott; Dawson, Eric S.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Li, Min; McManus, Owen B

    2011-01-01

    The Kir inward rectifying potassium channels have a broad tissue distribution and are implicated in a variety of functional roles. At least seven classes (Kir1 – Kir7) of structurally related inward rectifier potassium channels are known, and there are no selective small molecule tools to study their function. In an effort to develop selective Kir2.1 inhibitors, we performed a high-throughput screen (HTS) of more than 300,000 small molecules within the MLPCN for modulators of Kir2.1 function. Here we report one potent Kir2.1 inhibitor, ML133, which inhibits Kir2.1 with IC50 of 1.8 μM at pH 7.4 and 290 nM at pH 8.5, but exhibits little selectivity against other members of Kir2.x family channels. However, ML133 has no effect on Kir1.1 (IC50 > 300 μM), and displays weak activity for Kir4.1 (76 μM) and Kir7.1 (33 μM), making ML133 the most selective small molecule inhibitor of the Kir family reported to date. Due to the high homology within the Kir family, the channels share a common design of a pore region flanked by two transmembrane domains, identification of site(s) critical for isoform specificity would be an important basis for future development of more specific and potent Kir inhibitors. Using chimeric channels between Kir2.1 and Kir1.1 and site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified D172 and I176 within M2 segment of Kir2.1 as molecular determinants critical for the potency of ML133 mediated inhibition. Double mutation of the corresponding residues of Kir1.1 to those of Kir2.1 (N171D and C175I) transplants ML133 inhibition to Kir1.1. Together, the combination of a potent, Kir2 family selective inhibitor and identification of molecular determinants for the specificity provides both a tool and a model system to enable further mechanistic studies of modulation of Kir2 inward rectifier potassium channels. PMID:21615117

  18. Indication of lower neck irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma without nodal metastasis: the potential impact of tumor volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jie; ZHOU Jia-yin; Vincent FH CHONG; James BK Khoo

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective radiation of lower neck is controversial for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) without lymph node metastasis (N0 disease).Tumor volume is an important prognostic indicator.The objective of this study is to explore the potential impact of tumor volume on the indication of the lower neck irradiation for N0-NPC,by a qualitative evaluation of the relationship between tumor volume and nodal metastasis.Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 99 consecutive patients with NPC who underwent treatment were retrospectively reviewed.Primary tumor volumes of NPC were semi-automatically measured,nodal metastases were N-classified and neck level involvements were examined.Distributions of tumor volumes among N-category-based groups and distributions of N-categories among tumor volume-based groups were analyzed,respectively.Results The numbers of patients with N0 to N3 disease were 12,39,32,and 16,respectively.The volumes of primary tumor were from 3.3 to 89.6 ml,with a median of 17.1 ml.For patients with nodal metastasis,tumor volume did not increase significantly with the advancing of N-category (P >0.05).No significant difference was found for the distribution of N1,N2,and N3 categories among tumor volume-based groups (P >0.05).Nevertheless patients with nodal metastasis had significantly larger tumor volumes than those without metastasis (P <0.05).Patients with larger tumor volumes were associated with an increased incidence of nodal metastasis.Conclusions Certain positive correlations existed between tumor volume and the presence of nodal metastasis.The tumor volume (>10 ml) is a potential indicator for the lower neck irradiation for N0-NPC.

  19. Oxygen-transfer performance of a newly designed, very low-volume membrane oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Felice; Ciocan, Sorin; Carmona, Natalia Mendez; Berner, Marion; Sourdon, Joevin; Carrel, Thierry P; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik T; Longnus, Sarah L

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenation of blood and other physiological solutions are routinely required in fundamental research for both in vitro and in vivo experimentation. However, very few oxygenators with suitable priming volumes (parallel-oriented microporous polypropylene hollow fibres, placed inside a hollow shell with a lateral-luer outlet, and sealed at both extremities. With this design, perfusate is delivered via the core-tube to the centre of the mini-oxygenator, and exits via the luer port. A series of mini-oxygenators were constructed and tested in an in vitro perfusion circuit by monitoring oxygen transfer using modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer or whole porcine blood. Effects of perfusion pressure and temperature over flows of 5-60 ml × min(-1) were assessed. Twelve mini-oxygenators with a mean priming volume of 1.5 ± 0.3 ml were evaluated. With buffer, oxygen transfer reached a maximum of 14.8 ± 1.0 ml O2 × l(-1) (pO2: 450 ± 32 mmHg) at perfusate flow rates of 5 ml × min(-1) and decreased with an increase in perfusate flow to 7.8 ± 0.7 ml ml O2 × l(-1) (pO2: 219 ± 24 mmHg) at 60 ml × min(-1). Similarly, with blood perfusate, oxygen transfer also decreased as perfusate flow increased, ranging from 33 ± 5 ml O2 × l(-1) at 5 ml × min(-1) to 11 ± 2 ml O2 × l(-1) at 60 ml × min(-1). Furthermore, oxygen transfer capacity remained stable with blood perfusion over a period of at least 2 h. We have developed a new miniaturized membrane oxygenator with an ultra-low priming volume (circuits, such as small animal extracorporeal circulation and ex vivo organ perfusion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  1. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  2. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  3. A STUDY COMPARING DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ROPIVACAINE 0.125% VS. 0.2%, WHEN GIVEN WITH FENTANYL 2 MCG/ML FOR EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epidural administration of local anaesthetics, with or without opioids, is commonly used for the relief of pain in labor. Lower concentration of local anesthetics is used for providing labor epidural analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS After approval of the Institutional Ethical Committee, this study was conducted at a teaching hospital in GGH, Kakinada on 50 term parturients. 50 parturients of ASA I & II, primi or multi gravida with singleton pregnancy having vertex presentation were taken up for the study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups–Group R1 and Group R2 each comprising of 25 parturients. Study patients (n=50 were randomly assigned to one of two groups of 25 each. They received aliquots of epidural injection using either, 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.125 % with 2 μg/ml fentanyl (group R1 or 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% with 2 μg/ml fentanyl (group R2. RESULTS Demographic data, obstetric data, and injection delivery interval were comparable in both groups. Effective labor analgesia with no motor blockade was observed in both groups. Duration of analgesia after initial bolus dose was also significantly longer in group R2 (126.45 ± 12.34 min than in group R1 (73.05±27.4min. Ropivacaine at both concentrations (0.2% vs. 0.125% along with fentanyl 2μg / ml decreased visual analog scale (VAS scores to <3 in all parturients uniformly. Mean VAS scores were significantly less in group R2 than in group R1 at 5,60, and 90 min. Requirement of top-up doses was significantly less in group R2 as compared to group R1. Consumption of ropivacaine was comparable in both the groups (58.23 ± 5.48 mg in group R1 and 65.88 ± 6.29 mg in group R2, but consumption of fentanyl was significantly more in group R1 (94.31 ± 4.93 mg as compared to group R2 (31.58 ± 2.38 mg. There were no significant changes in haemodynamics, nor adverse effects related to neonatal or maternal outcomes in both groups. CONCLUSION We conclude that both the concentrations

  4. 猪0.5mL细管冷冻精液的人工授精试验%Studies on artificial insemination with 0.5 mL straws frozen semen in boar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张渭斌; 孙世铎; 刘丑生; 朱芳贤; 谷合勇

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 0.5 mL straws frozen boar semen were produced to observe the result of artificial insemination.【Method】 Thirty-six sows were randomly divided into eight groups.Group A-1(n=5) and A-2(n=5) sows were inseminated with fresh semen with a dose of 4×109 spermatozoa,using 80 mL extender.group A-1 using conventional AI and A-2 using IUI catheter.Group B-1(n=4) and B-2(n=4) sows were used for intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with 20 mL extender.B-1 with a dose of 1×109 spermatozoa and B-2 with a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa.Group C-1(n=5) and C-2(n=5) sows were used for intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa,C-1 using 60 mL extender and C-2 using 80 mL extender.Group D-1(n=4) and D-2(n=4) sows were used to intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with a dose of 4×109 spermatozoa,C-1 using 60 mL extender and C-2 using 80 mL extender.The pregnancy rate(PR),farrowing rate(FR) and total number of piglet born(TNB) were recorded.【Result】 The above procedures yielded the highest post-thaw motility of(42.4±0.9)% and the plasma integrity of(47.2±0.3)%,together with the normal acrosome was(46.8±0.4)%.Inseminations with fresh semen yielded a pregnanty rate of 100% and a mean litter size of 9.00±0.63 NBA(Number boar alive) piglets.Insemination with frozen semen yieled a pregnancy rate of 72% and a mean litter size of 6.64±0.82 NBA piglets.Compared fresh with frozen semen,the pregnancy and farrowing rates were higher than those in frozen semen groups.【Conclusion】 Artificial insemination with fresh sperm was better than frozen semen.Frozen semen diluted with 60 and 80 mL volume had no significant effect on the birth rate,and the number born alive.In conclusion,frozen boar semen can be used successfully by using IUI catheter at a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa,diluted with 60 mL of semen extender.%【目的】制备猪0.5mL细管冷冻精液,并

  5. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kanda,1 Yuji Hirasaki,2 Takafumi Iida,1 Megumi Kanao,1 Yuki Toyama,1 Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hiroshi Iwasaki,11Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, 2Department of Anatomy, The Jikei University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system.Materials and methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11 or normal saline (Saline group, n=11 for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups.Results: SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001. LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001, whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05. Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01 but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05. Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05, whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L

  6. Measurement of four chambers' volumes and ventricular masses by cardiac CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Motomasa; Naito, Hiroaki; Ohta, Mitsushige; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kito, Yoshitsugu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Using cardiac computed tomography (CT), the ''mean'' volume of each cardiac chamber and both ventricular masses were calculated from summation of a sliced volume by ungated scans obtained using rapid sequential scanning covering the whole heart. 1. Estimation of a normal value of each chamber's volume was attempted in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease and with normal heart function. The ''mean'' volume of the right atrium (RAMV), right ventricle (RVMV), and left atrium (LAMV) was 22.3 +- 6.5, 40.3 +- 6.5 and 28.7 +- 8.2ml/m/sup 2/, respectively. 2. In 54 patients with valvular heart diseases, each chamber's volume obrained by CT was compared with the grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) estimated by ultrasonic Doppler technique or the grade of mitral regurgitation (MR) by left ventriculography (LVG). The RAMV (234 +- 119 ml/m/sup 2/) and the RVMV (101 +- 39 ml/m/sup 2/) were markedly increased in patients with severe TR (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). The LAMV (487 +- 231 ml/m/sup 2/) was also increased in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). 3. In 46 patients with valvular heart diseases, the LVMV by CT was well correlated with end-diastolic volume (EDV) obtained by LVG (r=0.92), and the LVEDVs by ECG gated CT and by LVG showed a fairly good correlation (r=0.95). 4. CT examination was performed before and after surgery in 17 patients with MR or TR for evaluation of the change of chamber volumes. The mean reduction ratio (MRR) of the RAMV after tricuspid annuloplasty, the LVMV after mitral valve plasty, and the LAMV after left atrial plication was 44%, 41%, and 60%, respectively.

  7. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for one minute. Each subject treated his/her hands with n-propanol (60%, v/v), with as many portions as necessary to keep the hands wet for three minutes (6-12 ml). Bacterial post-values were taken from one hand (immediate effect); the other hand was gloved for three hours (sizes 7-9). The second post-value was taken when the glove was removed (3 h effect). The mean immediate log10 reduction of CFU was 2.56 ± 1.12. The glove size had no significant effect on the efficacy of disinfection (p = 0.182; ANOVA). However, a volume of 6 ml was significantly less effective than 9 ml for glove sizes of 7.5-8 (p < 0.05; Tukey post hoc analysis). The mean log10 reduction after 3 h was 2.12 ± 1.24. A volume of 6 ml was again significantly less effective than 12 ml for glove size 7 and than 9 ml for glove sizes 7.5-8 (p < 0.05). The application of small volumes of surgical hand disinfectant when using the EN 12791 reference procedure is likely to yield poor efficacy results, regardless of hand size.

  8. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  9. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  10. Effect of local anesthetic volume (15 vs 40 mL) on the duration of ultrasound-guided single shot axillary brachial plexus block: a prospective randomized, observer-blinded trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, K.P.; Wegener, J.T.; Stienstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the advantages of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block is that visualization of local anesthetic spread allows for a reduction in dose. However, little is known about the effect of dose reduction on sensory and motor block duration. The purpose of the present st

  11. Effect of local anesthetic volume (15 vs 40 mL) on the duration of ultrasound-guided single shot axillary brachial plexus block: a prospective randomized, observer-blinded trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, K.P.; Wegener, J.T.; Stienstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the advantages of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block is that visualization of local anesthetic spread allows for a reduction in dose. However, little is known about the effect of dose reduction on sensory and motor block duration. The purpose of the present

  12. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  13. [Extracellular fluid, plasma and interstitial volume in cirrhotic patients without clinical edema or ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Viñas, E C; Hames, W; Mothe, G; Barrionuevo, M P

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular fluid volume (E.C.F.) and plasma volume (P.V.), were measured with sodium sulfate labeled with 35I and 131I human serum albumin, respectively, by the dilution technique in control subjects and in cirrhotic patients without clinical ascites or edema, renal or hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding or diuretics. Results are expressed as mean +/- DS in both ml/m2 and ml/kg. In normal subjects E.C.F. (n = 8) was 7,533 +/- 817 ml/m2 (201.3 +/- 182 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 11) 1,767 +/- 337 ml/m2 (47.2 +/- 9.3 ml/kg), and interstitial fluid (I.S.F.) (n = 7) 5,758 +/- 851 ml/m2 (Table 2). In cirrhotic patients E.C.F. (n = 11) was 10,318 +/- 2,980 ml/m2 (261.7 +/- 76.8 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 12) 2,649 +/- 558 ml/m2 (67.7 +/- 15.6 ml/kg) and I.S.F. (n = 11) 7,866 +/- 2,987 ml/m2 (Table 3). Cirrhotic patients compared with normal subjects have hypervolemia due to a significant E.C.F. and P.V. expansion (p less than 0.02 and less than 0.001 respectively) (Fig. 1). Reasons for E.C.F. and P.V. abnormalities in cirrhotic patients may reflect urinary sodium retention related to portal hipertension which stimulates aldosterone release or enhanced renal tubular sensitivity to the hormone. However, it is also possible that these patients, in the presence of hypoalbuminemia (Table 1), have no clinical edema or ascites due to increased glomerular filtration, suppressed release of vasopressin, increased natriuretic factor, and urinary prostaglandin excretion, in response to the intravascular expansion, all of which increased solute and water delivery to the distal nephron and improved renal water excretion. We conclude that in our clinical experience cirrhotic patients without ascites or edema have hypervolemia because of a disturbance in E.C.F.

  14. Left ventricular volume determination from single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, S.R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Schmidt, W.P.; Cawthon, M.A.; Karl, R.D. Jr.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H. III; Rubal, B.J.

    1985-02-01

    To compare the accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with that of contrast cineangiography in measuring left ventricular end-diastolic volume, 25 consecutive patients undergoing catheterizaiton for coronary artery or valvular heart disease were first evaluated scintigraphically. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those determined by angiography with a standard error of the estimate of 23 ml. SPECT offers a highly accurate and essentially noninvasive method for measuring chamber volumes that is independent of geometric assumptions about ventricular configuration and chest wall attenuation and does not require blood sample counting.

  15. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  16. Fast Cryopreservation of the Mammalian Embryos in Different Developmental Stages by 0.25 mL Straws Vitrification with One Equilibration Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Cean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to test the cryoprotective proprieties of 7 vitrification media, designed in our laboratory, using the 0.25 mL straws vitrification method, with one equilibration step. As biological material we used mouse females, age 2 months superovulated with 5UI PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine and 5 UI hCG (human Corionic Gonadotropine. For freezing we used embryos in three developmental stages: 2 cells, morula and blastocyst. After recovery, the embryos were placed in equilibration media, after 5 minutes, the embryos were introduced in straws, in vitrification media and plugged directly into liquid nitrogen. After vitrification the straws were thawed in water bath at 37°C, the embryos were rehydrated for 5 minutes and then in vitro cultured. The percent of embryos that rehydrated, resumed development and hatched were registered. The best results were obtained with embryos in morula stage that had a hatching rate of 20.83% when MV1 was used for vitrification. None of the embryos in 2 cells and blastocyst stage hatched after thawing and in vitro culture, regardless of the vitrification media used. From the vitrification media tested, the worst results were obtained with MV4 and MV6, none of the embryos reached hatching stage, regardless of the development stage. The vitrification method in 0.25 mL straws, with one equilibration step can be used for cryopreservation of the morula stage embryos, but is ineffective for vitrification of the 2 cells and blastocyst stage embryo. Media VM4 and VM6 are not suited for vitrification in 0.25 mL straws, with one equilibration step, of mouse embryos.

  17. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil.

  18. Feasibility of prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch coronary CT angiography with 30 mL iodinated contrast agent at 70 kVp: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Qi, Li; Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Ji, Xue Man; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jing [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Cardiology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Spearman, James V.; De Cecco, Carlo Nicola; Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, image quality and radiation dose of prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with 30 mL contrast agent at 70 kVp. Fifty-eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease, a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 kg/m{sup 2}, sinus rhythm and a heart rate (HR) of less than 70 beats per minute (bpm) were prospectively enrolled in this study. Thirty mL of 370 mg I/mL iodinated contrast agent was administrated at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. All patients underwent prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch CCTA on a second-generation dual-source CT system at 70 kVp using automated tube current modulation. Fifty-six patients (96.6 %) had diagnostic CCTA images and two patients (3.4 %) had one vessel with poor image quality each rated as non-diagnostic. No significant effects of HR, HR variability and BMI on CCTA image quality were observed (all P > 0.05). Effective dose was 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv and the size-specific dose estimate was 1.03 ± 0.13 mGy. Prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch CCTA at 70 kVp with 30 mL of contrast agent can provide diagnostic image quality at a radiation dose of less than 0.2 mSv in patients with a BMI of less than 25 kg/m{sup 2} and an HR of less than 70 bpm. (orig.)

  19. Éxito anestésico de 1,8ml de Lidocaína 2% en exodoncia de dientes mandibulares. Estudio piloto.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Aravena; Nicol Bustos; Andrea Cerón; Viviana Castillo; Claudio González

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar el efecto anestésico de un cartucho de 1,8ml de anestesia lidocaína al 2% con epinefrina 1:100.000 en la técnica troncular al nervio alveolar inferior (NAI) para la exodoncia de dientes mandibulares. Material y método: Estudio piloto de carácter analítico. Participaron pacientes voluntarios del servicio Urgencia Dental de Valdivia-Chile con indicación de exodoncia en dientes mandibulares entre Mayo y Julio del año 2010. La técnica anestésica fue realizada por un ...

  20. mproved enema method glycerine enema 200ml%改良的开塞露200 ml的灌肠方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪越; 叶兰凤

    2014-01-01

    cosmeticsurgeryafterthecustomerduetotheimpactofpain,diet,activity,livingenvironment,andotheraspectsofthepostoperativeabdominaldistension,oftenexistsand is not easy to bowel symptoms,including we commonly used solution:enema 20-40ml anus,oral phenolphthalein tablet,Maren Pil s,told customers eat crude fiber foods for example,celery, sweet potato,taro;fruit:kiwi fruit,dragon fruit,apple,banana etc..The 200ml glycerine enema,the conventional method is to use the 50ml injection of glycerine enema syringe nipple aspira-tion after connected with a sputum suction tube inserted into the anus after lubrication,divided into four times operation steps,sputum suction tube is hard,insert the anus,customers wil not comfortable,my branch uses the method of enema with Kaiselu 200ml improved,after the clinical use,the ef ect is bet er,introduce as fol ows now.%I美容整形手术后顾客因术后疼痛、饮食、活动、居住环境、麻药等方面的影响,往往存在腹胀、不易排便的症状,我院现常用的解决方法包括:开塞露20-40ml纳肛、口服酚酞片、麻仁丸、嘱顾客多食粗纤维食物例如:芹菜、红薯、芋头等;水果有:猕猴桃、火龙果、苹果、香蕉等。200ml开塞露灌肠,以往常规方法是用50ml注射器抽吸开塞露后,注射器乳头接吸痰管,润滑后插入肛门,分四次进行操作,步骤多,吸痰管较硬,插入肛门,顾客会有不舒适感,我科采用了改良的开塞露200ml的灌肠方法,经过临床使用,效果较好,现介绍如下:

  1. The Significance of PSA Modified Parameters (F/T)/PSAD for Diagnosing Prostatic Cancer in the Grey Zone of 4~10 ng/ml

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the diagnostic value of modified prostate specific antigen (PSA) parameters in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCA)when the serum PSA is in a grey zone of 4~10 ng/ml.METHODS The results of serum PSA determinations of the patients receiving a transrectal ultrasound- guided multiphase prostatic biopsy, were retrospectively analyzed. In the 88 patients with a serum PSA value of 4-10 ng/ml, the final diagnosis of PCA was made in 21, and that of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in 67 patients. The percentage of the free-serum PSA ([FPSA]/total-serum PSA [TPSA], F/T), PSA density (PSAD) and the sensitivity and specificity of the new PSA modified parameter (F/T)/PSAD in diagnosing PCA, within a set threshold value, was compared.RESULTS In the 88 patients with serum PSA in the grey zone of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml, there was no significant difference in comparing the TPSA between the 21 PCA patients and 67 BPH patients (P>0.05). However,there was a significant difference in the value of modified PSA parameters,such as F/T, PSAD and (F/T)/PSAD, between the PCA and the BPH groups (P<0.001). As the cut off point-value of the F/T, PSAD and (F/T)/PSAD was set at 0.16, 0.15 and 0.8, the diagnostic sensitivity for PCA was 66.7%,76.2% and 85.7%, and the specificity was 41.8%, 43.3% and 68.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity comparing the modified parameters for diagnosing PCA (P>0.05), whereas an overt predominance was present in the specificity of (F/T)/PSAD for PCA diagnosis (P<0.05).CONCLUSION In the serum PSA grey zone of 4-10 ng/ml, a modified PSA parameter can improve the PCA diagnostic accuracy rate. With a considerably high sensitivity, application of the (F/T)/PSAD may effectively enhance the diagnostic specificity, which is superior to the F/T and PSAD,and can be expected to be one of the new indices derived from the PSA.

  2. Éxito anestésico de 1,8ml de Lidocaína 2% en exodoncia de dientes mandibulares. Estudio piloto.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Aravena; Nicol Bustos; Andrea Cerón; Viviana Castillo; Claudio González

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar el efecto anestésico de un cartucho de 1,8ml de anestesia lidocaína al 2% con epinefrina 1:100.000 en la técnica troncular al nervio alveolar inferior (NAI) para la exodoncia de dientes mandibulares. Material y método: Estudio piloto de carácter analítico. Participaron pacientes voluntarios del servicio Urgencia Dental de Valdivia-Chile con indicación de exodoncia en dientes mandibulares entre Mayo y Julio del año 2010. La técnica anestésica fue realizada por un ...

  3. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Picard, Ghislain; Roy, Alexandre; Dupont, Florent; Fily, Michel; Royer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer), and is available at http:lgge.osug.frpicarddmrtml.

  4. Subarachnuid cerebral hemorrhage treated with unequal volume of cerebrospinal fluid replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Min; Zhejiang; Tongxiang; Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong; Xu Yusi; Cai Aiying; Qiu Jiannin

    2000-01-01

    Objective To asscss the effcct and safely of treatment with unequal volume replacement of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in cases of subarachnosd hemorrhage(SAH). Background 48 cases of SAH were seleeted which comply to the diagnostic standard set bh the 2nd National meeting of cerebro-vascular diseases and confirmed by CT and CSF examination. Randomly 24 cases were treated as above called treated cases and the other 24 cases as control. Method Treated Treated cases, after successful spinal puncture, 5to 10 ml of CSF were withdrawn. Normal saline were replaced but the volume were 2ml less than the amount withdraw. This is repeated until 6-10ml were withdrawn. The last injeetion of normal saline was aeeompanied with 5mg of dexamethasonum. Cases treated replacement were between 1 to 4times. Result After replacement intracranial pressure (ICP) were generally lowered and headache immediately lcssened or relieved. No further bleeding or herniation of brain occurred. Discussion At present the replaccment of CSF are generally of equal volame. This may cause recurrent bleeding or herniation of brain. After unequal volume replacement, great fluctuation of ICP bu comparison may be lowered. In treated cases duration of headache cerebral vasospasm(CVS), ocurance of hydrocephlus were generally less than the control cases(p<0.05). No intracranial infection in treated casea. Conelusion Unequal volume replacement of CSF in treatment of SAH is effeetive. It is safer than equal volume replacement

  5. 3D CT modeling of hepatic vessel architecture and volume calculation in living donated liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frericks, Bernd B. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200, Berlin (Germany); Caldarone, Franco C.; Savellano, Dagmar Hoegemann; Stamm, Georg; Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Galanski, Michael [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Nashan, Bjoern; Klempnauer, Juergen [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Viszeral und Transplantationschirurgie, Hannover (Germany); Schenk, Andrea; Selle, Dirk; Spindler, Wolf; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto [Centrum fuer Medizinische Diagnosesysteme und Visualisierung, Bremen (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a software tool for non-invasive preoperative volumetric assessment of potential donors in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). Biphasic helical CT was performed in 56 potential donors. Data sets were post-processed using a non-commercial software tool for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualisation of liver segments. Semi-automatic definition of liver margins allowed the segmentation of parenchyma. Hepatic vessels were delineated using a region-growing algorithm with automatically determined thresholds. Volumes and shapes of liver segments were calculated automatically based on individual portal-venous branches. Results were visualised three-dimensionally and statistically compared with conventional volumetry and the intraoperative findings in 27 transplanted cases. Image processing was easy to perform within 23 min. Of the 56 potential donors, 27 were excluded from LDLT because of inappropriate liver parenchyma or vascular architecture. Two recipients were not transplanted due to poor clinical conditions. In the 27 transplanted cases, preoperatively visualised vessels were confirmed, and only one undetected accessory hepatic vein was revealed. Calculated graft volumes were 1110{+-}180 ml for right lobes, 820 ml for the left lobe and 270{+-}30 ml for segments II+III. The calculated volumes and intraoperatively measured graft volumes correlated significantly. No significant differences between the presented automatic volumetry and the conventional volumetry were observed. A novel image processing technique was evaluated which allows a semi-automatic volume calculation and 3D visualisation of the different liver segments. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  7. Assessment of volume depletion in children with malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Planche

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degree of volume depletion in severe malaria is currently unknown, although knowledge of fluid compartment volumes can guide therapy. To assist management of severely ill children, and to test the hypothesis that volume changes in fluid compartments reflect disease severity, we measured body compartment volumes in Gabonese children with malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Total body water volume (TBW and extracellular water volume (ECW were estimated in children with severe or moderate malaria and in convalescence by tracer dilution with heavy water and bromide, respectively. Intracellular water volume (ICW was derived from these parameters. Bioelectrical impedance analysis estimates of TBW and ECW were calibrated against dilution methods, and bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements were taken daily until discharge. Sixteen children had severe and 19 moderate malaria. Severe childhood malaria was associated with depletion of TBW (mean [SD] of 37 [33] ml/kg, or 6.7% [6.0%] relative to measurement at discharge. This is defined as mild dehydration in other conditions. ECW measurements were normal on admission in children with severe malaria and did not rise in the first few days of admission. Volumes in different compartments (TBW, ECW, and ICW were not related to hyperlactataemia or other clinical and laboratory markers of disease severity. Moderate malaria was not associated with a depletion of TBW. CONCLUSIONS: Significant hypovolaemia does not exacerbate complications of severe or moderate malaria. As rapid rehydration of children with malaria may have risks, we suggest that fluid replacement regimens should aim to correct fluid losses over 12-24 h.

  8. Simulation of the microwave emission of multi-layered snowpacks using the dense media radiative transfer theory: the DMRT-ML model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Picard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DMRT-ML is a physically-based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1–200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by space-based microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the user to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large ice-sheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software.

  9. Simulation of the microwave emission of multi-layered snowpacks using the Dense Media Radiative transfer theory: the DMRT-ML model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Picard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DMRT-ML is a physically based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1–200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by space-based microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the model to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large ice-sheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software. A convenient user interface is provided in Python.

  10. Simulation of the Microwave Emission of Multi-layered Snowpacks Using the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory: the DMRT-ML Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, G.; Brucker, Ludovic; Roy, A.; Dupont, F.; Fily, M.; Royer, A.; Harlow, C.

    2013-01-01

    DMRT-ML is a physically based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1-200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by spacebased microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT) to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the model to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large icesheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada) and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software. A convenient user interface is provided in Python.

  11. Awa1p on the cell surface of sake yeast inhibits biofilm formation and the co-aggregation between sake yeasts and Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Satoru; Shimizu, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    We examined mixed-species biofilm formation between Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 and both foaming and non-foaming mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeasts. Wild-type strains showed significantly lower levels of biofilm formation compared with the non-foaming mutants. Awa1p, a protein involved in foam formation during sake brewing, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and is associated with the cell wall of sake yeasts. The AWA1 gene of the non-foaming mutant strain Kyokai no. 701 (K701) has lost the C-terminal sequence that includes the GPI anchor signal. Mixed-species biofilm formation and co-aggregation of wild-type strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7) were significantly lower than K701 UT-1 (K701 ura3/ura3 trp1/trp1), while the levels of strain K701 UT-1 carrying the AWA1 on a plasmid were comparable to those of K7. The levels of biofilm formation and co-aggregation of the strain K701 UT-1 harboring AWA1 with a deleted GPI anchor signal were similar to those of K701 UT-1. These results clearly demonstrate that Awa1p present on the surface of sake yeast strain K7 inhibits adhesion between yeast cells and L. plantarum ML11-11, consequently impeding mixed-species biofilm formation.

  12. An improved method to extract DNA from 1 ml of uncultured amniotic fluid from patients at less than 16 weeks' gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Mosca-Boidron

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an improved technique for DNA extraction from 1 ml of uncultured AF from patients with a gestational age less than 16 weeks and to allow the use of array-CGH without DNA amplification. The DNA extraction protocol was tested in a series of 90 samples including 41 of uncultured AF at less than 16 weeks of gestation. Statistical analyses were performed using linear regression. To evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of array-CGH on 1 ml of uncultured AF, five samples with an abnormal karyotype (three with aneuploidy, two with structural abnormalities and five with a normal karyotype were studied. This protocol was reproducible and we were able to show a great improvement with higher yield of DNA obtained from all patients, including those with a gestational age less than 16 weeks (p = 0.003. All chromosomal abnormalities were detected and characterized by array-CGH and normal samples showed normal profiles. This new DNA extraction protocol associated with array-CGH analysis could be used in prenatal testing even when gestational age is less than 16 weeks, especially in cases with abnormal ultrasound findings.

  13. Effect of stoichiometry and Cu-substitution on the phase structure and hydrogen storage properties of Ml-Mg-Ni-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Yang Tao; Quan Huo

    2015-01-01

    To improve the electrochemical properties of rare-earth–Mg–Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys, the effects of stoichiometry and Cu-substitution on the phase structure and thermodynamic properties of the alloys were studied. Nonsubstituted Ml0.80Mg0.20(Ni2.90Co0.50-Mn0.30Al0.30)x (x=0.68, 0.70, 0.72, 0.74, 0.76) alloys and Cu-substituted Ml0.80Mg0.20(Ni2.90Co0.50–yCuyMn0.30Al0.30)0.70 (y=0, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50) alloys were prepared by induction melting. Phase structure analysis shows that the nonsubstituted alloys consist of a LaNi5 phase, a LaNi3 phase, and a minor La2Ni7 phase;in addition, in the case of Cu-substitution, the Nd2Ni7 phase appears and the LaNi3 phase vanishes. Ther-modynamic tests show that the enthalpy change in the dehydriding process decreases, indicating that hydride stability decreases with in-creasing stoichiometry and increasing Cu content. The maximum discharge capacity, kinetic properties, and cycling stability of the alloy electrodes all increase and then decrease with increasing stoichiometry or increasing Cu content. Furthermore, Cu substitution for Co ame-liorates the discharge capacity, kinetics, and cycling stability of the alloy electrodes.

  14. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  15. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mahidol University, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  16. The extent of the perihemorrhagic perfusion zone correlates with hematoma volume in patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Haenggi, Daniel [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, Bernd [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Existing data on perfusion imaging assumes the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to be size steady. This study investigates the size of the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) in patients with lobar ICH in relation to hematoma volume during the course of treatment using perfusion CT (PCT). The present analysis is based on a previously reported cohort of 20 patients undergoing surgical evacuation for lobar SICH, with pre- and early postoperative PCT scanning. Time to peak of the residue function (T{sub max}) was measured based on the 360 cortical banding method and singular value decomposition. The size of PHZ was determined before and after treatment and correlated with hematoma volume. Preoperative mean hematoma volume constituted 63.0 ml (interquartile ranges (IQR) 39.7-99.4 ml), which correlated significantly (r = 0.563, p = 0.010) with mean PHZ size (5.67 cm, IQR 5.44-8.17 cm). Following a surgical hematoma evacuation, mean hematoma volume was reduced to 2.5 ml IQR 0.0-9.5 ml, which also resulted in a significant reduction of PHZ size to 0.45 cm(IQR 0.0-1.36 cm; p < 0.001). There was no association between postoperative hematoma volume and size of the PHZ. Our findings illustrate that the extent of the PHZ cannot be generally assumed to be constant in size and that this differs significantly following hematoma reduction in patients with space occupying lobar SICH. (orig.)

  17. Determination of right ventricular volumes during aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, P; Gilbart, E; Engelman, E; de Rood, M; Vincent, J L

    1989-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate right ventricular (RV) preload by measurements of right ventricular volumes during aortic clamping and unclamping. Nine patients (aged 67 +/- 9 years) undergoing infrarenal aortic aneurysmectomy were monitored with a pulmonary artery catheter equipped with a fast-response thermistor, allowing determination of RV volumes by the thermodilution technique. Anesthesia consisted of a continuous infusion of alfentanil and 50% N2O. Aortic clamping resulted in a significant decrease in cardiac index (CI) and a significant increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). There was no significant change in right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (from 35% +/- 6% to 33% +/- 8%) in the presence of a significant decrease in stroke index (from 37.2 +/- 9.8 to 31.1 +/- 10.0 mL/beat/m2, P less than 0.05), indicating a significant decrease in RV end-diastolic volume (from 106 +/- 17 to 92 +/- 19 mL, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in cardiac filling pressures. Aortic unclamping was associated with a significant increase in CI and a significant decrease in SVR. There were no significant changes in cardiac filling pressures, RVEF, or RV volumes. Measurements of RV volumes indicated that aortic clamping resulted in a decrease in RV preload, which is usually not demonstrated by measurements of right atrial pressure alone.

  18. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  19. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwang Zoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary.

  20. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  1. Prognostic and predictive value of liver volume on colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Su; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Young Suk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Joon Oh [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To determine the prognostic and predictive value of liver volume in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases. Sixteen patients received whole liver radiotherapy (WLRT) between January 1997 and June 2013. A total dose of 21 Gy was delivered in 7 fractions. The median survival time after WLRT was 9 weeks. In univariate analysis, performance status, serum albumin and total bilirubin level, liver volume and extrahepatic metastases were associated with survival. The mean liver volume was significantly different between subgroups with and without pain relief (3,097 and 4,739 mL, respectively; p = 0.002). A larger liver volume is a poor prognostic factor for survival and also a negative predictive factor for response to WLRT. If patients who are referred for WLRT have large liver volume, they should be informed of the poor prognosis and should be closely observed during and after WLRT.

  2. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  3. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  4. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer`s disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soricelli, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Postiglione, A. [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy); Grivet-Fojaja, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Mainenti, P.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Discepolo, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Varrone, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Salvatore, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Lassen, N.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine/Clinical Physiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-10-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABA{sub A} receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (V{sub d}) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer`s disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured V{sub d} in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex V{sub d} was significantly (P<0.02) reduced: Temporal V{sub d} averaged 69 ml/ml in normals and 51 ml/ml in AD, and parietal V{sub d} averaged 71 ml/ml in normals and 48 ml/ml in AD. These results accord well with emission tomographic studies of blood flow or labelled glucose. This supports the idea that while only measuring a subpopulation of synapses, the IMZ method reflects synaptic loss and hence functional loss in AD. The method constitutes an in vivo version of synaptic quantitation that in histopathological studies has been shown to correlated closely with the mental deterioration in AD. (orig.)

  5. Efeitos de diferentes volumes correntes e da pressão expiratória final positiva sobre a troca gasosa na fístula broncopleural experimental Effects of different tidal volumes and positive end expiratory pressure on gas exchange in experimental bronchopleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Cavicchia Toneloto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo foi desenhado para identificar o efeito da pressão expiratória final positiva (PEEP e o volume corrente pulmonar ideal para ventilar animais com fístula broncopleural produzida cirurgicamente, com o intuito de reduzir a vazão da fístula sem afetar a troca gasosa. MÉTODOS: Avaliação hemodinâmica e respiratória da troca gasosa foi obtida em cinco porcos jovens, saudáveis, da linhagem Large White, ventilados mecanicamente no modo ventilatório volume controlado com FiO2 de 0.4 e relação inspiração:expiração em torno de 1:2, com freqüência respiratória mantida em 22 cpm. A fístula broncopleural foi produzida pela ressecção da língula. Um sistema de drenagem a selo d'água foi instalado e o tórax foi hermeticamente fechado. A troca gasosa e o débito da fístula broncopleural foram medidos com animais ventilados sequencialmente com volumes correntes de 4 ml/kg, 7 ml/kg e 10 ml/Kg alternando zero de pressão expiratória final positiva (ZEEP e PEEP de 10 cmH2O, sempre na mesma ordem. RESULTADOS: Esses dados são atribuídos à ventilação alveolar reduzida e às anormalidades da ventilação/perfusão que foram atenuadas com volumes correntes mais altos. PEEP aumentou o vazamento de ar pela fístula, mesmo com baixos volumes, de 2.0 ± 2,8mL para 31 ± 20,7mL (p= 0,006 e diminuiu a ventilação alveolar em todos os volumes correntes. A ventilação alveolar melhorou com altos volumes correntes, mas aumentou o débito da fístula (4 ml/kg - 2,0 ± 2,8mL e 10 mL/kg - 80,2 ± 43,9mL; p=0,001. Baixos volumes correntes resultaram em hipercapnia (ZEEP - 83,7± 6,9 mmHg e com PEEP 10 -93 ± 10,1mmHg e diminuição significativa da saturação de oxigênio arterial, em torno de 84%. CONCLUSÃO: O volume corrente de 7 ml/kg com ZEEP foi considerado o melhor volume corrente, visto que, apesar da hipercapnia moderada, a saturação de oxigênio arterial é sustentada em torno de 90%. A ventilação alveolar

  6. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...... natriuretic factor. Arterial norepinephrine level, an index of overall sympathetic nervous activity (3.08 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.36 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (mean = 23 ml/kg in patients vs. 27 ml/kg in controls; p ....05). Similarly, renal venous norepinephrine level (an index of renal sympathetic tone; 4.26 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.78 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (r = -0.53, n = 18, p

  7. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of bone metastasis in recurrent prostate cancer and a PSA level <2 ng/ml

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Nielsen, Julie B; Dettmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    /computed tomography ((68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is a novel and promising method for imaging in prostate cancer. The present study reports two cases of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, with evidence of bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT images and low prostate specific antigen PSA levels (.../ml) and PSA doubling time >6 months. The bone metastases were verified by supplementary imaging with (18)F-sodium fluoride PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging as well as biochemical responses to androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT is promising for the restaging of patients......Localization of prostate cancer recurrence, particularly in the bones, is a major challenge with standard of care imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence following curatively intended treatment. Gallium-68-labeled prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography...

  8. Active faults in the epicentral and mesoseismal Ml 6.0 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake region, central Italy. Methodological and seismotectonic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Falcucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Ml 6.0 struck a region of the central Apennines (Italy where several active faults were known since decades, most of which are considered the surface expression of seismogenic sources potentially able to rupture during earthquakes with M of up to 6.5-7. The current debate on which structure/s activated during the mainshock and the possibility that conterminous faults may activate in a near future urged us gathering all the data on surface geological evidence of fault activity we collected over the past 15-20 years in the area. We then map the main tectonic structures of the 2016 earthquake epicentral and mesoseismal region. Our aim is to provide hints on their seismogenic potential, as possible contribution to the national Database of Individual Seismogenic Source (DISS and to the Database of the active and capable fault ITaly HAzard from CApable faults (ITHACA.

  9. A Novel DWPM System Based on ML Algorithm and Blind Channel Identification%一种基于ML算法及盲信道识别的DWPM系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雷; 李建东; 陈晨; 李峰

    2005-01-01

    该文提出了一种基于ML算法及盲信道估计的离散小波包调制(Discrete Wavelet Packet Modulation,DWPM)系统.本文通过基于导频信号的盲信道识别方法,获得信道的状态信息,并且利用基于ZF(Zero Forcing)算法的H矩阵消除码间干扰,最后,利用ML(Maximum Likelihood)算法检测解调后的码元,并且通过仿真分析了该系统在多径衰落信道下的性能.仿真结果表明,该系统的性能要比传统的OFDM系统的性能好.

  10. WellnessRules: A Web 3.0 Case Study in RuleML-Based Prolog-N3 Profile Interoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, Harold; Osmun, Taylor Michael; Craig, Benjamin Larry

    An interoperation study, WellnessRules, is described, where rules about wellness opportunities are created by participants in rule languages such as Prolog and N3, and translated within a wellness community using RuleML/XML. The wellness rules are centered around participants, as profiles, encoding knowledge about their activities conditional on the season, the time-of-day, the weather, etc. This distributed knowledge base extends FOAF profiles with a vocabulary and rules about wellness group networking. The communication between participants is organized through Rule Responder, permitting wellness-profile translation and distributed querying across engines. WellnessRules interoperates between rules and queries in the relational (Datalog) paradigm of the pure-Prolog subset of POSL and in the frame (F-logic) paradigm of N3. An evaluation of Rule Responder instantiated for WellnessRules revealed acceptable Web response times.

  11. Partial characterization of an rpoD-like gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 with a polymerase chain reaction-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansel, X; Dutreix, M; Hartke, A; Boutibonnes, P; Auffray, Y

    1993-11-01

    With degenerated oligonucleotide primers for conserved regions of bacterial sigma factor proteins, a 117-bp internal DNA fragment of an rpoD-like gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The DNA sequence of this PCR product was determined by cycle sequencing, and the deduced amino acid sequence of this internal fragment showed an extensive homology with the known sigma factor sequences from six other microorganisms and present a 13-amino acid region corresponding to the typical "RpoD box" of primary sigma factors. This PCR product was used as a probe to specifically detect sigma homologs in Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. These data are consistent with the existence of a high similarity between the primary sigma factors from diverse Gram-positive microorganisms.

  12. A chemical amplification method for the sequential estimation of phosphorus, arsenic and silicon at ng/ml levels by d.c. polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Ramakrishna, T V; Rajagopalan, S R

    1985-05-01

    A method is described for the sequential determination of phosphorus, arsenic and silicon at ng/ml levels by d.c. polarography. These elements are converted into their heteropolymolybdates and separated by selective solvent extraction. Determination of the molybdenum in the extract gives an enhancement factor of 12 for determination of the hetero-atom. A further enhancement by a factor of 40 is achieved by determining the molybdenum by catalytic polarography in nitrate medium. Charging-current compensation is employed to improve precision and the detection limit. The detection limits for phosphorus, arsenic and silicon are 0.5, 4.7 and 3.1 mu/gl., respectively and the relative standard deviation is 2-2.5%.

  13. Kısmi ve Tam Dönümlü Spektral Metotların Karşılaştırması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Haluk Akın

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, yakın zamanda sunulmuş spektral modüler aritmetik işlemlerinin aritmetik karmaşıklığı üzerindeki bir analiz adım adım değerlendirme yöntemi ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Bilgisayar aritmetiğinde spektral yöntemlerin standart kullanımı çarpma ve indirgeme adımlarının spektrum ve zaman uzayında birbirinden ayrı olarak gerçekleştirilmesi gerektiğini belirtmektedir. Bu tarz bir prosedür ise açıkça tam dönümlü (ileri ve geri yönde DFT hesaplamalarına ihtiyaç duymaktadır. Öte yandan, bazı kısmı değerlerin işlem sırasında hesaplanması ile, yeni yöntemler indirgeme işlemi de dahil olmak üzere tüm verilerin tüm zamanlarda spektrumda tutulmasını gerektiren bir yaklaşımı benimsemişlerdir. Tüm bu yaklaşımların işlem süresi performanslarını karşılaştırdığımızda, tam dönümlü algoritmaların son zamanlarda önerilmiş yöntemlerden daha iyi performans gösterdiğini bu çalışmada göstermiş bulunmaktayız.

  14. Interaction of human malignant melanoma (ST-ML-12) tumor spheroids with endothelial cell monolayers. Damage to endothelium by oxygen-derived free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, F. A.; Wirtz, H. C.; Schiefer, J.; Bigalke, I.; Klosterhalfen, B.; Bittinger, F.; Mittermayer, C.; Kirkpatrick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations suggest that tumor-induced endothelial cell injury may be one of several initial events in the establishment of tumor metastases. To test this hypothesis, the authors have analyzed the interaction of malignant melanoma (ST-ML-12) multicenter tumor spheroids with endothelial cell monolayers in a three-dimensional coculture system. After 1.5 hours of interaction, the authors observed a toxic effect on endothelial cells in the perispheroid region. The latter was demonstrated by testing membrane integrity with the fluorescent probes acridine orange/ethidium bromide and resulted in sensitivity to shear stress of the damaged cells. The endothelium then underwent a regenerative cycle to replace the denuded halo. Addition of the oxygen radical-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase to the culture medium prevented this endothelial cell damage in a dose-dependent manner for up to 12 hours. By contrast, catalase, deferoxamine mesylate, allopurinol, and the proteinase inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and aprotinin were not protective under the same conditions. The endothelial damage was dependent on the attachment of the spheroids. Medium conditioned by ST-ML-12-spheroids proved to be ineffective. A similar, but less prominent, deleterious effect was seen when human peritoneal mesothelial cells were used in place of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Spheroids of the uroepithelial cell line HU-609 were used as control. No toxicity was observed in these cocultures. Melanin biosynthesis is associated with the production of oxygen-derived free radicals. The results suggest a possible implication of these free radicals in metastasis formation of malignant melanoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1519667

  15. LEMS: A language for expressing complex biological models in concise and hierarchical form and its use in underpinning NeuroML 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cannon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models are increasingly important for studying complex neurophysiological systems. As scientific tools, it is essential that such models can be reproduced and critically evaluated by a range of scientists. However, published models are currently implemented using a diverse set of modelling approaches, simulation tools, and computer languages making them inaccessible and difficult to reproduce. Models also typically contain concepts that are tightly linked to domain-specific simulators, or depend on knowledge that is described exclusively in text-based documentation. To address these issues we have developed a compact, hierarchical, XML-based language called LEMS (Low Entropy Model Specification, that can define the structure and dynamics of a wide range of biological models in a fully machine readable format. We describe how LEMS underpins the latest version of NeuroML and show that this framework can define models of ion channels, synapses, neurons and networks. Unit handling, often a source of error when reusing models, is built into the core of the language by specifying physical quantities in models in terms of the base dimensions. We show how LEMS, together with the open source Java and Python based libraries we have developed, facilitates the generation of scripts for multiple neuronal simulators and provides a route for simulator free code generation. We establish that LEMS can be used to define models from systems biology and map them to neuroscience-domain specific simulators, enabling models to be shared between these traditionally separate disciplines. LEMS and NeuroML 2 provide a new, comprehensive framework for defining computational models of neuronal and other biological systems in a machine readable format, making them more reproducible and increasing the transparency and accessibility of their underlying structure and properties.

  16. Screenshot skills at an arbitrary rectangular area based on WindML%基于WindML的屏幕任意矩形区域截图技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国超; 吴限; 熊芯; 黄清清

    2016-01-01

    VxWorks embedded operating system is not convenient for the multimedia technology, and does not pro?vide direct screenshot function similar to Microsoft Windows. Aiming at this phenomenon, this paper presents a bas?ic process for demonstration using WindML 3.0 graphics, which is able to display JPEG images and do basic draw?ings under VxWorks operation system. In addition, this paper proposes a screenshot approach based on bit block transfer ( BitBlt) , and the content of the bitmap data block can be stored as BMP and JPEG formats, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method can capture the screen of any VxWorks rectangular area.%VxWorks嵌入式操作系统对于多媒体技术的支持不够便捷,并且没有提供类似Windows操作系统下的一键截图功能.针对这一问题,给出了基于WindML3.0进行图形界面开发的基本流程,实现了VxWorks操作系统框架下的JPEG图片显示功能以及基础绘图功能.此外还提出了一种基于位图数据块拷贝(BitBlt)技术的截图方法,并将位图数据块内容分别储为BMP和JPEG两种通用图片格式.实验结果表明,该方法实现了VxWorks下的截图功能,能够成功截取屏幕任意矩形区域的画面.

  17. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  18. Comparação entre microssatélites e o gene Ml MntH como alvos para a identificação do Mycobacterium leprae por PCR na hanseníase Comparison between microsatellites and Ml MntH gene as targets to identify Mycobacterium leprae by PCR in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Furquim da Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: PCR tem sido frequentemente utilizada no diagnóstico molecular da hanseníase. OBJETIVOS: comparar os resultados da PCR com 4 pares de primers específicos para Mycobacterium leprae, bem como os resultados da PCR à classificação operacional, segundo a OMS, de multibacilar (MB e paucibacilar (PB da hanseníase. MÉTODO: Vinte e oito amostras de DNA, extraído de biópsias congeladas de pele e de imprint de biópsias em papel de filtro de 23 pacientes (14 MB e 9 PB, foram utilizadas na PCR com primers que amplificam 131pb, 151pb e 168pb de regiões de microssatélites, e um fragmento de 336pb do gene Ml MntH (ML2098 do bacilo. RESULTADOS: O bacilo pôde ser detectado em 22 (78,6% das 28 amostras. Nove (45% das 20 amostras de biópsia e 6 (75% das 8 amostras de imprints foram positivas para TTC. Sete (35,5% amostras de biópsias e 5 (62,5% imprints foram positivos para AGT, e 11 (55% biópsias e 4 (50% imprints foram positivos para AT. Oito (38% amostras de biópsias e 5 (62,5% imprints foram positivos para o gene Ml MntH. Dentre o grupo MB, os microssatélites detectaram o bacilo em 78,5% das amostras, e o gene Ml MntH, em 57,1% das amostras, independentemente do material clínico. No grupo PB, 55,5% das amostras foram positivas para os microssatélites, enquanto que 22,2% o foram para o gene Ml MntH. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados mostram que, tanto as regiões específicas de microssatélites quanto o gene Ml MntH, podem representar ferramentas úteis na detecção do Ml MntH por PCR em amostras de biópsias e imprint de biópsiasBACKGROUND: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique has been frequently used in the molecular diagnosis of leprosy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of PCR with four pairs of Mycobacterium leprae specific primers as well as to compare these results to multibacillary (MB and paucibacillary (PB leprosy according to the WHO operational classification. METHOD: 28 DNA samples, collected from the frozen

  19. Effect of Fixed-Volume and Weight-Based Dosing Regimens on the Cost and Volume of Administered Iodinated Contrast Material at Abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Parikh, Kushal R; Mayo-Smith, William W; Israel, Gary M; Brown, Richard K J; Ellis, James H

    2017-03-01

    To determine the magnitude of subject-level and population-level cost savings that could be realized by moving from fixed-volume low-osmolality iodinated contrast material administration to an effective weight-based dosing regimen for contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-exempt retrospective cohort study of 6,737 subjects undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT from 2014 to 2015. Subject height, weight, lean body weight (LBW), and body surface area (BSA) were determined. Twenty-six volume- and weight-based dosing strategies with literature support were compared with a fixed-volume strategy used at the study institution: 125 mL 300 mgI/mL for routine CT, 125 mL 370 mgI/mL for multiphasic CT (single-energy, 120 kVp). The predicted population- and subject-level effects on cost and contrast material utilization were calculated for each strategy and sensitivity analyses were performed. Most subjects underwent routine CT (91% [6,127/6,737]). Converting to lesser-volume higher-concentration contrast material had the greatest effect on cost; a fixed-volume 100 mL 370 mgI/mL strategy resulted in $132,577 in population-level savings with preserved iodine dose at routine CT (37,500 versus 37,000 mgI). All weight-based iodine-content dosing strategies (mgI/kg) with the same maximum contrast material volume (125 mL) were predicted to contribute mean savings compared with the existing fixed-volume algorithm ($4,053-$116,076/strategy in the overall study population, $1-$17/strategy per patient). Similar trends were observed in all sensitivity analyses. Large cost and material savings can be realized at abdominopelvic CT by adopting a weight-based dosing strategy and lowering the maximum volume of administered contrast material. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  1. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Anti¬gen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LIU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less.Methods: A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated.Results: Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (P<0.05. The PSAD had no statistical significance between the two groups.Conclusions: Routine prostate biopsy should be undertaken if the f/t PSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings. Keywords: Biopsy, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen, PSA ratio, PSAD 

  2. Variations in gastric compliance induced by acute blood volume changes in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça J.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acute volume imbalances on gastric volume (GV was studied in anesthetized rats (250-300 g. After cervical and femoral vessel cannulation, a balloon catheter was positioned in the proximal stomach. The opposite end of the catheter was connected to a barostat with an electronic sensor coupled to a plethysmometer. A standard ionic solution was used to fill the balloon (about 3.0 ml and the communicating vessel system, and to raise the reservoir liquid level 4 cm above the animals' xiphoid appendix. Due to constant barostat pressure, GV values were considered to represent the gastric compliance index. All animals were monitored for 90 min. After a basal interval, they were randomly assigned to normovolemic, hypervolemic, hypovolemic or restored protocols. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP and GV values did not change in normovolemic animals (N = 5. Hypervolemic animals (N = 12 were transfused at 0.5 ml/min with a suspension of red blood cells in Ringer-lactate solution with albumin (12.5 ml/kg, which reduced GV values by 11.3% (P0.05. MAP and CVP values increased (P<0.05 after hypervolemia but decreased (P<0.05 with hypovolemia. In conclusion, blood volume level modulates gastric compliance, turning the stomach into an adjustable reservoir, which could be part of the homeostatic process to balance blood volume.

  3. 64-Slice CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and abdominal arteries: comparison of the diagnostic efficacy of iobitridol 350 mgI/ml versus iomeprol 400 mgI/ml in a prospective, randomised, double-blind multi-centre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, Christian; Schernthaner, Melanie; Lammer, Johannes [Medical University Vienna, Section of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Becker, Christoph R.; Hittinger, Markus [University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Berletti, Riccardo; Favat, Massimo [Belluno Civil Hospital, Department of Radiology, Belluno (Italy); Cametti, Carlo Alberto; Marangoni, Roberto [ASL TO2 Ospedale San G. Bosco, Department of Radiology, Torino (Italy); Caudron, Jerome; Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Coudyzer, Walter; Heye, Sam [UZ Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Mey, Johan de; Nieboer, Koenraad [UZ Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Heautot, Jean-Francois; Larralde, Antoine [Pontchaillou Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rennes (France); Reimer, Peter; Schwarz, Martin [Staedt. Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Radiology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of iodine concentration on diagnostic efficacy in multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta and abdominal arteries. IRB approval and informed consent were obtained. In this double-blind trial, patients were randomised to undergo MDCT angiography of the abdominal arteries during administration of iobitridol (350 mgI/ml) or iomeprol (400 mgI/ml). Each centre applied its own technique for delivery of contrast medium, regardless of iodine concentration. Diagnostic efficacy, image quality, visualisation of the arterial wall and arterial enhancement were evaluated. A total of 153 patients received iobitridol and 154 received iomeprol. The ability to reach a diagnosis was ''satisfactory'' to ''totally satisfactory'' in 152 (99.3%) and 153 (99.4%) patients respectively. Image quality was rated as being ''good'' to ''excellent'' in 94.7 and 94.8% segments respectively. Similar results were observed for image quality of arterial walls (84.3 vs. 83.2%). The mean relative changes in arterial enhancement between baseline and arterial phase images showed no statistically significant differences. This study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the 350 versus 400 mgI/ml iodine concentration, in terms of diagnostic efficacy, in abdominal MDCT angiography. It also confirmed the high robustness and reliability of this technique across multi-national practices. (orig.)

  4. 64-Slice CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and abdominal arteries: comparison of the diagnostic efficacy of iobitridol 350 mgI/ml versus iomeprol 400 mgI/ml in a prospective, randomised, double-blind multi-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Christian; Becker, Christoph R; Berletti, Riccardo; Cametti, Carlo Alberto; Caudron, Jerome; Coudyzer, Walter; De Mey, Johan; Favat, Massimo; Heautot, Jean-François; Heye, Sam; Hittinger, Markus; Larralde, Antoine; Lestrat, Jean-Pierre; Marangoni, Roberto; Nieboer, Koenraad; Reimer, Peter; Schwarz, Martin; Schernthaner, Melanie; Lammer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of iodine concentration on diagnostic efficacy in multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta and abdominal arteries. IRB approval and informed consent were obtained. In this double-blind trial, patients were randomised to undergo MDCT angiography of the abdominal arteries during administration of iobitridol (350 mgI/ml) or iomeprol (400 mgI/ml). Each centre applied its own technique for delivery of contrast medium, regardless of iodine concentration. Diagnostic efficacy, image quality, visualisation of the arterial wall and arterial enhancement were evaluated. A total of 153 patients received iobitridol and 154 received iomeprol. The ability to reach a diagnosis was "satisfactory" to "totally satisfactory" in 152 (99.3%) and 153 (99.4%) patients respectively. Image quality was rated as being "good" to "excellent" in 94.7 and 94.8% segments respectively. Similar results were observed for image quality of arterial walls (84.3 vs. 83.2%). The mean relative changes in arterial enhancement between baseline and arterial phase images showed no statistically significant differences. This study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the 350 versus 400 mgI/ml iodine concentration, in terms of diagnostic efficacy, in abdominal MDCT angiography. It also confirmed the high robustness and reliability of this technique across multi-national practices.

  5. Theoretical studies of molecular structure, electronic structure, spectroscopic properties and the ancillary ligand effect: A comparison of tris-chelate ML 3-type and ML 2X-type species for gallium(III) complexes with N, O-donor phenolic ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yi-Ping; Lin, Yan-Wen

    2011-02-01

    Two Ga(III) complexes with main ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HL'), namely mixed-ligand ML 2X-type [GaL' 2X'] ( 1) (HX' = acetic acid, as ancillary ligand) and the meridianal tris-chelate [GaL' 3] ( 2) have been investigated by the density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) level calculations. Both 1 and 2 can be presented as a similar "mixed-ligand ML 2X-type" species. The molecular geometries, electronic structures, metal-ligand bonding property of Ga-O (N) (main ligand), Ga-O (N) (ancillary ligand) interactions, and the ancillary ligand effect on their HOMO-LUMO gap, their absorption/emission property, and their absorption/emission wavelengths/colors for them have been discussed in detail based on the orbital interactions, the partial density of states (PDOS), and so on. The current investigation also indicates that it is quite probable that by introduction of different ancillary ligands, a series of new mixed-ligand ML 2X-type complexes for group 13 metals can be designed with their absorption/emission property and the absorption/emission wavelengths and colors being tuned.

  6. Volume Fraction of Graphene Platelets in Copper-Graphene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadham, K.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-graphene composite films were deposited on copper foil using electrochemical deposition. Four electrolyte solutions that each consist of 250 mL of graphene oxide suspension in distilled water and increasing volume of 0.2 M solution of CuSO4 in steps of 250 mL were used to deposit the composite films with and without a magnetic stirrer. Graphene oxide in the films was reduced to graphene by hydrogen treatment for 6 hours at 673 K (400 °C). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction for identification of phases, scanning electron microscopy for distribution of graphene, energy dispersive spectrometry for evaluation of elemental composition, electrical resistivity and temperature coefficient of electrical resistance and thermal conductivity. Effective mean field analysis (EMA) was used to determine the volume fraction and electrical conductivity of graphene and interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and copper. The electrical resistivity was reduced from 2.031 to 1.966 μΩ cm and the thermal conductivity was improved from 3.8 to 5.0 W/cm K upon addition of graphene platelets to electrolytic copper. The use of stirrer during deposition of the films increased the average size and the thickness of the graphene platelets and as a result the improvement in electrical conductivity was lower compared to the values obtained without the stirrer. Using the EMA, the volume fraction of graphene platelets that was responsible for the improvement in the electrical conductivity was found to be lower than that for the improvement in the thermal conductivity. The results of the analysis are used to determine the volume fraction of the thinner and the thicker graphene platelets in the composite films.

  7. Array lead zirconate titanate/glass piezoelectric microcantilevers for real-time detection of Bacillus anthracis with 10 spores/ml sensitivity and 1/1000 selectivity in bacterial mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John-Paul; Shih, Wei-Heng; Rest, Richard F.; Purohit, Mitali; Mattiucci, Mark; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Onaral, Banu; Shih, Wan Y.

    2009-12-01

    An array of three identical piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMSs) consisting of a lead zirconate titanate layer bonded to a glass layer was fabricated and examined for simultaneous, in situ, real-time, all-electrical detection of Bacillus anthracis (BA) spores in an aqueous suspension using the first longitudinal extension mode of resonance. With anti-BA antibody immobilized on the sensor surfaces all three PEMS exhibited identical BA detection resonance frequency shifts at all tested concentrations, 10-107 spores/ml with a standard deviation of less than 10%. The detection concentration limit of 10 spores/ml was about two orders of magnitude lower than would be permitted by flexural peaks. In blinded-sample testing, the array PEMS detected BA in three samples containing BA: (1) 3.3×103 spores/ml, (2) a mixture of 3.3×103 spores/ml and 3.3×105 S. aureus (SA) and P. aeruginosa (PA) per ml, and (3) a mixture of 3.3×103 spores/ml with 3.3×106 SA+PA/ml. There was no response to a sample containing only 3.3×106 SA+PA/ml. These results illustrate the sensitivity, specificity, reusability, and reliability of array PEMS for in situ, real-time detection of BA spores.

  8. 3D ultrasound estimation of the effective volume for popliteal block at the level of division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Blanch, X; Franco, J; Bergé, R; Marín, R; López, A M; Agustí, M

    2017-03-01

    Local anaesthetic injection between the tibial and commmon peroneal nerves within connective tissue sheath results in a predictable diffusion and allows for a reduction in the volume needed to achieve a consistent sciatic popliteal block. Using 3D ultrasound volumetric acquisition, we quantified the visible volume in contact with the nerve along a 5cm segment. We included 20 consecutive patients scheduled for bunion surgery. Ultrasound guided popliteal block was performed using a posterior, out of plane approach at the level of división of the sciatic nerve. Thirty ml of mepivacaine 1.5% and levobupivacaine 0.5% were slowly injected while assessing the injection pressure and the diffusion of the local anaesthetic. Volumetric acquisition was performed before and after the block to quantify the the volume of the sciatic nerve and the volume of the surrounding hypoechoic halo contained inside the connective tissue in a 5cm segment. All blocks were successful within 20min after the injection. The total estimated volume contained inside the common connective tissue sheath was 6.8±2.6cm(3). Of this, the volume of the halo sorrounding the nerve was 4.4±1.7cm(3) and the volume inside the sciatic nerve was 2.4±1.7cm(3). The volume of local anaesthetic in close contact with the sciatic nerve can be estimated by volumetric acquisition. Our results suggest that the effective volume of local anaesthetic needed for a successful sciatic popliteal block could be reduced to less than 7ml. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Thyroid Remnant Volume on the Risk of Hypothyroidism After Hemithyroidectomy: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wong, Carlos K H; Wong, Kai Pun; Chu, Kelvin Ka-Wan; Shek, Tony W H

    2017-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common sequel after a hemithyroidectomy. Although various risk factors leading to hypothyroidism have been reported, the effect of the contralateral lobe's volume has been understudied. This study aimed to examine the association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism. During a 2-year period, 150 eligible patients undergoing a hemithyroidectomy were evaluated. The volume of the contralateral nonexcised lobe was estimated preoperatively by independent assessors on ultrasonography using the following formula: width (in cm) × depth (in cm) × length (in cm) × (π/6), adjusted for the body surface area (BSA). Postoperative hypothyroidism was defined as serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) exceeding 4.78 mIU/L. Any significant characteristics in the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate analysis to determine independent factors. After a mean follow-up period of 53.5 ± 9.4 months, 44 patients (29.3 %) experienced postoperative hypothyroidism, and 10 of these patients required thyroxine replacement. Hypothyroidism was associated with a higher preoperative TSH level (p < 0.001), a smaller BSA-adjusted volume (p < 0.001), fewer ipsilateral nodules (p = 0.037), and the presence of thyroiditis (p = 0.050). After adjustment for thyroiditis, preoperative TSH (p < 0.001), number of ipsilateral nodules (p = 0.048), and BSA-adjusted volume (p < 0.001) were independent factors for hypothyroidism. Patients with a BSA-adjusted volume smaller than 3.2 ml had a threefold greater hypothyroidism risk than those with a BSA-adjusted volume of 3.2 ml or more (p < 0.001). A significant inverse association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and hypothyroidism risk was observed after hemithyroidectomy. Together with a higher preoperative TSH level and fewer ipsilateral nodules, a smaller BSA-adjusted volume measured by preoperative ultrasonography independently predicted

  10. Contribution of the amount of contrast media used in pulmonary CT angiography to assess the diagnostic value of CT venography; comparison of 100 and 150 ml of contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisir, C. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: ccalisi1@jhmi.edu; Yavas, U.S.; Kebapci, M.; Korkmaz, A.; Ozkan, R. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Aim: To prospectively compare the vascular attenuation achieved with 100 ml iohexol (350 mg I/ml) 75% with that achieved with 150 ml iohexol (350 mg I/ml) 75% for computed tomography (CT) venography, which was performed after CT pulmonary angiography. Materials and methods: A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Group A, comprising 52 patients (mean age 64.8 years, mean body weight 70.8 kg) received 150 ml iohexol (350 mg I/ml) contrast media. Group B, comprising 70 patients (mean age 61.2 years, mean body weight 71.4 kg) received 100 ml iohexol (350 mg I/ml) contrast medium. Results: Venous opacification values measured at all levels were significantly higher in group A than those in group B (p < 0.001). In group B the mean HU values were between 87 and 115 and only three of the patients had HU values less than 60 at the level of femoral vein. Assuming a venous enhancement of 80 HU as the cut-off value for accurate diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis, 22.8% (16/70) in group B and 7.6% (4/52; p = 0.028) in group A had non-diagnostic CT venography of left femoral vein. Conclusion: One hundred millilitres of contrast medium with a concentration of 350 mg I/ml may produce sufficient enhancement, but 150 ml of contrast medium provides better accuracy for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis diagnosis. For better enhancement of lower extremity deep veins, the concentration of the contrast medium and the patient's body weight may also have significance.

  11. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and 14 normal subjects had renal volume determined by an ultrasonic technique. Renal volume of 299 +/- 49 ml/1.73 m2 (mean +/- SD) in type 1 diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion exceeded that in the normal...... subjects (245 +/- 53 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05). Compared with diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, renal volume was significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria (372 +/- 24 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05) and patients with clinical nephropathy (352 +/- 48 ml/1.73 m2, p less...... than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  12. Pulmonary tissue volume in dogs during pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B T; Petrini, M F; Hyde, R W; Schreiner, B F

    1978-05-01

    Pulmonary tissue volume (Vt) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) were measured in anesthetized dogs by analyzing end-expiratory concentrations of dimethyl ether (DME), acetylene (C2H2), and sulfur hexafluoride during a 30-s rebreathing maneuver. Vt was compared to the postmortem lung weight of control dogs and dogs with hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic (alloxan) pulmonary edema. Qc was compared to the cardiac output measured by dye dilution. A 100-ml increase in alveolar volume (VA) in the range of 1-2 liters resulted in a 9 +/- 3 ml increase in Vt. Vt measured at a VA of 1.9 liters measures 114 +/- 18% of the postmortem lung weight in 20 control dogs and in 6 dogs with moderate edema (lung weight smae mean values of Vt, but the reproducibility of a series of 3-7 measurements was greater with DME (coefficient of variation was 5% with DME and 8% C2H2). Qc measured 96 +/ 15% of the cardiac output during the rebreathing maneuver, but the maneuver caused a 4-40% fall in the cardiac output. These data show that Vt determined by rebreathing DME is between 86% and 135% of the lung weight in dogs with pulmonary edema until the lung weight is greater than 250% of the predicted value.

  13. Characterisation of clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis demonstrating high levels of linezolid resistance (>256 μg/ml) resulting from transmissible and mutational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Emma M; Fitzgibbon, Siobhan; Clair, James; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim M

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), one of the leading etiological agents of nosocomial infections poses a significant economic burden globally. Introduced in 2000, linezolid (LZD) has become an important antibiotic, used in nearly seventy countries worldwide to treat infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens such as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species along with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Resistance to LZD in clinical settings remains rare. Here, we report the emergence of meticillin resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) clinical isolates from two voluntary general acute hospitals exhibiting higher than typically reported levels of LZD resistance (MIC>256 μg/ml). The MRSE ST-2 clone isolated from eight patients (2010-2011) not only possessed resistance-conferring mutations such as G2576T in domain V of 23S rRNA gene (as determined by HRM-PCR analysis) and R172C substitution in the ribosomal protein L3, but also carried the cfr gene (the only known transmissible mechanism of LZD resistance). All isolates possessed several key biofilm-associated genes (such as icaA, icaD, aap and atlE) and resistance to multiple clinically significant antibiotics was recorded. This study reports the earliest incidence (2010) of clinical MRSE in the Republic of Ireland demonstrating multiple LZD resistance mechanisms both mutational and potentially transmissible, and characterises this emerging resistance from a molecular perspective.

  14. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB, intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE observed numerous aftershocks in the five days following the mainshock. The relocated aftershocks and the mainshock focal mechanism indicated a NE-SW striking fault dipping 60¢X toward the northwest. This fault plane is inside the pre-Miocene basement and the rupture extends from the lower crust to 10 km depth just beneath the basal décollement of the thin-skinned model that is generally used to explain the regional tectonics in Taiwan. The fault plane is vertically symmetrical with the Chelungpu fault by the basal décollement. The NW-SE compressive stress of plate collision in Taiwan, as well as the deep tectonic background, resulted in the seismogenic structure of the Mingjian earthquake at this location.

  15. The Normal Cluster Weak Lensing Survey Mass Profiles and M\\/L Ratios of Eight Clusters at z=0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Tyson, T; Bernstein, G; Fischer, P; Smith, D; Wittman, David; Antonio, Ian Dell'; Tyson, Tony; Bernstein, Gary; Fischer, Philippe; Smith, Deano

    2000-01-01

    We present a survey of mass profiles and mass-to-light ratios of eight typical galaxy clusters at a common redshift (z ~ 0.2). We use weak gravitational lensing as a probe because it is unique in avoiding any assumptions about the dynamical state of the clusters. To avoid bias toward the rare and spectacular clusters that are easy targets for lensing work, we selected an ensemble of much more common clusters with moderate X-ray luminosity. Although the survey is still in progress, two conclusions are emerging: (1) within a cluster, mass follows light very closely on the angular scales that we can measure, $0.2-2h^{-1}$ Mpc, and (2) there is a significant cluster-to-cluster scatter in mass-to-light (M/L) ratios despite uniformity of observing, reduction, and analysis procedures. We also derive an estimate of $\\Omega_{matter}$ based on extrapolation from the mass properties of these typical clusters. Finally, we discuss the discovery of other clusters in our fields through their lensing signal.

  16. Lise öğrencisi ergenlerde depresyon, internet bağımlılığı ve ilişkili faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Kamile

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışma, lise öğrencisi ergenlerde depresyon, internet bağımlılığı ve ilişkili faktörleri incelemek amacı ile kesitsel bir araştırma olarak yapılmıştır. Trabzon İl Merkezinde Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğüne bağlı 5 lise de eğitim-öğretim gören 3289 öğrenci üzerinden örneklem büyüklüğü Büyüköztürk ve arkadaşları tarafından önerilen eşitlik ile hesaplanmış olup %95 güven aralığı ile 345 öğrenci olarak bulunmuştur. Araştırmanın desen etkisi 2 kabul edilip 690 öğrenciye ulaşılması hedeflenmiş ancak ö...

  17. Indigenous technique of fabricating vaginal mould for vaginal reconstruction and uterine drainage in McIndoe vaginoplasty using 10 ml syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of vagina poses multitude of physical and psychosocial problems in woman's life. 10% of Mayer- Rokitansky-üster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome patients with high vaginal septum and vaginal atreisa has additional issue of draining uterine cavity. MC Indoe vaginoplasty is universally acceptable and widely practiced procedure for neocolposis reconstruction. Simultaneous reconstruction of vagina with simultaneous continued uterine drainage presents surgical challenge. We offer a simple solution of creating a vaginal mould using a 10 ml disposable syringe, which enables graft application of neovaginal cavity with simultaneous protected uterine drainage per vaginum. Total 10 patients were included in this study of which 4 needed uterine drainage procedure in addition to neovaginal creation. All the patients fared well, there were no problems regarding graft loss or vaginal mould extrusion etc. Fabrication of mould for graft enables easy dressing changes with out disturbing the skin graft. This innovation offers a simple easily reproducible and cheap way of fabricating vaginal mould for McIndoe vaginoplasty. It is especially useful for neovaginal graft application and simultaneous uterine drainage.

  18. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  19. Proceedings of the 11. Annual British Columbia MEND Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage (ML/ARD) Workshop : Performance of Dry Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Smithers, BC (Canada); Tremblay, G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Mine Environment Neutral Drainage Program; Bellefontaine, K. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    Metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD) are considered to be the largest environmental challenge facing the mining industry. This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop focused on the development and application of new technologies to prevent and control acid mine drainage. Significant progress has been made with an objective for new mines to open without long-term consequences of acid drainage upon closure. The mining industry now has access to a range of options to address this issue, including the application of dry covers. The theme of this workshop was the performance of dry covers. The topics of discussion ranged from the design requirements of dry covers, evaluation of the long-term performance of dry cover systems, soil covers in the Canadian north, dry cover projects in Sweden, field scale hydrology of dry covers, dry cover systems at open pit mines, the application of alternative covers for potash mining, and soil covers on waste rock and tailings. The importance of watershed, the major building block of landscapes, was also emphasized. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 1 has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. On Using SysML, DoDAF 2.0 and UPDM to Model the Architecture for the NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Ground System (GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Jeffries, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The JPSS Ground System is a lIexible system of systems responsible for telemetry, tracking & command (TT &C), data acquisition, routing and data processing services for a varied lIeet of satellites to support weather prediction, modeling and climate modeling. To assist in this engineering effort, architecture modeling tools are being employed to translate the former NPOESS baseline to the new JPSS baseline, The paper will focus on the methodology for the system engineering process and the use of these architecture modeling tools within that process, The Department of Defense Architecture Framework version 2,0 (DoDAF 2.0) viewpoints and views that are being used to describe the JPSS GS architecture are discussed. The Unified Profile for DoOAF and MODAF (UPDM) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), as ' provided by extensions to the MagicDraw UML modeling tool, are used to develop the diagrams and tables that make up the architecture model. The model development process and structure are discussed, examples are shown, and details of handling the complexities of a large System of Systems (SoS), such as the JPSS GS, with an equally complex modeling tool, are described

  1. Antiproliferative effect from sesquiterpene lactone s of Carpesium rosulatum MlQ consumed in South Korea on the five human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-In Moon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In search for antiproliferative compound against human cancer cells (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF498, HCT15, a chloroform soluble extract obtained by re-extraction of the methanol extract of whole plant of Carpesium rosulatum MlQ. (Compositae exhibited cytotoxic activity. Four germacrane sesquiterpene lactones 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6-angeloyl-oxy-9β-isobutyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide, 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide, 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α-angeloyloxy-9β-(3-methyl-butanoyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide, and 2β,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide were isolated from the chloroform extract of C . rosulatum, and 2α,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide showed the most potent cytotoxicity with IC 50 value of 6.01 μM against SK-MEL-2 .

  2. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB, intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE observed numerous aftershocks in the five days following the mainshock. The relocated aftershocks and the mainshock focal mechanism indicated a NE-SW striking fault dipping _ toward the northwest. This fault plane is inside the pre-Miocene basement and the rupture extends from the lower crust to 10 km depth just beneath the basal décollementdécollement of the thin-skinned model that is generally used to explain the regional tectonics in Taiwan. The fault plane is vertically symmetrical with the Chelungpu fault by the basal décollement.décollement. The NW-SE compressive stress of plate collision in Taiwan, as well as the deep tectonic background, resulted in the seismogenic structure of the Mingjian earthquake at this location.

  3. Segurança de nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 em crianças: uma revisão baseada em evidência The safety of nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000 in children: an evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Zhang

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar evidências sobre a segurança da nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 no tratamento das crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas. FONTES DE DADOS: Uma busca eletrônica foi feita, utilizando-se, principalmente, o banco de dados do MEDLINE (janeiro de 1949 a julho de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão do estudo para esta revisão foram: 1 ensaio clínico randomizado; 2 pacientes (até 12 anos com diagnós tico de bronquiolite ou laringotraqueobronquite; 3 uso de adrenalina (1:1000 através de nebulização. Os principais dados extraídos dos ensaios dizem respeito a doses de adrenalina e seus efeitos sobre a freqüência cardíaca e a pressão arterial sistêmica, bem como outros efeitos colaterais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Sete ensaios clínicos, com um total de 238 pacientes, foram incluídos para esta revisão. Dos cinco ensaios clínicos nos quais a maior dose (> 3 ml de adrenalina foi usada, dois demonstraram aumento significativo de freqüência cardíaca. O aumento médio de freqüência cardíaca variou de sete a 21 batimentos por minuto, até 60 minutos após o tratamento. A maior incidência de palidez foi observada em um ensaio clínico com 21 crianças tratadas com 3 ml de adrenalina através de nebulização (47,6% no grupo de adrenalina versus 14,3% no grupo de salbutamol, 30 minutos após o tratamento. Não foram observados, em dois ensaios clínicos, efeitos significativos em nebulização com adrenalina (4 e 5 ml na pressão arterial sistêmica. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências mostram que nebulização com 3 a 5 ml de adrenalina (1:1000 é uma terapia segura, com poucos efeitos colaterais, em crianças com obstrução inflamatória aguda das vias aéreas.OBJECTIVE:To present the evidence regarding the safety of nebulization with 3-5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000 for the treatment of children with acute inflammatory airway obstruction. SOURCES OF DATA: An electronic search was undertaken

  4. Characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions using a novel CT-based volume perfusion (VPCT) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, S., E-mail: sascha.kaufmann@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Horger, T., E-mail: horger@ma.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Oelker, A., E-mail: oelker@ma.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kloth, C., E-mail: christopher.kloth@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K., E-mail: Konstantin.Nikolaou@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Schulze, M., E-mail: maximilian.schulze@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Horger, M., E-mail: marius.horger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of perfusion with VPCT has great potential for functional imaging. • We present our preliminary results of perfusion parameters (Blood Flow, Blood Volume and kk-trans) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of using VPCT and two different calculation methods, compare their results and look for correlation between tumor arterialization and lesion size. • VPCT can measure tumor volume perfusion non-invasively and enables quantification of the degree of HCC arterialization. Results are dependent on the technique used with best inter-method correlation for Blood Flow. • Tumor arterialization did not proved size-dependent. - Abstract: Objective: To characterize hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of perfusion parameters using volume perfusion CT (VPCT) and two different calculation methods, compare their results, look for interobserver agreement of measurements and correlation between tumor arterialization and lesion size. Material and methods: This study was part of a prospective monitoring study in patients with HCC undergoing TACE, which was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. 79 HCC-patients (mean age, 64.7) with liver cirrhosis were enrolled. VPCT was performed for 40 s covering the involved liver (80 kV, 100/120 mAs) using 64 mm × 0.6 mm collimation, 26 consecutive volume measurements, 50 mL iodinated contrast IV and 5 mL/s flow rate. Mean/maximum blood flow (BF; ml/100 mL/min), blood volume (BV) and k-trans were determined both with the maximum slope + Patlak vs. deconvolution method. Additionally, the portal venous liver perfusion (PVP), the arterial liver perfusion (ALP) and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were determined for each tumor including size measurements. Interobserver agreement for all perfusion parameters was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results: The max. slope + Patlak method yielded: BFmean/max = 37.8/57 mL/100 g-tissue/′, BVmean/max = 9.8/11.1 mL/100 g

  5. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  6. STROKE VOLUME DYNAMICS IN MALES WITH DIFFERENT FITNESS LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Lavrenčak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke volume (SV is well known as a routine clinical cardiodynamic measure. It represents the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one beat. Our aim in present study was to evaluate, both, the stroke volume dynamics in males with different fitness level and the relationship between maximal SV value measured during graded exercise testing (GXT on treadmill and VO2 max. One hundred male participants of age 43,06 ± 9.03 years, height 175 ± 8.25 cm, body mass 76.94 ± 15.42 kg, BSA 2.01 ± 0,15 m2 and peak oxygen consumption 46.55 ± 7.03 ml kg-1 min-1 volunteered to participate in this study. All tests were performed in Exercise Physiology Laboratory (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, The group of expirienced recreational runners differed from sedentary or less trained recreational runners in higher cardiac output (Q; 20.92 ± 4.57 vs 16,90 ± 4,34 l · min-1 (p ≤ 0,001, bigger SV: 136,43 ± 34,59 vs 112,04 ± 30,11 ml · beat -1 (p ≤ 0,001 and higher SI: 73,41 ± 13,42 vs 60,66 ± 11,58 ml · beat -1 · m-2 (p ≤ 0,001. Interestingly, both groups reached maximal SV at practically identical level of test (58.62 ± 17.81 % vs 59,85 ± 14,27 % VO2max. Also, the pattern of SV fall according to VO2max in both groups tested, were similar (12.08 ± 6.26 % vs 11,33 ± 6,23 %.

  7. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  8. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  9. Pulmonary intravascular blood volume changes through the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers studied by cardiovascular magnetic resonance measurements of arterial and venous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Hakan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to present a novel method for using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to non-invasively quantify the variation in pulmonary blood volume throughout the cardiac cycle in humans. Methods 10 healthy volunteers (7 males, 3 female, age range 21-32 years were studied. The blood flow in the pulmonary artery and all pulmonary veins was quantified during free breathing using phase contrast velocity encoded CMR. The difference in flow between the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary veins was integrated to calculate the change in pulmonary blood volume throughout the cardiac cycle. Results The stroke volumes in the pulmonary artery and the sum of the pulmonary veins were (mean ± SEM 103 ± 6 ml and 95 ± 6 ml, respectively. The pulmonary blood volume variation (PBVV was 48 ± 5 ml, and the PBVV expressed as percent of the pulmonary artery stroke volume was 46 ± 3%. The maximum increase in pulmonary blood volume occurred 310 ± 12 ms after the R-wave from the ECG (32 ± 2% of the cardiac cycle. PBVV did not correlate to change in cross-sectional area in the pulmonary artery (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.66. Conclusion It is feasible to non-invasively quantify the change in pulmonary blood volume during the cardiac cycle in humans using CMR. The average pulmonary blood volume variation in healthy volunteers was approximately 50 ml and this was approximately 50% of the stroke volume. Further studies are needed to assess the utility of the pulmonary blood volume variation as a measure for identifying cardiac and pulmonary vascular disease.

  10. Math-free guides for glycerin and allergens at variable subcutaneous injection volumes: How's my dosing? Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Thomas J; Converse, Lorie M; Rekkerth, Donna J; Renahan, Kevin E

    2016-05-01

    Current summaries of effective maintenance dose ranges for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) are based on administration of 0.5-mL volumes. Extract formulations delivering equivalent dose ranges for practices using different injection volumes have not been reported, and calculation of the final glycerin concentrations in these solutions remains an inconvenient and repetitive process. To create math-free guides for allergen doses and glycerin concentrations that identify the extract concentrate volumes required to deliver doses within the ranges cited in the 2011 immunotherapy practice parameters for clinicians using 5.0-mL maintenance vials and injection volumes ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mL. Algebraic calculations were performed to determine the specific combinations of extract concentrate strengths, volumes of these products in patient vaccines, and injection volumes needed for administration of target allergen doses spanning the current SCIT practice parameter recommendations. For each product or group (nonstandardized extracts), tables were constructed to define the allergen doses provided by various combinations of extract concentrate volumes and injection volumes. The values within the effective dose ranges for each product were highlighted to facilitate comparisons of specific conditions relevant to allergy specialists. Glycerin tables were also created to permit convenient assessments of the final concentrations of this stabilizer in patient prescriptions. SCIT dosing and glycerin tables are useful tools to assist allergists with practice decisions that involve variable patient formulas and injection volumes and can help identify suitable conditions for treatment of patients presenting with diverse allergen sensitivities and specificity profiles. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial growth in small-volume pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, W; Niven, L; Bell, N D

    1989-01-01

    The ability of aseptically filled pharmaceuticals to support microbial growth was tested on 43 small-volume products (mainly parenterals). These were inoculated with a variety of microorganisms which were known to be associated with contamination of pharmaceutical products. In general, Gram-negative bacteria were found to be much more likely to grow than Gram-positive. It was possible for an inoculum of a few cells to multiply to levels up to 10(7)/mL. The presence of preservatives also influenced the likelihood of growth, 12 out of 19 (63%) of the pharmaceuticals without preservatives supporting growth of one or more microorganisms; only 3 out of 24 (12%) of those with preservatives supported growth. The importance of these observations is discussed with reference to formulation of aseptically filled products, environmental sampling and the quality of cleanroom conditions necessary for production. It is suggested that those pharmaceuticals which are designed to be sterile but not to be terminally sterilized, should be tested before production begins, for their ability to support microbial growth. In this way, the risks involved in aseptically filling can be ascertained. A test is proposed in which "indicator" microorganisms would predict the likelihood of pharmaceutical formulations supporting growth.

  12. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  13. Fatores associados à soropositividade do teste ML Flow em pacientes e contatos de pacientes com hanseníase menores de 18 anos Factors associated with ML Flow test seropositivity in leprosy patients and household contacts under the age of 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Alves Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal em menores de 18 anos, sendo 115 casos novos de hanseníase e 1.011 contatos intradomiciliares. Determinaram-se as proporções da soropositividade do ML Flow e fatores associados ao teste positivo. Observou-se soropositividade em 21,7% dos pacientes e 19,7% dos contatos. Nos pacientes, a regressão logística indicou associação com baciloscopia positiva e número de lesões cutâneas maior que cinco. A análise por árvore de decisão mostrou associação com baciloscopia, classificação de Madri, número de nervos acometidos e idade. Nos contatos, as duas análises indicaram as mesmas associações: classificação do caso-índice, idade e tipo de serviço de saúde. As variáveis que explicaram melhor a soropositividade, em menores de 18 anos, são aquelas associadas à maior carga bacilar. Assim, o teste ML Flow poderia ser utilizado também na infância para ajudar na correta classificação dos pacientes para tratamento e na identificação dos contatos com maior risco de desenvolver hanseníase.This article presents the results of a cross-sectional study involving 115 newly-diagnosed leprosy patients and 1,011 household contacts, all under the age of 18. Seropositivity ratios and factors associated with a positive ML Flow were determined. The test was positive in 21.7% of patients and in 19.7% of contacts. Among patients, logistic regression indicated the association of seropositivity with positive slit skin smear and having more than five skin lesions. The tree method analysis indicated associations with skin smear, Madrid classification, number of nerves affected and age. In the contact group, index case classification, age and type of health service were associated with seropositivity in both analyses. The variables that best explained seropositivity are those associated with higher bacterial load. Therefore, the ML Flow test could be used in children to aid correct classification of patients for treatment and to

  14. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of different volumes and masses of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Bruno Salome; Cruvinel, Marcos Guilherme Cunha; Carneiro, Fabiano Soares; Lago, Flavio; Silva, Yerkes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of posterior brachial plexus block for shoulder surgeries is demonstrated by different authors. However, there is no consensus on the ideal mass and volume of local anesthetic to be employed. The objetive of this study was to compare different volumes and masses of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block in arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder. Sixty patients > 18 years, physical status ASA I and II, scheduled for unilateral arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder were randomly placed in three groups: A (10 mL to 0.5%), B (20 mL to 0.5%), C (5 mL to 1%). The block was performed with a 22G needle of 100 mm connected to neurostimulator, in a point 3 cm lateral to the midpoint of C6 and C7 interspace, being injected the solution corresponding to each group. The postoperative pain was evaluated at the recovery room and within the first 24 hours of the postoperative period. The groups were compared on length of time until the first complaint of pain, visual numeric scale (VNS) score and morphine consumption within the first 24 hours. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups related to age, weight and height. There was no difference in length of time until the first complaint of pain, VNS scores over three and morphine consumption in the postoperative period between the groups. This study concluded that 5 mL of 1% ropivacaine promoted analgesic efficacy similar to 10 mL or 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine in the posterior brachial plexus block using neurostimulator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of fill volume on ultrafiltration with icodextrin in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousso, Sharon; Banh, Tonny M; Ackerman, Susan; Piva, Elizabeth; Licht, Christoph; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Icodextrin is a solution of glucose polymers developed to provide sustained ultrafiltration over an extended dwell. Our aim was to determine whether or not fill volume with icodextrin contributes to the ability to achieve ultrafiltration in children. The charts of all children on chronic peritoneal dialysis between January 2000 and July 2014 were screened for the use of an icodextrin day dwell. Data were extracted from the electronic chart and the HomeChoice™ Pro card and corrected for body surface area (BSA). Fifty children had an icodextrin day dwell. A linear correlation was found between the daytime fill volume and net ultrafiltration (p Icodextrin was well tolerated. Our observations reveal that the larger the fill volume the higher the likelihood of achieving ultrafiltratio