WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume 2b palestine

  1. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  2. Negotiating checkpoints in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheerin Al Araj

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In Palestine I can never drive for more than half an hourwithout being stopped at checkpoints. Soldiers irritate mewith the same questions, the same procedures, time andtime again. No value is put on the time of a Palestinian.

  3. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B;

    2008-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia constitutes the third most prevalent neurodegenerative disease with dementia. We compared cortical structural changes in nine presymptomatic CHMP2B frontotemporal dementia mutation positive individuals with seven mutation negative family members. Using serial MRI scans...... with a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy...... rates in the presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers were statistically significant, though of a lower magnitude than those previously reported in patients of other types of frontotemporal dementia. Cortical thickness measurements revealed cortical thinning in mutation carriers bilaterally...

  4. History of Neurosurgery in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Darwazeh, Mazhar; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-08-01

    Palestinian neurosurgery started with Dr. Antone Tarazi as the first Palestinian neurosurgeon. Before that, there was no organized neurosurgery specialty, and general surgeons performed neurosurgical procedures. Here we review the history of neurosurgery and neurosurgical applications in Palestine, evaluate some limitations of the current system, and discuss major challenges to improving this system. We collected information from various sources in either English or Arabic. The development of neurosurgery and neurosurgical training in Palestine began in 1960 with the first center established in Jerusalem, which provided much-needed neurosurgical services and training in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. Palestine has produced a number of its own neurosurgeons and has promoted further progress by establishing the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society in 2014. Today, there are 34 neurosurgeons (including 1 female neurosurgeon) and 17 residents providing expert care in 17 centers across Palestine, along with 1 neurosurgical residency program. Neurosurgery in Palestine has faced many challenges, some of which have been overcome. However, there remain many challenges, which will require much time and effort to surmount. Political stabilization is a significant factor in the progress of neurosurgery in Palestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Palestine Authorities:Trouble within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhichao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Palestine Authorities (PA) is now plagued with an internal crisis ever seen over the past dozen years. A string of kidnappings, gun battles, cases of arson and demonstrations resorted to by some hotheads since mid-July has thrown Gaza Strip into utter chaos, triggering off a political crisis with many high-ranking officials including Prime Minister Kurile tendering their resignations to President Yasser Arafat.

  6. The association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes: a cost-volume-profit analysis of cardiac catheter unit services in Ramallah Hospital, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Samer F K; Younis, Mustafa Mike Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes in relation to the multi-service cost-volume-profit structure of a cardiac catheter unit in Ramallah Hospital. This article contributes to the literature by providing primary evidence on patient willingness-to-pay, by identifying the specific break-even parameters of three hospital cardiac catheter unit service types (diagnosis, balloon, and pacemaker), and by demonstrating the cross-subsidization of patient income groups that is inherent in the existing hospital rate structure. Our results provide information useful for (1) evidence-based policy making with respect to hospital rate setting and cross-subsidies of patient income groups; (2) the advancement of hospital management, by demonstrating the estimated variable and fixed cost parameters and the impact of patient revenue mix on the profitability of cardiac catheter unit services; and (3) the advancement of theory, by documenting the relationship of patient demand and the cost of supply in a multi-patient-group, multi-service hospital setting.

  7. Reign and Religion in Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    and the political messages they wished to communicate. As religion was a highly complex aspect of the Jewish interrelations with other cultures, the utilization of sacred iconography is not only a precise indicator of cultural-religious affiliation, but also of cultural-religious changes occurring in the Jewish......Ancient Jewish coinage is one of the few material sources offering detailed insight into the political developments taking place throughout a specific period of ancient Jewish history. Jewish coinage was minted and issued in Palestine, along-side a number of other local coinages, almost consistently...... between the fifth century BCE and the early second century CE by a number of different Jewish authorities. The nature of these authorities varied greatly throughout time, and they increasingly and quite differently used this medium, which was gaining importance as a public propaganda tool, to communicate...

  8. GRIN2B encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, Konrad; Yuan, Hongjie; Schütz, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    presented with neurodevelopmental disorders and a spectrum of hypotonia, movement disorder, cortical visual impairment, cerebral volume loss and epilepsy. Six patients presented with a consistent malformation of cortical development (MCD) intermediate between tubulinopathies and polymicrogyria. Missense...... treatment response in the respective patients still remains to be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to previously known features of intellectual disability, epilepsy and autism, we found evidence that GRIN2B encephalopathy is also frequently associated with movement disorder, cortical visual impairment...

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (37th) Held in Houston, Texas on 1-4 December 1993. Pages 5309-6146. Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 73. Number 10, Part 2 B,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reprint: Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (37th) Held in Houston, Texas on 1-4 December 1993. Pages 5309-6146. Journal of Applied Physics . Volume 73. Number 10, Part 2 B,

  10. Crisis of Legitimacy in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Palestinian society is geographically separated and politically fragmented. This is attributed to partisan affiliation and alignment, absence of conceptual and professional framework of civil society, unethical approach of Palestinian political leaders, and unconstitutional political institutions. Such polarization and division have created political antagonism within elites and between factions. The broad objective of this research is to investigate the legitimacy crisis in Palestine, the current political dilemma in the Palestinian Authority, and the public response to the situation. The research introduces direct and thorough understanding of the developing political context surrounding these issues; taking into consideration that growing deficit in legitimacy could create potentially dire consequences, particularly if present trends on the ground continue. The research promotes an analytical perspective based on legitimacy theory and exploring recent public opinion polls. This study formulates a constructive analysis of the failure of the Palestinian political institutions at the leadership level to meet the basic expectations of the Palestinian people and the unproductive methodology of hampering the implementation of the Basic Law concerning the Palestinian political system. It reviews the empirical dilemmas of the Palestinian Authority and eliminates several assumptions of Fatah and Hamas’s - main parties - political and domestic priorities. The possibility of a new Palestinian political phenomena emerging is in the context of a new popular mobilisation lessened by the fact that both movements (Fatah and Hamas are firmly enmeshed in the very fabric of Palestinian society through patronage networks.

  11. Water problems in Gaza Strip,Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail ALGHALBAN

    2001-01-01

    The only source for water in Gaza strip, southern Palestine, is the groundwater aquifer. The Pliocene - Pleistocene aquifer has two serious problems: quantity and quality. This study is an attempt to identify the problems and to suggest solutions for water problems in Gaza strip. In addition, some rules for rehabilitation of the aquifers were suggested.

  12. Lifelines: faces and breaths from Palestine

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The “Lifelines” drawing exhibition, which evokes the culture and atmosphere of Palestine, is on display in the Main Building from now until 5 April. Income from the sale of drawings will contribute to funding specialised training for the young artist behind the drawings.   "François Englert and Peter Higgs" by 17-year-old Islam Mahmoud Sweity. Islam Mahmoud Sweity is a 17-year-old artist living in Beit Awwa, a small village in Palestine. Her talent in capturing people’s feelings and reproducing them on paper has already led to her participating in many local exhibitions and reaching the finals of the Palestinian TV show “Best Talent” in 2013. Sweity’s 21 artworks include portraits of women and men, friends of the artist. You will also recognise Mandela and, surprisingly, even physics Nobel Prize laureates Englert and Higgs! The portraits have also inspired two poems: one by physicist and ...

  13. The Current State of Archaeology in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    The Palestinian Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage (DACH) has been in existence now for more than fifteen years since its re-establishment in 1994. The inauguration of this Department was a momentous event. It may be considered the revival of the Department of Antiquities of Palestine, which was established in 1920 under the British Mandate. The authority was then terminated due to the political events of 1948 when Israel was established, while Jordan assumed those respons...

  14. Civil Society in Palestine : "Case Studies"

    OpenAIRE

    HAMMAMI, Rema; Hilal, Jamil; TAMARI, Salim

    2001-01-01

    1. NGOs and State in Palestine: Negotiating Boundaries (Jamil Himal) 2. The Legislative Assembly versus the Government Executive (Jamil Himal) 3. Mobilisation of Camp Refugees and Local Municipal Authorities (Salim Tamari) 4. The Women's Model Parliament and Reform of Personal Status Law (Rema Hammami) 5.The Government (PNA) versus the Islamic Movement Hamas (Rema Hammami) 6. Governance and Control of Urban Space in Jerusalem (Salim Tamari)

  15. The Current State of Archaeology in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    The Palestinian Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage (DACH) has been in existence now for more than fifteen years since its re-establishment in 1994. The inauguration of this Department was a momentous event. It may be considered the revival of the Department of Antiquities of Palestine, which was established in 1920 under the British Mandate. The authority was then terminated due to the political events of 1948 when Israel was established, while Jordan assumed those respons...

  16. Antidote Stocking at Hospitals in North Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansam F. Sawalha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the availability and adequacy of antidote stocking at hospitals in north Palestine based on published guidelines for antidote stocking.Methodology: This study is a cross sectional survey of all hospitals at north Palestine (n=11 using a questionnaire which was completed by the director of the pharmacy department at each hospital. The questionnaire was divided into 2 parts. The first part contained a list of 25 antidotes while the second part contained a list of 12 antidotes. This classification is based on the guideline proposed by the British Association for Emergency Medicine (BAEM. The net antidote stock results were compared with the American guidelines as well.Result: The overall availability of each antidote in the first list varied widely from zero for glucagon to 100% for atropine. The number antidotes of the first list that were stocked in the 11 hospitals ranged from 5 to 12 antidotes but none of the hospitals stocked all the 25 antidotes. Additionally, availability of antidotes in the second list varied widely from zero for polyethylene glycol to 100% for dobutamine. The number of antidotes stocked ranged from 5 to 9 but none of the hospitals stocked all the 12 antidotes.Discussion and Conclusion: hospitals in north Palestine do not have adequate stock of antidotes. Raising awareness of the importance of antidotes by education, regular review of antidote storage, distribution plans, and appropriate legislation might provide solutions. Coordination between Palestinian hospitals and the PCDIC at An-Najah National University is also important.

  17. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  18. THE SURROGATE COLONIZATION OF PALESTINE, 1917-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    1989-01-01

    The "surrogate colonization" of Palestine had a foreign power giving to a nonnative group rights over land occupied by an indigenous people. It thus brought into play the complementary and conflicting agendas of three culturally distinguishable parties: British, Jews and Arabs. Each party had both "externalist" [those with no sustained practical experience of day to day life in Palestine] and "internalist" representatives. The surrogate idea was based on a "strategic consensus" involving each...

  19. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  20. Challenges of urban planning in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghayer, Taher J. T.; Tesmamma Daget, Yidnekachew; Wang, Xingping

    2017-08-01

    For the last two centuries, Palestinian territory had faced several changes. This is due to historical precedents and the unstable political situation in the area. This has resulted in mutli-faced challenges in Palestine. The objective of this paper is to analyse and understand the major factors that had impacted the urban planning, urban form and urban development of the Palestinian territory. The findings showed that the lack of available land, rapid urban population growth, failure in urban planning policy decisions, the unstable political situation on the ground, fragmented urban developments in the west bank area, and also diffusion of urban sprawls within the landscapes and around the cities are the major factors that caused challenges in Palestine’s cities.

  1. Intensive care unit physician's attitudes on do not resuscitate order in palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima S Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There was a positive attitude towards the legalization of the DNR order in Palestine, and culture and religion did not have any affect towards their attitudes regarding the legalization in Palestine.

  2. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-B: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Design well program; LaFourche Crossing; MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 (Sweet Lake); Environmental monitoring at Sweet Lake; Air quality; Water quality; Microseismic monitoring; Subsidence; Dow/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well; Reservoir testing; Environmental monitoring at Parcperdue; Air monitoring; Water runoff; Groundwater; Microseismic events; Subsidence; Environmental consideration at site; Gladys McCall No. 1 well; Test results of Gladys McCall; Hydrocarbons in production gas and brine; Environmental monitoring at the Gladys McCall site; Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well; Pleasant Bayou hybrid power system; Environmental monitoring at Pleasant Bayou; and Plug abandonment and well site restoration of three geopressured-geothermal test sites. 197 figs., 64 tabs.

  3. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  4. Economics of Higher Education under Occupation: The Case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Abd Al-Qadir Alfoqahaa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through some extremely difficult experiences, education in general and Higher Education in particular has remained a constant focus of resources in Palestine.  Due to the ongoing occupation of Palestine, Palestinian universities could not expect to contribute significantly to economic development in the same way as other institutions around the world. However, the establishment and development of universities in Palestine meant that Palestine was investing in Palestinians, and, for reasons discussed in this paper, the development represented a clear breakthrough to be celebrated throughout Palestinian society. Most of the previous studies on the Economics of Higher Education (HE have not explicitly dealt with the Economics of Higher Education under occupation, especially in Palestine, neglecting much of the broader context and strategic impact of Palestinian Higher Education. This research investigates in depth Palestinian HE socio-economic outcomes for Palestinians, bringing to the light the meaning of HE under occupation that goes beyond mere economic impact to include its impact on Palestinians' human capital, dignity, and national identity reflecting the unique case of Palestine. This research reveals that from very early on it was clear that Palestinian Higher Education could not give the economy a boost, but that universities did give people a pride in Palestine, which, given the conditions of a brutal military occupation that increasingly separated one Palestinian from the next, amounted to quite a significant achievement. It demonstrated the central role Palestinian HE plays in the life of Palestinians as it is goes beyond means of economic growth to means of survival, building human capital, and maintaining people's dignity and national identity.

  5. Low infant mortality among Palestine refugees despite the odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Ali; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present data from a 2008 infant mortality survey conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and analyse infant mortality trends among Palestine refugees in 1995–2005. Methods Following the preceding birth technique, mothers who were registering a new birth were asked if the preceding child was alive or dead, the day the child was born and the date of birth of the neonate whose birth was being registered. From this information, neonatal, infant and early child mortality rates were estimated. The age at death for early child mortality was determined by the mean interval between successive births and the mean age of neonates at registration. Findings In 2005–2006, infant mortality among Palestine refugees ranged from 28 deaths per 100 000 live births in the Syrian Arab Republic to 19 in Lebanon. Thus, infant mortality in Palestine refugees is among the lowest in the Near East. However, infant mortality has stopped decreasing in recent years, although it remains at a level compatible with the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 4. Conclusion Largely owing to the primary health care provided by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and other entities, infant mortality among Palestine refugees had consistently decreased. However, it is no longer dropping. Measures to address the most likely reasons – early marriage and childbearing, poor socioeconomic conditions and limited access to good perinatal care – are needed. PMID:21479095

  6. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  7. Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer SHADEED

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This paper assesses the modeling of flow in West Bank catchments using the GIS-based SCS-CN method. The West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as an arid to semi-arid region with annual rainfall depths ranging between 100 mm in the vicinity of the Jordan River to 700 mm in the mountains extending across the central parts of the region. The estimated composite curve number for the entire West Bank is about 50 assuming dry conditions. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in West Bank catchments, representing arid to semi-arid catchments of Palestine.

  8. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweileh Waleed M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18% articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9% articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  9. Climate and Motivation for Women Athletes in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Shima; Ciccomascolo, Lori; Shim, Minsuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that motivate women athletes to participate in sport in Palestine and the motivational climate created by coaches and parents. Additionally, participants' commitment to sport was investigated as well as the social constraints that Palestinian women athletes face. Participants (n = 107)…

  10. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  11. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that sta

  12. Examining Social Political Contexts in Teacher Preparation in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ilham; Wong, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teaching English as a foreign language in the West Bank, Palestine. It investigates the perspectives of a group of faculty, preservice, and in-service teachers about teaching and learning English in the primary grades under the overarching harsh realities of political conflict and instability. The study demonstrates the…

  13. Examining Social Political Contexts in Teacher Preparation in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ilham; Wong, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teaching English as a foreign language in the West Bank, Palestine. It investigates the perspectives of a group of faculty, preservice, and in-service teachers about teaching and learning English in the primary grades under the overarching harsh realities of political conflict and instability. The study demonstrates the…

  14. Palestine refugees in the contemporary context: a view from UNRWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Abu Zayd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Serious deprivations feature regularly in the lives ofPalestinians and Palestine refugees. Among them,measures restricting or prohibiting the movement ofpeople and goods stand out as particularly severe – andare in blatant contravention of human rights provisions.

  15. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  16. Psychiatry, ethnicity and migration : the case of Palestine, 1920-1948

    OpenAIRE

    Zalashik, Rakefet

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore the development of psychiatry in Palestine from two main perspectives: ethnicity and immigration. In Palestine the subject of immigration and psychiatry were highly complicated and had unique features. Thus, both psychiatrists and patients were immigrants who belonged to the same ethnic group sharing the same ideology and objectives. The examination will uncover the social construction of mental diseases among Jewish immigrants in Palestine —patients and psy...

  17. Investigation of Class 2b Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2002-04-03

    The popularity of trucks in the class 2 category--that is, those with a 6,000 to 10,000 pounds (lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)--has increased since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine vehicles in the upper portion of the class 2 weight range (designated as vehicle class 2b) and to assess their impact. Vehicles in class 2b (8,500-10,000 lbs GVWR) include pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and large vans (i.e., not minivans). Oak Ridge National Laboratory researched each individual truck model to determine which models were class 2b trucks and arrived at four methodologies to derive sales volumes. Two methods--one for calendar year and one for model year sales--were recommended for producing believable and reliable results. The study indicates that 521,000 class 2b trucks were sold in calendar year 1999--6.4% of sales of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Eighty-two percent of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were pickups; one third of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were diesel. There were 5.8 million class 2b trucks on the road in 2000, which amounts to 7.8% of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Twenty-four percent of the class 2b truck population is diesel. Estimates show that class 2b trucks account for 8% of annual miles traveled by trucks under 10,000 lbs and 9% of fuel use. Data on class 2b trucks are scarce. As the Tier 2 standards, which apply to passenger vehicles in the 8,500-10,000 lb GVWR category, become effective, additional data on class 2b trucks may become available--not only emissions data, but data in all areas. At the moment, distinguishing class 2b trucks from class 2 trucks in general is a substantial task requiring data on an individual model level.

  18. Psychiatry, ethnicity and migration: the case of Palestine, 1920-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalashik, Rakefet

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore the development of psychiatry in Palestine from two main perspectives: ethnicity and immigration. In Palestine the subject of immigration and psychiatry were highly complicated and had unique features. Thus, both psychiatrists and patients were immigrants who belonged to the same ethnic group sharing the same ideology and objectives. The examination will uncover the social construction of mental diseases among Jewish immigrants in Palestine - patients and psychiatrists - and elucidate another layer in the development of the Zionist Jewish society in Palestine up to the establishment of the State of Israel.

  19. France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organized by the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, the “France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917” conference was the first concrete outcome of the Gallia Palestina project. This encounter demonstrated that beyond apparently well-known points, the unexplored areas of analysis remain enormous. This observation was made possible through the contributions of speakers, participants and the public from France, Israel and the Palestinian autonomous area. This diversity multiplied pers...

  20. Pasteur in Palestine: the politics of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nadav; Zalashik, Rakefet

    2010-12-01

    We examine the creation and functioning of the "Pasteur Institute in Palestine" focusing on the relationship between biological science, health policy, and the creation of a "new society" within the framework of Zionism. Similar to other bacteriological institutes founded by colonial powers, this laboratory was developed in response to public health needs. But it also had a political role. Dr. Leo Böhm, a Zionist physician, strived to establish his institution along the lines of the Zionist aspiration to develop a national entity based on strong scientific foundations. Even though the institute enjoyed several fruitful years of operation, mainly during World War I, it achieved no lasting national or scientific importance in the country. Böhm failed to adapt to new ways of knowledge production, scientifically and socially. The case study of the "Pasteur Institute in Palestine" serves as a prism to view the role of the public health laboratory in the history of Palestine with its ongoing changes of scientific, organizational, and political context.

  1. Megasporogenesis and development of the embryo sac in the Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krupko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and development of the embryo sac in Trifolium alexandrinum (Palestine variety, are very similar to that in Trifolium pratense. The embryo sac of Trifolium alexandrinum is monosporal, has eight nuclei and is of the Polygonum type. The Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum can be autogamous.

  2. Strangers in a strange land: Egyptians in southern Palestine during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Sparks

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available When the Institute of Archaeology was formally established in 1937, it became responsible for housing Sir Flinders Petrie’s collection of archaeological material from Palestine. This unique inheritance has great value as a research collection, as its curator demonstrates here in her discussion of interaction between Egypt and Palestine in the Bronze Age.

  3. Increasing Neonatal Mortality among Palestine Refugees in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maartje M.; Madi, Haifa H.; Khader, Ali; Hababeh, Majed; Zeidan, Wafa’a; Wesley, Hannah; Abd El-Kader, Mariam; Maqadma, Mohamed; Seita, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has periodically estimated infant mortality rates among Palestine refugees in Gaza. These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2008. Methods We used the same preceding-birth technique as in previous surveys. All multiparous mothers who came to the 22 UNRWA health centres to register their last-born child for immunization were asked if their preceding child was alive or dead. We based our target sample size on the infant mortality rate in 2008 and included 3128 mothers from August until October 2013. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of infant mortality. Findings Infant mortality in 2013 was 22.4 per 1000 live births compared with 20.2 in 2008 (p = 0.61), and this change reflected a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality (from 12.0 to 20.3 per 1000 live births, p = 0.01). The main causes of the 65 infant deaths were preterm birth (n = 25, 39%), congenital anomalies (n = 19, 29%), and infections (n = 12, 19%). Risk factors for infant death were preterm birth (OR 9.88, 3.98–24.85), consanguinity (2.41, 1.35–4.30) and high-risk pregnancies (3.09, 1.46–6.53). Conclusion For the first time in five decades, mortality rates have increased among Palestine refugee newborns in Gaza. The possible causes of this trend may include inadequate neonatal care. We will estimate infant and neonatal mortality rates again in 2015 to see if this trend continues and, if so, to assess how it can be reversed. PMID:26241479

  4. Increasing Neonatal Mortality among Palestine Refugees in the Gaza Strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje M van den Berg

    Full Text Available The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA has periodically estimated infant mortality rates among Palestine refugees in Gaza. These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2008.We used the same preceding-birth technique as in previous surveys. All multiparous mothers who came to the 22 UNRWA health centres to register their last-born child for immunization were asked if their preceding child was alive or dead. We based our target sample size on the infant mortality rate in 2008 and included 3128 mothers from August until October 2013. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of infant mortality.Infant mortality in 2013 was 22.4 per 1000 live births compared with 20.2 in 2008 (p = 0.61, and this change reflected a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality (from 12.0 to 20.3 per 1000 live births, p = 0.01. The main causes of the 65 infant deaths were preterm birth (n = 25, 39%, congenital anomalies (n = 19, 29%, and infections (n = 12, 19%. Risk factors for infant death were preterm birth (OR 9.88, 3.98-24.85, consanguinity (2.41, 1.35-4.30 and high-risk pregnancies (3.09, 1.46-6.53.For the first time in five decades, mortality rates have increased among Palestine refugee newborns in Gaza. The possible causes of this trend may include inadequate neonatal care. We will estimate infant and neonatal mortality rates again in 2015 to see if this trend continues and, if so, to assess how it can be reversed.

  5. Increasing Neonatal Mortality among Palestine Refugees in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maartje M; Madi, Haifa H; Khader, Ali; Hababeh, Majed; Zeidan, Wafa'a; Wesley, Hannah; Abd El-Kader, Mariam; Maqadma, Mohamed; Seita, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has periodically estimated infant mortality rates among Palestine refugees in Gaza. These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2008. We used the same preceding-birth technique as in previous surveys. All multiparous mothers who came to the 22 UNRWA health centres to register their last-born child for immunization were asked if their preceding child was alive or dead. We based our target sample size on the infant mortality rate in 2008 and included 3128 mothers from August until October 2013. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of infant mortality. Infant mortality in 2013 was 22.4 per 1000 live births compared with 20.2 in 2008 (p = 0.61), and this change reflected a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality (from 12.0 to 20.3 per 1000 live births, p = 0.01). The main causes of the 65 infant deaths were preterm birth (n = 25, 39%), congenital anomalies (n = 19, 29%), and infections (n = 12, 19%). Risk factors for infant death were preterm birth (OR 9.88, 3.98-24.85), consanguinity (2.41, 1.35-4.30) and high-risk pregnancies (3.09, 1.46-6.53). For the first time in five decades, mortality rates have increased among Palestine refugee newborns in Gaza. The possible causes of this trend may include inadequate neonatal care. We will estimate infant and neonatal mortality rates again in 2015 to see if this trend continues and, if so, to assess how it can be reversed.

  6. Numerical analysis of stiffened shells of revolution. Volume 3: Users' manual for STARS-2B, 2V, shell theory automated for rotational structures, 2 (buckling, vibrations), digital computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalbonas, V.

    1973-01-01

    The User's manual for the shell theory automated for rotational structures (STARS) 2B and 2V (buckling, vibrations) is presented. Several features of the program are: (1) arbitrary branching of the shell meridians, (2) arbitrary boundary conditions, (3) minimum input requirements to describe a complex, practical shell of revolution structure, and (4) accurate analysis capability using a minimum number of degrees of freedom.

  7. Gender, Colonialism and Rabbinical Courts in Mandate Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fishbayn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of powers between the state and religious groups plays an important role in shaping how controversies over multicultural toleration and women’s rights under religious law can be resolved. Some structures encourage dialogue while others make it difficult. In Israel, the presence of multiple systems of personal religious law limits the possibilities for the transformation of discriminatory religious laws. There is no civil marriage or divorce in Israel. When the modern State of Israel was created, exclusive power over family law disputes involving Jewish citizens was placed in the hands of rabbinical courts. This arrangement has been called one to retain the ‘status quo’. However, it was not a continuation of Jewish tradition or of the arrangements in place during the long period of Ottoman rule in Palestine. It reflected strengthened powers that had been given to rabbinical courts during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine. This article will trace the ways in which British policies for colonial rule and the interests of Jewish religious leaders coalesced to create a regime of religious family law that is resistant to feminist demands for change.

  8. [The organization of Jewish dentists in pre-Israel Palestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Kratz, M

    2016-04-01

    The first modern dental institutes were established in Europe and in the USA during the 1840s. At that period there wasn't a single qualified doctor in Palestine, not to mention a professional dentist. A couple of decades later, as the number of Christian pilgrims grew, some modern hospitals were established and a few non-Jewish dentists opened their clinics in Jerusalem, which was then and in the following decades, the region's largest city. In Europe, dentistry became a popular profession among Jews in general and among Jewish women in particular. The first Jewish dentist settled in Jerusalem in the mid-1880s. Other dentists were slow to arrive and their number began to grow only after the turn of the 20th century. Their professional education varied from those who were trained as apprentices by other dentists to those which studied a couple of years in an academic dental school. The devastation caused by WWI prompted American-Zionist organizations to send a special medical unit to Palestine in 1918. Along medical supplies it also brought a small group of doctors and dentists. The two American dentists that decided to remain in Palestine took upon themselves to spread their medical and scientific knowledge. They also organized the dentists, whose number grew considerably during the 1920s, and called the authorities to regulate the dental profession. In 1926 the British authorities issued a decree regulating all medical professions. It demanded that dental practitioners will be licensed after proving their previous studies and professional knowledge. In 1931, local dentists' organizations decided to establish the Palestine Dental Association. Five years later it was accepted as a member by the International Dental Federation (FDI) and was recognized by the local authorities. Since the 1930s, prominent Jewish dentists from abroad were invited to come to Palestine to lecture, and local dentists participated in international conferences. This prompted the first

  9. CAPITAL STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS: EVIDENCE FROM PALESTINE AND EGYPT STOCK EXCHANGES

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    Abdul Razak Abdul Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract -This study is driven by the motivation to examine the capital structure determinants for Palestine Stock Exchange (PEX and Egypt Stock Exchange (EGX. Within the framework of capital structure theories, this study uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM,1982 as an estimation model employing quarterly panel data analysis during the observed period from 2008 till 2012. The test results from GMM indicate that all the examined determinants have significant relationship with leverage. It has a negative value with liquidity, non-debt tax shield, profitability, size and growth. The Egyptian firms have some uniqueness in its trend. Current assets, debt ratio and liquidity behave positively with leverage except for growth. The other tested determinants in Egyptian companies are found to be not significant.

  10. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.

  11. Efficacy of diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in Gaza, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aswad, I H; Shubair, M E

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus in different age groups in Gaza, Palestine. Blood samples were collected from 180 children aged ELISA methods, the efficacy of vaccination was estimated at 87.8% for diphtheria and 98.3% for tetanus. Mean serum titres varied significantly by age group: for diphtheria 0.24 IU/mL at age 2-4 years, 0.63 IU/mL at 7-8 years and 0.46 IU/mL at 11-12 years, and for tetanus 1.01 IU/mL, 2.63 IU/mL and 1.20 IU/mL respectively. The relatively low antibody titres, especially for diphtheria, suggest the need for a booster dose.

  12. Societal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Maher R; Hallak, Hussein O

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public's perception of community pharmacists in Palestine. To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offer. This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers' patronage patterns, consumers' interaction with community pharmacists, consumers' views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations. Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %). Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring. Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.

  13. Societal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khdour MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public’s perception of community pharmacists in PalestineObjectives: To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offerMethod: This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers’ patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations.Results: Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %. Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring.Conclusions: Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.

  14. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  15. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  16. Behind the statistics: the ethnography of suicide in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    As part of the first anthropological study on suicide in the modern Arab world, statistics gathered from the Ramallah region of the West Bank in Palestine painted an apparently remarkably similar picture to that found in Western countries such as the UK and France. More men than women completed suicide, more women than men attempted suicide. Men used more violent methods such as hanging and women softer methods such as medication overdose. Completed suicide was higher in the older age range, attempted suicide in the younger. However, ethnographic fieldwork and detailed examination of the case studies and suicide narratives gathered and analysed within the cultural, political and economic contexts illustrated more starkly the differences in suicidal practices between Palestinian West Bank society of the 1990s and other regions of the world. The central argument of the paper is that although statistics tell a very important story, ethnography uncovers a multitude of stories 'behind the statistics', and thus helps us to make sense of both cultural context and subjective experience.

  17. A Cost Analysis of Kidney Replacement Therapy Options in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Younis Ph.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD and home hemodialysis (HD, are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16 277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16 085 per year—nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life.

  18. Regional Exchange and the Role of the Shop in Byzantine and Early Islamic Syria-Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2012-01-01

    and glass to base coinage, in order to map out in greater detail the geographical reach and level of activity in regional trade networks in Syria-Palestine between the Byzantine and early Islamic periods. Work to date reveals that local networks were especially vibrant in this period, and probably...... a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...... as a system of economic exchange and cultural interaction in post-classical Syria-Palestine. Attention will focus on how the physical centrality of the shop was matched by its defining social role on a daily basis; therefore, the study of the shop and its contents also promises to offers a fascinating insight...

  19. An Analysis of The Islamic and Conventional Banking Profitability in Palestine

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    Mohmad Tawfiq Abusharbeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An Analysis of the Islamic and Conventional Banking Profitability in Palestine. The research paper examines the performance of profitability of Islamic banks against conventional banks for the period of 2005 to 2010. Two alternative measurements of banking profitability such as Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA are used to examine whether there is any differences of profit rate between Islamic, local and foreign conventional banks. The study concludes that Islamic banks generally provide the similar profit rate compared to local banks, however Islamic banks provide lower profit rate compared to foreign banks. Finally the findings also suggest that there is no statistical significant difference in mean return between the Islamic banks, local and foreign banks in Palestine. The study recommends the critical needs for Islamic regulation in order to improve the role of Islamic banking industry in Palestine.

  20. Devaluation and Output Growth in Palestine: Evidence from a CGE model

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    Hakeem Abdel Ahmad Eltalla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether exchange rate devaluation supports economic growth or not is an open question empirically. This paper analyzes the impacts of the devaluation on the Palestinian economy using a computable general equilibrium model. We investigate the effect of a 15% devaluation of the exchange rate on output growth of Palestine. By using latest data (a 2012 social accounting matrix for Palestine and CGE modeling, this paper finds that devaluation is contractionary in Palestine. A 15% devaluation of the exchange rate results on lower real gross domestic product, the simulation results show that GDP will decrease by 1.99 %. Import and export will decline by 20.61% and 52.67% respectably. Also, a 15 percent devaluation will reduce the level of private consumption by 6.31 % and inflation (CPI will increase by 4.7 from the base line.

  1. Workshop Review: Jerusalem and Palestine during World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The day-long workshop devoted to “Jerusalem and Palestine during World War I” is part of a larger program entitled “France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1948” organized by the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem. Following the conference which covered an extensive nineteenth century from 1799 to 1917 (November 9-11, 1998 and before the conference scheduled for November 29-30 to December 1, 1999 which will focus on the Mandate Period (1917-1948 there was an obvious need to examine...

  2. Implication of human UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 in 19-norandrosterone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eStrahm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid commonly abused for doping purposes. Nandrolone is mainly metabolized in the liver into 19-norandrosterone prior to glucuronidation and excretion through urine over an extended period of time. Several UGTs (i.e. UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 are thought to be the major enzymes responsible for conjugation of androgens in human. An in-vitro study using recombinant enzymes expressed in insect cells showed that UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 are the two main enzymes responsible of 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation. However, the identity of the enzyme involved in nandrolone metabolism in vivo together with their relative contribution and regulation remain unknown.Inhibition assays using human liver microsomes incubated with 19-norandrosterone and selective inhibitors confirmed that UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 are involved in 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation, since the presence of the specific UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 inhibitors gemfibrosil and valproic acid inhibited the 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation by 35 and 45 %, respectively. Human liver microsomes were genotyped for UGT2B15 D85Y, UGT2B7 H268Y and the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism. The glucuronidation activity on 19 norandrosterone was significantly higher in UGT2B15 DD than in the other UGT2B15 genotypes (p<0.05. Moreover, human liver cancer HepG2 cells were exposed to androgens to determine if the transcriptional activity of the genes of interest was affected. Only UGT2B7 mRNA expression was significantly increased (1.8-folds after incubation with nandrolone decanoate.These results show that the UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 are involved in 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation and that the UGT2B15 polymorphism (D85Y is the only UGT genetic variation that influences the glucuronidation activity. This could partly explain the inter-individual variation in 19 norandrosterone excretion.

  3. From wayfaring elites to local associations: Sufis in Medieval Palestine

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    Ephrat, Daphna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a comprehensive study of the Sufis of medieval Palestine. At its heart resides the birth of locally embedded Sufi-inspired associations in this historical framework in the course of the Earlier Middle Period (late tenth to mid-­­­­thirteenth centuries. Drawing on the profiles of renowned Sufi traditionalists and legalists living in the Palestine of the time, the article highlights the assimilation of Sufis into the scholarly circles of the religiously learned, the ‘ulama’, and the social order. It outlines how they perceived their role and place in society and disseminated the truth of Islam, and how, parallel with their integration into the world of the ‘ulama’ of the established legal schools (the madhhabs, they developed their own inner life and organizational forms and devised their own ways of integrating into the fabric of social and communal life. The early development of a coherent local Sufi congregation around the Sufi guide out of the loosely knit and dispersed circle of disciples is closely tied to the change in the concept of guidance for advancement along the Path and the change in the relationship between master and disciple.

    Este artículo es parte de un estudio de conjunto sobre los sufíes de la Palestina medieval. Se centra en el surgimiento de asociaciones de inspiración sufí en contextos locales de ese ámbito geográfico durante el primer periodo medieval (desde finales del s. X hasta la mitad del s. XIII. A partir de las biografías de tradicionistas y juristas sufíes famosos que vivieron en la Palestina de la época, se pone de relieve la integración de los sufíes en los círculos de los

  4. The Rh allele frequencies in Gaza city in Palestine

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    Skaik Younis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rh blood group system is the second most clinically significant blood group system. It includes 49 antigens, but only five (D, C, E, c and e are the most routinely identified due to their unique relation to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN and transfusion reactions. Frequency of the Rh alleles showed variation, with regard to race and ethnic. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to document the Rh alleles′ frequencies amongst males (M and females (F in Gaza city in Palestine. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two blood samples (110 M and 122 F were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-C,anti-c, anti-E, anti-e and a blend of monoclonal/polyclonal IgM/IgG anti-D. The expected Rh phenotypes were calculated using gene counting method. Results: The most frequent Rh antigen in the total sample was e, while the least frequent was E.The order of the combined Rh allele frequencies in both M and F was CDe > cDe > cde > CdE > cDE > Cde > CDE. A significant difference was reported between M and F regarding the phenotypic frequencies (P < 0.05. However, no significance (P > 0.05 was reported with reference to the observed and expected Rh phenotypic frequencies in either M or F students. Conclusion: It was concluded that the Rh antigens, alleles and phenotypes in Gaza city have unique frequencies, which may be of importance to the Blood Transfusion Center in Gaza city and anthropology.

  5. Implication of human UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 in 19-norandrosterone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eStrahm; Ulf eSjöberg; Mats eGarle; Anders eRane; Lena eEkström

    2013-01-01

    Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) is an anabolic androgenic steroid commonly abused for doping purposes. Nandrolone is mainly metabolized in the liver into 19-norandrosterone prior to glucuronidation and excretion through urine over an extended period of time. Several UGTs (i.e. UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) are thought to be the major enzymes responsible for conjugation of androgens in human. An in-vitro study using recombinant enzymes expressed in insect cells showed that UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 are...

  6. Apartheid in the Holy Land: Theological reflections on the Israel and/or Palestine situation from a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Pillay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I first attempt to draw a comparison between the Israel-Palestine conflict and the South African experience of apartheid. Drawing on other established sources and personal experience, I conclude that, while there may be some differences between the two contexts, in essence, the similar experiences of colonialisation and racialisation makes the apartheid comparison compellingly relevant. I then proceed to theologically explore the themes of justice and reconciliation and what it may mean in the context of Israel-Palestine whilst extracting from the South African experience. The article also offers some reflections on the role of the Church in addressing the Israel-Palestine conflict.

  7. Coinage and the economy of Syria-Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries CE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2010-01-01

    Coin data from archaeological excavations can provide interesting perspectives on changing economic conditions over time, but the interpretative pitfalls are many. The presentation and analysis of coin material needs to be conducted within a wider archaeological context should historical conclusi...... conclusions be sought from the material, as the coinage of late antique and early Islamic Syria-Palestine demonstrates....

  8. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olberg, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  9. Training under Fire: The Relationship between Obstacles Facing Training and SMEs Development in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMadhoun, Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to discuss the relationship between obstacles and weaknesses facing the development of MTPs and SMEs. In recent years many management training programmes (MTPs) of an off-the-job nature have been established in Palestine, after the peace agreement, in order to find a solution for apparent lack of…

  10. Perceptions of Using Smart Mobile Devices in Higher Education Teaching: A Case Study from Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraim, Khitam; Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Smart mobile devices (SMDs), especially smartphones and tablets, are becoming increasingly ubiquitous among educators and students in Palestine. While their use is on the rise, many academics are not effectively incorporating this technology into their teaching, which may be attributable to their negative perceptions of these devices. This study…

  11. Incomplete Victory: General Allenby and Mission Command in Palestine, 1917-1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Palestine in a new light, ignoring the romanticism that has made it so popular in the past. Historian Matthew Hughes, in his book Allenby and...some of the responsibility for the prevalent impression of the romanticism of the campaign. Rather than the painful descriptions of trenches and high

  12. Online Teacher Training in a Context of Forced Immobility: The Case of Gaza, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassetta, Giovanna; Imperiale, Maria Grazia; Frimberger, Katja; Attia, Mariam; Al-Masri, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses an action research study that involved the design and delivery of an online training course for teachers of Arabic to speakers of other languages in the Gaza Strip (Palestine). Grounded in Freirean pedagogy, the course aimed to respond to the employment needs of university graduates by creating opportunities for online…

  13. Debating islamic family law in Palestine : citizenship, gender and 'islamic' idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.Y. Shehada (Nahda)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter sheds light on the family law debate in Palestine following the establishment of the Palestinian Authority (1994). It elaborates on the public debate and political contestation over attempts to reform the ‘Islamic’ family law during the second half of the 1990s. It describes

  14. The Hebrew Liturgical Poetry of Byzantine Palestine : Recent Research and New Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bekkum, Wout Jac.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a striking growth of interest in the study of Hebrew (and Aramaic) liturgical poetry, or pjyut, in Byzantine Palestine. Scholars have published a substantial number of texts and studies and have started to produce several translations. The issues and observat

  15. A Financial, Environmental and Social Evaluation of Domestic Water Management Options in the West Bank, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazer, D.W.; Siebel, M.A.; Van der Zaag, P.; Mimi, Z.; Gijzen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water is one of the most valuable natural resources in the West Bank, Palestine. Due to its limited availability, it is a resource that needs particular protection. Although agriculture consumes most of the water (70%) in the West Bank, the domestic water supply is strategically not less important.

  16. Balfour's Mission to Palestine: Science, Strategy, and the Inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…

  17. As if they do not exist. Images of (belonging and of owning Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Neidhardt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Films from or about Palestine are frequently programmed at international film festivals. They are sometimes released in cinemas and quite often presented in special screenings at various institutions all over the Western World. Due to the scarcity of screens and the boycott of Israel, they are seen to a lesser extend in Arab countries. Compared to screenings of other Arab films or the presentation of movies from other former colonies and mandatory territories, Western audiences often react highly emotional to the images from Palestine. In debates questions for a better understanding of the films’ subject or context are barely ever asked. Rather the foreign spectators seem to have a sense of belonging and to claim the right for co-determination. Where do these emotional ties originate from? In recent years a large number of films shot in Palestine during the late Ottoman period and the British mandate were made accesssible online, mainly by the Steven Spielberg Film Archive in Jerusalem and the British War Museum in London. Libraries like the Library of Congress in Washington digitized parts of their photographic collections. Based on them as well as on the films I work with as distributor and programmer for Arab film series, in this article I look at images on and from Palestine and ask for what purpose, in which context and by whom they were made and distributed.

  18. Palestine Refugees Today. Human Rights Day: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary. Newsletter Number 76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Relief and Works Agency, New York, NY.

    A special issue of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) newsletter relates the ideals of human rights as carried out for the Palestine refugees. An overview of the publication and its contents is followed by a copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Three articles--The Right to Education, An Adequate Standard of Living,…

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EGYPT AND PALESTINE IN THE EARLY BRONZE AGE(ca.3400-2000 BCE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Egypt and Palestine can be traced back to theChalcolithic Age thanks to the evidence of current excavations in the Nile Deltaand Sinal.Palestinian pottery and cast metal objects from the Delta sites of Maadi,Minshat Abu Omar,and elsewhere have proved contacts with Palestine inProtodynastic(Nagada Ⅱ-Ⅲ)times.The Egyptian Protodynastic Period andDynasty 1 were contemporary with the Palestinian EB Ⅰ and EB Ⅲ,and reliable

  20. Early microgliosis precedes neuronal loss and behavioural impairment in mice with a frontotemporal dementia-causing CHMP2B mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Emma L; Mancuso, Renzo; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations in the CHMP2B gene lead to the generation of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B. We report that transgenic mice expressing endogenous levels of mutant CHMP2B developed late-onset brain volume loss associated with frank neuronal loss and FTD...

  1. Jérusalem et la Palestine pendant la première guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La journée d’études « Jérusalem et la Palestine pendant la première guerre mondiale » s’inscrit dans le cadre du programme « La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1948 » du Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem. À la suite du colloque portant sur un long XIXe siècle, de 1799 à 1917 (9-11 novembre 1998, et avant la rencontre des 29-30 novembre-1er décembre 1999, portant sur la période mandataire (1917-1948, il paraissait indispensable de s’attarder sur le premier conflit ...

  2. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Palestine in Addressing Inequality and Promoting Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Hilal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO's new emphasis on vocational education and training as transformative, and concerns in particular with equity and sustainable human development, has been strongly influenced by a recent literature on VET and human development that has a particular focus on the most marginalised, especially young women, and is concerned with how their aspirations, agency and achievement of wellbeing can be promoted in the face of wide-ranging structural obstacles. This article seeks to further develop that account through an even stronger emphasis on VET in the context of extreme poverty, inequality and marginalisation as faced in Palestine. VET in Palestine serves many of the poorest and most disenfranchised in Palestinian society in a context of profound structural obstacles to wellbeing achievement. Our analysis show a very positive story of how VET has helped highly disadvantaged young Palestinians, particularly young women, to make progress on their human development.

  3. Social Crisis Prevention: A Political Alert Index for the Israel-Palestine Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    André De Palma; Federico Perali; Nathalie Picard; Roberto Ricciuti; Alexandrina Ioana Scorbureanu

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to crisis prevention based on data on premonitory political and religious events and the international media coverage of publicly sensitive circumstances. We implement our method to the Israel-Palestine conflict. First we identify two main political scenarios associated with "good" and "bad" political times of low or high levels of political unrest using a hierarchical clustering technique. Then we construct a political alert index to predict the probabili...

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  5. Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results: Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions: These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance.

  6. Dr Walter Henry Anderson (1870-1937) and the mission hospital at Safed, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Gordon S

    2013-02-01

    Walter Henry Anderson, a brewer's clerk in Burton-upon-Trent, became a missionary doctor, supported by a society promoting welfare and evangelism in Jewish communities abroad. His family background was rich in pastoral ministry at home and adventure abroad. Arguably, this background played a part in his decision to serve the Jews of Safed. His life in Palestine entailed much enterprise and hardship as he raised a family, fought disease and set up a mission hospital serving not only the Jewish community but persons of all faiths. His years in Palestine, from 1894 to 1915, were times of peace in the Middle East before the turmoil unleashed by the Great War. Jews from the Diaspora were gaining an increasing foothold in Palestine, their 'Promised Land'. Themes of that era - the rise of Zionism, confrontation between Judaism and evangelical Christianity, conflict between immigrant Jew and Palestinian Arab and the remarkable travels of Lawrence of Arabia were interwoven with the lives of Dr Anderson and his family.

  7. A molecular epidemiology survey of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in children residing in Southern Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Qurei

    Full Text Available A molecular epidemiology survey was performed in order to establish and document the respiratory adenovirus pathogen profiles among children in Southern Palestine. Three hundred and thirty-eight hospitalized pediatric cases with adenovirus-associated respiratory tract infections were analyzed. Forty four cases out of the 338 were evaluated in more detail for the adenoviruses types present. All of the children resided in Southern Palestine, that is, in city, village and refugee camp environments within the districts of Hebron and Bethlehem. Human adenoviruses circulated throughout 2005-2010, with major outbreaks occurring in the spring months. A larger percent of the children diagnosed with adenoviral infections were male infants. DNA sequence analysis of the hexon genes from 44 samples revealed that several distinct adenovirus types circulated in the region; these were HAdV-C1, HAdV-C2, HAdV-B3 and HAdV-C5. However, not all of these types were detected within each year. This is the first study ever conducted in Palestine of the genetic epidemiology of respiratory adenovirus infections.

  8. An Evaluation of Pronunciation Teaching Content of "English for Palestine 10" and Related Teachers' Competency Level in Light of Current Instructional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Najjar, Rana Abdel-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate pronunciation teaching with regard to an EFL multi-skills textbook ("English for Palestine 10"). The evaluation was intended to identify the extent to which pronunciation teaching content incorporated in" English for Palestine 10," in addition to the related teachers' competency level match…

  9. B2B Pioneer A Millionaire Maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China should soon see its largest group of instant millionaires after Jack Ma,Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Alibaba Group,announced on July 27 that the China’s preeminent e-commerce company has initiated the listing of its B2B unit alibaba.com

  10. 2000 Johnston Site 2B-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 2B-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on June 30, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  11. [What is the link between the sister of the "Titanic" and the history of medicine in Palestine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Zalman

    2006-06-01

    On 21st November 1916, the Royal Navy Hospital ship 'Britannic' (the sister ship of the 'Titanic') was torpedoed near the island of Kea in the Aegean Sea. Captain Dr. John Cropper, aged 52, was one of 30 people who drowned of the 1100 on board. Dr. Cropper was born in 1864, at Guisborough, England. He obtained his medical degree from Cambridge University in 1891. After his marriage to Anne Ellen Walker in 1895, the Church Missionary Society sent him on a medical mission to Palestine. Dr. Cropper stayed in Palestine for about 10 years working in Acre, Nablus, Ramallah and Jerusalem. He published his experiences in 35 articles and letters in English medical periodicals, more than anyone else did in Palestine at that time. In those publications, he described various operations that he carried out and observations on infectious diseases, most of which were the first descriptions from that remote and unhealthy country. His prominent research was in the field of malaria - the most common and important disease in Palestine during that period. It was less than two years after Grassi's discovery of the role of Anopheles mosquitoes as the vector of human malaria that Dr. Cropper carried out surveys of larval and adult mosquitoes in correlation with malarial distribution in Palestine. Dr. Cropper was the first who routinely examined slides microscopically in Palestine and correctly diagnosed the type of malaria. Dr. Cropper was also the first in Palestine to suggest antimalarial measures aimed directly at the mosquito vector and paid attention to ecological aspects such as breeding places and the daily behavior of adult mosquitoes. Dr. Cropper noted the common antimalarial measurements of that time, such as covering of wells, planting of Eucalyptus trees to drain swamps and the routine use of quinine as a preventive medicine, but he wrote that those measures were not effective under the local conditions. He suggested that the only effective measures must be aimed against the

  12. WTS-2 b: Too close for comfort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of WTS-2 b, a typical hot Jupiter in an unusually close 1.02-day orbit to a K-dwarf star. This is the second planet to be discovered in the infrared light curves of the WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS and is only one-and-a-half times the separation from its host star at which is would be destroyed by Roche lobe overflow. The predicted remaining lifetime of the planet is just 38 Myrs, assuming a tidal dissipation quality factor of Q'* = 106. The magnitude of Q'* is largely unconstrained by observations, thus WTS-2 b provides a useful calibration point for theories describing how frictional processes within a host star affect the tidal orbital evolution of its companion giant planets. It is expected that stars with large convective envelopes are more efficient at dissipating the orbital energy of the planet, and WTS-2 b provides an observational constraint in the sparsely populated K-dwarf regime. In addition, despite its relatively faint magnitude, the favourable size ratio of the WTS-2 star-planet system and the predicted hot equilibrium temperature of the planet will make it possible to characterise the planet's atmosphere via secondary eclipse measurements using existing ground-based instrumentation.

  13. Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus in north of Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Bassam Abu-Shanab; Marwan Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This study was conducted to update the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates among human clinical S.aureus isolates recovered from Northern Palestine,to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin-Resistant S.aureus (VRSA)and vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VISA)and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of these clinical isolates.Methods:The in vitro activities of 11 antibiotics against 204 non-duplicate S.aureus isolates from clinical samples in North of Palestine were determined by the disk-diffusion method.These samples were isolated between June 2006 and December 2007.The minimum inhibitory con-centration (MIC)of vancomycin for 115 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)strains was carried out using the agar dilution method.Results:One hundred and fifteen (56.4 %)of these isolates were MRSA and ac-cording to their antibiotic profile these are multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more non-β-lactam antibiotics). Ninety nine (43.6 %)isolates were methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA),forty four of MSSA isolates (44.4 %) were multidrug resistant,while forty five (45.6 %)were non multidrug resistant.Our results showed that the most common resistance (95.6 %)was to penicillin.Two strains of MRSA have shown to be vancomycin-intermediate resistant,had MIC of 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL and these vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VI-SA)are resistant to all antibiotics tested.Conclusion:According to our information this is the first study report about VISA in Palestine.

  14. Design and implementation of a hospital information system for the Palestine Red Crescent Society in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L; Materia, E; Hourani, A; Yousef, H; Racalbuto, V; Venier, C; Osman, M

    2009-01-01

    A case-mix hospital information system was designed and implemented in Palestine Red Crescent Society hospitals in order to support the network of Palestinian hospitals in Lebanon and to improve the health of refugees in the country. The system is based on routine collection of essential administrative and clinical data for each episode of hospitalization, relying on internationally accepted diagnostic codes. It is a computerized, user-friendly information system that is a stepping-stone towards better hospital management and evaluation of quality of care. It is also a useful model for the development of hospital information systems in Lebanon and in the Near East.

  15. ILLEGAL JEWISH-IMMIGRATION POLICY IN PALESTINE (PERIODS OF 1st and 2nd CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Şakir BATMAZ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, illegal Jewish Migration to Palestine and the Manner of the Ottoman Empire towards this migration throughout the second half of the 19th century will be shed into light. The migration movement to the Palestinian lands for Zionist purposes covers a period for the Jewish people full of patience, seriousness and sacrifices. Especially the rich Jews living in Europe and America supplied the money flow through the companies they set up and the Jews who were the idea-father of the Zionism made great efforts to get the Jewish people all over the world to migrate to the holy lands.

  16. Palestine at the end of the state-building process: Technical achievements, political failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    More than two decades of Palestinian state-building have produced neither peace nor a state. In fact, the Palestinians are seemingly further away from statehood today than at any point since the state-building process began in the mid-90s, despite the fact that the West Bank’s institutions now...... perform, according to the UN, the EU, the World Bank and IMF, above the threshold for what is expected of a state. In this situation – with the Palestinians technically ready for statehood and large parts of Europe and the U.S. not politically ready to recognize Palestine – it is unclear what strategic...

  17. Palestine 1918: General Edmund Allenbys application of operational art and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    significance of the British campaign through Palestine when he wrote: “The Holy Land has long been the scene of war since the dawn of history. Here on the...nation supporting us, and the neutrals in a favorable manner.70 Like Lawrence, Dolman links strategy and tactics in a “unity of opposites” like a...Feisal and the Arab Army entered Damascus amidst scenes of great enthusiasm while the 4th, 5th, and Australian Cavalry Divisions secured the surrounding

  18. To be or not B2B?

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J

    2001-01-01

    La question du commerce électronique interentreprises par le web (Business to Business, B2B) est posée actuellement par les grands groupes industriels impliqués dans le commerce mondial. Les prévisions sont imposantes, le B2B atteindra le C.A. de 3000 milliards de dollars en 2003. Les conditions d'accès, la façon de procéder des deux organisateurs (ARIBA et COMMERCE ONE) des plus grandes places de marchés actuelles, sont décrites. La base de l'énorme pyramide est le catalogue électronique multilingue UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Classification) et l'organisation ECCMA (Electronic Commerce Code Management Association) qui gère le développement des UNSPSC codes en 8 langues. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur (re)-déclare qu'un des efforts principaux à fournir par le CERN est la création de son propre catalogue électronique. Dans la Division ST, une aide partielle à ce vaste programme pourrait être apportée par la normalisation des codes et désignations des pièces de maint...

  19. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  20. The Impact of Creativity Management in Fighting the Educational Crisis in Secondary Schools in Palestine from the Viewpoint of Headmasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawawdeh, Sabreen

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to identify the impact of creativity management in fighting the educational crisis in secondary schools in Palestine from the viewpoint of headmasters, researcher worked to follow the descriptive analytical method and also resorted to statistical methods, has developed a questionnaire included several paragraphs about the school…

  1. The Teacher's Roles in Light of Knowledge Economy from the Perspective of the Educational Supervisors' in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Suhair Sulaiman Mohammed; Naser, Inas Aref Saleh; Awajneh, Ahlam Mustafa Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the teacher's roles in light of knowledge economy from the perspective of the educational supervisors in Palestine. To achieve the study's objective, a questionnaire consisted of 35 items was developed and applied on 50 male and female supervisors in the Directorate of Education in governorate of Ramallah, al-Bireh…

  2. Gender Planning and Vocational Education, and Technical Training in Palestine: An Initial Framework. Gender and Society Working Paper #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahleh, Lamis Abu

    Gender planning and vocational education and technical training (VETT) in Palestine were examined through the following: review of available literature and policy-oriented reports, discussions with educators in the field, and roundtable discussion in which representatives of the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labor and experts…

  3. "Children of Our Future": Climate, Degeneration and Education in Hebrew Society in Mandatory Palestine (1917-1948)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltenreich, Yair

    2016-01-01

    "Children of Our Future" was a short essay published in 1929 in the Hebrew Teachers' Association jubilee book. It boldly claimed that future offspring of European Jews in Palestine were all fatally doomed due to the degenerative characteristics of the local climate. Such concepts stood in clear opposition to the dream of creating a…

  4. Causes of Contractor's Business Failure in Developing Countries: The Case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Mohamed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has unique characteristics that sharply distinguish it from other sectors of the economy. It is fragmented, very sensitive to the economic cycles and political environment, and has a significantly high rate of business failure. Business failure, collapse and bankruptcy are common terms in the industry due to the many risks inherited in how the industry operates. Throughout the world, the relative ease of entry gives rise to a large number of contracting firms competing fiercely in the market exposing many of them to business failure, Palestine is no exception. The objectives of this paper are to report on a research study which aims at exploring the causes of contractor's business failure in Palestine, and investigating their severity from the contractor's point of view. The study's results shows that the main causes of business failure are delay in collecting debt from clients (donors, border closure, heavy dependence on bank loans and payment of high interest on these loans, lack of capital, absence of industry regulations, low profit margin due to high competition, awarding contracts by client to the lowest bidder, and lack of experience in contract management. Based on these findings, recommendations to the Palestinian National Authority (PNA and local contractors are presented in this paper.

  5. The Validity and Reliability of the Parent Fever Management Scale: A Study from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Nabulsi, Masa M; Tubaila, Mais F; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Walsh, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Parental concern about childhood fever and consequent use of antipyretics is increasing. Little is known about childhood fever management among Arab parents. No scales to measure parents' fever management practices in Palestine are available. The aim of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the Parent Fever Management Scale (PFMS) using a sample of parents in Palestine. A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate PFMS into Arabic language. It was then validated on a convenience sample of 402 parents between July and October 2012. Descriptive statistics were used, and instrument reliability was assessed for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was confirmed using convergent and known group validation. Applying the recommended scoring method, the median (interquartile range) score of the PFMS was 26 (23-30). Acceptable internal consistency was found (Cronbach's alpha = 0.733) and the test-retest reliability value was 0.92 (P parents' fever management practices. The Arabic version of the PFMS can be used to reduce unnecessary parental practices in fever management for a febrile child.

  6. Incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A

    2014-01-09

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Palestine. Quantitative data were collected through a field survey of a random sample of 1882 people from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and qualitative data through 15 focus groups discussions with men and women from diverse sectors of Palestinian society, which contributed to the interpretation of some of the results more deeply. The most important result from the study was that more women's were exposed to home accidents (40.0%) than men (25.1%). The most common type of accident for both women and men was from a blunt or sharp object casing blunt trauma or puncture wound. Economic situation of the family, family size, presence of children and place of residence were significantly associated with exposure to domestic accidents. There is a need to educate the people of Palestine on the causes of home accidents and methods of prevention, to reduce it incidence.

  7. The midwives ordinance of Palestine, 1929: historical perspectives and current lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal; Bartal, Nira

    2010-06-01

    Until 1929, midwifery in Palestine was relatively open to anyone and only partially regulated by the 1918 Public Health Ordinance, legislated shortly after the beginning of British rule. This article describes the factors that guided the shaping of midwifery and suggests possible sources of inspiration for the British legislator in crafting the Midwives Ordinance in 1929, including American, local (Jews and Arabs), and British ones. The Midwives Ordinance reflects the adjustment of midwifery to changes in the society that evolved under the British Mandate. The ordinance shows how the modern midwife's role contracted relative to the traditional one, in the context of social processes in other countries, east and west. This historical research project is based on interviews, archive documents and research literature. It analyzes the British interests in regulating midwifery, including the rationale of preserving public health and reducing infant mortality, against a background of political power struggles as well as cultural, social and professional diversity in Palestine (the tensions between the powers of doctors, nurses, and pharmacists).

  8. Child discipline in Qatar and Palestine: A comparative study of ICAST-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Nehal; Halileh, Samia; Alyafei, Khalid A; Ghandour, Rula; Dargham, Soha; Giacaman, Rita; Kamal, Madeeha; Imseeh, Sawsan; Korayem, Mona; Nasr, Shiraz; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Tawfik, Hassan; Lynch, Margaret A; Mian, Marcellina

    2016-11-01

    To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range. Qatari young adults were more educated (pdiscipline they received in childhood was not reasonable and not justified compared to Palestinian participants. The more advantaged Qatari population was less likely to experience disciplinary methods that experts developing the ICAST-R defined as abuse compared to Palestinians where the higher incidence of child abuse could be attributed to lower economic advantage, lower level of education and greater exposure to violence. Suggestions are made for future studies in Qatar and Palestine to develop survey methodology with a more culturally appropriate level of intrusion, such as indirect yet meaningful child maltreatment questions.

  9. ONLINE ACQUISITIONS IN B2B MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the present paper, we propose to review some of the main aspects documented by the academic research so far with regard to the online purchasing behaviour in the B2B online environment (more specifically, in the case of the small and medium-sized companies. Preliminary conclusions reveal that, at least in the case studies, the dominant feature is that the geographic delimitation creates a potential obstacle when it comes to applying a general principle governing the small and medium-sized enterprises. Despite this, we consider that some theoretical elements can be acknowledged, elements from which future research can start to develop theories and hypothesis aimed at better explaining the phenomenon. Furthermore, the fact that the studies are rarely involving the same sector, makes it impossible to generalise the process.

  10. Survey on infant hearing loss at Caritas Baby Hospital in Bethlehem-Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Corradin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiology of infants’ hearing loss (IHL among patients under 3 months of age at Caritas Baby Hospital, the only pediatric hospital in Palestine. It was aimed to demonstrate that IHL is a major health problem in Palestine and to assess the first available data of the newborn hearing screening program conducted between September 25, 2006 and December 31, 2011. Data was uploaded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS version 21. A total of 8144 infants were tested, 4812 (59% were males and 3332 (41% were females. As to their origin, 72% (5886 came from the Bethlehem district, 25% (2044 from the Hebron district, while 3% (214 from the other Palestinian districts (Jericho, Ramallah, Nablus, Jenin and Jerusalem. The transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and the automated auditory brainstem response were used according to the manufacturer guidelines. The results were interpreted according to the indications of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Institutes of Health, and the European Consensus Development Conference on Neonatal Hearing Screening. Out of the 8144 infants tested, 1507 (14.6% did not pass the 1st test, 477 (32.8% of these 1507 infants failed retesting, while 498 (33% patients were lost to follow-up. Only 152 (31.9% patients that failed retesting went to an audiologist. The audiologist evaluation revealed that 101 (66.4% patients presented with a mild-moderate or profound hearing loss according to the Bureau International of Audiophonologie standards, 44 (28.9% patients had otitis media, whereas 7 cases (4.7% had no hearing disorders. The overall unadjusted percentage of hearing loss was 1.24%, and the adjusted overall percentage was 1.85%. The chart review showed that jaundice, sepsis, prematurity, lung disease were more common among the affected patients. The high prevalence of childhood deafness in Palestine is of utmost

  11. La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organisé par le Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, le colloque « La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917 » était la première concrétisation du projet Gallia Palestina. Cette rencontre a prouvé qu’au-delà de points en apparence connus, les champs d’analyses inexplorés restent vastes. Une telle constatation a été rendue possible par les interventions d’un grand nombre de participants, intervenants et public, venus de France, d’Israël ou des territoires palestiniens. U...

  12. Using Social network in Higher Education A case Study on the University of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Samy S. Abu Naser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The users which are using social networking sites nowadays by various strata of society such as students, teachers, engineers, housewives and elderly people are increasing. So the goal of this paper is to invest social networking in education especially at the universities. Student spending more time on the social networking sites than on the e-learning programs, so social networking can be used in a useful way to support e-learning. 54% of people who were surveyed about the usage of social Networks said they used Facebook daily while 9% used MOODLE. So this paper uses the social networks for e-learning as a case study on the university of Palestine.

  13. Food sanitation practices in restaurants of Ramallah and Al-Bireh district of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A; Al-Mitwalli, S M

    2009-01-01

    Safe handling of food in restaurants is a basic element in the reduction of foodborne illness. We investigated knowledge and practices about food safety by food-handlers in restaurants in Ramallah and Al-Bireh district of Palestine. A high proportion of workers in the restaurants had no previous experience in other restaurants and 63.4% had received no training on food sanitation and safety. Most of the restaurants in the refugee camps, villages and towns had only 1 worker. Restaurants lacked basic conditions for food sanitation and safety, such as hot water in most and cleaning materials in some. Many workers had poor personal hygiene practices. Training is needed for restaurant owners and staff to improve food handling practices and standards.

  14. beta(S)-Globin gene cluster haplotypes in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarah, Fekri; Ayesh, Suhail; Athanasiou, Miranda; Christakis, John; Vavatsi, Norma

    2009-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the beta-globin chain. In Palestine it is accompanied by a low level of Hb F (mean 5.14%) and a severe clinical presentation. In this study, 59 Palestinian patients, homozygotes for Hb S were studied for their haplotype background. Eight polymorphic sites in the beta-globin gene cluster were examined. The Benin haplotype was predominant with a frequency of 88.1%, followed by a frequency of 5.1% for the Bantu haplotype. One chromosome was found to carry the Cameroon haplotype (0.85%). Three atypical haplotypes were also found (5.95%). Heterogeneity was observed in Hb F production, ranging between 1.5 and 17.0%, whereas the (G)gamma ratio was homogeneous among all haplotypes with a normal amount of about 41%. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of the Benin haplotype origin in the Mediterranean.

  15. Implementing an essential medicines list: effects on pricing and utilization in West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer; Younis, Mustafa Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the effects of implementing an essential medicines list (EML) on medicine prices, utilization and aggregate cost savings in the public sector of West Bank, Palestine. The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) introduced an EML to contain escalating costs and improve appropriate utilization within the public sector. To assess the effects of the EML implementation, we obtained price and utilization data for 76 medicine groups for 1997-2003. We also collected demographic and economic information for the population living in the catchment areas of the MOH health care facilities. After EML implementation, medicine utilization declined by 1.7 defined daily doses (DDDs) per-capita per year, and prices declined by US $0.0013 per DDD. The aggregate cost savings totaled US $5.38 million. We conclude that the EML implementation was successful in containing medicine costs and should continue to increase savings into the future.

  16. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  17. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Dumaidi, Kamal; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Hanan; Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Laham, Nahed; Abdeen, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron), Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III) followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1). The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18%) were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain). For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months) and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine.

  18. Militarised violence in the service of state-imposed emergencies over Palestine and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Pfingst

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available States of Emergency are declared against the disorder-ing of state sovereign power by acts of resistance, rebellion and revolt and are characterised by the technologies of control, containment and punishment. Through spatial, archival and visual encounters with emergency landscapes and the geographies of resistance, the essay considers the historic and contemporary operations, provisions, regulations and practices authorised under state-imposed emergencies. It does so in order firstly, to bring attention to the practices authorised through state-imposed emergencies and the currency and saliency of their ongoing effects, and secondly to re-frame the militarised violence of settlement/occupation as an integral part of state-imposed emergencies in which all that is necessary will be done to protect the sovereign state from the resistance of the colonised/occupied and to effect a return to ‘order’.     Through encounters with the archival record, and the architectures, remnants and territorial arrangements found in post-colonial Kenya and across the multiple geographies of Palestine, the essay draws out seven clusters of state imposed emergency practices and effects. The work grapples with a number of questions: what is it that a declared state of emergency performs for the state? Does a state of emergency enable particular forms of militarised violence? Are there common practices to be found across different modes of state-imposed emergencies? What is the genealogy to the states of emergency across Palestine and Kenya? Does our excavation of the practices of state-imposed emergency shed light on the ways we apprehend state violence in colonial, post-colonial and neo-colonial geographies?

  19. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Jawabreh

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron, Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1. The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18% were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain. For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine.

  20. Modulation of ingested water absorption by Palestine sunbirds: evidence for adaptive regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Todd J; del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Pinshow, Berry

    2003-02-01

    Nectarivorous birds feed on dilute sugar solutions containing trace amounts of amino acids and electrolytes. To meet their high mass-specific energy demands they must often deal with exceptionally high proportionate water fluxes. Despite nectar intake rates that may reach more than five times body mass per day, hummingbirds appear to absorb all ingested water. Here, we report the results of experiments designed to examine the relationship between nectar intake and water turnover in nectar-feeding Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea). Like hummingbirds, sunbirds ingested large amounts of water. At the lowest sucrose concentration (292 mmol l(-1)), food intake rates reached 2.2 times body mass. Fractional and total water turnover increased linearly with water ingestion, but the fraction of ingested water absorbed by sunbirds decreased from 100% to 36% with increasing water intake rate. Palestine sunbirds may therefore avoid absorbing, and thus having to eliminate, up to 64% of their ingested water load when feeding on dilute nectars. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of regulation of water flux across the gastrointestinal tract to the body. Our data suggest that sunbirds regulate transepithelial water flux independently of sugar absorption. These intriguing results open the door to many questions about how water transport is regulated in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract. We suggest that intestinal water and body water form two separate but interacting pools in nectar-feeding birds. Convergence in diet has led to the evolution of many similar traits in hummingbirds and sunbirds. The physiological traits of these two groups that allow the processing of a water and sugar diet, however, may be very different.

  1. TRUST IN B2B E-MARKETPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN KOT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  2. 7 CFR 301.80-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.80-2b Section 301.80-2b....80-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines. (a) The following articles are exempt from the certification and permit...

  3. 7 CFR 301.85-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.85-2b Section 301.85-2b... § 301.85-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines and other provisions of this subpart. (a) The following articles...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description CHMP2B -related frontotemporal dementia is a progressive brain disorder that affects personality, ...

  5. Analysis list: Gtf2b [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gtf2b Blood,Cardiovascular,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2b.1.tsv htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2b.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bio...sciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2b.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2b.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2b.Cardiovascular.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2b.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu

  6. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinping [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); McGinnis, Lynda K. [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Carlton, Carol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Beggs, Hilary E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kinsey, William H., E-mail: wkinsey@kumc.edu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development.

  7. Rapid modulation of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1, SLCO2B1) function by protein kinase C-mediated internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Kathleen; Koenen, Anna; Giese, Bernd; Fraunholz, Martin; May, Karen; Siegmund, Werner; Hammer, Elke; Völker, Uwe; Jedlitschky, Gabriele; Kroemer, Heyo K; Grube, Markus

    2010-04-09

    Members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family are involved in various pharmacological, pathophysiological, and physiological processes, such as hepatic drug uptake, progress of cancer, or transport of hormones. Although variability in expression and function of OATPs has been investigated in detail, data concerning regulation are rather limited. Here, we report a novel mechanism for rapid regulation of OATP2B1 mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) resulting in significant changes of transport activity. PKC activation by the phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) resulted in increased phosphorylation of OATP2B1 as well as reduced OATP2B1 transport activity with a decrease in V(max) of E(1)S uptake (288 +/- 21 (control) versus 165 +/- 16 pmol/min/mg of protein (PMA)). This effect was sensitive to the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM-I). Confocal microscopy, fluorescence-based internalization assay, and live-cell imaging using green fluorescent protein-tagged OATP2B1 revealed that transport inhibition was due to internalization of the transporter. Furthermore, colocalization with LAMP-2 and chloroquine-sensitive degradation of OATP2B1 suggest that the internalized protein is targeted to a lysosomal degradation pathway. With regard to the underlying mechanism inhibition of caveolin/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis failed to prevent OATP2B1 internalization, whereas inhibition of clathrin-mediated processes blocked OATP2B1 sequestration. However, small interfering RNA-mediated clathrin knock-down affected general trafficking of OATP2B1 and resulted in intracellular accumulation in the absence of PMA. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that OATP2B1 function is regulated by PKC-mediated, clathrin-dependent internalization and followed by lysosomal degradation. Furthermore, internalization could be shown in an ex vivo placenta perfusion. Our findings represent a new, rapid mechanism in regulation of human OATPs.

  8. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  9. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, N; Zulkafli, M I; Talib, N; Mohamad, N; Fauzi, H; Ismail, R

    2012-01-01

    Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD) and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6*10, CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*17, CYP2B6*11, CYP2B6*8, CYP2B6*14, CYP2B6*9, CYP2B6*4, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*27, and CYP2B6*20 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6*6 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another 'reduced activity', CYP2B6*2 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  10. Analysis list: GTF2B [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GTF2B Blood,Uterus + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/GT...F2B.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/GTF2B.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/GTF2B.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/GTF2B.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/GTF2B.Uterus.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Uterus.gml ...

  11. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  12. Scientific core hole Valles caldera No. 2b (VC-2b), New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, J.N.; Hulen, J.B.; Lysne, P.; Jacobson, R.; Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.; Pisto, L.; Criswell, C.W.; Gribble, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (USA); Tonto Drilling Services, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (USA); Los Alamo

    1989-01-01

    Research core hole was continuously cored to 1.762 km on the western flank of the caldera's resurgent dome in 1988. Bottom hole temperature is about 295{degree}C within Precambrian (1.5 Ga) quartz monzonite, deep within the liquid-dominated portions of the Sulphur Springs hydrothermal system. VC-2b may be the deepest, hottest, continuously cored hole in North America. Core recovery was 99.2%. The only major drilling problems encountered were when temperatures at the bit exceeded 225{degree}C below depths of about 1000 m. The result of these conditions was loss of viscosity and/or lubricity in the mud, apparently caused by breakdown of the high temperature polymers. Lithologies in caldera-fill indicate the drill site may be proximal to ignimbrite vents and that an intracaldera lake with temperatures approaching boiling formed soon after the caldera itself. Structural correlations between VC-2b and the 528-m-deep companion hole VC-2a indicate the earlier Toledo caldera (1.45 Ma; Otowi Member tuffs) and even older Lower Tuffs caldera experienced no structural resurgence similar to the 1.12 million year old Valles caldera. The hydrothermal system penetrated by these bores, consists of a shallow vapor-rich cap, which has evolved from an earlier 200{degree}C liquid-dominated system, overlying stacked, liquid-dominated zones up to about 300{degree}C. Geochemistry of mud returns collected during drilling suggests chloride-rich geothermal fluids were entering the bore and mixing with the drilling fluids in the fractured lower Paleozoic and Precambrian sections. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. RAZVOJ B2B PORTALA ZA POTREBE ELEKTRONSKEGA POSLOVANJA

    OpenAIRE

    Slanič, Matej

    2011-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi opredelimo vlogo B2B portalov in pomen elektronskega poslovanja. B2B portale smo razvrstili glede na različne kriterije in predstavili različne modele trgovanja na njih. Velik del pozornosti smo posvetili tudi strateškemu načrtovanju B2B poslovanja in vključevanju podjetij na B2B portale, dotaknili pa smo se tudi vizije elektronskega poslovanja. Osrednji del naloge obsega predstavitev gradnje specifičnega portala Bbuines.com ter z njo povezane oblikovne in tehnološke rešitv...

  14. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, A M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I;

    2011-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient. ...... features of FTD caused by CHMP2B truncation mutations as well as new brain imaging and neuropathological findings. Finally, we collate the current data on CHMP2B missense mutations, which have been reported in FTD and motor neuron disease....

  15. Presymptomatic generalized brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Ahsan, R Laila; Isaacs, Adrian M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The clinical syndrome is dominated by personality change and behavioural symptoms, but language, memory, calculation and praxis impairments are also seen early in the course of the disease. There are no ......BACKGROUND/AIMS: CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The clinical syndrome is dominated by personality change and behavioural symptoms, but language, memory, calculation and praxis impairments are also seen early in the course of the disease....... There are no detailed studies of brain imaging in CHMP2B mutation-associated FTD. This study aimed to investigate whether there were early or presymptomatic changes in this group of patients. METHODS: Subjects comprised 16 members of a Danish family with CHMP2B mutation-associated FTD. Nine subjects were presymptomatic...... mutation carriers with a control group of 7 mutation-negative family members. Volumetric MRI brain scans were performed on all subjects at two time points, and rates of volume change were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: We demonstrate that generalized atrophy occurs presymptomatically in CHMP2B...

  16. Pedagogical Innovation within Facebook: A Case Study in Tertiary Education in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khitam Yousuf Shraim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Facebook use among students and teachers has created a new learning culture by providing innovative ways for teachers to enable learners to engage actively in different learning activities. This paper investigates the potential use of the Facebook social network site to support faculty in implementing a social constructivist approach to facilitate student-centred learning. To alleviate problems arising from poor student engagement in large classes, 240 students from An-Najah National University, Palestine, enrolled in four sections of an undergraduate Educational Technology course, were encouraged to participate in a number of formative activities through Facebook. A mixed-methods case study approach was followed. The quantitative data from a questionnaire were analyzed and triangulated alongside the qualitative analysis of the content analysis of postings on the Facebook group page and classroom observation. The results show that the technological affordances of Facebook have a very valuable role in facilitating a constructive approach by faculty members. A majority of students showed a positive attitude to learning via Facebook, being provided with more opportunities to engage personally, communicate and work collaboratively, helping them to construct their own learning and develop 21st century skills for life and learning through social interaction. The key to the successful implementation of social networking is initiating institutional change to facilitate the dissemination of the new pedagogical culture.

  17. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and domestic animals in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheir Ereqat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3% collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n=10, B. chomelii (n=6, and B. koehlerae (n=1. Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3% obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n=2 and B. rochalimae (n=2. Among canine blood samples (n=110, we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%. The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region.

  18. Between Acceleration and Occupation: Palestine and the Struggle for Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This article explores the contemporary politics of global violence through an examination of the particular challenges and possibilities facing Palestinians who seek to defend their communities against an ongoing settler-colonial project (Zionism that is approaching a crisis point.  As the  colonial dynamic in Israel/Palestine returns to its most elemental level – land, trees, homes – it also continues to be a laboratory for new forms of accelerated violence whose global impact is hard to overestimate.  In such a context, Palestinians and international solidarity activists find themselves confronting a quintessential 21st century activist dilemma: how to craft a strategy of what Paul Virilio calls “popular defense” at a time when everyone seems to be implicated in the machinery of global violence? I argue that while this dilemma represents a formidable challenge for Palestinians, it also helps explain why the Palestinian struggle is increasingly able to build bridges with wider struggles for global justice, ecological sustainability, and indigenous rights.  

  19. Hallyu across the Desert: K-pop Fandom in Israel and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissim Otmazgin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role that fan communities in Israel and Palestine play in the transcultural dissemination of Korean popular music, or “K-pop.” Based on in-depth interviews with fans, a survey of K-pop online communities, discourse analysis of online discussions, and participation in K-pop gatherings, this article examines the practice of K-pop, its localization and institutionalization, and its influence on the identities of fans. Special attention is given to the role of K-pop fans as cultural mediators who create necessary bridges between the music industry and local consumers and thus play a decisive role in globalizing cultures. Typically, literature on the globalization of popular culture either utilizes a top-down approach, depicting powerful media industries as making people across the world consume their products, or emphasizes a bottom-up resistance to the imposition of foreign cultures and values. This article suggests that popular culture consumption not only changes the lives of a few individuals but that these individuals may themselves play a decisive role in connecting globalized culture with local fandom.

  20. Formation of Medical Units in Response to Epidemics in the Australian Imperial Force in Palestine 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. G Dennis Shanks MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the closing days of the First World War, British cavalry operations defeated the Turkish Armies in Palestine. Australian Light Horse Regiments as part of the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF were prominent in the capture of Amman, Beirut and Damascus. Epidemic infectious diseases were part of the severe desert environment faced by soldiers in the Middle East. Cholera and dysentery epidemics required reformation of medical units to emphasize mobility in an austere environment. A large epidemic of falciparum malaria coinciding with pandemic influenza shut down military operations and caused many deaths in late 1918. Three separate military medical units were formed in Egypt to address epidemic infectious diseases during mobile operations in the desert: ANZAC Field Laboratory, 5th Malaria Diagnosis Station and 7th Mobile Sanitary Section. Laboratory and preventive medicine units were critical to the military’s ability to conduct operations in the Middle East in 1918 and are likely to become vital for future missions in developing countries. As was the case in 1918, military medical units may have to be acutely restructured to control infectious disease outbreaks

  1. Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer SHADEED

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions, the availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development. This paper aims to evaluate the potential for rainwater harvesting in the arid to semi-arid Faria Catchment, in the West Bank, Palestine. Under current conditions, the supply-demand gap is increasing due to the increasing water demands of a growing population with hydrologically limited and uncertain supplies. By 2015, the gap is estimated to reach 4.5 × 106 m3. This study used the process-oriented and physically-based TRAIN-ZIN model to evaluate two different rainwater harvesting techniques during two rainfall events. The analysis shows that there is a theoretical potential for harvesting an additional 4 × 106 m3 of surface water over the entire catchment. Thus, it is essential to manage the potential available surface water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. Then a valuable contribution to bridging the supply-demand gap can be made.

  2. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed......BACKGROUND: The population of Palestine comprises almost 200 000 Palestinians aged 60 or older. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and to evaluate changes from 2006 to 2010. METHODS: The study combined...... into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. RESULTS: Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14...

  3. Water Grabbing in Colonial Perspective: Land and Water in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gasteyer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Water grabbing' and 'land grabbing' have been referred to as a new colonialism, dispossessing small farmers and indigenous people of land and water for the sake of investors. The current 'grabbing' is driven by perceived scarcity of food and sustainable energy, and is enabled by global financial instruments and commodity speculation. In this paper, we argue that while in many ways different, the 'new colonialism' of land/water grabbing may be better understood through analysis of old colonialism. We use actor network and place modernisation theories to analyse the history and practice of Zionist land/water grabbing in Israel/Palestine as an ongoing remnant of old colonialism. While there are clearly unique aspects to this case, there are similarities in processes, such as the narrative of modernising 'barren', 'infertile', and 'undeveloped' land. The ongoing power imbalance in water management and access, the disproportionate burden on Palestinians of growing water scarcity, and the inability of technical fixes to address the problems of relative deprivation may be seen as cautionary tales for current 'water grabbing'.

  4. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  5. Between Acceleration and Occupation: Palestine and the Struggle for Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This article explores the contemporary politics of global violence through an examination of the particular challenges and possibilities facing Palestinians who seek to defend their communities against an ongoing settler-colonial project (Zionism that is approaching a crisis point.  As the  colonial dynamic in Israel/Palestine returns to its most elemental level – land, trees, homes – it also continues to be a laboratory for new forms of accelerated violence whose global impact is hard to overestimate.  In such a context, Palestinians and international solidarity activists find themselves confronting a quintessential 21st century activist dilemma: how to craft a strategy of what Paul Virilio calls “popular defense” at a time when everyone seems to be implicated in the machinery of global violence? I argue that while this dilemma represents a formidable challenge for Palestinians, it also helps explain why the Palestinian struggle is increasingly able to build bridges with wider struggles for global justice, ecological sustainability, and indigenous rights.  

  6. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Marwan M.; Ibrik, Imad H. [Energy Research Centre, An-Najah National University, Nablus, P.O. Box 721, West Bank (Palestine)

    2006-04-01

    As a contribution to the development program of rural areas in Palestine, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. A computer-aided dynamic economic evaluation method with five indicators is used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more feasible than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (author)

  7. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrik, Imad [An-Najah National Univ., Nablus (PS). Energy Research Centre; Lecumberri, Marta

    2010-07-01

    The energy situation in Palestine is somewhat unique when compared to other countries in the Middle East. There are virtually no available natural resources, and due to the ongoing political situation, the Palestinians rely (or have to rely) almost totally on Israel for their energy needs. This paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. Economic evaluation methods are used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more useful than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (orig.)

  8. Advanced complex analysis a comprehensive course in analysis, part 2b

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Barry

    2015-01-01

    A Comprehensive Course in Analysis by Poincaré Prize winner Barry Simon is a five-volume set that can serve as a graduate-level analysis textbook with a lot of additional bonus information, including hundreds of problems and numerous notes that extend the text and provide important historical background. Depth and breadth of exposition make this set a valuable reference source for almost all areas of classical analysis. Part 2B provides a comprehensive look at a number of subjects of complex analysis not included in Part 2A. Presented in this volume are the theory of conformal metrics (includ

  9. Building Customized University-to-Business (U2B) Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George; Verma, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Continuing education (CE) units throughout the United States have successfully built University-to-Business (U2B) partnerships to provide greater value to their community partners and to increase revenue for the university. Our experience in building U2B partnerships and feedback from our partners--businesses, corporations, state agencies, and…

  10. Genetic and bibliographic information: HTR2B [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HTR2B 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B human alcoholism (MeSH) Disorders... of Environmental Origin (C21) > Substance-Related Disorders (C21.739) > Alcohol-Related Disorders (C21.739.100) > Alcoholism (C21.739.100.250) 01A0634580 ...

  11. B2B myynnin johtaminen ravintola-alalla

    OpenAIRE

    Pajari, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten ravintola-alan yrityksissä johdetaan B2B myyntiä. Tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa, miten yrityksissä panostetaan B2B myyntiin ja sen johtamiseen sekä millä tavoin yritysmyyntiä johdetaan. Tutkimus pohjautuu opinnäytetyön tietoperustaan, jossa käsitellään B2B myyntiprosessia ja myynnin johtamista. Työssä käsitellään B2B myyntiä ja selvitetään myyntiprosessin eri vaiheita. Aihe on rajattu koskemaan nimenomaan johtamisen näkökulmaa B2B myynni...

  12. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, A M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I

    2011-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient....... These mutations lead to C-terminal truncations of the CHMP2B protein and we will review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular effects of these mutant truncated proteins on vesicular fusion events within the endosome-lysosome and autophagy degradation pathways. We will also review the clinical...... features of FTD caused by CHMP2B truncation mutations as well as new brain imaging and neuropathological findings. Finally, we collate the current data on CHMP2B missense mutations, which have been reported in FTD and motor neuron disease....

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EGYPT AND PALESTINE IN THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (CA.2000-1550/1500 BCE.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoDantong

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between Egypt and Palestine during the Bronze Age has been discussed since the 1940s. For the period of the Middle Bronze Age, the problem is both chronological and interpretative. The end of the Middle Bronze Age is fixed by the initial military activities of Dynasty 18 in Palestine around the end of the 16th century BCE. But the dates for the beginning of this period and the transition from one archaeological phase to another are still debated. Lacking a generally accepted solution, the chronology adopted here is that of Dever --- the transition from MB Ⅰ to MB Ⅱ occurred around 1800 BCE,

  14. B2B virksomheders brug af sociale medier

    OpenAIRE

    Persdatter Gotfredsen, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this master thesis is to explore how B2B firms perceive their own usage of social media to establish and strengthen successful relational exchanges. Approach: In-depth interviews were carried out with three key informants responsible for social media marketing at large B2B firms. The findings from the three interviews were then analysed case-by-case and finally a cross case analysis was conducted. Findings: In relation to the market B2B firms mainly see social media...

  15. Occupational Safety Precautions among Nurses at Four Hospitals, Nablus District, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Al-Khatib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational hazards, exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF accidents and safety precautions constitute an important public health issue. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of exposure to occupational hazards among nurses, and their knowledge of occupational safety precautions. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed 332 nurses working in 4 hospitals, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine, by a questionnaire. Bivariate analysis tested the associations between ever exposure and the high likelihood of BBF exposure and the independent socio-demographic and occupational variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the same two exposures and selected independent variables (those significant in the bivariate analysis. Prevalence of ever exposure to BBF was 51.7%, and was associated with working in private and charitable hospitals (OR 2.62, 2.68, respectively, having 4–6 family members (OR 0.52 and “nursing” being as one's top career choice at university (OR 0.48. The prevalence of high likelihood of BBF exposure was 62.2%, and was associated with working in charitable and private hospitals (OR 7.81, 2.43, respectively and “nursing” being as one's top career choice (OR 0.57. Regarding knowledge, most respondents believed it is necessary to enact laws and regulations regarding occupational safety precautions, reported the use of sharps containers, immediate disinfection after an accident, reporting an accident, and using personal protective equipment. Nurses had adequate knowledge of the risks of their hospital work. Nevertheless, they exhibited high prevalence of exposure to BBF accidents. Future studies are needed to re-evaluate existing occupational safety guidelines in hospitals, establish monitoring and evaluation protocols for health care workers' adherence to the guidelines, and institute well-defined policies for reporting occupational injury incidents so these can be handled appropriately.

  16. Measurements of indoor radon concentration levels in dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2013-02-01

    Indoor radon level measurements were carried out in 42 dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The measurements were performed during winter and spring seasons of the year 2010, for a period ranging from 97-118 d using a total of 100 detectors. The detectors were installed in living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, and storage areas of 39 houses, as well as in three schools, selected randomly in the surveyed area. The results of indoor radon levels and the annual effective dose in houses were found to vary from 26 - 611 Bq m(-3) and 0.65 - 14.1 m Sv y(-1), with average values of 117.0 Bq m(-3) and 2.95 m Sv y(-1), respectively. The mean values of radon concentration levels in bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are, respectively, 106.5, 113.1, 101.5, and 164.2 Bq m(-3). The corresponding mean values of annual effective dose for the bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are 2.66, 2.83, 2.54, 14.1 m Sv y(-1), respectively. In schools, the radon levels are found to vary from 31 - 400 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 125.1 Bq m(-3). The average annual effective dose in schools is found to be 3.12 mSv y(-1). This value is higher than the assigned international value. In general, the results show that radon concentration levels in 83% of the investigated dwellings are lower than the indoor radon action level of 150 Bq m(-3) for the United States.

  17. Occupational Safety Precautions among Nurses at Four Hospitals, Nablus District, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A; El Ansari, W; Areqat, T A; Darkhawaja, R A; Mansour, S H; Tucktuck, M A; Khatib, J I

    2015-10-01

    Occupational hazards, exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) accidents and safety precautions constitute an important public health issue. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of exposure to occupational hazards among nurses, and their knowledge of occupational safety precautions. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed 332 nurses working in 4 hospitals, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine, by a questionnaire. Bivariate analysis tested the associations between ever exposure and the high likelihood of BBF exposure and the independent socio-demographic and occupational variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the same two exposures and selected independent variables (those significant in the bivariate analysis). Prevalence of ever exposure to BBF was 51.7%, and was associated with working in private and charitable hospitals (OR 2.62, 2.68, respectively), having 4-6 family members (OR 0.52) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice at university (OR 0.48). The prevalence of high likelihood of BBF exposure was 62.2%, and was associated with working in charitable and private hospitals (OR 7.81, 2.43, respectively) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice (OR 0.57). Regarding knowledge, most respondents believed it is necessary to enact laws and regulations regarding occupational safety precautions, reported the use of sharps containers, immediate disinfection after an accident, reporting an accident, and using personal protective equipment. Nurses had adequate knowledge of the risks of their hospital work. Nevertheless, they exhibited high prevalence of exposure to BBF accidents. Future studies are needed to re-evaluate existing occupational safety guidelines in hospitals, establish monitoring and evaluation protocols for health care workers' adherence to the guidelines, and institute well-defined policies for reporting occupational injury incidents so these can be handled appropriately.

  18. Molecular characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitals environments and patients in Northern Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Adwan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is considered one of the most common pathogen to humans. Infections caused by this mocroorganism can be acquired through both hospital and community settings. This study was carried out to investigate molecular characterization of MRSA strains isolated from the patients and their environment in two hospitals (Rafidia hospital and Thabet hospital inNorthern Palestine, and to determine the clonal identity between these strains and their possible contribution to nosocomial infections.METHODS: Two hundred sixty five swabbed samples were collected from these hospitals, S. aureus was isolated,  antibiotic resistant genes were Panton–Valentin leukocidin (PVL gene were detected and SCCmec and spA were typed by PCR and/or sequencing.RESULTS: The prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus isolates was 29% and 8.2% in Rafidia hospital and Thabet hospital, respectively. All strains resistant to oxacilllin disk were carried mecA gene. Majority of strains (84.6% carried SCCmec type II (n = 11, type IVa and non-typeable were also detected. In addition, PVL was detected in 2 (14.3% clinical strains. ERIC PCR patterns revealed that 2 strains recovered from patient bed and nasal swab isolated from Thabet Hospital were nontypeable, spA typing showed that they belonged to type t386 and have identical DNA sequences. Other 2 clinical isolates were spa typed, one belonged to clone t044, while the other is new clone not exist in database.CONCLUSIONS: Results may give evidence that environmental contamination possibly contributing to nosocomial infections.

  19. Prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Khader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine. As part of this study, the following parameters were studied: District, gender, age and presumed cause. This cross-sectional study was undertaken during the period 26-30 December 2010 at all dialysis units in the West Bank, and included all cases of ESRD on dialysis. The total prevalence of patients with ESRD on dialysis during the study period was 240.3 per million population (PMP. The highest prevalence was seen in Jericho city. There were 57.7% males and 42.4% females in the study. The majority of patients (62.3% were living in villages, while 28.8% were living in cities and 8.9% were living in refugee camps. Most of the patients (45% were aged between 45 and 64 years. The vast majority of patients were either diabetic (22.5% or hypertensive (11.1% or both at the same time (10.6%. There were a considerable number of patients in whom the cause was undetermined (27.6%. The majority of recorded cases of congenital causes were from the Hebron, Jenin and Tubas districts. The prevalence of ESRD noted in our study is comparable with other regional countries but far below the rate recorded in industrialized countries. In the Palestinian territories, there is a general lack of national statistics and surveys, particularly in the public health section. Increased efforts and awareness should be focused on the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as they are the main causes of ESRD. There should also be an additional enhancement and implementation of strategies for the registration of data in order to conduct periodic comparisons and analytical studies to improve the management and quality of life of ESRD patients.

  20. Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female kindergarten children. Data was collected by questionnaire interviews, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count analysis. All iron deficient anemic children were treated using an oral iron formula (50 mg ferrous carbonate + 100 mg vitamin C /5 mL and the complete blood count was reassessed after three months. A univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were constructed; crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results: the overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 33.5% with no significant differences between boys and girls. Significantly different prevalences of iron deficiency anemia were reported between different governorates of the Gaza Strip. Governorate, low education level of the parents and smoking are significant risk factors for children developing anemia. Significantly lower complete blood count parameters, except for WBC, were reported in anemic children. The oral iron treatment significantly improved hemoglobin concentrations, and normalized the iron deficiency marker. Conclusions: iron deficiency anemia is a serious health problem among children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip, which justifies the necessity for national intervention programs to improve the health status for the less fortunate development areas.

  1. Geology, geomorphology and hydrology of the Wadi Gaza catchment, Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaineldeen, Usama; Aish, Adnan

    2012-11-01

    The geological, geomorphological and hydrological features along the course of the Wadi Gaza (Palestine) are discussed. The study confirms the existence of Pleistocene loess sediments along the Wadi. Wadi Gaza is characterized by meandering features along its course. The watershed of Wadi Gaza is estimated to cover more than 3500 km2 of the Northern Negev Desert and the Hebron Mountains as well as the small catchment sub-area in the Gaza Strip itself. Storm water drains the hills and mountains of Hebron and the northern Negev desert, accumulates in the Beer-Sheva area, crosses the Gaza Strip and discharges into the Mediterranean Sea. In winter the Wadi Gaza brings about 20 million cubic meter of rainwater into the area. Field investigations demonstrate the existence of loess sediments in the Wadi Gaza area, deposited during the dry periods that affected the area during the Pleistocene. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) applied for the Gaza Strip confirmed the existence of three Kurkar ridges within the Gaza Strip. Arranged from west to east (i) Sheikh Ejlin Ridge extends up to the current coastline in the west, (ii) Al Montar Ridge occurs near the armistice line in the east and (iii) Bait Hanon Ridge of which a part is present to the northeast of the Gaza Strip and a part to the east of the armistice line (the intermediate part not being accessible for observation due to political reasons. It is considered as a security zone). All three ridges are running NE-SW, parallel to the Mediterranean coastline.

  2. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Shai

    2014-01-01

    The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control), sucrose solution (0.75 mol) or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol). As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution): 1) Parents (especially females) increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2) Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  3. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  4. Rf2a and rf2b transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachy, Roger N.; Petruccelli, Silvana; Dai, Shunhong

    2007-10-02

    A method of activating the rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) promoter in vivo is disclosed. The RTBV promoter is activated by exposure to at least one protein selected from the group consisting of Rf2a and Rf2b.

  5. Secretion of human interferon alpha 2b by Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, E; Fando, R; Sánchez, J C; Vallin, C

    2002-02-01

    Biologically active human interferon alpha 2b (HuIFNalpha-2b) was secreted into the culture medium by Streptomyces lividans transformed with recombinant plasmids coding for HuIFNalpha-2b fused to the Streptomyces exfoliatus M11 lipase A signal sequence. Levels were low, 15 or 100 ng/ml, depending on the plasmid used. Neither processed nor unprocessed HuIFNalpha-2b was detected in cell lysates of the transformants secreting the recombinant product. However, the secreted recombinant product was found to partially degrade when cultures reached the stationary phase by the action of an, as yet, unidentified mycelium-associated factor. Experimental evidence suggests that the degrading factor is related to mycelium-associated proteolytic activity.

  6. Study on pharmacodynamics of recombinant interferon α-2b suppository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Miao; LIU Zheng; SUN Liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antiviral activity of recombinant interferona-2b suppository (IFNα-2b) in vivo and in vitro. Methods The cytopathic-effect inhibition assay was applied in this study to investigate the antiviral activity of this drug as well as yingtelong and axiluowei as positive control. The guinea pig model of vaginitis and skin infection caused by HSV-2 infection were established, treated with IFNα-2b suppository at dosages of 60000、180000、540000 IU, using IFNα-2b injection 180000 IU·kg-1 as controls. Score the pathological changes of appearance and skin, the virus activities of vaginal secretion and tissue sections of viginae were assayed after treatment. Results The TD50 of IFN α-2b and yingtelong for Vero cells was ( 100)μg·mL-1 and ( 100000) IU·mL-1, respectively. The IC50 of IFNα-2b and yingtelong and axiluowei for Herpes virus type 1 was (0.29±0.08)μg·mL-1 and (185.0±28.8) IU·mL-1 and (0.19± 0.03)μg·mL-1, respectively. The mean scores for vaginal and skin lesion of the treated groups were lower than those of untreated group. Among these concentrations, the IFNα-2b suppository of 540000 IU·kg-1 group. Showed highest anti-viral activity. The virus activity in vaginal secretion of treated group was lower than that of untreated group too (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Tissue sections of viginae after treatment with IFNα-2b suppository showed significantly therapeutical effects on the degrees of vaginal lesion. At the same dosage, The anti-HSV activity of IFNα-2b suppository was also compared with IFNα-2b injection , the resuits showed that the activity of suppository of 540000 IU·kg-1 group was similar to that of the injection. Conclusions The IFNα-2b suppository has anti-viruses function both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Branding of electricity in B2B markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rolanda Simenaite 1986

    2013-01-01

    Branding has gained an important role in the B2B (business-to-business) market. Liberation of the energy markets in recent years has increased competition and branding could create a competitive advantage. This thesis analyzes the branding of electricity in a business-to-business context. In depth, this thesis explores the supplier of electricity brand importance for business customers in both Icelandic and Lithuanian B2B markets. The focus of the thesis is to research how much brands matter ...

  8. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  9. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E; Kinsey, William H

    2014-08-01

    Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Improving Micro-Planning in Education through a Geographical Information System: Studies on Ethiopia and Palestine. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, Ian; Tamiru, Mathewos; Parolin, Bruno; De Grauwe, Anton

    This book contains reports of two projects--one in Ethiopia, one in Palestine--that integrated a Geographical Information System (GIS) into the educational planning process. (A GIS is a computer program that combines two databases: numerical data such as traditional data on schools, teachers, and students; and geographic data such as the location…

  11. [The significance of activities in the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society for progression of medicine in the Middle East (to the 130th anniversary of foundation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, L Ye; Afanasiyeva, Ye A

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the history of foundation of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in Jerusalem and its input into progression of medicine in the Middle east. The medical activity of Russian physicians in medical institutions of the Society is reflected too.

  12. Pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6: Advances on Polymorphisms, Mechanisms, and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich M Zanger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6 belongs to the minor drug metabolizing P450s in human liver. Expression is highly variable both between individuals and within individuals, owing to nongenetic factors, genetic polymorphisms, inducibility and irreversible inhibition by many compounds. Drugs metabolized mainly by CYP2B6 include artemisinin, bupropion, cyclophosphamide, efavirenz, ketamine, and methadone. CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans and variants have been shown to affect transcriptional regulation, splicing, mRNA and protein expression, and catalytic activity. Some variants appear to affect several functional levels simultaneously, thus, combined in haplotypes, leading to complex interactions between substrate-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The most common functionally deficient allele is CYP2B6*6 [Q172H, K262R], which occurs at frequencies of 15 to over 60% in different populations. The allele leads to lower expression in liver due to erroneous splicing. Recent investigations suggest that the amino acid changes contribute complex substrate-dependent effects at the activity level, although data from recombinant systems used by different researchers are not well in agreement with each other. Another important variant, CYP2B6*18 [I328T], occurs predominantly in Africans (4 to 12% and does not express functional protein. A large number of uncharacterized variants are currently emerging from different ethnicities in the course of the 1000 Genomes Project. The CYP2B6 polymorphism is clinically relevant for HIV-infected patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, but it is increasingly being recognized for other drug substrates. This review summarizes recent advances on the functional and clinical significance of CYP2B6 and its genetic polymorphism, with particular emphasis on the comparison of kinetic data obtained with different substrates for variants expressed in different recombinant

  13. Targeted deletion of titin N2B region leads to diastolic dysfunction and cardiac atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Michael H; Peng, Jun; Wu, Yiming; McNabb, Mark; Nelson, O Lynne; Granzier, Henk; Gotthardt, Michael

    2007-02-27

    Titin is a giant protein that is in charge of the assembly and passive mechanical properties of the sarcomere. Cardiac titin contains a unique N2B region, which has been proposed to modulate elasticity of the titin filament and to be important for hypertrophy signaling and the ischemic stress response through its binding proteins FHL2 and alphaB-crystallin, respectively. To study the role of the titin N2B region in systole and diastole of the heart, we generated a knockout (KO) mouse deleting only the N2B exon 49 and leaving the remainder of the titin gene intact. The resulting mice survived to adulthood and were fertile. Although KO hearts were small, they produced normal ejection volumes because of an increased ejection fraction. FHL2 protein levels were significantly reduced in the KO mice, a finding consistent with the reduced size of KO hearts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed an increased extension of the remaining spring elements of titin (tandem Ig segments and the PEVK region), which, together with the reduced sarcomere length and increased passive tension derived from skinned cardiomyocyte experiments, translates to diastolic dysfunction as documented by echocardiography. We conclude from our work that the titin N2B region is dispensable for cardiac development and systolic properties but is important to integrate trophic and elastic functions of the heart. The N2B-KO mouse is the first titin-based model of diastolic dysfunction and, considering the high prevalence of diastolic heart failure, it could provide future mechanistic insights into the disease process.

  14. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-05-21

    Electric vehicles and grid storage devices have potentialto become feasible alternatives to current technology, but only if scientists can develop energy storage materials that offer high capacity and high rate capabilities. Chemists have studied anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) (bronze) in both bulk and nanostructured forms as potential Li-ion battery anodes. In most cases, the specific capacity and rate of lithiation and delithiation increases as the materials are nanostructured. Scientists have explained these enhancements in terms of higher surface areas, shorter Li(+) diffusion paths and different surface energies for nanostructured materials allowing for more facile lithiation and delithiation. Of the most studied polymorphs, nanostructured TiO2(B) has the highest capacity with promising high rate capabilities. TiO2(B) is able to accommodate 1 Li(+) per Ti, giving a capacity of 335 mAh/g for nanotubular and nanoparticulate TiO2(B). The TiO2(B) polymorph, discovered in 1980 by Marchand and co-workers, has been the focus of many recent studies regarding high power and high capacity anode materials with potential applications for electric vehicles and grid storage. This is due to the material's stability over multiple cycles, safer lithiation potential relative to graphite, reasonable capacity, high rate capability, nontoxicity, and low cost (Bruce, P. G.; Scrosati, B.; Tarascon, J.-M. Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2008, 47, 2930-2946). One of the most interesting properties of TiO2(B) is that both bulk and nanostructured forms lithiate and delithiate through a surface redox or pseudocapacitive charging mechanism, giving rise to stable high rate charge/discharge capabilities in the case of nanostructured TiO2(B). When other polymorphs of TiO2 are nanostructured, they still mainly intercalate lithium through a bulk diffusion-controlled mechanism. TiO2(B) has a unique open crystal structure and low energy Li

  15. Cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B)-mediated activation of methyl-parathion in rat brain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, A; Ortega-Mantilla, G; Sierra-Santoyo, A; Cebrián, M E; Muñoz-Sánchez, J L; Calderón-Salinas, J V; Manno, M

    2001-10-15

    The role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and the CYP isoform involved in the activation of the widely used pesticide methyl-parathion (MePA) were investigated in rat brain extracts by measuring the effect of different CYP inhibitors on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by MePA. Brain extracts provide a useful tool to study the activation mechanisms of organophosphorus compounds (OP) since they contain both the activating enzyme(s) and the molecular target for OP toxicity. As expected, in incubations of rat brain extract supplemented with NADPH, AChE activity was non-competitively inhibited by the presence of MePA, indicating that MePA was activated to its reactive metabolite methyl-paraoxon (MePO). Indeed, Vmax(app) decreased from 13.4 to 8.7 micromol thionitrobenzoic acid (TNB)/min per mg protein. MePA activation by rat brain extracts, as measured by the AChE inhibition produced by the presence of the pesticide in the incubation, was fully prevented by previously bubbling the incubation mix with CO, by the presence of monoclonal anti-rat CYP2B1/2B2 antibodies and by the addition of phenobarbital (PB), a CYP2B substrate. Interestingly, MePA showed a greater affinity for CYP2B than PB. CYP1A1 antibodies showed no effect on MePA activation. The presence of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) in the rat brain extracts was confirmed by immunoblotting. These results demonstrate indisputably the responsibility of CYP2B in MePA activation in the rat brain in vitro, suggesting that metabolic activation of OP compounds in situ might be crucial for their organ specific toxicity to the central nervous system also in vivo.

  16. Beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever among parents: a cross-sectional study from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Nabulsi, Masa M; Tubaila, Mais F; Awang, Rahmat; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2013-04-28

    Fever is an extremely common occurrence in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting information about fever management. The aim of this study was to identify parents' beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever management. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among parents whose children were enrolled and presented for health care at primary health care clinics in the Nablus region of Palestine. Data were collected using structured questionnaire interviews with parents. The questionnaire consisted of 'yes/no' responses and multiple-response questions. Descriptive statistics were used. Overall, 402 parents were interviewed. All parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect if left untreated. The harmful effects most frequently reported by parents were brain damage (38.1%), dehydration (15.7%), and other organs damage such as liver and kidney damage (14.2%). The study showed that 65.4% of parents would recognise fever by only touching the child, 31.6% would measure the temperature and 3.0% would assess temperature by touching and measuring the child. Antipyretic was preferred to be used by 34.8% of parents, while 49.8% stated that they preferred cold sponges, and 3.2% stated that they preferred homeopathic methods to treat fever. The most common factors influencing frequency of medication administration included physician's instruction (61.7%), the degree of elevated temperature (14.9%) and instructions on the medication leaflet (13.7%). Of the participant parents, 53.2% believed antipyretics used to reduce fever were harmful. Parents reported the most harmful outcomes from these antipyretics to be allergic reactions (20.9%), effects on the stomach (16.9%), kidney damage (16.2%) and overdose (11.4%). Parents were anxious when dealing with a feverish child, which resulted in incorrect or inappropriate practices

  17. An inquiry into socio-historical factors contributing to poverty within the Early Church in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Kakwata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate the root causes of poverty in the early Christian community.The view that is put forward and argued in this article is that poverty was widespread in early Christianity with particular reference to the converted Jews in Palestine. This was the result of socio-historical factors, namely the Israelites’ contact with Canaanites during the conquest,and the implementation of the secular leadership paradigm derived from those paga n nations around Israel, which led to their subjugation under the oppressive and exploitative and economic structures of the Roman Empire. For that reason many believers, newly converted Jews, at that time were destitute and impoverished as they belonged to the lower classes in society. In spite of this state of affairs, the early Christians in Jerusalem seemed to have faced the challenges of poverty with a measure of success as can be attested by the statement ‘for there was no needy person amongst them …’ (Ac 4:34.’n Ondersoek na sosio-historiese faktore wat tot armoede binne die vroeë Christelikekerk in Palestina bygedra het. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die grondoorsake van armoede in die vroeë Christelike gemeenskap te ondersoek met spesifieke verwysing na die bekeerde Jode in Palestina. Die standpunt wat in hierdie artikel gestel en beredeneer word, is dat armoede algemeen in die vroeë Christendom voorgekom het. Dit was as gevolg van verskeie sosio-historiese faktore, waaronder die Israeliete se kontak met die Kanaäniete ná die inname, asook die instelling van die sekulêre paradigma oor leierskap wat Israel aan die naburige heidennasies ontleen het en wat op hulle verknegting onder die Romeinse Ryk se onderdrukkende en uitbuitende strukture uitgeloop het. ’n Groot aantal gelowiges, bekeerde Jode, was in daardie tyd behoeftig en armoedig omdat hulle deel van die laer klasse in die samelewing was. Tog, ten spyte van hierdie omstandighede, het die vroeë Christene

  18. Self-therapy practices among university students in Palestine: focus on herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ansam F; Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Jabi, Samah W

    2008-12-01

    Herbal self-therapy is a common practice among Palestinians. However, no published data are available on herbal self-therapy in the Middle East in general, and in Palestine in particular. This study was conducted to (1) determine the extent of herbal self-therapy among university students, (2) investigate the different types of herbal remedies used and (3) investigate the correlates and reasons associated with such practices. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out using a structured questionnaire that contained five sections: (1) demographics; (2) medication knowledge and self-care orientation; (3) types of herbal remedies used; (4) clinical conditions treated; and finally, (5) the reasons reported by students for herbal self-therapy practice. Pearson chi(2), multiple logistic regression and one-way ANOVA were performed using SPSS 13 program. 33.9% of the respondents reported using herbal remedies in self-therapy. Female gender, students at medical colleges and those with high self-care orientation were significant predictive model for herbal use. Sage (Salvia fruticosa L.), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were the most commonly utilized herbal remedies. The types of herbal remedies selected were significantly influenced by gender, but not by the level of medication knowledge or self-care orientation. Herbal remedies were used primarily for the treatment of headache, flu, menstrual pain and sore throat. The main motivating factor for using herbal remedies reported for using herbal remedies was simplicity of symptoms. Herbal self-therapy was a common practice among university students. Health care providers need to be aware of the students' self-therapy practices and need to have sufficient knowledge regarding herbs not simply because of the widespread use, but also because of significant reported side effects. Academics need to consider offering courses about herbal remedies to

  19. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery......, service, configuration and customisation of the products in their company as well as to develop an apposite understanding of the key values and characteristics of the client organisation. Based on a design-ethnographical study of real sales practice in lift truck business the paper draws parallels between...

  20. Substrate Recognition of Histone H2B by DUBm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Berndsen, Christopher; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    The SAGA complex is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes via histone acetylation and deubiquitination, which are crucial for transcription. Our lab is investigating the SAGA-dependent deubiquitination of histone H2B. The deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of SAGA is comprised of a ubiquitin-specific protease, Ubp8, and three other proteins. It is known that Ubp8 cleaves ubiquitin from histone H2B, however, the specific way in which the enzyme binds to the substrate remains elusive. In order to unravel this mechanism, we attempted to determine the crystal structure of the substrate binding complex. We obtained this substrate by exploiting the techniques of intein chemistry to artificially ubiquitinate a histone H2B peptide, which we then co-crystallized with DUBm. Additionally, we synthesized Ub-K63R-linked chains and Ub-K48-linked chains and co-crystallized them with DUBm.

  1. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    sales agent’s work practice and collaborative conceptual design work, i.e. innovation design work. This perception provides a means to understand the value that the use of conceptual design tools could possibly provide for sales negotiation work. We also use the notion of boundary object to elaborate......This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery...

  2. Development of New B2B Venture Corporate Brand Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmälä, Minna; Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.

    2017-01-01

    The development and role of brand identity in new B2B ventures is not well explored despite the challenge for such organisations in establishing reputational legitimacy. Previous research defines corporate brand identity as stable and endogenous to the organisation based either on the reputational...... of interviews and archival data generated during a three-year period to examine the development of corporate brand over time. This study shows that the development of corporate brand identity and the context of the development of new B2B venture are closely intertwined processes and provides a framework...

  3. Customized E-Learning for B2B Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thomasma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business-to-Business (B2B companies have customers that are primarily other corporations. These companies have unique problems in workplace training. They must train their customers and their customers’ employees. A B2B company may operate with only a few dozen employees, but they may need to help thousands of customers learn how to make best use of their product or service. Discussions with industry executives suggest an ideal training solution might include a number of features that are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Distribution of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Mutations in a Cohort of Patients Residing in Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Siryani

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype

  5. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  6. Supporting B2B Business Documents in XML Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hyoungdo

    2004-01-01

    While XML web services become recognized as a solution to business-to-business transactions, there are many problems that should be solved. For example, it is not easy to manipulate business documents of existing standards such as RosettaNet and UN/EDIFACT EDI, traditionally regarded as an important resource for managing B2B relationships. As a starting point for the complete implementation of B2B web services, this paper deals with how to support B2B business documents in XML web services. In the first phase, basic requirements for driving XML web services by business documents are introduced. As a solution, this paper presents how to express B2B business documents in WSDL, a core standard for XML web services. This kind of approach facilitates the reuse of existing business documents and enhances interoperability between implemented web services. Furthermore, it suggests how to link with other conceptual modeling frameworks such as ebXML/UMM, built on a rich heritage of electronic business experience.

  7. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The

  8. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis and characterization of pure Co$_2$B nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUSTAFA BARIS; TUNCAY SIMSEK; ADNAN AKKURT

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt boride (Co$_2$B) is a significant transition metal boride having a wide range of usage area due to its high oxidation, abrasion and corrosion resistance as well as its superior electrochemical, magnetic and anisotropicproperties. In this study, pure Co2B nanocrystals were synthesized with Co, B$_2$O$_3$ and Mg as starting materials via the mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) method by high-energy planetary ball mill in a hardened steel vial withhardened steel balls. All the experiments were conducted under Ar atmosphere at different rotational speeds and at 20:1–30:1–40:1 ball-to-powder ratios. Leaching of Co$_2$B $+$ MgO powder mixtures occurred after milling andpurified with acetic acid and pure Co$_2$B nanocrystals were obtained in solid form. The Co2Bs were characterized through X-ray diffraction, scanning electronmicroscopy, vibrating samplemagnetometer, Brunauer–Emmett–Tellerand specific density analyses, and effects of synthesis parameters on product properties were revealed. Surface areas of the powders synthesized at 40:1 ball-to-powder ratio at different rotational speeds were measured as 21.14,40.36 and 52.33 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$, respectively. Crystallite sizes of Co$_2$B nanocrystals were between 7.27 and 9.84 nm and their specific density varied between 7.61 and 7.78 g cm$^{−3}$. It was determined that all samples were saturated and exhibited hysteresis and ferromagnetic behaviours, and saturation magnetization was between 35 and 50 emu g$^{−1}$.

  10. GRIN2B predicts attention problems among disadvantaged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Battaglia, Marco; Nobile, Maria; Cattaneo, Francesca; Lazazzera, Claudio; Mascheretti, Sara; Giorda, Roberto; Mérette, Chantal; Émond, Claudia; Maziade, Michel; Marino, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that adversities and GRIN2B (coding an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit) are independently associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments in childhood. However, a high proportion of children exposed to adversities have good, long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that among children exposed to adversities, GRIN2B variants would predict the worst cognitive and behavioral outcomes. 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B were genotyped in 625 children aged 6-11 years from an Italian community-based sample. The interacting effect of GRIN2B variants with 4 measures of adversities [low socioeconomic status (SES), preterm delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and absence of breastfeeding] was investigated upon blindly assessed cognitive abilities (vocabulary, block design, digit spans of Wechsler's Intelligence Scale, and Rey complex figure) and parents-rated behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist/6-18). Rs2268119 × SES interaction (Hotelling's Trace = 0.07; F(12,1154) = 3.53; p = 0.00004) influenced behavior, with more attention problems among children in the 'either A/T or T/T genotype and low SES' group, compared to all other groups. This interaction effect was not significant in an independent, replication sample of 475 subjects from an Italian community-based sample. GRIN2B variants predict children with the worst outcome in attention functioning among children exposed to low SES. Our findings, if replicated, could help in the identification of children with the highest risk and may prompt cost-effective preventive/treatment strategies.

  11. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment, frames (to detect characterization of the conflict, and sources (to examine correlation with coverage tones. The results show fragmented alignment of the newspapers with Palestine and Israel. Conflict frames on offensives, fighting, threats, military strategies, demonization, death, and destruction were most prevalent. Coverage tones were significantly correlated with sources, suggesting that the potential of local media to serve as deescalating tools in global conflicts is subject to the varying political contexts in which they operate in relation to specific conflicts.

  12. The family is worthy of being rebuilt: perceptions of the Jewish family in Mandate Palestine, 1918-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Although the Jewish community of Palestine was an extremely family-oriented society and the institute of the family played a major role in the establishment of the new Zionist nationhood, the historiography has henceforth paid little attention to its role, images, and functions. This article will examine the diverse and often contradictory perceptions and influences that have shaped the Zionist period. Traditional Jewish perceptions intertwined with modern, bourgeois, and revolutionary notions of the family, whether national or socialist. These contradictory perceptions were manifested in the contested professional and public discourse regarding the many dysfunctional urban families in Tel Aviv, who were treated by welfare authorities and mental health specialists during the 1930s and 1940s.

  13. Primary healthcare reform in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, A; Abu-Rmeileh, N; Khader, A; Seita, A; McKee, M

    2016-09-25

    Palestinian refugees served by the United Nation Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) are experiencing increasing rates of diagnosis of non-communicable diseases. In response, in 2011 UNRWA initiated an Agency-wide programme of primary healthcare reform, informed by the Chronic Care Model framework. Health services were reorganized following a family-centred approach, with delivery by multidisciplinary family health teams supported by updated technical advice. An inclusive clinical information system, termed e-Health, was implemented to collect a wide range of health information, with a focus on continuity of treatment. UNRWA was able to bring about these wide-ranging changes within its existing resources, reallocating finances, reforming its payment mechanisms, and modernizing its drug-procurement policies. While specific components of UNRWA's primary healthcare reform are showing promising results, additional efforts are needed to empower patients further and to strengthen involvement of the community.

  14. Vareilles Guillaume, Les frontières de la Palestine, 1914-1947, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2010, 320 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lemire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La genèse des frontières de la Palestine est assurément une des questions nodales du conflit israélo-palestinien et du conflit israélo-arabe. La thèse de Guillaume Vareilles dont est issu ce livre revêt donc un enjeu historique et politique fondamental. En croisant l’approche géopolitique (qui s’attache aux « idéologies relatives aux territoires », selon la définition de Thierry de Montbrial et l’approche géohistorique (« démarche intellectuelle hybride » selon Christian Grataloup l’auteur ...

  15. Socio-environmental cooperation and conflict? A discursive understanding and its application to the case of Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ide

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature faces difficulties when accounting for the simultaneity of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation. We suggest that this puzzle can be solved by more recent constructivist works, which argue that conflictive or cooperative behavior is driven by discursively constructed interests, identities and situation assessments. Based on a literature review and field interviews, we analyze and compare the dominant national water discourses in Israel and Palestine with the discourse of a transnational water cooperation project between communities from Israel and the West Bank. Our main result is that discourses are indeed crucial for understanding water-related conflict and cooperation. This finding highlights the relevance of constructivist approaches in the study of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation as well as of practices of discursive conflict transformation.

  16. Socio-environmental cooperation and conflict? A discursive understanding and its application to the case of Israel and Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, T.; Fröhlich, C.

    2015-10-01

    The existing literature faces difficulties when accounting for the simultaneity of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation. We suggest that this puzzle can be solved by more recent constructivist works, which argue that conflictive or cooperative behavior is driven by discursively constructed interests, identities and situation assessments. Based on a literature review and field interviews, we analyze and compare the dominant water discourses in Israel and Palestine with the discourse dominant among the activists of a water cooperation project between communities from Israel and the West Bank. Our main result is that discourses are indeed crucial for understanding water-related conflict and cooperation. This finding highlights the relevance of constructivist approaches in the study of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation as well as of practices of bottom-up discursive conflict transformation.

  17. Three new species of cercariae from Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) snails in Al-Bathan fresh water body, Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate other new species of cercariae encountered in Melanopsis praemorsa (M. praemorsa) snails collected from Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 100 M. praemorsa were collected from Al-Bathan water body, Palestine, from November, 2010 to November, 2011. Cercariae in M. praemorsa were obtained by emerging and crushing methods. Results: Other three new different species of cercariae have been identified from this snail. These species were Xiphidiocercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia IV), Microcercous (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia V) and Longifurcate cercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia VI). The infection rate ofM. praemorsa with these three different cercariae was (42.2%). Coinfection with Xiphidiocercariae and Longifurcate cercariae or Xiphidiocercariae and Microcercous cercariae has been noted and coinfection rate was 1.23% among the infected snails. The highest cercarial infection rate was in June (64.3%). No infected snails were found in September. It was also noted that infected snails attained a larger size than uninfected ones and all infected snails had a size between 17-22 mm (average 20 mm). Conclusions: Our studies imply that there are potentially more new species of trematodes in this area than were found until now. Due to the presence of infected M. praemorsa and may be species of other snails, water resources could be contaminated by the emerging new cercariae, consequently attack the local people directly via the skin or are transferred to them by metacercariae ingestion. More surveys are needed to identify the real prevalence of the trematodes both in human and animal hosts, and also to determine the range of snail hosts of the parasite in enzootic areas of the disease, as well as the life cycle and biology of trematodes and its effects on man should be elucidated.

  18. Extended Spectrum β-lactamases and antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Essawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Class D oxacillinases are frequently acquired by gram negative bacteria in general and P. aeruginosa in particular.P. aeruginosa is commonly implicated in causing nosocomial infections. The evolution of antibiotic resistance inP. aeruginosa and the acquisition of blaOXA genes interfere with successful treatment.Methods: A total of 49 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from Rafidia Hospital, West Bank, Palestine.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following theguidelines of CLSI. The prevalence of class D β-lactamases (OXA groups I, II and III as well as the pseudomonas specificenzymes (CARB-3 were determined by PCR.Results: Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems was the highest 89%, and lowest to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid70%. This study revealed that P. aeruginosa produced oxacillinase enzymes at rates of: OXA-10 (40.8%, OXA-2 (20.4%and OXA-1 (18.4%. All ceftazidime resistant strains expressed OXA-1 and OXA-2, 18.4%. PSE group was expressed in10.2%.Conclusions: This is the first research conducted to investigate the correlation between OXA genes (blaOXA-1, bla-OXA-2 and blaOXA-10 and antimicrobial resistance among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in Palestine. The results obtainedcould contribute to better treatment and reduction of the evolution of resistant strains. In addition, it will provideimportant information regarding the geographical distribution of class D β-lactamases. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2:56-60Key words: P. aeruginosa, β-lactamase, susceptibility, oxacillinases, blaOXA genes

  19. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients.

  20. Morphologies of A_2B Simple Graft Copolymer Blends: Copolymer/Copolymer and Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems to Further Elucidate the Stability of Simple Graft Phase Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin; Pochan, Darrin; Gido, Samuel P.; Pispas, Stergios; Mays, Jimmy; Tan, Nora Beck; Trevino, Samuel

    1997-03-01

    The morphological behavior of two series of binary blends of A_2B simple graft block copolymers (A is polyisoprene and B is polystyrene) was characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Binary blends of A_2B samples with other A_2B samples of similar relative volume fractions were composed to map out the volume fraction window of stability of the randomly oriented worm phase, or ROW. This novel equilibrium phase behavior was found to occur in a neat A_2B sample with a B volume fraction of 0.81. At this unique composition the single B graft chain first becomes large enough to force the two A chains to the concave side of the AB interface in the microphase separated state. Another set of binary blends of A_2B samples was composed with the respective homopolymers in order to more rigorously determine the phase boundaries relative to volume fraction of the respective microphase separated morphologies in the A_2B systems.

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat improvement, Volume 2B, Washington, Similkameen River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-04-01

    During the summer low flow period, a habitat assessment of the Similkameen, Tulameen, Ashnola and Pasayten rivers in British Columbia and Washington State was conducted between August 10 and October 10, 1983. The biophysical survey assessed 400 km (250 mi) of stream at 77 stations. Fish sampling was conducted at each station to assess the resident fish populations and standing crop. Rainbow trout populations and standing crops were found to be very low. Large populations of mountain whitefish and bridgelip suckers were present in the manstem Similkameen River below Similkameen Falls. High densities of sculpins and longnose dace were found throughout the system except for sculpins above the falls, where none were captured. Approximately 961,000 m/sup 2/ (1,150,000 yd/sup 2/) of spawnable area for steelhead trout were estimated for the entire system which could accommodate 98,000 spawners. Nearly 367,000 m/sup 2/ (439,000 yd/sup 2/) of chinook salmon spawnable area was also estimated, capable of accommodating 55,000 chinook. Rearing area for steelhead trout smolts was estimated for the whole system at 1.8 million m/sup 2/ (2.2 million yd/sup 2/). Chinook salmon smolt rearing area was estimated at 700,000 m/sup 2/ (837,000 yd/sup 2/). Rearing area was found to be a limiting factor to anadromous production in a Similkameen River system. Smolt production from the system was estimated 610,000 steelhead trout and between 1.6 million and 4.8 million chinook salmon. No water quality, temperature or flow problems for anadromous salmonids were evident from the available data and the habitat inventory. In addition to an impassable falls on the Tulameen River at river mile 32.5, only two other areas of difficult passage exist in the system, Similkameen Falls (a series of chutes) and the steep, narrow lower section of the Ashnola River. 51 references, 18 figures, 25 tables.

  2. APPROACH TO ESTIMATION OF THE MARKET VOLUME FOR COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE B2B SEGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Kochergina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the approach for estimating amount of alive enterprises inRussia. The main focus is on the way of detecting an business-active companiesusing the formal signs. The author proposes some signs for indicating of thebusiness activity. The developed model allows to clarify the amount of active enterprises in stages using those signs. The author provides the approach how to applythis model for different markets.

  3. An Intensive Survey of Archaeological Resources in the Proposed Long Branch Reservoir. Volume 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    heavy Gb - Gabbro VH - very heavy G - Granite DGb - Dolerite/Gabbro Remarks Grd - Grano -Diorite p - pecked dD - Diorite/Dolerite pk - pecked area GbD...2) Felsite 57g 57g Grano -Diorite 1 1 (2) 45g 183g 2283 Gneissic 2 1 (3) Dolerite/Gabbro 195g 197g 392g Indeterminant 1 (1) 77g 77g (57) (579 (592...Basalt 1 2 (3) 16g 86g 102g Metamorphozed 1 2 1 (4) Felsite 3g 51g 169g 223g Feloo-Diorite 1 (1) 162g 162g Grano -Diorite 2 (2) 324g 32 4g Quartz 1 1 2 (4

  4. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 2B. SAMOS E-5 and E-6 (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    cameras, capsules, and acces.ories wert.’ well alung toward cumpletion by December 1961. Most cost. ;end habilities had been incurred and could not be...U/NRO to SAFSP, 7 Nuv 63, 31, • el to D/NRO, 1 Apr 64, in NRO fU.a, 078l, D/NRO (B. McMillan) toSAFSP ret’r), Dt·c 63 (confirming verbal ord.rs

  5. ISRAEL AND PALESTINE: NEGOTIATION PROCESS TESTING ("OSLO-1" AND "OSLO-2" CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. ABRAMOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the review of the practical experience of foreign policy negotiations, Israel and Palestine, which deserves special attention, as this analogue in the history of international relations, in particular the Arab-Israel conflict, no. Examine the current state of the Arab-Israel conflict is unthinkable without the experience of I. Rabin, who most vividly demonstrates the evolution of Israel foreign policy, his openness and readiness for dialogue, first of all, to a real compromise. This does not imply that all can be repeated. Experience frequent repetition of a repetition error usually. At the same time it said that the search for common programs relative parties were extremely complex Arab- Israel conflict task, because between them there was a deep split that has paralyzed the foreign policy dialogue and led to a sharp demarcation of positions both within the country and abroad. We would like to emphasize the fact that the further advancing the foreign policy talks, the more he helped outbreaks of violence, intensified them, caused his return character, rather than weakened. As a result, the Israel-Palestinian conflict as an integral part of the Arab-Israel conflict "increases the number of Arabs who are ready to die in a protracted historical conflict with Israel." The paper focuses on the relation of social forces to the idea of the world, desperately sought for him, and the results of the agreements reached in the course of which the hopes and disappointments of successive. It is said that the parties have not been able to overcome the aggressive perceptions of each other, while in captivity their traditional ideas and prejudices that inevitably dooms the conflict on false interpretation. It is obvious that the lack of consensus, balancing on the verge of war and peace, creates confusion and confusion in the minds of people who make their own history and the circumstances that they

  6. Structured Crowdsourcing: A B2B Innovation Roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy

    Crowdsourcing is an increasingly popular source of both ideas and funding. Crowdsourcing in a B2B context is less well understood and, as such, much of our discussion will highlight business-to-business crowdsourcing. More generally discussion will address crowdsourcing relative to innovation...... from crowd-sourcing efforts. The roadmap emphasizes on early stages in the overall innovation management activity that is related to development and specification of the task to be crowdsourced, the identification of the crowd, the creation of the environment to connect the crowdsourcer, the task...... and the crowd, motivation of the crowd, and actual activities in reaching the crowd. Managing the input from the crowd is regarded as a later stage in the overall innovation management but also as a focal point in the arguments for improving B2B crowdsourcing. In crowd selection processes this paper aims...

  7. Chemical Reactivity Perspective into the Group 2B Metals Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Alimet Sema; Akdeniz, Zehra

    2016-06-30

    Chemical reactivity descriptors within the conceptual density functional theory can be used to understand the nature of the interactions between two monomers of the Group 2B metal halides. This information might be valuable in the development of adequate force law parameters for simulations in the liquid state. In this study, MX2 monomers and dimers, where M = Zn, Cd, Hg and X = F, Cl, Br, I, were investigated in terms of chemical reactivity descriptors. Relativistic effects were taken into account using the effective core potential (ECP) approach. Correlations were produced between global and local reactivity descriptors and dimerization energies. Results presented in this work represent the first systematic investigation of Group 2B metal halides in the literature from a combined point of view of both relativistic effects and chemical reactivity descriptors. Steric effects were found to be responsible for the deviation from the chemical reactivity principles. They were introduced into the chemical reactivity descriptors such as local softness.

  8. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The competitiveness of businesses is increasingly dependent on their electronic networks with customers, suppliers, and partners. While the strategic and operational impact of external integration and IOS adoption has been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the organizational...... and technical design of electronic relationships. The objective of our longitudinal research project is the development of a framework for understanding and explaining B2B integration. Drawing on existing literature and empirical cases we present a reference model (a classification scheme for B2B Integration...... and is independent of specific implementation technologies. In the next stage of the research the emerging reference model will be extended to create an assessment model for analysing the maturity level of a given company in a specific supply chain....

  9. Inbound-markkinoinnin opas pienille B2B-asiantuntijayrityksille

    OpenAIRE

    Halonen, Tuija

    2016-01-01

    Digitalisaatio on muuttanut asiakkaiden ostokäyttäytymistä, minkä vuoksi myös markkinoinnin on muututtava. Asiakaslähtöinen inbound-markkinointi on vetovoimainen vaihtoehto perinteiselle yksisuuntaiselle markkinoinnille, jonka teho on laskussa. Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli rakentaa opas, joka auttaa pieniä suomalaisia B2B-asiantuntijayrityksiä suunnittelemaan ja toteuttamaan toimivaa ja kustannustehokasta inbound-markkinointia. Teoreettisen viitekehyksen pohjal...

  10. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-15

    business (B2B) e- commerce refers to transactions between businesses conducted electronically over the Internet, intranets, extranets, or private...types of electronic marketplace participation: 1) Sell-side, 2) Buy- side, 3) Exchanges, and 4) Collaborative commerce . In sell-side commerce , there...types are collectively referred to as company-centric electronic commerce , because they address a single company buying or selling needs. Exchanges

  11. CBERS-2B Monitored Forest Fires In Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rain.L

    2008-01-01

    @@ Several forest fires hit Yunnan Province,in the southwest of China from April 6 to 9.Two disastrous fires happened near Shangri-La County,Yunnan Province.According to the requirement of the Land and Surveying Department of Yunnan Province,the China Center for Resources Satellite Data & Application (CRESDA) provided satellite monitoring images to detect the events.The processed CBERS-2B images were delivered to the related departments for decision making and disaster relief.

  12. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  13. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents...

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of cardiomyopathy in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and 2I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Philip

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD are inclusive of 7 autosomal dominant and 14 autosomal recessive disorders featuring progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Studies of cardiac function have not yet been well-defined in deficiencies of dysferlin (LGMD2B and fukutin related protein (LGMD2I. In this study of patients with these two forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR was used to more specifically define markers of cardiomyopathy including systolic dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction. Methods Consecutive patients with genetically-proven LGMD types 2I (n = 7 and 2B (n = 9 and 8 control subjects were enrolled. All subjects underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR on a standard 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner with cine imaging for left ventricular (LV volume and ejection fraction (EF measurement, vector velocity analysis of cine data to calculate myocardial strain, and late post-gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE to assess for myocardial fibrosis. Results Sixteen LGMD patients (7 LGMD2I, 9 LGMD2B, and 8 control subjects completed CMR. All but one patient had normal LV size and systolic function; one (type 2I had severe dilated cardiomyopathy. Of 15 LGMD patients with normal systolic function, LGE imaging revealed focal myocardial fibrosis in 7 (47%. Peak systolic circumferential strain rates were similar in patients vs. controls: εendo was -23.8 ± 8.5vs. -23.9 ± 4.2%, εepi was -11.5 ± 1.7% vs. -10.1 ± 4.2% (p = NS for all. Five of 7 LGE-positive patients had grade I diastolic dysfunction [2I (n = 2, 2B (n = 3]. that was not present in any LGE-negative patients or controls. Conclusions LGMD2I and LGMD2B generally result in mild structural and functional cardiac abnormalities, though severe dilated cardiomyopathy may occur. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic significance of subclinical fibrosis detected by CMR in these patients.

  15. Neoplasia endocrina múltiple tipo-2b

    OpenAIRE

    Lastra, Guido; de Franco, Roberto; Rueda P., Pedro Nel; Pradilla S., Lina P.; Paz C., Óscar

    2014-01-01

    La neoplasia endocrina multiple tipo 2 comprendetres sindromes : la neoplasia endocrina múltiple2A con predisposición genética para desarrollarcarcinoma medular del tiroides,feocromocitoma e hiperplasia primaria deparatiroides. La neoplasia endocrina múltiple 2B,desorden autosómico dominante con feocromocitomay carcinoma medular del tiroides quegeneralmente se presenta a una edad más tempranay es más agresivo que la de tipo 2A, porlo que su diagnóstico precoz es crítico; estospacientes, que t...

  16. Main: 1I2B [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1I2B シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Udp-Sulfoquinovose Syntha...Molecule: Sulfolipid Biosynthesis Protein Sqd1; Chain: A; Engineered: Yes; Mutation: Yes Biosynthetic Protein... M.J.Theisen, S.L.Sanda, S.L.Ginell, C.Benning, R.M.Garavito M.J.Theisen, S.L.Sanda, S.L.Gin...ell, C.Benning, R.M.Garavito Characterization Of The Active Site Of Udp-Sulfoquinovose Synthase:... Formation Of The Sulfonic Acid Product In The Crystalline State To Be Published Sdr, Short-Chain Dehydrogen

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  18. USING UML SCENARIOS IN B2B SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios has become a popular technique for requirements elicitation and specification building. Since scenarios capture only partial descriptions of the system behavior, an approach for scenario composition and/or integration is needed to produce more complete specifications. The Unified Modeling Language (UML, which has become a standard notation for object-oriented modeling, provides a suitable framework for scenario acquisition using Use Case diagrams and Sequence or Collaboration diagrams. In this paper, we suggest an algorithmic and tool support for composing and integrating scenarios that are represented in form of sequence diagrams. We suggest four operators (;: sequential operator, ||: concurrent operator, ?: conditional operator and  * :iteration operator to compose a set of scenarios that describe a use case of a given system. In this paper, we suggest also to apply the scenario approach to B2B systems (Business to Business. We propose to develop B2B systems as a three activities process deriving formal specifications and code skeletons from UML scenarios. Activities of this proposed process are generally automatic and are supported by a set of developed algorithms and tools.

  19. 2b or Not 2b: Experimental Evolution of Functional Exogenous Sequences in a Plant RNA Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Mark P.; Ambrós, Silvia; Carrasco, José L.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is pervasive in viruses and thought to be a key mechanism in their evolution. On the other hand, strong selective constraints against increasing genome size are an impediment for HGT, rapidly purging horizontally transferred sequences and thereby potentially hindering evolutionary innovation. Here, we explore experimentally the evolutionary fate of viruses with simulated HGT events, using the plant RNA virus Tobacco etch virus (TEV), by separately introducing two functional, exogenous sequences to its genome. One of the events simulates the acquisition of a new function though HGT of a conserved AlkB domain, responsible for the repair of alkylation or methylation damage in many organisms. The other event simulates the acquisition of a sequence that duplicates an existing function, through HGT of the 2b RNA silencing suppressor from Cucumber mosaic virus. We then evolved these two viruses, tracked the maintenance of the horizontally transferred sequences over time, and for the final virus populations, sequenced their genome and measured viral fitness. We found that the AlkB domain was rapidly purged from the TEV genome, restoring fitness to wild-type levels. Conversely, the 2b gene was stably maintained and did not have a major impact on viral fitness. Moreover, we found that 2b is functional in TEV, as it provides a replicative advantage when the RNA silencing suppression domain of HC-Pro is mutated. These observations suggest a potentially interesting role for HGT of short functional sequences in ameliorating evolutionary constraints on viruses, through the duplication of functions. PMID:28137747

  20. Biodegradation of BOD and ammonia-free using bacterial consortium in aerated fixed film bioreactor (AF2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Rulianah, Sri; Saroso, Hadi; Meilany, Diah

    2017-06-01

    BOD and Ammonia-free (NH3-N) are pollutants of hospital wastewater which often exceed the quality standards. It is because biological processes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) have not been effective in degrading BOD and NH3-N. Therefore, a study on factors that influence the biodegradation of BOD and NH3-N by choosing the type of bacteria to improve the mechanisms of biodegradation processes is required. Bacterial consortium is a collection of several types of bacteria obtained from isolation process, which is known to be more effective than a single bacterial in degrading pollutants. On the other hand, AF2B is a type of reactor in wastewater treatment system. The AF2B contains a filter media that has a large surface area so that the biodegradation process of pollutants by microorganism can be improved. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of volume of starter and air supplies on decreasing BOD and NH3-N in hospital wastewater using bacterial consortium in the AF2B on batch process. The research was conducted in three stages: the making of the growth curve of the bacterial consortium, bacterial consortium acclimatization, and hospital wastewater treatment in the AF2B with batch process. The variables used are the volume of starter (65%, 75%, and 85% in volume) and air supplies (2.5, 5, and 7.5 L/min). Meanwhile, the materials used are hospital wastewater, bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas diminuta, Pseudomonas capica, Bacillius sp, and Nitrobacter sp), blower, and AF2B. AF2B is a plastic basin containing a filter media with a wasp-nest shape used as a medium for growing the bacterial consortium. In the process of making the growth curve, a solid form of bacterial consortium was dissolved in sterilized water, then grown in a nutrient broth (NB). Then, shaking and sampling were done at any time to determine the path growth of bacterial consortium. In the acclimatization process, bacterial isolates were grown using hospital wastewater as a

  1. Encephalomyocarditis virus viroporin 2B activates NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Ito

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors (NLRs comprise a large family of intracellular pattern- recognition receptors. Members of the NLR family assemble into large multiprotein complexes, termed the inflammasomes. The NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3 is triggered by a diverse set of molecules and signals, and forms the NLRP3 inflammasome. Recent studies have indicated that both DNA and RNA viruses stimulate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the secretion of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β and IL-18 following the activation of caspase-1. We previously demonstrated that the proton-selective ion channel M2 protein of influenza virus activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. However, the precise mechanism by which NLRP3 recognizes viral infections remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, a positive strand RNA virus of the family Picornaviridae, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in mouse dendritic cells and macrophages. Although transfection with RNA from EMCV virions or EMCV-infected cells induced robust expression of type I interferons in macrophages, it failed to stimulate secretion of IL-1β. Instead, the EMCV viroporin 2B was sufficient to cause inflammasome activation in lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages. While cells untransfected or transfected with the gene encoding the EMCV non-structural protein 2A or 2C expressed NLRP3 uniformly throughout the cytoplasm, NLRP3 was redistributed to the perinuclear space in cells transfected with the gene encoding the EMCV 2B or influenza virus M2 protein. 2B proteins of other picornaviruses, poliovirus and enterovirus 71, also caused the NLRP3 redistribution. Elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+ level, but not mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and lysosomal cathepsin B, was important in EMCV-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Chelation of extracellular Ca(2+ did not reduce virus-induced IL-1β secretion. These results indicate that EMCV activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by

  2. 20 CFR 655.22 - Obligations of H-2B employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required by law that the employer will make from the worker's paycheck. All deductions must be reasonable... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of H-2B employers. 655.22 Section... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.22 Obligations of H-2B employers. An employer seeking H-2B labor...

  3. Mania associated with interferon α2b treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanth K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric side effects are common with Interferon α 2b. Psychosis and depression have been reported. Several cases of mania have been reported but only few have been associated with treatment for hepatitis B. We report a case of mania with psychotic symptoms in a 21-year-old female diagnosed to have hepatitis-B infection, who was receiving interferon. The report supports the view that dose reductions or pauses during interferon treatment can cause mania. Family history of mood disorder could be a risk factor. Atypical presentations are common in interferon-induced mania. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs. Since the use of interferon is increasing in developing countries, the need for awareness of side effects and management issues are important and these are highlighted.

  4. Semantic ETL into i2b2 with Eureka!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Andrew R; Krc, Tahsin; Rathod, Himanshu; Agravat, Sanjay; Mansour, Michel; Torian, William; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping is an emerging research information systems capability. Research uses of electronic health record (EHR) data may require the ability to identify clinical co-morbidities and complications. Such phenotypes may not be represented directly as discrete data elements, but rather as frequency, sequential and temporal patterns in billing and clinical data. These patterns' complexity suggests the need for a robust yet flexible extract, transform and load (ETL) process that can compute them. This capability should be accessible to investigators with limited ability to engage an IT department in data management. We have developed such a system, Eureka! Clinical Analytics. It extracts data from an Excel spreadsheet, computes a broad set of phenotypes of common interest, and loads both raw and computed data into an i2b2 project. A web-based user interface allows executing and monitoring ETL processes. Eureka! is deployed at our institution and is available for deployment in the cloud.

  5. Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing has become extremely important recently due to the fierce competition in today's marketplace. Companies are required to build long-term profitable relationship with customers and to achieve customer loyalty. Also, switching behaviors frequently occur among most of targeted customers. Fewer studies, however, discuss the effects of relationship quality efforts on customer loyalty. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the impact of relationship quality on customer loyalty in B2B context in the Egyptian shipping services sector. Building on prior research, we propose relationship quality as a higher construct comprising trust, commitment and satisfaction. An analytical model is developed as a guideline to test the relationships between relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty.

  6. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... services to large Scandinavian corporations. We account for and analyse the process of building a mystery shopping procedure to get strategic insights from engineers delivering temporary consultancy services to these clients. After a successful trial period with three mystery shoppers the experiment (a...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  7. Vortex lattice transitions in YNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Levett; C D Dewhurst; D McK Paul

    2002-05-01

    We have performed extensive small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) diffraction studies of the vortex lattice in single crystal YNi2B2C for $B||c$. High-resolution SANS, combined with a field-oscillation vortex lattice preparation technique, allows us to separate Bragg scattered intensities from two orthogonal domains and accurately determine the unit cell angle, . The data suggest that upon increasing field there is a finite transition width where both low- and high-field distorted hexagonal vortex lattice phases, mutually rotated by 45°, coexist. The smooth variation of diffracted intensity from each phase through the transition corresponds to a redistribution of populations between the two types of domains.

  8. Getting started with Oracle SOA B2B Integration a hands-on tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Krishnaprem; Perlovsky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This hands on tutorial gives you the best possible start you could hope for with Oracle B2B. Learn using real life scenarios and examples to give you a solid footing of B2B.This book is for B2B architects, consultants and developers who would like to design and develop B2B integrations using Oracle B2B. This book assumes no prior knowledge of Oracle B2B and explains all concepts from scratch using illustrations, real world examples and step-by-step instructions. The book covers enough depth and details to be useful for both beginner and advanced B2B users.

  9. Subgenotypes and mutations in the s and polymerase genes of hepatitis B virus carriers in the West Bank, palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakeih Abdelnabi

    Full Text Available The mutation rate and genetic variability of hepatitis B virus (HBV are crucial factors for efficient treatment and successful vaccination against HBV. Until today, genetic properties of this virus among the Palestinian population remain unknown. Therefore, we performed genetic analysis of the overlapping S and polymerase genes of HBV, isolated from 40 Palestinian patients' sera. All patients were HBsAg positive and presented with a viral load above 105 HBV genome copies/ml. The genotyping results of the S gene demonstrated that HBV D1 was detected in 90% of the samples representing the most prominent subgenotype among Palestinians carrying HBV. Various mutations existed within the S gene; in five patients four known escape mutations including the common G145R and D144E were found. Furthermore, a ratio of 4.25 of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations in the S gene indicated a strong selection pressure on the HBs antigen loops of HBV strains circulating in those Palestinian patients. Although all patients were treatment-naïve, with the exception of one, several mutations were found in the HBV polymerase gene, but none pointed to drug resistance. The study presented here is the first report to address subgenotypes and mutation analyses of HBV S and polymerase genes in Palestine.

  10. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Co-occurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts.

  11. Safety Culture in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the Gaza Strip, Palestine: A Need for Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim; Hamdan, Motasem Abduallah; Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalil; Radwan, Abdal-Karim Said; Alshaer, Ahmed Ali

    Assessment of the prevailing safety culture within the Gazan health care system can be used to identify problem areas. Specifically, the need for improvements, raising awareness about patient safety, the identification and evaluation of existing safety programs and interventions for improving the safety culture. This study aims to assess the safety culture in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Gaza Strip hospitals and to assess the safety culture in regards to caregivers' characteristics. In a cross-sectional study using a census sample, we surveyed all nurses and physicians working in at all the NICUs in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) which includes six scales was used to assess participants' attitudes towards safety culture. The overall score for SAQ was 63.9. Domains' scores ranged between 55.5 (perception of management) and 71.8 (stress recognition). The scores reported by our participants fell below the 75 out of a possible score of 100, which was considered as a cut-off point for a positive score. Moreover, our results revealed substantial variation in safety culture domain scores among participating NICUs. These results should be an indicator to our health care policy makers to modify current or adopt new health care policies to improve safety culture. It should also be a call to design customized programs for improving the safety culture in NICUs in the Gaza Strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal variation of indoor radon-222 levels in dwellings in Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the seasonal variations of indoor radon levels in dwellings located in the Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the summer and winter of the year 2006/2007 using CR-39 solid-state-nuclear-track detectors. The total number of investigated buildings is 75 in summer and 81 in winter. A total number of 142 dosemeters are installed in dwellings for each season for a period of almost 100 d. The radon concentration levels in summer varied from 43 to 192 Bq m(-3) for buildings in the Ramallah province and from 30 to 655 Bq m(-3) for East Jerusalem suburbs. In winter, the radon concentration levels are found to vary from 38 to 375 Bq m(-3) in the Ramallah buildings and from 35 to 984 Bq m(-3) in East Jerusalem suburbs. The obtained results for radon concentration levels in most places are found to be within the accepted international levels.

  13. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred.

  14. A Case Study of Mobile Technology-enabled English Language Learning: the Amazon Kindle e-Reader Initiative in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khitam Yousuf Shraim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of increasingly interactive e-reader devices such as the Amazon Kindle represents an opportunity to explore their evolving pedagogical value. This study aims to investigate how use of the Kindle can enhance individuals’ English language learning—more specifically their attitudes, reading comprehension, vocabulary development and pronunciation performance—in the context of informal and lifelong learning in Palestine, and to explore the further potential of scaling up the use of e-readers at a national level. At the piloting stage of this initiative, the study operated at two levels (micro and meso of the M3 evaluation framework. Mixed methods were used: qualitative data were obtained through a case study of the practices and perceptions of two teachers in two classrooms in the Qalqilia center and quantitative data were collected through a survey of 114 learners. The study shows that the Kindle’s technological affordances are effective in creating a flexible, authentic and interactive environment for English language learning, provided that teachers change their teaching methods to take full advantage of the features of mobile technologies to create innovative learning approaches aligned with the needs of the e-generation. It was also found that despite some concerns with the usability issue, attitudes towards learning English changed positively and learners’ vocabulary and pronunciation improved.

  15. A simulation/optimization study to assess seawater intrusion management strategies for the Gaza Strip coastal aquifer (Palestine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni, Marta; Deidda, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Qahman, Khalid; Lecca, Giuditta

    2015-03-01

    Seawater intrusion is one of the major threats to freshwater resources in coastal areas, often exacerbated by groundwater overexploitation. Mitigation measures are needed to properly manage aquifers, and to restore groundwater quality. This study integrates three computational tools into a unified framework to investigate seawater intrusion in coastal areas and to assess strategies for managing groundwater resources under natural and human-induced stresses. The three components are a three-dimensional hydrogeological model for density-dependent variably saturated flow and miscible salt transport, an automatic calibration procedure that uses state variable outputs from the model to estimate selected model parameters, and an optimization module that couples a genetic algorithm with the simulation model. The computational system is used to rank alternative strategies for mitigation of seawater intrusion, taking into account conflicting objectives and problem constraints. It is applied to the Gaza Strip (Palestine) coastal aquifer to identify a feasible groundwater management strategy for the period 2011-2020. The optimized solution is able to: (1) keep overall future abstraction from municipal groundwater wells close to the user-defined maximum level, (2) increase the average groundwater heads, and (3) lower both the total mass of salt extracted and the extent of the areas affected by seawater intrusion.

  16. Management of healthcare waste in circumstances of limited resources: a case study in the hospitals of Nablus city, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Al-Qaroot, Yousef S; Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammad S

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were the assessment of healthcare waste management and the characterization of healthcare waste material generated in the hospitals in Nablus city, Palestine, and furthermore, to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B among the cleaning personnel working in these hospitals. The medical waste generation rate in kg per bed per day was between 0.59 and 0.93 kg bed(-1) day(-1). The waste generation rate in the healthcare facilities of Nablus city hospitals was similar to some other developing countries; however, the percentage of medical wastes in the total waste stream was comparatively high. The density of medical waste at the four hospitals studied ranged between 144.9 and 188.4 kg m(-3) with a mean value of 166.7 kg m(-3). The waste segregation and handling practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave integrated with a shredder should be evaluated and implemented. The system of healthcare waste management in Nablus city is in need of immediate improvement and attention. Formulating rules and guidelines for medical waste and developing strategies for overcoming the obstacles related to waste management should be considered as an urgent matter.

  17. Structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific histone variant TSH2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urahama, Takashi; Horikoshi, Naoki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi, E-mail: kurumizaka@waseda.jp [Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan)

    2014-03-25

    The crystal structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific TSH2B variant has been determined. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, and induces a local structural difference between TSH2B and H2B in nucleosomes. The human histone H2B variant TSH2B is highly expressed in testis and may function in the chromatin transition during spermatogenesis. In the present study, the crystal structure of the human testis-specific nucleosome containing TSH2B was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. A local structural difference between TSH2B and canonical H2B in nucleosomes was detected around the TSH2B-specific amino-acid residue Ser85. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, but in the canonical nucleosome the H2B Asn84 residue (corresponding to the TSH2B Ser85 residue) forms water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the H4 Arg78 residue. In contrast, the other TSH2B-specific amino-acid residues did not induce any significant local structural changes in the TSH2B nucleosome. These findings may provide important information for understanding how testis-specific histone variants form nucleosomes during spermatogenesis.

  18. Effects of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B borides on hardness in powder-injection-molded product fabricated with Fe-based alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Jeonghyeon; Jeon, Changwoo; Paul Kim, Choongnyun; Lee, Byeong-Joo [Center for Advanced Aerospace Material, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Material, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eon-Sik [Advanced Metallic Materials Research Department, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Shik Yoon, Tae [Bestner Co., 146-8 Sangdaewon-dong, Sungnam 462-121 (Korea, Republic of); Su Shin, Yang [New Growth Technology Strategy Department, POSCO, Seoul 135-777 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-30

    In the present study, a powder injection molding (PIM) product containing (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B borides was fabricated with Fe-based alloy powders, and its microstructure and hardness were investigated in relation with volume fraction of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B. In the Fe-based alloys designed by the thermodynamic calculation, the volume fractions of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B increased with increasing (X{sub Cr}+X{sub B}) value, and were well matched with those obtained from the thermodynamic calculation. The hardness of the Fe-based alloys linearly increased with increasing volume fraction of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B. When Fe-based alloy powders were injection-molded and sintered at 1165 Degree-Sign C, a densified microstructure with almost no pores was obtained. In the sintered microstructure, 56 vol% of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B borides, together with a few pores (porosity; 0.5%), were relatively homogeneously distributed in the tempered martensite matrix, which resulted in the very high hardness over 600 VHN. Such a high hardness suggested that the present Fe-based alloy powders could be readily adopted for fabricating PIM products or for replacing conventional stainless steel PIM products.

  19. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  20. Long-term efficacy and safety of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapanoglu, Turgut; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yilmaz; Alper, Fatih; Ozbey, Isa

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine long-term efficacy and safety subcutaneous injection of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis in terms of testicular volume and other testicular functions. Mumps orchitis was evaluated in 37 patients. Patients were hospitalized and administered 1 × 3,000,000 IU subcutaneous injection of interferon-alpha-2B daily for 7 days. The testicular volumes of all the patients were measured by ultrasonography in the 18th month following treatment termination. The testes volumes were evaluated by descriptive statistics as percentages. Patients were divided into three groups according to testes volumes and differences between the involved and non-involved testicles. Group I included patients with normal testes volume (> 12 ml) and a difference between testes of less than 2 ml or 20%; Group II (atrophic groups) included patients with testes volume of less than 12 ml; and Group III (hypotrophic groups) included patients with testes volume of greater than 12 ml and a difference between testes of more than 2 ml or 20%. Groups were compared in terms of results of semen analysis and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Patients' ages ranged between 17 and 41 years (mean: 28.3 years). A total of nine atrophy cases were identified. Sixteen patients were determined to have hypotrophic testes with a difference of 2-10 ml or 20% between the involved and non-involved testicles, despite the absence of testicular atrophy. A comparison of groups revealed that sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and motility percentage were significantly higher in Group I than in the other groups, while serum FSH and LH levels were lower in Group I than in the other groups. Although the use of interferon-alpha-2B appears to prevent testicular atrophy and protect testicular function, it leads to a considerable difference in the volume between testicles and a significant loss of testicular

  1. Efficient cell culture system for hepatitis C virus genotype 2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present inventors developed hepatitis C virus 2b/2a intergenotypic recombinants in which the JFH1 structural genes (Core, E1 and E2), p7 and the complete NS2 were replaced by the corresponding genes of the genotype 2b reference strain J8. Sequence analysis of recovered 2b/2a recombinants from...... transfection experiments revealed that 2b/2a was genetically stable. Conclusion: The developed 2b/2a viruses provide a robust in vitro tool for research in HCV genotype 2b, including vaccine studies and functional analysis.......The present inventors developed hepatitis C virus 2b/2a intergenotypic recombinants in which the JFH1 structural genes (Core, E1 and E2), p7 and the complete NS2 were replaced by the corresponding genes of the genotype 2b reference strain J8. Sequence analysis of recovered 2b/2a recombinants from 2...

  2. Phonon linewidths in YNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Pintschovius; F Weber; W Reichardt; A Kreyssig; R Heid; D Reznik; O Stockert; K Hradil

    2008-10-01

    Phonons in a metal interact with conduction electrons which give rise to a finite linewidth. In the normal state, this leads to a Lorentzian shape of the phonon line. Density functional theory is able to predict the phonon linewidths as a function of wave vector for each branch of the phonon dispersion. An experimental verification of such predictions is feasible only for compounds with very strong electron–phonon coupling. YN2B2C was chosen as a test example because it is a conventional superconductor with a fairly high c (15.2 K). Inelastic neutron scattering experiments did largely confirm the theoretical predictions. Moreover, they revealed a strong temperature dependence of the linewidths of some phonons with particularly strong electron–phonon coupling which can as yet only qualitatively be accounted for by theory. For such phonons, marked changes of the phonon frequencies and linewidths were observed from room temperature down to 15 K. Further changes were observed on entering into the superconducting state. These changes can, however, not be described simply by a change of the phonon linewidth.

  3. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, I. [CIEMAT/PIRA, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: isc@csn.es; Naito, M. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), 4-1-23 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-0014 (Japan); Thorne, M.C. [Mike Thorne and Associates Limited, Abbotsleigh, Kebroyd Mount, Ripponden, Halifax, West Yorkshire HX6 3JA (United Kingdom); Walke, R. [Enviros QuantiSci, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Culham, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of 'Reference Biospheres' to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'.

  4. Analysis of exoplanet XO-2 b observed with HST NICMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, Nicolas; McCullough, P. R.; Burke, C.; Long, D.

    2011-09-01

    We present the photometric and spectroscopic analysis of the transiting planet XO-2 b, from HST NICMOS. Three transits of the planet have been observed. The field of view contains not only the XO-2 star but also a second star of very similar properties, which we use as a comparison star. We first perform a white-light photometric analysis of the data. The high signal to noise ratio yields improved parameters for the planet and host star. We then build the spectrum of this system in the range 1.2-1.8 microns with a spectral resolution of R 35, taking into account systematic effects. To investigate the validity of the method and the reliability of NICMOS data, we also build a spectrum for the exoplanet XO-1 b. We find an overall shape close to Tinetti et al. (ApJL 2010), although differences appear for some particular features. In the context of a debate about planetary spectra obtained with NICMOS, this study suggests that NICMOS data, although clearly affected by systematics, contain enough information to derive planetary spectra at least at low resolution.

  5. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyou; Rui

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B(SH2B)family members(SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3)are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains.SH2B1(also called SH2-B and PSM)and SH2B2(also called APS)are able to form homo-or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains.Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins,including Janus kinase 2(JAK2),TrkA,insulin receptors,insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors,insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS1),and IRS2.SH2B1 enhances leptin signaling by both stimulating JAK2 activity and assembling a JAK2/IRS1/2 signaling complex.SH2B1 promotes insulin signaling by both enhancing insulin receptor catalytic activity and protecting against dephosphorylation of IRS proteins.Accordingly,genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in severe leptin resistance,insulin resistance,hyperphagia,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in mice.Neuronspecific overexpression of SH2B1βtransgenes protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.SH2B1 in pancreaticβcells promotesβcell expansion and insulin secretion to counteract insulin resistance in obesity.Moreover,numerous SH2B1 mutations are genetically linked to leptin resistance,insulin resistance,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in humans.Unlike SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3 are not required for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis.The metabolic function of the SH2B family is conserved from insects to humans.

  6. Lack of genetic association between OCT1, ABCB1, and UGT2B7 variants and morphine pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L M; Sverrisdóttir, E; Bjerregaard Stage, T

    2017-01-01

    (CL), and volume of distribution (VD). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-150min) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were also calculated. Pharmacodynamic data were measured as pain tolerance thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the rectum and muscle, as well as tonic...... cold pain stimulation ("the cold pressor test" where hand was immersed in cold water). Six different single nucleotide polymorphisms in three different genes (OCT1 (n=22), ABCB1 (n=37), and UGT2B (n=22)) were examined. RESULTS: Neither AUC0-150min, ktr, CL, nor VD were associated with genetic variants...... in OCT1, ABCB1, and UGT2B7 (all P>0.05). Similarly, the antinociceptive effects of morphine on rectal, muscle, and cold pressor tests were not associated with these genetic variants (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this experimental study in healthy volunteers, we found no association between different...

  7. Lithium decreased NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of NR2B and PSD-95 with Src in rat hippocampus following cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of chronic lithium on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) tyrosine phosphorylation and the interactions of NR2B and PSD-95 with Src induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Methods: Transient (15 min) cerebral ischemia was induced by four-vessel occlusion procedure in SD rats. Immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB)were performed to investigate the phosphorylation and interactions of proteins. The effects of lithium on tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B and its interactions with PSD-95 and Src were examined. Results: Transient cerebral ischemia 15 min followed by reperfusion 6 h (I/R 6h) caused a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B. Administration of LiCl for 7days before ischemia caused a profound decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B. Similiarly, the interactions of NR2B and PSD-95 with Src were also enhanced by I/R 6 h.moreover, these interactions were also inhibited by chronic lithium. Conclusion: Pretreatment with lithium decrease tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B and interactions of NR2B and PSD-95 with Src during cerebral I/R.

  8. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors promote glutamate synapse development in hippocampal interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, Wolfgang; Li, Zhijun; Wieland, Sebastian; Senkov, Oleg; Herb, Anne; Göngrich, Christina; Monyer, Hannah

    2014-11-26

    In postnatal development, GluN2B-containing NMDARs are critical for the functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses. GluN2B-containing NMDARs prevail until the second postnatal week when GluN2A subunits are progressively added, conferring mature properties to NMDARs. In cortical principal neurons, deletion of GluN2B results in an increase in functional AMPAR synapses, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs set a brake on glutamate synapse maturation. The function of GluN2B in the maturation of glutamatergic inputs to cortical interneurons is not known. To examine the function of GluN2B in interneurons, we generated mutant mice with conditional deletion of GluN2B in interneurons (GluN2B(ΔGAD67)). In GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice interneurons distributed normally in cortical brain regions. After the second postnatal week, GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice developed hippocampal seizures and died shortly thereafter. Before the onset of seizures, GluN2B-deficient hippocampal interneurons received fewer glutamatergic synaptic inputs than littermate controls, indicating that GluN2B-containing NMDARs positively regulate the maturation of glutamatergic input synapses in interneurons. These findings suggest that GluN2B-containing NMDARs keep the circuit activity under control by promoting the maturation of excitatory synapses in interneurons.

  9. Beyond the exchange--the future of B2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Morrison, D

    2000-01-01

    Using the Internet to facilitate business-to-business commerce promises many benefits, such as dramatic cost reductions and greater access to buyers and sellers. Yet little is known about how B2B e-commerce will evolve. The authors argue that changes in the financial services industry over the past two decades provide important clues. Exchanges, they say, are not the primary source of value in information-intensive markets; value tends to accumulate among a diverse group of specialists that focus on such tasks as packaging, standard setting, arbitrage, and information management. Because scale and liquidity are vitally important to efficient trading, today's exchanges will consolidate into a relatively small set of mega-exchanges. Originators will handle the origination and aggregation of complex transactions before sending them on to mega-exchanges for execution. E-speculators, seeking to capitalize on an abundance of market information, will tend to concentrate where relatively standardized products can be transferred easily among a large group of buyers. In many markets, a handful of independent solution providers with well-known brand names and solid reputations will thrive alongside mega-exchanges. Sell-side asset exchanges will create the networks and provide the tools to allow suppliers to trade orders among themselves, sometimes after initial transactions with customers are made on the mega-exchanges. For many companies, traditional skills in such areas as product development, manufacturing, and marketing may become relatively less important, while the ability to understand and capitalize on market dynamics may become considerably more important.

  10. Hanstholm phase 2B. Offshore wave energy test 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The wave power converter consists of a float 2.5 meter in diameter, connected by a rope to a seabed-mounted piston pump, installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore Hanstholm, Denmark. The converter is designed to absorb an average maximum power of 1 kW. Measured data in real sea conditions are compared to results based on computer simulations and previous tank testing. Losses caused by rope elasticity and hysteresis, friction in the pump and back flow through the valves are assessed. The economic perspectives of a large wave power plant are presented, based on a revised prototype incorporating the results and experience gained during the test period. The wave energy conversion test `Hanstholm phase 2B` has showed, that it it technically possible to exploit the offshore wave energy resource. This source of energy could become attractive for commercial enterprise. The wave power converter demonstrated a reliable performance over a period of nine months. It produced energy under all wave conditions and survived storm waves of 9,6 m. A 300 MW wave power plant in the Danish part of the North sea is estimated to produce electricity at a cost between 2,1 - 2,4 DKK/kWh. The electrical transmission to shore contribute to approximately 20% of the cost. New data predict a potential of 23 kW per meter wave front. The energy plan Energy 21 proposed by the Danish Department of Energy, includes a scenario incorporating wave energy in the energy system year 2030. A strategy for the development of wave energy, has been proposed as part of the project OWEC-1 supported by the European Joule R and D programme. A proposal for future Danish initiatives to develop second generation point absorber systems is outlined. (ARW) 29 refs.

  11. Medications Adherence and Associated Factors among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Elsous

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to anti-diabetic medications among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM seeking medical care in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 369 primary care patients with type 2 DM from October to December 2016. Adherence to medications was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, provider–patient relationship, health literacy, and health belief were examined for each patient. Univariate, binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression were applied to determine the independent factors influencing adherence to anti-diabetic medications using SPSS version 22.ResultsOf all the respondents, 214 (58%, 146 (39.5%, and nine (2.5% had high (MMAS score = 0, medium (MMAS score = 1 + 2, and low (MMAS score ≥ 3 adherence to anti-diabetic medications, respectively. Factors that were independently associated with adherence to anti-diabetic medications were as follows: female gender [odds ratio (OR: 1.657, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.065–2.578] and perception of disease’s severity (OR: 1.510, 95% CI: 0.410–5.560. Elderly (t = 1.345 and longer duration of DM (t = 0.899 were also predictors of adherence but showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05.ConclusionThe level of complete adherence to anti-diabetic medications was sub-optimal. New strategies that aim to improve patients’ adherence to their therapies are necessary taking into consideration the influencing factors and the importance of having diabetes educators in the primary care centers.

  12. Medications Adherence and Associated Factors among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsous, Aymen; Radwan, Mahmoud; Al-Sharif, Hasnaa; Abu Mustafa, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to anti-diabetic medications among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) seeking medical care in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 369 primary care patients with type 2 DM from October to December 2016. Adherence to medications was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4). Socio-demographic and clinical variables, provider-patient relationship, health literacy, and health belief were examined for each patient. Univariate, binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression were applied to determine the independent factors influencing adherence to anti-diabetic medications using SPSS version 22. Of all the respondents, 214 (58%), 146 (39.5%), and nine (2.5%) had high (MMAS score = 0), medium (MMAS score = 1 + 2), and low (MMAS score ≥ 3) adherence to anti-diabetic medications, respectively. Factors that were independently associated with adherence to anti-diabetic medications were as follows: female gender [odds ratio (OR): 1.657, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.065-2.578] and perception of disease's severity (OR: 1.510, 95% CI: 0.410-5.560). Elderly (t = 1.345) and longer duration of DM (t = 0.899) were also predictors of adherence but showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05). The level of complete adherence to anti-diabetic medications was sub-optimal. New strategies that aim to improve patients' adherence to their therapies are necessary taking into consideration the influencing factors and the importance of having diabetes educators in the primary care centers.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jericho and its vicinity in Palestine from 1994 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawabreh, A; Dumaidi, K; Ereqat, S; Al-Jawabreh, H; Nasereddin, A; Azmi, K; Barghuthy, F; Sawalha, S; Salah, I; Abdeen, Z

    2017-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) are vector-borne parasitic diseases endemic in many countries of the Middle East including Palestine. Between 1994 and 2015, 2160 clinically suspected human cases of CL from the Jericho District were examined. Stained skin tissue smears and aspirates were checked by microscopy and cultured for promastigotes, respectively. For leishmanial species identification, amplification products from a PCR-ITS1 followed by RFLP analysis using Hae III. Data were analyzed using Epi Info free-software. The overall infection rate was 41.4% (895/2160), 56.3% (504/895) of the cases were male, 43.7% (391/895) female, 60.5% (514/849) children under age 14, 41.3% (259/627) of the cases were caused by Leishmaniamajor and 57.3% (359/627) by Leishmaniatropica. The case numbers peaked in 1995, 2001, 2004, and 2012. Statistically-significant clusters of cases caused by L. major were restricted to the Jericho District; those caused by L. tropica were from the districts of Jericho, Bethlehem, Nablus and Tubas. CL is seasonal and trails the sand fly season. Distribution of cases was parabolic with fewest in July. The monthly total number of cases of CL and just those caused by L. major correlated significantly with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, evaporation, wind speed and sunshine (Pmolecular biological methodology for leishmanial species identification is an essential addition to classical diagnosis. The overall results are discussed, correlated to climatic and environmental changes and large-scale human activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PHARMACEUTICAL QUALITY OF GENERIC ATORVASTATIN PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH THE INNOVATOR PRODUCT: A NEED FOR REVISING PRICING POLICY IN PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Hroub, Abdel Kareem; Abed, Eliama; Jibali, Sondos; Al-Saghir, Ruba; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin reduces morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular events. This study was conducted to assess the prices and pharmaceutical quality of innovator atorvastatin 20 mg with its locally available generics in Palestine and to assess the suitability of their interchangeability. The prices of innovator and generic atorvastatin 20 mg were determined and compared. Innovator atorvastatin and four generic products were tested for their pharmaceutical quality. Tablets were tested for their drug contents, weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration and dissolution. Three out of four generics were less expensive than the innovator. Pharmaceutical quality assessments were satisfactory and within limits for all atorvastatin tested products. The average weight ranged from 206.6 ± 8.40 to 330 ± 3.92 mg and the %RSDs were within the permitted limits as per USP. Tablet hardness ranged from 102 ± 1.41 to 197.4 ± 6.88 kg and drug contents ranged from 92.2% to 105.3%. All products disintegrated within permitted time limits and showed very rapid dissolution. Products released more than 85% of their drug contents in less than 15 min. Our results showed that all tested innovator and generic atorvastatin products were of good pharmaceutical quality. Despite the lack of in vivo evaluation, our results indicate that these products are equivalent in vitro. Considering the in vitro release characteristics, these products might be used interchangeably. However, regulatory authorities permit the use of in vitro data in establishing similarity between immediate release oral dosage forms containing biopharmaceutical classification system class I and III drugs only.

  15. Metastable Equilibria for the Quaternary System Li2B4O7+ Na2B4O7+K2B4O7+H2Oat15℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG,Shi-Hua; YIN,Hui-An; NI,Shi-Jun; DENG,Miao

    2008-01-01

    Metastable equilibrium solubilities and such physico-chemical properties as densities, conductivity, pH, refractive index and viscosity of the solution for the quaternary system Li2B4O7+Na2B4O7+K2B4O7+H2O at 15℃ were determined experimentally. According to the experimental data, the metastable equilibrium phase diagram was plotted. In the metastable phase diagram, there are one invariant point, three univariant curves, and three fields of crystallization: Li2B2O4·16H2O, Na2B4O7·10H2O, and K2B4O7·4H2O. Potassium borate (K2B4O7·4H2O) has the smallest crystallization field and sodium borate (borax) has the biggest one. Also, the relationship diagram between the properties and the ion concentration of solution was constructed. It can be seen from the relationship diagram that the metastable equilibrium solution density values, viscosity values and refractive index values are increased apparently with the rise of lithium borate concentration, reaching the maximum values at invariant point F. Electrical conductivity values and pH values, however, fall down with the rise of ion concentration on the whole.

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2B1UA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CLMA-2B1UA 1CLM 2B1U A A LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFD-KDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQ...NPTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGLISAAELRHVMTNLGEKLTDDEVDEMIREADIDGDGHINYEEFVRMMVS 1CLM A 1CLMA FALFD-KDGDG

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BHNF-2B8PB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BHNF-2B8PB 1BHN 2B8P F B ANSERTFIAIKPDGVQRGLIGEIIKRFEQKGFRLVAMKF...NWIYE -GLQRTLVLIKPDAFERSLVAEIMGRIEKKNFKIVSMKFWSKAPRNLIEQHYKEHSEQSYFNDNCDFMVSGPIISIVYEGTDAISKIRR...------------ EVID>EVID> 0 1BHN F 1BHNF FMRAS-ED

  18. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation is characterised by neuronal lysosomal storage pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mizielinska, Sarah; Edgar, James R.;

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report that mice which express FTD-causative mutant CHMP2B at physiological levels develop a novel lysosomal storage pathology characterised by large neuronal autofluorescent aggregates. The a...

  19. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation is characterised by neuronal lysosomal storage pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mizielinska, Sarah; Edgar, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report that mice which express FTD-causative mutant CHMP2B at physiological levels develop a novel lysosomal storage pathology characterised by large neuronal autofluorescent aggregates. The a...

  20. File list: Pol.ALL.50.Polr2b.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.ALL.50.Polr2b.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase Polr2b All cell types SRX373045,SRX595...04153,SRX119655,SRX318115,SRX373044,SRX119652,SRX318112 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.ALL.50.Polr2b.AllCell.bed ...

  1. TGF- induces Lysyl hydroxylase 2b in human synovial osteoarthritic fibroblasts through ALK5 signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remst, Dennis F. G.; Davidson, Esmeralda N. Blaney; Vitters, Elly L.; Bank, Ruud A.; van den Berg, Wim B.; van der Kraan, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase 2b (LH2b) is known to increase pyridinoline cross-links, making collagen less susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Previously, we observed a relationship between LH2b and osteoarthritis-related fibrosis in murine knee joint. For this study, we investigate if transforming growth fa

  2. File list: His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell mm9 Histone H2B Pluripotent stem cell SRX1034714,SRX1034721,...SRX1034715,SRX1034720 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell.bed ...

  3. Incidence and prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Extract: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome associating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), ganglioneuromatosis of the aerodigestive tract and facial, ophthalmologic and skeletal abnormalities. MEN2B is caused by the M...

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BHNF-2B8PA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BHNF-2B8PA 1BHN 2B8P F A ANSERTFIAIKPDGVQRGLIGEIIKRFEQKGFRLVAMKF...NWIYE -GLQRTLVLIKPDAFERSLVAEIMGRIEKKNFKIVSMKFWSKAPRNLIEQHYKE-----YFNDNCDFMVSGPIISIVYEGTDAISKIRR...------------- EVID>EVID> 0 ... 1BHN F 1BHNF FMRAS-E...5856934 EVID> 1 2B8P

  5. ab initio calculation study on vibrational spectra of C2B10H12,NB11H12 and C2B10H11Cl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于微舟; 张明瑜; 孙家钟

    1996-01-01

    Geometrical optimization and theoretical calculation of the vibrational frequencies have been performed for C2B10H12, NB11H12 and C2B10Cl by using Gaussian 92 program at 6-31G basis set. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with experimental ones. The optimized geometry and vibrational spectra show that the icosahedral configuration remains unchanged upon converting from B12H122- to the title compounds. The vibrational spectrum of C2B10H11Cl features the absence of C-Cl stretching vibration. But the (C2B10H11)-Cl vibration mode in the low frequency region is as the case for two-atom molecules if the group (C2B10H11) is considered as a pseudoatom

  6. Vortex phase diagram studies in the weakly pinned single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Jaiswal-Nagar; D Pal; M R Eskildsen; P C Canfield; H Takeya; S Ramakrishnan; A K Grover

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization measurements performed on the single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. For both the compounds, we find flux jumps in magnetisation values in the respective field regions, where the structural transitions in the flux line lattice symmetry have been reported in these systems via the small angle neutron scattering experiments. The magnetisation hysteresis loops and the AC susceptibility measurements show pronounced peak effect as well as second magnetisation peak anomaly for both YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. Based on these results, a vortex phase diagram has been constructed for YNi2B2C for $H \\Arrowvert c$ depicting different glassy phases of the vortex matter.

  7. The Impact of Percieved Usefulness, Ease of Use and Trust on Managers’ Acceptance of e-Commerce Services in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Herzallah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet revolution, specifically using the internet in business environment has resulted into significant changes in how business is conducted in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Recent research has pointed to the important role that electronic commerce (EC plays in improving the performance of SMEs. Yet, in the context of Palestine, adoption of EC in SMEs is still slow. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and perceived trust on managers’ acceptance of EC in SMEs. In order to achieve this, the study used the technology acceptance model (TAM. The study used a survey that was administered to 250 managers of SMEs from Palestine. The data was analysed employing a structural equation modelling (SEM approach through partial least square (PLS software. The results revealed that perceived trust and perceived usefulness had positive effect on the participating managers’ behavioural intention to adopt EC services. It was also found that the manager’s perception, including their perceived ease of use significantly affected their perceived trust of using EC services. Moreover, perceived ease of use had a significant impact on perceived usefulness. However, the managers’ perceived ease of use failed to predict their intention to adopt such EC services, and perceived usefulness failed to predict their perceived trust. Based on these results, the study offers a developed research model of the major factors that affect managers’ trust to accept and use EC services in SMEs.

  8. Functional role of human NK cell receptor 2B4 (CD244) isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Stephen O; Rao, Krithi K; Kim, Jong R; Bambard, Nowland D; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2009-06-01

    2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM/CD150), is expressed on all NK cells, a subpopulation of T cells, monocytes and basophils. Human NK cells express two isoforms of 2B4, h2B4-A and h2B4-B that differ in a small portion of the extracellular domain. In the present investigation, we have studied the functions of h2B4-A and h2B4-B. Our study demonstrated that these two isoforms differ in their binding affinity for CD48, which results in differential cytotoxic activity as well as intracellular calcium release by NK cells upon target cell recognition. Analysis of the predicted 3-D structure of the two isoforms showed conformational differences that could account for their differences in binding affinity to CD48. h2B4-A was able to mediate natural cytotoxicity against CD48-expressing K562 target cells and induce intracellular calcium release, whereas h2B4-B showed no effects. NK-92MI, U937, THP-1, KU812, primary monocytes, basophils and NK cells showed expression of both h2B4-A and h2B4-B whereas YT and IL-2-activated NK cells did not show any h2B4-B expression. Stimulation of NK cells through 2B4 resulted in decreased mRNA levels of both h2B4-A and h2B4-B indicating that down-regulation of 2B4 isoforms may be an important factor in controlling NK cell activation during immune responses.

  9. Role of adenosine A2b receptor overexpression in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Cesar; Palomo, Iván; Fuentes, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The adenosine A2b receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor. Its activation occurs with high extracellular adenosine concentration, for example in inflammation or hypoxia. These conditions are generated in the tumor environment. Studies show that A2b receptor is overexpressed in various tumor lines and biopsies from patients with different cancers. This suggests that A2b receptor can be used by tumor cells to promote progression. Thus A2b participates in different events, such as angiogenesis and metastasis, besides exerting immunomodulatory effects that protect tumor cells. Therefore, adenosine A2b receptor appears as an interesting therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  10. PSD-93 deletion inhibits Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B and protects against focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Li, Qingjie; Chen, Ling; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Qingxiu; Shao, Yuan; Xu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Modification of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity appears to be a potential target in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Postsynaptic density protein-93 (PSD-93) specifically binds the C-terminal tails of the NMDAR, which is critical to couple NMDAR activity to specific intracellular signaling. This study is to investigate whether PSD-93 disruption displays neuroprotection in a focal ischemic stroke model of adult mice and, if it does, to explore possible mechanisms. It was found that, following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), PSD-93 knockout (KO) mice manifested significant reductions in infarcted volume, neurological deficits and number of degenerated neurons. PSD-93 deletion also reduced cultured cortical neuronal death caused by glucose and oxygen deprivation (OGD). Ischemic long term potentiation (i-LTP) could not be induced in the PSD-93 KO group and wild type (WT) groups pretreated with either AP-5 (NMDAR inhibitor) or PP2 (Src family inhibitor). PSD-93 KO decreased the phosphorylation of the NR2B at Tyr1472 and the interaction between NR2B and Fyn after MCAO. Together, our study demonstrated that PSD-93 KO confers profound neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury, which probably links to the inhibitory effect on Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B caused by PSD-93 deletion. These findings may provide a novel avenue for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Copy Number Variation of UGT 2B Genes in Indian Families Using Whole Genome Scans

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    Avinash M. Veerappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B (UGT2B is a family of genes involved in metabolizing steroid hormones and several other xenobiotics. These UGT2B genes are highly polymorphic in nature and have distinct polymorphisms associated with specific regions around the globe. Copy number variations (CNVs status of UGT2B17 in Indian population is not known and their disease associations have been inconclusive. It was therefore of interest to investigate the CNV profile of UGT2B genes. Methods. We investigated the presence of CNVs in UGT2B genes in 31 members from eight Indian families using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chip. Results. Our data revealed >50% of the study members carried CNVs in UGT2B genes, of which 76% showed deletion polymorphism. CNVs were observed more in UGT2B17 (76.4% than in UGT2B15 (17.6%. Molecular network and pathway analysis found enrichment related to steroid metabolic process, carboxylesterase activity, and sequence specific DNA binding. Interpretation and Conclusion. We report the presence of UGT2B gene deletion and duplication polymorphisms in Indian families. Network analysis indicates the substitutive role of other possible genes in the UGT activity. The CNVs of UGT2B genes are very common in individuals indicating that the effect is neutral in causing any suspected diseases.

  12. Impaired ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress in newborn Phox2b heterozygous knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelina eRamanantsoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Phox2b gene is necessary for the development of the autonomic nervous system, and especially, of respiratory neuronal circuits. In the present study, we examined the role of Phox2b in ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress, which are closely related in the postnatal period. Hypoxic stress was generated by strong thermal stimulus, combined or not with reduced inspired O2. To this end, we exposed 6-day-old Phox2b+/- pups and their wild-type littermates (Phox2b+/+ to hypoxia (10% O2 or hypercapnia (8% CO2 under thermoneutral (33°C or cold (26°C conditions. We found that Phox2b+/- pups showed less normoxic ventilation (VE in the cold than Phox2b+/+ pups. Phox2b+/- pups also showed lower oxygen consumption (VO2 in the cold, reflecting reduced thermogenesis and a lower body temperature. Furthermore, while the cold depressed ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in both genotype groups, this effect was less pronounced in Phox2b+/- pups. Finally, because serotonin (5-HT neurons are pivotal to respiratory and thermoregulatory circuits and depend on Phox2b for their differentiation, we studied 5-HT metabolism using high-pressure liquid chromatography, and found that it was altered in Phox2b+/- pups. We conclude that Phox2b haploinsufficiency alters the ability of newborns to cope with metabolic challenges, possibly due to 5-HT signaling impairments.

  13. The brain-specific neural zinc finger transcription factor 2b (NZF-2b/7ZFMyt1 suppresses cocaine self-administration in rats

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    Vijay Chandrasekar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain-specific neural-zinc-finger transcription factor-2b (NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 is induced in the mesolimbic dopaminergic region after chronic cocaine exposure and lentiviral-mediated expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens results in decreased locomotor activity (Chandrasekar and Dreyer, 2009. In this study the role of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in active cocaine seeking and of its interaction with histone deacetylase on the altered behavior has been observed. Localized expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens resulted in attenuated cocaine self-administration, whereas silencing this transcription factor with lentiviruses expressing siRNAs increased the animal′s motivation to self-infuse cocaine. Low doses of sodium butyrate, a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase, were sufficient to reverse the NZF2b/7ZFMyt1-mediated decrease in cocaine self-administration. NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression resulted in strong induction of transcription factors REST1 and NAC1 and of the dopamine D2 receptor, with concomitant inhibition of BDNF and its receptor TrkB. We show that NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 colocalizes with histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2, probably overcoming the suppression of transcriptional activity caused by Lingo1. These findings show that molecular adaptations mediated by NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression possibly lead to decreased responsiveness to the reinforcing properties of cocaine and play a prominent role in affecting the behavioral changes induced by the drug.

  14. Nrk2b-mediated NAD+ production regulates cell adhesion and is required for muscle morphogenesis in vivo: Nrk2b and NAD+ in muscle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Michelle F; Kelly, Meghan W; Lessard, Kevin N; Khalil, Andre; Henry, Clarissa A

    2010-08-15

    Cell-matrix adhesion complexes (CMACs) play fundamental roles during morphogenesis. Given the ubiquitous nature of CMACs and their roles in many cellular processes, one question is how specificity of CMAC function is modulated. The clearly defined cell behaviors that generate segmentally reiterated axial skeletal muscle during zebrafish development comprise an ideal system with which to investigate CMAC function during morphogenesis. We found that Nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b (Nrk2b) cell autonomously modulates the molecular composition of CMACs in vivo. Nrk2b is required for normal Laminin polymerization at the myotendinous junction (MTJ). In Nrk2b-deficient embryos, at MTJ loci where Laminin is not properly polymerized, muscle fibers elongate into adjacent myotomes and are abnormally long. In yeast and human cells, Nrk2 phosphorylates Nicotinamide Riboside and generates NAD+ through an alternative salvage pathway. Exogenous NAD+ treatment rescues MTJ development in Nrk2b-deficient embryos, but not in laminin mutant embryos. Both Nrk2b and Laminin are required for localization of Paxillin, but not beta-Dystroglycan, to CMACs at the MTJ. Overexpression of Paxillin in Nrk2b-deficient embryos is sufficient to rescue MTJ integrity. Taken together, these data show that Nrk2b plays a specific role in modulating subcellular localization of discrete CMAC components that in turn plays roles in musculoskeletal development. Furthermore, these data suggest that Nrk2b-mediated synthesis of NAD+ is functionally upstream of Laminin adhesion and Paxillin subcellular localization during MTJ development. These results indicate a previously unrecognized complexity to CMAC assembly in vivo and also elucidate a novel role for NAD+ during morphogenesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 inhibits NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 and its interactions with Fyn in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Min; Ba, Maowen; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yanxiang; Zhang, Hongli; Qiu, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    The augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) dependent on Fyn kinase has been associated with levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID). CP-101,606, one selective NR2B subunit antagonist, can improve dyskinesia. Yet, the accurate action mechanism is less well understood. In the present study, the evidences were investigated. Valid 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats were treated with l-dopa intraperitoneally for 22 days to induce LID rat model. On day 23, rats received either CP-101,606 (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle with each l-dopa dose. On the day of 1, 8, 15, 22, and 23 during l-dopa treatment, we determined abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in rats. The levels of NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 (pNR2B-Tyr1472) and interactions of NR2B with Fyn in LID rat model were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results showed that CP-101,606 attenuated l-dopa-induced AIMs. In agreement with behavioral analysis, CP-101,606 reduced the augmented pNR2B-Tyr1472 and its interactions with Fyn triggered during the l-dopa administration in the lesioned striatum of parkinsonian rats. Moreover, CP-101,606 also decreased the level of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at threonine-286 hyperphosphorylation (pCaMKII-Thr286), which was the downstream signaling amplification molecule of NMDAR overactivation and closely associated with LID. However, the protein level of NR2B and Fyn had no difference under the above conditions. These data indicate that the inhibition of the interactions of NR2B with Fyn and NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to the CP-101,606-induced downregulation of NMDAR function and provide benefit for the therapy of LID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional characterization of cytochromes P450 2B from the desert woodrat Neotoma lepida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilderman, P. Ross, E-mail: pwilderman@ucsd.edu [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jang, Hyun-Hee [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Malenke, Jael R. [Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Salib, Mariam; Angermeier, Elisabeth; Lamime, Sonia [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Dearing, M. Denise [Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Halpert, James R. [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian detoxification processes have been the focus of intense research, but little is known about how wild herbivores process plant secondary compounds, many of which have medicinal value or are drugs. cDNA sequences that code for three enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B subfamily, here termed 2B35, 2B36, and 2B37 have been recently identified from a wild rodent, the desert woodrat (Malenke et al., 2012). Two variant clones of each enzyme were engineered to increase protein solubility and to facilitate purification, as reported for CYP2B enzymes from multiple species. When expressed in Escherichia coli each of the woodrat proteins gave the characteristic maximum at 450 nm in a reduced carbon monoxide difference spectrum but generally expressed at lower levels than rat CYP2B1. Two enzymes, 2B36 and 2B37, showed dealkylation activity with the model substrates 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin and 7-benzyloxyresorufin, whereas 2B35 was inactive. Binding of the monoterpene (+)-α-pinene produced a Type I shift in the absorbance spectrum of each enzyme. Mutation of 2B37 at residues 114, 262, or 480, key residues governing ligand interactions with other CYP2B enzymes, did not significantly change expression levels or produce the expected functional changes. In summary, two catalytic and one ligand-binding assay are sufficient to distinguish among CYP2B35, 2B36, and 2B37. Differences in functional profiles between 2B36 and 2B37 are partially explained by changes in substrate recognition site residue 114, but not 480. The results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of detoxification in wild mammalian herbivores and highlight the complexity of this system. - Highlights: • Three CYP2B enzymes from Neotoma lepida were cloned, engineered, and expressed. • A mix of catalytic and binding assays yields unique results for each enzyme. • Mutational analysis indicates CYP{sub 2}B substrate recognition remains to be clarified. • Reported N. lepida gene

  17. Determinants and frequency of pharmaceutical compounding in pharmacy practice in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Shahed, Qusai; Saleh, Belal; Elaraj, Josephean

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of prescription compounding by community pharmacists, identify factors that influence pharmacists' decisions to provide compounding services, and evaluate physicians' perspectives on prescribing medications that require compounding. The study was a cross-sectional survey administered via face-to-face structured interviews with randomly selected community pharmacists and physicians from different areas of the West Bank. Of the 260 community pharmacists who were contacted, 212 agreed to participate in the survey, giving a response rate of 81.5%. Overall, 153 (72.2%) of respondent pharmacists provided compounding services. Compounded prescriptions accounted for 1973 (1.55%) of 126,840 prescriptions dispensed in a typical month. Among the compounders, 112 (73.2%) pharmacists reported that their goal in providing full pharmaceutical care to their patients was the most important motivator. The most frequently reported reason for not providing compounding was 'I do not receive prescriptions that require compounding' by 43 out of 59 (72.9%) pharmacists. A total of 179 out of 220 physicians consented to participate in this study giving a response rate of 81.4%. The majority of physicians (142, 79.3%) did not prescribe compounded medicines. The most important reason for their decision to prescribe compounded medicines was the unavailability of the required dosage forms. The most commonly cited reason for not prescribing them was a lack of trust in the quality of the compounded formulations. While most respondent pharmacists provide a compounding service this represents only a small percentage of the total volume of dispensed prescriptions. Most responding physicians do not prescribe medications that require compounding because they lack trust in the quality of the compounded formulations. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Overexpression of SULT2B1b Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Gastric Cancer

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    Wen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Overexpression of cytosolic sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b has been commonly found in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that SULT2B1b might act as a potential oncogenic protein. However, its clinical significance and biological role in gastric cancer progression remain largely unknown. Methods: Expressions of SULT2B1b in clinical gastric cancer (GC samples were examined using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results: SULT2B1b was markedly overexpressed in human GC samples, and positively correlated with vessel density and associated with poor clinical features. We also demonstrated that overexpression of SULT2B1b resulted in increased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in mouse GC models. In addition, ablation of SULT2B1b in human GC cells lines BGC823 and MKN45 decreased the capability of the cells to recruit endothelial cells. Moreover, depletion of SULT2B1b in GC cells reduced VEGF-A expression by downregulating SP1 and AP2. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the SULT2B1b-mediated angiogenic pathway could serve as biomarkers for GC diagnosis and prognosis, and suppressing SULT2B1b-mediated angiogenic signaling might be a promising strategy for developing novel GC treatment.

  19. X-ray powder diffraction studies and thermal behaviour of NaK 2B 9O 15, Na(Na .17K .83) 2B 9O 15, and (Na .80K .20)K 2B 9O 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, R.; Albert, B.; Georgievskaya, M.; Krzhizhanovskaya, M.; Hofmann, K.; Filatov, S.

    2006-09-01

    The crystal structures of NaK 2B 9O 15 ( a=9.1158(1) Å, b=6.6246(1) Å, c=20.6812(3) Å, β=94.080(1)°, R=0.047, R=0.059, R=0.026), Na(Na .17K .83) 2B 9O 15 ( a=9.0559(1) Å, b=6.6170(1) Å, c=20.5833(3) Å, β=94.228(2)°, R=0.053, R=0.068, R=0.026), and (Na .80K .20)K 2B 9O 15 ( a=9.1534(1) Å, b=6.6296(1) Å, c=20.7422(3) Å, β=94.071(1)°, Z=4, R=0.041, R=0.052, R=0.023) were refined in the monoclinic space groups P2 1/ c(Z=4) using X-ray powder diffraction data and the Rietveld method. These nonaborates are isostructural to K 3B 9O 15. Their crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional open framework built up from three crystallographically independent triborate groups. The alkali metal cations are located on three different sites in the voids of the framework. High-temperature X-ray diffraction studies show that NaK 2B 9O 15 decomposes at about 700 °C in accordance with the peritectic reaction NaK 2B 9O 15↔K 5B 19O 31+liquid. The thermal expansion of NaK 2B 9O 15 and Na(Na .17K .83) 2B 9O 15 is highly anisotropic. A similarity of the thermal and compositional (Na-K substitution) deformations of NaK 2B 9O 15 is revealed: heating of NaK 2B 9O 15 by 1 °C leads to the same deformations of the crystal structure as increasing the amount of K atoms in (Na 1-xK x) 3B 9O 15 by 0.04 at% K.

  20. Evaluation of NR2B peptide as subunit vaccines against experimental neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gong-ming; TIAN Yu-ke; CHEN Jian-ping; TIAN Xu-bi; GAO Feng; YANG Hui; AN Ke; MA Guo-ping

    2007-01-01

    Background NR2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the facilitation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The discrete distribution of NR2B subunit in the central nervous system (CNS) may support reduced side effects of agents that act selectively at this site. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that a humoral autoimmune response targeting the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor relieves pain like behaviours produced by peripheral injury.Methods Rats were immunized subcutaneously with NR2B-Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (NR2B-KLH) three times at two-week intervals. NR2B specific IgG titres in sera and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by indirect ELISA. Seven days after the third immunization, 2 of the 3 terminal branches of the sciatic nerve (tibial and common peroneal nerves) were tightly ligated. Behavioural testing was carried out on every other day after surgery, until 7 days after surgery. The lumbar spinal cord (L4-6) was removed on day 7 after ligation. The expression of NR2B protein in the lumbar spinal cord was determined using Western blotting.Results After the second vaccination, NR2B specific IgG in sera was detected to be >0.5 μg/ml in six of nine rats. After the third vaccination, all the immunized rats had >2.2 μg/ml. Titres of NR2B specific IgG in sera peaked 42 days post initial immunization and persisted for over 70 days. No NR2B specific IgG was detected in sera from PBS or KLH group.The behavioural thresholds in NR2B group were significantly higher than those in PBS and KLH groups on day 7 after ligation. NR2B specific IgG in CSF in NR2B group could not be detected on day 1 before spinal dissection; but could be detected on day 7 after surgery. The expression of NR2B protein in group NR2B was significantly lower than in PBS and KLH groups on day 7 after surgery.Conclusion The NR2B peptide could be used as a vaccine against neuropathic pain, which could be associated with reduction of NR2B protein in

  1. Genetic loss of SH2B3 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Hadler, Michael; Rigo, Isaura; LeDuc, Charles A.; Kelly, Kara; Jalas, Chaim; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Paganin, Maddalena; Basso, Giuseppe; Tong, Wei; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    The SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3) gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling with a critical role in the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors. Here, we report the identification of germline homozygous SH2B3 mutations in 2 siblings affected with developmental delay and autoimmunity, one in whom B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed. Mechanistically, loss of SH2B3 increases Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling, promotes lymphoid cell proliferation, and accelerates leukemia development in a mouse model of NOTCH1-induced ALL. Moreover, extended mutation analysis showed homozygous somatic mutations in SH2B3 in 2 of 167 ALLs analyzed. Overall, these results demonstrate a Knudson tumor suppressor role for SH2B3 in the pathogenesis of ALL and highlight a possible link between genetic predisposition factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and leukemogenesis. PMID:23908464

  2. Primary structure of the histone 2B gene in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi, Tadanori; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Tsutomu

    2002-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the histone 2B (H2B) gene in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, was determined. The gene has two introns in the coding region at positions conserved in the Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans H2B genes, but the third intron present in the H2B gene from N. crassa and A. nidulans is absent in the R. necatrix H2B gene. The amino acid sequence of the coding region of the R. necatrix gene resembled that of N. crassa and A. nidulans. Therefore, the third intron in the H2B gene of N. crassa and A. nidulans may have been inserted into the present position after species diversification.

  3. Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2B6 in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce-Artun, Nazan; Kose, Gulcin; Suzen, H Sinan

    2014-06-01

    Increasing interest in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) genetic polymorphism was stimulated by revelations of a specific CYP2B6 genotype significantly affecting the metabolism of various drugs in common clinical use in terms of increasing drug efficacy and avoiding adverse drug reactions. The present study aimed to determine the frequencies of CYP2B6*4 CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*7 and CYP2B6*9 alleles in healthy Turkish individuals (n = 172). Frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms were 516G>T (28%), 785A>G (33%), and 1459C>T (12%). The frequencies of CYP2B6*1, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 alleles were 54.3 (95% CI 49.04-59.56), 6.4% (95% CI 3.81-8.99), 11% (95% CI 7.69-14.31), 25.3% (95% CI 20.71-29.89), 0.87% (95% CI -0.11-1.85) and 2.0% (95% CI 0.52-3.48), respectively. Allele *6 was more frequent (25.3%) than the other variant alleles in Turkish subjects. The frequencies of CYP2B6*4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 alleles were similar to European populations but significantly different from that reported for Asian populations. This is the first study to document the frequencies of the CYP2B6*4, *5, *6, *7, *9 alleles in the healthy Turkish individuals and our results could provide clinically useful information on drug metabolism by CYP2B6 in Turkish population.

  4. Do self-service technologies affect interfirm relationships? A B2B perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Raechel Johns

    2014-01-01

    While considerable literature examines business-to business (B2B) relationships, the impact of technology on these relationships has lacked attention. IT has impacted the way businesses operate in a B2B context as well as influencing services by altering the way services are delivered. To understand the way in which Internet technology has impacted these B2B services, it is essential to examine its impact not only on business processes but on business relationships too. One technology, enable...

  5. B2B marketingová komunikace společnosti John Deere

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this master's thesis is to evaluate the implementation of the B2B marketing strategy of John Deere on a specific example. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on defining the basics of modern marketing communications. Next it deals with defining the concept of B2B marketing and related strategies. The practical part focuses on the characterisation of the agricultural machinery industry and the slovak agricultural sector. Further it includes the introduction of other B2B marke...

  6. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  7. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  8. Reversal of pathology in CHMP2B-mediated frontotemporal dementia patient cells using RNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Mizielinska, Sarah; Hasholt, Lis;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is the second most common form of young-onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and several genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia are known. A rare genetic variant is caused by a point mutation in the CHMP2B gene. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT...... role in the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: In the present study, we used lentiviral vectors to efficiently knockdown CHMP2B by delivering microRNA embedded small hairpin RNAs. RESULTS: We show that CHMP2B can be efficiently knocked down in patient fibroblasts using an RNA interference approach...

  9. Enhanced lithium storage in a VO{sub 2}(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube microsheet composite prepared via an in situ hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mmr543@uow.edu.a [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang Jiazhao [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Idris, Nurul Hayati [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Science Physics, University of Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 20522 (Malaysia); Chen Zhixin [School of Mechanical, Mechatronic and Materials Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu Huakun [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-12-30

    A novel VO{sub 2}(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite with a sheet-like morphology was synthesized by a simple in situ hydrothermal process. The morphology and structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FE-SEM observations demonstrated that the nanosheets are frequently grown together in the form of bundles composed of numerous nanosheets, each with a smooth surface and a typical length of 300-500 nm, width of 50-150 nm, and thickness of 10-50 nm. Electrochemical measurements were carried out using different discharge cut-off voltages. Electrochemical tests show that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite cathode features long-term cycling stability and high discharge capacity (177 mAh g{sup -1}) in the voltage range of 2.0-3.25 V at 1 C with a capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicate that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite electrode has very low charge-transfer resistance compared with pure VO{sub 2}(B), indicating the enhanced ionic conductivity of the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite. The enhanced cycling stability is attributed to the fact that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite can prevent the aggregation of active materials, accommodate the large volume variation, and maintain good electronic contact. We strongly believe that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite can be considered as a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Structural and biophysical characterization of human cytochromes P450 2B6 and 2A6 bound to volatile hydrocarbons: analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish B; Wilderman, P Ross; Liu, Jingbao; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R

    2015-04-01

    X-ray crystal structures of complexes of cytochromes CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 with the monoterpene sabinene revealed two distinct binding modes in the active sites. In CYP2B6, sabinene positioned itself with the putative oxidation site located closer to the heme iron. In contrast, sabinene was found in an alternate conformation in the more compact CYP2A6, where the larger hydrophobic side chains resulted in a significantly reduced active-site cavity. Furthermore, results from isothermal titration calorimetry indicated a much more substantial contribution of favorable enthalpy to sabinene binding to CYP2B6 as opposed to CYP2A6, consistent with the previous observations with (+)-α-pinene. Structural analysis of CYP2B6 complexes with sabinene and the structurally similar (3)-carene and comparison with previously solved structures revealed how the movement of the F206 side chain influences the volume of the binding pocket. In addition, retrospective analysis of prior structures revealed that ligands containing -Cl and -NH functional groups adopted a distinct orientation in the CYP2B active site compared with other ligands. This binding mode may reflect the formation of Cl-π or NH-π bonds with aromatic rings in the active site, which serve as important contributors to protein-ligand binding affinity and specificity. Overall, the findings from multiple techniques illustrate how drugs metabolizing CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 handle a common hydrocarbon found in the environment. The study also provides insight into the role of specific functional groups of the ligand that may influence the binding to CYP2B6.

  11. ATLAS virtual visit features Birzeit University, first university in Palestine and a member of the International Association of Universities since 1977.

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia marcelloni

    2012-01-01

    This ATLAS virtual visit features Birzeit University, first university in Palestine and a member of the International Association of Universities since 1977. As part of the "Physics Without Frontiers" project, funded by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Birzeit is hosting a one day particle physics masterclass. During the day the physics major students are given an introduction to experimental particle physics, the LHC and the ATLAS Experiment, before having the chance to analyze real LHC data. This virtual visit comprises of a live tour around the ATLAS control room and the opportunity to ask questions to the ATLAS physicists. The Department of Physics at Birzeit University provides an exciting environment for the training of both graduate and undergraduate students. Some of the Physics department graduates participated in the CERN Summer Program over the past few years.

  12. Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines: Latent Class Analysis of 6266 University Students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2017-07-11

    Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA) of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based on their achievements of both guidelines. We examined associations between group membership and achievement of guidelines. A three-class solution model best fitted the data, generating three student Groups: "Healthy Eaters" (7.7% of females, 10.8% of males), "Physically Active" (21.7% of females, 25.8% of males), and "Low Healthy Behaviour" (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males). We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters), and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students achieved greater than four of the eight nutrition guidelines), with little gender differences across the countries. About 18-47% of students achieved the PA guidelines, depending on country and gender, more often among males. Few females achieved the PA guidelines, particularly in Libya and Palestine. Culturally adapted multi-behavioural interventions need to encourage healthy lifestyles, nutrition and PA behaviours. National policies need to promote active living while addressing cultural, geographic, and other barriers to young adults' engagement in PA.

  13. Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines: Latent Class Analysis of 6266 University Students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based on their achievements of both guidelines. We examined associations between group membership and achievement of guidelines. A three-class solution model best fitted the data, generating three student Groups: “Healthy Eaters” (7.7% of females, 10.8% of males, “Physically Active” (21.7% of females, 25.8% of males, and “Low Healthy Behaviour” (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males. We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters, and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students achieved greater than four of the eight nutrition guidelines, with little gender differences across the countries. About 18–47% of students achieved the PA guidelines, depending on country and gender, more often among males. Few females achieved the PA guidelines, particularly in Libya and Palestine. Culturally adapted multi-behavioural interventions need to encourage healthy lifestyles, nutrition and PA behaviours. National policies need to promote active living while addressing cultural, geographic, and other barriers to young adults’ engagement in PA.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Toxic Responses of Organic Extracts from Diesel and Selected Alternative Fuels Engine Emissions in Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Libalova; Pavel Rossner; Kristyna Vrbova; Tana Brzicova; Jitka Sikorova; Michal Vojtisek-Lom; Vit Beranek; Jiri Klema; Miroslav Ciganek; Jiri Neca; Katerina Pencikova; Miroslav Machala; Jan Topinka

    2016-01-01

    This study used toxicogenomics to identify the complex biological response of human lung BEAS-2B cells treated with organic components of particulate matter in the exhaust of a diesel engine. First, we characterized particles from standard diesel (B0), biodiesel (methylesters of rapeseed oil) in its neat form (B100) and 30% by volume blend with diesel fuel (B30), and neat hydrotreated vegetable oil (NEXBTL100). The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives...

  15. Comparative analysis of toxic responses of organic extracts from diesel and selected alternative fuels engine emissions in human lung BEAS-2B cells

    OpenAIRE

    Líbalová, Helena; Rossner, Pavel, Jr.; Vrbová, Kristýna; Brzicová, Táňa; Sikorová, Jitka; Vojtíšek-Lom, Michal; Beranek, Vít; Kléma, Jiří; Ciganek,Miroslav; Neča, Jiří; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study used toxicogenomics to identify the complex biological response of human lung BEAS-2B cells treated with organic components of particulate matter in the exhaust of a diesel engine. First, we characterized particles from standard diesel (B0), biodiesel (methylesters of rapeseed oil) in its neat form (B100) and 30% by volume blend with diesel fuel (B30), and neat hydrotreated vegetable oil (NEXBTL100). The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives...

  16. Regulation of PI-2b Pilus Expression in Hypervirulent Streptococcus agalactiae ST-17 BM110

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Merle, Laurence; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Gominet, Myriam; Bellais, Samuel; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) “hypervirulent” ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus. Deletion of this 43-bp sequence in strain BM110 resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increased transcription of PI-2b. Characterization of PI-2b promoter region in A909 and BM110 strains was carried out by RNAseq, primer extension, qRT-PCR and transcriptional fusions with gfp as reporter gene. Our results indicate the presence of a single promoter (Ppi2b) with a transcriptional start site (TSS) mapped 37 bases upstream of the start codon of the first PI-2b gene. The large operon of 16 genes located upstream of PI-2b codes for the group B carbohydrate (also known as antigen B), a major constituent of the bacterial cell wall. We showed that the hairpin sequence located between antigen B and PI-2b operons is a transcriptional terminator. In A909, increased expression of PI-2b probably results from read-through transcription from antigen B operon. In addition, we showed that an extended 5’ promoter region is required for maximal transcription of gfp as a reporter gene in S. agalactiae from Ppi2b promoter. Gene reporter assays performed in Lactococcus lactis strain NZ9000, a related non-pathogenic Gram-positive species, revealed that GBS-specific regulatory factors are required to drive PI-2b transcription. PI-2b expression is up-regulated in the BM110ΔcovR mutant as compared to the parental BM110 strain, but this effect is probably indirect

  17. A Decompositional Approach to Executing Quality Data Model Algorithms on the i2b2 Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Huan; Jiang, Guoqian; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Kiefer, Richard; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Denny, Joshua C.; Thompson, William K.

    2016-01-01

    The Quality Data Model (QDM) is an established standard for representing electronic clinical quality measures on electronic health record (EHR) repositories. The Informatics for Integrated Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is a widely used platform for implementing clinical data repositories. However, translation from QDM to i2b2 is challenging, since QDM allows for complex queries beyond the capability of single i2b2 messages. We have developed an approach to decompose complex QDM algorithms into workflows of single i2b2 messages, and execute them on the KNIME data analytics platform. Each workflow operation module is composed of parameter lists, a template for the i2b2 message, an mechanism to create parameter updates, and a web service call to i2b2. The communication between workflow modules relies on passing keys ofi2b2 result sets. As a demonstration of validity, we describe the implementation and execution of a type 2 diabetes mellitus phenotype algorithm against an i2b2 data repository. PMID:27570665

  18. Genetics Home Reference: RRM2B-related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with renal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Munnich A, Rötig A. Mutation of RRM2B, encoding p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2), causes severe mitochondrial DNA depletion. Nat Genet. 2007 Jun;39(6):776-80. Epub 2007 May 7. Citation on PubMed GeneReview: RRM2B-Related Mitochondrial Disease Pontarin G, Ferraro P, Bee L, Reichard P, ...

  19. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Pool 2B. Water-Data Report 2010 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.08"N, long...

  20. Doc2b synchronizes secretion from chromaffin cells by stimulating fast and inhibiting sustained release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; de Wit, Heidi; Walter, Alexander M;

    2013-01-01

    is still high. We conclude that Doc2b acts to inhibit vesicle priming during prolonged calcium elevations, thus protecting unprimed vesicles from fusing prematurely, and redirecting them to refill the readily releasable pool after relaxation of the calcium signal. In sum, Doc2b favors fast, synchronized...

  1. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Pool 2B. Water-Data Report 2009 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.08"N, long...

  2. Disruption of endocytic trafficking in frontotemporal dementia with CHMP2B mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urwin, Hazel; Authier, Astrid; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in a large Danish pedigree, which is termed FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3), and also in an unrelated familial FTD patient. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT-III complex, which is required for function of the multivesicular body (MVB), a...

  3. Fabrication Report for the AFC-2A and AFC-2B Capsule Irradiations in the ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2007-10-01

    This document provides a general narrative description of the AFC-2A and 2B fuel fabrication processes for the AFC 2A and AFC 2B fuel irradiation experiments fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR).

  4. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Pool 2B. Water-Data Report 2011 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.08"N, long...

  5. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Pool 2B. Water-Data Report 2012 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.08"N, long...

  6. 76 FR 3451 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ..., Refugees, Border Security, and International Law in April 2008, Ross Eisenbrey, Vice President of the...-2B Program: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security...- skill H-2B jobs causes an adverse effect because all workers in those job categories perform the same...

  7. Noncanonical sortase-mediated assembly of pilus type 2b in group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, Maddalena; Cozzi, Roberta; Malito, Enrico; Martinelli, Manuele; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Maione, Domenico; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) expresses 3 structurally distinct pilus types (1, 2a, and 2b) identified as important virulence factors and vaccine targets. These pili are heterotrimeric polymers, covalently assembled on the cell wall by sortase (Srt) enzymes. We investigated the pilus-2b biogenesis mechanism by using a multidisciplinary approach integrating genetic, biochemical, and structural studies to dissect the role of the 2 pilus-2b-associated Srts. We show that only 1 sortase (SrtC1-2b) is responsible for pilus protein polymerization, whereas the second one (Srt2-2b) does not act as a pilin polymerase, but similarly to the housekeeping class A Srt (SrtA), it is involved in cell-wall pilus anchoring by targeting the minor ancillary subunit. Based on its function and sequence features, Srt2-2b does not belong to class C Srts (SrtCs), nor is it a canonical member of any other known family of Srts. We also report the crystal structure of SrtC1-2b at 1.9 Å resolution. The overall fold resembles the typical structure of SrtCs except for the N-terminal lid region that appears in an open conformation displaced from the active site. Our findings reveal that GBS pilus type 2b biogenesis differs significantly from the current model of pilus assembly in gram-positive pathogens.

  8. Preparation and application of hydroxyapatite(HA) nanoparticles/NR2B-siRNA complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; HUANG Dong; ZHU Shai-hong; YAN Xue-bin; GU Yong-hong; YAN Hui; WU Li-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite(HA) nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation-hydrothermal synthesis and their exosyndrome was estimated via transmission electron microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were used to evaluate the ability of HA to bind NR2B-siRNA at different pH values and at different HA-NR2B-siRNA ratios. And the stability of the complex in saline was also evaluated. The effect of HA/NR2B-siRNA complex on chronic inflammatory pain was evaluated in vivo in mice. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) reveals that HA nanoparticles are thin strips or short rod in shape and the one-dimensional particle size of HA nanoparticles is 40-50 nm. Under the acid or neutral condition, the Zeta potential of HA is positive; nanoparticles can completely bind NR2B-siRNA when the HA:NR2B-siRNA ratio is at or larger than 35-1; while under the alkaline condition, the affinity of HA to NR2B-siRNA is rather weak. HA/NR2B-siRNA complex is not dissociated when being resuspended in saline. The nociception of the tonic phase induced by formalin is significantly reduced in the HA/NR2B-siRNA treated mice as compared with the controls. Therefore, HA may be a new siRNA nano-vector material.

  9. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ANTI-2B4XL [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1ANTI-2B4XL 1ANT 2B4X I L ---------RDIPMNPMCIYRSPEKKATNRRVWELSKANSRFATTFYQHLADSKNDNDNIFLSPLSISTAFAMTKLGACNDTLQQLMEVFKFDTISEKTSDQIHFFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLVSANRLFGDKSLTFNETYQDISE...Chain> 1ANT I 1ANTI AASTA----VVIA...14> 1ANT I 1ANTI...ntryChain> 1ANT I 1ANTI

  11. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (penzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  12. First identification of Porcine Circovirus Type 2b mutant in pigs from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. PCV2 strains are classified into three genotypes: PCV2a, with five subtypes (2A-2E), PCV2b with three subtypes (1A-1C) and PCV2c, only found in Denmark. Recently, several reports suggested the circulation of newly emerging PCV2b mutants (mPCV2b) isolated from pigs with PCVAD in cases of suspected vaccine failure. In this work, we report for the first time the identification of mPCV2b in pigs from Uruguay, providing an additional evidence of a global circulation. Complete genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis reveal that Uruguayan strains, as well as mPCV2b previously reported are closely related to other sequences already classified as PCV2b-1C. Furthermore, results showed that mPCV2b presented different genetic markers in the capsid protein compared with classical PCV2a/b strains. Further investigation about antigenic shift of the mPCV2b strains including the Uruguayan isolates is needed.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 2B9RA-2BPMD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2B9RA-2BPMD 2B9R 2BPM A D -VKDIYAYLRQLEAAQAVRPKYLLGR-EVTGNMRAILID...line>THR CA 261 GLY CA 332 ASN CA 307 2BPM... D 2BPMD YMKKQPDITNS .../line> ASP CA 206 VAL CA 247 GLU CA 298 2BPM... D 2BPMD

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BEDA-2B6MA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BEDA-2B6MA 1BED 2B6M A A AQFKEGEHYQVLKTPASSSPVVSEFFSFYCPHCNTF---...HHHHHHHHHH EEEE EEEEE HHHHHHHHHHHHHH - 0 1BED... A 1BEDA HCNTF---E...e> ALA CA 306 SER CA 272 1BED... A 1BEDA HTLRKPPKDEQ

  15. XO-2b: a Prograde Planet with a Negligible Eccentricity, and an Additional Radial Velocity Variation

    CERN Document Server

    Narita, Norio; Sato, Bun'ei; Harakawa, Hiroki; Fukui, Akihiko; Aoki, Wako; Tamura, Motohide

    2011-01-01

    We present precise radial velocities of XO-2 taken with the Subaru HDS, covering two transits of XO-2b with an interval of nearly two years. The data suggest that the orbital eccentricity of XO-2b is consistent with zero within 2$\\sigma$ ($e=0.045\\pm0.024$) and the orbit of XO-2b is prograde (the sky-projected spin-orbit alignment angle $\\lambda=10^{\\circ}\\pm72^{\\circ}$). The poor constraint of $\\lambda$ is due to a small impact parameter (the orbital inclination of XO-2b is almost 90$^{\\circ}$). The data also provide an improved estimate of the mass of XO-2b as $0.62\\pm0.02$ $M_{\\rm Jup}$. We also find a long-term radial velocity variation in this system. Further radial velocity measurements are necessary to specify the cause of this additional variation.

  16. Global view of transcriptome in the brains of aged NR2B transgenic mice*****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxia Li; Men Su; Huimin Wang; Yinghe Hu

    2013-01-01

    NR2B subunits are involved in regulating aging, in particular, age-related learning and memory deficits. We examined 19-month-old NR2B transgenic mice and their littermate controls. First, we detected expression of the NR2B subunit gene, Grin2b, in the neocortex of transgenic mice using real-time PCR. Next, we used microarrays to examine differences in neocortical gene expression. Pathway and signal-net analyses identified multiple pathways altered in the transgenic mice, in-cluding the P53, Jak-STAT, Wnt, and Notch pathways, as wel as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions. Further signal-net analysis highlighted the P53 and insulin-like growth factor pathways as key regulatory pathways. Our results provide new insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms of NR2B regulated age-related memory storage, normal organismal aging and age-related disease.

  17. Interferon-alpha-2b induces autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through Beclin1 pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhao; Ming-Li Wang; Zeng Li; Dong-Mei Gao; Yu Cai; Jun Chang; Shi-Ping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine whether Interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-α2b) can modulate the autophagic response in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods:Hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with IFN-α2b. Autophagy was assessed by acridine orange staining, GFP-LC3 dotted assay, transmission electron microscopy and immunoblotting. Results:Acridine orange staining showed that IFN-α2b triggered the accumulation of acidic vesicular and autolysosomes in HepG2 cells. hTe acridine orange HepG2 cell ratios were (4.3±1.0)%, (6.9±1.4)%, and (13.1±2.3)%, respectively, atfer treatment with 100, 1,000, and 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h. A markedly punctate pattern was observed in HepG2 cells treated with 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h, but only diffuse and weakly lfuorescent GFP-LC3 puncta was observed in control cells. HepG2 cells treated with 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h developed autophagosome-like characteristics, including single-or double-membrane vacuoles containing intact and degraded cellular debris. The Beclin1 and LC3-II protein expression was up-regulated by IFN-α2b treatment. Conclusion:Autophagy can be induced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with IFN-α2b in HepG2 cells, and the Beclin1 signaling pathway was stimulated by IFN-α2b.

  18. RET(MEN 2B) is active in the endoplasmic reticulum before reaching the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeberg-Roos, P; Virtanen, H; Saarma, M

    2007-12-13

    MEN 2B (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by an oncogenic form of the receptor tyrosine kinase REarranged during transfection (RET). The MEN 2B syndrome is associated with an abnormal autophosphorylation of the mutated receptor even without ligand-stimulation. Here, we characterize the activation of a RET(MEN 2B) variant carrying the point mutation Met918Thr, and show that the 150 kDa precursor of RET(MEN 2B) becomes phosphorylated already during synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). At least three different tyrosine residues (Tyr905, Tyr1062, Tyr1096) of the RET(MEN 2B) precursor are phosphorylated before the oncogenic receptor reaches the cell surface. We also demonstrate that the precursor of RET(MEN 2B) interacts with both growth factor receptor-bound protein and Src homology 2 domain-containing already in the ER, and that this interaction is dependent on the kinase activity of RET. With the aid of two RET mutants (RET(MEN 2B/S32L) and RET(MEN 2B/F393L)), which accumulate in the ER, we show that the oncogenic precursor of the receptor has the capacity to activate AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 from the ER. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the oncogenic precursor of RET(MEN 2B) is phosphorylated, interacts with adapter proteins and induces downstream signalling from the ER.

  19. Cytochrome P450 2B diversity and dietary novelty in the herbivorous, desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenke, Jael R; Magnanou, Elodie; Thomas, Kirk; Dearing, M Denise

    2012-01-01

    Detoxification enzymes play a key role in plant-herbivore interactions, contributing to the on-going evolution of ecosystem functional diversity. Mammalian detoxification systems have been well studied by the medical and pharmacological industries to understand human drug metabolism; however, little is known of the mechanisms employed by wild herbivores to metabolize toxic plant secondary compounds. Using a wild rodent herbivore, the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), we investigated genomic structural variation, sequence variability, and expression patterns in a multigene subfamily involved in xenobiotic metabolism, cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B). We hypothesized that differences in CYP2B expression and sequence diversity could explain differential abilities of woodrat populations to consume native plant toxins. Woodrats from two distinct populations were fed diets supplemented with either juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) or creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), plants consumed by woodrats in their respective desert habitats. We used Southern blot and quantitative PCR to determine that the genomic copy number of CYP2B in both populations was equivalent, and similar in number to known rodent copy number. We compared CYP2B expression patterns and sequence diversity using cloned hepatic CYP2B cDNA. The resulting sequences were very diverse, and clustered into four major clades by amino acid similarity. Sequences from the experimental treatments were distributed non-randomly across a CYP2B tree, indicating unique expression patterns from woodrats on different diets and from different habitats. Furthermore, within each major CYP2B clade, sequences shared a unique combination of amino acid residues at 13 sites throughout the protein known to be important for CYP2B enzyme function, implying differences in the function of each major CYP2B variant. This work is the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity of a detoxification enzyme subfamily in a wild mammalian

  20. Cytochrome P450 2B diversity and dietary novelty in the herbivorous, desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael R Malenke

    Full Text Available Detoxification enzymes play a key role in plant-herbivore interactions, contributing to the on-going evolution of ecosystem functional diversity. Mammalian detoxification systems have been well studied by the medical and pharmacological industries to understand human drug metabolism; however, little is known of the mechanisms employed by wild herbivores to metabolize toxic plant secondary compounds. Using a wild rodent herbivore, the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida, we investigated genomic structural variation, sequence variability, and expression patterns in a multigene subfamily involved in xenobiotic metabolism, cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B. We hypothesized that differences in CYP2B expression and sequence diversity could explain differential abilities of woodrat populations to consume native plant toxins. Woodrats from two distinct populations were fed diets supplemented with either juniper (Juniperus osteosperma or creosote bush (Larrea tridentata, plants consumed by woodrats in their respective desert habitats. We used Southern blot and quantitative PCR to determine that the genomic copy number of CYP2B in both populations was equivalent, and similar in number to known rodent copy number. We compared CYP2B expression patterns and sequence diversity using cloned hepatic CYP2B cDNA. The resulting sequences were very diverse, and clustered into four major clades by amino acid similarity. Sequences from the experimental treatments were distributed non-randomly across a CYP2B tree, indicating unique expression patterns from woodrats on different diets and from different habitats. Furthermore, within each major CYP2B clade, sequences shared a unique combination of amino acid residues at 13 sites throughout the protein known to be important for CYP2B enzyme function, implying differences in the function of each major CYP2B variant. This work is the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity of a detoxification enzyme subfamily in a

  1. Mapping Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Leuenberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette présentation s’appuie sur la cartographie critique, les science studies, les cultural studies et la sociologie de la connaissance pour analyser le contenu, la structure des cartes et le contexte social de leur réalisation, en se focalisant sur le comment et le pourquoi de la description souvent variée et incohérente de la terre contestée d’Israël et des territoires palestiniens dans les médias en ligne britanniques, américains et arabes. Certains ont été accusés de biais politique dans la couverture du conflit, ce qui est censé se traduire dans la façon dont les cartes sont conçues et sont incorporées dans les reportages. Plutôt que d’y voir un lien direct entre un choix de carte et une orientation politique, je soutiens que la production de carte peut être comprise comme une forme de pratique “située”. La salle de rédaction est un lieu où se rassemblent des acteurs, des matériels, des technologies et des ressources qui rendent possibles certaines activités mais aussi leur donnent des limites. Par conséquent, ce sont des contingences culturelles, sociales, interactionnelles, institutionnelles et des circonstances politiques qui affectent la production de cartes et expliquent pourquoi les cartes peuvent converger ou diverger avec des positions politiques à des lieux et des moments donnés. En même temps, le choix de certaines cartes et niveaux de cartes en termes de focalisation, de contenu, de design et de détail, implique une sélection qui peut être politiquement significative. De plus, les types et sources des reportages et des cartes qui les accompagnent sont aussi codéterminés par la politique du pouvoir et les inégalités structurelles entre l’État d’Israël et l’État palestinien en formation, et leur respective facilité d’accès aux infrastructures de relations publiques qui permettent d’atteindre le grand public.This paper draws on critical cartography, science studies, cultural studies and the sociology of knowledge in order to analyze the social context of map-making and the content and structure of maps. The focus is on how and why British, American, and Arab online news outlets depict the contested territories of Israel and the Palestinian Territories in often varied and inconsistent ways. Certain online news sources have been accused of political biases concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which arguably translates into particular maps and map layers being included in news stories. Rather than they are being a direct and pre-determined link between map-choice and politics, however, I argue that map-making can be understood as a form of ‘situated’ practice. In other words, the newsroom brings together various actors, materials, technologies and resources that enable and constrain certain activities. It is therefore local cultures, social and interactional contingencies, and institutional and political circumstances that impact map-making and explain how and why maps may converge with or diverge from politics at any given time and place. At the same time, the choice of certain maps and map layers in terms of their focus, content, design, and detail is inevitably selective and can hereby become politically meaningful. It is thus the various textual and visual signifiers and the contextual information included in a map that can become politics by other means. Moreover, the types and sources of news stories and their maps are also co-determined by power politics, the structural inequities between the state of Israel and a Palestinian state-in-the-making, and their respective ease of access to public relations infrastructures that can reach the public at large.

  2. Characterization of the A2B adenosine receptor from mouse, rabbit, and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchampach, John A; Kreckler, Laura M; Wan, Tina C; Maas, Jason E; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Jayashree; Maas, Garren E

    2009-04-01

    We have cloned and pharmacologically characterized the A(2B) adenosine receptor (AR) from the dog, rabbit, and mouse. The full coding regions of the dog and mouse A(2B)AR were obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the rabbit A(2B)AR cDNA was obtained by screening a rabbit brain cDNA library. It is noteworthy that an additional clone was isolated by library screening that was identical in sequence to the full-length rabbit A(2B)AR, with the exception of a 27-base pair deletion in the region encoding amino acids 103 to 111 (A(2B)AR(103-111)). This 9 amino acid deletion is located in the second intracellular loop at the only known splice junction of the A(2B)AR and seems to result from the use of an additional 5' donor site found in the rabbit and dog but not in the human, rat, or mouse sequences. [(3)H]3-Isobutyl-8-pyrrolidinoxanthine and 8-[4-[((4-cyano-[2,6-(3)H]-phenyl)carbamoylmethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-di(n-propyl)xanthine ([(3)H]MRS 1754) bound with high affinity to membranes prepared from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing mouse, rabbit, and dog A(2B)ARs. Competition binding studies performed with a panel of agonist (adenosine and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-phenylpyridine analogs) and antagonist ligands identified similar potency orders for the A(2B)AR orthologs, although most xanthine antagonists displayed lower binding affinity for the dog A(2B)AR compared with A(2B)ARs from rabbit and mouse. No specific binding could be detected with membranes prepared from HEK 293 cells expressing the rabbit A(2B)AR(103-111) variant. Furthermore, the variant failed to stimulate adenylyl cyclase or calcium mobilization. We conclude that significant differences in antagonist pharmacology of the A(2B)AR exist between species and that some species express nonfunctional variants of the A(2B)AR due to "leaky" splicing.

  3. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in superconducting ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in an applied magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Katrine Nørgaard

    along [110], the magnetic structure rotates a small angle of 0.5 degrees away from the symmetrydirection. TmNi2B2C: A magnetic field applied in the [100] direction suppresses the zero field magnetic structure QF = (0.094,0.094,0) (TN = 1.6 K), in favor of the Fermi surface nesting structure QN = (0......The field-induced magnetic structures of ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in are especially interesting because the field suppresses the superconducting order parameter and therefore the magnetic properties can be studied while varying the strength ofsuperconductivity. ErNi2B2C: For magnetic fields along all...... three symmetry directions, the observed magnetic structures have a period corresponding to the Fermi surface nesting structure. The phase diagrams present all the observed magnetic structures.Two results remain unresolved: 1. When applying the magnetic field along [010], the minority domain (QNB = (0,Q...

  4. Psychiatric side effects of pegylated interferon alfa-2b as compared to conventional interferon alfa-2b in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R Kraus; Arne Sch(a)fer; Herbert Csef; Michael Scheurlen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess systematically the spectrum and extent of depressive symptoms comparing patient groups receiving peginterferon or conventional interferon.METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with chronic hepatitis C and interferon-based therapy (+ribavirin) were consecutively enrolled in a longitudinal study. Patients were treated with conventional interferon alfa-2b (48/98patients; 5 MIU interferon alfa-2b thrice weekly) or peginterferon alfa-2b (50/98 patients; 80-150 μgpeginterferon alfa-2b) in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin (800-1 200 mg/d). Repeated psychometric testing was performed before, three times during and once after antiviral therapy: Depression was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), anger/hostility by the Symptom Checklist-90 Items Revised (SCL-90-R).RESULTS: Therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2bproduces comparable scores for depression (ANOVA:P = 0.875) as compared to conventional interferon.Maximums of depression scores were even higher and cases of clinically relevant depression were frequent during therapy with peginterferon. Scores for anger/hostility were comparable for both therapy subgroups.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the extent and frequency of depressive symptoms in total are not reduced by peginterferon. Monitoring and management of neuropsychiatric toxicity especially depression have to be considered as much as in antiviral therapy with unmodified interferon.

  5. Unconventional morphologies in ordered melts of symmetric multiblock copolymers A(mN/2)(B(N/2)A(N/2))B-mN/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnova, YG; ten Brinke, G; Erukhimovich, IY

    2005-01-01

    In the limit of weak segregation, microphase separation in melts of symmetric multiblock copolymers with the structural formula A(mN/2)(B(N/2)A(N/2))(n)B-mN/2 was theoretically analyzed. It was shown for the first time that, in the case of these two-length-scale block copolymers AB, competition betw

  6. Differential role of SH2-B and APS in regulating energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Ren, Decheng; Iseki, Masanori; Takaki, Satoshi; Rui, Liangyou

    2006-05-01

    SH2-B and APS, two members of a pleckstrin homology and SH2 domain-containing adaptor family, promote both insulin and leptin signaling in a similar fashion in cultured cells. In addition, APS mediates insulin-stimulated activation of the c-Cbl/CAP/TC10 pathway in cultured adipocytes. Here we characterized genetically modified mice lacking SH2-B, APS, or both to determine the physiological roles of these two proteins in animals. Disruption of the SH2-B gene resulted in obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Conversely, deletion of the APS gene did not alter adiposity, energy balance, and glucose metabolism. Energy intake, energy expenditure, fat content, body weight, and plasma insulin, leptin, glucose, and lipid levels were similar between APS(-/-) and WT littermates fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet. Moreover, deletion of APS failed to alter insulin and glucose tolerance. APS(-/-)/SH2-B(-/-) double knockout mice also developed energy imbalance, obesity, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance; however, plasma leptin and insulin levels were significantly lower in APS(-/-)/SH2-B(-/-) than in SH2-B(-/-) mice. These results suggest that SH2-B, but not APS, is a key positive regulator of energy and glucose metabolism in mice.

  7. Structural characterization and antiviral effect of a novel polysaccharide PSP-2B from Prunellae Spica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Kong, Si-Yuan; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Wu, Rong; Xia, Bing; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-11-05

    In the present study, a novel polysaccharide, PSP-2B, was isolated from aqueous extracts of Prunellae Spica by direct ultrafiltration membrane separation and gel chromatography purification. PSP-2B is a partially sulphated polysaccharide with a molecular weight of approximately 32kDa. Its sulfate content is 10.59% by elemental analysis. The major sugars comprising PSP-2B are arabinose, galactose and mannose, in addition to small amounts of glucose and uronic acids. The framework of PSP-2B is speculated to be a branched arabinogalactomannan, and the side chains are terminated primarily by the Araf residues. PSP-2B also contains 2.98% protein. PSP-2B exhibits activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of approximately 69μg/mL for HSV-1 and 49μg/mL for HSV-2. However, PSP-2B demonstrated no cytotoxicity even when its concentration was increased to 1600μg/mL, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-HSV drug candidate.

  8. The influence of VO2(B nanobelts on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yifu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vanadium dioxide VO2(B on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP has not been reported before. In this contribution, the effect of VO2(B nanobelts on the thermal decomposition of AP was investigated by the Thermo- Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA. VO2(B nanobelts were hydrothermally prepared using peroxovanadium (V complexes, ethanol and water as starting materials. The thermal decomposition temperatures of AP in the presence of I wt.%, 3 wt.% and 6 wt.% of as-obtained VO2<B nanobelts were reduced by 39 °C. 62 °C and 74 °C, respectively. The results indicated that VO2(B nanobelts had a great influence on the thermal decomposition temperature of AP Furthermore, the influence of the corresponding V2Os, which was obtained by thermal treatment of VO2(B nanobelts, on the thermal decomposition of AP was also investigated. The resufs showed that VO2(B nanobelts had a greater influence on the thermal decomposition temperature of AP than that of V2Os.

  9. A functional variant in the UBE2B gene promoter is associated with idiopathic azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Zhang, Qiang; Diao, Ruiying; Cai, Zhiming; Gui, Yaoting

    2015-07-30

    A variety of genetic variants lead to abnormal human spermatogenesis. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2B (UBE2B) plays a significant role in spermatogenesis as Ube2b-knockout male mice are infertile. In this study, we sequenced the exon and promoter region of UBE2B in 776 patients diagnosed with idiopathic azoospermia (IA) and 709 proven fertile men to examine whether UBE2B is involved in the pathogenesis of IA. In the exon region, two novel synonymous variants were detected in the patient group. In the promoter region, four known variants and four novel variants were identified in the patient group. Of the novel variants in the promoter region, three were located at the binding site of specificity protein 1 (SP1) transcription factor analyzed by TRANSFAC software. Luciferase assays demonstrated that one heterozygous variant (Chr5.133706925 A > G) inhibited the transcriptional regulation activity of SP1. A novel variant (Chr5.133706925 A > G) residing in the UBE2B gene promoter region confers a high risk for IA in a Chinese population. These results support a role for UBE2B in the pathogenesis of IA.

  10. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackwell, Timothy S; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R

    2012-06-01

    Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A(2B)R) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A(2B)R or treatment with the A(2B)R antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A(2B)R attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A(2B)R activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A(2B)R antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.

  11. 3D-QSAR studies on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 substrates using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Roland; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2012-09-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) is an important enzyme responsible for clearance of many drugs. Here, we report two 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for UGT2B7 using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approach, respectively. The dataset included 53 structurally diverse UGT2B7 substrates, 36 of which were used for the training set and 17 of which for the external test set. Pharmacophore-based 3D-QSAR model (or hypothesis) was developed using the Discovery Studio program. A user-defined "glucuronidation site" feature was forcefully included in a pharmacophore hypothesis. VolSurf-based 3D-QSAR model was generated using the VolSurf program. This involves calculation of VolSurf descriptors, variable selection with the FFD algorithm, and partial least squares (PLS) analyses. The best pharmacophore model (r(2) = 0.736) consists of one glucuronidation site, one hydrogen bond acceptor, and three hydrophobic regions. Using this model, K(m) values for 14 of 17 test substrates were predicted within one log unit. The yielded VolSurf (PLS) model with two components shows statistical significance in both fitting and internal predicting (r(2) = 0.866, q(2) = 0.728). Further, the K(m) values for all test substrates were predicted within one log unit. In addition, the VolSurf model reveals an overlay of chemical features influencing the enzyme-substrate binding. Those include molecular size and shape, integy moments, capacity factors, best volumes of DRY probe, H-bonding, and log P. In conclusion, the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches are successfully utilized to establish predictive models for UGT2B7. The derived models should be an efficient tool for high throughput prediction of UGT2B7 metabolism.

  12. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2.

  13. Using service design methods for B2b service brand concept development: Case company

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Escalante, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    A short time before this study was initiated, a small B2b service company had just began op-erating its business without a brand of it’s own. The company owners were looking to design an innovative brand for their business. The purpose of this thesis was to develop the brand for this service Company in the B2b context, using practical service design and Strategic design research methods. This thesis report represents a framework for developing a B2b service brand using research methods c...

  14. An Empirical Examination of Reverse Auction Appropriateness in B2B Source Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Measures of Marketing Constructs," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 16, No.2, pp. 64 - 73. Cohn, L. (2000), " B2B : The Hottest Net Bet Yet...AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF REVERSE AUCTION APPROPRIATENESS IN B2B SOURCE SELECTION. 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ HAWKINS TIMOTHY...Examination of Reverse Auction Appropriateness in B2B Source Selection D :7;TZU IUT•ITM STATER,;77TIT A Approved for Puhtic P-•-!,ase Distribution

  15. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Bjerrum, O W; Pallisgaard, N

    2008-01-01

    chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response....

  16. I2B is a small cytosolic protein that participates in vacuole fusion

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole inheritance requires two low molecular weight activities, LMA1 and LMA2. LMA1 is a heterodimer of thioredoxin and protease B inhibitor 2 (I2B). Here we show that the second low molecular weight activity (LMA2) is monomeric I2B. Though LMA2/I2B was initially identified as a protease B inhibitor, this protease inhibitor activity is not related to its ability to promote vacuole fusion: (i) Low Mr protease B inhibitors cannot substitute for LMA1 or LMA 2, (ii) LMA...

  17. The U2B'' RNP motif as a site of protein-protein interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherly, D; Dathan, N A; Boelens, W; van Venrooij, W J; Mattaj, I W

    1990-01-01

    The U2 snRNP contains two specific proteins, U2B'' and U2A'. Neither of these proteins, on its own, is capable of specific interactions with U2 RNA. Here, a complex between U2B'' and U2A' that forms in the absence of RNA is identified. Analysis of mutant forms of U2B'' shows that the smallest fragment able to bind specifically U2 RNA (amino acids 1-88) is also the minimal region required for complex formation with U2A', and implies that this region must be largely structurally intact for U2A'...

  18. Project Description Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AFCI AFC-2A and AFC-2B Experiments Project Executi

    2007-03-01

    The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the AFC-1 fuel test series currently in progress in the ATR. This document discusses the experiments and the planned activities that will take place.

  19. High performance of solvothermally prepared VO2(B as anode for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The VO2 (B was synthesized via a simple solvothermal route at 160oC in ethanol. The initial discharge capacity of VO2 (B anode, in saturated aqueous solution of LiNO3, was 177 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 50 mA g-1. After 50 cycles capacity fade was 4%, but from 20th-50th cycle no capacity drop was observed. The VO2 (B has shown very good cyclability at current rate of even 1000 mA g-1 with initial discharge capacity of 92 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance of VO2 (B was attributed to the stability of micro-nano structures to repeated intercalation /deintercalation process, very good electronic conductivity as well as the very low charge transfer resistance in the aqueous electrolyte. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45014

  20. Managing Innovation Through Social Media in B2B SME-Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla; Madsen, Svend Ole; Brink, Tove

    2015-01-01

    This paper shed light on how social media application can enhance innovation management in SME B2B context. Our study employs a qualitative case study approach with four B2B SMEs for in-depth research in the period from October 2013 to October 2014. The B2B SME managers aim for open business model...... innovation. However, social media application is hindered due to lack of specific local knowledge, lack of knowledge on social media technicalities and bewilderedness on leadership approaches within the social media application. A contribution is hereby made to the B2B SME field, to the academic...... understanding an insight on social media application and open business model innovation....

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DJ2B-1ADIA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DJ2B-1ADIA 1DJ2 1ADI B A IGSLSQVSGVLGCQWGDEGKGKLVDILAQHFDIVARCQG...LLSEACPLILDYHVALDNAREKARGAKAIGTTGRGIGPAYEDKVARRGLRVGDLFDKETFAEKLKEVMEYHNFQLVNYYKAEAVDYQKVLDDTMAVADI...5 PHE CA 263 LYS CA 227 TYR CA 251 1ADI... A 1ADIA 1 1ADI A 1ADI

  2. Targeted Deletion of Titin N2B Region Leads to Diastolic Dysfunction and Cardiac Atrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael H. Radke; Jun Peng; Yiming Wu; Mark McNabb; O. Lynne Nelson; Henk Granzier; Michael Gotthardt

    2007-01-01

    .... Cardiac titin contains a unique N2B region, which has been proposed to modulate elasticity of the titin filament and to be important for hypertrophy signaling and the ischemic stress response through...

  3. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek are described in this report. Water-Data Report 2013 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR...

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AW2B-2VENA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AW2B-2VENA 1AW2 2VEN B A --RHPVVMGNWKLNGSKEMVVDLLNGLNAELEGVTGVDV...RQLDAVINTQGVEALEGAIIAYEPIWAIGTGKAATAEDAQRIHAQIRAHIAEK-SEAVAKNVVIQYGGSVKPENAAAYFAQPDIDGALVGGAALDAKSFAAIAKAAAE...ine> 2VEN A 2VENA1 2VEN A 2VENA... A 2VENA YEPVW-----KVATP

  5. B2B SME Management of Antecedents to the Application of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    2013 to October 2014, with follow-up interviews in October 2015. The findings reveal two important antecedents to the application of social media that overcome the gap between acknowledging the usefulness of social media and its actual limited application in practical B2B contexts. First, open...... application stages and the gaps between them identified in the previous literature. The developed model makes a contribution to the B2B SME field and to academia by recognising the importance of integrating critical antecedents before social media application can enhance business in B2B SMEs......This paper elucidates how business-to-business (B2B) small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can manage antecedents to the application of social media for potential contributions to their business. This in-depth qualitative research study was conducted at four plastic-producing SMEs from October...

  6. Thermoluminescence characteristics of gamma irradiated Li2B4O7:Cu nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vibha; Singh, Lakhwant; Lochab, S. P.

    2013-07-01

    Nanocrystals of the Li2B4O7:Cu were synthesized by the combustion method using different concentrations of Cu. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image confirm the nanometric size of synthesized material. The thermal stability of phosphor was obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TL characteristics of the synthesized Li2B4O7:Cu material doped with Cu of concentrations 1000 ppm and 2500 ppm were studied. It is observed that Li2B4O7:Cu doped with Cu (both 1000 ppm and 2500 ppm) exhibit a linear response in the range 1×100-5×103 Gy of gamma radiations. Finally the trapping parameters associated with the glow peaks were calculated using the glow curve deconvolution (GCD) glow fit method. Fading and reproducibility of phosphors were also studied and it was found that the Li2B4O7:Cu is quite suitable for radiation dosimetry.

  7. Boriding kinetics of Fe2B layers formed on AISI 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuno-Silva J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a diffusion model was suggested to study the growth kinetics of Fe2B layers grown on the AISI 1045 steel by the pack-boriding treatment. The generated boride layers were analyzed by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The applied diffusion model is based on the principle of mass conservation at the (Fe2B/ substrate interface. It was used to estimate the boron diffusion coefficients of Fe2B in the temperature range of 1123-1273 K. A validation of the model was also made by comparing the experimental Fe2B layer thickness obtained at 1253 K for 5 h of treatment with the predicted value. Basing on our experimental results, the boron activation energy was estimated as 180 kJ mol-1 for the AISI 1045 steel.

  8. A simple method for quantification of interferon-α2b through surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... 2Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of ... interferon-α2b and anti-interferon monoclonal antibody was predominantly controlled by mass transfer ..... resonance characterization of drug/liposome interactions.

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 3EK2B-3FNFB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6833343506 EVID> 3 3FNF EVID> 4 3FNF B 3FNF...EVID>EVID> 5 3FNF...3EK2B-3FNFB 3EK2 3FNF B B MGFLDGKRILLTGLLSNRSIAYGIAKACKREGAELAFTY...VGDRFKDRITEFAAEFGSE-LVFPCDVADDAQIDALFASLKTHWD---SLDGLVHSIGFAPREAIAG-DFLDGLTRENFRIAHDISAYSFPALAKAALPMLSDDASLL

  10. High-performance lithium storage based on the synergy of atomic-thickness nanosheets of TiO2(B) and ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xiang, Guolei; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are critical constituents of modern day vehicular and telecommunication technologies. Transition metal oxides and their composites have been extensively studied as potential electrode materials for LIBs. However, inefficient lithiation, poor electrical conductivity, and drastic volume change during cycling result in low reversible capacity and rapid capacity fading, and thus hinder the practical applications of those electrodes. In this work, we report a facile synthesis of a novel hierarchical composites, which consist of ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on TiO2(B) nanosheets with atomic thickness (Co3O4 NPs@TiO2(B) NSs). When tested as anode material for LIBs, the Co3O4 NPs@TiO2(B) NSs sample with optimized composition shows a reversible capacity of ∼677.3 mAhg-1 after 80 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg-1. A capacity of 386.2 mAhg-1 is still achieved at 1000 mAg-1. The synergistic effect of ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles and atomic-thickness TiO2(B) nanosheets is responsible for the enhanced electrochemical performance.

  11. Drivers of relationships affecting B2B firms in an e-commerce environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Samanta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the internet has created numerous opportunities for B2B marketing professionals to enhance current marketing practices, including electronic relationships. However, the investigation of e-relationships and the factors that influence e-relationships in an internet environment is scant. Further, there appears to be no investigation of this phenomenon within the context of Greek B2B Medium-sized firms (MSF. Τhe research problem investigated in this research is: “Which drivers in B2B e-commerce use affect inter-firm relationships in medium-sized B2B firms?”. A framework for B2B e-commerce relationships in a changing and globalized environment was synthesised and integrated with the literature about relationship marketing to arrive at the following research issues: “How do relationship marketing drivers affect the management of B2B e-relationships?”. An explanatory quantitative research approach was used and quantitative data was collected from B2B firms in Greece, which represents a case of e-commerce progress during the last six years. Regarding social exchange, some important differences emerge where cooperation between B2B e-commerce firms is concerned. Suppliers engaged in electronic commerce are more committed and oriented to a long-term relationship than buyers, based on both previous and current experience with them. Confidence in the relationships, consistency and honesty with their obligations and the exchange of reliable, trustworthy information and advisory services between firms are important factors in the development and establishment of their e-relationships. The main contribution of this research is the development of a theoretical framework for e-relationships in medium-sized Β2Β firms. That framework is the first rigorously researched step towards understanding the importance of these powerful streams of relationship drivers in total, and the business activity of e-marketing and electronic relationships.

  12. Framing agenda for business model innovation research from the B2B context

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Haugland, Sven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on business models in the business-to-business (B2B) context and proposes a research agenda that can be explored by future studies using various management and organizational theories. We outline four research themes and seven research topics for research on business model innovations in the B2B context. Further studies on these topics can make significant contributions to the business model literature.

  13. An analysis of Common Missile and TOW 2B using the Janus combat simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The US Army is currently developing a new close combat missile system, Common Missile, to replace the aging Tubelaunched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided (TOW 2B) and HELLFIRE missile systems. The Common Missile will have a greater range and improved target acquisition capability over the current missile systems. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the performance of the Common Missile and the TOW 2B missile in a simulated ground ...

  14. Viroporin Activity of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Non-Structural 2B Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Ao

    Full Text Available Viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. Viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. Among the Picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2B protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2B protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV has not yet been described. An analysis of the FMDV 2B protein domains by computer-aided programs conducted in this study revealed that this protein may contain two transmembrane regions. Further biochemical, biophysical and functional studies revealed that the protein possesses a number of features typical of a viroporin when it is overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in FMDV-infected cells. The protein was found to be mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, with both the N- and C-terminal domains stretched into the cytosol. It exhibited cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli, which attenuated 2B protein expression. The release of virions from cells infected with FMDV was inhibited by amantadine, a viroporin inhibitor. The 2B protein monomers interacted with each other to form both intracellular and extracellular oligomers. The Ca(2+ concentration in the cells increased, and the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was disrupted in cells that expressed the 2B protein. Moreover, the 2B protein induced intense autophagy in host cells. All of the results of this study demonstrate that the FMDV 2B protein has properties that are also found in other viroporins and may be involved in the infection mechanism of FMDV.

  15. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, M; Martucciello, G; Ceccherini, I; Lerone, M; Aicardi, M; Gambini, C; Jasonni, V

    2002-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2B is a hereditary syndrome including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, marfanoid facies, and multiple ganglioneuromas. MTC is the major cause of mortality, and often appears during the 1st decade of life. RET proto-oncogene mutations are responsible for MEN 2B. Other RET mutations cause MEN 2A syndrome, familial MTC, or Hirschsprung's disease. We studied three MEN 2B patients with the aim of delineating the best diagnostic and therapeutic protocol. The gold standards for diagnosis are histochemical study of the rectal mucosa and molecular analysis of RET, which in familial cases detects MEN 2B at a preclinical stage so that early total prophylactic thyroidectomy can be performed. In non-familial cases, the diagnosis can be suggested by the presence of GI symptoms, ganglioneuromas, and/or the typical facies. The intestinal innervation pattern, analyzed with the acetylcholinesterase technique, is pathognomonic for MEN 2B. In our protocol a rectal biopsy is, therefore, the first measure. The surgical treatment of MEN 2B is total thyroidectomy with cervical lymphadenectomy of the central compartment of the neck. When possible, this intervention should be performed prophylactically before 1 year of age.

  16. [Prooxidant and cytotoxic action of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione combined with vitamin Bl2b].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'eva, M E; Solov'ev, V V; Faskhutdinova, A A; Kudriavtsev, A A; Akatov, V S

    2007-01-01

    We studied the prooxidant and cytotoxic action of thiols N-acetylcystein (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) combined with vitamin Bl2b. The synergism of action of the thiols and Bl2b resulted in human carcinoma cell damage was found. It was shown that GSH and NAC in physiological doses combined with Bl2b caused the initiation of apoptosis. It was established that prooxidant action of the thiols combined with vitamin Bl2b, i. e. generation and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in culture medium, led to intracellular oxidative stress and injury of cell redox system. These effects were completely abolished by nonthiol antioxidants catalase and pyruvate. The chelators of iron phenanthroline and deferoxamine did not suppress the H2O2 accumulation in culture medium but significantly inhibited the cell death induced by the thiols combined with Bl2b. Therefore, the thiols GSH and NAC widely used as antioxidants, in combination with vitamin Bl2b show prooxidant characteristics and induce, with the participation of intracellular iron, apoptotic HEp-2 cell death.

  17. Sperm nuclear histone H2B: correlation with sperm DNA denaturation and DNA stainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armand Zini; Xiaoyang Zhang; Maria San Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm nuclear histone (H2B) staining. Methods:We evaluated sperm samples from 14 consecutive asthenoteratozoospermic infertile men and six consecutive fertile controls. Sperm nuclear histone (H2B) staining and sperm chromatin integrity (assessed by sperm chromatin structure assay and expressed using the percentage of (I) DNA fragmentation index [%DFI] and (ii) high DNA stainability [%HDS)]) were evaluated. Results: Histone H2B immunocytochemistry demonstrated two nuclear staining patterns: (I) focal punctate staining; and (ii) diffuse staining. Infertile men had a higher mean percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting diffuse H2B staining than did fertile men (7.7% ± 4.6% vs. 1.6% ± 1.2%, respectively, P < 0.01). We observed significant relationships between the proportion of spermatozoa with diffuse nuclear histone staining and both sperm %DFI (r= 0.63, P < 0.01) and sperm %HDS (r= 0.63, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The data demonstrate that infertile men have a higher proportion of spermatozoa with diffuse histone H2B than do fertile men and suggest that sperm DNA damage might, at least in part, be due to abnormally high histone H2B levels.

  18. Itga2b regulation at the onset of definitive hematopoiesis and commitment to differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dumon

    Full Text Available Product of the Itga2b gene, CD41 contributes to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC and megakaryocyte/platelet functions. CD41 expression marks the onset of definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo where it participates in regulating the numbers of multipotential progenitors. Key to platelet aggregation, CD41 expression also characterises their precursor, the megakaryocyte, and is specifically up regulated during megakaryopoiesis. Though phenotypically unique, megakaryocytes and HSC share numerous features, including key transcription factors, which could indicate common sub-regulatory networks. In these respects, Itga2b can serve as a paradigm to study features of both developmental-stage and HSC- versus megakaryocyte-specific regulations. By comparing different cellular contexts, we highlight a mechanism by which internal promoters participate in Itga2b regulation. A developmental process connects epigenetic regulation and promoter switching leading to CD41 expression in HSC. Interestingly, a similar process can be observed at the Mpl locus, which codes for another receptor that defines both HSC and megakaryocyte identities. Our study shows that Itga2b expression is controlled by lineage-specific networks and associates with H4K8ac in megakaryocyte or H3K27me3 in the multipotential hematopoietic cell line HPC7. Correlating with the decrease in H3K27me3 at the Itga2b Iocus, we find that following commitment to megakaryocyte differentiation, the H3K27 demethylase Jmjd3 up-regulation influences both Itga2b and Mpl expression.

  19. Magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Arout Chelvane; S Kasiviswanathan; M V Rao; G Markandeyulu

    2004-04-01

    The magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B were studied by magnetization measurements. X-ray diffraction studies on TbFe2B showed that boron occupied interstitial position in the crystal structure, just as hydrogen did. The value of the saturation magnetization of TbFe2B was found to be smaller than that of TbFe2. This is explained on the basis of a charge transfer between the boron atoms and the 3d band of Fe. The anisotropy of TbFe2B was found to be large compared to that of TbFe2. X-ray diffractograms for the ball milled samples showed that after 80 h of milling, a predominantly amorphous phase was obtained. TbFe2B was found to undergo easy amorphization compared to TbFe2. Magnetization of TbFe2 was found to decrease rapidly with initial milling hours and was found to be constant with further hours of milling. TbFe2B exhibited an anomalous behaviour with an increase in moment with milling hours and this may be due to the segregation of -Fe.

  20. Deletion of ADORA2B from myeloid cells dampens lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Philip, Kemly; Acero, Luis F; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Weng, Tingting; Molina, Jose G; Luo, Fayong; Davies, Jonathan; Le, Ngoc-Bao; Bunge, Isabelle; Volcik, Kelly A; Le, Thanh-Thuy T; Johnston, Richard A; Xia, Yang; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal, fibroproliferative disease. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can develop secondary to IPF and increase mortality. Alternatively, activated macrophages (AAMs) contribute to the pathogenesis of both IPF and PH. Here we hypothesized that adenosine signaling through the ADORA2B on AAMs impacts the progression of these disorders and that conditional deletion of ADORA2B on myeloid cells would have a beneficial effect in a model of these diseases. Conditional knockout mice lacking ADORA2B on myeloid cells (Adora2B(f/f)-LysM(Cre)) were exposed to the fibrotic agent bleomycin (BLM; 0.035 U/g body weight, i.p.). At 14, 17, 21, 25, or 33 d after exposure, SpO2, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and histologic analyses were performed. On day 33, lung function and cardiovascular analyses were determined. Markers for AAM and mediators of fibrosis and PH were assessed. Adora2B(f/f)-LysM(Cre) mice presented with attenuated fibrosis, improved lung function, and no evidence of PH compared with control mice exposed to BLM. These findings were accompanied by reduced expression of CD206 and arginase-1, markers for AAMs. A 10-fold reduction in IL-6 and a 5-fold decrease in hyaluronan, both linked to lung fibrosis and PH, were also observed. These data suggest that activation of the ADORA2B on macrophages plays an active role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and PH.

  1. Competency-orientated brand cooperations of power supply companies in the B2B sector; Kompetenzorientierte Markenkooperationen von Energieversorgungsunternehmen im B2B-Kundenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuser, M.M.

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of an extensive empirical study with B2B electricity users, the author of the book under consideration examines brand co-operations of power supply companies with companies not working in the area of energy production. Based on the view of various co-operation alternatives, impact relations and success-determining factors of influence in the area of B2B customers are identified. The term of the authority of an energy brand is discussed. Beside this, profiles of concrete brands of current power supply companies from the view of B2B customers are pointed out, and recommendations for the organization of brand co-operation and the structure of mark authority in practice are shown. This contribution is written for lecturers and students of the management economics with the emphasis of marketing and management as well as high-level personnel in the energy industry, who wants to develop strong mark authority by brand co-operation.

  2. Heat and charge transport in YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M; Gladun, A; Kreyssig, A [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Wosnitza, J [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Petzold, V; Rosner, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Behr, G; Souptel, D; Mueller, K-H; Drechsler, S-L; Fuchs, G [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (IFW), D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: M.Schneider@ifw-dresden.de, E-mail: G.Fuchs@ifw-dresden.de

    2008-04-30

    For a systematic investigation of the heat- and charge-transport properties of YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, single-crystal measurements of the electrical resistivity, the thermal conductivity, and the thermoelectric power were performed on the same samples. For HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, a local maximum of the Lorenz number at 20 K is evidently connected with the occurrence of magnetic fluctuations well above the ordering temperature. For the in-plane thermal conductivity, a kink near the superconducting transition was observed, consistent with an anisotropic gap or a multiband description. For both investigated borocarbides, the electrical resistance is isotropic. In contrast, the thermal conductivity shows a pronounced anisotropy. The thermoelectric power exhibits a minor anisotropy and can be well described by electron-diffusion and phonon-drag contributions over a wide temperature range. Based on an analysis of full-potential local-orbital calculations, a strong influence of the boron z position on the thermoelectric power has been revealed.

  3. Research on Game Theory of C2B Platform for Recycling%C2B 平台竞价回收博弈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春发; 刘一非; 王帅

    2016-01-01

    C2B 网络回收平台的竞价回收机制决定了众多回收商之间存在着激烈的竞争,每个网络回收商的回收量不仅取决于自己的回收价格,还取决于其他网络回收商的回收价格。期望利润最大化是每个网络回收商的竞争目标。运用最优化理论与非合作博弈理论证明 C2B 平台竞价回收博弈存在唯一的 Nash 均衡。在完全竞争与串谋合作的不同情况中发现,完全竞争情况下 Nash 均衡的网络回收价格高于串谋合作下的网络回收价格,并通过数值仿真进行验证。%Many recyclers recycle waste products or used fine products and remanufacture for profit in C2B network plat-form.Since the auction collection mechanism of C2B network platform determines there is a fierce competition among the many recyclers,the recycling number of waste products depends on the cost of recycling itself,but also the price of compet-itors.Expected profit maximization is the objective of each network recycler.Firstly the paper studied the operation of the C2B network platform,and proved the bidding games fit the supermodel game by using the theory of optimum and non -co-operative game theory,and the existence of Nash equilibrium.In perfect competition and collusion cooperation cases,we found the recycling price is higher than the conspiracy cooperation network cost under Nash equilibrium,which is verified by using the method of numerical simulation.

  4. An i2b2-based, generalizable, open source, self-scaling chronic disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natter, Marc D; Quan, Justin; Ortiz, David M; Bousvaros, Athos; Ilowite, Norman T; Inman, Christi J; Marsolo, Keith; McMurry, Andrew J; Sandborg, Christy I; Schanberg, Laura E; Wallace, Carol A; Warren, Robert W; Weber, Griffin M; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Registries are a well-established mechanism for obtaining high quality, disease-specific data, but are often highly project-specific in their design, implementation, and policies for data use. In contrast to the conventional model of centralized data contribution, warehousing, and control, we design a self-scaling registry technology for collaborative data sharing, based upon the widely adopted Integrating Biology & the Bedside (i2b2) data warehousing framework and the Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) peer-to-peer networking software. Focusing our design around creation of a scalable solution for collaboration within multi-site disease registries, we leverage the i2b2 and SHRINE open source software to create a modular, ontology-based, federated infrastructure that provides research investigators full ownership and access to their contributed data while supporting permissioned yet robust data sharing. We accomplish these objectives via web services supporting peer-group overlays, group-aware data aggregation, and administrative functions. The 56-site Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry and 3-site Harvard Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Longitudinal Data Repository now utilize i2b2 self-scaling registry technology (i2b2-SSR). This platform, extensible to federation of multiple projects within and between research networks, encompasses >6000 subjects at sites throughout the USA. We utilize the i2b2-SSR platform to minimize technical barriers to collaboration while enabling fine-grained control over data sharing. The implementation of i2b2-SSR for the multi-site, multi-stakeholder CARRA Registry has established a digital infrastructure for community-driven research data sharing in pediatric rheumatology in the USA. We envision i2b2-SSR as a scalable, reusable solution facilitating interdisciplinary research across diseases.

  5. Serotonin receptors and heart valve disease--it was meant 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L; Merryman, W David

    2011-11-01

    Carcinoid heart disease was one of the first valvular pathologies studied in molecular detail, and early research identified serotonin produced by oncogenic enterochromaffin cells as the likely culprit in causing changes in heart valve tissue. Researchers and physicians in the mid-1960s noted a connection between the use of several ergot-derived medications with structures similar to serotonin and the development of heart valve pathologies similar to those observed in carcinoid patients. The exact serotonergic target that mediated valvular pathogenesis remained a mystery for many years until similar cases were reported in patients using the popular diet drug Fen-Phen in the late 1990s. The Fen-Phen episode sparked renewed interest in serotonin-mediated valve disease, and studies led to the identification of the 5-HT(2B) receptor as the likely molecular target leading to heart valve tissue fibrosis. Subsequent studies have identified numerous other activators of the 5-HT(2B) receptor, and consequently, the use of many of these molecules has been linked to heart valve disease. Herein, we: review the molecular properties of the 5-HT(2B) receptor including factors that differentiate the 5-HT(2B) receptor from other 5-HT receptor subtypes, discuss the studies that led to the identification of the 5-HT(2B) receptor as the mediator of heart valve disease, present current efforts to identify potential valvulopathogens by screening for 5-HT(2B) receptor activity, and speculate on potential therapeutic benefits of 5-HT(2B) receptor targeting. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Thermal behaviour analysis on ITER component cooling water system loop 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin, E-mail: guobin@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dell’Orco, Giovanni; Liliana, Teodoros; Tao, Jun [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yang, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. • The cooling water temperature profile at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained. • Operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B has been depicted. - Abstract: ITER cooling water system is composed by several cooling loops, the primary heat transfer loops that form the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS), the secondary heat transfer loops that form the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) and the Chilled Water System (CHWS) and a tertiary heat transfer loop which is the Heat Rejection System (HRS). The CCWS is further divided into CCWS-1, CCWS-2A, CCWS-2B, CCWS-2C, CCWS-2D depending on the water chemistry needs of clients and wetted area material. The component cooling water system loop 2B (CCWS-2B) has the function to remove heat load from coil power supply component, Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) system component and diagnostic system which are located in different buildings. As the total number of the client connections for the loop is a few hundreds, simplified thermal hydraulic analysis model has been developed to perform thermal analysis on the component cooling water system loop 2B. The curve of the cooling water temperature at client inlet and outlet during one cycle of the most demanding plasma operation scenario was obtained and the cooling water flow rate can meet the thermal removal requirement of client was also confirmed from this analysis. In addition, operation behaviour of the main heat exchanger for CCWS-2B in this thermal analysis was depicted for main heat exchanger selection purposes. This study has been carried out with the AFT Fathom code.

  7. LIM kinase/cofilin dysregulation promotes macrothrombocytopenia in severe von Willebrand disease-type 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirault-Chassac, Sonia; Adam, Frédéric; Muczynski, Vincent; Aymé, Gabriel; Casari, Caterina; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Soukaseum, Christelle; Rothschild, Chantal; Proulle, Valérie; Pietrzyk-Nivau, Audrey; Berrou, Eliane; Christophe, Olivier D.; Rosa, Jean-Philippe; Lenting, Peter J.; Bryckaert, Marijke; Baruch, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    von Willebrand disease type 2B (VWD-type 2B) is characterized by gain-of-function mutations of von Willebrand factor (vWF) that enhance its binding to platelet glycoprotein Ibα and alter the protein’s multimeric structure. Patients with VWD-type 2B display variable extents of bleeding associated with macrothrombocytopenia and sometimes with thrombopathy. Here, we addressed the molecular mechanism underlying the severe macrothrombocytopenia both in a knockin murine model for VWD-type 2B by introducing the p.V1316M mutation in the murine Vwf gene and in a patient bearing this mutation. We provide evidence of a profound defect in megakaryocyte (MK) function since: (a) the extent of proplatelet formation was drastically decreased in 2B MKs, with thick proplatelet extensions and large swellings; and (b) 2B MKs presented actin disorganization that was controlled by upregulation of the RhoA/LIM kinase (LIMK)/cofilin pathway. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of the LIMK/cofilin signaling pathway rescued actin turnover and restored normal proplatelet formation, platelet count, and platelet size. These data indicate, to our knowledge for the first time, that the severe macrothrombocytopenia in VWD-type 2B p.V1316M is due to an MK dysfunction that originates from a constitutive activation of the RhoA/LIMK/cofilin pathway and actin disorganization. This suggests a potentially new function of vWF during platelet formation that involves regulation of actin dynamics. PMID:27734030

  8. Dysregulated Lysine Acetyltransferase 2B Promotes Inflammatory Bowel Disease Pathogenesis Through Transcriptional Repression of Interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alfa H C; Wu, William K K; Xu, Liangliang; Wong, Sunny H; Go, Minnie Y; Chan, Anthony W H; Harbord, Marcus; Zhang, Shenghong; Chen, Minhu; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Michael W Y; Chan, Matthew T V; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yu, Jun; Cheng, Alfred S L; Ng, Siew C

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence supports epigenetic modifications in mediating intestinal immunity in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify key dysregulated epigenetic modulators and the molecular downstream pathways in IBD. Expression of 116 well-defined epigenetic modulators was profiled and validated in 96 intestinal tissues from patients with Crohn's disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and healthy controls using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [QRT-PCR], western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Dysregulation of histone modifications and IBD-related cytokines were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase activity, and gene expression analyses in normal colonic epithelial cell line, NCM460, upon small-molecule inhibition or RNA interference, followed by validation in primary colonic tissues. Targeted expression profiling uncovered seven differentially expressed epigenetic modulators, of which the down-regulation of lysine acetyltransferase 2B [KAT2B] mRNA and protein was the most significant and was consequently validated in inflamed CD and UC compared with healthy colonic tissues. KAT2B protein localised abundantly in nuclei of normal colonic epithelium but diminished in paired inflamed CD and UC tissues. Pharmacological inhibition of KAT2B by anacardic acid in NCM460 cells reduced the levels of histone H4 lysine 5 acetylation [H4K5ac] and interleukin-10 [IL-10] in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of KAT2B reduced the IL-10 promoter occupancy of KAT2B and H4K5ac, resulting in transcriptional silencing. IL-10 level was also diminished in inflamed IBD tissues. Our findings demonstrated a novel epigenetic mechanism of IL-10 dysregulation in IBD. Down-regulation of KAT2B may disrupt the innate and adaptive inflammatory responses due to the suppression of this crucial anti-inflammatory cytokine. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University

  9. Mutations in SH3PXD2B cause Borrone dermato-cardio-skeletal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gabrielle R; Sunley, Jasmine; Smith, Katherine R; Pope, Kate; Bromhead, Catherine J; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Di Rocco, Maja; van Steensel, Maurice; Coman, David J; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Amor, David J; Bahlo, Melanie; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Borrone Dermato-Cardio-Skeletal (BDCS) syndrome is a severe progressive autosomal recessive disorder characterized by coarse facies, thick skin, acne conglobata, dysmorphic facies, vertebral abnormalities and mitral valve prolapse. We identified a consanguineous kindred with a child clinically diagnosed with BDCS. Linkage analysis of this family (BDCS1) identified five regions homozygous by descent with a maximum LOD score of 1.75. Linkage analysis of the family that originally defined BDCS (BDCS3) identified an overlapping linkage peak at chromosome 5q35.1. Sequence analysis identified two different homozygous mutations in BDCS1 and BDCS3, affecting the gene encoding the protein SH3 and PX domains 2B (SH3PXD2B), which localizes to 5q35.1. Western blot analysis of patient fibroblasts derived from affected individuals in both families demonstrated complete loss of SH3PXD2B. Homozygosity mapping and sequence analysis in a second published BDCS family (BDCS2) excluded SH3PXD2B. SH3PXD2B is required for the formation of functional podosomes, and loss-of-function mutations in SH3PXD2B have recently been shown to underlie 7 of 13 families with Frank-Ter Haar syndrome (FTHS). FTHS and BDCS share some overlapping clinical features; therefore, our results demonstrate that a proportion of BDCS and FTHS cases are allelic. Mutations in other gene(s) functioning in podosome formation and regulation are likely to underlie the SH3PXD2B-mutation-negative BDSC/FTHS patients.

  10. e-Relationships for e-Readiness:culture and corruption in international e-B2B

    OpenAIRE

    Berthon, Pierre; Pitt, Leyland; Berthon, Jean-Paul; Campbell, Colin; Thwaites, Des

    2008-01-01

    The role of electronic networks in B2B relationships has been growing exponentially. From massive internet B2B exchanges to tiny RFID chips, B2B is increasingly becoming e-B2B. Whilst e-B2B has been explored intra-nationally, its international counterpart is less well documented; as has been the role that culture might play in the development of international e-B2B relationships. In this paper we address this important issue of international e-business relationships. Specifically we explore t...

  11. Calcium sensitivity and the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart are increased in titin N2B region deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Peng, Jun; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2010-01-01

    Previous work suggests that titin-based passive tension is a factor in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart, by increasing length-dependent activation (LDA) through an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model (N2B KO model) in which titin-based passive tension is elevated as a result of the excision of the N2B element, one of cardiac titin’s spring elements. LDA was assessed by measuring the active tension-pCa (−log[Ca2+]) relationship at sarcomere length (SLs) of 1.95, 2.10 and 2.30 µm in WT and N2B KO skinned myocardium. LDA was positively correlated with titin-based passive tension, due to an increase in calcium sensitivity at the longer SLs in the KO. For example, at pCa 6.0 the KO:WT tension ratio was 1.28 ± 0.07 and 1.42 ± 0.04 at SLs of 2.1 and 2.3 µm, respectively. There was no difference in protein expression or phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. We also measured the calcium sensitivity after PKA treating the skinned muscle and found that titin-based passive tension was also now correlated with LDA, with a slope that was significantly increased compared to no PKA treatment. Finally, we performed isolated heart experiments and measured the Frank-Starling relation (slope of developed wall stress-LV volume relation) as well as diastolic stiffness (slope of diastolic wall stress – volume relation). The FSM was more pronounced in the N2B KO hearts and the slope of the FSM correlated with diastolic stiffness. These findings support that titin-based passive tension triggers an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length, thereby playing an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. PMID:20507834

  12. Calcium sensitivity and the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart are increased in titin N2B region-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Peng, Jun; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2010-09-01

    Previous work suggests that titin-based passive tension is a factor in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart, by increasing length-dependent activation (LDA) through an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model (N2B KO model) in which titin-based passive tension is elevated as a result of the excision of the N2B element, one of cardiac titin's spring elements. LDA was assessed by measuring the active tension-pCa (-log[Ca(2+)]) relationship at sarcomere length (SLs) of 1.95, 2.10, and 2.30 microm in WT and N2B KO skinned myocardium. LDA was positively correlated with titin-based passive tension due to an increase in calcium sensitivity at the longer SLs in the KO. For example, at pCa 6.0, the KO:WT tension ratio was 1.28+/-0.07 and 1.42+/-0.04 at SLs of 2.1 and 2.3 microm, respectively. There was no difference in protein expression or total phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. We also measured the calcium sensitivity after PKA treating the skinned muscle and found that titin-based passive tension was also now correlated with LDA, with a slope that was significantly increased compared to no PKA treatment. Finally, we performed isolated heart experiments and measured the Frank-Starling relation (slope of developed wall stress-LV volume relation) as well as diastolic stiffness (slope of diastolic wall stress-volume relation). The FSM was more pronounced in the N2B KO hearts and the slope of the FSM correlated with diastolic stiffness. These findings support that titin-based passive tension triggers an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length, thereby playing an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart.

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Garcinia cambogia Extract on CYP2B6 Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun Sang; Choi, Min Sun; Park, Jong Suk; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-03-13

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on the cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. G. cambogia extract was incubated with cytochrome P450 isozyme-specific substrates in human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2B6 isozyme, and the formation of the marker metabolites was measured to investigate the inhibitory potential on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. The results showed that G. cambogia extract has significant inhibitory effects on CYP2B6 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibition was potentiated following preincubation with NADPH, indicating that G. cambogia extract is a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2B6. Meanwhile, hydroxycitric acid, the major bioactive ingredient of G. cambogia extract, did not exhibit significant inhibition effects on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. G. cambogia extract could modulate the pharmacokinetics of CYP2B6 substrate drugs and lead to interactions with those drugs. Therefore, caution may be required with respect to concomitant intake of dietary supplements containing G. cambogia extract with CYP2B6 substrates.

  14. Involvement of CYP2B6 in the biotransformation of propofol by human liver microsomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Bing; WANG Jun-ke; FENG Wan-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes. Methods The change of propofol concentration in an incubation mixture with human liver microsomes was monitored by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in order to calculate the rate constants of metabolism of propofol. The correlation between the rate constants and the rate of metabolism of CYP2B6 selective substrate bupropion, and the effect of two different CYP2B6 specific inhibitors on the propofol metabolism were examined. Results The mean rate constant of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes obtained from twelve individuals was 3.9 (95 % confidence intervals 3.3, 4.5) nmol·min-1·mg-1 protein. The rate constants of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes were significantly correlated with bupropion hydroxylation (r=0.888, P<0.001). Both selective chemical inhibitors of CYP2B6, orphenadrine and N, N′, N″-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA), reduced the rate constants of propofol metabolism by 37.596 (P<0.001) and 42.796 (P<0.001)in liver microsomes, respectively. Conclusions CYP2B6 is predominantly involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes.

  15. Structure and sequence based functional annotation of Zika virus NS2b protein: Computational insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Pesantes, Daniel; Méndez, Miguel A

    2017-02-08

    While Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks are a growing concern for global health, a deep understanding about the virus is lacking. Here we report a contribution to the basic science on the virus- a detailed computational analysis of the non structural protein NS2b. This protein acts as a cofactor for the NS3 protease (NS3Pro) domain that is important on the viral life cycle, and is an interesting target for drug development. We found that ZIKV NS2b cofactor is highly similar to other virus within the Flavivirus genus, especially to West Nile Virus, suggesting that it is completely necessary for the protease complex activity. Furthermore, the ZIKV NS2b has an important role to the function and stability of the ZIKV NS3 protease domain even when presents a low conservation score. In addition, ZIKV NS2b is mostly rigid, which could imply a non dynamic nature in substrate recognition. Finally, by performing a computational alanine scanning mutagenesis, we found that residues Gly 52 and Asp 83 in the NS2b could be important in substrate recognition.

  16. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The serotonin (5-HT pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH, but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day. Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF.

  17. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists inhibit fibrosis and protect from RV heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Kojonazarov, Baktybek; Boehm, Mario; Wietelmann, Astrid; Luitel, Himal; Murmann, Kirsten; Krompiec, Damian Richard; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF.

  18. Supporting the Health Quality Measures Format in i2b2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Murphy, Shawn N

    2013-01-01

    The Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) is an HL7 standard for expressing computable queries of clinical data. It is becoming increasingly consequential for both quality measurement and population health research. A variety of national leadership is involved in its development and deployment, including the Meaningful Use incentive program, the Query Health initiative, the Joint Commission, the National Quality Forum (NQF), and the Food and Drug Administration. Here we analyze the structure of HQMF and apply this to computation of HQMF on Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). i2b2 is a widely used, modular, open-source clinical research data repository. We implement a translator to convert between HQMF and i2b2-XML format that covers the subset of HQMF supported in i2b2-XML, which will be expanded in the next release of i2b2. This translator is part of the freely-available reference implementation of the QueryHealth initiative.

  19. Molecular level interaction of inositol hexaphosphate with the C2B domain of human synaptotagmin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Meng-Je; Mohan, Sepuru K; Yu, Chin

    2012-05-01

    Synaptotagmin I is a synaptic vesicle membrane protein that serves as a multifunctional regulator during the exocytosis of neurotransmitter release. It contains C2A and C2B domains. The binding of Ca(2+) to the C2A domain activates the exocytosis of secretory vesicles, while the binding of inositol polyphosphates (IP4-IP6) to the C2B domain inhibits this process. To understand the IP6-induced inhibition of exocytosis of secretory vesicles, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the C2B-IP6 complex by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In this study, we have determined the binding constant by isothermal titration calorimetry. The circular dichroism measurements demonstrated that IP6 can stabilize the C2B molecule. We identified the binding site using (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy titration data and determined the structure of the C2B-IP6 complex using multidimensional NMR studies. This information will aid in the design of better pharmacological treatments for neurological disorders.

  20. Serotonin 2B receptor: upregulated with age and hearing loss in mouse auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Sherif F; D'Souza, Mary; Zettel, Martha L; Zhu, XiaoXia; Lynch-Erhardt, Martha; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Serotonin may modulate afferent fiber discharges in the cochlea, inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex. Specific functions of serotonin are exerted upon its interaction with specific receptors; one of those receptors is the serotonin 2B receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression of serotonin 2B receptors with age in cochlea and IC, and the possible correlation between gene expression and functional hearing measurements in CBA/CaJ mice. Immunohistochemical examinations of protein expression of IC in mice of different age groups were also performed. Gene expression results showed that serotonin 2B receptor gene was upregulated with age in both cochlea and IC. A significant correlation between gene expression and functional hearing results was established. Immunohistochemical protein expression studies of IC showed more serotonin 2B receptor cells in old mice relative to young adult mice, particularly in the external nucleus. We conclude that serotonin 2B receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss.

  1. Unintentional Injuries among School-Aged Children in Palestine: Findings from the National Study of Palestinian Schoolchildren (HBSC-WBG2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jildeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study describes the nonfatal injuries among adolescents in Palestine. Methods. The 2006 Palestinian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC is a cross-sectional survey. Students of grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 completed a modified version of the international HBSC questionnaire, resulting in 15,963 students (47.3% boys and 52.7% girls included in this study (56.9% from the West Bank and 43.1% from Gaza. Results. Of the total 15,963 adolescents, 47.6% were injured, with boys (53.5% being statistically higher than girls (42.1% (P<0.001. The prevalence of those injured more than once decreased by age and was also found significantly higher in boys than in girls (27.3% and 17.9%, resp. (P<0.001. Children living in low FAS families showed significantly lower ratios of injuries than those living in moderate and high FAS families (P<0.001. Injuries while biking were significantly higher among boys (46.3% than girls (41.7% (P<0.001, and injuries while walking/running were more prevalent among girls (32.5% than boys (28.0% (P<0.001. Conclusion. Despite these considerably high rates, injury remains relatively underappreciated. Results of this study are useful to develop a national injury prevention program aimed at enhancing the safety of Palestinian adolescents.

  2. Demand assessment and price-elasticity estimation of quality-improved primary health care in Palestine: a contribution from the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataria, Awad; Luchini, Stéphane; Daoud, Yousef; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology to assess demand and price-elasticity for health care, based on patients' stated willingness to pay (WTP) values for certain aspects of health care quality improvements. A conceptual analysis of how respondents consider contingent valuation (CV) questions allowed us to specify a probability density function of stated WTP values, and consequently, to model a demand function for quality-improved health care, using a parametric survival approach. The model was empirically estimated using a CV study intended to assess patients' values for improving the quality of primary health care (PHC) services in Palestine. A random sample of 499 individuals was interviewed following medical consultation in four PHC centers. Quality was assessed using a multi-attribute approach; and respondents valued seven specific quality improvements using a decomposed valuation scenario and a payment card elicitation technique. Our results suggest an inelastic demand at low user fees levels, and when the price-increase is accompanied with substantial quality-improvements. Nevertheless, demand becomes more and more elastic if user fees continue to rise. On the other hand, patients' reactions to price-increase turn out to depend on their level of income. Our results can be used to design successful health care financing strategies that include a consideration of patients' preferences and financial capacities.

  3. Modified Anion Packing of Na2B12H12 in Close to Room Temperature Superionic Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikin, Yolanda; Schouwink, Pascal; Brighi, Matteo; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Černý, Radovan

    2017-05-01

    Three different types of anion packing, i.e., hexagonal close packed (hcp), cubic close packed (ccp), and body centered cubic (bcc), are investigated experimentally and with ab initio calculations in the model system Na2B12H12. Solvent free and water assisted mechanical grinding provide polycrystalline samples for temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that among the common close packed lattices, the hcp anionic backbone creates very favorable conditions for three-dimensional ionic conduction pathways, comprised of O-O, T-T, and T-O-T (O for octahedral, T for tetrahedral) cation hops. The hcp lattice is stable with respect to ccp and bcc lattices only at higher volumes per formula unit, which is achieved either by cationic substitution with larger cations or partial substitution of hydrogen by iodine on the closo-anion. It is found that the partial cationic substitution of sodium with lithium, potassium, or cesium does not lead to enhanced conductivity due to the obstruction of the conduction pathway by the larger cation located on the octahedral site. Substitution on the closo-anion itself shows remarkable positive effects, the ionic conductivity of Na2B12H12-xIx reaching values of close to 10(-1) S cm(-1) at a rather low temperature of 360 K. While the absolute value of σ is comparable to that of NaCB11H12, the temperature at which it is attained is approximately 20 K lower. The activation energy of 140 meV is determined from the Arrhenius relation and among the lowest ever reported for a Na-conducting solid.

  4. 77 FR 24225 - Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... of H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of... Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Final Rule. See 77 FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. DATES: On April 8...

  5. Peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alpha-2b for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Goran; Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A combination of weekly pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alpha and daily ribavirin still represents standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in the majority of patients. However, it is not established which of the two licensed peginterferon products, peginterferon alpha-2......a or peginterferon alpha-2b, is the most effective and has a better safety profile. OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the benefits and harms of peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alpha-2b in head-to-head randomised clinical trials in patients with chronic hepatitis C. SEARCH METHODS...... literature. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials comparing peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alpha-2b given with or without co-intervention(s) (for example, ribavirin) for chronic hepatitis C. Quasi-randomised studies and observational studies as identified by the searches...

  6. Uso de una conantokina y anticuerpos policlonales para identificar la subunidad NR2B del receptor

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Proponer una metodología de identificación de la subunidad NR2B, mediante el uso de conantokina G, así como una adecuada extracción de la subunidad NR2B. Materiales y métodos. Se ensayaron dos metodologías para la extracción de la subunidad NR2B de cerebro de rata adulta, la primera buscó la extracción de la subunidad a partir de la membrana mediante la utilización del detergente deoxicolato de sodio y la segunda, garantizó primero la solubilización y eliminación de proteínas citopl...

  7. The Importance of Brand on B2B Markets: Expert Interviews with Hilti AG Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Konečný

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the importance of brand building in the business-to-business world. Not only B2C companies must take branding into account and put it among their top priorities in order to survive and succeed on the market. The first part of the article deals with the theoretical background of brand importance and market specifics of B2B markets and results in the setting of two hypotheses. The following research has to find out how the managers of a pure business-to-business company perceive the importance of a brand; moreover, it has to evaluate the importance of eight specific brand building factors. Fourteen expert interviews document the growing of brands in the B2B market and their main aspects. At the end of the article, we will focus on future implications for B2B management.

  8. Magnetic properties of Y1- xGdxCo2B2C series of borocarbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud'ko, S. L.; Giordanengo, B.; Sulpice, A.; Fontes, M. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.

    1995-04-01

    Magnetic properties of Y1- xGdxCo2B2C series of compounds were studied. Two magnetically ordered phases were observed for 0.7 ≤ x ≤ 1. Change of the magnetic ordering temperatures T 1 and T 2 with the Gd concentration is argued to be related to the dilution of magnetic Gd by nonmagnetic Y and to the reduction of the distance between ( Y1- xGdx) C planes. However, significant contribution to the changes in T 1 between pure GdNi2B2C and GdCo2B2C samples is suggested to be due to the different 3 d band filling in these compounds.

  9. A new natural naphtho[1,2-b]furan from the leaves of Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Qin; Tang, Zheng-Rong; Mu, Wei-Hua; Kou, Jun-Feng; He, Dong-Yang

    2013-11-01

    A new naphtho[1,2-b]furan, 2,9-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-4-methylnaphtha[1,2-b]furan-3(2H)-one (1), along with 10 known compounds vanillic acid (2), naringenin (3), glyceryl-1-tetracosanoate (4), moracin J (5), 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (6), esculetin (7), mauritianin (8), kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (9), β-sitosterol (10), and β-daucosterol (11), was isolated from the leaves of Cassia fistula. The structure of the new compound was determined by NMR and X-ray analysis. Compounds 1, 3, 5-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The naphtha[1,2-b]furan was firstly isolated from the natural resources.

  10. Contributions of PHOX2B in the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel María Fernández

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is a congenital malformation of the hindgut resulting from a disruption of neural crest cell migration during embryonic development. It has a complex genetic aetiology with several genes involved in its pathogenesis. PHOX2B plays a key function in the development of neural crest derivatives, and heterozygous mutations cause a complex dysautonomia associating HSCR, Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS and neuroblastoma (NB in various combinations. In order to determine the role of PHOX2B in isolated HSCR, we performed a mutational screening in a cohort of 207 Spanish HSCR patients. Our most relevant finding has been the identification of a de novo and novel deletion (c.393_410del18 in a patient with HSCR. Results of in silico and functional assays support its pathogenic effect related to HSCR. Therefore our results support that PHOX2B loss-of-function is a rare cause of HSCR phenotype.

  11. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2012-02-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  12. Laboratory Study of O2(b1Σ g+, υ = 1) Collisional Removal at Thermospheric Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E. R.; Pejaković, D. A.; Phillips, K. E.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2003-12-01

    In the Earth's thermosphere, energy transfer from O(1D) to O2 generates oxygen molecules in the υ = 0 and 1 levels of the O2(b1Σg+) state. The emissions in the O2(b1Σ g+ - X3Σ g-) system (Atmospheric Band) present a major component of the Earth's airglow. Interpretation of the measured intensities of O2 Atmospheric Band emissions can yield altitude profiles of oxygen atom density and local temperature in the lower thermosphere. To achieve this goal accurate laboratory measurements of the collisional removal rate coefficients of O2(b, υ = 1) and their temperature dependence are essential. Atmospheric observations suggest that the relevant colliders for the removal of O2(b, υ = 1) in the lower thermosphere are O2 and O(3P). We report measurements of the rate coefficients for the collisional removal of O2(b, υ = 1) by O2, N2, and CO2, at temperatures in the range 300--1000 K. A state-specific two-laser technique is used, in which the visible output of the first laser directly excites O2 to O2(b, υ = 1), and the ultraviolet output of the second laser probes the O2(b, υ = 1) population by resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via the υ= 4 level of the d1Π g Rydberg state. The temporal evolution of the O2(b, υ = 1) population is monitored by varying the time delay between the two laser pulses. The rate coefficient of the collisional removal of O2(b, υ = 1) by O2 increases monotonically with temperature from about 1.5 x 10-11 cm3 s-1 to about 6*E-11 cm3 s-1 in the range 300--1000 K. Experiments with colliders N2 and CO2 determine the upper limits for the removal rate coefficients of O2(b, υ = 1) by N2 and CO2 to be 2 orders of magnitude smaller. This work extends previous studies of O2(b, υ = 1) at room and low temperatures.1,2 We are currently planning experiments to investigate the collisional removal of O2(b, υ = 1) by O atoms. This study was supported by the NSF's Grant ATM-0209229. The participation of K. Phillips in this project was funded by

  13. Possible coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order in NdPt2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Dhar; A D Chinchure; E Alleno; C Godart; L C Gupta; R Nagarajan

    2002-05-01

    Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order has been one of the exciting aspects of the quaternary borocarbide superconductors. So far, RNi2B2C (R=Tm, Er, Ho and Dy) are the only known magnetic superconductors in this family. Here, we present our resistivity, magnetization and heat capacity studies on NdPt2B2C (nominal composition, NdPt1.5Au0.6B2C and NdPt2.1B2.4C1.2). We find superconductivity in both samples with c,onset∼ 3 K. Bulk magnetic order is found to occur below 1.7 K. We suggest that NdPt2B2C is a possible magnetic superconductor.

  14. Reciprocal interactions of Fgf10/Fgfr2b modulate the mouse tongue epithelial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Wern-Joo; Jung, Hye-In; Choi, Min-A; Han, Jin-Hyun; Gwon, Gi-Jeong; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Lee, Sanggyu; Ryoo, Zae Young; Park, Eui-Kyun; Shin, Hong-In; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Young

    2011-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms for epithelial differentiation have been studied by observing skin development in embryogenesis, but the early signaling modulations involved in tongue epithelial differentiation are not completely understood. Based on the gene expression patterns of the Fgf signaling molecules and previous results from Fgf10 and Fgfr2b knockout mice, it was hypothesized that there would be fundamental signaling interactions through the epithelial Fgfr2b and its mesenchymal ligand Fgf10 to regulate tongue epithelium differentiation. To elucidate these reciprocal interactions in tongue epithelial differentiation, this study employed an in vitro tongue organ culture system with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) and recombinant protein-soaked bead implantation for the loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies. Functional analysis of Fgf signaling revealed precise reciprocal interactions, which showed that mesenchymal Fgf10 rather than Fgf7 modulates tongue epithelial differentiation via Fgfr2b in a temporal- and spatial-specific manner.

  15. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Pallisgaard, N.; Andersen, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  16. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2009-08-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  17. Properties of a New Nonlinear Optical Crystal CdZn2B2O6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; SHEN De-Zhong; SHEN Guang-Qiu; WANG Xiao-Qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cadmium dizinc diborate (CdZn2B2O6) single crystals have been grown for the first time. The crystal structure of CdZn2B2O6 is the same as that of the Cd3Zn3B4O12. The x-ray diffraction, infrated and Raman spectra,differential scanning calorimetry analysis and density indicate that the physical and chemical properties of both crystals are very similar. Especially, the nonlinear optical coefficients of CdZn2B2O6 and Cd3ZnaB4O12 crystals are 2.6 and 2.4 times as large as that of KH2PO4 crystal respectively. Chemical etching experiments indicated that these crystals are very stable in neutral solution and not hygroscopic in air at room temperature.

  18. Standards-Based Procedural Phenotyping: The Arden Syntax on i2b2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Sebastian; Castellanos, Ixchel; Ganslandt, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Kraus, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping, or the identification of patient cohorts, is a recurring challenge in medical informatics. While there are open source tools such as i2b2 that address this problem by providing user-friendly querying interfaces, these platforms lack semantic expressiveness to model complex phenotyping algorithms. The Arden Syntax provides procedural programming language construct, designed specifically for medical decision support and knowledge transfer. In this work, we investigate how language constructs of the Arden Syntax can be used for generic phenotyping. We implemented a prototypical tool to integrate i2b2 with an open source Arden execution environment. To demonstrate the applicability of our approach, we used the tool together with an Arden-based phenotyping algorithm to derive statistics about ICU-acquired hypernatremia. Finally, we discuss how the combination of i2b2's user-friendly cohort pre-selection and Arden's procedural expressiveness could benefit phenotyping.

  19. Genes for resistance to stripe rust on chromosome 2B and their application in wheat breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peigao Luo; Xueyun Hu; Huaiyu Zhang; Zhenglong Ren

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide.Growing resistant cultivars is the most economic and environmental friendly way to control the disease.There are many resistance genes to stripe rust located on wheat chromosome 2B.Here,we propose a strategy to construct the recombinant wheat chromosome 2B with multiple resistances to stripe rust by making crosses between wheat lines or cultivars carrying Yr genes and using marker-assisted selection,based on the reported information about resistance spectrum,chromosomal location,and linked markers of the genes.Pyramiding the resistance genes on 2B would afford a valuable strategy to control the disease by cultivating varieties with durable resistance.The possibility,efficiency,and prospect of the suggested strategy are reviewed in the paper.

  20. Association Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2B (GRIN2B Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia Symptoms in the Han Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamatergic system is the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system, and is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Disturbances in this system have been hypothesized to play a major role in SZ pathogenesis. Several studies have revealed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B potentially associates with SZ and its psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we performed a case-control study to identify polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. A significant association was observed in allele and genotype between SZ and controls at rs2098469 (χ2 = 8.425 and 4.994; p = 0.025 and 0.014, respectively. Significant associations were found in the allele at rs12319804 (χ2 = 4.436; p = 0.035, as well as in the genotype at rs12820037 and rs7298664 between SZ and controls (χ2 = 11.162 and 38.204; p = 0.003 and 4.27×10(-8, respectively. After applying the Bonferroni correction, rs7298664 still had significant genotype associations with SZ (p = 1.71×10(-7. In addition, rs2098469 genotype and allele frequencies, and 12820037 allele frequencies were nominally associated with SZ. Three haplotypes, CGA (rs10845849-rs12319804-rs10845851, CC (rs12582848-rs7952915, and AAGAC (rs2041986-rs11055665-rs7314376-rs7297101-rs2098469, had significant differences between SZ and controls (χ2 = 4.324, 4.582, and 4.492; p = 0.037, 0.032, and 0.034, respectively. In addition, three SNPs, rs2098469, rs12820037, and rs7298664, were significantly associated with cognition factors PANSS subscores in SZ (F = 16.799, 7.112, and 13.357; p = 0.000, 0.017, and 0.000, respectively. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for an association between GRIN2B

  1. Association Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2B (GRIN2B) Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia Symptoms in the Han Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Ge; Wang, Xiujuan; Ding, Minli; Jiang, Tianzi; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamatergic system is the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system, and is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Disturbances in this system have been hypothesized to play a major role in SZ pathogenesis. Several studies have revealed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B) potentially associates with SZ and its psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we performed a case–control study to identify polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. A significant association was observed in allele and genotype between SZ and controls at rs2098469 (χ2 = 8.425 and 4.994; p = 0.025 and 0.014, respectively). Significant associations were found in the allele at rs12319804 (χ2 = 4.436; p = 0.035), as well as in the genotype at rs12820037 and rs7298664 between SZ and controls (χ2 = 11.162 and 38.204; p = 0.003 and 4.27×10-8, respectively). After applying the Bonferroni correction, rs7298664 still had significant genotype associations with SZ (p = 1.71×10-7). In addition, rs2098469 genotype and allele frequencies, and 12820037 allele frequencies were nominally associated with SZ. Three haplotypes, CGA (rs10845849—rs12319804—rs10845851), CC (rs12582848—rs7952915), and AAGAC (rs2041986—rs11055665—rs7314376—rs7297101—rs2098469), had significant differences between SZ and controls (χ2 = 4.324, 4.582, and 4.492; p = 0.037, 0.032, and 0.034, respectively). In addition, three SNPs, rs2098469, rs12820037, and rs7298664, were significantly associated with cognition factors PANSS subscores in SZ (F = 16.799, 7.112, and 13.357; p = 0.000, 0.017, and 0.000, respectively). In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for an association between

  2. Structural Basis for Host Membrane Remodeling Induced by Protein 2B of Hepatitis A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives-Adrián, Laia; Garriga, Damià; Buxaderas, Mònica; Fraga, Joana; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complexity of viral RNA synthesis and the numerous participating factors require a mechanism to topologically coordinate and concentrate these multiple viral and cellular components, ensuring a concerted function. Similarly to all other positive-strand RNA viruses, picornaviruses induce rearrangements of host intracellular membranes to create structures that act as functional scaffolds for genome replication. The membrane-targeting proteins 2B and 2C, their precursor 2BC, and protein 3A appear to be primarily involved in membrane remodeling. Little is known about the structure of these proteins and the mechanisms by which they induce massive membrane remodeling. Here we report the crystal structure of the soluble region of hepatitis A virus (HAV) protein 2B, consisting of two domains: a C-terminal helical bundle preceded by an N-terminally curved five-stranded antiparallel β-sheet that displays striking structural similarity to the β-barrel domain of enteroviral 2A proteins. Moreover, the helicoidal arrangement of the protein molecules in the crystal provides a model for 2B-induced host membrane remodeling during HAV infection. IMPORTANCE No structural information is currently available for the 2B protein of any picornavirus despite it being involved in a critical process in viral factory formation: the rearrangement of host intracellular membranes. Here we present the structure of the soluble domain of the 2B protein of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Its arrangement, both in crystals and in solution under physiological conditions, can help to understand its function and sheds some light on the membrane rearrangement process, a putative target of future antiviral drugs. Moreover, this first structure of a picornaviral 2B protein also unveils a closer evolutionary relationship between the hepatovirus and enterovirus genera within the Picornaviridae family. PMID:25589659

  3. UBE2B mRNA alterations are associated with severe oligozoospermia in infertile men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Murthy, Lata J.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    Oligozoospermia (low sperm count) is a common semen deficiency. However, to date, few genetic defects have been identified to cause this condition. Moreover, even fewer molecular genetic diagnostic tests are available for patients with oligozoospermia in the andrology clinic. Based on animal and gene expression studies of oligozoospermia, several molecular pathways may be disrupted in post-meiotic spermatozoa. One of the disrupted pathways is protein ubiquitination and cell apoptosis. A critical protein involved in this pathway is the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2B, UBE2B. Absence of Ube2b in male mice causes spermatogenic meiotic disruption with increased apoptosis, leading to infertility. To examine the association between messenger RNA defects in UBE2B and severe oligozoospermia (0.1–10 × 106 cells/ml), sequencing of sperm cDNA in 326 oligozoospermic patients and 421 normozoospermic men was performed. mRNA alterations in UBE2B were identified in sperm in 4.6% (15 out of 326) of the oligozoospermic patients, but not found in control men, suggesting strong association between mRNA defects and oligozoospermia (χ2 = 19, P = 0.0001). Identified UBE2B alterations include nine splicing, four missense and two nonsense alterations. The follow-up screen of corresponding DNA regions did not reveal causative DNA mutations, suggesting a post-transcriptional nature of identified defects. None of these variants were reported in the dbSNP database, although other splicing abnormalities with low level of expression were present in 11 out of 421 (2.6%) controls. Our findings suggest that two distinct molecular mechanisms, mRNA editing and splicing processing, are disrupted in oligozoospermia. We speculate that the contribution of post-transcriptional mRNA defects to oligozoospermia could be greater than previously anticipated. PMID:23378580

  4. Common PHOX2B poly-alanine contractions impair RET gene transcription, predisposing to Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Zanni, Eleonora; Adamo, Annalisa; Belligni, Elga; Lerone, Margherita; Martucciello, Giuseppe; Mattioli, Girolamo; Pini Prato, Alessio; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Silengo, Margherita; Bachetti, Tiziana; Ceccherini, Isabella

    2017-07-01

    HSCR is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by the absence of neurons along a variable length of the gut resulting from loss-of-function RET mutations. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) is a rare neurocristopathy characterized by impaired response to hypercapnia and hypoxemia caused by heterozygous mutations of the PHOX2B gene, mostly polyalanine (polyA) expansions but also missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations, while polyA contractions are common in the population and believed neutral. HSCR associated CCHS can present in patients carrying PHOX2B mutations. Indeed, RET expression is orchestrated by different transcriptional factors among which PHOX2B, thus suggesting its possible role in HSCR pathogenesis. Following the observation of HSCR patients carrying in frame trinucleotide deletions within the polyalanine stretch in exon 3 (polyA contractions), we have verified the hypothesis that these PHOX2B variants do reduce its transcriptional activity, likely resulting in a down-regulation of RET expression and, consequently, favouring the development of the HSCR phenotype. Using proper reporter constructs, we show here that the in vitro transactivation of the RET promoter by different HSCR-associated PHOX2B polyA variants has resulted significantly lower compared to the effect of PHOX2B wild type protein. In particular, polyA contractions do induce a reduced transactivation of the RET promoter, milder compared to the severe polyA expansions associated with CCHS+HSCR, and correlated with the length of the deleted trait, with a more pronounced effect when contractions are larger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Refined Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for Li2B4O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Jun; Matsuda, Daisuke; Kamimura, Tomosumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the high-accuracy Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for Li2B4O7, which provide an excellent reproduction of the temperature-dependent phase-matching conditions for second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in the 0.2093–1.5352 µm range. In addition, Li2B4O7 was found to be nearly 90° phase-matchable for fifth-harmonic generation (5HG) of an Yb-doped fiber laser at 1.031 µm.

  6. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebke Janssen; Yves Schymura; Tatyana Novoyatleva; Baktybek Kojonazarov; Mario Boehm; Astrid Wietelmann; Himal Luitel; Kirsten Murmann; Damian Richard Krompiec; Aleksandra Tretyn; Soni Savai Pullamsetti; Norbert Weissmann; Werner Seeger; Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani; Ralph Theo Schermuly

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg b...

  7. The Importance of Brand on B2B Markets: Case Study of Hilti

    OpenAIRE

    Konečný, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The brand is mostly associated with business-to-customer markets and environment. People would first think of such a brand, because we see marketing and advertising of those brands every day. But business-to-business brands are for companies also very important. The overall goal of my thesis would be to find out how the managers of a pure B2B company perceive the importance of brand in the B2B environment where the company operates. Theoretical part will, in the first chapter, characterize B2...

  8. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this Mini-Review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response.

  9. Examination of dioxin degradation conditions for geobacillus midousuji SH2B-J2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, S. [Jikei Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohtsuka, Y. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Instiute; Goda, H. [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd.

    2004-09-15

    Cellular membrane degradation capability of SH2B-J2 strains for dioxin mixtures that are greater than tetra-chlorinated have been examined. Optimal temperature, reaction time, optimal pH, and heavy metal resistance of cellular membrane enzyme were investigated, to examine dioxin degradation characteristics of SH2B-J2 strains. For chlorinated dioxins, a mixture (PCDD/PCDF mix) containing 7 species of dibenzo-p-dioxins greater than tetra-chlorinated, as well as 10 isomers of dibenzofurans, was used. Using GC/MS, decrease of 17 species of dioxin isomer/congener was measured.

  10. An Inter-enterprise Workflow Model for Supply Chain and B2B E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of B2B electronic commerce and supply chain management system are to implement interoperability of independent enterprises, to smooth the information flow between them and to deploy business processes over multiple enterprises. The inherent characteristics of workflow system make it suitable to implement the cross organization management. This paper, firstly, proposes an inter-enterprises workflow model based on the agreement to support the construction of supply chain management system and B2B electronic commerce. This model has extended the standard workflow model. After that, an architecture which supports the model has been introduced, especially it details the structure and implementation of interfaces between enterprises.

  11. Short syntheses of enantiopure calystegine B-2, B-3, and B-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps.......Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps....

  12. How to successfully present a solution in a B2B sales meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Klemola, Mari

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains research on presenting a solution in a B2B (business-to-business) sales meeting. This thesis is planned to complement the existing course material in the solution selling course at HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences’ Degree Programme in Sales. The objective of this thesis was to create a handbook to students about how to successfully present a solution in a B2B sales meeting. This is the main research question. The secondary research questions are: (1) how to ...

  13. H2B ubiquitination regulates meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhiliang; Song,Zhenhua; Li, Guoping; Tu, Huayu; Liu, Weixiao; Liu, Yujiao; Wang, Pan; Wang, Yuanting; Cui, Xiuhong; Liu, Chao; Shang, Yongliang; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Gao, Fei; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for fertility in most sexually reproducing species, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood in mammals. Here, we show that RNF20-mediated H2B ubiquitination is required for meiotic recombination. A germ cell-specific knockout of the H2B ubiquitination E3 ligase RNF20 results in complete male infertility. The Stra8-Rnf20−/− spermatocytes arrest at the pachytene stage because of impaired programmed double-strand break (DSB...

  14. Competence Neworks: Effects on Corporate Branding in B2B SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effects of competence networks on corporate branding in B2B SMEs and to develop a conceptual model of these effects. After reviewing the relevant literature that explores the field, eight components of corporate branding in an effective growth stage of an SME have been identified. Founders Alliance is a competence network in Sweden that was chosen as a case for our study. Representatives of five B2B SMEs within Founders Alliance were interviewe...

  15. Progressive dysphagia in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Dysphagia has not been reported in genetically confirmed limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). A 40-year-old woman reported exercise-induced calf pain at age 34, followed by progressive lower and upper limb weakness. At age 38, progressive dysphagia for solids, and subsequently liquids, ensued. Endoscopic and videofluoroscopic-radiological findings indicated a myopathic swallowing disorder. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed two dysferlin gene mutations consistent with a compound heterozygote state. Progressive dysphagia should be considered as part of the expanding dysferlinopathy phenotype.

  16. TiO2(B) nanoparticle-functionalized WO3 nanorods with enhanced gas sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Shurong; Wang, Yanshuang; Yang, Jiedi; Gao, Xueling; Wang, Liwei

    2014-06-14

    In this work, TiO2(B) nanoparticle (NP)-functionalized WO3 nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by a two-step solution strategy, with a hydrothermal process for WO3 NRs and hydrolyzation of Ti(OBu)4 for the functionalization of TiO2(B) NPs. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed to investigate the morphology, microstructure, crystalline nature and chemical composition of the prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs. SEM and TEM results revealed that the TiO2(B)-WO3 composite showed a rod-like nanostructure with a diameter in the range from 93 to 154 nm and a rough surface, which could increase the accessible surface area and the amount of surface active sites, thus improving the properties or performance of the as-prepared composite NRs. XRD and XPS analysis clearly verified that monoclinic TiO2(B) NPs, a metastable polymorph of TiO2, were successfully supported on the WO3 NRs. Gas sensing measurement results for several common reductive organic gases such as acetone, ethanol, ether, methanol and formaldehyde demonstrated that the sensor based on the as-obtained TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs exhibited obviously enhanced responses compared with a pure WO3 NR based sensor, as well as fast response-recovery speeds, good reproducibility and good stability, indicating their promising application in gas sensors. The excellent gas sensing performance could be attributed to the unique 1D rod-like nanostructure with a rough surface, the existence of TiO2-WO3 heterojunctions and the catalytic effect of the TiO2(B) NPs. The as-prepared TiO2(B) NP-functionalized WO3 NRs will also have very good prospects in electrochromic devices and catalysis applications.

  17. Jusbetonin, the first indolo[3,2-b]quinoline alkaloid glycoside, from Justicia betonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Kavitha, Jakka; Rajasekhar, Dodda; Jimenez, Jorge I

    2004-03-01

    A new indolo[3,2-b]quinoline alkaloid glycoside, jusbetonin (1), and three known alkaloids, namely, 10H-quindoline (2), 6H-quinindoline (3), and 5H,6H-quinindolin-11-one (4), have been isolated from the leaves of Justicia betonica. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and HRFABMS data. Compound 1 is the first example of a glycosylated indolo[3,2-b]quinoline alkaloid, while compound 4 was isolated for the first time from a natural source.

  18. A New Evolution Mechanism Model for B2B E-Commerce Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Tian; Zhenji Zhang; Xiaolan Guan

    2013-01-01

    To study the structure and evolution mechanism of B2B e-commerce network, the authors propose a network with several layers description of B2B e-commerce market. The empirical analysis from Alibaba.com shows that degree distribution of the network structure follows power-law. Based on modified BA (Barabasi-Albert) model, a new model is proposed, adding layers, fitness parameters, and more reasonable growth mechanism. The model reveals that, the structure of the network is stable, and the aver...

  19. Anisotropic Multiband Many-Body Interactions in LuNi2B2C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergk, B.; Petzold, V.; Rosner, H.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Bartkowiak, M.; Ignatchik, O.; Bianchi, A. D.; Sheikin, I.; Canfield, P. C.; Wosnitza, J.

    2008-06-27

    We present a comprehensive de Haas-van Alphen study on the nonmagnetic borocarbide superconductor LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. The analysis of the angular-dependent effective masses for different bands in combination with full-potential density functional calculations allowed us to determine the mass-enhancement factors, {lambda}, for the different electronic bands and their wave-vector dependences. Our data clearly show the anisotropic multiband character of the superconductivity in LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C.

  20. Efficient 266 nm Ultraviolet Beam Generation in K2Al2B2O7 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕军华; 王桂玲; 许祖彦; 陈创天; 王继扬; 张承乾; 刘耀岗

    2002-01-01

    The ultraviolet beam at 266 nm was obtained by fourth harmonic generation of 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation through a nonlinear crystal K2Al2 B2O7 (KABO). The fundamental frequency of a Hash-lamp pumped Nd: YAG laser was doubled in a β-Ba2B2O4 crystal to generate a second harmonic output at the wavelength of 532 nm,and then doubled again in the KABO crystal to generate the fourth harmonic output at 266 nm. The optical conversion efficiency from 532 to 266 nm was investigated for the first time, and 13% was achieved.

  1. Density of Na2O-Li2O-SiO2-B2O3 Molten Slag at 1 803-1 873 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang

    2004-01-01

    The density of three kinds of molten slags was measured by modified sessile drop method at 1 803-1 873 K. The density of molten slag is found to decrease with increasing temperature. The temperature coefficients of Na2O-Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-SiO2-B2O3 slag are smaller than that of Na2O-B2O3 slag. The molar volume of slags increases with increasing temperature.

  2. Molecular and functional characterization of the first tick CAP2b (periviscerokinin) receptor from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cDNA of the receptor for CAP2b/periviscerokinin (PVK) neuropeptides, designated Rhimi-CAP2b-R, was cloned from synganglia of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This receptor is the ortholog of the insect CAP2b/PVK receptor, as concluded from analyses of the predicted protein sequence, ph...

  3. Medullær thyroideacancer hos et ti måneder gammelt barn med multipel endokrin neoplasi 2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Døssing, Helle; Bender, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    In infants at risk of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) the American Thyroid Association recommends genetic testing as soon as possible after birth and that thyroidectomy should be performed in MEN2B RET-mutation positive individuals as soon as possible and if possible within the first...

  4. Molecular basis for positive and negative signaling by the natural killer cell receptor 2B4 (CD244).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissmann, Philipp; Beauchamp, Lisa; Wooters, Joe; Tilton, John C; Long, Eric O; Watzl, Carsten

    2005-06-15

    Triggering of 2B4 (CD244) can induce natural killer (NK)-cell activation, costimulation, or even inhibition of NK-cell activity. Here, we investigate the molecular basis for the different signals generated by 2B4. We show that the first immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) within the cytoplasmic tail of 2B4 is sufficient for 2B4-mediated NK-cell activation, whereas the third ITSM can negatively influence 2B4 signaling. We further identify signaling molecules that associate with 2B4. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) can bind to all 4 ITSMs of 2B4 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The phosphorylated third ITSM can additionally recruit the phosphatases SHP-1, SHP-2, SHIP, and the inhibitory kinase Csk. SAP acts as an inhibitor of interactions between 2B4 and these negative regulatory molecules, explaining how 2B4 inhibits NK-cell activation in the absence of functional SAP, as occurs in cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). Recently, another function for SAP was proposed: SAP can recruit the kinase Fyn to the SLAM (CD150) immune receptor. We now show that Fyn can also associate with phosphorylated 2B4. Finally, we demonstrate that Fyn and Csk can both phosphorylate 2B4, suggesting a possible mechanism of 2B4 phosphorylation.

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records...

  6. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Product Change--Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION... add Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Products List pursuant to... Service to Add Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Product List, and...

  7. Li4Ge2B as a new derivative of the Mo2B5 and Li5Sn2 structure types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Ciesielski, Wojciech; Rozdzynska-Kielbik, Beata; Dmytriv, Grygoriy; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Binary and multicomponent intermetallic compounds based on lithium and p-elements of Groups III-V of the Periodic Table are useful as modern electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. However, the interactions between the components in the Li-Ge-B ternary system have not been reported. The structure of tetralithium digermanium boride, Li4Ge2B, exhibits a new structure type, in the noncentrosymmetric space group R3m, in which all the Li, Ge and B atoms occupy sites with 3m symmetry. The title structure is closely related to the Mo2B5 and Li5Sn2 structure types, which crystallize in the centrosymmetric space group R-3m. All the atoms in the title structure are coordinated by rhombic dodecahedra (coordination number = 14), similar to the atoms in related structures. According to electronic structure calculations using the tight-binding-linear muffin-tin orbital-atomic spheres approximation (TB-LMTO-ASA) method, strong covalent Ge-Ge and Ge-B interactions were established.

  8. CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*18 Predict Long-Term Efavirenz Exposure Measured in Hair Samples in HIV-Positive South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, Carola R; Drögemöller, Britt I; Ikediobi, Ogechi; van der Merwe, Lize; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Wright, Galen E B; McGregor, Nathaniel; Warnich, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Long-term exposure to efavirenz (EFV) measured in hair samples may predict response to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 are known to alter EFV levels. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CYP2B6 genotype, EFV levels measured in hair, and virological outcomes on ART in a real-world setting. We measured EFV levels in hair from HIV-positive South African females who had been receiving EFV-based treatment for at least 3 months from the South African Black (SAB) (n = 81) and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA) (n = 53) populations. Common genetic variation in CYP2B6 was determined in 15 individuals from each population using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Prioritized variants (n = 16) were subsequently genotyped in the entire patient cohort (n = 134). The predictive value of EFV levels in hair and selected variants in CYP2B6 on virological treatment outcomes was assessed. Previously described alleles (CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*17, and CYP2B6*18), as well as two novel alleles (CYP2B6*31 and CYP2B6*32), were detected in this study. Compared to noncarriers, individuals homozygous for CYP2B6*6 had ∼109% increased EFV levels in hair (p = .016) and CYP2B6*18 heterozygotes demonstrated 82% higher EFV hair levels (p = .0006). This study confirmed that alleles affecting CYP2B6 metabolism and subsequent EFV exposure are present at significant frequencies in both the SAB and CMA populations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the use of hair samples for testing EFV concentrations may be a useful tool in determining long-term drug exposure in resource-limited countries.

  9. MOLECULAR CLONING AND HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION OF HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA2b GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Made Artika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human alpha Interferons (hIFNα have been shown to have antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The human interferon alpha2b (hIFNα2b, is one of the human interferon alpha2 sub variants, naturally synthesized as a polypeptide of 188 amino acid residues, the first 23 residues of which represents a signal peptide. In the present study, the hIFNα2b gene was expressed after being fused with Glutathione S-Transferase (GST gene. The hIFNα2b gene was amplified from human genomic DNA by using a pair of specific primers, cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector and expressed in E. coli cells under the direction of the tac promoter. The expressed protein was purified using a one-step affinity chromatography column containing immobilized gluthatione-bound resin. The purified protein was shown to react specifically with anti-human-interferon-alpha antibody, confirming that the protein was the human interferon alpha molecule. This strategy has the potential to be used as an alternative mean for production of pure human interferon α proteins for therapeutic purposes and for further studies on their molecular characterization and mechanism of action.

  10. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Improved Serodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis Using the New Recombinant 2B2t Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Ana; Santivañez, Saúl; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Muñoz, Santiago; Ramos, Guillermo; Orduña, Antonio; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2012-01-01

    A standardized test for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is still needed, because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the currently available commercial tools and the lack of proper evaluation of the existing recombinant antigens. In a previous work, we defined the new ELISA-B2t diagnostic tool for the detection of specific IgGs in CE patients, which showed high sensitivity and specificity, and was useful in monitoring the clinical evolution of surgically treated CE patients. Nevertheless, this recombinant antigen gave rise to false-negative results in a percentage of CE patients. Therefore, in an attempt to improve its sensitivity, we constructed B2t-derived recombinant antigens with two, four and eight tandem repeat of B2t units, and tested them by ELISA on serum samples of CE patients and patients with related parasites. The best diagnostic values were obtained with the two tandem repeat 2B2t antigen. The influence of several clinical variables on the performance of the tests was also evaluated. Finally, the diagnostic performance of the 2B2t-ELISA was compared with that of an indirect haemagglutination commercial test. The 2B2t recombinant antigen performed better than the HF and B2t antigens, and the IHA commercial kit. Therefore, this new 2B2t-ELISA is a promising candidate test for the serodiagnosis of CE in clinical settings. PMID:22802975

  15. One-pot synthesis of acenaphtho[1,2-b]furan derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Taghi Goldani; Reza Sandaroos; Saman Damavandi

    2012-01-01

    New 9-(alkyl or aryl)acenaphtho[ 1,2-b]furan-8-(alky or aryl)amine compounds has herein been reported by one-pot reaction of (acenaphthylen-l-yloxy)trimethylsilane,alkyl and aryl aldehydes,and aryl and alky isocyanides in refluxing DMF.

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Balance A. Aircraft Loading Procedures B. Limitations 1. Weight Limits 2. C.G. Limits C. Plotter 1..., runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other... conditions. (c) No person may operate a Mitsubishi MU-2B series airplane unless a copy of the appropriate...

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DJ2B-1ADIB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DJ2B-1ADIB 1DJ2 1ADI B B IGSLSQVSGVLGCQWGDEGKGKLVDILAQHFDIVARCQG...LLSEACPLILDYHVALDNAREKARGAKAIGTTGRGIGPAYEDKVARRGLRVGDLFDKETFAEKLKEVMEYHNFQLVNYYKAEAVDYQKVLDDTMAVADI...LY CA 195 PHE CA 263 LYS CA 227 TYR CA 251 1ADI B 1ADIB 1 1ADI B 1ADI

  18. A Cross-Industry Review of B2B Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Riyad; Trueman, Myfanwy; Ahmed, Abdel Moneim

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive review of B2B (business-to- business) international Internet marketing and identifies 21 critical success factors in five categories: marketing strategy, including management support, strategic goals, and collaboration; Web site factors, including Web site design; global factors, including multilanguage sites and cultural…

  19. The 4W framework for B2B e-contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, Samuil; Grefen, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Contracts are fundamental to the engagement of companies in commercial relations. B2B electronic contracting aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the contracting process and to provide new opportunities for the contracting parties. Virtual enterprises, for example, can be dynamically

  20. A process-stakeholder analysis of B2B industry standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodon, J.; Ramis-Pujol, J.; Christiaanse, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Interoperability standards are a crucial aspect in the development of B2B e-business. The aim of this paper is to understand how standardisation evolves by analysing the interplay between activities and stakeholders within the process. Unlike most of the IS research that focuses on the und

  1. Using the Internet for B2B Activities: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Perlusz, Stefano; Bohmann, Kristoffer

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates some of the challenges that electronic commerce practitioners and researchers face, focusing on business to business (B2B) transactions. Highlights include a conceptual framework of Web user behavior; purchasing context; socio-demographic characteristics; cultural factors; economic factors; attitudes toward information technology;…

  2. On the critical success factors for B2B e-marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Ahmad Khan Beige

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement of network technology, quick growth of Internet and Internet based solutions lead many firms to apply online processes as well as electronic businesses. Internet based B2B E-C requires applying Internet and affiliated technologies for exchanging products, services and information. Implementation of business to business (B2B requires long-term commitment of organizations. Carrying out research in this field is regarded as very important issue for recognizing effective factors on successful implementation and execution of B2B and determining current status of organization. This research deals with studying effective critical factors on successful implementation and execution of B2B. Factors are recognized through studying literature review and IT experts. Then, through case study (studying a vehicle manufacturing firm and by using analytical network process (ANP, the importance of factor and their rank are determined. The factors that are regarded at this research are including: culture, commitment and support of senior management, government support, purposes, organizational strategies, trust, partial advantage and technical infrastructure. Results of research show that support and commitment of senior management are the highest priority factors.

  3. Enabling low cost biopharmaceuticals: high level interferon alpha-2b production in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowski, Christopher P; Mustalahti, Eero; Wahl, Ramon; Croute, Laurence; Sivasiddarthan, Dhinakaran; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Sommer, Benjamin; Ostermeier, Christian; Helk, Bernhard; Saarinen, Juhani; Saloheimo, Markku

    2016-06-10

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has tremendous capability to secrete over 100 g/L of proteins and therefore it would make an excellent host system for production of high levels of therapeutic proteins at low cost. We have developed T. reesei strains suitable for production of therapeutic proteins by reducing the secreted protease activity. Protease activity has been the major hindrance to achieving high production levels. We have constructed a series of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα-2b) production strains with 9 protease deletions to gain knowledge for further strain development. We have identified two protease deletions that dramatically improved the production levels. Deletion of the subtilisin protease slp7 and the metalloprotease amp2 has enabled production levels of IFNα-2b up to 2.1 and 2.4 g/L, respectively. With addition of soybean trypsin protease inhibitor the level of production improved to 4.5 g/L, with an additional 1.8 g/L still bound to the secretion carrier protein. High levels of IFNα-2b were produced using T. reesei strains with reduced protease secretion. Further strain development can be done to improve the production system by reducing protease activity and improving carrier protein cleavage.

  4. An oxazolo[3,2-b]indazole route to 1H-indazolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakdale, James S; Solano, Danielle M; Fettinger, James C; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Kurth, Mark J

    2009-07-02

    The novel heterocycle 2,3-dihydrooxazolo[3,2-b]indazole has been synthesized and utilized to provide easy access to 1H-indazolones, particularly the previously unreported 2-(2-alkoxyethyl)-1H-indazol-3(2H)-ones. Mechanistic as well as optimization and reaction scope studies are reported.

  5. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Hysteresis in the field-induced magnetic structure in TmNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, M.R.; Harada, K.; Gammel, P.L:

    1999-01-01

    Using small-angle neutron scattering we have studied the flux line lattice and the magnetic structure in TmNi2B2C. With an applied field parallel to the crystalline c-axis several magnetic and flux line lattice symmetry transitions have been reported. The subject of this paper is the held-induced...

  2. Structure and assembly of group B streptococcus pilus 2b backbone protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Roberta; Malito, Enrico; Lazzarin, Maddalena; Nuccitelli, Annalisa; Castagnetti, Andrea; Bottomley, Matthew J; Margarit, Immaculada; Maione, Domenico; Rinaudo, C Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of invasive disease in infants. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS uses a sortase C-catalyzed transpeptidation mechanism to generate cell surface pili from backbone and ancillary pilin precursor substrates. The three pilus types identified in GBS contain structural subunits that are highly immunogenic and are promising candidates for the development of a broadly-protective vaccine. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the backbone protein of pilus 2b (BP-2b) at 1.06Å resolution. The structure reveals a classical IgG-like fold typical of the pilin subunits of other Gram-positive bacteria. The crystallized portion of the protein (residues 185-468) encompasses domains D2 and D3 that together confer high stability to the protein due to the presence of an internal isopeptide bond within each domain. The D2+D3 region, lacking the N-terminal D1 domain, was as potent as the entire protein in conferring protection against GBS challenge in a well-established mouse model. By site-directed mutagenesis and complementation studies in GBS knock-out strains we identified the residues and motives essential for assembly of the BP-2b monomers into high-molecular weight complexes, thus providing new insights into pilus 2b polymerization.

  3. Structure and assembly of group B streptococcus pilus 2b backbone protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cozzi

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a major cause of invasive disease in infants. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS uses a sortase C-catalyzed transpeptidation mechanism to generate cell surface pili from backbone and ancillary pilin precursor substrates. The three pilus types identified in GBS contain structural subunits that are highly immunogenic and are promising candidates for the development of a broadly-protective vaccine. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the backbone protein of pilus 2b (BP-2b at 1.06Å resolution. The structure reveals a classical IgG-like fold typical of the pilin subunits of other Gram-positive bacteria. The crystallized portion of the protein (residues 185-468 encompasses domains D2 and D3 that together confer high stability to the protein due to the presence of an internal isopeptide bond within each domain. The D2+D3 region, lacking the N-terminal D1 domain, was as potent as the entire protein in conferring protection against GBS challenge in a well-established mouse model. By site-directed mutagenesis and complementation studies in GBS knock-out strains we identified the residues and motives essential for assembly of the BP-2b monomers into high-molecular weight complexes, thus providing new insights into pilus 2b polymerization.

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Do self-service technologies affect interfirm relationships? A B2B perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raechel Johns

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While considerable literature examines business-to business (B2B relationships, the impact of technology on these relationships has lacked attention. IT has impacted the way businesses operate in a B2B context as well as influencing services by altering the way services are delivered. To understand the way in which Internet technology has impacted these B2B services, it is essential to examine its impact not only on business processes but on business relationships too. One technology, enabled by modern Internet technologies, which is changing the nature of business relationships is the increased use of self-service technologies (SSTs or technology-enabled services, however, there is a shortage of research in the area in a B2B context. The discussion in this paper provides an overview of the impact of IT on business relationships, using Relationship Marketing theory to provide a theoretical framework. A qualitative study in the Australian banking industry provides findings relating to the theory. The findings of this study provide evidence that while traditional Relationship Marketing theory is still applicable for some business customers, new theory is required for business customers who do not seek relationships. With both practical and theoretical implications, the research detailed in this paper makes a useful contribution to the literature and indicates the necessity for further research to be developed which explores business customers who prefer to remain transaction-oriented, rather than develop interpersonal relationships.

  6. Graft-derived anti-HPA-2b production after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taaning, E; Jacobsen, N; Morling, N

    1994-01-01

    We report on a male who received a bone-marrow allograft from his HLA identical sister for acute myelogenous leukaemia. After transplantation, the patient suffered from refractoriness to the transfusions of HLA-matched platelets and a strong platelet-specific antibody, anti-HPA-2b, of IgG1 subcla...

  7. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Designing the marketing-sales interface in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, W.G.; Makovec Brencic, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the marketing-sales interface in Dutch and Slovenian B2B firms. Design/methodology/approach - The study included 11 Dutch firms and ten Slovenian firms, with both samples as closely matched as possible. The firms were all manufacturers of physical products that operate

  9. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek. Water-Data Report 2013 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.08"N, long...

  11. Water‐Data Report 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek. Water-Data Report 2014 413721083124001 Pool 2B at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'21.08"N, long...

  12. New High-Pressure Gallium Borate Ga2B3O7(OH) with Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Daniela; Schauperl, Michael; Strabler, Christof M; Brüggeller, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R; Griesser, Ulrich J; Huppertz, Hubert

    2016-01-19

    The new high-pressure gallium borate Ga2B3O7(OH) was synthesized in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 10.5 GPa and 700 °C. For the system Ga-B-O-H, it is only the second known compound next to Ga9B18O33(OH)15·H3B3O6·H3BO3. The crystal structure of Ga2B3O7(OH) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature. Ga2B3O7(OH) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmce (Z = 8) with the lattice parameters a = 1050.7(2) pm, b = 743.6(2) pm, c = 1077.3(2) pm, and V = 0.8417(3) nm(3). Vibrational spectroscopic methods (Raman and IR) were performed to confirm the presence of the hydroxyl group. Furthermore, the band gap of Ga2B3O7(OH) was estimated via quantum-mechanical density functional theory calculations. These results led to the assumption that our gallium borate could be a suitable substance to split water photocatalytically, which was tested experimentally.

  13. A Cross-Industry Review of B2B Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Riyad; Trueman, Myfanwy; Ahmed, Abdel Moneim

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive review of B2B (business-to- business) international Internet marketing and identifies 21 critical success factors in five categories: marketing strategy, including management support, strategic goals, and collaboration; Web site factors, including Web site design; global factors, including multilanguage sites and cultural…

  14. Rapid protocol for visualization of rust fungi structures using fluorochrome Uvitex 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugyala, Sheshanka; Borowicz, Pawel; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2015-01-01

    Histological examination using fluorochromes is one of the standard methods for observation of microorganisms in tissues and other compartments. In the study of fungi, especially those that cannot be cultured in axenic media such as biotrophic fungi, histological examination of processes associated with the fungal growth, differentiation, infection and other cellular functions can lead to the better understanding of host-parasite interactions. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with Fluorochrome Uvitex 2B have been extensively utilized to study rust fungi structures and host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we report development of a rapid staining protocol of the rust fungus Puccinia triticina using fluorochrome Uvitex 2B. The newly developed rapid procedure was compared with a standard staining technique to observe in planta fungal infection structures development during the wheat-Puccinia triticina interaction. While significantly reducing the time for staining, the rapid protocol described here was equally efficient or better compared to standard procedure in detecting fungal infection structures using Uvitex 2B. In the rapid staining procedure, pre-heating of the stain increased efficiency to detect all the infection structures including haustoria with highly reduced background noise from plant tissue. This staining process described here is simple and quick. It can be completed in 4 h, which is of 6 times faster than the standard Uvitex 2B staining procedure.

  15. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Jacobs

    Full Text Available The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  16. Construction of a 3D model of cytochrome P450 2B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y T; Stiffelman, O B; Vakser, I A; Loew, G H; Bridges, A; Waskell, L

    1997-02-01

    A three-dimensional structural model of rabbit phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450 2B4 (LM2) was constructed by homology modeling techniques previously developed for building and evaluating a 3D model of the cytochrome P450choP isozyme. Four templates with known crystal structures including cytochrome P450cam, terp, BM-3 and eryF were used in multiple sequence alignments and construction of the cytochrome P450 2B4 coordinates. The model was evaluated for its overall quality using available protein analysis programs and found to be satisfactory. The model structure was stable at room temperature during a 140 ps unconstrained full protein molecular dynamics simulation. A putative substrate access channel and binding site were identified. Two different substrates, benzphetamine and androstenedione, that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B4 with pronounced product specificity were docked into the putative binding site. Two orientations were found for each substrate that could lead to the observed preferred products. Using a geometric fit method three regions on the surface of the model cytochrome P450 structure were identified as possible sites for interaction with cytochrome b5, a redox partner of P450 2B4. Residues that may interact with the substrates and with cytochrome b5 have been identified and mutagenesis studies are currently in progress.

  17. Lung injury pathways: Adenosine receptor 2B signaling limits development of ischemic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, John C; Schaid, Terry R; Jeziorczak, Paul M; Medhora, Meetha; Audi, Said; Nayak, Shraddha; Auchampach, John; Dwinell, Melinda R; Geurts, Aron M; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2017-02-01

    Purpose/Aim of the Study: Adenosine signaling was studied in bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) resulting from unilateral lung ischemia. Ischemia was achieved by either left main pulmonary artery or complete hilar ligation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats and SS mutant rat strains containing a mutation in the A2B adenosine receptor gene (Adora2b) were studied. Adenosine concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by HPLC. A2A (A2AAR) and A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) mRNA and protein were quantified. Twenty-four hours after unilateral PA ligation, BAL adenosine concentrations from ischemic lungs were increased relative to contralateral lungs in SD rats. A2BAR mRNA and protein concentrations were increased after PA ligation while miR27a, a negatively regulating microRNA, was decreased in ischemic lungs. A2AAR mRNA and protein concentrations remained unchanged following ischemia. A2BAR protein was increased in PA ligated lungs of SS rats after 7 days, and 4 h after complete hilar ligation in SD rats. SS-Adora2b mutants showed a greater extent of BOOP relative to SS rats, and greater inflammatory changes. Increased A2BAR and adenosine following unilateral lung ischemia as well as more BOOP in A2BAR mutant rats implicate a protective role for A2BAR signaling in countering ischemic lung injury.

  18. Flexibility in crosstalk between H2B ubiquitination and H3 methylation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Hanneke; van Welsem, Tibor; de Graaf, Erik L; Ontoso, David; Altelaar, A F Maarten; San-Segundo, Pedro A; Heck, Albert J R; van Leeuwen, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Histone H2B ubiquitination is a dynamic modification that promotes methylation of histone H3K79 and H3K4. This crosstalk is important for the DNA damage response and has been implicated in cancer. Here, we show that in engineered yeast strains, ubiquitins tethered to every nucleosome promote H3K79 a

  19. Flexibility in crosstalk between H2B ubiquitination and H3 methylation in vivo (Corrigendum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Hanneke; van Welsem, Tibor; de Graaf, Erik L; Ontoso, David; Altelaar, A F Maarten; San-Segundo, Pedro A; Heck, Albert J R; van Leeuwen, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Histone H2B ubiquitination is a dynamic modification that promotes methylation of histone H3K79 and H3K4. This crosstalk is important for the DNA damage response and has been implicated in cancer. Here, we show that in engineered yeast strains, ubiquitins tethered to every nucleosome promote H3K79 a

  20. An expedient and new synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwar Reddy Sagyam

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 2-[2-(4-fluorophenyl-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-4-methyl-3-oxo-pentanoic acid phenylamide with tertiary butyl carbazate and subsequent condensation of the resulting carbamate derivative with a chalcone provided a facile new approach to pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivatives.

  1. Mutation screening of GRIN2B in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder in a Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yuto; Koide, Takayoshi; Wang, Chenyao; Kimura, Hiroki; Xing, Jingrui; Kushima, Itaru; Ishizuka, Kanako; Mori, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Mariko; Ikeda, Masashi; Aizawa, Miki; Tsurumaru, Naoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Yoshimi, Akira; Arioka, Yuko; Yoshida, Mami; Noma, Hiromi; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Aleksic, Branko; Uno, Yota; Okada, Takashi; Ujike, Hiroshi; Egawa, Jun; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Someya, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the central nervous systems. Recent genetics studies in schizophrenia (SCZ) show that SCZ is susceptible to NMDARs and the NMDAR signaling complex. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), several studies report dysregulation of NMDARs as a risk factor for ASD. To further examine the association between NMDARs and SCZ/ASD development, we conducted a mutation screening study of GRIN2B which encodes NR2B subunit of NMDARs, to identify rare mutations that potentially cause diseases, in SCZ and ASD patients (n = 574 and 152, respectively). This was followed by an association study in a large sample set of SCZ, ASD, and normal healthy controls (n = 4145, 381, and 4432, respectively). We identified five rare missense mutations through the mutation screening of GRIN2B. Although no statistically significant association between any single mutation and SCZ or ASD was found, one of its variant, K1292R, is found only in the patient group. To further examine the association between mutations in GRIN2B and SCZ/ASD development, a larger sample size and functional experiments are needed. PMID:27616045

  2. The A2B adenosine receptor impairs the maturation and immunogenicity of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M; Ross, William G; Agbai, Oma N; Frazier, Renea; Figler, Robert A; Rieger, Jayson; Linden, Joel; Ernst, Peter B

    2009-04-15

    The endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is an important antiinflammatory mediator that contributes to the control of CD4(+) T cell responses. While adenosine clearly has direct effects on CD4(+) T cells, it remains to be determined whether actions on APC such as dendritic cells (DC) are also important. In this report we characterize DC maturation and function in BMDC stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the nonselective adenosine receptor agonist NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine). We found that NECA inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-12 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas IL-10 production was increased. NECA-treated BMDC also expressed reduced levels of MHC class II and CD86 and were less effective at stimulating CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IL-2 production compared with BMDC exposed to vehicle control. Based on real-time RT-PCR, the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) and A(2B)AR were the predominant adenosine receptors expressed in BMDC. Using adenosine receptor subtype selective antagonists and BMDC derived from A(2A)AR(-/-) and A(2B)AR(-/-)mice, it was shown that NECA modulates TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-10, and CD86 responses predominantly via A(2B)AR. These data indicate that engagement of A(2B)AR modifies murine BMDC maturation and suggest that adenosine regulates CD4(+) T cell responses by selecting for DC with impaired immunogencity.

  3. Graft-derived anti-HPA-2b production after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taaning, E; Jacobsen, N; Morling, N

    1994-01-01

    We report on a male who received a bone-marrow allograft from his HLA identical sister for acute myelogenous leukaemia. After transplantation, the patient suffered from refractoriness to the transfusions of HLA-matched platelets and a strong platelet-specific antibody, anti-HPA-2b, of IgG1 subcla...

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 3EK2B-3FNFD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmsd> 3.226280927658081 EVID> 4 3FNF...3EK2B-3FNFD 3EK2 3FNF B D MGFLDGKRILLTGLLSNRSIAYGIAKACKREGAELAFTY...VGDRFKDRITEFAAEFGSE-LVFPCDVADDAQIDALFASLKTHWD---SLDGLVHSIGFAPREAIAG-DFLDGLTRENFRIAHDISAYSFPALAKAALPMLSDDASLL.../ss_2> EVID> 0 3EK2 3FNF D 3FNFD

  5. Textbook Evaluation: An Analysis of Listening Comprehension Parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Afshin; Haghani, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Textbooks are the instruments that assist both teachers and learners in process of second language learning. With respect to the importance of textbooks in a language course, evaluation of course books is a significant issue for most researchers. The present study investigated and analyzed Listening Comprehension parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B 2nd…

  6. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102) of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610) used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions. PMID:27733797

  7. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102 of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610 used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  8. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  9. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B (alternate ECC injection tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Jr., M. L.; Collins, B. L.; Sackett, K. E.

    1977-04-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B were conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 543/sup 0/F and 2272 psia and 542/sup 0/F, respectively, to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the tests, cooling water was injected into the intact loop pump suction and broken loop cold leg to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR with flow rates based on system volume scaling. For Test S-05-2A the intact loop pump speed was held constant throughout the test at the initial blowdown value. During Test S-05-2B the pump speed was reduced and stopped according to a predetermined coastdown schedule.

  10. Uso de una conantokina y anticuerpos policlonales para identificar la subunidad NR2B del receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lareo,†

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Proponer una metodología de identificación de la subunidad NR2B, mediante el uso de conantokina G, así como una adecuada extracción de la subunidad NR2B. Materiales y métodos. Se ensayaron dos metodologías para la extracción de la subunidad NR2B de cerebro de rata adulta, la primera buscó la extracción de la subunidad a partir de la membrana mediante la utilización del detergente deoxicolato de sodio y la segunda, garantizó primero la solubilización y eliminación de proteínas citoplasmáticas para luego realizar la extracción de la subunidad mediante el uso del mismo detergente, a partir del pellet generado en la centrifugación del extracto obtenido. Adicionalmente se biotiniló la conantokina G para evaluar su eficiencia en la identificación de la subunidad y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos por metodologías tradicionales como DOT-BLOT, WESTERN-BLOT, ELISA e Inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. La segunda metodología mostró mayor extracción de NR2B por lo que se seleccionó para la realización de los extractos posteriores. Los ensayos de identificación con la conantokina biotinilada evidenciaron interferencia en el reconocimiento, haciéndose necesaria la identificación de la presencia de la subunidad NR2B mediante el uso de anticuerpos policlonales en los ensayos mencionados. Conclusiones. Se propone que hay un impedimento de tipo estérico en el marcaje de la conantokina con la biotina lo que no favorece la interacción de este péptido con la subunidad.

  11. Estrogen receptor 2b deficiency impairs the antiviral response of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Azucena; Liarte, Sergio; Gómez-González, Nuria E; Cabas, Isabel; Meseguer, José; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Mulero, Victoriano

    2015-11-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated the ability of some endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) to alter the physiology of zebrafish, the immune-reproductive interaction has received little attention in this species. In this study, we used a homozygous line carrying an insertion of 8 amino acids in the ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor 2b gene (esr2b) to further understand the role of estrogen signaling on innate immunity. Adult mutant fish showed distorted sexual ratios related with alterations in testicular morphology and supraphysiological testosterone and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels. Immunity-wise, although esr2b mutant fish showed unaltered antibacterial responses, they were unable to mount an effective antiviral response upon viral challenge. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that mutant fish were able to induce the genes encoding major antiviral molecules, including Ifnphi1, Ifnphi2, Infphi3, Mxb and Mxc, and the negative feedback regulator of cytokine signaling Socs1. Notably, although esr2b mutant larvae showed a similar resistance to SVCV infection to their wild type siblings, waterborne E2 increased their viral susceptibility. Similarly, the exposure of adult wild type zebrafish to E2 also resulted in increased susceptibility to SVCV infection. Finally, the administration of recombinant Ifnphi1 hardly reversed the higher viral susceptibility of esr2b mutant zebrafish, suggesting that elevated socs1 levels impair Ifn signaling. All together, these results uncover an important role for E2 and Esr signaling in the fine-tuning of sexual hormone balance and the antiviral response of vertebrates.

  12. Atmospheric circulation of eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marley, Mark S., E-mail: nklewis@mit.edu [NASA Ames Research Center 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b has become a prime target for Spitzer Space Telescope observations aimed at understanding the atmospheric response of exoplanets on highly eccentric orbits. Here we present a suite of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models for HAT-P-2b that investigate the effects of assumed atmospheric composition and rotation rate on global scale winds and thermal patterns. We compare and contrast atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b, which assume one and five times solar metallicity, both with and without TiO/VO as atmospheric constituents. Additionally we compare models that assume a rotation period of half, one, and two times the nominal pseudo-synchronous rotation period. We find that changes in assumed atmospheric metallicity and rotation rate do not significantly affect model predictions of the planetary flux as a function of orbital phase. However, models in which TiO/VO are present in the atmosphere develop a transient temperature inversion between the transit and secondary eclipse events that results in significant variations in the timing and magnitude of the peak of the planetary flux compared with models in which TiO/VO are omitted from the opacity tables. We find that no one single atmospheric model can reproduce the recently observed full orbit phase curves at 3.6, 4.5 and 8.0 μm, which is likely due to a chemical process not captured by our current atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b. Further modeling and observational efforts focused on understanding the chemistry of HAT-P-2b's atmosphere are needed and could provide key insights into the interplay between radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes in a wide range of exoplanet atmospheres.

  13. The International Space Station 2B Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) Leak: An Operational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareha, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    As early as 2004, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B electrical power channel began slowly leaking ammonia overboard. Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) during the STS-134 Space Shuttle mission. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased from 1.5lbm/year to approximately 5lbm/year. As a result, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to an adjacent dormant thermal control system. This EVA, US EVA 20, was successfully executed on November 1, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator had not been leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the crew noticing the leak, US EVA 21 was in progress to replace the coolant pump - the only remaining replaceable leak source. This was successful, and telemetry monitoring has shown that indeed the coolant pump was the leak source and was thus isolated from the running 2B PVTCS. This paper will explore the management of the 2B PVTCS leak from the operations perspective.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohalmy, Krisztina; Tamási, Viola; Kóbori, László; Sárváry, Eniko; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Porrogi, Pálma; Rozman, Damjana; Prough, Russell A; Meyer, Urs A; Monostory, Katalin

    2007-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the major precursor of androgens and estrogens, has several beneficial effects on the immune system, on memory function, and in modulating the effects of diabetes, obesity, and chemical carcinogenesis. Treatment of rats with DHEA influences expression of cytochrome P450 (P450) genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha)- and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated induction of CYP4As and CYP3A23, and suppression of CYP2C11. DHEA treatment elevated the expression and activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Induction of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes was consistent with studies in rats, but induction of CYP2Cs was unexpected. The role of PXR in this response was studied in transient transfection assays. DHEA activated hPXR in a concentration-dependent manner. Because CYP2B6 induction by DHEA in human hepatocytes might involve either PXR or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation, we performed experiments in primary hepatocytes from CAR knockout mice and observed that CAR was required for maximal induction of Cyp2b10 by DHEA. Furthermore, CAR-mediated Cyp2b10 induction by DHEA was inhibited by the inverse agonist of CAR, androstanol (5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha-ol). Further evidence for CAR activation was provided by cytoplasmic/nuclear transfer of CAR upon DHEA treatment. Elucidation of CAR activation and subsequent induction of CYP2B6 by DHEA presented an additional mechanism by which the sterol can modify the expression of P450s. The effect of DHEA on the activation of the xenosensors PPAR alpha, PXR, and CAR, and the consequent potential for adverse drug/toxicant interactions should be considered in humans treated with this nutriceutical agent.

  15. Nematode and arthropod genomes provide new insights into the evolution of class 2 B1 GPCRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C R Cardoso

    Full Text Available Nematodes and arthropods are the most speciose animal groups and possess Class 2 B1 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Existing models of invertebrate Class 2 B1 GPCR evolution are mainly centered on Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and a few other nematode and arthropod representatives. The present study reevaluates the evolution of metazoan Class 2 B1 GPCRs and orthologues by exploring the receptors in several nematode and arthropod genomes and comparing them to the human receptors. Three novel receptor phylogenetic clusters were identified and designated cluster A, cluster B and PDF-R-related cluster. Clusters A and B were identified in several nematode and arthropod genomes but were absent from D. melanogaster and Culicidae genomes, whereas the majority of the members of the PDF-R-related cluster were from nematodes. Cluster A receptors were nematode and arthropod-specific but shared a conserved gene environment with human receptor loci. Cluster B members were orthologous to human GCGR, PTHR and Secretin members with which they probably shared a common origin. PDF-R and PDF-R related clusters were present in representatives of both nematodes and arthropods. The results of comparative analysis of GPCR evolution and diversity in protostomes confirm previous notions that C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes are not good representatives of nematode and arthropod phyla. We hypothesize that at least four ancestral Class 2 B1 genes emerged early in the metazoan radiation, which after the protostome-deuterostome split underwent distinct selective pressures that resulted in duplication and deletion events that originated the current Class 2 B1 GPCRs in nematode and arthropod genomes.

  16. Prostate cancer pathologic stage pT2b (2002 TNM staging system: does it exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa M. Quintal

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the 1997 TNM staging system, tumors were classified into a single subdivision: T2a, and bilateral tumor involvement (T2b. In the 2002 TNM staging system, tumors are subclassified as T2a (less than one half of one lobe involvement, T2b (more than one half of one lobe involvement, and T2c (bilateral involvement. A recent study questioned the existence of a true pathologic pT2b tumor. The aim of our study is to verify this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 224 men submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy. The surgical specimens were histologically evaluated by complete embedding and whole-mount processing. Tumor extent was evaluated by a point-count method. The surgical specimens were staged according to the 2002 TNM staging system. RESULTS: Using the 2002 TNM criteria, the surgical specimens were classified as pT2a, 28 (12.50%; pT2b, 0 (0%; pT2c, 138 (61.61%; pT3a, 30 (13.39%; and, pT3b, 28 (12.50%. Using the point-count method for tumor extent evaluation, the minimum and maximum total points obtained in unilateral tumors were 192 and 368 points, respectively; the most extensive unilateral tumor showed 68 positive points (less than half the minimum total point-count. CONCLUSIONS: Using the point-count method for tumor extent, our study questions a real existence for pathologic stage pT2b tumors (unilateral tumors involving greater than one-half of one lobe.

  17. GRIN2B Mutations in West Syndrome and Intellectual Disability with Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Johannes R; Hendrickx, Rik; Geider, Kirsten; Laube, Bodo; Schwake, Michael; Harvey, Robert J; James, Victoria M; Pepler, Alex; Steiner, Isabelle; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Neidhardt, John; Ruf, Susanne; Wolff, Markus; Bartholdi, Deborah; Caraballo, Roberto; Platzer, Konrad; Suls, Arvid; De Jonghe, Peter; Biskup, Saskia; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify novel epilepsy genes using a panel approach and describe the functional consequences of mutations. Methods Using a panel approach, we screened 357 patients comprising a vast spectrum of epileptic disorders for defects in genes known to contribute to epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (ID). After detection of mutations in a novel epilepsy gene, we investigated functional effects in Xenopus laevis oocytes and screened a follow-up cohort. Results We revealed de novo mutations in GRIN2B encoding the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in 2 individuals with West syndrome and severe developmental delay as well as 1 individual with ID and focal epilepsy. The patient with ID and focal epilepsy had a missense mutation in the extracellular glutamate-binding domain (p.Arg540His), whereas both West syndrome patients carried missense mutations within the NR2B ion channel-forming re-entrant loop (p.Asn615Ile, p.Val618Gly). Subsequent screening of 47 patients with unexplained infantile spasms did not reveal additional de novo mutations, but detected a carrier of a novel inherited GRIN2B splice site variant in close proximity (c.2011-5_2011-4delTC). Mutations p.Asn615Ile and p.Val618Gly cause a significantly reduced Mg2+ block and higher Ca2+ permeability, leading to a dramatically increased Ca2+ influx, whereas p.Arg540His caused less severe disturbance of channel function, corresponding to the milder patient phenotype. Interpretation We identified GRIN2B gain-of-function mutations as a cause of West syndrome with severe developmental delay as well as of ID with childhood onset focal epilepsy. Severely disturbed channel function corresponded to severe clinical phenotypes, underlining the important role of facilitated NMDA receptor signaling in epileptogenesis. PMID:24272827

  18. Effects of maternal enflurane exposure on NR2B expression in the hippocampus of their offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fo-Quan Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the pathogenesis of learning and memory impairment in offspring rats resulting from maternal enflurane anesthesia by focusing on the expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit 2B (NR2B in the hippocampus of the offspring. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (C group, 4 h enflurane exposure (E1 group, and 8 h enflurane exposure (E2 group groups. Eight to ten days after the initiation of pregnancy, rats from the E1 and E2 groups were allowed to inhale 1.7% enflurane in 2 L/min oxygen for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Rats from the C group were allowed to inhale 2 L/min of oxygen only. The Morris water maze was used to assay the learning and memory function of the offspring on postnatal days 20 and 30. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were then used to measure the mRNA levels and protein expression of NR2B, respectively. Relative to offspring rats from the C group, those from the E1 and E2 groups exhibited longer escape latencies, lesser number of crossings over the platform, and less time spent in the target quadrant in the spatial exploration test (P 0.05 in terms of mRNA levels and protein expression of NR2B. The cognitive function of the offspring is impaired when maternal rats are exposed to enflurane during early pregnancy. A possible mechanism of this effect is related to the down-regulation of NR2B expression.

  19. Using msa-2b as a molecular marker for genotyping Mexican isolates of Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Alma D; Perez, Jocelin; Mosqueda, Juan J; Alvarez, Antonio; Camacho, Minerva; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Rojas, Carmen; Figueroa, Julio V

    2009-12-01

    Variable merozoite surface antigens of Babesia bovis are exposed glycoproteins having a role in erythrocyte invasion. Members of this gene family include msa-1 and msa-2 (msa-2c, msa-2a(1), msa-2a(2) and msa-2b). To determine the sequence variation among B. bovis Mexican isolates using msa-2b as a genetic marker, PCR amplicons corresponding to msa-2b were cloned and plasmids carrying the corresponding inserts were purified and sequenced. Comparative analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed distinct degrees of variability and identity among the coding gene sequences obtained from 16 geographically different Mexican B. bovis isolates and a reference strain. Clustal-W multiple alignments of the MSA-2b deduced amino acid sequences performed with the 17 B. bovis Mexican isolates, revealed the identification of three genotypes with a distinct set each of amino acid residues present at the variable region: Genotype I represented by the MO7 strain (in vitro culture-derived from the Mexico isolate) as well as RAD, Chiapas-1, Tabasco and Veracruz-3 isolates; Genotype II, represented by the Jalisco, Mexico and Veracruz-2 isolates; and Genotype III comprising the sequences from most of the isolates studied, Tamaulipas-1, Chiapas-2, Guerrero-1, Nayarit, Quintana Roo, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas-2, Yucatan and Guerrero-2. Moreover, these three genotypes could be discriminated against each other by using a PCR-RFLP approach. The results suggest that occurrence of indels within the variable region of msa-2b sequences can be useful markers for identifying a particular genotype present in field populations of B. bovis isolated from infected cattle in Mexico.

  20. Cumene hydroperoxide-supported demethylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking the NH2-terminal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Pernecky, S J

    1999-04-29

    Catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking NH2-terminal amino acids 2-27 (wt Delta2B4) and that of truncated 2B4 containing a Pro to Ser mutation at position 221 were examined in a system supported by cumene hydroperoxide. Demethylation activities of either truncated 2B4 with N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, and d-benzphetamine were lower than those of liver microsomal 2B4, whereas the rate of 1-phenylethanol oxidation to acetophenone catalyzed by liver microsomal and truncated 2B4 enzymes was nearly the same. The Km and Vmax values for cumene hydroperoxide in the demethylation of N-methylaniline by wt Delta2B4 were 20% and 28%, respectively, of those obtained for 2B4. The reaction with wt Delta2B4 displayed a lesser dependence on phospholipid than did that with 2B4, and a complex relationship between activity and substrate concentration. The results suggest that the NH2-terminal region contributes to interaction of oxidant, substrate, and phospholipid in cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B4.