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Sample records for volume 2-e great

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  2. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajendra K.; Freeman, III, Richard F.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  4. Experience of Soviet Medicine in a Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945. Volume 16, Section 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-22

    admissible only during the unconditional readings. DOC = 80093637 PAGE Tabla 319. Duration of the hospital treatment of those amputated during Great... Tabla 323. Fraqusncy of the combination of the associated issues with the basic issues in injured people with the bullet break of shoulder (in the...Asrop Bonlia a -T-o (,) 2) rI ~ ~ a z- M H. AxN-rnH BoCHnLle 2QCicTPUVR U.H )Iea Xim., xIi -U’o2e 7,7 " 3,5 12,2 3,1 3.- 5%I. H. AYuH 6011 V .o3epa Xd- .cag

  5. Different Seasonal Patterns in Song System Volume in Willow Tits and Great Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmoor, Georgia K; Lange, C Henrik; Darvell, Hannah; Walker, Lauren; Rytkönen, Seppo; Vatka, Emma; Hohtola, Esa; Orell, Markku; Smulders, Tom V

    2016-01-01

    In most species of seasonally breeding songbirds studied to date, the brain areas that control singing (i.e. the song control system, SCS) are larger during the breeding season than at other times of the year. In the family of titmice and chickadees (Paridae), one species, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), shows the typical pattern of seasonal changes, while another species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), shows, at best, very reduced seasonal changes in the SCS. To test whether this pattern holds up in the two Parid lineages to which these two species belong, and to rule out that the differences in seasonal patterns observed were due to differences in geography or laboratory, we compared the seasonal patterns in two song system nuclei volumes (HVC and Area X) in willow tits (Poecile montanus), closely related to black-capped chickadees, and in great tits (Parus major), more closely related to blue tits, from the same area around Oulu, Finland. Both species had larger gonads in spring than during the rest of the year. Great tit males had a larger HVC in spring than at other times of the year, but their Area X did not change in size. Willow tits showed no seasonal change in HVC or Area X size, despite having much larger gonads in spring than the great tits. Our findings suggest that the song system of willow tits and their relatives may be involved in learning and producing nonsong social vocalizations. Since these vocalizations are used year-round, there may be a year-round demand on the song system. The great tit and blue tit HVC may change seasonally because the demand is only placed on the song system during the breeding season, since they only produce learned vocalizations during this time. We suggest that changes were not observed in Area X because its main role is in song learning, and there is evidence that great tits do not learn new songs after their first year of life. Further study is required to determine whether our hypothesis

  6. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  7. Can endocranial volume be estimated accurately from external skull measurements in great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina J. Logan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to validate and collect data approximating brain size on individuals in the field to understand what evolutionary factors drive brain size variation within and across species. We investigated whether we could accurately estimate endocranial volume (a proxy for brain size, as measured by computerized tomography (CT scans, using external skull measurements and/or by filling skulls with beads and pouring them out into a graduated cylinder for male and female great-tailed grackles. We found that while females had higher correlations than males, estimations of endocranial volume from external skull measurements or beads did not tightly correlate with CT volumes. We found no accuracy in the ability of external skull measures to predict CT volumes because the prediction intervals for most data points overlapped extensively. We conclude that we are unable to detect individual differences in endocranial volume using external skull measurements. These results emphasize the importance of validating and explicitly quantifying the predictive accuracy of brain size proxies for each species and each sex.

  8. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 4. Water Quality, Sediment & Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    oxygen levels. 25 The Metropolitan Council ( Oberts , 1978) has provided a valuable summarization and assessment of adverse water quality impacts from...Depart- ment of Commerce, Highlands, N.J. Oberts , Gary. 1978. "Assessment of Water Pollution from River Dredging Activities." Metropolitan Council, St...and Disposal in the Great Lakes with Emphasis on Canadian Centre for Inland Waters Directorate, Canada Centre for Inlpvd WAtprq. Burlington, Ontario

  9. Mu2e Magnetic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Marc [Fermilab; Tartaglia, Michael [Fermilab; Tompkins, John [Fermilab; Orozco, Charles [Illinois U., Urbana (main)

    2014-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is designed to explore charged lepton flavor violation by searching for muon-to-electron conversion. The magnetic field generated by a system of solenoids is crucial for Mu2e and requires accurate characterization to detect any flaws and to produce a detailed field map. Stringent physics goals are driving magnetic field specifications for the Mu2e solenoids. A field mapper is being designed, which will produce detailed magnetic field maps. The uniform field region of the spectrometer volume requires the highest level of precision (1 Gauss per 1 Tesla). During commissioning, multiple magnetic field maps will be generated to verify proper alignment of all magnet coils, and to create the final magnetic field map. In order to design and build a precise field mapping system consisting of Hall and NRM probes, tolerances and precision for such a system need to be evaluated. In this paper we present a design for the Mu2e field mapping hardware, and discuss results from OPERA-3D simulations to specify parameters for Hall and NMR probes. We also present a fitting procedure for the analytical treatment of our expected magnetic measurements.

  10. Can endocranial volume be estimated accurately from external skull measurements in great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus)?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, Corina J; Palmstrom, Christin R

    2015-01-01

    ...), as measured by computerized tomography (CT) scans, using external skull measurements and/or by filling skulls with beads and pouring them out into a graduated cylinder for male and female great-tailed grackles...

  11. GREAT I: A Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 3. Material and Equipment Needs, Commercial Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    guica-.ce in preparing Govrernnent estimates and hired lazor estr -ates for hcc er dredging and hydraulic pipeline dredging. This reglation also...TRANSPORTATIONIU) GREAT RIVER ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION TEAM UNCLASSIFIED SEP RD FIG 5.l NL 1 . SI ,= ,,,- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NATIONAL AIUREAU OF STANDA R

  12. Scattering properties of the 2 e-2 e+ polyelectronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, K. M.; von Stecher, Javier; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-01-01

    We study the 2 e-2 e+ equal-mass charge-neutral four-body system in the adiabatic hyperspherical framework. The lowest few adiabatic potentials are calculated for zero orbital angular momentum, positive parity, and charge conjugation symmetries. Propagating the R matrix, the low-energy s -wave scattering lengths of the singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet spin configurations are calculated. Last, we calculate the S matrix for energies above the ionic threshold to estimate the transition rates between the single ionic fragmentation channel and the lowest few dimer-dimer fragmentation channels.

  13. Scattering properties of the $2e^-2e^+$ polyelectronic system

    CERN Document Server

    Daily, K M; Greene, Chris H

    2014-01-01

    We study the $2e^-2e^+$ equal-mass charge-neutral four-body system in the adiabatic hyperspherical framework. The lowest few adiabatic potentials are calculated for zero orbital angular momentum, positive parity, and charge conjugation symmetries. Propagating the R-matrix, the low-energy $s$-wave scattering lengths of the singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet spin configurations are calculated. Lastly, we calculate the S-matrix for energies above the ionic threshold to estimate the transition rates between the single ionic fragmentation channel and the lowest few dimer-dimer fragmentation channels.

  14. Benzyl 2-((E-Tosyliminomethylphenylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Min Ko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl 2-((E-tosyliminomethylpenylcarbamate was prepared in good yield and characterized by the condensation reaction of benzyl 2-formylphenylcarbamate with p-toluenesulfonyl amine. The structure of the newly synthesized compound was determined using 1H, 13C-NMR, IR and mass spectral data.

  15. Two-step Purification Method for Aging Pigments A2E and Iso-A2E Using Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Il; Park, Sang Cheol [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Ra; Jang, Young Pyo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A newly modified method for the efficient purification of A2E and iso-A2E using reverse phase silica gel resin with medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) was suggested. MPLC is one of the various preparative column chromatography techniques and separation under pressure renders the use of smaller particle size resins possible and increases the diversity of available stationary phases. A simplified two-step purification method was developed for the purification of aging pigments in eye, A2E and iso-A2E. With simple two-step elution of mobile phase in reverse phase MPLC, A2E and iso-A2E were successfully purified with great efficiency compare with previous column chromatography and HPLC method. This method provides more simple, convenient, cost-effective, and less time-consuming procedure for mass purification of aging pigments A2E and iso-A2E.

  16. Source Hierarchy List. Volume 2. E through N

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    COMMUNICATIONS SENSORIELLES 01 ECOLE PRATIQUE DE3 HAUTES ETUDES PARIS (FRANCE) NATURALIA ET BIOLOGIA 404859 404570...DE ULTRAESTRUCTURA CELULAR 01 INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACION DE CIENCIAS 403892 BIOLOGICAS MONTEVIDEO (URUGUAY) LABORATORIO DE MICROBIOLOGIA...GERAIS UNIV BELO HORIZONTE 387502 (BRAZIL) 01 MINAS GERAIS UNIV BELO HORIZONTE (BRAZIL) INSTITUTO DE BIOLOGIA 231670

  17. Dobutamine-induced increase of right ventricular contractility without increased stroke volume in adolescent patients with transposition of the great arteries : Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I.I.; Lee, PL; Groenink, M; van der Wall, EE; Pieper, PG; Romkes, H; Mulder, BJM; Stoker, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Prognosis in patients with surgically corrected (Senning or Mustard) transposition of the great arteries (TGA) depends mainly on right ventricular (RV) function and RV functional reserve. We examined the role of dobutamine stress in the early detection of RV dysfunction in asymptomatic or

  18. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 1. Market Assessment for Liquid By-Products from the Great Plains Gasification Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    at the Institute Francais de Petrole at Rueil-Malmaison, France. Table 8 presents the critical fuel properties and conpares them with the starting...available for the Great Plains tar oil, one analysis of sediment by extraction gave 0.1 weight percent. If this material were all particulates by...selective hydrogenation of a wide range of di- olefins, rnono-olefins, sulfur and nitrogen contaminants , without the formation of troublesome gum, polymer

  19. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  20. Great Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Women of China magazine was first published in 1956. When the "cultural revolution" started in 1966 the magazine was obliged to stop publication. In 1979, when the magazine resumed publication, Mme. Soong Ching Ling, late vice chairperson of the National People’s Congress, wrote her congratulations—"Congratulations and Great Expectation."

  1. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip encount

  2. Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  3. Great attractor really a great wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.; Turner, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Some of the cosmological consequences are discussed of a late time phase transition which produces light domain walls. The observed peculiar velocity field of the Universe and the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation severely constrain the wall surface density in such a scenario. The most interesting consequence of such a phase transition is the possibility that the local, coherent streaming motion reported by the Seven Samurai could be explained by the repulsive effect of a relic domain wall with the Hubble volume (the Great Wall).

  4. The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Morescalchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the coherent, neutrinoless conversion of muons into electrons in the field of an aluminium nucleus with an unprecedented sensitivity. Such a charged lepton flavor-violating reaction probes new physics at a scale inaccessible with direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. Moreover, the Mu2e experiment both complements and extends the current search for the {\\mu} $\\to$ e{\\gamma} decay at MEG and searches for new physics at the LHC. We will present the physics motivation for Mu2e, the experimental setup and the current status of the experiment.

  5. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

  6. Theory of (e, 2e) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, F. W.; Joachain, C. J.

    1989-08-01

    A comprehensive survey is given of the theory of (e, 2e) reactions. We begin by discussing the kinematics of these reactions, with special attention devoted to the coplanar asymmetric (Ehrhardt-type) geometry and the fully symmetric geometry in which most of the recent (e, 2e) coincidence measurements have been performed. We then review the foundations of the theory of the ionization of atoms by electron impact, first for one-electron atoms and then for target atoms with N electrons. Next, we discussed the Wannier theory of threshold ionization and its excitations. We then turn to the analysis of (e, 2e) reactions at intermediate and high energies. The theory of fast coplanar asymmetric (e, 2e) reactions is analyzed and it is shown that the eikonal-Born series method successfully accounts for all the dynamical features of these reactions. In particular, it is shown that second order effects are essential in explaining all the features exhibited by the measured by the measured triple differential cross sections at intermediate energies. Finally, we review the theory of fast symmetric (e, 2e) reactions. We consider first the (e, 2e) spectroscopy regime in which the momentum transfer Δ is large, but the recoil momentum Q of the ion is small or moderate. We then turn to the regime of large Δ and large Q, for which second order effects are of paramount importance, so that the coplanar symmetric triple differential cross section exhibits a striking behaviour in the large angle region.

  7. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  8. Mu2e Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoszek, L; Miller, J P; Mott, J; Palladino, A; Quirk, J; Roberts, B L; Crnkovic, J; Polychronakos, V; Tishchenko, V; Yamin, P; Cheng, C -h; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Hitlin, D G; Kim, J H; Miyashita, T S; Porter, F C; Röhrken, M; Trevor, J; Zhu, R -Y; Heckmaier, E; Kang, T I; Lim, G; Molzon, W; You, Z; Artikov, A M; Budagov, J A; Davydov, Yu I; Glagolev, V V; Simonenko, A V; Usubov, Z U; Oh, S H; Wang, C; Ambrosio, G; Andreev, N; Arnold, D; Ball, M; Bernstein, R H; Bianchi, A; Biery, K; Bossert, R; Bowden, M; Brandt, J; Brown, G; Brown, H; Buehler, M; Campbell, M; Cheban, S; Chen, M; Coghill, J; Coleman, R; Crowley, C; Deshpande, A; Deuerling, G; Dey, J; Dhanaraj, N; Dinnon, M; Dixon, S; Drendel, B; Eddy, N; Evans, R; Evbota, D; Fagan, J; Feher, S; Fellenz, B; Friedsam, H; Gallo, G; Gaponenko, A; Gardner, M; Gaugel, S; Genser, K; Ginther, G; Glass, H; Glenzinski, D; Hahn, D; Hansen, S; Hartsell, B; Hays, S; Hocker, J A; Huedem, E; Huffman, D; Ibrahim, A; Johnstone, C; Kashikhin, V; Kashikhin, V V; Kasper, P; Kiper, T; Knapp, D; Knoepfel, K; Kokoska, L; Kozlovsky, M; Krafczyk, G; Kramp, M; Krave, S; Krempetz, K; Kutschke, R K; Kwarciany, R; Lackowski, T; Lamm, M J; Larwill, M; Leavell, F; Leeb, D; Leveling, A; Lincoln, D; Logashenko, V; Lombardo, V; Lopes, M L; Makulski, A; Martinez, A; McArthur, D; McConologue, F; Michelotti, L; Mokhov, N; Morgan, J; Mukherjee, A; Murat, P; Nagaslaev, V; Neuffer, D V; Nicol, T; Niehoff, J; Nogiec, J; Olson, M; Orris, D; Ostojic, R; Page, T; Park, C; Peterson, T; Pilipenko, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Poloubotko, V; Popovic, M; Prebys, E; Prieto, P; Pronskikh, V; Pushka, D; Rabehl, R; Ray, R E; Rechenmacher, R; Rivera, R; Robotham, W; Rubinov, P; Rusu, V L; Scarpine, V; Schappert, W; Schoo, D; Stefanik, A; Still, D; Tang, Z; Tanovic, N; Tartaglia, M; Tassotto, G; Tinsley, D; Tschirhart, R S; Vogel, G; Wagner, R; Wands, R; Wang, M; Werkema, S; White, H B; Whitmore, J; Wielgos, R; Woods, R; Worel, C; Zifko, R; Ciambrone, P; Colao, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Dane, E; Giovannella, S; Happacher, F; Luca, A; Miscetti, S; Ponzio, B; Pileggi, G; Saputi, A; Sarra, I; Soleti, R S; Stomaci, V; Martini, M; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Musenich, R; Alexander, D; Daniel, A; Empl, A; Hungerford, E V; Lau, K; Gollin, G D; Huang, C; Roderick, D; Trundy, B; Brown, D Na; Ding, D; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lee, M J; Cascella, M; Grancagnolo, F; Ignatov, F; Innocente, A; L'Erario, A; Miccoli, A; Maffezzoli, A; Mazzotta, P; Onorato, G; Piacentino, G M; Rella, S; Rossetti, F; Spedicato, M; Tassielli, G; Taurino, A; Zavarise, G; Hooper, R; Brown, D No; Djilkibaev, R; Matushko, V; Ankenbrandt, C; Boi, S; Dychkant, A; Hedin, D; Hodge, Z; Khalatian, V; Majewski, R; Martin, L; Okafor, U; Pohlman, N; Riddel, R S; Shellito, A; de Gouvea, A L; Cervelli, F; Carosi, R; Di Falco, S; Donati, S; Lomtadze, T; Pezzullo, G; Ristori, L; Spinella, F; Jones, M; Corcoran, M D; Orduna, J; Rivera, D; Bennett, R; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Loveridge, P; Odell, J; Bomgardner, R; Dukes, E C; Ehrlich, R; Frank, M; Goadhouse, S; Ho, E; Ma, H; Oksuzian, Y; Purvis, J; Wu, Y; Hertzog, D W; Kammel, P; Lynch, K R; Popp, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for charged lepton flavor violation via the coherent conversion process mu- N --> e- N with a sensitivity approximately four orders of magnitude better than the current world's best limits for this process. The experiment's sensitivity offers discovery potential over a wide array of new physics models and probes mass scales well beyond the reach of the LHC. We describe herein the preliminary design of the proposed Mu2e experiment. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2 approval.

  9. Mu2e Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoszek, L.; et al.

    2014-10-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Mu2e Collaboration, composed of about 155 scientists and engineers from 28 universities and laboratories around the world, have collaborated to create this technical design for a new facility to study charged lepton flavor violation using the existing Department of Energy investment in the Fermilab accelerator complex. Mu2e proposes to measure the ratio of the rate of the neutrinoless, coherent conversion of muons into electrons in the field of a nucleus, relative to the rate of ordinary muon capture on the nucleus. The conversion process is an example of charged lepton flavor violation (CLFV), a process that has never been observed experimentally. The significant motivation behind the search for muon-to-electron conversion is discussed in Chapter 3.

  10. The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Donghia, R

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment searches for the neutrino-less muon to electron conversion in the field of a nucleus, which is a charged lepton flavor violating process. The goal of the experiment is to reach a single event sensitivity of 2.8 x 10^{-17}, setting an upper limit on the muon conversion rate at 6.7 x 10^{-17}. This corresponds to a four order of magnitude improvement with respect to the existing limits.

  11. Great 3 - Cultural Resource Inventory. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Spanish entry into the war in 1779, British launched an attack against St. Louis in order to gain control of the Mississippi River. In a battle on May...62914. Magnolia Manor Historical Museum, 2700 Washington Avenue, Cairo, Illinois 62914. Thebes Pioneer Museum, Thebes , Illinois 62990. Calhoun County...CAIRO HISTORICAL DISTRICT, Cairo MAGNOLIA MANOR, 2700 Washington Avenue, Cairo [ OLD CUSTOM HOUSE, Washington and 15th Streets, Cairo THEBES COURTHOUSE

  12. Great III - Cultural Resource Inventory. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Historical Sketch of St. Louis University. Patrick Fox, • St. Louis. Historical look at the St. Louis mound complex. Holmes, Nathaniel 1868 Loess...Saint Louis to Me. St. Louis, Missouri: Hawthorn Pub- lishing Company, 1978. 305 p., illus. £ates, Giwendolyn Lewis 1976 Historic Sites Inventory for...Watercolors by Marilynne Bradley. St. Louis: Hawthorn Publishing Company, c. 1977. 259 p., illus. (part color). Includes: Old Courthouse, Old

  13. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  14. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  15. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a hi

  16. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  17. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  18. Efeitos da administração subaracnóidea de grandes volumes de lidocaína a 2% e ropivacaína a 1% sobre a medula espinhal e as meninges: estudo experimental em cães Efectos de la administración subaracnóidea de grandes volúmenes de lidocaína a 2% y ropivacaína a 1% sobre la médula espinal y las meninges: estudio experimental en perros Effects of spinal administration of large volumes of 2% lidocaine and 1% ropivacaine on spinal cord and meninges: experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Marisa Ganem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A injeção de grandes volumes de anestésico local no espaço subaracnóideo, após punção dural acidental, é complicação da anestesia peridural. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar as possíveis alterações clínicas e histológicas desencadeadas por grandes volumes de lidocaína a 2% e ropivacaína a 1%, simulando injeção subaracnóidea acidental, em cães. MÉTODO: Vinte e um cães foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos, que receberam por via subaracnóidea: G1 - cloreto de sódio a 0,9%; G2 - lidocaína a 2% e G3 - ropivacaína a 1%. A punção subaracnóidea foi realizada no espaço intervertebral L6-L7. O volume de anestésico local administrado foi de 1 ml para cada 10 cm de distância entre a protuberância occipital e o espaço lombossacral (5 - 6,6 ml. Após 72 horas de observação clínica os animais foram sacrificados e foi removida a porção lombossacral da medula para exame histológico, por microscopia óptica. RESULTADOS: Nenhum animal do G1 apresentou alterações clínicas ou histológicas da medula espinhal. Foram observados dois casos de necrose do tecido nervoso em G2, porém mudanças clínicas, em somente um desses cães e em outros dois animais que não apresentaram alterações histológicas. Foi encontrada necrose focal do tecido nervoso medular em um animal de G3. Todos os animais de G3 permaneceram clinicamente normais. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que grandes volumes de lidocaína a 2% determinaram alterações clínicas e histológicas mais intensas que os de ropivacaína a 1%.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La inyección de grandes volúmenes de anestésico local en el espacio subaracnóideo, después de punción dural accidental, es complicación de la anestesia peridural. El objetivo de esta pesquisa fue investigar las posibles alteraciones clínicas e histológicas desencadenadas por grandes volúmenes de lidocaína a 2% y ropivacaína a 1%, simulando una inyecci

  19. Analysis list: Gtf2e2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gtf2e2 Blood,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2e2.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2e2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j...p/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2e2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2e2.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2e2.Liver.tsv http://dbarchiv...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  20. CYP2E1 Metabolism of Styrene Involves Allostery

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We are the first to report allosterism during styrene oxidation by recombinant CYP2E1 and human liver microsomes. At low styrene concentrations, oxidation is inefficient because of weak binding to CYP2E1 (Ks = 830 μM). A second styrene molecule then binds CYP2E1 with higher affinity (Kss = 110 μM) and significantly improves oxidation to achieve a kcat of 6.3 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. The transition between these metabolic cycles coincides with reported styrene concentrations in blood from...

  1. CYP2E1 autoantibodies in liver diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutti, Salvatore; Rigamonti, Cristina; Vidali, Matteo; Albano, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune reactions involving cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) are a feature of idiosyncratic liver injury induced by halogenated hydrocarbons and isoniazid, but are also detectable in about one third of the patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In these latter the presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies is an independent predictor of extensive necro-inflammation and fibrosis and worsens the recurrence of hepatitis following liver transplantation, indicating that CYP2E1-directed autoimmunity can contribute to hepatic injury. The molecular characterization of the antigens recognized by anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies in ALD and CHC has shown that the targeted conformational epitopes are located in close proximity on the molecular surface. Furthermore, these epitopes can be recognized on CYP2E1 expressed on hepatocyte plasma membranes where they can trigger antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. This does not exclude that T cell-mediated responses against CYP2E1 might also be involved in causing hepatocyte damage. CYP2E1 structural modifications by reactive metabolites and molecular mimicry represent important factors in the breaking of self-tolerance against CYP2E1 in, respectively, ALD and CHC. However, genetic or acquired interferences with the mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of the immune system are also likely to contribute. More studies are needed to better characterize the impact of anti-CYP2E1 autoimmunity in liver diseases particularly in relation to the fact that common metabolic alterations such as obesity and diabetes stimulates hepatic CYP2E1 expression. PMID:25462068

  2. CYP2E1 Metabolism of Styrene Involves Allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    We are the first to report allosterism during styrene oxidation by recombinant CYP2E1 and human liver microsomes. At low styrene concentrations, oxidation is inefficient because of weak binding to CYP2E1 (Ks = 830 μM). A second styrene molecule then binds CYP2E1 with higher affinity (Kss = 110 μM) and significantly improves oxidation to achieve a kcat of 6.3 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. The transition between these metabolic cycles coincides with reported styrene concentrations in blood from exposed workers; thus, this CYP2E1 mechanism may be relevant in vivo. Scaled modeling of the in vitro-positive allosteric mechanism for styrene metabolism to its in vivo clearance led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Low styrene levels were notably much less toxic than generally assumed. We interrogated the allosteric mechanism using the CYP2E1-specific inhibitor and drug 4-methylpyrazole, which we have shown binds two CYP2E1 sites. From the current studies, styrene was a positive allosteric effector on 4-methylpyrazole binding, based on a 10-fold increase in 4-methylpyrazole binding affinity from Ki 0.51 to Ksi 0.043 μM. The inhibitor was a negative allosteric effector on styrene oxidation, because kcat decreased 6-fold to 0.98 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. Consequently, mixtures of styrene and other molecules can induce allosteric effects on binding and metabolism by CYP2E1 and thus mitigate the efficiency of their metabolism and corresponding effects on human health. Taken together, our elucidation of mechanisms for these allosteric reactions provides a powerful tool for further investigating the complexities of CYP2E1 metabolism of drugs and pollutants. PMID:22807108

  3. Atlas of Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  4. The simultaneous mass and energy evaporation (SM2E) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rehan; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Simultaneous Mass and Energy Evaporation (SM2E) model is presented. The SM2E model is based on theoretical models for mass and energy transfer. The theoretical models systematically under or over predicted at various flow conditions: laminar, transition, and turbulent. These models were harmonized with experimental measurements to eliminate systematic under or over predictions; a total of 113 measured evaporation rates were used. The SM2E model can be used to estimate evaporation rates for pure liquids as well as liquid mixtures at laminar, transition, and turbulent flow conditions. However, due to limited availability of evaporation data, the model has so far only been tested against data for pure liquids and binary mixtures. The model can take evaporative cooling into account and when the temperature of the evaporating liquid or liquid mixture is known (e.g., isothermal evaporation), the SM2E model reduces to a mass transfer-only model.

  5. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  6. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  7. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  8. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  9. Reference Design of the Mu2e Detector Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Feher, S; Brandt,, J; Cheban, S; Coleman, R; Dhanaraj, N; Fang, I; Lamm, M; Lombardo, V; Lopes, M; Miller, J; Ostojic, R ,; Orris, D; Page, T; Peterson, T; Tang, Z; Wands, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab has been approved by the Department of Energy to proceed developing the preliminary design. Integral to the success of Mu2e is the superconducting solenoid system. One of the three major solenoids is the Detector Solenoid that houses the stopping target and the detectors. The goal of the Detector Solenoid team is to produce detailed design specifications that are sufficient for vendors to produce the final design drawings, tooling and fabrication procedures and proceed to production. In this paper we summarize the Reference Design of the Detector Solenoid.

  10. Great ape foresight is looking great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Suddendorf, Corballis and Collier-Baker (Anim Cogn 12: 751-754, 2009) comment on a study on great ape foresight (Osvath and Osvath, Anim Cogn 11: 661-674, 2008). That study consisted of four experiments investigating foresight in chimpanzees and orangutans, examining in particular whether the planning they exhibit is best explained by assuming an episodic cognitive system. This system has widely been regarded as exclusive to humans. Indeed, the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis explicitly states that planning for a future need is outside the abilities of non-humans. In our paper, we argued that the results implied the presence of episodic abilities and challenged the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis. Suddendorf et al. are not ready to accept this claim. They critique each experiment in detail and maintain their view that episodic cognition is unique to humans. Here, I point out the misapprehensions and weaknesses in their critique notably a lack of appreciation for how the experiments in the study are interrelated and serve as controls for each other and for the baseline experiment. I reinforce my earlier conclusions with a number of recently published findings.

  11. R2E – identifying problems, mitigating risks

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1, the R2E project team will be working on a task as painstaking as it is crucial: to achieve a sixfold reduction in the number of electronic malfunctions caused by radiation. On their success depends the ability of the accelerator to function correctly at nominal energy. No mean challenge, considering it comes on top of the tenfold reduction already achieved since 2009.   The graph plots the rate of LHC beam dumps due to single-event effects against beam luminosity. An indication of the challenge that faces the R2E project teams during LS1! The origins of the project known as R2E (Radiation to Electronics) go back to 2007, when the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) experiment was being commissioned. "Right from the outset, some CNGS control systems were causing problems. They would regularly break down in operations with beam," recalls Markus Brugger, head of the R2E project. "Even though the beam intensity was very low, we began to suspect that radiati...

  12. Radiation Studies for the Mu2e Experiment: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronskikh, V. S.

    2013-06-01

    The Mu2e experiment being designed at Fermilab will be searching for a rare event — conversion of muon into electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos — observation of which would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, making use of an 8 GeV 8 kW proton beam. As an experiment to be performed at the Intensity Frontier, taking advantage of high-intensity proton beams, the Mu2e experimental setup will be residing in a harsh radiation environment created by secondary particle fluxes. Radiation quantities in different parts of the Mu2e apparatus, such as neutron flux, peak power density, displacements per atom (DPA), absorbed dose, dynamic heat load simulated using the MARS15 code are reviewed in this work. Radiation levels and requirements for Heat and Radiation Shield (HRS), Transport Solenoid (TS), residual dose and decay heat from the Mu2e target, beam dump design, rates in Cosmic Ray Veto (CRV) counters as well as stopping target monitor (STM) are considered. Airflow, surface and ground water activation are estimated. Recent developments in the MARS15 DPA model applied in this work are described, their consequences are discussed.

  13. Take a Byte: Technology for 2e Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    "Twice-exceptional," also referred to as "2e," is a term used to describe gifted children who have the characteristics of gifted students and give evidence of one or more disabilities as defined by federal or state eligibility criteria. These disabilities may include specific learning disabilities (SpLD), speech and language…

  14. M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful isolation of a human influenza virus in 1933 was soon followed by the first attempts to develop an influenza vaccine. Nowadays, vaccination is still the most effective method to prevent human influenza disease. However, licensed influenza vaccines offer protection against antigenically matching viruses, and the composition of these vaccines needs to be updated nearly every year. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle not require such updating and would probably have a considerable positive impact on global human health in case of a pandemic outbreak. The extracellular domain of Matrix 2 (M2e protein is an evolutionarily conserved region in influenza A viruses and a promising epitope for designing a universal influenza vaccine. Here we review the seminal and recent studies that focused on M2e as a vaccine antigen. We address the mechanism of action and the clinical development of M2e-vaccines. Finally, we try to foresee how M2e-based vaccines could be implemented clinically in the future.

  15. Convergent stereoselective synthesis of the visual pigment A2E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Cristina; Cid, M Magdalena

    2005-12-08

    [chemical reaction: see text]. A stereoselective total synthesis of the visual pigment A2E has been achieved with use of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in all key steps: a regioselective Suzuki or Negishi coupling of 2,4-dibromopyridine, a Sonogashira reaction, and a double Stille cross-coupling to complete the bispolyenyl skeleton.

  16. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah

    2016-01-01

    in the region's well-watered granite hills and valleys, and culminating in a vast urban and trading society. Later, c.1550 AD, it is argued, drying climate, land overexploitation, and changing regional trading patterns would lead to the decline of Great Zimbabwe. A review of this model is necessary since Great...... Zimbabwe and communities living around it survive in a region constantly threatened by water crises. However, we still know very little on the forms and uses of water and how these have influenced its development and demise. This article offers a multilayered review of available information on water......, including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding...

  17. Evaluation of a method for removing cesium and reducing the volume of leaf litter from broad-leaved trees contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Yanagisawa, Mitsunori

    2017-04-01

    The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter. We tested our method in three experiments. Experiment 1 used new leaf litter (232 Bq/kg) from the surface of a small stream at the forest edge nearby an area with air dose level higher than the national standard threshold of 0.23 μSv/h for the implementation of governmental decontamination works. Experiment 2 applied wet oxidation to older leaf litter (705 Bq/kg) harvested from a pasture nearby the stream mentioned above. We also used the same leaf litter in experiment 3 for a cesium release tests using pure water. In experiment 1 and 2 we treated leaf litter with a sodium hypochlorite solution, optimizing sodium hypochlorite concentration and reaction temperature. We measured a 50-60% decrease in the leaf litter weight and a 60% decrease in the cesium concentration. Moreover, we also measured the amount of cesium washout. The cesium budget of experiment 1 showed no cesium gasification (wet oxidation avoids airborne cesium as this element is prone to be volatile at 600 °C), and that high sodium hypochlorite concentration and high temperature had a strong positive effect on leaf litter volume reduction and cesium decontamination. Experiment 2 confirmed the reproducibility of these results in leaves with different cesium concentration and harvested in different conditions. We could also explain the

  18. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  19. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  20. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  1. Stability Issues of the Mu2e Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Stability issues of the mu2e proton beam are discussed. These include space-charge distortion of bunch shape, microwave instabilities, mode-coupling instabilities, head-tail instabilities, as well as electron-cloud effects. We have studied several beam stability issues of the proton beam heading to the target for the mu2e experiment. We find bunch-shape distortions driven by the space charge force is reasonably small, and longitudinal microwave instability will unlikely to occur. Electron-cloud buildup, with density up to {rho}{sub e} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 12} m{sup -3} in the Accumulator, can probably drive head-tail instabilities. However, these, together with the instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance can be avoided by restricting the chromaticity to larger than {approx} 0.2. TMCI will not occur even when the electron-cloud wake is included.

  2. A2e High Fidelity Modeling: Strategic Planning Meetings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Steven W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Womble, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barone, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through whole wind farms. Better insight into the flow physics of large multi-turbine arrays will address the plant-level energy losses, is likely to reduce annual operational costs by hundreds of millions of dollars, and will improve project financing terms to more closely resemble traditional capital projects. In support of this initiative, two planning meetings were convened, bringing together professionals from universities, national laboratories, and industry to discuss wind plant modeling challenges, requirements, best practices, and priorities. This report documents the combined work of the two meetings and serves as a key part of the foundation for the A2e/HFM effort for predictive modeling of whole wind plant physics.

  3. Structure of Pyrazole Derivatives Impact their Affinity, Stoichiometry, and Cooperative Interactions for CYP2E1 Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Bradley, Amber M.; Laddusaw, Ryan M; Perry, Martin D.; Miller, Grover P.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 plays a critical role in detoxication and carcinogenic activation of drugs, pollutants, and dietary compounds; however, these metabolic processes can involve poorly characterized cooperative interactions that compromise the ability to understand and predict CYP2E1 metabolism. Herein, we employed an array of ten azoles with an emphasis on pyrazoles to establish the selectivity of catalytic and cooperative CYP2E1 sites through binding and catalytic studies. Spectral binding studies for monocyclic azoles suggested two binding events, while bicyclic azoles suggested one. Pyrazole had moderate affinity toward the CYP2E1 catalytic site that improved when a methyl group was introduced at either position 3 or 4. The presence of methyl groups simultaneously at positions 3 and 5 blocked binding, and a phenyl group at position 3 did not improve binding affinity. In contrast, pyrazole fusion to a benzene or cyclohexane ring greatly increased affinity. The consequences of these binding events on CYP2E1 catalysis were studied through inhibition studies with 4-nitrophenol, a substrate known to bind both sites. Most pyrazoles shared a common mixed cooperative inhibition mechanism in which pyrazole binding rescued CYP2E1 from substrate inhibition. Overall, inhibitor affinities toward the CYP2E1 catalytic site were similar to those reported in binding studies, and the same trend was observed for binding at the cooperative site. Taken together, these studies identified key structural determinants in the affinity and stoichiometry of azole interactions with CYP2E1 and consequences on catalysis that further advance an understanding of the relationship between structure and function for this enzyme. PMID:23811196

  4. FY-2E Delivered And FY-3A Performs Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The FY-2E meteorological satellite was delivered to China Meteorological Administration (CMA) on May 19, 2009. Developed by Shanghai Academy of Spacefiight Technology (SAST), a subsidiary of CASC, the satellite was launched atop a LM-3A from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC). The satellite passed in-orbit testing on February 28,2009 and all the onboard systems performed well when the satellite was in the Earth's shadow.

  5. Research and Development for the Mu2e Extinction Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, Casey Benjamin [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-01-01

    Mu2e is a planned experiment to search for flavor-violating conversion from a muon to an electron. The experiment will use a pulsed 8 GeV proton beam to produce muons which will then stop in an aluminum target. Mu2e will search for the $\\mu^- + Al \\rightarrow e^- + Al$ process. For Mu2e, an extinction rate of 10$^{-10}$ is required to reduce the backgrounds to an acceptable level. Extinction is the ratio of the amount of protons striking the production target between beam pulses to the number striking it during the beam pulse. One of the backgrounds, off-target interactions, was simulated using G4beamline and Fermilab's Grid setup to confirm that an extinction rate of 10$^{-10}$ is possible. The extinction level will be measured by the extinction monitor which will include scintillation counters read out by photomultiplier tubes. In order to build a beam time profile, low fake responses (after pulses) are needed in the photomultiplier tubes. This thesis determines the best combination of resistors, voltage, and other components that provide the lowest after pulse rate.

  6. A2E: a component of ocular lipofuscin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Laura E; Simon, John D

    2004-02-01

    The presence of lipofuscin in postmitotic cells is considered a hallmark of the aging process. In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), lipofuscin is found as micrometer-sized spherical particles and characterized by its yellow autofluorescence when exposed to blue light. This exposure to light is also known to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), but the particular molecular constituent(s) responsible for this phototoxicity have yet to be completely identified. Resulting mostly from the autophagocytosis of intracellular organelles, the composition of lipofuscin is poorly defined but known to contain protein, lipids and several fluorophores. The subsequent identification of one of the fluorophores in lipofuscin, A2E, generated much interest and resulted in a variety of studies to understand its potential role in the phototoxicity of lipofuscin. Several modes of toxicity have been suggested through which A2E can affect the health of RPE cells. These modes include photoinduced production of ROI, which places additional oxidative stress on RPE cells, the disruption of membrane integrity through its natural role as an amphiphilic detergent and inhibition of key cellular functions. This article presents the current understanding of the photochemistry of A2E and its involvement as a phototoxic agent in RPE cells.

  7. Research and development for the Mu2E extinction monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Casey B.

    Mu2e is a planned experiment to search for flavor violating conversion from a muon to an electron. The experiment will use a pulsed 8 GeV proton beam to produce muons which will then stop in an aluminum target. Mu2e will search for the mu-- + Al → e-- + Al process. For Mu2e, an extinction rate of 10--10 is required to reduce the backgrounds to an acceptable level. Extinction is the ratio of the amount of protons striking the production target between beam pulses to the number striking it during the beam pulse. One of the backgrounds, off-target interactions, was simulated using G4beamline and Fermilab's Grid setup to confirm that an extinction rate of 10--10 is possible. The extinction level will be measured by the extinction monitor which will include scintillation counters read out by photomultiplier tubes. In order to build a beam time profile, low fake responses (after pulses) are needed in the photomultiplier tubes. This thesis determines the best combination of resistors, voltage, and other components that provide the lowest after pulse rate.

  8. Target Station Design for the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, Vitaly [Fermilab; Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermilab; Campbell, Michael [Fermilab; Coleman, Richard [Fermilab; Ginther, George [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim [Fermilab; Krempetz, Kurt [Fermilab; Lamm, Michael [Fermilab; Lee, Ang [Fermilab; Leveling, Anthony [Fermilab; Mokhov, Nikolai [Fermilab; Nagaslaev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Stefanik, Andrew [Fermilab; Striganov, Sergei [Fermilab; Werkema, Steven [Fermilab; Bartoszek, Larry [Technicare; Densham, Chris [Rutherford; Loveridge, Peter [Rutherford; Lynch, Kevin [BMCC, New York; Popp, James [BMCC, New York

    2014-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is devoted to search for the conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos. One of the main parts of the Mu2e experimental setup is its Target Station in which negative pions are generated in interactions of the 8-GeV primary proton beam with a tungsten target. A large-aperture 5-T superconducting production solenoid (PS) enhances pion collection, and an S-shaped transport solenoid (TS) delivers muons and pions to the Mu2e detector. The heat and radiation shield (HRS) protects the PS and the first TS coils. A beam dump absorbs the spent beam. In order for the PS superconducting magnet to operate reliably the sophisticated HRS was designed and optimized for performance and cost. The beam dump was designed to absorb the spent beam and maintaining its temperature and air activation in the hall at the allowable level. Comprehensive MARS15 simulations have been carried out to optimize all the parts while maximizing muon yield. Results of simulations of critical radiation quantities and their implications on the overall Target Station design and integration will be reported.

  9. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  10. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah;

    2016-01-01

    , including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding......Once a thriving center with commercial links to the Indian Ocean, what remains of Great Zimbabwe is its monumental architecture. Its rise and decline have long been linked to environmental changes in southern Zimbabwe, beginning in the second half of the 13th century with agropastoralists thriving...... of the local environment was vital in managing both water excesses and shortages in the past, and show that some of this knowledge survives among indigenous communities linked to the site and living in the surrounding landscape. While nearby Masvingo town has persistently lived under water-emergency conditions...

  11. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  12. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  13. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  14. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in the great lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A. (ed.) [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    2006-07-01

    The environment around the Laurentian Great Lakes region has been adversely affected by agricultural runoff, urban waste, industrial discharge, landfill leachate, and atmospheric deposition. Although there have been some improvements over the last 20 years, persistent toxic organic pollutants are now a serious problem. This book brings together what is known about the major classes of these pollutants in the Great Lakes. Each chapter reviews our knowledge of the extent of contamination of the various parts of the Great Lakes ecosystem (air, water, sediment, fishes, birds, etc.), what is known about the trends over time of this contamination, and knowledge about the mechanisms by which these pollutants are mobilized in the lakes. Detailed information is presented on polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, pesticides, toxaphene, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl acids. These reviews make this volume an invaluable resource for all those involved in environmental research, measurements, and decision making. (orig.)

  16. The calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Y. I.; Di Falco, S.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Radicioni, T.; Ricci, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab looks for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) improving by 4 orders of magnitude the current experimental sensitivity for the muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom. A positive signal could not be explained in the framework of the current Standard Model of particle interactions and therefore would be a clear indication of new physics. In 3 years of data taking, Mu2e is expected to observe less than one background event mimicking the electron coming from muon conversion. Achieving such a level of background suppression requires a deep knowledge of the experimental apparatus: a straw tube tracker, measuring the electron momentum and time, a cosmic ray veto system rejecting most of cosmic ray background and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter, that will measure time of flight, energy and impact position of the converted electron. The calorimeter has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, in a 10‑4 Torr vacuum and inside a 1 T magnetic field. The results of the first qualification tests of the calorimeter components are reported together with the energy and time performances expected from the simulation and measured in beam tests of a small scale prototype.

  17. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  18. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  19. Characterization of polar organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol from the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We show in the present study that the unsaturated aldehydes, 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal and 3-Z-hexenal, are biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) precursors for...

  20. Subcellular Localization of Rat CYP2E1 Impacts Metabolic Efficiency toward Common Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) detoxifies or bioactivates many low molecular-weight compounds. Most knowledge about CYP2E1 activity relies on studies of the enzyme localized to endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1); however, CYP2E1 undergoes transport to mitochondria (mtCYP2E1) and becomes metabolically active. We report the first comparison of in vitro steady-state kinetic profiles for erCYP2E1 and mtCYP2E1 oxidation of probe substrate 4-nitrophenol and pollutants styrene and aniline using subcellu...

  1. Spectrin’s chimeric E2/E3 enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven R; Petrofes Chapa, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this minireview, we cover the discovery of the human erythrocyte α spectrin E2/E3 ubiquitin conjugating/ligating enzymatic activity and the specific cysteines involved. We then discuss the consequences when this activity is partially inhibited in sickle cell disease and the possibility that the same attenuation is occurring in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We finish by discussing the reasons for believing that nonerythroid α spectrin isoforms (I and II) also have this activity and the importance of testing this hypothesis. If correct, this would suggest that the nonerythroid spectrin isoforms play a major role in protein ubiquitination in all cell types. This would open new fields in experimental biology focused on uncovering the impact that this enzymatic activity has upon protein–protein interactions, protein turnover, cellular signaling, and many other functions impacted by spectrin, including DNA repair. PMID:26283706

  2. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT 78600-000 (Brazil); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Câmpus Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Ali, E.; Madison, D. H. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Ning, C. G. [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-28

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of −5°, −10°, and −15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  3. 3-Methoxy-2-[(E-(4-methoxyphenyliminomethyl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Özdemir Tari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H15NO3, adopts the enol–imine tautomeric form. The two rings are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 44.08 (5°. The 3-methoxy-2-[(E-(4-methoxyphenyl-iminomethyl]phenol unit is almost planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.047 (2 Å. Such a planar conformation might be related to the occurrence of an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into sheets parallel to (010. These sheets are interconnected by weak C—H...π interactions.

  4. Mu2e production solenoid cryostat conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T.H.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.M.; Peterson, T.J.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Mu2e is a muon-to-electron conversion experiment being designed by an international collaboration of more than 65 scientists and engineers from more than 20 research institutions for installation at Fermilab. The experiment is comprised of three large superconducting solenoid magnet systems, production solenoid (PS), transport solenoid (TS) and detector solenoid (DS). A 25 kW, 8 GeV proton beam strikes a target located in the PS creating muons from the decay of secondary particles. These muons are then focused in the PS and the resultant muon beam is transported through the TS towards the DS. The production solenoid presents a unique set of design challenges as the result of high radiation doses, stringent magnetic field requirements, and large structural forces. This paper describes the conceptual design of the PS cryostat and will include discussions of the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation, cooling system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system.

  5. Beam Extinction Monitoring in the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prebys, Eric [Fermilab; Bartoszek, Larry [Technicare; Gaponenko, Andrei [Fermilab; Kasper, Peter [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the conversion of a muon to an electron in the field of an atomic nucleus with unprecedented sensitivity. The experiment requires a beam consisting of proton bunches approximately 200ns FW long, separated by 1.7 microseconds, with no out-of-time protons at the 10⁻¹⁰ fractional level. The verification of this level of extinction is very challenging. The proposed technique uses a special purpose spectrometer which will observe particles scattered from the production target of the experiment. The acceptance will be limited such that there will be no saturation effects from the in-time beam. The precise level and profile of the out-of-time beam can then be built up statistically, by integrating over many bunches.

  6. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  7. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  8. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  9. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 ×10-17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  10. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Atanov, N; Budagov, J; Carosi, R; Cervelli, F; Colao, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Dane', E; Davydov, Yu I; Di Falco, S; Donati, S; Donghia, R; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Giovannella, S; Glagolev, V; Grancagnolo, F; Happacher, F; Hitlin, D G; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Miyashita, T; Morescalchi, L; Murat, P; Pasciuto, D; Pezzullo, G; Porter, F; Saputi, A; Sarra, I; Soleti, S R; Spinella, F; Tassielli, G; Tereshchenko, V; Usubov, Z; Zhu, R Y

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5x10^{-17} after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorim...

  11. Mu2e Transport Solenoid Cold-Mass Alignment Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. [Fermilab; Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Badgley, K. [Fermilab; Bradascio, F. [Fermilab; Brandt, J. [Fermilab; Evbota, D. [Fermilab; Hocker, A. [Fermilab; Lamm, M. [Fermilab; Lombardo, V. [Fermilab; Miller, J. [Boston U.; Nicol, T. [Fermilab; Kutschke, R. [Fermilab; Vellidis, C. [Fermilab; Wands, R. [Fermilab; Wenk, E. [Fermilab

    2016-10-01

    The Muon-to-electron conversion experiment (Mu2e) at Fermilab is designed to explore charged lepton flavor violation. It is composed of three large superconducting solenoids: the Production Solenoid (PS), the Transport Solenoid (TS) and the Detector Solenoid (DS). The TS is formed by two magnets: TS upstream (TSu) and downstream (TSd). Each has its own cryostat and power supply. Tolerance sensitivity studies of the position and angular alignment of each coil in this magnet system were performed in the past with the objective to demonstrate that the magnet design meets all the field requirements. The alignment of the cold-masses is critical to maximize the transmission of muons and to avoid possible backgrounds that would reduce the sensitivity of the experiment. Each TS magnet cold-mass can be individually aligned. In this work, we discuss implications of the alignment of the TS cold-masses in terms of the displacement of the magnetic center. Consideration of the practical mechanical limits are also presented.

  12. 2e-18 total uncertainty in an atomic clock

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, T L; Hutson, R B; Marti, G E; Bloom, B J; McNally, R L; Zhang, W; Barrett, M D; Safronova, M S; Strouse, G F; Tew, W L; Ye, J

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of better atomic clocks has advanced many research areas, providing better quantum state control, new insights in quantum science, tighter limits on fundamental constant variation, and improved tests of relativity. The record for the best stability and accuracy is currently held by optical lattice clocks. This work takes an important step towards realizing the full potential of a many-particle clock with a state-of-the-art stable laser. Here, we achieve fractional stability of 2.2e-16 at 1 s by using seconds-long coherent interrogations of our clock transition in a low-density system not limited by atomic interactions. With this better stability, we perform a new accuracy evaluation of our clock, improving many systematic uncertainties that limited our previous measurements, such as the lattice ac Stark and blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts. For the lattice ac Stark systematic, we identify the lattice laser frequency where the scalar and tensor components of the shift cancel, allowing for state ind...

  13. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The final volume of this 4-volume report contains further selections from "Anthropological Perspectives on Education," a monograph to be published by Basic Books of New York. (Other selections are in Vol. III, SP 003 902.) Monograph selections appearing in this volume are: "Great Tradition, Little Tradition, and Formal Education;""Indians,…

  14. Characterization of polar organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol from the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show in the present study that the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal are biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) precursors for polar organosulfates with molecular weights (MWs) 230 and 214, which are also present in ambient fine aerosol from a...

  15. An M2e-based multiple antigenic peptide vaccine protects mice from lethal challenge with divergent H5N1 influenza viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chris CS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing concern has raised regarding the pandemic potential of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an effective and safe vaccine against the divergent H5N1 influenza viruses. In the present study, we designed a tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP-based vaccine, designated M2e-MAP, which contains the sequence overlapping the highly conserved extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e of a HPAI H5N1 virus, and investigated its immune responses and cross-protection against different clades of H5N1 viruses. Results Our results showed that M2e-MAP vaccine induced strong M2e-specific IgG antibody responses following 3-dose immunization of mice with M2e-MAP in the presence of Freunds' or aluminium (alum adjuvant. M2e-MAP vaccination limited viral replication and attenuated histopathological damage in the challenged mouse lungs. The M2e-MAP-based vaccine protected immunized mice against both clade1: VN/1194 and clade2.3.4: SZ/406H H5N1 virus challenge, being able to counteract weight lost and elevate survival rate following lethal challenge of H5N1 viruses. Conclusions These results suggest that M2e-MAP presenting M2e of H5N1 virus has a great potential to be developed into an effective subunit vaccine for the prevention of infection by a broad spectrum of HPAI H5N1 viruses.

  16. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they experienc

  17. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo:…

  18. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  19. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  20. Rethinking China's new great wall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zhijun; Melville, David S; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Ying; Yang, Hongyan; Ren, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Piersma, Theunis; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ... enclosed by thousands of kilometers of seawalls, whose length exceeds that of China’s famous ancient “Great Wall” (see photos and map). This new “Great Wall,” covering 60% of the total length of coast-line along mainland China...

  1. Absence of NR2E1 mutations in patients with aniridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corso-Díaz, Ximena; Borrie, Adrienne E; Bonaguro, Russell;

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptor 2E1 (NR2E1) is a transcription factor with many roles during eye development and thus may be responsible for the occurrence of certain congenital eye disorders in humans. To test this hypothesis, we screened NR2E1 for candidate mutations in patients with aniridia and other congen...

  2. The effects of nitrogen-heme-iron coordination on substrate affinities for cytochrome P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey P; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Hebner, Michelle; Chu, Yuzhuo; Koop, Dennis R

    2011-08-15

    A descriptor based computational model was developed for cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) based on inhibition constants determined for inhibition of chlorzoxazone, or 4-nitrophenol, metabolism. An empirical descriptor for type II binding was developed and tested for a series of CYP2E1 inhibitors. Inhibition constants where measured for 51 different compounds. A fast 2-dimensional predictive model was developed based on 40 compounds, and tested on 8 compounds of diverse structure. The trained model (n=40) had an r(2) value of 0.76 and an RMSE of 0.48. The correlation between the predicted and actual pK(i) values of the test set of compounds not included in the model gives an r(2) value of 0.78. The features that described binding include heme coordination (type II binding), molecular volume, octanol/water partition coefficient, solvent accessible surface area, and the sum of the atomic polarizabilities. The heme coordination parameter assigns an integer between 0 and 6 depending on structure, and is a new descriptor, based on simple quantum chemical calculations with correction for steric effects. The type II binding parameter was found to be important in obtaining a good correlation between predicted and experimental inhibition constants increasing the r(2) value from 0.38 to 0.77.

  3. R2E-related MD: slow controlled losses for RadMon/BLM cross-checks

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Spiezia, G; Sapinski, M; Priebe, A; Nordt, A; Pojer, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dedicated R2E MD has been to evaluate the R factor (i.e. the ratio between the thermal neutron fluence and the high energy hadron fluence (>20MeV) for various tunnel locations, to measure the HEH radiation level gradient along the MBC dipole and on the MQ, to check the ratio the BLM measured dose and RadMon SEU counts and to study the dose gradient between the standard BLM beam axis location and at the level of the equipment location. Within the R2E Mitigation Project, these accurate measurement and cross-check of the mentioned parameters are of great importance for the evaluation and interpretation of the R2E-related radiation levels, as well as for the evaluation of the failure cross-section of specific equipment (i.e. QPS ISO150). In addition, a short part of the MD has been devoted to the comparison of BLM signals generated by loss directed inwards and outwards with respect to the LHC ring.

  4. The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hooper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography. David Yetman. 2007. The University of Arizona, Tucson. Pp. 320, 366 color photographs, 17 maps. $59.95 (cloth. ISBN 9780816524310.

  5. Juyongguan on the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Juyongguan Pass on the Great Wall,one ofthe most important strategic passes of the oldcapital Beijing,is now repaired and a goodplace for tourists to see ancient Chinesemilitary and cultural facilities,as well asbeautiful local scenery.

  6. Critical Realism in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Great Expectations is an important work by English novelist Dickens.His novels not only reflect the life experience of a whole generation genuinely,but also disclose the social reality vividly in England in the middle 19th century.Its depth and width go beyond most of the works of his contemporaries.Great Expectations is the excellent novel of critical realism in the later period of Dickens.It describes the de-velopment of Pip’s grown-up and the disillusion of his“great expectations”.Educated by the reality,he came to realize what he pursued in the Vanity Fair was not valuable at all.So as to see clearer the great power of critical realism in Dickens’works and thus can understand the no-vel,this thesis analyzes the hero’s character development and the influential factors upon the formation of his character.

  7. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  8. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  9. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  10. Cytochrome P450 2E1 is responsible for the initiation of 1,2-dichloropropane-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiba, Yukie; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Suda, Megumi; Hojo, Rieko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), a solvent, which is the main component of the cleaner used in the offset printing companies in Japan, is suspected to be the causative agent of bile duct cancer, which has been recently reported at high incidence in those offset printing workplaces. While there are some reports about the acute toxicity of 1,2-DCP, no information about its metabolism related to toxicity in animals is available. As part of our efforts toward clarifying the role of 1,2-DCP in the development of cancer, we studied the metabolic pathways and the hepatotoxic effect of 1,2-DCP in mice with or without cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity. In an in vitro reaction system containing liver homogenate, 1,2-DCP was only metabolized by liver tissue of wild-type mice but not by that of cyp2e1-null mice. Furthermore, the kinetics of the solvent in mice revealed a great difference between the two genotypes; 1,2-DCP administration resulted in dose-dependent hepatic damage, as shown biochemically and pathologically, but this effect was only observed in wild-type mice. The nuclear factor κB p52 pathway was involved in the liver response to 1,2-DCP. Our results clearly indicate that the oxidative metabolism of 1,2-DCP in mice is exclusively catalyzed by CYP2E1, and this step is indispensable for the manifestation of the hepatotoxic effect of the solvent.

  11. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  12. GREAT Process Modeller user manual

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Urko; España, Sergio; Ruiz, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    This report contains instructions to install, uninstall and use GREAT Process Modeller, a tool that supports Communication Analysis, a communication-oriented business process modelling method. GREAT allows creating communicative event diagrams (i.e. business process models), specifying message structures (which describe the messages associated to each communicative event), and automatically generating a class diagram (representing the data model of an information system that would support suc...

  13. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Carola Andersson

    Full Text Available The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4 was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135; due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine.

  14. [Induction of rat hepatic CYP2E1 expression by arecoline in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-tao; Xiao, Run-mei; Wang, Ming-feng; Wang, Jun-jun; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The regulation mechanism of arecoline on rat hepatic CYP2E1 was studied in vivo. After oral administration of arecoline hydrobromide (AH; 4, 20 and 100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) to rats for one week, the hepatic CYP2E1 mRNA level remained unchanged, but the hepatic CYP2E1 protein content was dose-dependently increased. Additionally, although the hepatic CYP2E1 activity was induced by AH treatment, the induction was attenuated with the increase in dosage. The results indicate that the effect of arecoline on rat hepaticdoes not involve transcriptional activation of the gene, but largely involves the stabilization of CYP2E1 protein against degradation or increased efficiency of CYP2E1 mRNA translation, and additionally involve the post- ranslational modification of CYP2E1 protein. Furthermore, the CYP2E1 response is fairly equal among the different species, the induction of rat hepatic CYP2E1 by arecoline suggests that there is a risk of metabolic interaction among the substrate drugs of CYP2E1 in betel-quid use human.

  15. New Stx2e Monoclonal Antibodies for Immunological Detection and Distinction of Stx2 Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Skinner

    Full Text Available Stx2e is a primary virulence factor in STEC strains that cause edema disease in neonatal piglets. Though Stx2a and Stx2e are similar, many antibody-based Stx detection kits are designed to detect Stx2a and do not recognize the Stx2e subtype.Four monoclonal antibodies against Stx2e were developed and characterized. Two of these mAbs recognize the B subunit of Stx2e, Stx2f, and to a lesser extent, Stx2b, Stx2c, and Stx2d. The other two mAbs recognize the A subunit of Stx2e, and cross-react with all Stx2 subtypes except Stx2f. The most sensitive sandwich ELISA using these mAbs has a limit of detection for Stx2e of 11.8 pg/mL. The ability of the neutralizing antibody Stx2e-2 to block Stx2e-receptor binding in Vero cells was visualized using immunofluorescence. Combinations of these and previously developed mAbs permit ELISA-based differentiation between closely related Stx2a, Stx2c, and Stx2d (using mAbs Stx2-5/2-1, Stx2-5/2e-2, and Stx2e-3/2e-2, respectively.The sensitive immunoassays developed in this study should augment our capacity to detect Stx2e in porcine environments and biological samples. Moreover, immunoassays that can distinguish between the closely related Stx2a, Stx2c, and Stx2d subtypes can be useful in quickly analyzing Stx subtypes in samples containing more than one strain of STEC.

  16. The Role of CYP2E1 in the Drug Metabolism or Bioactivation in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Suástegui, W. A.; Ramos-Chávez, L. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M.; Calvillo-Velasco, M.; Atzin-Méndez, J. A.; Guevara, J.

    2017-01-01

    Organisms have metabolic pathways that are responsible for removing toxic agents. We always associate the liver as the major organ responsible for detoxification of the body; however this process occurs in many tissues. In the same way, as in the liver, the brain expresses metabolic pathways associated with the elimination of xenobiotics. Besides the detoxifying role of CYP2E1 for compounds such as electrophilic agents, reactive oxygen species, free radical products, and the bioactivation of xenobiotics, CYP2E1 is also related in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we describe the presence of phase I monooxygenase CYP2E1 in regions of the brain. We also explore the conditions where protein, mRNA, and the activity of CYP2E1 are induced. Finally, we describe the relation of CYP2E1 in brain disorders, including the behavioral relations for alcohol consumption via CYP2E1 metabolism. PMID:28163821

  17. The Role of CYP2E1 in the Drug Metabolism or Bioactivation in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. García-Suástegui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms have metabolic pathways that are responsible for removing toxic agents. We always associate the liver as the major organ responsible for detoxification of the body; however this process occurs in many tissues. In the same way, as in the liver, the brain expresses metabolic pathways associated with the elimination of xenobiotics. Besides the detoxifying role of CYP2E1 for compounds such as electrophilic agents, reactive oxygen species, free radical products, and the bioactivation of xenobiotics, CYP2E1 is also related in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we describe the presence of phase I monooxygenase CYP2E1 in regions of the brain. We also explore the conditions where protein, mRNA, and the activity of CYP2E1 are induced. Finally, we describe the relation of CYP2E1 in brain disorders, including the behavioral relations for alcohol consumption via CYP2E1 metabolism.

  18. Inhibitory Potency of 4-Carbon Alkanes and Alkenes toward CYP2E1 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethy...

  19. CYP2E1 mediated isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang YUE; Ren-xiu PENG; Jing YANG; Rui KONG; Juan LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of CYP2E1 in isoniazid (INH)-induced hepatotoxicity and the influence of rifampicin (RFP) on INH-induced liver injury. METHODS: Rats were treated with INH alone (100 mg/kg, ip) or co-administered with RFP (100 mg/kg, ig) for 10 d and 21 d. Hepatotoxicity was assayed by plasma enzymes (sALT, sAST) and histopathological examinations. Hepatic CYP2E1 activity was measured by aniline hydroxylase (ANH), and CYP2E1 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Plasma hydrazine concentration was determined by RP-HPLC.RESULTS: For a 10 d INH-treatment, hepatic CYP2E1 level was increased to 3.7-fold over the control; liver impairment appeared after 21 d treatment, while CYP2E1 and plasma hydrazine were, respectively, increased to 4.6-fold and 1.7-fold. However, in INH-RFP group for 10 d, CYP2E1 and plasma hydrazine were, respectively,decreased by 13 % and 18 % over INH group; similarly, hepatic injury is equal to INH group appeared after 21 d,and CYP2E1 was further decreased by 26 %. Correlation analysis showed that sALT had a positive correlation with plasma hydrazine and with CYP2E1 activity; CYP2E1 activity was also markedly correlated with plasma hydrazine.And compared with control, there is no difference in changes of CYP2E1 mRNA expression in INH and INH-RFP treatment for 21 d. CONCLUSION: The metabolite of INH, hydrazine, plays an important role in INH-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The induction of CYP2E1 by hydrazine is involved in the hepatotoxicity of INH. RFP does not exacerbate INH-induced hepatotoxicity in short term, which relates to down-regulation of CYP2E1.

  20. Absence of NR2E1 mutations in patients with aniridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corso-Díaz, Ximena; Borrie, Adrienne E; Bonaguro, Russell;

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptor 2E1 (NR2E1) is a transcription factor with many roles during eye development and thus may be responsible for the occurrence of certain congenital eye disorders in humans. To test this hypothesis, we screened NR2E1 for candidate mutations in patients with aniridia and other congen...... congenital ocular malformations (anterior segment dysgenesis, congenital optic nerve malformation, and microphthalmia)....

  1. CYP2E1-dependent hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage after ethanol administration in human primary hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie-Gang Liu; Hong Yan; Ping Yao; Wen Zhang; Li-Jun Zou; Fang-Fang Song; Ke Li; Xiu-Fa Sun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, in order to address if inhibition of CYP2E1 could attenuate ethanol-induced cellular damage.METHODS: The dose-dependent (25-100 mmol/L) and time-dependent (0-24 h) exposures of primary human cultured hepatocytes to ethanol were carried out. CYP2E1 activity and protein expression were detected by spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis respectively.Hepatotoxicity was investigated by determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level in hepatocyte culture supernatants, as well as the intracellular formation of malondialdehyde (MDA).RESULTS: A dose-and time-dependent response between ethanol exposure and CYP2E1 activity in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Moreover, there was a time-dependent increase of CYP2E1 protein after 100 mmol/L ethanol exposure. Meanwhile, ethanol exposure of hepatocytes caused a time-dependent increase of ceilular MDA level, LDH, and AST activities in supernatants.Furthermore, the inhibitor of CYP2E1, diallyl sulfide (DAS) could partly attenuate the increases of MDA, LDH, and AST in human hepatocytes.CONCLUSION: A positive relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative aamage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and CYP2E1 activity was exhibited, and the inhibition of CYP2E1 could partly attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative damage.

  2. Human CYP2E1 mediates the formation of glycidamide from acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settels, Eva; Bernauer, Ulrike; Palavinskas, Richard; Klaffke, Horst S; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Appel, Klaus E

    2008-10-01

    Regarding the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide (AA) it is of basic interest to know, as to what amount of the absorbed AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) in humans, compared to what has been observed in laboratory animals. GA is suspected of being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of AA. From experiments with CYP2E1-deficient mice it can be concluded that AA is metabolized to GA primarily by CYP2E1. We therefore examined whether CYP2E1 is involved in GA formation in non-rodent species with the focus on humans by using human CYP2E1 supersomes, marmoset and human liver microsomes and in addition, genetically engineered V79 cells expressing human CYP2E1 (V79h2E1 cells). Special emphasis was placed on the analytical detection of GA, which was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results show that AA is metabolized to GA in human CYP2E1 supersomes, in marmoset and human liver microsomes as well as in V79h2E1 cells. The activity of GA formation is highest in supersomes; in human liver it is somewhat higher than in marmoset liver. A monoclonal CYP2E1 human selective antibody (MAB-2E1) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were used as specific inhibitors of CYP2E1. The generation of GA could be inhibited by MAB-2E1 to about 80% in V79h2E1 cells and to about 90% in human and marmoset liver microsomes. Also DDC led to an inhibition of about 95%. In conclusion, AA is metabolized to GA by human CYP2E1. Overall, the present work describes (1) the application and refinement of a sensitive methodology in order to determine low amounts of GA, (2) the applicability of genetically modified V79 cell lines in order to investigate specific questions concerning metabolism and (3) the involvement, for the first time, of human CYP2E1 in the formation of GA from AA. Further studies will compare the activities of GA formation in genetically engineered V79 cells expressing CYP2E1 from different species.

  3. Human CYP2E1 mediates the formation of glycidamide from acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settels, Eva; Appel, Klaus E. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Center for Experimental Toxicology, Berlin (Germany); Bernauer, Ulrike; Gundert-Remy, Ursula [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department of Safety of Substances and Preparations, Berlin (Germany); Palavinskas, Richard; Klaffke, Horst S. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Regarding the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide (AA) it is of basic interest to know, as to what amount of the absorbed AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) in humans, compared to what has been observed in laboratory animals. GA is suspected of being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of AA. From experiments with CYP2E1-deficient mice it can be concluded that AA is metabolized to GA primarily by CYP2E1. We therefore examined whether CYP2E1 is involved in GA formation in non-rodent species with the focus on humans by using human CYP2E1 supersomes trademark, marmoset and human liver microsomes and in addition, genetically engineered V79 cells expressing human CYP2E1 (V79h2E1 cells). Special emphasis was placed on the analytical detection of GA, which was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results show that AA is metabolized to GA in human CYP2E1 supersomes trademark, in marmoset and human liver microsomes as well as in V79h2E1 cells. The activity of GA formation is highest in supersomes trademark; in human liver it is somewhat higher than in marmoset liver. A monoclonal CYP2E1 human selective antibody (MAB-2E1) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were used as specific inhibitors of CYP2E1. The generation of GA could be inhibited by MAB-2E1 to about 80% in V79h2E1 cells and to about 90% in human and marmoset liver microsomes. Also DDC led to an inhibition of about 95%. In conclusion, AA is metabolized to GA by human CYP2E1. Overall, the present work describes (1) the application and refinement of a sensitive methodology in order to determine low amounts of GA, (2) the applicability of genetically modified V79 cell lines in order to investigate specific questions concerning metabolism and (3) the involvement, for the first time, of human CYP2E1 in the formation of GA from AA. Further studies will compare the activities of GA formation in genetically engineered V79 cells expressing CYP2E1 from different species. (orig.)

  4. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech;

    2012-01-01

    The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared......e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly...

  5. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur I. Cederbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes are the major catalysts involved in drug metabolism. There are many forms of P450. CYP2E1 metabolizes many toxicologically important compounds including ethanol and is active in generating reactive oxygen species. Since several of the contributions in the common theme series “Role of CYP2E1 and Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress in the Hepatotoxic Actions of Alcohol” discuss CYP2E1, this methodology review describes assays on how CYP2E1 catalytic activity and its induction by ethanol and other inducers can be measured using substrate probes such as the oxidation of para-nitrophenol to para-nitrocatechol and the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Approaches to validate that a particular reaction e.g. oxidation of a drug or toxin is catalyzed by CYP2E1 or that induction of that reaction is due to induction of CYP2E1 are important and specific examples using inhibitors of CYP2E1, anti-CYP2E1 IgG or CYP2E1 knockout and knockin mice will be discussed.

  6. Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利娟

    2014-01-01

    F. Scott Fitzgerald, the famous American novelist in the 1920s, is famous as the spokesman and laureate of the“The Lost Generation”. Considered one of Fitzgerald’s representative works and the finest achievement of his literary career, The Great Gatsby is widely recognized as a classic of American literature. Since its publication in 1925, it has been a continual hot sub⁃ject of critical attention,and studies on it have never stopped. This paper provides a detailed account of“the Fitzgerald revival”as well as the previous criticism on The Great Gatsby.

  7. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  8. Characterization of polar organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol from the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi Shalamzari, Mohammad; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Blockhuys, Frank; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Lewandowski, Michael; Szmigielski, Rafal; Rudzinski, Krzysztof J.; Spólnik, Grzegorz; Danikiewicz, Witold; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda

    2016-06-01

    We show in the present study that the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal are biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) precursors for polar organosulfates with molecular weights (MWs) 230 and 214, which are also present in ambient fine aerosol from a forested site, i.e., K-puszta, Hungary. These results complement those obtained in a previous study showing that the green leaf aldehyde 3-Z-hexenal serves as a precursor for MW 226 organosulfates. Thus, in addition to isoprene, the green leaf volatiles (GLVs) 2-E-hexenal and 3-Z-hexenal, emitted due to plant stress (mechanical wounding or insect attack), and 2-E-pentenal, a photolysis product of 3-Z-hexenal, should be taken into account for secondary organic aerosol and organosulfate formation. Polar organosulfates are of climatic relevance because of their hydrophilic properties and cloud effects. Extensive use was made of organic mass spectrometry (MS) and detailed interpretation of MS data (i.e., ion trap MS and accurate mass measurements) to elucidate the chemical structures of the MW 230, 214 and 170 organosulfates formed from 2-E-pentenal and indirectly from 2-E-hexenal and 3-Z-hexenal. In addition, quantum chemical calculations were performed to explain the different mass spectral behavior of 2,3-dihydroxypentanoic acid sulfate derivatives, where only the isomer with the sulfate group at C-3 results in the loss of SO3. The MW 214 organosulfates formed from 2-E-pentenal are explained by epoxidation of the double bond in the gas phase and sulfation of the epoxy group with sulfuric acid in the particle phase through the same pathway as that proposed for 3-sulfooxy-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid from the isoprene-related α,β-unsaturated aldehyde methacrolein in previous work (Lin et al., 2013). The MW 230 organosulfates formed from 2-E-pentenal are tentatively explained by a novel pathway, which bears features of the latter pathway but introduces an additional hydroxyl group at the

  9. Microarray-based analysis and clinical validation identify ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E1 (UBE2E1 as a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggested that single gene expression might be correlated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML survival. Therefore, we conducted a systematical analysis for AML prognostic gene expressions. Methods We performed a microarray-based analysis for correlations between gene expression and adult AML overall survival (OS using datasets GSE12417 and GSE8970. Positive findings were validated in an independent cohort of 50 newly diagnosed, non-acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL AML patients by quantitative RT-PCR and survival analysis. Results Microarray-based analysis suggested that expression of eight genes was each associated with 1-year and 3-year AML OS in both GSE12417 and GSE8970 datasets (p < 0.05. Next, we validated our findings in an independent cohort of AML samples collected in our hospital. We found that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E1 (UBE2E1 expression was adversely correlated with AML survival (p = 0.04. Multivariable analysis showed that UBE2E1 high patients had a significant shorter OS and shorter progression-free survival after adjusting other known prognostic factors (p = 0.03. At last, we found that UBE2E1 expression was negatively correlated with patients’ response to induction chemotherapy (p < 0.05. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that UBE2E1 expression was a novel prognostic factor in adult, non-APL AML patients.

  10. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  11. Increased oxidative stress and toxicity in ADH and CYP2E1 overexpressing human hepatoma VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2012-05-01

    High glucose mediated oxidative stress and cell death is a well documented phenomenon. Using VL-17A cells which are HepG2 cells over-expressing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and control HepG2 cells, the association of ADH and CYP2E1 with high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in liver cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured and apoptosis or necrosis was determined through caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and detecting decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and the formation of advanced glycated-end products were assessed. The levels of several antioxidants which included glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were altered in high glucose treated VL-17A cells. Greater toxicity was observed in VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose when compared to HepG2 cells. Oxidative stress parameters were greatly increased in high glucose exposed VL-17A cells and apoptotic cell death was observed. Inhibition of CYP2E1 or caspase 3 or addition of the antioxidant trolox led to significant decreases in high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Thus, the over-expression of ADH and CYP2E1 in liver cells is associated with increased high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity.

  12. Reduction of benzene metabolism and toxicity in mice that lack CYP2E1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, J L; Lee, S S; Seaton, M J; Asgharian, B; Farris, G; Corton, J C; Gonzalez, F J; Medinsky, M A

    1996-11-01

    Transgenic CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1-/-) were used to investigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in the in vivo metabolism of benzene and in the development of benzene-induced toxicity. After benzene exposure, absence of CYP2E1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis of mouse liver samples. For the metabolism studies, male cyp2e1-/- and wild-type control mice were exposed to 200 ppm benzene, along with a radiolabeled tracer dose of [14C]benzene (1.0 Ci/mol) by nose-only inhalation for 6 hr. Total urinary radioactivity and all radiolabeled individual metabolites were reduced in urine of cyp2e1-/- mice compared to wild-type controls during the 48-hr period after benzene exposure. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of total urinary radioactivity could be accounted for as phenylsulfate conjugates in cyp2e1-/- mice compared to wild-type mice, indicating the importance of CYP2E1 in oxidation of phenol following benzene exposure in normal mice. For the toxicity studies, male cyp2e1-/-, wild-type, and B6C3F1 mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0 ppm (control) or 200 ppm benzene, 6 hr/day for 5 days. On Day 5, blood, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen were removed for evaluation of micronuclei frequencies and tissue cellularities. No benzene-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity was observed in cyp2e1-/- mice. In contrast, benzene exposure resulted in severe genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in both wild-type and B6C3F1 mice. These studies conclusively demonstrate that CYP2E1 is the major determinant of in vivo benzene metabolism and benzene-induced myelotoxicity in mice.

  13. The Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/948383.948400 American Scientist,. Computing may be the fourth great domain of science, along with the physical, life, and social sciences.

  14. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  15. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  16. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  17. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  18. The Great Goddesses of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SheldonGosline; KatjaReinhardt; NortheastNormalUniversity

    2000-01-01

    Norman,Oklahoma:UniversityofOklahomaPress:Norman,1999.ISBN0-8061-3202-7.Pp.319.US$19.95.TheGreatGoddessesofEgyptstelltsiebenGoettinnenindenMittelpunktderagyptischenReligionsgeschichte:Nut,Neith,Nechbet,Wadjet,Hathor,MutundIsis.JederGottinisteineigenesKapitelgewidmet,zusatzlichsindeineEinfuhrung,diesichkurzmitderFnihdynastischenZeitbeschaftigt,undeinKapitelzuTempelundKultbeigefugt.EinGlossar,dasGottinnen(keineGotter)undeinigeimTexterwahnteKoniginnenauffuhrt,undeineausfuhrlicheBibliographieschlierendasBuchab....

  19. Symbols in the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琰

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbols in the book"The Great Gatsby" which include some particular places, objects, characters, settings and actions. These symbols are considered to have values different from what they are symbolized and most of them are connected to the theme of the novel-the corruption of the American dream.

  20. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  1. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  2. An H5N1 M2e-based multiple antigenic peptide vaccine confers heterosubtypic protection from lethal infection with pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 2009 global influenza pandemic caused by a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus has posted an increasing threat of a potential pandemic by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus, driving us to develop an influenza vaccine which confers cross-protection against both H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Previously, we have shown that a tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine based on the extracellular domain of M2 protein (M2e from H5N1 virus (H5N1-M2e-MAP induced strong immune responses and cross-protection against different clades of HPAI H5N1 viruses. In this report, we investigated whether such M2e-MAP presenting the H5N1-M2e consensus sequence can afford heterosubtypic protection from lethal challenge with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. Results Our results demonstrated that H5N1-M2e-MAP plus Freund's or aluminum adjuvant induced strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses against M2e of the pandemic H1N1 virus which contains one amino acid variation with M2e of H5N1 at position 13. These cross-reactive antibodies may maintain for 6 months and bounced back quickly to the previous high level after the 2nd boost administered 2 weeks before virus challenge. H5N1-M2e-MAP could afford heterosubtypic protection against lethal challenge with pandemic H1N1 virus, showing significant decrease of viral replications and obvious alleviation of histopathological damages in the challenged mouse lungs. 100% and 80% of the H5N1-M2e-MAP-vaccinated mice with Freund's and aluminum adjuvant, respectively, survived the lethal challenge with pandemic H1N1 virus. Conclusions Our results suggest that H5N1-M2e-MAP has a great potential to prevent the threat from re-emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza and possible novel influenza pandemic due to the reassortment of HPAI H5N1 virus with the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus.

  3. Design and Synthesis of Metal Complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-Phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide and Their Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    OpenAIRE

    P. Murali Krishna; N. B. Gopal Reddy; Nagaraju Kottam; Yallur, B. C.; Hussain Reddy Katreddi

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation has been considered to be an efficient process for the degradation of organic pollutants, which are present in the effluents released by industries. The photocatalytic bleaching of cationic dye methylene blue was carried out spectrometrically on irradiation of UV light using Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL). The effects of pH and metal ion were studied on the efficiency of the reaction...

  4. Morbidly Obese Patients Exhibit Increased CYP2E1-Mediated Oxidation of Acetaminophen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Rongen (Anne); P.A.J. Välitalo (Pyry A. J.); M.Y. Peeters (Mariska); D. Boerma (Djamila); F.W. Huisman (Fokko W.); B. van Ramshorst (Bert); E.H.P.A. van Dongen (Eric); J.N. van den Anker (John); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is mainly metabolized via glucuronidation and sulphation, while the minor pathway through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 is held responsible for hepatotoxicity. In obese patients, CYP2E1 activity is reported to be induced, thereby potentially worsenin

  5. Morbidly Obese Patients Exhibit Increased CYP2E1-Mediated Oxidation of Acetaminophen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, van A.; Välitalo, P.A.J.; Peeters, M.Y.; Boerma, D.; Huisman, F.W.; Ramshorst, van B.; Dongen, van E.P.; Anker, van den J.N.; Knibbe, C.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is mainly metabolized via glucuronidation and sulphation, while the minor pathway through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 is held responsible for hepatotoxicity. In obese patients, CYP2E1 activity is reported to be induced, thereby potentially worsening the safety

  6. Promiscuous Shiga toxin 2e and its intimate relationship to Forssman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muething, Johannes; Meisen, Iris; Zhang, Wenlan; Bielaszewska, Martina; Mormann, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Karch, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represents the major virulence factor responsible for the pig edema disease which is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions, neurological disorders and often fatal outcomes. Stx2e-producing strains from the intestine of slaughtered pigs (n

  7. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  8. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2012-01-01

    by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135); due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2......The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared...... reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine...

  9. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  10. Recurrence Statistics of Great Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, E; Johnson, P A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numerical simulations, while systematically varying the minimal earthquake magnitude Mmin. Our analysis shows that the earthquake record is consistent with a random process for magnitude thresholds 7.0<=Mmin<=8.3, where the number of events is larger. Interestingly, the earthquake record deviates from a random process at magnitude threshold 8.4<=Mmin<= 8.5, where the number of events is smaller; however, this deviation is not strong enough to conclude that great earthquakes are clustered. Overall, the findings are robust both qualitat...

  11. Ohlin on the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Benny; Jonung, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Bertil Ohlin was a most active commentator on current economic events in the interwar period, combining his academic work with a journalistic output of an impressive scale. He published more than a thousand newspaper articles in the 1920s and 1930s, more than any other professor in economics in Sweden. Here we have collected ten articles by Ohlin, translated from Swedish and originally published in Stockholms-Tidningen, to trace the evolution of his thinking during the Great Depression of the...

  12. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  13. Great Basin geoscience data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  14. Inhibition of autophagy induces retinal pigment epithelial cell damage by the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar A.S.M. Saadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show augmented autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 when cultured in the presence of the lipofuscin pigment A2E. A2E alone does not induce RPE cell death, but cell death was induced in the presence of A2E with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA, with a concomitant increase in the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. On the other hand, the ATP production capacity of mitochondria was decreased in the presence of A2E, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy had no additional effects. The altered mRNA expression level of mitochondrial function markers was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the antioxidant enzymes SOD1 and SOD2 were not reduced in the presence of A2E alone, but significantly suppressed with the addition of 3MA. Furthermore, transmission electron micrography revealed autophagic vacuole formation in the presence of A2E, and inhibition of autophagy resulted in the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria with loss of cristae. Spheroid culture of human RPE cells demonstrated debris accumulation in the presence of A2E, and this accumulation was accelerated in the presence of 3MA. These results indicate that autophagy in RPE cells is a vital cytoprotective process that prevents the accumulation of damaged cellular molecules.

  15. The Heart and Great Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, Ekene; King, Nakesha; Heuer, Eric; Breuer, Christopher

    2017-03-13

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. We have made large strides over the past few decades in management, but definitive therapeutic options to address this health-care burden are still limited. Given the ever-increasing need, much effort has been spent creating engineered tissue to replaced diseased tissue. This article gives a general overview of this work as it pertains to the development of great vessels, myocardium, and heart valves. In each area, we focus on currently studied methods, limitations, and areas for future study. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 15597 - Special Conditions: GE Aviation CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... conditions are issued for the General Electric Aviation (GE) CT7-2E1 engine model. This engine model will... ensure the test will run for a 2.5 minute duration with no interruption. Type Certification Basis Under...

  17. Design and synthesis of metal complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide and their photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, P Murali; Reddy, N B Gopal; Kottam, Nagaraju; Yallur, B C; Katreddi, Hussain Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation has been considered to be an efficient process for the degradation of organic pollutants, which are present in the effluents released by industries. The photocatalytic bleaching of cationic dye methylene blue was carried out spectrometrically on irradiation of UV light using Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL). The effects of pH and metal ion were studied on the efficiency of the reaction. Cu(II) complex shows better catalytic activity and the highest percentage degradation (~88.8%) of methylene blue was observed at pH 12. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Metal Complexes of (2E-2-[(2E-3-Phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide and Their Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation has been considered to be an efficient process for the degradation of organic pollutants, which are present in the effluents released by industries. The photocatalytic bleaching of cationic dye methylene blue was carried out spectrometrically on irradiation of UV light using Cu(II, Ni(II, and Co(II complexes of (2E-2-[(2E-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL. The effects of pH and metal ion were studied on the efficiency of the reaction. Cu(II complex shows better catalytic activity and the highest percentage degradation (~88.8% of methylene blue was observed at pH 12. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  19. Drones of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea are attracted to (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid and (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Brockmann, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The queen mandibular gland component (2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid (9-ODA) has been suggested to function as the major sex pheromone component in all honey bee species. In contrast to this hypothesis, chemical analyses showed that in the Asian dwarf honey bee species, Apis florea, a different decenoic acid, (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), is the major component in the mandibular gland secretion. We show here that A. florea drones are attracted to 9-ODA as well as to 10-HDA. However, 10-HDA attracted higher numbers of drones at lower dosages than 9-ODA, and also was more attractive when directly compared to 9-ODA in a dual attraction experiment. We conclude that 10-HDA has to be viewed as the major sex pheromone in A. florea. The result that both pheromone components are capable of attracting drones when presented alone was unexpected with regard to existing sex pheromone attraction experiments in honey bees.

  20. Role of CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms association with hepatitis risk in Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manab; Deka; Moumita; Bose; Bharati; Baruah; Purabi; Deka; Bose; Subhash; Medhi; Sujoy; Bose; Anjan; Saikia; Premashish; Kar

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate hepatitis virus, genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions in predisposing patients to liver diseases in Northeast India. METHODS:A total of 104 jaundice patients and 124 community controls were included. Serological analysis was performed by routine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and nucleic acid testing for hepatitis viruses was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by PCR direct sequencing for viral genotyping. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) polymorphism w...

  1. Cooperative effects for CYP2E1 differ between styrene and its metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative interactions are frequently observed in the metabolism of drugs and pollutants by cytochrome P450s; nevertheless, the molecular determinants for cooperativity remain elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that steady-state styrene metabolism by CYP2E1 exhibits positive cooperativity.We hypothesized that styrene metabolites have lower affinity than styrene toward CYP2E1 and limited ability to induce cooperative effects during metabolism. To test the hypothesis, we determined the pote...

  2. A novel M2e based flu vaccine formulation for dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Leclerc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The USA 2004 influenza virus outbreak H3N8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. A new inactivated H3N8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. Therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The universal M2e peptide is identical in almost all the H3N8 influenza strains sequenced to date and known to infect dogs. This epitope is therefore a good choice for development of a vaccine to provide broad protection. Malva mosaic virus (MaMV nanoparticles were chosen as a vaccine platform to improve the stability of the M2e peptide and increase its immunogenicity in animals. The addition of an adjuvant (OmpC purified from Salmonella typhi membrane in the vaccine formulation increased the immune response directed to the M2e peptide significantly and enlarged the protection to include the heterosubtypic strain of influenza in a mouse model. An optimal vaccine formulation was also shown to be immunogenic in dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The MaMV vaccine platform triggered an improved immune response directed towards the universal M2e peptide. The adjuvant OmpC increased the immune response to the M2e peptide and protection to a heterosubtypic influenza strain that harbors a different M2e peptide in a mouse model. Antibodies generated by the vaccine formulation showed cross-reactivity with M2e peptides derived from influenza strains H9N2, H5N1 and H1N1. The vaccine formulation shows a potential for commercialization of a new M2e based vaccine in dogs.

  3. A2E accumulation influences retinal microglial activation and complement regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an outer retinal disease that involves aging and immune dysfunction. In the aging retina, microglia aggregate in the outer retina and acquire intracellular autofluorescent lipofuscin deposits. In this study, we investigated whether accumulation of A2E, a key bisretinoid constituent of ocular lipofuscin, alters the physiology of retinal microglia in pathologically relevant ways. Our findings show that sublethal accumulations of intracellular A2E in cul...

  4. Lipofuscin and A2E accumulate with age in the retinal pigment epithelium of Nrl-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nicholas P; Tang, Peter H; Higbee, Daniel; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Crouch, Rosalie K; Koutalos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Lipofuscin is a fluorescent material with significant phototoxic potential that accumulates with age in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye. It is thought to be a factor in retinal degeneration diseases. The most extensively characterized lipofuscin component, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), has been proposed to be a byproduct of reactions involving the visual pigment chromophore. To examine the impact of the visual pigment and photoreceptor cell type on lipofuscin accumulation, we analyzed the RPE from Nrl(-/-) mice of various ages for lipofuscin fluorescence and A2E levels. The photoreceptor cells of the Nrl(-/-) retina contain only cone-like pigments, and produce cone-like responses to photostimulation. The cone-like nature of these cells was confirmed by the presence of RPE65. Lipofuscin was measured with fluorescence imaging, whereas A2E was quantified by UV/VIS absorbance spectroscopy coupled to HPLC. The identity of A2E was corroborated with tandem mass spectrometry. Lipofuscin and A2E accumulated with age, albeit to lower levels compared with wild type mice. The emission spectra of RPE lipofuscin granules from Nrl(-/-) mice were similar to those from wild type mice, with λ(max) ca 610 nm. These results demonstrate that cone visual pigments can contribute to the production of lipofuscin and A2E. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  6. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  7. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, John (Washington University)

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  8. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  9. Autophagy Protects against CYP2E1/Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongke Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular pathway by which lysosomes degrade and recycle long-lived proteins and cellular organelles. The effects of ethanol on autophagy are complex but recent studies have shown that autophagy serves a protective function against ethanol-induced liver injury. Autophagy was found to also be protective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro in HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 and in vivo in an acute alcohol/CYPE1-dependent liver injury model. The goal of the current report was to extend the previous in vitro and acute in vivo experiments to a chronic ethanol model to evaluate whether autophagy is also protective against CYP2E1-dependent liver injury in a chronic ethanol-fed mouse model. Wild type (WT, CYP2E1 knockout (KO or CYP2E1 humanized transgenic knockin (KI, mice were fed an ethanol liquid diet or control dextrose diet for four weeks. In the last week, some mice received either saline or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, or rapamycin, which stimulates autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA potentiated the ethanol-induced increases in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in the WT and KI mice but not KO mice, while rapamycin prevented the ethanol liver injury. Treatment with 3-MA enhanced the ethanol-induced fat accumulation in WT mice and caused necrosis in the KI mice; little or no effect was found in the ethanol-fed KO mice or any of the dextrose-fed mice. 3-MA treatment further lowered the ethanol-decrease in hepatic GSH levels and further increased formation of TBARS in WT and KI mice, whereas rapamycin blunted these effects of ethanol. Neither 3-MA nor rapamycin treatment affected CYP2E1 catalytic activity or content or the induction CYP2E1 by ethanol. The 3-MA treatment decreased levels of Beclin-1 and Atg 7 but increased levels of p62 in the ethanol-fed WT and KI mice whereas rapamycin had the opposite effects, validating inhibition and stimulation of autophagy, respectively. These

  10. Cytochrome p450 2E1 polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cardia cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Zong-Li Zheng; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes have recently been shown to affect susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)enzyme catalyzes the metabolism of many procarcinogens,such as N-nitrosamines and related compounds. The gene coding for this enzyme is polymorphic and thus may play a role in gastric cardia cancer (GCC) etiology. In this hospital-based case-control study, we evaluate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1and the risk of GCC.METHODS: The study subjects comprised 159 histologically confirmed GCC cases identified via hospital cancer registry and surgical records at five hospitals in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, between April and November 2001.Controls were 192 patients admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions. The genotypes of CYP2E1were detected by a PCR-based RFLP assay. The odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression analyses and were adjusted for potential confounding factors.RESULTS: The distribution of three genotypes of CYP2E1in GCC cases and controls was significantly different (X2 = 16.04, P<0.01). The frequency of the CYP2E1 (c1/c1)genotype in GCC cases and controls was 60.4% and 40.1%,respectively. The CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype was associated with an increased risk for GCC (the adjusted (OR) was 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52-3.70). Subjects who carried the CYP2E 1 (c1/c1) genotype and were habitual smokers were at a significantly higher risk of developing GCC (OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 2.19-10.04) compared with those who had the CYP2E1 (c1/c2or c2/c2') genotype and did not smoke.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the CYP2E 1genotype may influence individual susceptibility to development of GCC, and that the risk increases significantly in smokers.

  11. CYP2E1-catalyzed oxidation contributes to the sperm toxicity of 1-bromopropane in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C Edwin; Sloan, C; Sumner, S C J; Burgess, J; Davis, J; Etheridge, A; Parham, A; Ghanayem, B I

    2007-03-01

    1-bromopropane (1-BrP) induces dose- and time-dependent reproductive organ toxicity and reduced sperm motility in rodents. The contribution of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to both 1-BrP metabolism and the induction of male reproductive toxicity was investigated using wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-/- mice. In gas uptake inhalation studies, the elimination half-life of [1,2,3-(13)C]-1-BrP was longer in Cyp2e1-/- mice relative to WT (3.2 vs. 1.3 h). Urinary metabolites were identified by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The mercapturic acid of 1-bromo-2-hydroxypropane (2OHBrP) was the major urinary metabolite in WT mice, and products of conjugation of 1-BrP with glutathione (GSH) were insignificant. The ratio of GSH conjugation to 2-hydroxylation increased 5-fold in Cyp2e1-/- mice relative to WT. After 1-BrP exposure, hepatic GSH was decreased by 76% in WT mice vs. 47% in Cyp2e1-/- mice. Despite a 170% increase in 1-BrP exposure in Cyp2e1-/- vs. WT mice, sperm motility in exposed Cyp2e1-/- mice did not change relative to unexposed matched controls. This suggests that metabolites produced through CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be responsible for 1-BrP-induced sperm toxicity. Both 1-BrP and 2OHBrP inhibited the motility of sperm obtained from WT mice in vitro. However, only 2OHBrP reduced the motility of sperm obtained from Cyp2e1-/- mice in vitro, suggesting that conversion of parent compound to 2OHBrP within the spermatozoa may contribute, at least in part, to reduced motility. Overall, these data suggest that metabolism of 1-BrP is mediated in part by CYP2E1, and activation of 1BrP via this enzyme may contribute to the male reproductive toxicity of this chemical.

  12. Cytochrome P450-2E1 promotes fast food-mediated hepatic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Choi, Youngshim; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Banerjee, Atrayee; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) increases oxidative stress. High hepatic cholesterol causes non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Thus, we aimed to study the role of CYP2E1 in promoting liver fibrosis by high cholesterol-containing fast-food (FF). Male wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were fed standard chow or FF for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. Various parameters of liver fibrosis and potential mechanisms such as oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR) were studied. Indirect calorimetry was also used to determine metabolic parameters. Liver histology showed that only WT fed FF (WT-FF) developed NASH and fibrosis. Hepatic levels of fibrosis protein markers were significantly increased in WT-FF. The nitroxidative stress marker iNOS, but not CYP2E1, was significantly elevated only in FF-fed WT. Serum endotoxin, TLR-4 levels, and inflammatory markers were highest in WT-FF. FAS, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and CB1-R were markedly altered in WT-FF. Electron microscopy and immunoblot analyses showed significantly higher levels of ER stress in FF-fed WT. Indirect calorimetry showed that Cyp2e1-null-mice fed FF exhibited consistently higher total energy expenditure (TEE) than their corresponding WT. These results demonstrate that CYP2E1 is important in fast food-mediated liver fibrosis by promoting nitroxidative and ER stress, endotoxemia, inflammation, IR, and low TEE. PMID:28051126

  13. UBE2E Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzymes and Ubiquitin Isopeptidase Y Regulate TDP-43 Protein Ubiquitination*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Friederike; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Strong, Jennifer C.; Jäckel, Sandra; Rasse, Tobias M.; Geisler, Sven; Springer, Wolfdieter; Schulz, Jörg B.; Voigt, Aaron; Kahle, Philipp J.

    2014-01-01

    Trans-activation element DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) characterizes insoluble protein aggregates in distinct subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. TDP-43 mediates many RNA processing steps within distinct protein complexes. Here we identify novel TDP-43 protein interactors found in a yeast two-hybrid screen using an adult human brain cDNA library. We confirmed the TDP-43 interaction of seven hits by co-immunoprecipitation and assessed their co-localization in HEK293E cells. As pathological TDP-43 is ubiquitinated, we focused on the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2E3 and the ubiquitin isopeptidase Y (UBPY). When cells were treated with proteasome inhibitor, ubiquitinated and insoluble TDP-43 species accumulated. All three UBE2E family members could enhance the ubiquitination of TDP-43, whereas catalytically inactive UBE2E3C145S was much less efficient. Conversely, silencing of UBE2E3 reduced TDP-43 ubiquitination. We examined 15 of the 48 known disease-associated TDP-43 mutants and found that one was excessively ubiquitinated. This strong TDP-43K263E ubiquitination was further enhanced by proteasomal inhibition as well as UBE2E3 expression. Conversely, UBE2E3 silencing and expression of UBPY reduced TDP-43K263E ubiquitination. Moreover, wild-type but not active site mutant UBPY reduced ubiquitination of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments and of a nuclear import-impaired mutant. In Drosophila melanogaster, UBPY silencing enhanced neurodegenerative TDP-43 phenotypes and the accumulation of insoluble high molecular weight TDP-43 and ubiquitin species. Thus, UBE2E3 and UBPY participate in the regulation of TDP-43 ubiquitination, solubility, and neurodegeneration. PMID:24825905

  14. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition-induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  16. Cooperative effects for CYP2E1 differ between styrene and its metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative interactions are frequently observed in the metabolism of drugs and pollutants by cytochrome P450s; nevertheless, the molecular determinants for cooperativity remain elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that steady-state styrene metabolism by CYP2E1 exhibits positive cooperativity.We hypothesized that styrene metabolites have lower affinity than styrene toward CYP2E1 and limited ability to induce cooperative effects during metabolism. To test the hypothesis, we determined the potency and mechanism of inhibition for styrene and its metabolites toward oxidation of 4-nitrophenol using CYP2E1 Supersomes® and human liver microsomes.Styrene inhibited the reaction through a mixed cooperative mechanism with high affinity for the catalytic site (67 μM) and lower affinity for the cooperative site (1100 μM), while increasing substrate turnover at high concentrations. Styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol possessed similar affinity for CYP2E1. Styrene oxide behaved cooperatively like styrene, but 4-vinylphenol decreased turnover at high concentrations. Styrene glycol was a very poor competitive inhibitor. Among all compounds, there was a positive correlation with binding and hydrophobicity.Taken together, these findings for CYP2E1 further validate contributions of cooperative mechanisms to metabolic processes, demonstrate the role of molecular structure on those mechanisms and underscore the potential for heterotropic cooperative effects between different compounds. PMID:23327532

  17. The Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2E1 Polymorphisms in Black South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Chelule

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 gene reportedly modify the metabolic activity of CYP2E1 enzyme, and have been associated with increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oesophagus in high prevalence areas such as China. To assess the frequency of these polymorphisms in Black South Africans, a population with a high incidence of oesophageal SCC, this study examined genomic DNA from 331 subjects for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 (RsaI and PstI digestion. The frequency of the CYP2E1 c1/c1 and c1/c3 genotypes was 95% and 5% respectively. The frequency of the CYP2E1 allele distribution was found to be markedly different between Chinese and South African populations; hence it is important to place racial differences into consideration when proposing allelic variants as genetic markers for cancer.

  18. Recognition of two great contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common denominator in the careers of two contemporaries and great men, citizens of Austria-Hungary - Leoš Janáček and Sigmund Freud - was that, in spite of their status as outsiders, they managed to achieve well-deserved recognition. Both non-Germans, they had to surmount a number of obstacles in order to attain their professional goals. The Slavophile Janáček dreamed for a long time of success in Prague, which came at last in 1916, two years before a triumph in Vienna. Freud had serious difficulties in his academic career because of the strengthening of racial prejudices and national hatred which were especially marked at the end of the 19th century. After the dissolution of the Empire things changed for the better for the composer, whose works got an excellent reception in Austria and Germany, whereas the psychiatrist had to leave Vienna after the Anschluss. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  19. Clinical and genetic spectrum in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semplicini, Claudio; Vissing, John; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical spectrum of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2E (LGMD2E) and to investigate whether genetic or biochemical features can predict the phenotype of the disease. METHODS: All LGMD2E patients followed in participating centers were included. A specific clinical protocol...... was created, including quantitative evaluation of motor, respiratory, and cardiac function. Phenotype was defined as severe or mild if the age at loss of ambulation occurred before or after 18 years. Molecular analysis of SGCB gene and biochemical features of muscle biopsies were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty...... (10) with the milder form, and the c.341C>T (9) with both. The entire sarcoglycan complex was undetectable by muscle immunohistochemistry or Western blot in 9/10 severe cases and reduced in 7/7 mild cases. The residual amount of sarcoglycan in muscle resulted a predictor of age at loss of ambulation...

  20. Design, R&D and status of the crystal calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for coherent, neutrinoless conversion of muons into electrons in the field of a nucleus, with a sensitivity improvement of a factor of 10^4 over previous experiments. Such a charged lepton flavor-violating reaction probes new physics at a scale inaccessible with direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. The conversion electron is mono-energetic with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set a limit on the ratio between the conversion rate and the capture rate, R_{\\mu e}, of < 6 x 10^{-17} (@ 90% CL). In this paper, the physics motivation for Mu2e and the current status of the electromagnetic calorimeter project are briefly presented.

  1. Inhibitory Potency of 4-Carbon Alkanes and Alkenes toward CYP2E1 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Miller, Grover P.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethylnitrosamine were included to determine their relative potencies. Of the 1,3-butadiene-derived metabolites studied, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene was the strongest inhibitor with an IC50 of 110 μM compared to 1700 μM and 6600 μM for 1,2-butenediol and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, respectively. Compared to known inhibitors, inhibitory potency of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene is between 4-methylpyrazole (IC50 = 1.8 μM) and dimethylnitrosamine (IC50 = 230 μM). All three butadiene metabolites inhibit CYP2E1 activity through a simple competitive mechanism. Among the 4-carbon compounds studied, the presence and location of polar groups seems to influence inhibitory potency. To further examine this notion, the investigation was extended to include structurally and chemically similar analogs, including propylene oxide and various butane alcohols. Those results demonstrated preferential recognition of CYP2E1 toward the type and location of polar and hydrophobic structural elements. Taken together, CYP2E1 metabolism may be modified in vivo by exposure to 4-carbon compounds, such as drugs, and nutritional constituents, a finding that highlights the complexity of exposure to mixtures. PMID:24561005

  2. Propolis protects CYP 2E1 enzymatic activity and oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2007-08-01

    Induction of CYP 2E1 by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is one of the central pathways by which CCl(4) generates oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Experimental liver injury was induced in rats by CCl(4) to determine toxicological actions on CYP 2E1 by microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. In this report, ethanolic extract of propolis at a dose of 200 mg/kg (po) was used after 24 h of toxicant administration to validate its protective potential. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) (1.5 ml/kg) induced hepatotoxicity after 24 h of its administration that was associated with elevated malonyldialdehyde (index of lipid peroxidation), lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes of CYP 2E1 showed sharp depletion as assessed by estimating aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine N-demethylase activity after CCl(4) exposure. Toxic effect of CCl(4) was evident on CYP 2E1 activity by increased hexobarbitone induced sleep time and bromosulphalein retention. Propolis extract showed significant improvement in the activity of both enzymes and suppressed toxicant induced increase in sleep time and bromosulphalein retention. Choleretic activity of liver did not show any sign of toxicity after propolis treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg (id). Histopathological evaluation of the liver revealed that propolis reduced the incidence of liver lesions including hepatocyte swelling and lymphocytic infiltrations induced by CCl(4). Electron microscopic observations also showed improvement in ultrastructure of liver and substantiated recovery in biochemical parameters. Protective activity of propolis at 200 mg/kg dose was statistically compared with positive control silymarin (50 mg/kg, po), a known hepatoprotective drug seems to be better in preventing hepatic CYP 2E1 activity deviated by CCl(4). These results lead us to speculate that propolis may play hepatoprotective role via improved CYP 2E1 activity and

  3. Functional characterisation of an engineered multidomain human P450 2E1 by molecular Lego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhead, Michael; Giannini, Silva; Gillam, Elizabeth M J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2005-12-01

    The human cytochrome P450s constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. We present here results of a fusion between a human P450 enzyme and a bacterial reductase that for the first time is shown does not require the addition of lipids or detergents to achieve wild-type-like activities. The fusion enzyme, P450 2E1-BMR, contains the N-terminally modified residues 22-493 of the human P450 2E1 fused at the C-terminus to residues 473-1049 of the P450 BM3 reductase (BMR). The P450 2E1-BMR enzyme is active, self-sufficient and presents the typical marker activities of the native human P450 2E1: the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (KM=1.84+/-0.09 mM and kcat of 2.98+/-0.04 nmol of p-nitrocatechol formed per minute per nanomole of P450) and chlorzoxazone (KM=0.65+/-0.08 mM and kcat of 0.95+/-0.10 nmol of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formed per minute per nanomole of P450). A 3D model of human P450 2E1 was generated to rationalise the functional data and to allow an analysis of the surface potentials. The distribution of charges on the model of P450 2E1 compared with that of the FMN domain of BMR provides the ground for the understanding of the interaction between the fused domains. The results point the way to successfully engineer a variety of catalytically self-sufficient human P450 enzymes for drug metabolism studies in solution.

  4. Le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belaidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de présenter quelques problématiques d'une recherche sur la construction d’un mécanisme de valorisation sociale de la protection de l’environnement : l’ordre public écologique. Cette étude s’appuie sur une expérience récente et originale en Afrique australe : la création de Parcs pour la Paix dont relève le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Ces parcs sont officiellement consacrés à la protection et à la conservation de la diversité biologique, des ressources naturelles et culturelles qui y sont associées, ainsi qu’à la promotion de la coopération et de la Paix qu’elle soit civile, sociale, économique ou culturelle. La logique de construction de ces parcs repose sur l’idée que l’articulation des zones de conservation facilite la résolution de conflits territoriaux – de toutes sortes – en transformant les préoccupations environnementales en objet de coopération entre des juridictions politiques diverses. C’est précisément le schéma du concept juridique objet de nos travaux : l’ordre public écologique. Aussi peut-on se demander si le GLTP, en particulier, (peut constitue(r une illustration concrète de ce mécanisme et permettre d’atteindre la Paix recherchée, favorisant ainsi les processus de développement ?This article aims to present some problems of researches on the construction of a mechanism of social valorisation of the environmental protection: ecological public order. This study leans on a recent and original experience in southern Africa: the creation of Peace Park like the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP. These parks are officially dedicated to the protection and to the preservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources which are associated with it, as well as in the promotion of the cooperation and the peace. The peace looked for in these parks is not only the opposite of the war but it is also social, economic and cultural peace

  5. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  6. Cholera: a great global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the theory of (e, 2e) reactions in atomic hydrogen and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, F. W.; Joachain, C. J.; Piraux, B.

    1984-12-01

    We compare the results of eikonal-Born series calculations which we have performed for the (e, 2e) reaction in atomic hydrogen with recent absolute measurements of triple differential cross sections for that process, carried out in the asymmetric coplanar geometry. We find that second-order effects play a crucial role in understanding both the angular positions and the magnitudes of the binary and recoil peaks. The implications of our analysis for the case of (e, 2e) reactions in helium are also discussed.

  8. Muon to electron conversion: The COMET and Mu2e experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Litchfield, R P

    2014-01-01

    I describe the new generation of muon-to-electron conversion experiments, COMET and Mu2e, being constructed to make use of new high power pulsed muon beams a J-PARC and Fermilab respectively. A brief overview of the physics explored by the muon to electron conversion is given, followed by a description of the experimental challenges and resulting features common to the new experiments. The differences in approach between Mu2e and COMET are then highlighted, and the current schedules given.

  9. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  10. Optimization of the muon stopping target for the MU2E collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Zachary Donovan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Mu2e Experiment utilizes state of the art accelerators, superconducting magnets, detectors, electronics, and other equipment to maximize the sensitivity to such a rare process. Many of the components of the Mu2e hardware are critical to the overall physics capability of the experiment. The muon stopping target, where muons are stopped and may interact via this very rare process, is one such component where any improvements beyond the base design can have a significant impact on the experiment. This thesis explores possible modifications to the geometry of the muon stopping target. The goal is to determine if any modifications can improve the sensitivity of observing the muon conversion process.

  11. A regulatory variant in CYP2E1 affects the risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Lin, Jia; He, Bing; Wang, Hongge; Rao, Juan; Liu, Yingwen; Zhang, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an ethanol-inducible enzyme, has been shown to metabolically activate various carcinogens, which is critical for the development of cancers. It has been demonstrated that CYP2E1 polymorphisms alter the transcriptional activity. However, studies on the association between CYP2E1 -1239G>C polymorphism and non-small cell lung cancer have reported conflicting results. Thus, the gain of the present study was to investigate whether CYP2E1 -1239G>C polymorphism is associated with the development of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted in which CYP2E1 -1239G>C polymorphism was analyzed in 526 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer and 526 age-matched healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Odds ratios were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of CYP2E1 -1239G>C polymorphism with the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population by calculating pooled odds ratio (OR). For CYP2E1 -1239G>C polymorphism, -1239C allele carriers (OR = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.87; P = 0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of non-small cell lung cancer when compared with -1239GG homozygotes. In the group analyses by pathological types, for lung squamous cell carcinoma and other types, the ORs of the C allele carriers were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.41-0.88; P = 0.009) and 0.54 (95% CI = 0.30-0.99; P = 0.045). In the group analysis of smoking status, the OR for the -1239C allele-containing genotype was higher than that for -1239GG genotype (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.40-0.81; P = 0.002) among smokers, but not among nonsmokers. Moreover, when the risk associated with CYP2E1 polymorphism was further evaluated within strata of C polymorphism and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer. Meta-analysis data also showed that the carriers of CYP2E1 -1239C allele

  12. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  13. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  14. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  15. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  16. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  17. Simple synthesis of pyrrolo[3,2-e]indole-1-carbonitriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Trawczyński

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkylation of 5-nitroindol-4-ylacetonitriles with ethyl chloroacetate, α-halomethyl ketones, and chloroacetonitrile followed by a treatment of the products with chlorotrimethylsilane in the presence of DBU gives 1-cyanopyrrolo[3,2-e]indoles substituted in position 2 with electron-withdrawing groups.

  18. MARS Tracking Simulations for the Mu2e Slow Extracted Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaslaev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Rakhno, Igor [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Particle tracking taking into account interactions with fields and materials is necessary for proper evaluation of the resonant extraction losses and geometry optimization for the extraction beam line. This paper describes the tracking simulations for the Mu2e Resonant Extraction and discusses the geometry choices made based on these simulations.

  19. A 2e Parent's Journey: Persistence, Partnership, and the Provision of Unconditional Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I have four children, three of whom are twice exceptional in the context of the new Community of Practice (2e CoP) definition highlighted in this issue. I share a personal story of a parent's journey in persistence, partnerships, and the provision of unconditional love.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AW2E-2VENA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AW2E-2VENA 1AW2 2VEN E A --RHPVVMGNWKLNGSKEMVVDLLNGLNAELEGVTGVDV...RQLDAVINTQGVEALEGAIIAYEPIWAIGTGKAATAEDAQRIHAQIRAHIAEK-SEAVAKNVVIQYGGSVKPENAAAYFAQPDIDGALVGGAALDAKSFAAIAKAAAE...entryChain> 2VEN A 2VENA 2VEN A 2VENA ERLSH--PK...indel> 2 2VEN A 2VENA

  1. Energy and time resolution for a LYSO matrix prototype of the Mu2e experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Atanov, N; Colao, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Dane`, E; Davydov, Y I; Flood, K; Giovannella, S; Glagolev, V; Happacher, F; Hitlin, D G; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Miyashita, T; Morescalchi, L; Ott, P; Pezzullo, G; Saputi, A; Sarra, I; Soleti, S R; Tassielli, G; Tereshchenko, V; Thomas, A

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the performances of a LYSO crystal matrix prototype tested with electron and photon beams in the energy range 60$-$450 MeV. This study has been carried out to determine the achievable energy and time resolutions for the calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment.

  2. A 2e Parent's Journey: Persistence, Partnership, and the Provision of Unconditional Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I have four children, three of whom are twice exceptional in the context of the new Community of Practice (2e CoP) definition highlighted in this issue. I share a personal story of a parent's journey in persistence, partnerships, and the provision of unconditional love.

  3. 78 FR 53051 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-Decadienoate (Pear Ester); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Ethyl-2E,4Z-Decadienoate (Pear Ester); Exemption From the Requirement of a...-2E,4Z- decadienoate (pear ester) in or on all food commodities. This regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester)....

  4. Heterologous expression of human cytochrome P450 2E1 in HepG2 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhuge; Ye Luo; Ying-Nian Yu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Human cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) takes part in the biotransformation of ethanol, acetone, many smallmolecule substrates and volatile anesthetics. CYP2E1 is involved in chemical activation of many carcinogens,procarcinogens, and toxicants. To assess the metabolic and toxicological characteristics of CYP2E1, we cloned CYP2E1 cDNA and established a HepG2 cell line stably expressing recombinant CYP 2E1.METHODS: Human CYP2E1 cDNA was amplified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)from total RNAs extracted from human liver and cloned into pGEM-T vector. The cDNA segment was identified by DNA sequencing and subcloned into a mammalian expression vector pREP9. A transgenic cell line was established by transfecting the recombinant plasmid of pREP9-CYP2E1 to HepG2 cells. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was validated by RT-PCR. The enzyme activity of CYP2E1 catalyzing oxidation of 4-nitrophenol in postmitochondrial supernate (S9) fraction of the cells was determined by spectrophotometry. The metabolic activation of HepG2-CYP2E1 cells was assayed by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)cytotoxicity and micronucleus test.RESULTS: The cloned CYP2E1 cDNA segment was identical to that reported by Umeno et al(GenBank access No.J02843). HepG2-CYP2E1 cells expressed CYP2E1 mRNA and had 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity (0.162±0.025nmol.min-1.mg-1 S9 protein), which were undetectable in parent HepG2 cells. HepG2-CYP2E1 cells increased the cytotoxicity and micronucleus rate of NDEA in comparison with those of HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: The cDNA of human CYP2E1 can be successfully cloned, and a cell line, HepG2-CYP2E1, which can efficiently express mRNA and has CYP2E1 activity, is established. The cell line is useful for testing the cytotoxicity,mutagenicity and metabolism of xenobiotics, which may possibly be activated or metabolized by CYP2E1.

  5. Exact spectra of strong coulomb correlations of 3-D 2-e harmonic dots in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Sharma, Shivalika; Kaur, Harsimran; Singh, Sunny; Hazra, Ram Kuntal

    2017-01-01

    Applications of 3-D 2-e systems have proliferated very fast due to technological advancements in wide range of phenomena from atomic landscape to mesoscopic scale. The unusual properties of atomic/mesoscopic systems are the results of interplaying charge interactions among different bound states. The non-trivial e-e correlations in electrically and/or magnetically confined systems improvise wealth of intriguing challenges at fundamental level due to lack of exact solution of Schrödinger equations. For the first time, a novel methodology of exactly finite summed coulomb correlations invented by us is so handy that even usual programmable calculator can be used to examine the electronic structures of 3-D 2-e harmonic dots in perpendicular magnetic field (symmetric gauge). Statistics of electronic levels, heat capacity measurements and magnetization (T∼1 K) are also investigated in brief to probe the degree of disorderedness.

  6. Final Technical Report: Mu2e at the City University of New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Kevin [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States); Popp, James [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2017-06-25

    This DOE grant award for was for the period June 1, 2013 to March 31, 2016. Popp was awarded an internship in the Visiting Faculty Program at FNAL in summer of 2015; consequently the unused portion of summer salary funds allowed us to apply for a no-cost extension with our remaining funds until March 31, 2017. That support furnished us with the means to carry out numerous successful projects for Mu2e for nearly four years. Up to now, the driving force to our work has been dictated primarily by the Mu2e Project cost and schedule needs. Our work has been under the purview of three of the Working Groups to which we belong: Target Station, Electron Tracker, and Stopping Target Monitor. We have carried out a mix of bench-top testing tasks locally, more elaborate work at Fermilab every summer, and extensive software development and simulation studies.

  7. Measurement of the electron structure function F2e at LEP energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic part of the electron structure function F2e has been measured for the first time, using e+e− data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of s=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F2e data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F2γ analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  8. Performance of Wavelength-Shifting Fibers for the Mu2e Cosmic Ray Veto Detector

    CERN Document Server

    DeZoort, G; Kessenich, H; Oksuzian, Y; Rase, T; Shooltz, D

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment will search for a neutrino-less muon-to-electron conversion process with almost four orders of magnitude of sensitivity improvement relative to the current best limit. One important background is caused by cosmic ray muons, and particles produced by their decay or interactions, mimicking the conversion electron signature. In order to reach the design sensitivity, Mu2e needs to obtain a cosmic ray veto (CRV) efficiency of 99.99\\%. The CRV system consists of four layers of plastic scintillating counters read out by silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifting fibers. The CRV counters must produce sufficient photo statistics in order to achieve the required veto efficiency. We study the light properties of several wavelength shifting fiber sizes in order to optimize the total light yield for the CRV system. The measurements are performed using a scanner designed to ensure fiber quality for the CRV.

  9. Epitope Mapping of Avian Influenza M2e Protein: Different Species Recognise Various Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haliza Hasan

    Full Text Available A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e protein of avian influenza virus (AIV as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb and chicken antibodies (cAbs recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development.

  10. Book Review: Professional Penetration Testing: Creating and Learning in a Hacking Lab 2E

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Bartolomie

    2013-01-01

    Wilhelm, T. (2013). Professional Penetration Testing: Creating and Learning in a Hacking Lab 2E. Waltham, MA: Syngress, 464 pages, ISBN-10: 1597499935; ISBN-13: 978-1597499934, US$79.99Reviewed by Joshua Bartolomie, CISSP, CEECS, CFCE, DFCP, CRISC, CSMOrganizations often strive for proactive information security programs in an effort to limit occurrence and impact of security breaches. However, traditional security programs run the risk of being unable to provide adequate insight and proactiv...

  11. Energy to the Edge (E2E) U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-21

    experienced: The E2E team found a typical base is a mix of buildings and tents at most sites visited, with very little commonality. Sites had poor to no...required to meet energy demands for hybrid technologies. The Sundial installed at Heredia was able to power the TOC and other buildings . The...solutions of OE. The REF sponsored several “ NetZero at the Tactical Edge” workshops as follows: • Arizona State University, February 13-14, 2012

  12. Mouse Spermatocytes Express CYP2E1 and Respond to Acrylamide Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Belinda J.; Katen, Aimee L.; Stanger, Simone J.; Schjenken, John E.; Nixon, Brett; Roman, Shaun D.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450s (encoded by the CYP genes) often leads to bio-activation, producing reactive metabolites that interfere with cellular processes and cause DNA damage. In the testes, DNA damage induced by xenobiotics has been associated with impaired spermatogenesis and adverse effects on reproductive health. We previously reported that chronic exposure to the reproductive toxicant, acrylamide, produced high levels of DNA damage in spermatocytes of Swiss mice. CYP2E1 metabolises acrylamide to glycidamide, which, unlike acrylamide, readily forms adducts with DNA. Thus, to investigate the mechanisms of acrylamide toxicity in mouse male germ cells, we examined the expression of the CYP, CYP2E1, which metabolises acrylamide. Using Q-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we establish that CYP2E1 is expressed in germ cells, in particular in spermatocytes. Additionally, CYP2E1 gene expression was upregulated in these cells following in vitro acrylamide exposure (1 µM, 18 h). Spermatocytes were isolated and treated with 1 µM acrylamide or 0.5 µM glycidamide for 18 hours and the presence of DNA-adducts was investigated using the comet assay, modified to detect DNA-adducts. Both compounds produced significant levels of DNA damage in spermatocytes, with a greater response observed following glycidamide exposure. A modified comet assay indicated that direct adduction of DNA by glycidamide was a major source of DNA damage. Oxidative stress played a small role in eliciting this damage, as a relatively modest effect was found in a comet assay modified to detect oxidative adducts following glycidamide exposure, and glutathione levels remained unchanged following treatment with either compound. Our results indicate that the male germ line has the capacity to respond to xenobiotic exposure by inducing detoxifying enzymes, and the DNA damage elicited by acrylamide in male germ cells is likely due to the formation of glycidamide adducts. PMID:24788432

  13. CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 polymorphism frequencies in a large Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Santos Coura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes encoded by the polymorphic genes CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 play an important role in the activation and inactivation of xenobiotics. These enzymes have been associated with xenobiotic-induced diseases, such as cancer, therapeutic failure and adverse effects of drugs. The aim of the present study was to determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of these polymorphisms in a large, ethnically mixed Brazilian population sample from Rio de Janeiro. Polymorphisms CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 were determined in 870 unrelated individuals by PCR-RFLP analysis in peripheral blood DNA. The observed allelic frequencies were 0.90 for CYP1A1*1A and 0.95 for CYP2E1*1A, in the total sample. The allelic frequency of CYP1A1*2C in "pardos" (0.13 and Brazilian whites (0.11 was higher than in Caucasians (0.05, which may be a result of the Amerindian genetic component, that presents the highest frequency of this allele observed up to now. The genotype distributions for both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were statistically different between males and females, and among ethnic groups.

  14. W2E--Wellness Warehouse Engine for Semantic Interoperability of Consumer Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honko, Harri; Andalibi, Vafa; Aaltonen, Timo; Parak, Jakub; Saaranen, Mika; Viik, Jari; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-11-01

    Novel health monitoring devices and applications allow consumers easy and ubiquitous ways to monitor their health status. However, technologies from different providers lack both technical and semantic interoperability and hence the resulting health data are often deeply tied to a specific service, which is limiting its reusability and utilization in different services. We have designed a Wellness Warehouse Engine (W2E) that bridges this gap and enables seamless exchange of data between different services. W2E provides interfaces to various data sources and makes data available via unified representational state transfer application programming interface to other services. Importantly, it includes Unifier--an engine that allows transforming input data into generic units reusable by other services, and Analyzer--an engine that allows advanced analysis of input data, such as combining different data sources into new output parameters. In this paper, we describe the architecture of W2E and demonstrate its applicability by using it for unifying data from four consumer activity trackers, using a test base of 20 subjects each carrying out three different tracking sessions. Finally, we discuss challenges of building a scalable Unifier engine for the ever-enlarging number of new devices.

  15. In vivo and in vitro characterization of CYP2E1 activity in Japanese and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R B; Yamazaki, H; Chiba, K; O'Shea, D; Mimura, M; Guengerich, F P; Ishizaki, T; Shimada, T; Wilkinson, G R

    1996-10-01

    Chlorzoxazone's disposition after oral administration was determined in 20 young healthy Caucasian men and a similar group of Japanese men. The drug's plasma concentrations were significantly higher and its rate of elimination slower in Japanese compared to Caucasian men. Accordingly, chlorzoxazone's oral clearance was smaller (40%) in Japanese men and a similar difference (30%) was still apparent after normalizing for body weight (3.74 +/- 1.23 versus 5.05 +/- 1.41 ml.min-1.kg-1, P relationships were found between measures of CYP2E1 activity, both in vivo and in vitro, and genomic polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene identified by Rsal/Pstl and Dral restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Collectively, these data show an interracial difference in CYP2E1 activity. Because this enzyme is importantly involved in the activation of environmental procarcinogens, such a difference may account, in part, for the lower rate of some cancers, e.g., lung cancer, in Japanese compared to Caucasians men.

  16. Cosmic background rejection by means of the calorimeter in the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio, E-mail: pezzullo@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa (Italy); INFN sezione di Pisa (Italy); Murat, Pavel [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Sarra, Ivano; Lucà, Alessandra [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    Mu2e experiment [J.R. Abrams, et al., Mu2e conceptual design report (http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7019)] searches for coherent, neutrino-less conversion of muons into electrons in the field of a nucleus with a sensitivity of fews parts in 10{sup −17} (a factor of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} over existing limits). Mu2e apparatus takes advantage of high intensity muon beams which hit muon stopping targets (devoted for the capture) and uses a basic detector system which is composed by a low-mass straw tubes tracker and by a LYSO crystal calorimeter. One of the main source of background which afflicts this measure is the cosmic induced background. To suppress and keep that source under control the calorimeter operates both: muon identification (with a muon rejection factor of about 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3}) and fake-signal-electron (created via muon interactions with the experimental set-up) rejection. In this paper a description of the calorimeter role in cosmic suppression is reported showing results from GEANT4 simulations.

  17. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  18. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bray Hedworth, Angela; Smith, Cassidy S

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death among adults in the United States and in the Great Lakes states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network was created to enhance collaboration and coordination among the Great Lakes states to reduce the burden of stroke and stroke-related disparities associated with race, sex, and geography. Three priorities were identified for reducing the effects of stro...

  19. Book review: Three great tsunamis: Lisbon (1755), Sumatra-Andaman (2004), and Japan (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    “Three Great Tsunamis: Lisbon (1755), Sumatra–Andaman (2004), and Japan (2011)” is published in Springer’s new series SpringerBriefs. According to Springer’s website, the SpringBriefs volumes are intended to provide “concise summaries of cutting-edge research and practical applications across a wide spectrum of fields”. Among the several categories considered for SpringerBriefs are in-depth case studies, for which this volume is most closely aligned.

  20. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...... and economic interests....

  1. Reading and Teaching the Novel, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Roslyn M., Ed.

    This volume on reading and teaching the novel contains six articles: "Close Reading: The Novel in the Senior School" by S. E. Lee discusses the advantages of rereading and analytical reading in high school; "Teaching 'The Great Gatsby'" by David Mallick discusses the difficulties of teaching this novel and provides a lesson plan; "The Operation of…

  2. One-Dimensional Stacking of Bifunctional Dithia- and Diselenadiazolyl Radicals : Preparation and Structural and Electronic Properties of 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] (E = S, Se)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, M.P.; Douglass, D.C.; Fleming, R.M.; Glarum, S.H.; Haddon, R.C.; Marsh, P.; Oakley, R.T.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Trucks, G.W.; Tycko, R.; Waszczak, J.V.; Young, K.M.; Zimmerman, N.M.; Cordes, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and solid-state characterization of the 1,3-phenylene-bridged bis(dithiadiazolyl) and bis(diselenadiazolyl) diradicals 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] (E = S, Se) are reported. The isomorphous crystals of 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] so obtained are tetragonal, space group I41/a. Stacks of dira

  3. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  4. Simple method for Shiga toxin 2e purification by affinity chromatography via binding to the divinyl sulfone group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Arimitsu

    Full Text Available Here we describe a simple affinity purification method for Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e, a major causative factor of edema disease in swine. Escherichia coli strain MV1184 transformed with the expression plasmid pBSK-Stx2e produced Stx2e when cultivated in CAYE broth containing lincomycin. Stx2e bound to commercial D-galactose gel, containing α-D-galactose immobilized on agarose resin via a divinyl sulfone linker, and was eluted with phosphate-buffered saline containing 4.5 M MgCl2. A small amount of Stx2e bound to another commercial α-galactose-immobilized agarose resin, but not to β-galactose-immobilized resin. In addition, Stx2e bound to thiophilic adsorbent resin containing β-mercaptoethanol immobilized on agarose resin via a divinyl sulfone, and was purified in the same manner as from D-galactose gel, but the Stx2e sample contained some contamination. These results indicate that Stx2e bound to D-galactose gel mainly through the divinyl sulfone group on the resin and to a lesser extent through α-D-galactose. With these methods, the yields of Stx2e and attenuated mutant Stx2e (mStx2e from 1 L of culture were approximately 36 mg and 27.7 mg, respectively, and the binding capacity of the D-galactose gel and thiophilic adsorbent resin for Stx2e was at least 20 mg per 1 ml of resin. In addition, using chimeric toxins with prototype Stx2 which did not bind to thiophilic adsorbent resin and some types of mutant Stx2e and Stx2 which contained inserted mutations in the B subunits, we found that, at the least, asparagine (amino acid 17 of the B subunits was associated with Stx2e binding to the divinyl sulfone group. The mStx2e that was isolated exhibited vaccine effects in ICR mice, indicating that these methods are beneficial for large-scale preparation of Stx2e toxoid, which protects swine from edema disease.

  5. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  6. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...

  7. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  8. A Report from Great Smoky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑾

    2008-01-01

    This is a report from Great Smoky Mountain. From this report, I will tell you a story about me and my team. After ten years of hardworking, we made some achievements in Branson, Missouri in America, and then we turned to Great Smoky Mountain for another business. To my group and me, itis like a legend.

  9. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the... every year, the draw need not open for vessels. If the fourth Sunday falls on a religious holiday,...

  10. Structure of Pyrazole Derivatives Impact their Affinity, Stoichiometry, and Cooperative Interactions for CYP2E1 Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 plays a critical role in detoxication and carcinogenic activation of drugs, pollutants, and dietary compounds; however, these metabolic processes can involve poorly characterized cooperative interactions that compromise the ability to understand and predict CYP2E1 metabolism. Herein, we employed an array of ten azoles with an emphasis on pyrazoles to establish the selectivity of catalytic and cooperative CYP2E1 sites through binding and catalytic studies. Spectral binding studies for m...

  11. Structure of Pyrazole Derivatives Impact their Affinity, Stoichiometry, and Cooperative Interactions for CYP2E1 Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Bradley, Amber M.; Laddusaw, Ryan M.; Perry, Martin D.; Miller, Grover P.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 plays a critical role in detoxication and carcinogenic activation of drugs, pollutants, and dietary compounds; however, these metabolic processes can involve poorly characterized cooperative interactions that compromise the ability to understand and predict CYP2E1 metabolism. Herein, we employed an array of ten azoles with an emphasis on pyrazoles to establish the selectivity of catalytic and cooperative CYP2E1 sites through binding and catalytic studies. Spectral binding studies for m...

  12. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  13. Cooperativity in CYP2E1 metabolism of acetaminophen and styrene mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H; Letzig, Lynda G; Roberts, Dean W; James, Laura P; Fifer, E Kim; Miller, Grover P

    2015-10-01

    Risk assessment for exposure to mixtures of drugs and pollutants relies heavily on in vitro characterization of their bioactivation and/or metabolism individually and extrapolation to mixtures assuming no interaction. Herein, we demonstrated that in vitro CYP2E1 metabolic activation of acetaminophen and styrene mixtures could not be explained through the Michaelis-Menten mechanism or any models relying on that premise. As a baseline for mixture studies with styrene, steady-state analysis of acetaminophen oxidation revealed a biphasic kinetic profile that was best described by negative cooperativity (Hill coefficient=0.72). The best-fit mechanism for this relationship involved two binding sites with differing affinities (Ks=830μM and Kss=32mM). Introduction of styrene inhibited that reaction less than predicted by simple competition and thus provided evidence for a cooperative mechanism within the mixture. Likewise, acetaminophen acted through a mixed-type inhibition mechanism to impact styrene epoxidation. In this case, acetaminophen competed with styrene for CYP2E1 (Ki=830μM and Ksi=180μM for catalytic and effector sites, respectively) and resulted in cooperative impacts on binding and catalysis. Based on modeling of in vivo clearance, cooperative interactions between acetaminophen and styrene resulted in profoundly increased styrene activation at low styrene exposure levels and therapeutic acetaminophen levels. Current Michaelis-Menten based toxicological models for mixtures such as styrene and acetaminophen would fail to detect this concentration-dependent relationship. Hence, future studies must assess the role of alternate CYP2E1 mechanisms in bioactivation of compounds to improve the accuracy of interpretations and predictions of toxicity.

  14. An X-ray mapper for the Mu2e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. H. [Duke U.; Wang, C. [Duke U.

    2015-10-17

    We report on the construction and performance of a scanner using a collimated x-ray beam to find the positions of wires, straws, slots and spheres. The technique is based on measuring the transmission rate of the beam, and their positions can be determined ~25 μm accuracy. The spheres or slots attached to the detector can also be optically surveyed externally to transfer the coordinates of wires and straws to other detector systems. The scanner was developed for the Mu2e straw tracker but may have a wide range of applications.

  15. Occupational Survey Report. Ground Radio Communications, AFSC 2E1X3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    analyzed the data, and wrote the final report. Mr. Tyrone Hill provided computer-programming support, and Ms. Dolores Navarro and Ms. Sherry Evans...AFSC 2E1X3 members selected military-related education and training opportunities and medical/ dental care for AD members as their second and third...TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES 52 2.52 55 2.49 50 2.34 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR AD MEMBER 60 2.57 55 2.56 53 2.48 MEDICAL/ DENTAL CARE FOR FAMILY MEMBERS 48

  16. Post-collision interactions and the polarization effect in (e, 2e) collisions of helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Shuang-Shuang; Ge Zi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A modified distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) method is used to calculate the triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) in a coplanar asymmetric geometry for the electron impact single ionization of a He (1s2) atom at intermediate and lower energies.The post-collision interaction and the polarization effect in (e,2e) collisions of helium are considered in the calculations.The polarization potentials from the damping method and density functional theory (DFT) arc compared.Theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data.

  17. An X-ray mapper for the Mu2e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. H. [Duke U.; Wang, C. [Duke U.

    2015-10-17

    We report on the construction and performance of a scanner using a collimated x-ray beam to find the positions of wires, straws, slots and spheres. The technique is based on measuring the transmission rate of the beam, and their positions can be determined ~25 μm accuracy. The spheres or slots attached to the detector can also be optically surveyed externally to transfer the coordinates of wires and straws to other detector systems. The scanner was developed for the Mu2e straw tracker but may have a wide range of applications.

  18. An X-ray mapper for the Mu2e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.H.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-21

    We report on the construction and performance of a scanner using a collimated x-ray beam to find the positions of wires, straws, slots and spheres. The technique is based on measuring the transmission rate of the beam, and their positions can be determined ~25 μm accuracy. The spheres or slots attached to the detector can also be optically surveyed externally to transfer the coordinates of wires and straws to other detector systems. The scanner was developed for the Mu2e straw tracker but may have a wide range of applications.

  19. Cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphism and gastric cancer in Changle, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Shun-Zhang Yu; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphism in enzymes of carcinogen metabolism has been found to have the influence on the susceptibility to cancer. Cytochrome P450 2E1 ( CYP2 E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitroscoamines and Iow molecular weight organic compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CYP450 2Elpolymorphisms are associated with risk s of gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population based case-control study in Changle county, Fujian Province, a high-risk region of gastric cancer in China. Ninety-one incident gastric cancer patients and ninety-four healthy controls were included in our study. Datas including dsmographic characteristcs, diet intake, and alcohol and tobacco consumption of indivduals in our study were completed by a standardized questionnaire. PCR-RFLP revealed three genotypes: heterozygote (C1/C2) and two homozygotes (C1/C1 and C2/C2) in CYP2E1. RESULTS: The frequency of variant genotypes (C1/C2 and C2/C2) in gastric cancer cases and controls was 36.3% and 24.5%, respectively. The rare homozygous C2/C2 genotype was found in 6 indivduals in gastric cancer group(6.6%),whereas there was only one in the control group (1.1%).However, there was no statistically significan difference between the two groups (two-tailed Fisher′s exact test, P =0.066). Indivduals in gastric cancer group were more likely to carry genotype C1/C2 (odds ratio, OR = 1.50) and C2/C2(OR = 7.34) than indivduals in control group (X2 = 4.597, for trend P=0.032). The frequencies of genofypes with the C2allele ( C1/C2 and C2/C2 genotypes) were compared with those of genotypes without C2 allele ( C1/C1 genotype )among indivduals in gastric cancer group and control group according to the pattern of gastric cancer risk factors. The results show that indivduals who exposed to these gastric cancer risk factors and carry the C2 allele seemed to have a higher risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSION

  20. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green.

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on E2E Pharmacovigilance Planning; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "E2E Pharmacovigilance Planning." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes a method for summarizing the important potential and identified risks of a drug. It proposes a structure for a pharmacovigilance plan and sets out principles of good practice for the design and conduct of observational studies. The guidance is intended to aid in planning pharmacovigilance activities, especially in preparation for the early postmarketing period of a new drug.

  2. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  3. Cytotoxicity of acrylamide and its epoxide glycidamide in CHO cells expressing human cytochrome P450 2E1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoulin Wang; Xiaoyang He; Xinru Wang; Junyan Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether CYP2E1 is responsible for the acrylamide metabolic activation in Flp-In CHO cell system. Methods: CYP2E1 cDNA was subcloned from the human liver full-length cDNA library and subsequently transfected into the Flp-In CHO cells to generate the stable transfectant of CYP2E1. The CYP2E1 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Acrylamide and its epoxide glycidamide induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest in G2/M were conducted using MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: In the CHO cell stably expressing CYP2E1 (CHO-2E1), a ~1.5 kbsize of band was detected from the mRNA in the cells while no corresponding band in the CHO-vector cells, which indicated that CYP2E1 was successfully transfected in the CHO cells. Compared with the CHO-vector cells, acrylamide showed a concentrationdependent loss of viability in the CHO-2E1 cells but no significant change of G2/M arrest was found. As expected, glycidamide induced similar profile of cytotoxicity in both of the cells, and G2/M arrest presented a concentration-dependent increased in the CHO-2E1 cells. Conclusion: The result suggested that CYP2E1 might be responsible for the acrylamide metabolism, and its metabolite glycidamide was a direct cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. It should be further considered whether acrylamide-induced toxicity is through its epoxide glycidamide in the presence of CYP2E1.

  4. Water quality modelling of the river Yamuna (India) using QUAL2E-UNCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Ritu; Sharma, Prateek; Kansal, Arun

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the utility of QUAL2E as a modelling package in the evaluation of a water quality improvement programme. In this study, QUAL2E was applied to determine the pollution loads in the river Yamuna during its course through the national capital territory of Delhi, India. The study aimed at examining the influence of different scenarios on river water quality. Four different pollution scenarios were analysed besides the 'business as usual' situation. The study revealed that it was necessary to treat the discharge from drains to the river Yamuna and diversion of a substantial load to the Agra canal for further treatment was also essential. It was also established through this study that maintaining a flow rate of more than 10 m(3)/s in the river could also help preserve the river's water quality. To clearly display the model outcomes and demarcate polluted zones in the river stretch, model results were interfaced with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce cartographic outputs. In addition, uncertainty analysis in the form of first-order error analysis and Monte Carlo analysis was performed, to realise the effect of each model parameter on DO and BOD predictions. The uncertainty analysis gave satisfactory results on simulated data.

  5. Performance study of single undoped CsI crystals for the Mu2e experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Donghia, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the charged lepton flavor violating neutrinoless muon to electron conversion. The goal of the experiment is to reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 x 10^{-17}, to set an upper limit on the muon conversion rate at 6.7 x 10^{-17} in a three years run. For this purpose, the Mu2e detector is designed to identify electrons from muon conversion and reduce the background to a negligible level. It consists of a low mass straw tracker and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter. In this paper, the performance of undoped CsI single crystal is reported. Crystals from many vendors have been characterized by determining their Light Yield (LY) and Longitudinal Response Uniformity (LRU), when read with a UV extended PMT, and their time resolution when coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier. The crystals show a LY of ~ 100 photoelectrons per MeV when wrapped with Tyvek and coupled to the PMT without optical grease. The LRU is well represented by a linear slope that is on average 0.6%/c...

  6. NOAO E2E Integrated Data Cache Initiative Using iRODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, I.; Scott, D.; Timmermann, E.

    2011-07-01

    The NOAO Mass Storage System (MSS) holds astronomical data collected from about two dozen different scientific instruments at eleven telescopes on three mountain tops in two different countries both north and south of the Equator. Data are transferred via the net, from each mountain to Data Centers in La Serena, Chile and Tucson, Arizona. Then replicated across both hemispheres. A third copy is saved on tape at NCSA. This system is collectively called the End-to-End system (E2E). The data flow and file repository management is accomplished using a collection of custom code built on top of the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) developed by Data Intensive Cyber Environments (DICE) research group at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the Institute for Neural Computation at the University of California, San Diego. iRODS, the Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System, is a data grid software system developed by DICE and collaborators and the successor to SRB. Both SRB and iRODS provide the ability to manage large amounts of data which can be distributed across data centers. This paper will describe why NOAO Science Data Management (SDM) chose iRODS as the next generation file repository management system for the E2E data management system.

  7. [Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2E1 and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chaaben, Arij; Abaza, Hajer; Douik, Hayet; Chaouch, Leila; Ayari, Fayza; Ouni, Nesrine; Mamoghli, Tasnim; Ben Guezella, Dorra; Mejri, Rachida; Harzallah, Latifa; Guemira, Fethi

    2015-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a detoxifying enzyme that belongs to the phase I metabolism of xenobiotics. This enzyme is encoded by a highly polymorphic gene whose common polymorphism corresponds to the substitution of cytosine (C) and thymine (T) at position -1019 (rs2031920). This polymorphism has been identified in several cancers including nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). The study involved 124 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, compared with 166 healthy controls. The presence or absence of the polymorphism is determined by PCR-RFLP. The frequency comparison between the two groups is determined by the χ(2) test. The analysis of our results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mutant genotype (C2/C2) (5% vs. 0.5%, P=0.04) and has a risk factor for NPC in Tunisia (OR=8.39; CI 95% [0.99-388.1]). Also, the C2 allele was significantly associated with the group of patients than the control group (6% vs. 2%, P=0.016) and increased three times the risk of NPC in Tunisia (OR=2.99, CI 95% [1.12-8.79]). Our results confirm the results reported in other populations and emphasize the importance of the involvement of this gene in the development of detoxification of the NPC, which seems more and more strongly associated with environmental factors.

  8. Comparison of chlorzoxazone one-sample methods to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Iza; Dalhoff, Kim; Clemmesen, Jens O

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of a one-sample with a multi-sample method (the metabolic fractional clearance) to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans. METHODS: Healthy, male Caucasians ( n=19) were included. The multi-sample fractional clearance (Cl(fe)) of chlorzoxazone was compared with one...... estimates, Cl(est) at 3 h or 6 h, and MR at 3 h, can serve as reliable markers of CYP2E1 activity. The one-sample clearance method is an accurate, renal function-independent measure of the intrinsic activity; it is simple to use and easily applicable to humans.......-time-point clearance estimation (Cl(est)) at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h. Furthermore, the metabolite/drug ratios (MRs) estimated from one-time-point samples at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h were compared with Cl(fe). RESULTS: The concordance between Cl(est) and Cl(fe) was highest at 6 h. The minimal mean prediction error (MPE) of Cl...

  9. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet.

  10. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  11. Controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. através de diferentes concentrações de CO2 e O2 Control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots with different concentrations of CO2 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações dos gases: CO2 e O2 balanceado com N, no controle de Sitophilus zeamais. Utilizou-se parcelas subdivididas no tempo com parcela principal distribuída segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. A unidade experimental constou de um vidro com volume de cinco litros, onde estavam acondicionados 0,15 kg de milho desinfestado e 200 insetos adultos não sexados. Foram avaliadas oito concentrações de gases (tratamentos: 0,03% de CO2 e 21% de O2 (testemunha, 10% de CO2 e 16% de O2, 15% CO2 e 16% O2, 20% CO2 e 16% O2, 0% CO2 e 5% O2, 0% CO2 e 1% O2, 75% CO2 e 5% O2, e 12% CO2 e 8% O2. Os resultados demonstraram que 20% de CO2 controla totalmente os insetos em cinco dias. Tratamento com 15% de CO2 associado com 5% de O2, controla a totalidade dos insetos após dez dias. Concentração de 1% O2, sem adição de CO2, também controla 100% da população de Sitophilus zeamais. após 15 dias.This experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of different CO2 and 0(2 concentrations on the contral of Sitophilus zeamais. The experimental design was a split-plot in time, with the main plot distribucted in a completly randomized design, with four replications. The plot was consisted of a 5-liter glass chamber, in which 0.15 kg of desinfected maize with 200 unsexed adults insects. Eight gas concentrations were avaluated: 0.03% of CO2 and 21% of O2 (control, 10% of CO2 and 16% of O2, 15% of CO2 and 16% of O2, 20% of CO2 and 16% of O2, 0% of CO2 and 5% of O2, 0% of CO2 and 1% of O2, 15% of CO2 and 5% of O2 and 12% of CO2 and 8% of O2. Results demonstrated that 20% of CO2 controlled the insects in five days. Treatment with 15% of CO2 and 5% of 0(2 controlled 100% of insects in 10 days and 0% of CO2 and 1% of O2 controlled in 15 days.

  12. Astronomical diaries and observations from the time of the Great War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, J. D.

    2003-10-01

    My great grandfather Harry Thomas, of Llandudno, kept diaries for many years. Only those for 1913 to 1916 survive, though they contain passing references to earlier volumes. Items of astronomical interest are presented here. Harry's brother, Dr Bernard Thomas (1868?1935 May 13), at this time lived in Hobart, Tasmania and was a more serious amateur astronomer.

  13. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  14. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  15. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  16. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  17. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  19. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  20. The Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德平

    2009-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald's finest novel, which was published in 1925, and Eliot considered it "to be the first step that America has taken since Henry James". It is a sensitive and symbolic treatment of themes of contemporary life related with irony and pathos to the legendry of "American dream". In this novel, Fitzgerald used many techniques: the controlled and detached point of view, the crafted structure and symbolism, all these distinguish The Great Gatsby from the style of his earlier works.However, in this paper Ⅰ want to present my ideas of the symbolism in The Great Gatsby. During my pressntation, Ⅰ have quoted some materials from critics to support my arguments. In the conclusion part, Ⅰ also repeat my own opinion: the significant symbolism made The Great Garry the "small" masterpiece of American literature

  1. Mediocrity and Romance in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯莹莹

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby tells a romantic tragedy between Gatsby and Daisy. Throughout the novel romance and mediocrity are closely mingled together. The paper tries to explore the mixture of the both that lies in Gatsby and Daisy as well.

  2. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  3. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  4. Rights in the Great Lakes Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-11-08

    Nov 8, 1997 ... Great Lakes region was host to some 1,253,000 refugees or about ..... North East. ..... voluntary repatriation, integration into the local community in .... Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persans in Asia, I IHL, San Renamo,.

  5. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  6. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  7. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  8. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  9. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of NR2E3 affect in vivo dimerization and interaction with CRX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Roduit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NR2E3 (PNR is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for proper photoreceptor determination and differentiation. In humans, mutations in NR2E3 have been associated with the recessively inherited enhanced short wavelength sensitive (S- cone syndrome (ESCS and, more recently, with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. NR2E3 acts as a suppressor of the cone generation program in late mitotic retinal progenitor cells. In adult rod photoreceptors, NR2E3 represses cone-specific gene expression and acts in concert with the transcription factors CRX and NRL to activate rod-specific genes. NR2E3 and CRX have been shown to physically interact in vitro through their respective DNA-binding domains (DBD. The DBD also contributes to homo- and heterodimerization of nuclear receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed NR2E3 homodimerization and NR2E3/CRX complex formation in an in vivo situation by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET(2. NR2E3 wild-type protein formed homodimers in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. NR2E3 homodimerization was impaired in presence of disease-causing mutations in the DBD, except for the p.R76Q and p.R104W mutant proteins. Strikingly, the adRP-linked p.G56R mutant protein interacted with CRX with a similar efficiency to that of NR2E3 wild-type and p.R311Q proteins. In contrast, all other NR2E3 DBD-mutant proteins did not interact with CRX. The p.G56R mutant protein was also more effective in abolishing the potentiation of rhodospin gene transactivation by the NR2E3 wild-type protein. In addition, the p.G56R mutant enhanced the transrepression of the M- and S-opsin promoter, while all other NR2E3 DBD-mutants did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest different disease mechanisms in adRP- and ESCS-patients carrying NR2E3 mutations. Titration of CRX by the p.G56R mutant protein acting as a repressor in trans may account for the severe clinical phenotype in adRP patients.

  10. CYP2E1 impairs GLUT4 gene expression and function: NRF2 as a possible mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoni, M; Harel, C; Ramdas, M; Karnieli, E

    2014-06-01

    Impaired GLUT4 function/expression in insulin target tissues is well-documented in diabetes and obesity. Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) induces oxidative stress, leading to impaired insulin action. CYP2E1 knockout mice are protected against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity; however the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We examined whether CYP2E1 impairs GLUT4 gene expression and function in adipose and muscle cells. CYP2E1 overexpression in skeletal muscle-derived L6 cells inhibited insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake, with the latter inhibition being blocked by vitamin E. CYP2E1 overexpression in L6 and primary rat adipose (PRA) cells suppressed GLUT4 gene expression at promoter and mRNA levels, whereas CYP2E1 silencing had opposite effects. In PRA, CYP2E1-induced suppression of GLUT4 expression was blocked by chlormethiazole (CYP2E1-specific inhibitor) and the antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetyl-l-cysteine. CYP2E1 effect was mediated by the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), as evident from its complete reversal by a coexpressed dominant-negative, but not wild-type NRF2. GLUT4 transcription was suppressed by NRF2 overexpression, and enhanced by NRF2 silencing. Promoter and ChIP analysis showed a direct and specific binding of NRF2 to a 58-326 GLUT4 promoter region that was required to maintain CYP2E1 suppression; this binding was enhanced by CYP2E1 overexpression. We suggest a mechanism for CYP2E1 action that involves: a) suppression of GLUT4 gene expression that is mediated by NRF2; b) impairment of insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and function. CYP2E1 and NRF2 are introduced as negative regulators of GLUT4 expression and function in insulin-sensitive cells.

  11. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  12. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  13. The Gothic Features in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jia-xuan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most well-known novels of Charles Dickens, it is difficult to define one single specific genre for Great Expectations. It is widely recognized as a bildungsroman and realistic fiction and social criticism. In addition to all these genres, we can also identify many intriguing features of Gothic novel. This paper is devoted to interpreting the Gothic characteristics of Great Expectations, and particularly, settings characters, and the narration of the novel are the major focuses of analysis.

  14. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  15. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  16. Detection of the barium daughter in 136Xe →136Ba+2e- by in situ single-molecule fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David R.

    2016-07-01

    A robust technique for rejection of all γ-ray induced backgrounds in the search for the decay 136Xe→136Ba+2e- is needed to proceed to ton-scale detection systems. Efficient detection of the barium daughter would provide a long-sought pathway toward this goal. Single-molecule fluorescent imaging may offer a new way to detect the barium daughter atom in a naturally ionized state. A doubly charged barium ion can initiate a chelation process with a non-fluorescent precursor molecule, leading to a highly fluorescent complex. Repeated photo-excitation of the complex can reveal both presence and location of a single ionized atom with high precision and selectivity. Detection would be automatic, and is accomplished within the active volume of a xenon gas Time Projection Chamber operating at high pressure.

  17. Mammalian cytochrome CYP2E1 triggered differential gene regulation in response to trichloroethylene (TCE) in a transgenic poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Strand, Stuart E; Doty, Sharon L

    2010-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important environmental contaminant of soil, groundwater, and air. Studies of the metabolism of TCE by poplar trees suggest that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Using poplar genome microarrays, we report a number of putative genes that are differentially expressed in response to TCE. In a previous study, transgenic hybrid poplar plants expressing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) had increased metabolism of TCE. In the vector control plants for this construct, 24 h following TCE exposure, 517 genes were upregulated and 650 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed vector control plants. However, in the transgenic CYP2E1 plant, line 78, 1,601 genes were upregulated and 1,705 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed transgenic CYP2E1 plant. It appeared that the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants overexpressing mammalian CYP2E1 showed a larger number of differentially expressed transcripts, suggesting a metabolic pathway for TCE to metabolites had been initiated by activity of CYP2E1 on TCE. These results suggest that either the over-expression of the CYP2E1 gene or the abundance of TCE metabolites from CYP450 2E1 activity triggered a strong genetic response to TCE. Particularly, cytochrome p450s, glutathione S-transferases, glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters in the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants were highly expressed compared with in vector controls.

  18. 0,1 distribution in the highest level sequences of primitive sequences over Z2e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Shuqin(

    2003-01-01

    [1]Ward, M., The arithmetical theory of linear recurring sequences, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc, 1933, 35(6):600-628.[2]Dai Zongduo, Binary sequences derived from ML-sequences over rings I: Periods and minimal polynomials,Journal of Cryptology, 1992, 5: 193-207.[3]Dai, Z. D., Beth, T., Gollman, D., Lower bounds for the linear complexity of sequences over residue rings, Advances in Cryptology-Eurocrypt's 90, Spring-Verlag LNCS 19991, 473: 189-195.[4]Zeng Kencheng, Dai Zongduo, Huang Minqiang, Injectiveness of mappings from ring sequences to their sequences of the significant bits, Symposium on Theoretical Problems of Cryptology, State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Beijing, China, June 1995, 132-141.[5]Boztas, S., Hammons, A. R., Kumar, P. V., 4-phase sequences with near-optimum correlation properties, IEEE. Trans. Inform. Theory, 1992, 38: 1101-1113.[6]Kuzmin, A. S., Nechaev, A. A., A construction of noise stable codes using linear recurrents over Galois rings,Russian Math. Surveys, 1992, 47: 189-190.[7]Qi Wenfeng, Zhou Jinjun, Distribution of 0 and 1 in highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e, Science in China, Ser. A, 1997, 40(6): 606-611.[8]Qi Wenfeng, Zhou Jinjun, Distribution of 0 and 1 in highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e (Ц),Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(8): 633-635.[9]Zhu Fengxiang, Qi Wenfeng, Distribution of 0 and 1 in the highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e,Advances in Cryptology-CHINACRYPT' 2000, Beijing: Science Press, 2000, 1-5.[10]Kamlovski, O. V., Kuzmin, A. S., Distribution of elements on cycles of linear recurrents sequences over Galois rings, Russian Math. Surveys, 1998, 53(2): 392-393.[11]Kumar, P. V., Helleseth, T., Calderbank, A. R., An upper bound for Weil exponential sums over Galois rings and applications, IEEE. Trans. Infor. Theory, 1995, 41:456-468.

  19. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  20. Design, status and test of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Matteo; et al.

    2016-06-17

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a aluminum nucleus. The dynamic of such a process is well modeled by a two-body decay, resulting in a monoenergetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.967 MeV). The calorimeter of this experiment plays an important role to provide excellent particle identification capabilities and an online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities. The baseline calorimeter configuration consists of two disks each made with about 700 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large area UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers. These crystals match the requirements for stability of response, high resolution and radiation hardness. In this paper we present the final calorimeter design.

  1. Book Review: Professional Penetration Testing: Creating and Learning in a Hacking Lab 2E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Bartolomie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wilhelm, T. (2013. Professional Penetration Testing: Creating and Learning in a Hacking Lab 2E. Waltham, MA: Syngress, 464 pages, ISBN-10: 1597499935; ISBN-13: 978-1597499934, US$79.99Reviewed by Joshua Bartolomie, CISSP, CEECS, CFCE, DFCP, CRISC, CSMOrganizations often strive for proactive information security programs in an effort to limit occurrence and impact of security breaches. However, traditional security programs run the risk of being unable to provide adequate insight and proactive awareness into real attack vectors that may exist within their organizations. With attack methods and efforts becoming increasingly aggressive, and effective, organizations must take equally assertive measures to protect their critical information and assets. Penetration testing is one of those tools that is often misunderstood, overlooked, and undervalued. A true adversary would not hesitate to exploit every potential to gain entry or cause a disruption to their target.(see PDF for full review

  2. Effect of age condition on fatigue properties of 2E12 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Liang; DU Feng-shan; DAI Sheng-long; YANG Shou-jie

    2010-01-01

    The fatigue behaviors of 2E12 aluminum alloy in T3 and T6 conditions at room temperature in air were investigated.The microstructures and fatigue fracture surfaces of the alloy were examined by transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The results show that the alloy exhibits higher fatigue crack propagation(FCP)resistance in T3condition than in T6 condition,the fatigue life is increased by 54% and the fatigue crack growth rate(FCGR)decreases significantly.The fatigue fractures of the alloy in T3 and T6 conditions are transgranular.But in T3 condition,secondary cracks occur and fatigue striations are not clear.In T6 condition,ductile fatigue striations are observed.The effect of aging conditions on fatigue behaviors is explained in terms of the slip planarity of dislocations and the cyclic slip reversibility.

  3. Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital of Cyclopentanone by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-Feng; NING Chuan-Gang; DENG Jing-Kang; REN Xue-Guang; SU Guo-Lin; YANG Tie-Cheng; HUANG Yan-Ru

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report the first measurements of the momentum profiles of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the complete valence shell binding energy spectra of cyclopentanone with impact energies of 600 and 1200 eV by a binary (e, 2e) spectrometer. The experimental momentum profiles of the HOMO orbital are compared with the theoretical momentum distribution calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods with various basis sets. However, none of these calculations gives a completely satisfactory description of the momentum distributions of the HOMO 7b2. The inadequacy of the calculations could result in the intensity difference of the second maximum at p ~l.2a.u. between the experiment and the theory. The discrepancy between experimental and theoretical data in the low-momentum region is explained with the distorted wave effect.

  4. Measurement of Time Resolution of the Mu2e LYSO Calorimeter Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanov, N. [Jouint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); et al.

    2015-09-16

    In this paper we present the time resolution measurements of the LutetiumYttrium Oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) calorimeter prototype for the Mu2e experiment. The measurements have been performed using the e- beam of the Beam Test Facility (BTF) in Frascati, Italy in the energy range from 100 to 400 MeV. The calorimeter prototype consisted of twenty five 30x30x130 mm3, LYSO crystals read out by 10x10 mm2 Hamamatsu Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs). The energy dependence of the measured time resolution can be parametrized as σt(E) = a/pE/GeV⊕b, with the stochastic and constant terms a = (51±1) ps and b = (14 ± 1) ps, respectively. This corresponds to the time resolution of (162 ± 3) ps at 100 MeV.

  5. Out-of-Time Beam Extinction in the MU2E Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prebys, E. J. [Fermilab; Werkema, S. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the conversion of a muon to an electron in the field of an atomic nucleus with unprecedented sensitivity. The experiment requires a beam consisting of proton bunches 250 ns FW long, separated by 1.7 $\\mu$ sec, with no out-of-time protons at the $10^{10}$ fractional level. Satisfying this "extinction" requirement is very challenging. The formation of the bunches is expected to result in an extinction on the order of $10^5$. The remaining extinction will be accomplished by a system of resonant magnets and collimators, configured such that only in-time beam is delivered to the experiment. Our simulations show that the total extinction achievable by the system is on the order of $10^{12}$, with an efficiency for transmitting in-time beam of 99.6%.

  6. Measurement of time resolution of the Mu2e LYSO calorimeter prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Atanov, N; Colao, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Dané, E; Davydov, Yu I; Flood, K; Giovannella, S; Glagolev, V; Happacher, F; Hitlin, D G; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Miyashita, T; Morescalchi, L; Pezzullo, G; Saputi, A; Sarra, I; Soleti, S R; Tassielli, G; Tereshchenko, V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the time resolution measurements of the Lutetium-Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) calorimeter prototype for the Mu2e experiment. The measurements have been performed using the $e^-$ beam of the Beam Test Facility (BTF) in Frascati, Italy in the energy range from 100 to 400 MeV. The calorimeter prototype consisted of twenty five 30x30x130 mm$^3$, LYSO crystals read out by 10x10 mm$^2$ Hamamatsu Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs). The energy dependence of the measured time resolution can be parametrized as $\\sigma_{t}(E)=a/\\sqrt{E/\\mathrm{GeV}} \\oplus b$, with the stochastic and constant terms $a=(51\\pm1)$ ps and $b=(14\\pm1)$ ps, respectively. This corresponds to the time resolution of ($162\\pm3$) ps at 100 MeV.

  7. Design, status and test of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Atanov, N; Budagov, J; Carosi, R; Cervelli, F; Colao, F; Cordelli, M; Corradi, G; Danè, E; Davydov, Y I; Di Falco, S; Donati, S; Donghia, R; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Giovannella, S; Glagolev, V; Grancagnolo, F; Happacher, F; Hitlin, D G; Martini, M; Miscetti, S; Miyashita, T; Morescalchi, L; Murat, P; Piacentino, G M; Pezzullo, G; Raffaelli, F; Saputi, A; Sarra, I; Spinella, F; Tassielli, G; Tereshchenko, V; Usubov, Z; Zhu, R Y

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a aluminum nucleus. The dynamic of such a process is well modeled by a two-body decay, resulting in a monoenergetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.967 MeV). The calorimeter of this experiment plays an important role to provide excellent particle identification capabilities and an online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities. The baseline calorimeter configuration consists of two disks each made with about 700 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large area UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers. These crystals match the requirements for stability of response, high resolution and radiation hardness. In this paper we present the final calorimeter design.

  8. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green. The Lego plot inset indicates the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters. The second inset shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 leptons originate from the same primary vertex.

  9. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green. The larger inset shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The smaller inset shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 leptons originate from the same primary vertex.

  10. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  11. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  12. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  13. [The Great Ape Project--human rights for the great anthropoid apes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, W

    2000-01-01

    The Great Ape Project (GAP) is an appeal of 36 scientist from different disciplines aiming at the legal equalisation of the non-human great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans) with man. The appeal is expressed by a number of essays stating zoological, genetical, ethological, anthropological, ethical and psychological knowledge and, based on these arguments, demanding the abolition of the species barrier between human beings and great apes. The central point of the initiative is the "Declaration on Great Apes", claiming the inclusion of great apes in the "community of equals" and thus securing three basic rights for all great apes: 1. The Right of Life; 2. The Protection of Individual Liberty; 3. The Prohibition of Torture. Not only experiments with great apes and their capture from the wilderness will be banned, but it is also intended to enfranchise as many great apes as possible from research laboratories and zoos. As a legal basis for the achievement of basic rights most of the authors plead for the idea of conferring the moral status of "persons" on great apes. Criticism of the GAP is due to its anthropocentrism. Rejection is especially expressed by advocates of pathocentric ethics who argue that the species barrier will not be abolished but only shifted, running then between the great apes and the remaining living beings. However, the GAP resulted in a greater retention in the use of great apes for experiments in several industrial countries. Additionally, the popular literature published by ethologists in the passed decades has supported a more responsible attitude of the public towards primates. Despite of all efforts the survival of the great apes is greatly endangered within their native countries.

  14. CYP2E1 Pst Ⅰ/Rsa Ⅰ polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the association between CYP2E1 PstⅠ/RsaⅠ polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer.METHODS:A meta-analysis based on 10 eligible casecontrol studies involving 4979 cases and 6012 controls was carried out to summarize the data on the association between CYP2E1 RsaⅠ/PstⅠ polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk.RESULTS:In comparison of the homozygote c2c2 and c2 carriers(c1c2 + c2c2) and the homozygous wild-type genotype(c1c1),no association was found between CYP2E1 RsaⅠ/PstⅠ polymorph...

  15. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; León,Mario Bermúdez de; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2005-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as ...

  16. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  17. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  18. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 2. Appendixes A - B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    can be divided into three sections. The lower section, from Montreal at the Jacques Cartier bridge to the mouth of the St. Regis River, is 73 miles long...walls with a co- polymer couiting and removing the ice that does adhere by using portable steam hoses with nozzles would handle the general lock wall...periods when there are no vessels and as a flusher only during locking cycles. Also, a co- polymer coating would be applied to the gate and gate recess 9:o

  19. Experience of Soviet Medicine in a Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945. Volume 16, Section 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-22

    bullet break of the bones of extremities and multipla failure of nerves according to location of break and damaged nerves (in the percentages). (0 ( " U...Injured it is strong retaraed, but consciousness is preserved. Pulse of 88 shocks per minute, very weak; blood pressure 50/30 ms . DOC 80093610 PAGR B...blockda (saapariostsal and cover-) 10.8o/o use/ipplication of bromida- U.7o,/o of injured pecpl4. in connection with ta..n or compl1:x therapeutic ms -asur

  20. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 4. Appendixes D - F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Hw4k H 4.41 41 EnN~ HHs~C. 0 za a% a. 1 - nr a% N C)0 0 N O C4)j-It q~ H1 H H- 0 ’i.’III; 4); 1 C; Q. L; .r cn ~~ r- N0 "H 0 Z0 COLA r-’TM14 P-1...41 CA Z ~ ~ Cu COCA ’ 04 0 w 0 1110 04 0 0) Cu 0) 0% C 64 -4 N4 L -44 O (I> A- WA E--3 0% LA in r’. 001 -4 0 InI LA - N .4 r- 00 co .4 -4 CI 00 cc -4...the site location. Winter for many birds and terrestrial mammals is a critical period. Metabolic demands created by low temperatures, winds, and

  1. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 9. Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    nl op n (11 sa . ’Jv ir ea i to tihe river. i igh potent al for oulturaL rcju-, , ijmi -t .; :rve’ r ,xi red he [ore i~se . ipprecjiAl)JC ioCial jinp ...Wisconsin Albert Quie, Minnesota " Robert 1. Ray, Iowa Sen . Rudy Boschwiv -, Minnesota " John Culve:, Iowa Dave Durenber,er, Minnesota Roger Jepsen, Iowa

  2. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 6. Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    State Park, Effigy Mounds, and Wyalusing State Park. A trail connecting Effigy Mounds, Pikes Peak, and the Yellow River Forest areas would be a... River Forest - Pikes Peak-Effigy Mounds area (Iowa) and within Wyalusing ’ State Park (Wisconsin). 3. The Corps of Engineers and State of Wisconsin should

  3. Experience of Soviet Medicine in a Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945. Volume 16, Section 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-22

    Tabla 240. Distribution of injured people with bullet break of the bones of shin, complicated and not complicated osteomyelitis, according to the duration...illustrated by the following observations. Page 395. I., 29 years, it is injured 26/ XII 1942 into the right forearm with the break of radial bone...easily oy the comparison of scrap end into the end, as is evident trom the fcllowing observation. I., 27 years 7/ XII 1943 it is discarded from the pons

  4. History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-20

    million people had lived before the war, had been cleansed of the occupiers. But almost half of the temporarily-occupied Soviet territory - 906,000 sq...ruined, and in need of help. In 1943, on the territory which was cleansed of the occupiers, a * Now Volgograd. 4 I total of 270,000 tons of pig-iron...the juices from the peoples who fell under their domination. The increasing pillage of the occupied countries, the use of the labor of war prisoners, of

  5. Comparative Analysis of Potential Auxiliary Icebreaking Devices/Systems for Great Lakes. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Icebreaking, Report No. 1978, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce , July 1978. Deslauriers, P.C. and Lewis, J.W., Model Evaluation of the...Engineers and Constructors, 1975. * Dickins, D., Air Cushion Vehicle Ice Breaking Canadian Coast Guard Hovercraft Voyageur , Test Report, Ministry of

  6. Simulation of Oil Slick Transport in Great Lakes Connecting Channels. Volume 1. Theory and Model Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    attempted to analyze in detail the 3 hydrodynamic problem defined above (Kerr and Babu, 1970; 5 15 U DePietio and Cox, 1979; and Foda and Cox, 1980...Water Management and Planning Branch.. Foda , M. and R.G. Cox, (1980). "The spreading of thin liquid films on a water-air interface," Journal of Fluid

  7. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 5. Fish and Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    made in the backwaters. 3. PLAN OF ACTION The FWMWG action plan as stated on April 30, 1975, reads : 41 * .- ’m i + - - -’",- - - - " ,’F "The...Dorosoma ceedianum) Mooneye (HiodoiniterisusY A A C Northern Pike (Esox lucius) A A A Carp (yprinus carpio A A A Suckers ( Catostomidae ) A CD A Blue...chiefly of fish 2 and 3 years old. The most significant year class shifted from age 3 to age 2 over the five surveys. Most of the sauger taken were age 3

  8. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 6. Appendixes H - L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    dissemination to affected personnel, for the use of volunteers where possible, and for more personnel involvement and feedback . More summer vacation time...effective-% used in lock gale machiner. recesses to present ice btudiup. Air- hubrler ines along the lock floor chamber have been efle ::ise in

  9. Experience of Soviet Medicine in a Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945. Volume 16, Section 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-22

    period - in leucopenia . Was increased a quantity of nautrophilic leukocytes and young forms. According to N. N. &skalonov, in 1.9o/o of injured people...some injured people, however, is noted leucopenia , predominantly in the areactive phase of the terminal period of sepsis. Leukocyte formula was

  10. Great Wall Drilling Company Operating Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great changes have taken place in Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC) since the start of the new century, when GWDC conducted a profound reorganization in response to CNPC's (China National Petroleum Corporation)continuously restructuring strategy. The reorganization leads to a new top management full of youthful spirit and rich experience in international business by inviting applications for its key positions from the whole drilling sector of CNPC. Also, an effective organization structure forms with its characteristic of centering on international market development and overseas operations, aiming to raise its competitiveness internationally.

  11. Daisy Shadow upon the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智慧

    2016-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a significant classic in American literature. The Great Gatsby tells the love story between young Gatsby and rich Daisy. From the moment they loved each other, they cherished their pure love; to the moment Daisy hurt Gatsby twice, fragile love and crushed American dream came into their life, which indirectly led to Gatsby's death. Daisy Shadow has swallowed Gatsby's soul and destroyed his whole life. The sarcasm of the novel also makes people try best to find a good or proper ending to Gatsby, while so many possibilities lead to nothing proper.

  12. Usage of Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓斌

    2008-01-01

    F.Scott Fitzgerald.the famous American novelist in the 20th century,is known as the spokesman and laureate of the"Jazz Age"American.whose works give us an accurate picture of the American twenties:the prosperity of economy and the moral absence.Written in 1925.The Great Gatsby is one of the great literary documents of Fitzgerald's period,which wins many favorable praises.Fitzgerald has adopted plenty of symbols to reflect the theme of the times and the value of America in his outstanding representative works,and this thesis tries to analyze their symbolic meaning and significance.

  13. Language Features of The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢云川

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F.Scott Fitzgerald.Besides great popularity for its vivid depiction of the Ameri-can Dream,the novel also impresses the world with its skillfully used American English which is interwoven with the plots,the characters and the theme.The article is to explore how Fitzgerald analyzes the class system of the American society and what enables him to express this analysis through different types of A-merican English.

  14. Great Importance Attached to Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Intangible Cultural Heritage on Verge of Extinction? With the acceleration of globalization and modernization, dramatic changes have taken place in China's cultural ecology: intangible cultural heritage is confronted with great challenges and a lot of orally and behaviorally transmitted cultural heritage disappear one after another; a great deal of traditional craftsmanship is on the verge of extinction; a large number of precious objects and materials of historical and cultural values are destroyed,deserted or lost in foreign countries; arbitrary misuse and excessive exploitation of intangible cultural heritage occur from time to time. Therefore, the protection of intangible cultural heritage brooks no delay.

  15. THE GREAT SILK ROAD AND TURKISH WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.

  16. CYP2E1PstI/RsaI polymorphism and interaction with tobacco, alcohol and GSTs in gastric cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania); S. de Lauretis (Angelo); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); G. Ricciardi (Gualtiero)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractStudies investigating the association between cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) 5'-flanking region (PstI/RsaI) polymorphism and gastric cancer risk report conflicting results. The rationale for this meta-analysis was to determine whether CYP2E1*2 (c2) variant allele of CYP2E1 increases

  17. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  18. Comparação das técnicas de turbinectomia com laser de CO2 e laser a diodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintra Pedro Paulo Vivacqua da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação das técnicas de turbinectomia com laser de CO2 e da redução volumétrica das conchas nasais inferiores de maneira intersticial com o laser de diodo, em pacientes com hipertrofia do parênquima nasal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte Longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 60 pacientes submetidos a estes procedimentos com um período de seguimento de 6 meses de acordo com protocolo onde foram avaliados os parâmetros de sangramento, dor e avaliação subjetiva da obstrução nasal pré e pós-operatória. RESULTADOS: As técnicas demonstraram um baixo índice de sangramento não tendo sido necessário o tampão nasal em nenhum dos casos e alto grau de satisfação dos pacientes no quesito obstrução nasal quando comparados os valores iniciais com os resultados aos seis meses. CONCLUSÃO: Os procedimentos nas conchas nasais devem visar a melhora do quadro obstrutivo, e satisfação do paciente com pouco desconforto tanto intra como pós-operatório. As técnicas de redução volumétrica com o laser de diodo e de CO2 mostram-se no presente estudo eficazes em 6 meses.

  19. Painful Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2E/1F due to a novel NEFL mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Kathrin; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Krüger, Stefan; Sommer, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT) 2E/1F is caused by mutations in the neurofilament light-chain polypeptide (NEFL) gene. Giant axons are a histological hallmark frequently seen in nerves of patients with CMT2E. We describe the case of a 43-year-old patient with a painful, predominantly sensory neuropathy. The patient's sural nerve biopsy showed multiple giant axons. Genetic sequencing of the NEFL gene revealed that the patient was heterozygous for an altered sequence of the gene, c.816C>G, p.Asn272Lys, which has not yet been described in CMT2E/1F. In contrast to other cases of CMT2E/1F, where motor symptoms are predominant, pain was the most disabling symptom in this patient. Muscle Nerve 55: 752-755, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Early changes in gene expression induced by blue light irradiation of A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Burght, Barbro W; Hansen, Morten; Olsen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  Accumulation of bisretinoids as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of some blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To identify genes whose expression may change under conditions of bisretinoid accumulation, we...... investigated the differential gene expression in RPE cells that had accumulated the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E and were exposed to blue light (430 nm). Methods:  A2E-laden RPE cells were exposed to blue light (A2E/430 nm) at various time intervals. Cell death was quantified using Dead Red staining, and RNA...... levels for the entire genome was determined using DNA microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome 2.0 Plus). Array results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results:  Principal component analysis revealed that the A2E-laden RPE cells...

  1. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio, E-mail: ojimenezgarza@ugto.mx [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min [Laboratory of Environmental Epigenetics, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro [Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Laboratory, Nayarit Autonomous University, Av. Ciudad de la Cultura s/n, “Amado Nervo”, Tepic, Nayarit C.P. 63155 (Mexico); Albores, Arnulfo [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  2. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  3. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  4. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  5. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  6. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  7. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  8. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  9. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  10. Beyond "It Was Great"? Not so Fast!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. David

    2015-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad's Ninth Annual Conference in 2013 was organized around the provocative theme, "Moving Beyond It Was Great." In the opening plenary speech, Lilli Engle warned the audience of study abroad researchers, leaders, administrators, and providers that study abroad programs were not as effective as they may want to…

  11. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  12. The Artistic Characteristics of Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文玺

    2007-01-01

    The whole thesis is to study the delicate techniques of displaying arts and literature exercised by Dickens. Furthermore, the thesis is to guide readers to know about the wordings and humour of Dickens and appreciate the charm of Great Expectations through a large number of examples.

  13. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  14. Countdown to the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Great American Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 this year--the first total solar eclipse in the continental United States since 1979. For many reasons, this is a scientific and educational milestone event of the highest magnitude that should not be missed by any teacher and student whether or not their school is in session…

  15. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  16. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset p

  17. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  18. A Hierarchical Grouping of Great Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald G.

    1977-01-01

    Great educators of history were categorized on the basis of their: aims of education, fundamental ideas, and educational theories. They were classed by Ward's method of hierarchical analysis into six groupings: Socrates, Ausonius, Jerome, Abelard; Quintilian, Origen, Melanchthon, Ascham, Loyola; Alciun, Comenius; Vittorino, Basedow, Pestalozzi,…

  19. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  20. [Psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The article presents an observe of questions of organization of psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War, main disadvantages of the first period of war, their dependence from circumstances of prewar period, ignoring of experience of last war. There was marked the role of famous native psychiatrists in organization of psychiatric aid to military servicemen in theatre of combat actions.

  1. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  2. A high efficiency spectrometer for reflection (e,2e) experiments at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, A. [CNR - IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre, Via Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Ruocco, A.; Stefani, G. [Dip.to di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre, Via Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Iacobucci, S. [CNR - ISC, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo (Italy)], E-mail: stefano.iacobucci@isc.cnr.it

    2007-10-15

    To study electron momentum densities in solids by grazing angle reflection kinematics has been shown to be feasible [S. Iacobucci, S. Rioual, A. Ruocco, M. Mastropietro, G. Stefani, Surf. Sci. 454 (2000) 1026], but development of this spectroscopy has been hampered by long acquisition time; to fully exploit potentialities of this method is mandatory to reduce duration of the experiment within times comparable with clean surface lifetimes in ultra-high vacuum. This paper reports on recent developments of the reflection (e,2e) spectrometer that make a sizeable step forward in attaining this goal. It operates in asymmetric kinematics and at small grazing angle, thus allowing to enhance the surface sensitivity. A drastic reduction in acquisition time has been achieved by implementing parallel acquisition, both in energy and angle, of the detected electron pairs. To achieve parallel acquisition in energy and momentum, each of the two electron analysers is equipped with a two-dimensional position sensitive detector. A custom-made electronic hardware and software have been developed for the automatic control of the experiment and for acquisition and storage of the coincidence events. After discussing in some details the relevant features of the new spectrometer, few examples of valence band mapping and electron momentum densities measured in highly oriented pyrolitic graphite with energy and momentum resolutions of 1.3 eV and 0.15 A{sup -1} are given.

  3. Thermal and Structural Analysis of Beamline Components in the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Luke Daniel [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-01-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will be conducting the high energy particle physics experiment Muons to Electrons (Mu2e). In this experiment, physicists will attempt to witness and understand an ultra-rare process which is the conversion of a muon into the lighter mass electron, without creating additional neutrinos. The experiment is conducted by first generating a proton beam which will be collided into a target within the production solenoid (PS). This creates a high-intensity muon beam which passes through a transport solenoid (TS) and into the detector solenoid (DS). In the detector solenoid the muons will be stopped in an aluminum target and a series of detectors will measure the electrons produced. These components have been named the DS train since they are coupled and travel on a rail system when being inserted or extracted from the DS. To facilitate the installation and removal of the DS train, a set of external stands and a support stand for the instrumentation feed-through bulkhead (IFB) have been designed. Full analysis of safety factors and performance of these two designs has been completed. The detector solenoid itself will need to be maintained to a temperature of 22°C ± 10°C. This will minimize thermal strain and ensure the accurate position of the components is maintained to the tolerance of 2 mm. To reduce the thermal gradient, a passive heating system has been developed and reported.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY AND SELF PURIFICATION POTENTIAL OF TAJAN RIVER USING QUAL2E MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mehrdadi, M. Ghobadi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tajan River is among significant rivers of Caspian Sea water basin. Pollution sources that threaten the quality of water in Tajan River may be classified in to two categories namely point and non-point sources. Major pollutants of latter category are Mazandaran wood and pulp, Paksar dairy products and Sari Antibiotic production factories, as well as 600-dastgah residential area. On the other hand, non-point sources whose waste is considered as a distributed load consist of Sari municipal wastewater and agriculture-related pollutants that are drained towards the river. In order to model the quality of river flow, Qual2E model is taken in to consideration. Considering TDS, the river quality is completely acceptable in cold seasons. However, in spring and summer the value of this parameter is increased and this causes some restrictions in the use of this water for irrigation of specific sensitive crops. Agricultural activities and consequent irrigated waters are the major causes of higher reported TDS values in warm seasons. Current status of DO is completely acceptable and this is highly related to the relative high value of width on depth ratio along the river. BOD and COD locate in a fairly poor condition. Quality deterioration is more noticeable in cold seasons. Higher rate of precipitation and consequent greater runoff generation towards the river basin justify the relative increase of mentioned parameters in fall and winter. Generally, non-point pollution sources are more contributed in deterioration of Tajan River water quality.

  5. Exacerbation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy following traumatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, Eric; Dale, Jeffrey M; Jones, Maria; Shen, Hailian; Garcia, Michael L

    2015-11-19

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT disease signs include distal limb neuropathy, abnormal gait, sensory defects, and deafness. We generated a novel line of CMT2E mice expressing hNF-L(E397K), which displayed muscle atrophy of the lower limbs without denervation, proximal reduction in large caliber axons, and decreased nerve conduction velocity. In this study, we challenged wild type, hNF-L and hNF-L(E397K) mice with crush injury to the sciatic nerve. We analyzed functional recovery by measuring toe spread and analyzed gait using the Catwalk system. hNF-L(E397K) mice demonstrated reduced recovery from nerve injury consistent with increased susceptibility to neuropathy observed in CMT patients. In addition, hNF-L(E397K) developed a permanent reduction in their ability to weight bear, increased mechanical allodynia, and premature gait shift in the injured limb, which led to increasingly disrupted interlimb coordination in hNF-L(E397K). Exacerbation of neuropathy after injury and identification of gait alterations in combination with previously described pathology suggests that hNF-L(E397K) mice recapitulate many of clinical signs associated with CMT2. Therefore, hNF-L(E397K) mice provide a model for determining the efficacy of novel therapies.

  6. Impairment of benthic diatom adhesion and photosynthetic activity by 2E,4E-decadienal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflaive, Joséphine; Ten-Hage, Loïc

    2011-11-01

    Within biofilms, microorganisms are exposed to a wide range of chemicals released by phototrophic organisms. Those chemicals are likely to influence the dynamics and functioning of biofilms. 2E,4E-decadienal (DD) is a polyunsaturated aldehyde produced by diatoms which is known to induce adverse effects in many aquatic organisms. It has been shown to inhibit the adhesion and motility of one benthic diatom. The aim of this article was to determine if the effects of DD on diatom adhesion were widespread and if it could affect biofilm formation and functioning. The adhesion of 5 of 10 benthic diatom strains was strongly inhibited at 2.5 μg ml(-1) DD. This indicates a high variability in diatom sensitivity to DD. Several experiments in microcosms showed that the presence of DD diffusing from a substrate decreased biofilm formation. This effect was dose-dependent and persisted for 72 h, though the molecule is highly volatile. Using a PHYTO-PAM fluorometer, we also showed that the effective quantum efficiency of charge separation of PSII of biofilms exposed to DD was negatively affected. This indicates a decrease in the efficiency of the photochemical processes. All these results suggest that the presence of DD-producing strains may have a significant impact on the composition and physiology of biofilms.

  7. Desacoplamento entre as Emissões de CO2 e o PIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a variação das taxas de emissão de CO2 e do PIB per capita, identificando as possíveis interações existentes entre eles. Para isto, foram utilizados dados da Agência Internacional de Energia de dois países, Brasil e Estados Unidos, país com o maior PIB mundial. Assim, foi possível observar que as emissões de CO2, por muitos anos, acompanharam o crescimento econômico dos países. Porém, nos Estados Unidos, o desacoplamento destes dois indicadores já ocorreu em 2007, enquanto no Brasil isto só acontece em 2011. Além disso, são feitas projeções para o futuro das emissões de CO2 até o ano de 2040, considerando 6 cenários distintos. Com isso, verificou-se que ainda que o preço do petróleo diminuísse, se o crescimento econômico não for desacelerado, a queda das taxas de emissão não seria significativa.

  8. Forced Two-Phase Helium Cooling Scheme for the Mu2e Transport Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatkowski, G. [Fermilab; Cheban, S. [Fermilab; Dhanaraj, N. [Fermilab; Evbota, D. [Fermilab; Lopes, M. [Fermilab; Nicol, T. [Fermilab; Sanders, R. [Fermilab; Schmitt, R. [Fermilab; Voirin, E. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e Transport Solenoid (TS) is an S-shaped magnet formed by two separate but similar magnets, TS-u and TS-d. Each magnet is quarter-toroid shaped with a centerline radius of approximately 3 m utilizing a helium cooling loop consisting of 25 to 27 horizontal-axis rings connected in series. This cooling loop configuration has been deemed adequate for cooling via forced single phase liquid helium; however it presents major challenges to forced two-phase flow such as “garden hose” pressure drop, concerns of flow separation from tube walls, difficulty of calculation, etc. Even with these disadvantages, forced two-phase flow has certain inherent advantages which make it a more attractive option than forced single phase flow. It is for this reason that the use of forced two-phase flow was studied for the TS magnets. This paper will describe the analysis using helium-specific pressure drop correlations, conservative engineering approach, helium properties calculated and updated at over fifty points, and how the results compared with those in literature. Based on the findings, the use of forced-two phase helium is determined to be feasible for steady-state cooling of the TS solenoids

  9. High-accuracy local positioning network for the alignment of the Mu2e experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejdukova, Jana B. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    This Diploma thesis describes the establishment of a high-precision local positioning network and accelerator alignment for the Mu2e physics experiment. The process of establishing new network consists of few steps: design of the network, pre-analysis, installation works, measurements of the network and making adjustments. Adjustments were performed using two approaches. First is a geodetic approach of taking into account the Earth’s curvature and the metrological approach of a pure 3D Cartesian system on the other side. The comparison of those two approaches is performed and evaluated in the results and compared with expected differences. The effect of the Earth’s curvature was found to be significant for this kind of network and should not be neglected. The measurements were obtained with Absolute Tracker AT401, leveling instrument Leica DNA03 and gyrotheodolite DMT Gyromat 2000. The coordinates of the points of the reference network were determined by the Least Square Meth od and the overall view is attached as Annexes.

  10. Effects of trace Zr on the microstructure and properties of 2E12 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianzhao; FANG Canfeng; HAO Hai; WANG Shaohua; YANG Shoujie; DAI Shenglong; ZHANG Xingguo

    2009-01-01

    Al-4.0Cu-1.4Mg-0.6Mn (2E12) and Al-4.0Cu-1.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.3Zr aluminum billets were manufactured by soft-contact electromagnetic continuous casting (EMC). Subsequent forging and heat treatment were conducted and the effects of Zr on the microstructure and properties of the Al-4.0Cu-1.4Mg-0.6Mn alloy were studied. The results show that the addition of 0.3% Zr can reduce the dendrite and refine grains. During forging and solution treatment, fine and dispersive Al3Zr particles precipitated from the supersaturated α (A1) solid solution in the heating process of the billet can effectively pin dislocations and subgrain boundaries. Because of the addition of Zr, the mechanical properties are improved with the tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and contraction of the area increasing by 5.4%, 11.3%, 9.7%, and 12.6%, respectively. Moreover, under the condition of R = 0.1, the fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) of the Al-4.0Cu-1.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.3Zr alloy is lower than that of the Al-4.0Cu-1.4Mg-0.6Mn alloy.

  11. MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase mediates UT-A1 urea transporter ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangping; Huang, Haidong; Fröhlich, Otto; Yang, Yuan; Klein, Janet D; Price, S Russ; Sands, Jeff M

    2008-11-01

    UT-A1 is the primary urea transporter in the apical plasma membrane responsible for urea reabsorption in the inner medullary collecting duct. Although the physiological function of UT-A1 has been well established, the molecular mechanisms that regulate its activity are less well understood. Analysis of the UT-A1 amino acid sequence revealed a potential MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase-binding motif in the large intracellular loop of UT-A1, suggesting that UT-A1 urea transporter protein may be regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we report that UT-A1 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome but not the lysosome proteolytic pathway. Inhibition of proteasome activity causes UT-A1 cell surface accumulation and concomitantly increases urea transport activity. UT-A1 interacts directly with MDM2; the binding site is located in the NH2-terminal p53-binding region of MDM2. MDM2 mediates UT-A1 ubiquitination both in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of MDM2 promotes UT-A1 degradation. The mechanism is likely to be physiologically important as UT-A1 ubiquitination was identified in kidney inner medullary tissue. The ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway provides an important novel mechanism for UT-A1 regulation.

  12. Radiation and thermal analysis of production solenoid for Mu2e experimental setup

    CERN Document Server

    Pronskikh, V S; Mokhov, N V

    2011-01-01

    The Muon-to-Electron (Mu2e) experiment at Fermilab, will seek the evidence of direct muon to electron conversion at the sensitivity level where it cannot be explained by the Standard Model. An 8-GeV 25-kW proton beam will be directed onto a tilted gold target inside a large-bore superconducting Production Solenoid (PS) with the peak field on the axis of ~5T. The negative muons resulting from the pion decay will be captured in the PS aperture and directed by an S-shaped Transport Solenoid towards the stopping target inside the Detector Solenoid. In order for the superconducting magnets to operate reliably and with a sufficient safety margin, the peak neutron flux entering the coils must be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude that is achieved by means of a sophisticated absorber placed in the magnet aperture. The proposed absorber, consisting of W- and Cu-based alloy parts, is optimized for the performance and cost. Results of MARS15 simulations of energy deposition and radiation are reported. The results of the P...

  13. CYP2E1, oxidative stress, post-translational modifications and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, M Raj; Garige, Mamatha; Gong, Maokai A; Leckey, Leslie; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Redman, Robert S; Seth, Devanshi; Haber, Paul S; Hirsch, Kenneth; Amdur, Richard; Shah, Ruchi

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-mediated down-regulation of hepatic ST6Gal1 gene leads to defective glycosylation of lipid-carrying apolipoproteins such as apo E and apo J, resulting in defective VLDL assembly and intracellular lipid and lipoprotein transport, which in turn is responsible for alcoholic hepatosteatosis and ALD. The mechanism of ethanol action involves thedepletion of a unique RNA binding protein that specifically interacts with its 3'-UTR region of ST6Gal1 mRNA resulting in its destabilization and consequent appearance of asialoconjugates as alcohol biomarkers. With respect to ETOH effects on Cardio-Vascular Diseases, we conclude that CYP2E1 and ETOH mediated oxidative stress significantly down regulates not only the hepatic PON1 gene expression, but also serum PON1 and HCTLase activities accompanied by depletion of hepatic GSH, the endogenous antioxidant. These results strongly implicate the susceptibility of PON1 to increased ROS production. In contrast, betaine seems to be both hepatoprotective and atheroprotective by reducing hepatosteatosis and restoring not only liver GSH that quenches free radicals, but also the antiatherogenic PON1 gene expression and activity.

  14. Low doses of nicotine and ethanol induce CYP2E1 and chlorzoxazone metabolism in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L A; Micu, A L; Sellers, E M; Tyndale, R F

    2001-11-01

    The use of ethanol and nicotine is strongly linked; 80 to 95% of heavy alcohol users are also smokers. In humans, cigarette smoking significantly enhances CYP2E1 activity, as measured by increased metabolism of chlorzoxazone in vivo. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and can generate toxic intermediates. CYP2E1 also bioactivates tobacco smoke and other procarcinogens and several hepatotoxins. We hypothesized that, like ethanol, nicotine increases CYP2E1 activity. Rats were treated once daily with saline, ethanol (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 g/kg p.o.), or nicotine bitartrate (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg base/kg s.c.) for 7 days. After ethanol or nicotine administration, immunostaining for CYP2E1 was increased in the centrilobular regions of rat liver. Western blot analyses revealed that hepatic CYP2E1 levels were increased by ethanol (1.6-2.4-fold) and nicotine (1.3-1.7-fold). In vitro chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation analyses demonstrated elevated Vmax values (compared with saline-treated animals) by using hepatic microsomes from high-dose ethanol (2.27 +/- 0.12 versus 1.18 +/- 0.23 nmol/mg/min, p neuropsychiatric motor disorders).

  15. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-08-01

    CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86+/-7mg/m(3)) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21+/-0.02mg/m(3)) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r=-.36, ptoluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p=0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r=-.37, ptoluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human CYP2E1 show enhanced resistance to mixed contaminates of heavy metals and organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu, Junhong, E-mail: liujh@qust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Transgenic alfalfa plants simultaneously expressing human CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were generated from hypocotyl segments by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system for the phytoremediation of the mixed contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. The transgenic alfalfa plants were screened by a combination of kanamycin resistance, PCR, GST and CYP2E1 activity and Western blot analysis. The capabilities of mixed contaminants (heavy metals-organic compounds) resistance of pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants became markedly increased compared with the transgenic alfalfa plants expressing single gene (GST or CYP2E1) and the non-transgenic control plants. The pKHCG alfalfa plants exhibited strong resistance towards the mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were metabolized by the introduced GST and CYP2E1 in combination. Our results show that the pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants have good potential for phytoremediation because they have cross-tolerance towards the complex contaminants of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore, these transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing GST and human P450 CDNAs may have a great potential for phytoremediation of mixed environmental contaminants.

  17. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  18. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  19. Use of M2e ELISAs for longitudinal surveillance of commercial poultry in Indonesia vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Michael Haryadi; Tarigan, Simson; Sumarningsih; Artanto, Sidna; Indriani, Risa; Anggoro, Dito; Putra, Cahyaditya Pratama; Idris, Syafrison; Untari, Tri; Asmara, Widya; Tabbu, Charles Rangga; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2017-11-01

    In countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is endemic and controlled by vaccination, post-vaccination serological monitoring is essential to differentiate vaccinated poultry from those that are infected. The objectives of this study were to validate two experimental ELISAs that detect antibodies raised against the M2e protein of avian influenza virus that can be used for DIVA purposes. Results from the sM2e and tM2e ELISAs were compared with other conventional tests for the detection of H5N1influenza virus (virus isolation and RT-PCR) using samples collected from 16 commercial flocks in Indonesia. These comprised vaccinated layers aged between 18 and 68 weeks old that were sampled at ten-weekly intervals. A small number of sera were positive in sM2e and tM2e ELISA, 14 (0.6%) and 17 (0.7%) respectively, with low OD420 (0.1-0.3), but only 4 sera were positive in both tests. At the flock level, the incidence of M2e positive sera was low (4%), well below previously established minimum of 40% for an HPAIV H5N1-infected flock. Conventional M and H5 gene RT-PCRs indicated that none of 16 flocks were infected at any time during the study. No virus was isolated from any of the 480 pooled swab samples, except from one, for which the combined data analysis suggest to be the result of a laboratory cross-contamination. Clinical disease, mortalities or reduction in production performance, indicative of field H5N1 challenge, were not observed either in any of the flocks. Birds from two surveyed flocks, challenged in the laboratory with an Indonesian HPAIV H5N1 developed M2e antibodies in 50% and 55% of surviving birds with OD420 in the range of 0.35-1.47 in tM2e ELISA, confirming the validity of the criteria established for use of M2e ELISA for DIVA purposes. Overall these results showed that the tM2e ELISA could be a useful monitoring tool to ascertain freedom from H5N1 infections in vaccinated commercial poultry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Irradiation study of UV Silicon Photomultipliers for the Mu2e calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Ferrari, A.; Giovannella, S.; Loreti, S.; Miscetti, S.; Müller, S.; Pillon, M.; Sarra, I.

    2017-02-01

    The Mu2e calorimeter is composed of 1400 un-doped CsI crystals, coupled to large area UV extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), arranged in two annular disks. This calorimeter has to provide precise information on energy, timing and position resolutions. It should also be fast enough to handle the high rate background and it must operate and survive in the high radiation environment. Simulation studies estimated that, in the highest irradiated regions, each photo-sensor will absorb a dose of 20 krad and will be exposed to a neutron fluency of 5.5×1011n1 MeV/cm2 in three years of running, with a safety factor of 3 included. At the end of 2015, we have concluded an irradiation campaign at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG, Frascati, Italy) measuring the response of two different 16 array models from Hamamatsu, which differ for the protection windows and a SiPM from FBK. In 2016, we have carried out two additional irradiation campaigns with neutrons and photons at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR, Dresden, Germany) and at the Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ENEA-Casaccia, respectively. A negligible increment of the leakage current and no gain change have been observed with the dose irradiation. On the other hand, at the end of the neutron irradiation, the gain does not show large changes whilst the leakage current increases by around a factor of 2000. In these conditions, the too high leakage current makes problematic to bias the SiPMs, thus requiring to cool them down to a running temperature of ~0oC.

  1. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  2. Role of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the metabolism of acrylamide and acrylonitrile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, S C; Fennell, T R; Moore, T A; Chanas, B; Gonzalez, F; Ghanayem, B I

    1999-11-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) and acrylamide (AM) are commonly used in the synthesis of plastics and polymers. In rodents, AM and AN are metabolized to the epoxides glycidamide and cyanoethylene oxide, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cytochrome P450 in the metabolism of AM and AN in vivo. Wild-type (WT) mice, WT mice pretreated with aminobenzotriazole (ABT, 50 mg/kg ip, 2 h pre-exposure), and mice devoid of cytochrome P450 2E1 (P450 2E1-null) were treated with 50 mg/kg [(13)C]AM po. WT mice and P450 2E1-null mice were treated with 2.5 or 10 mg/kg [(13)C]AN po. Urine was collected for 24 h, and metabolites were characterized using (13)C NMR. WT mice excreted metabolites derived from the epoxides and from direct GSH conjugation with AM or AN. Only metabolites derived from direct GSH conjugation with AM or AN were observed in the urine from ABT-pretreated WT mice and P450 2E1-null mice. On the basis of evaluation of urinary metabolites at these doses, these data suggest that P450 2E1 is possibly the only cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the metabolism of AM and AN in mice, that inhibiting total P450 activity does not result in new pathways of non-P450 metabolism of AM, and that mice devoid of P450 2E1 do not excrete metabolites of AM or AN that would be produced by oxidation by other cytochrome P450s. P450 2E1-null mice may be an appropriate model for the investigation of the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity or carcinogenicity of these compounds.

  3. Muscle pathology without severe nerve pathology in a new mouse model of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hailian; Barry, Devin M.; Dale, Jeffrey M.; Garcia, Virginia B.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Garcia, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in neurofilament light (NF-L) have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2E (CMT2E) in humans. To provide insight into disease pathogenesis, we developed a novel line of CMT2E mice that constitutively express human NF-L (hNF-L) with a glutamic acid to lysine mutation at position 397 (hNF-LE397K). This new line of mice developed signs consistent with CMT2E patients. Disease signs were first observed at 4 months in hNF-LE397K mice, and consisted of aberrant hind limb posture, digit deformities, reduced voluntary locomotor activity, reduced motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs) and muscle atrophy. Reduced voluntary locomotor activity and muscle pathology occurred without significant denervation, and hNF-LE397K mice showed relatively mild signs of nerve pathology. Nerve pathology in hNF-LE397K mice was characterized by ectopic accumulations of phosphorylated NFs in motor neuron cell bodies as early as 1 month. Moreover, NF organization was altered in motor and sensory roots, with small motor axons being most affected. Peak axonal diameter was reduced for small motor axons prior to and after the onset of overt phenotypes, whereas large motor axons were affected only after onset, which correlated with reduced MNCVs. Additionally, there was a small reduction in the number of sensory axons in symptomatic hNF-LE397K mice. hNF-LE397K mice are a novel line of CMT2E mice that recapitulate many of the overt phenotypes observed in CMT2E patients and hNF-LP22S mice. The cellular pathology observed in hNF-LE397K mice differed from that recently reported in hNF-LP22S mice, suggesting that overt CMT2E phenotypes may arise through different cellular mechanisms. PMID:21493625

  4. Muscle pathology without severe nerve pathology in a new mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hailian; Barry, Devin M; Dale, Jeffrey M; Garcia, Virginia B; Calcutt, Nigel A; Garcia, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Mutations in neurofilament light (NF-L) have been linked to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E (CMT2E) in humans. To provide insight into disease pathogenesis, we developed a novel line of CMT2E mice that constitutively express human NF-L (hNF-L) with a glutamic acid to lysine mutation at position 397 (hNF-L(E397K)). This new line of mice developed signs consistent with CMT2E patients. Disease signs were first observed at 4 months in hNF-L(E397K) mice, and consisted of aberrant hind limb posture, digit deformities, reduced voluntary locomotor activity, reduced motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs) and muscle atrophy. Reduced voluntary locomotor activity and muscle pathology occurred without significant denervation, and hNF-L(E397K) mice showed relatively mild signs of nerve pathology. Nerve pathology in hNF-L(E397K) mice was characterized by ectopic accumulations of phosphorylated NFs in motor neuron cell bodies as early as 1 month. Moreover, NF organization was altered in motor and sensory roots, with small motor axons being most affected. Peak axonal diameter was reduced for small motor axons prior to and after the onset of overt phenotypes, whereas large motor axons were affected only after onset, which correlated with reduced MNCVs. Additionally, there was a small reduction in the number of sensory axons in symptomatic hNF-L(E397K) mice. hNF-L(E397K) mice are a novel line of CMT2E mice that recapitulate many of the overt phenotypes observed in CMT2E patients and hNF-L(P22S) mice. The cellular pathology observed in hNF-L(E397K) mice differed from that recently reported in hNF-L(P22S) mice, suggesting that overt CMT2E phenotypes may arise through different cellular mechanisms.

  5. Association of NR2E3 but not NRL mutations with retinitis pigmentosa in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Li Jia; Chiang, Sylvia W Y; Tam, Pancy O S; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Chan, Carmen K M; Wang, Ningli; Lam, Dennis S C; Pang, Chi Pui

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Mutations in the NR2E3 and NRL genes have been implicated in both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In this study, the mutation profiles of these two genes were investigated in Chinese RP patients. Methods. In 172 RP patients and 360 normal control subjects (180 from Hong Kong and 180 from Beijing), the coding exons and the exon-intron boundaries of NR2E3 and NRL were screened by direct DNA sequencing after PCR. Association analysis was performed for common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whereas in silico programs were used for analysis of rare missense variants. Results. In NR2E3, 14 novel sequence changes have been identified. Two missense variants, p.G56R and p.V118M, were exclusively found in RP patients with frequencies at 1.2% (2/172) and 1.7% (3/172), respectively. All five patients were found to be heterozygous for these two mutations. Computational analysis suggested functional defects on the NR2E3 protein, indicating disease-causing roles. The p.E121K variant of NR2E3, which reportedly caused enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) in Caucasians, was found concurrently in RP patients (13.4%) and control subjects from Hong Kong (10.5%) and Beijing (12.8%). In NRL, six novel sequence changes were identified, none of them associated with RP. Conclusions. In this study, NR2E3 mutations (p.G56R, p.V118M) were found to be responsible for approximately 2.9% of overall RP in Chinese patients, comparable to the contributions of RHO and RP1 mutations. The p.E121K in NR2E3 is a common SNP in the Chinese, suggesting another genetic or environmental factor is involved in its causative role in ESCS in Caucasians.

  6. Immunogenicity of live attenuated B. pertussis BPZE1 producing the universal influenza vaccine candidate M2e.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kammoun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intranasal delivery of vaccines directed against respiratory pathogens is an attractive alternative to parenteral administration. However, using this delivery route for inactivated vaccines usually requires the use of potent mucosal adjuvants, and no such adjuvant has yet been approved for human use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine, called BPZE1, and show here that it can be used to present the universal influenza virus epitope M2e to the mouse respiratory tract to prime for protective immunity against viral challenge. Three copies of M2e were genetically fused to the N-terminal domain of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA and produced in recombinant BPZE1 derivatives in the presence or absence of endogenous full-length FHA. Only in the absence of FHA intranasal administration of the recombinant BPZE1 derivative induced antibody responses to M2e and effectively primed BALB/c mice for protection against influenza virus-induced mortality and reduced the viral load after challenge. Strong M2e-specific antibody responses and protection were observed after a single nasal administration with the recombinant BPZE1 derivative, followed by a single administration of M2e linked to a virus-like particle without adjuvant, whereas priming alone with the vaccine strain did not protect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using recombinant FHA-3M2e-producing BPZE1 derivatives for priming and the universal influenza M2e peptide linked to virus-like particles for boosting may constitute a promising approach for needle-free and adjuvant-free nasal vaccination against influenza.

  7. Short-term treatment with alcohols causes hepatic steatosis and enhances acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e1(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J F; Szakacs, J G; Wood, S G; Walton, H S; Bement, J L; Gonzalez, F J; Jeffery, E H; Wrighton, S A; Bement, W J; Sinclair, P R

    2000-10-15

    CYP2E1 has been reported to have an essential role in alcohol-mediated increases in hepatic steatosis and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. We found that pretreatment of Cyp2e1(-/-) mice with ethanol plus isopentanol, the predominant alcohols in alcoholic beverages, for 7 days resulted in micro- and macrovesicular steatosis in the livers of all mice, as well as a dramatic increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. In Cyp2e1(-/-) mice administered up to 600 mg acetaminophen/kg alone and euthanized 7 h later, there was no increase in serum levels of ALT. In Cyp2e1(-/-) mice pretreated with ethanol and isopentanol, subsequent exposure to 400 or 600 mg acetaminophen/kg resulted in centrilobular necrosis in all mice with maximal elevation in serum levels of ALT. Acetaminophen-mediated liver damage was similar in males and females. Hepatic microsomal levels of APAP activation in untreated females were similar to those in males treated with the alcohols. However, the females, like the males, required pretreatment with the alcohols in order to increase APAP hepatotoxicity. These findings suggest that, in the Cyp2e1(-/-) mice, the alcohol-mediated increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity involves the contribution of other factors, in addition to induction of CYP(s) that activate acetaminophen. Alternatively, CYP-mediated activation of acetaminophen measured in vitro may not reflect the actual activity in vivo. Our findings that a 7-day treatment with ethanol and isopentanol causes extensive hepatic steatosis and increases acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e(-/-) mice indicate that CYP2E1 is not essential for either response.

  8. Induction of brain cytochrome P450 2E1 boosts the locomotor-stimulating effects of ethanol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Miquel, Marta; Pascual, María; Guerri, Consuelo; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2014-10-01

    In the central nervous system ethanol (EtOH) is metabolized into acetaldehyde by different enzymes. Brain catalase accounts for 60% of the total production of EtOH-derived acetaldehyde, whereas cerebral cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) produces 20% of this metabolite. Acetaldehyde formed by the activity of central catalase has been implicated in some of the neurobehavioral properties of EtOH, yet the contribution of CYP 2E1 to the pharmacological actions of this drug has not been investigated. Here we assessed the possible participation of CYP 2E1 in the behavioral effects of EtOH. Thus, we induced CYP 2E1 activity and expression by exposing mice to chronic acetone intake (1% v/v for 10 days) and examined its consequences on the stimulating and uncoordinating effects of EtOH (0-3.2 g/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Our data showed that 24 h after withdrawal of acetone brain expression and activity of CYP 2E1 was induced. Furthermore, the locomotion produced by EtOH was boosted over the same interval of time. Locomotor stimulation produced by amphetamine or tert-butanol was unchanged by previous treatment with acetone. EtOH-induced motor impairment as evaluated in a Rota-Rod apparatus was unaffected by the preceding exposure to acetone. These results indicate that cerebral CYP 2E1 activity could contribute to the locomotor-stimulating effects of EtOH, and therefore we suggest that centrally produced acetaldehyde might be a possible mediator of some EtOH-induced pharmacological effects.

  9. Recombinant M2e outer membrane vesicle vaccines protect against lethal influenza A challenge in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappazzo, C Garrett; Watkins, Hannah C; Guarino, Cassandra M; Chau, Annie; Lopez, Jody L; DeLisa, Matthew P; Leifer, Cynthia A; Whittaker, Gary R; Putnam, David

    2016-03-04

    Currently approved influenza vaccines predominantly protect through antibodies directed against the highly variable glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), necessitating annual redesign and formulation based on epidemiological prediction of predominant circulating strains. More conserved influenza protein sequences, such as the ectodomain of the influenza M2 protein, or M2e, show promise as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine, but require a Th1-biased immune response for activity. Recently, recombinant, bacterially derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) demonstrated potential as a platform to promote a Th1-biased immune response to subunit antigens. Here, we engineer three M2e-OMV vaccines and show that all elicit strong IgG titers, with high IgG2a:IgG1 ratios, in BALB/c mice. Additionally, the administration of one M2e-OMV construct containing tandem heterologous M2e peptides (M2e4xHet-OMV) resulted in 100% survival against lethal doses of the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza strain PR8. Passive transfer of antibodies from M2e4xHet-OMV vaccinated mice to unvaccinated mice also resulted in 100% survival to challenge, indicating that protection is driven largely via antibody-mediated immunity. The potential mechanism through which M2e-OMVs initiated the immune response was explored and it was found that the constructs triggered TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR5. Our data indicate that OMVs have potential as a platform for influenza A vaccine development due to their unique adjuvant profile and intrinsic pathogen-mimetic nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation and Cytochrome P-450 2E1 in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren N; Molleston, Jean P; Morton, Michael J; Klipsch, Ann; Saxena, Romil; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Chalasani, Naga

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation levels caused by increased hepatic Cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme activity has been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). But studies of lipid peroxidation and CYP2E1 in children are lacking. Aim To compare hepatic lipid peroxidation and hepatic CYP2E1 protein content in liver biopsies from children with NAFLD and two control groups. Study Liver biopsies from 59 children with NAFLD (49 with NASH), 10 children with normal liver histology, and 9 children with chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) were examined. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, a measure of lipid peroxidation) levels and CYP2E1 protein content were quantitated, as a percent of total area, by immunohistochemical staining of liver biopsy material followed by digital image quantitation. Results Lipid peroxidation was significantly greater in NAFLD liver biopsies (46.7 ± 20.8%) compared to liver biopsies from children with normal liver histology (7.6 ± 9.4%; pbiopsies compared to other groups (p=). Among children with NAFLD, lipid peroxidation and CYP2E1 protein content were not different between biopsies with and without NASH. The BMI was independently associated with hepatic lipid peroxidation (r=0.549; p<0.001). Conclusions Hepatic lipid peroxidation is increased in children with NAFLD but this is not related to hepatic CYP2E1. Lack of difference in lipid peroxidation among different NAFLD subgroups argues against its role in the disease progression. PMID:21602702

  11. Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Arias, Leonel; Morales-Martínez, André; Zazueta-López, Rosa María; Ramírez-Dovala, Silvia; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Congenital malalignment of the great toenail (CMA) is a disorder of the anatomic orientation of the ungual apparatus, in which the longitudinal axis of the nail plate is not parallel with the axis of the distal phalanx but is deflected sideways. This disorder is understood to arise from multiple factors. Although many theories have been proposed about its origin, its pathogenesis is not fully known. Besides the cosmetic impact, this disorder causes such problems in the medium and long term as onychocryptosis and difficulty in motion. Some cases may regress spontaneously, although persistent cases may require a specialized surgical approach. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail is poorly understood and described medical condition that is often treated incorrectly; thus, reviewing the subject is important. A symptombased clinical classification system is proposed to guide diagnosis and treatment modality decisions.

  12. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  13. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H; Kidd, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central....../eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost...

  14. WOODEN DOOR WINGS OF ADIYAMAN GREAT MOSQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ARSLAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodworking which is in the most important Turk art branches have been used especially in Anatolia land readily. Wooden material that is seen on architectural units such as mimbar, ambo, wings of door and window, lectern has an important particularly with its ornamental figures. Wooden composition on the north and east doors of Adıyaman Great Mosque was built by Dulkadir Principality but regulated again in the last period of Ottoman Empire, is a theme which is exemined detailedly in Turk art. In this article, it is tried to determined ornamentel and tecnical characteristics of wooden door wings of Adıyaman Great Mosque belongs to early XX. century and the place of them in Turk art.

  15. The Great Wall for the first time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Jin Shanling is on the way of a spectacular 7 mile hike to the incredible knife-edge peaks at Simatai. From each watch-tower (67 are said to grace this section) it is like the Great Wall for the first time. It is a swaying cable bridge crosses to Simatai. Atop tours reached through steep, narrow steps are million-dollar vistas of an endless dragon’s tail. Here, the wall

  16. Work, gravitational energy and the Great Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    According to the Greek historian Herodotus, it took a task force of 100 000 men and 20 years to build up the Great Pyramid of Gizeh or Khufu’s Pyramid. In this work we discuss an analytical solution obtained in the framework of basic Newtonian mechanics that allows us to check Herodotus’s statement. Numerical estimates are compared to more detailed calculations. An estimation of the dietary energy intake necessary to accomplish the task is also discussed.

  17. Water resources in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin Watershed covers 362,600 km (140,110 mi2) and extends from the Sierra Nevada Range in California to the Wasatch Range in Utah, and from southeastern Oregon to southern Nevada (NBC Weather Plus Website). The region is among the driest in the nation and depends largely on winter snowfall and spring runoff for its water supply. Precipitation may be as much...

  18. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  19. Solitary nodule of the great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Wilde, J L; Sartori, C R; Elston, D M

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 21-year-old woman with a subungual exostosis exhibiting both skin and nail findings. The patient presented with a firm, flesh-colored, nontender, subungual nodule in the distal nail bed of the great toe. Radiographic examination revealed focal calcification of the nodule, with direct communication to the underlying phalanx. Subungual exostosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any digital mass. Surgical excision, followed by curettage of the base, is the treatment of choice.

  20. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  1. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  2. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  3. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure.

  4. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Rights and great responsibilities of academic pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William O

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Jacobi, in his first address to the newly formed American Pediatric Society over 100 years ago, stated, "Questions of public hygiene and medicine are both professional and social. Thus, every physician is by destiny a citizen of the commonwealth with many rights and great responsibilities." Accordingly, pediatricians have rights and great responsibilities to advocate for children who may be at particularly high risk for adverse outcomes. Often, well-intentioned policies or interventions can have tragic unexpected consequence for these children. In many circumstances, policies are developed by providers, policymakers, and others who may act without sufficient information to understand how a particular policy might adversely affect vulnerable populations. Thus, academic pediatricians should fulfill their great responsibilities by identifying signals from the populations they serve that may indicate unintended consequences of policies, performing the highest quality research and discovery to evaluate these signals, and disseminating the information back to the appropriate decision-makers to ensure that policies and interventions result in optimal outcomes for all children.

  6. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  7. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  8. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Microstructures of 2E12 and 2524 Alloy%2E12和2524铝合金微观组织与疲劳裂纹扩展速率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛荣山; 张永安; 李志辉; 王锋; 朱宝宏; 熊柏青

    2011-01-01

    The microstructures and cyclic fatigue crack growth rate of domestic 2E12-T3 and imported 2524-T3 alloy were evaluated by OM, SEM, EDS and cyclic fatigue tests. Experimental results showed that the chemical constitution of domestic 2E12-T3 and imported 2524-T3 was nearly the same. In the microstructure, grain size of 2E12-T3 alloy were apparently smaller than that of 2524-T3, which had fibrous microstructure, as the alloy was more seriously recrystallized, both of them were distributed with a little Al2 CuMg and iron-rich phase in the matrix, while slightly more middle-size Al20Cu2Mn3 club-shaped particles were observed in 2E12-T3. As to the mechanical properties, 2E12-T3 alloy significantly had higher tensile strength, yield strength, fatigue crack growth rate than the imported 2524-T3, and the fracture was featured with three typical regions, at crack initiation area, the former was flat and the latter was relatively rough, obvious fatigue striations were observed at crack propagation area, interval of which were respectively 0.65 and 0.35 μm, at the transient break area, the latter had more and smaller dimples. The main cause of performance differences between 2E12-T3 and 2524-T3 alloys might be due to the different grains organizational characteristics.%采用光学显微镜、扫描电镜、透射电镜以及疲劳性能测试等手段,研究了国产2E12-T3和进口2524-T3合金薄板微观组织和疲劳裂纹扩展性能.结果表明,国产2E12-T3与进口2524-T3合金化学成分相近,在显微组织方面,2E12-T3合金晶粒相对于进口2524-T3合金的纤维状晶粒组织明显细小、均匀,发生了更大程度的再结晶,两者基体内均分布有少量粗大Al2CuMg相和富Fe相,2E12-T3晶内存在略多的中等尺寸Al20Cu2Mn3棒状粒子;在力学性能方面,国产2E12-T3合金抗拉强度、屈服强度和疲劳裂纹扩展速率都明显高于进口2524-T3铝合金,疲劳断口皆呈典型3个区域,裂纹萌生区,前者较平坦而

  9. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hadifar

    Full Text Available Killed avian influenza virus (AIV vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006 was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test.

  10. Cytochrome CYP2E1 phenotyping and genotyping in the evaluation of health risks from exposure to polluted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D; Ferrara, R; Gonzales, E; Albores, A; Manno, M; Berthou, F

    2001-10-15

    Humans are exposed to over 70,000 man-made chemicals including drugs, food additives, herbicides, pesticides, and industrial agents. It is well established that environmental chemicals are the cause of numerous human diseases including cancer. In most cases, chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation, which is mainly achieved by P450s enzymes. CYP2E1 is of clinical relevance because it is inducible by ethanol, and it metabolizes many common organic solvents such as benzene, alcohols and halogenated solvents. Therefore, alteration in the level of CYP2E1 might influence the health effects of the environmental pollutants. This hypothesis needs to be validated by epidemiological studies and the objective of the "Biomed-2" project was to develop new tests to assess the individual metabolic capacity of workers exposed to volatile organic compounds in order to predict their occupational risk. In vivo chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation was validated as a non-invasive and selective test for the determination of liver CYP2E1 activity. Preliminary data in workers exposed to organic solvents indicated that chlorzoxazone metabolism may be a biomarker of occupational exposure to organic solvents. Other approaches, such as use of salicylate as catalytic probe or measurement of catalytic activity in lymphocytes, were not conclusive. Attempts to use CYP2E1 genotyping for estimating human risks from chemical exposure did not bring convincing data as genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 could not be clearly related to its catalytic activity.

  11. Synthesis and Antimycobacterial and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Evaluation of 2-[(E-2-Substituted-ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Imramovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of twelve 2-[(E-2-substituted-ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazoles was designed. All the synthesized compounds were tested against three mycobacterial strains. The compounds were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. 2-[(E-2-(4-Methoxyphenylethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-[(E-2-(2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-5-ylethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and 2-{(E-2-[4-(methylsulfanylphenyl]ethenyl}-1,3-benzoxazole showed the highest activity against M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium, and they demonstrated significantly higher activity against M. avium and M. kansasii than isoniazid. The PET-inhibiting activity of the most active ortho-substituted compound 2-[(E-2-(2-methoxyphenylethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole was IC50 = 76.3 μmol/L, while the PET-inhibiting activity of para-substituted compounds was significantly lower. The site of inhibitory action of tested compounds is situated on the donor side of photosystem II. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  12. Synthesis and Antimycobacterial and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Evaluation of 2-[(E)-2-Substituted-ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imramovsky, Ales; Kozic, Jan; Stolarikova, Jirina; Vinsova, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    A series of twelve 2-[(E)-2-substituted-ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazoles was designed. All the synthesized compounds were tested against three mycobacterial strains. The compounds were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. 2-[(E)-2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-[(E)-2-(2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-5-yl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and 2-{(E)-2-[4-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]ethenyl}-1,3-benzoxazole showed the highest activity against M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium, and they demonstrated significantly higher activity against M. avium and M. kansasii than isoniazid. The PET-inhibiting activity of the most active ortho-substituted compound 2-[(E)-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole was IC50 = 76.3 μmol/L, while the PET-inhibiting activity of para-substituted compounds was significantly lower. The site of inhibitory action of tested compounds is situated on the donor side of photosystem II. The structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:25197708

  13. CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wang, Hongju; Zheng, Bo; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Xifei; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    China is a multinational country. The relationship between gene polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and national ethnicity has not previously investigated among Chinese people. The aim of this study was to investigate distributions of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms in five ethnic groups of China. 829 blood samples were collected from five ethnic groups (Han, Shui, Miao, Zhuang, Bouyei). Taqman-MGB probe was used in Real-time PCR to test the gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (rs1048943 and rs4646903) and CYP2E1 (rs2031920 and rs6413420). We further validate the SNP genotyping results through DNA sequencing. The genotype distribution of all four SNPs was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except the genotype distribution of rs4646903 in Han and Bouyei ethnic groups (p=0.013 and 0.0005, respectively). CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group in China. The results of DNA sequencing were entirely in line with the SNP genotyping assay. The CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms were different in different ethnic groups in China. CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group of China.

  14. Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 in rat liver by histamine: binding and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Borja, Víctor M; Belmont, Javier A; Espinosa, J Javier; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Albores, Arnulfo; Montero, Regina D

    2007-10-01

    Histamine (HA) may bind to cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in rat liver microsomes. The CYP450-HA complex seems to regulate some cellular processes such as proliferation. In the present work, it is shown that HA increases the activity and protein level of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1, in vivo. CYP1A1 is associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-mediated carcinogenesis and CYP2E1 with liver damage by oxidative stress. Studies of enzyme kinetics and binding with rat liver microsomes and supersomes were carried out to determine whether HA is a substrate of CYP1A1 and/or CYP2E1. The lack of NADPH oxidation in the presence of HA showed that it is not a substrate for CYP1A1. Activity measurements using the O-dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin indicated that HA is a mixed-type inhibitor of CYP1A1 in both microsomes and supersomes. On the other hand, HA induced a significant NADPH oxidation catalyzed by CYP2E1 supersomes, strongly suggesting that HA is a substrate for this isoform. Furthermore, HA is consumed in the presence of CYP2E1-induced microsomes and supersomes, as determined by o-phtalaldehyde complexes with HA by HPLC. The present findings may contribute to understand better the physiological function of CYP450 in relation with inflammation and other physiological processes in which HA may have a relevant role.

  15. (e,2e)反应中初通道相互作用强度的理论研究%A Theoretical Study on the Strength of Interaction of the Initial Channel for (e, 2e)Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张穗萌

    2001-01-01

    在前期工作的基础上,用修正后的BBK理论研究了共面等能几何条件下,电子入射离化氢原子三重微分截面的结构,讨论了低能(e,2e)反应中的Rutherford散射效应,揭示了(e,2e)反应中初通道相互作用强度是怎样随入射能的增加而改变的.

  16. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  17. Decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability: Insights into the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.

  18. Decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability: Insights into the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.

  19. Quantum chemical study of conformational fingerprints in the photoelectron spectra and (e, 2e) electron momentum distributions of n-hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, F; Knippenberg, S; Deleuze, M S; Hajgató, B

    2010-04-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to simulate from many-body quantum mechanical calculations the results of experimental studies of the valence electronic structure of n-hexane employing photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). This study is based on calculations of the valence ionization spectra and spherically averaged (e, 2e) electron momentum distributions for each known conformer by means of one-particle Green's function [1p-GF] theory along with the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme and using Kohn-Sham orbitals derived from DFT calculations employing the Becke 3-parameters Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional as approximations to Dyson orbitals. A first thermostatistical analysis of these spectra and momentum distributions employs recent estimations at the W1h level of conformational energy differences, by Gruzman et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 11974], and of correspondingly obtained conformer weights using MP2 geometrical, vibrational, and rotational data in thermostatistical calculations of partition functions beyond the level of the rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator approximation. Comparison is made with the results of a focal point analysis of these energy differences using this time B3LYP geometries and the corresponding vibrational and rotational partition functions in the thermostatistical analysis. Large differences are observed between these two thermochemical models, especially because of strong variations in the contributions of hindered rotations to relative entropies. In contrast, the individual ionization spectra or momentum profiles are almost insensitive to the employed geometry. This study confirms the great sensitivity of valence ionization bands and (e, 2e) momentum distributions on the molecular conformation and sheds further light on spectral fingerprints of through-space methylenic hyperconjugation, in both PES and EMS experiments.

  20. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  1. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catch 1929-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  2. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catches 1929-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  3. Genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphic cytochromes P450 CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 in Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Bermudez, Mario; Martínez-Hernández, Roberto; Ortega, Arturo; Salinas, Juan E; Albores, Arnulfo

    2004-01-01

    CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 are two of the main cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of commonly used drugs and xenobiotic compounds considered to be responsible for or possible participants in the development of several human diseases. Individual susceptibility to developing these pathologies relies, among other factors, on genetic polymorphism which depends on ethnic differences, as the frequency of mutant genotypes varies in different human populations. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP1A2 5'-flanking region and CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I polymorphisms in Mexicans by PCR-RFLP methods. The DNA of 159 subjects was analysed and mutant allele frequencies of 30% for CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I sites and 43% for CYP1A2 5'-flanking region were found. These frequencies are higher than those previously reported for other human populations.

  4. Potential recombinant vaccine against influenza A virus based on M2e displayed on nodaviral capsid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong CY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chean Yeah Yong,1 Swee Keong Yeap,2 Kok Lian Ho,3 Abdul Rahman Omar,2,4 Wen Siang Tan1,2 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2Institute of Bioscience, 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Influenza A virus poses a major threat to human health, causing outbreaks from time to time. Currently available vaccines employ inactivated viruses of different strains to provide protection against influenza virus infection. However, high mutation rates of influenza virus hemagglutinin (H and neuraminidase (N glycoproteins give rise to vaccine escape mutants. Thus, an effective vaccine providing protection against all strains of influenza virus would be a valuable asset. The ectodomain of matrix 2 protein (M2e was found to be highly conserved despite mutations of the H and N glycoproteins. Hence, one to five copies of M2e were fused to the carboxyl-terminal end of the recombinant nodavirus capsid protein derived from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The chimeric proteins harboring up to five copies of M2e formed nanosized virus-like particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, which could be purified easily by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice immunized subcutaneously with these chimeric proteins developed antibodies specifically against M2e, and the titer was proportional to the copy numbers of M2e displayed on the nodavirus capsid nanoparticles. The fusion proteins also induced a type 1 T helper immune response. Collectively, M2e displayed on the nodavirus capsid nanoparticles could provide an alternative solution to a possible influenza pandemic in the future. Keywords: matrix 2 ectodomain, nodavirus capsid, virus-like particle, fusion protein, subunit vaccine, immunogenicity

  5. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  6. Genotype and allelic frequencies of CYP2E1*5B polymorphism in the southwest population of Iran

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    Fatemeh Zanganeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 is a main enzyme which plays a major role in activating and detoxifying many xenobiotics, carcinogens and drugs. Available studies suggest that CYP2E1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are involved in the risk of developing certain cancers after exposure to carcinogens. The purpose of the present study was to assess genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphic CYP2E1*5B in the Iranian population. Material and Methods: This study was performed on 200 healthy individuals (female: 100, male: 100 in medical laboratories of Ahvaz during 2011. The CYP2E1 *5B (rs3813867 G-1293C assessment was carried out using PCR-RFLP method. The data were analyzed with ĸ2 and hardy-Weinberg Equation statistically methods. Results: The frequency of *1A/*1A (c1/c1, *1A/*5B (c1/c2 and *5B/*5B (c2/c2 genotypes was computed 97, 3 and 0 percent, respectively. The frequency of *1A (c1 and *5B (c2 alleles was computed 98.5 and 1.5 percent, respectively. No statistically significant difference was between two genders (p>0.05. Conclusion: The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of CYP2E1*5B polymorphism were similar to Turkish and some of the European populations. However, there are significant interethnic differences when the Iranian population is compared with the Eastern Asian, American and some of the European populations. The allelic distribution of this polymorphism did not vary with gender.

  7. Occupational toluene exposure induces cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA expression in peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Bermúdez de León, Mario; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-04-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5 -flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10-760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0-9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30-3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons.

  8. CYP2E1 regulation by benzene and other small organic chemicals in rat liver and peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jasso, Eva; López, Tomás; Lucas, Daniele; Berthou, Francois; Manno, Maurizio; Ortega, Arturo; Albores, Arnulfo

    2003-09-15

    The inducibility of CYP2E1 was investigated in liver and peripheral lymphocytes of rats treated with benzene (0-10 mmol/kg body weight (bw), daily for 3 days, i.p., or 0 and 5 mmol/kg bw, daily for 14 days, i.p.) or toluene (0 and 5 mmol/kg bw, daily for 3 days, i.p.) and compared with that of pyridine (5 mmol/kg bw, i.p.) or acetone (5% in drinking water) both daily for 3 days. Acute benzene treatment (5 mmol/kg bw) increased both CYP2E1 apo-protein (2-fold) and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (p-NPH) activity (1.4-fold) in liver, and CYP2E1 mRNA in both liver (2.2-fold) and peripheral lymphocytes (2.9-fold). The response to toluene was qualitatively similar, although smaller than that to benzene. As expected, acetone and pyridine treatments resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase of p-NPH activity and CYP2E1 apo-protein content in liver, but not the mRNA levels. In addition, acute benzene and acetone treatments increased the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone metabolic ratio 1.6- and 3.1-fold, respectively. The subchronic treatment with benzene increased CYP2E1 mRNA and apo-protein from days 2 and 3 to day 14, respectively, whereas the enzyme activity increased transiently on days 3 and 5 only. These results show that acute/subacute benzene and acute toluene treatments induce CYP2E1 expression probably through a similar mechanism which might be different from that of pyridine or acetone, in that the former increase mRNA levels, both in liver and in peripheral lymphocytes, whereas the latter stabilized the apo-protein.

  9. Sulforaphane Induces Nrf2 and Protects Against CYP2E1-dependent Binge Alcohol –induced Liver Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Richard; Lin, Jianjun; Wu, Defeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The mechanism(s) by which alcohol causes cell injury are still not clear but a major mechanism appears to be the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. CYP2E1-generated ROS contributes to the ethanol-induced oxidant stress and inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreases ethanol-induced fatty liver. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes which results in cellular protection against a variety of toxins. Method The current study was designed to evaluate the ability of sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, to blunt CYP2E1-dependent, ethanol-induced steatosis in vivo and in vitro. Results The sulforaphane treatment activated Nrf2, increased levels of the Nrf2 target heme oxygenase -1 and subsequently lowered oxidant stress as shown by the decline in lipid peroxidation and 3-Nitrotyrosine protein adducts and an increase in GSH levels after the acute ethanol treatment. It decreased ethanol-elevated liver levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and Oil Red O staining. Similar results were found in vitro as addition of sulforaphane to HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, elevated Nrf2 levels and decreased the accumulation of lipid in cells cultured with ethanol. Sulforaphane treatment had no effect on levels of or activity of CYP2E1. Conclusions Sulforaphane proved to be an effective in vivo inhibitor of acute ethanol–induced fatty liver in mice. General significance The possible amelioration of liver injury which occurs under these conditions by chemical activators of Nrf2 is of clinical relevance and worthy of further study. PMID:24060752

  10. Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 and protects against CYP2E1-dependent binge alcohol-induced liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Richard; Lin, Jianjun; Wu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which alcohol causes cell injury are still not clear but a major mechanism appears to be the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. CYP2E1-generated ROS contributes to the ethanol-induced oxidant stress and inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreases ethanol-induced fatty liver. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes which results in cellular protection against a variety of toxins. The current study was designed to evaluate the ability of sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, to blunt CYP2E1-dependent, ethanol-induced steatosis in vivo and in vitro. The sulforaphane treatment activated Nrf2, increased levels of the Nrf2 target heme oxygenase-1 and subsequently lowered oxidant stress as shown by the decline in lipid peroxidation and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts and an increase in GSH levels after the acute ethanol treatment. It decreased ethanol-elevated liver levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and Oil Red O staining. Similar results were found in vitro as addition of sulforaphane to HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, elevated Nrf2 levels and decreased the accumulation of lipid in cells cultured with ethanol. Sulforaphane treatment had no effect on levels of or activity of CYP2E1. Sulforaphane proved to be an effective in vivo inhibitor of acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. The possible amelioration of liver injury which occurs under these conditions by chemical activators of Nrf2 is of clinical relevance and worthy of further study. © 2013.

  11. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The Great War, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

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    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and thought control and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author gives a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, and art, as well as the national political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminated in instigation of a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is important for the question of responsibility for the war, with concrete war aims which reflected in the causes of the war. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The liberation movement of democratic youth Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia needs to be viewed both in the European context and inspired by the Serbian tradition of Kosovo cult and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus Day speaking about the sacrifice as sublimation of history and about honorable suffering as element of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally incited the idea of the Temple of St Vitus Day (Vidovdanski Hram conceived by Ivan Meštrović. The bases of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski in his Lyrics of Ithaca where he succeeded to bring back to Vidovdan (St Vitus Day its inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the establishing of a Victims of War Memorial today would have identity, existential, ethical and ontological significance for the Serbian people

  13. THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR AND ITS FALSIFICATORS

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    Melsitov V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the results of the lessons and consequences of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in the context of modernity, as well as falsification attempts to distort, defame and otherwise detract the role of the USSR in the victory over Nazi Germany. They argue that the knowledge of the truth about the Great Patriotic War gives us the opportunity not only proud of the feat of their fathers and grandfathers, our homeland, but also strengthen the belief in the great future of modern Russia. They say that for a long time in Western historiography, and, unfortunately, in the domestic, and plant abstracts, not only contrary to the truth, archival materials and documents, but also the common logic. In particular, the article in question of who is to blame for fueling the war - the Soviet Union and Germany, Stalin or Hitler? The authors argue that, despite some external similarities in politics and ideology of the two historical actors of Stalin and Hitler, the two totalitarian regimes, it is really only superficial similarities. The authors show that it is the ideology and politics of fascism and Nazism became the primary cause of the outbreak of Hitler started World War II, and then the attack on the Soviet Union. The article stated a direct continuity between past and present Nazi fascism, emerging after the coup in the Ukraine with the direct support of the West. The article analyzes and that assistance provided by the Soviet Union and its allies in the anti-Hitler Germany - United States and Britain. Without belittling their contribution to winning, the authors, however, have proved a decisive role of our country in it

  14. The Desolation Mirrored In Two Great Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-ming

    2003-01-01

    To the Frontier as an Envoy and The Waste Land are two great poems composed respectively by an ancient Chinese poet Wang Wei and a modem English poet T. S. Eliot respectively. There exist in certain aspects some similarities and differences between the two poems. An analytical comparison is used between the two verses in the aspects as follows: the description of scenery, images and melancholy moods. These similarities can promote people to regard the literary works in different regions and different eras as the organic branches of the world literature. And their differences among the literary works can reflect the absolute diversity of human arts.

  15. 1914 to 1917: the Great War years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, F; Duyckaerts, C

    1999-07-01

    In 1914, American and international neurology were already very well developed, but like the other scientific and societal forces of the time, they underwent numerous changes as a result of World War I. This article reviews the state of neurology between 1914 and 1917 as it can be inferred from the journals of the time, the main topics they covered, the meetings, and the neurological societies, as well as some of the actors on the neurology scene during these years. It concludes with a brief survey of the ways in which neurology was changed by the Great War. During these years, neurology was there.

  16. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  17. Muslim Women and Islamophobia in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIB, Fatima Zohra

    2016-01-01

    The principle issues of Islam have a great impact on the British society which had shared a mission of reflecting the realities of feminism before Islam. The manifestation of Islam is also considered as a proof of the best realization in the history of women rights in UK. Thus, this research investigates Muslim woman’s life by showing her social status through time and space and studying her roles in the construction of the society. We tend mainly, to focus on the way she fought for her relig...

  18. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rossini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  19. Roles of CYP2e1 in 1,2-dichloroethane-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Wang, Gaoyang; Gao, Lanyue; Shi, Lei; Qi, Ying; Lv, Xiuqiang; Jin, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the roles of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE)-induced liver damage. Two parts were included in this study: first, effect of 1,2-DCE on microsomal expression of CYP2E1, and second, potential of an inhibitor of CYP2E1 to reduce 1,2-DCE-induced liver damage. In part one, mice were exposed to 0, 0.225, 0.45, or 0.9 g/m(3) 1,2-DCE for 10 days, 3.5 h per day through static inhalation. In part two, mice were divided into blank control, solvent control, inhibitor control, 1,2-DCE-poisoned group, and low or high intervention group. In part one, compared to the control, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in 0.9 g/m(3) 1,2-DCE group, and microsomal CYP2E1 protein expression and activity in both 0.45 and 0.9 g/m(3) 1,2-DCE groups increased significantly; conversely, hepatic nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in both 0.45 and 0.9 g/m(3) 1,2-DCE groups and hepatic SOD activities in 0.9 g/m(3) 1,2-DCE group decreased significantly. In part two, microsomal CYP2E1 protein expression and activity decreased significantly in both low and high intervention groups compared to 1,2-DCE-poisoned group. Along with the changes of CYP2E1, hepatic MDA levels and serum ALT activities decreased; conversely, hepatic NPSH levels and SOD activities increased significantly in high intervention group. Taken together, our results suggested that 1,2-DCE could enhance CYP2E1 protein expression and enzymatic activity, which could cause oxidative damage in liver, serving as an important mechanism underlying 1,2-DCE-induced liver damage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1430-1438, 2016.

  20. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  1. Grey prediction in fatigue life of 2E12 aluminum alloy%2E12铝合金板材疲劳寿命的灰色预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵先琼; 孙晓红; 付卓; 朱贤云

    2013-01-01

    2E12铝合金是一种比较理想的飞机蒙皮材料,为了更好地预测2E12铝合金的疲劳寿命,文章以2E12试件为研究对象,进行疲劳试验,获得材料的 S-N曲线,利用灰色系统理论建立GM (1,1)模型和等维灰度递补GM (1,1)模型,生成预测模拟值,将模拟值和试验数据进行残差检验,验证预测数据的准确性,从而得出模型预测 S-N曲线。计算表明,GM (1,1)模型和等维灰度递补GM (1,1)模型的预测模拟值与初始数据基本一致,模型预测 S-N曲线与材料S-N曲线吻合程度较高,因此,可通过以上模型实现对2E12铝合金板材的疲劳寿命预测。%2E12 aluminum alloy has been serving as a kind of ideal material for the skin of aircraft .In order to forecast the fatigue life of 2E12 aluminum ,the S-N curve of material was obtained based on the experiment under different axial forces .GM (1 ,1) model and equivalent dimensions additional grey GM (1 ,1) model were set up with the grey system theory ,relatively accurate fatigue life was predicted by residual test on the simulation data and the original data ,and then effective simulation values and the predicted S-N curve were obtained .Finally ,the two curves were compared .The mathematical simulation indicates that the simulation data of GM (1 ,1) model and equivalent dimensions additional grey GM (1 ,1) model coincide with the data of experiments ,and the S-N curves obtained by model prediction and experiment coincide well .Correspondingly ,these models can be competent to predict the fatigue life of 2E12 aluminum alloy .

  2. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  3. How to write a great business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, W A

    1997-01-01

    Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers - and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture's product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

  4. Great War legacies in Serbian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

  5. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  6. The survival of the great financial journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira CALVO GUTIÉRREZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce war led by the big leaders who, with more than one century of tradition someones, have been object of sales or mergers, financial indispensable operations to be able to adapt to the new times. The aim of this article is to analyze the path of the great economic journalism, with special dedication to two fronts: one, to know how these neswspapers of elite are positioned in the network; other one, the dilemma between continuing being a journalism of quality, rigorous, cosmopolitan and expensive of supporting, or to change towards an ideological, gruesome journalism or amarillista that, since in other specialities, also has spread between the financial journalism

  7. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  8. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  9. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  10. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  11. Haematological status of wintering great tits (Parus major) along a metal pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Ann; Dauwe, Tom; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2010-02-01

    In the long-term biomonitoring of wild populations inhabiting polluted areas, the use of non-destructive biomarkers as markers of condition is very important. We examined the possible effects of metal pollution on the haematological status of adult great tits (Parus major) along a well-established pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. We measured blood and feather metal concentrations and assessed the haematological status (amount of red blood cells, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin) of adult great tits during winter at four study sites. Metal concentrations in blood and feathers indicated that cadmium and lead were the most important metals in the pollution gradient under study. Measurements of haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were lower in great tits from the more polluted sites. These parameters were significantly negatively correlated with blood lead concentration. The amount of red blood cells, however, did not significantly differ among study sites. Our results indicate that the haematological status of great tits is negatively affected by metal pollution and may therefore be used as a successful biomarker for monitoring the negative impact of metal exposure in the wild.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides M2E15, a Strain Isolated from the Endosphere of Potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Yanglei; de Jong, Anne; Spoelder, Jan; Elzenga, J Theo M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Bacillus mycoides M2E15, a bacterium isolated from potato endosphere. Analysis of the 6.08-Mbp draft genome sequence identified 6,386 protein-encoding sequences, including potential plant growth promoting genes. Specifically, genes for proteins involved in pho

  13. 77 FR 47573 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Mississippi; 110(a)(2)(E)(ii) Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... members of the public to be under the misconception that the Agency's approval of the infrastructure SIP...)(ii). EPA is proposing to approve the section 110(a)(2)(E)(ii) submission as it relates to the public... public docket without change and may be made available online at www.regulations.gov , including any...

  14. Construction of Recombinant Bacmid Containing M2e-Ctxb and Producing the Fusion Protein in Insect Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Nima; Mokhtari Azad, Talat; Nategh, Rakhshandeh; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sequence variations in glycoproteins of influenza virus surface impel us to design new candidate vaccines yearly. Ectodomain of influenza M2 protein is a surface and highly conserved protein. M2e in influenza vaccines may eliminate the need for changing vaccine formulation every year. Objectives: In this study, a recombinant baculovirus containing M2e and cholera toxin subunit B fusion gene was generated with transposition process to express in large amounts in insect cell lines. Materials and Methods: M2e-ctxB fusion gene was created and cloned into pFastBac HT. The recombinant vector was transformed into DH10Bac cells to introduce the fusion gene into the bacmid DNA via a site-specific transposition process. The recombinant bacmid was then extracted from white colonies and further analyzed using PCR, DNA sequence analyzing, and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results: PCR and DNA sequence analyzing results showed that the fusion gene was constructed as a single open reading frame and was successfully inserted into bacmid DNA. Moreover, indirect immunofluorescence results showed that the fusion gene was successfully expressed. Conclusions: Baculovirus expression vector system is valuable to produce M2e based influenza vaccines due to its simple utilization and ease of target gene manipulation. The expressed protein in such systems can improve the evaluating process of new vaccination strategies. PMID:24719728

  15. Study of requirements and performances of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleti, S. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    In this thesis we discuss the simulation and tests carried out for the optimization and design of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e (Muon to electron conversion) experiment, which is a proposed experiment part of the Muon Campus hosted at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, United States.

  16. Nr2e3 and Nrl can reprogram retinal precursors to the rod fate in Xenopus retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvain, Vera A; Knox, Barry E

    2007-07-01

    Transformation of undifferentiated progenitors into specific cell types is largely dependent on temporal and spatial expression of a complex network of transcription factors. Here, we examined whether neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) and photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor Nr2e3 transcription factors contribute to cell fate determination. We cloned the Xenopus Nr2e3 gene and showed that its temporal and spatial expression is similar to its mammalian ortholog. We tested its in vivo function by misexpressing these transcription factors in Xenopus eye primordia, demonstrating that either human Nr2e3 or Nrl directed photoreceptor precursors to become rods at the expense of cones. Furthermore, overexpression of Xenopus Nrl dramatically increased the number of lens fibers, whereas human Nrl did not, suggesting evolutionary divergence of function of the Nrl gene family. Misexpression of Nrl and Nr2e3 together were more effective than either transcription factor alone in directing precursors to the rod fate. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Prokaryote-expressed M2e protein improves H9N2 influenza vaccine efficacy and protection against lethal influenza A virus in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Lee, Jun-Han; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun-Hee; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Park, Su-Jin; Lim, Gyo-Jin; Decano, Arun; Chowdhury, Mohammed Ye; Seo, Su-Kyung; Song, Man Ki; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young-Ki

    2013-01-01

    .... For these reasons, we investigated the efficacy of an inactivated H9N2 virus vaccine (a-H9N2) mixed with M2e (1xM2e or 4xM2e) proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, which contains the consensus of sequence the extracellular domain of matrix 2...

  18. Development of a heat-stable and orally delivered recombinant M2e-expressing B. subtilis spore-based influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Miao, Yu; Guo, Yan; Qiu, Hongjie; Sun, Shihui; Kou, Zhihua; Yu, Hong; Li, Junfeng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying; Zhou, Yusen

    2014-01-01

    Highly conserved ectodomain of influenza virus M2 protein (M2e) is an important target for the development of universal influenza vaccines. Today, the use of chemical or genetic fusion constructs have been undertaken to overcome the low immunogenicity of M2e in vaccine formulation. However, current M2e vaccines are neither orally delivered nor heat-stable. In this study, we evaluated the immune efficacy of an orally delivered recombinant M2e vaccine containing 3 molcules of M2e consensus sequence of influenza A viruses, termed RSM2e3. To accomplish this, CotB, a spore coat of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), was used as a fusion partner, and heat-stable nonpathogenic B. subtilis spores were used as the carrier. Our results showed that CotB-M2e3 fusion had no effect on spore structure or function in the resultant recombinant RSM2e3 strain and that heterologous influenza virus M2e protein was successfully displayed on the surface of the recombinant RSM2e3 spore. Importantly, recombinant RSM2e3 spores elicited strong and long-term M2e-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses, completely protecting immunized mice from lethal challenge of A/PR/8/34(H1N1) influenza virus. Taken together, our study forms a solid basis for the development of a novel orally delivered and heat-stable influenza vaccine based on B. subtilis spore surface display.

  19. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  20. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  1. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  2. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  3. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  4. CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ polymorphism impacts on risk of colorectal cancer association with smoking and alcohol drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between the Rsa Ⅰpolymorphism of CYP2E1 and risk of colorectal cancer.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 315 colorectal cancer cases (105 colon, 210 rectal)and 439 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. Genomic DNA samples were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in CYP2E1by PCR amplification followed by digestion with Rsa Ⅰ. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking was collected using a questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with an unconditional logistic model.RESULTS: The proportional distribution of the CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 genotypes were 61.4%,35.6% and 3.0% in controls, 60.6%, 33.7% and 5.8%in colon cancer cases, and 58.4%, 34.0% and 7.7% in rectal cancer cases, respectively. A significant difference was noted between controls and rectal cancer cases (P = 0.029), the c2/c2 genotype being associated with elevated OR (adjusted age, sex and status of the smoking and alcohol drinking) for rectal cancer (1.64,95% CI, 1.12-2.41, vs c1 allele carriers), but not for colon cancer. In interaction analysis between the CYP2E1Rsa Ⅰ genotype and smoking and drinking habits, we found a significant cooperative action between the c2/c2 genotype and alcohol drinking in the sex-, age-adjusted ORs for both colon (4.74, 95% CI, 1.10-20.40) and rectal (5.75, 95% CI, 1.65-20.05) cancers. Among nonsmokers, the CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ c2/c2 genotype was also associated with elevated ORs in the two sites (1.95, 95%CI, 0.99-3.86 and 2.30, 95% CI, 1.32-3.99).CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the CYP2E1 c2/c2 genotype increases susceptibility to rectal cancer and the gene-environmental interactions between the CYP2E1 polymorphism and smoking or alcohol drinking exist for colorectal neoplasia in general.

  5. A2E induces IL-1ß production in retinal pigment epithelial cells via the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen A Anderson

    Full Text Available AIMS: With ageing extracellular material is deposited in Bruch's membrane, as drusen. Lipofuscin is deposited in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Both of these changes are associated with age related macular degeneration, a disease now believed to involve chronic inflammation at the retinal-choroidal interface. We hypothesise that these molecules may act as danger signals, causing the production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines by the retinal pigment epithelium, via activation of pattern recognition receptors. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were stimulated in vitro with the following reported components of drusen: amyloid-ß (1-42, Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP modified proteins (CEP-HSA, Nε-(Carboxymethyllysine (CML modified proteins and aggregated vitronectin. The cells were also stimulated with the major fluorophore of lipofuscin: N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E. Inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production was assessed using Multiplex assays and ELISA. The mechanistic evaluation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway was assessed in a stepwise fashion. RESULTS: Of all the molecules tested only A2E induced inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production. 25 µM A2E induced the production of significantly increased levels of the chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, MCG and MIP-1α, the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein VEGF-A. The release of IL-1ß was studied further, and was determined to be due to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The pathway of activation involved endocytosis of A2E, and the three inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC and activated caspase-1. Immunohistochemical staining of ABCA4 knockout mice, which show progressive accumulation of A2E levels with age, showed increased amounts of IL-1ß proximal to the retinal pigment epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: A2E has the ability to stimulate inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production by RPE cells. The pattern recognition receptor NLRP3 is involved in this process. This

  6. A student's guide through the great physics texts

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Kerry

    This book provides a chronological introduction to the sciences of astronomy and cosmology based on the reading and analysis of significant selections from classic texts, such as Ptolemy’s Almagest, Kepler’s Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, Shapley’s Galaxies, and Lemaître’s The Primeval Atom. Each chapter begins with a short introduction followed by a reading selection. Carefully crafted study questions draw out key points in the text and focus the reader’s attention on the author’s methods, analysis, and conclusions. Numerical and observational exercises at the end of each chapter test the reader’s ability to understand and apply key concepts from the text.  The Heavens and the Earth is the first of four volumes in A Student’s Guide Through the Great Physics Texts. This book grew out of a four-semester undergraduate physics curriculum designed to encourage a critical and circumspect approach to natural science, while at the same time preparing students for advanced coursework in physics. ...

  7. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  8. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  9. Characteristics of the Great Whale River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, R. Grant

    1981-03-01

    Observations of the motion field and dilution effects associated with the plume of Great Whale River in Hudson Bay are presented for both open water and ice-covered conditions. In the summer months a distinct plume of about 100 km2 in area is formed offshore which is characterized by a 1-2 m thickness and large velocities directed away from the river mouth in contrast to slower currents parallel to the shore in the ambient waters underneath. Surface drifter results suggest that the outer boundary of plume may be a zone of frontal convergence. Under ice-covered conditions the plume was significantly thicker and extended much farther offshore in spite of a marked reduction in river runoff at this time.

  10. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  11. A Great Time to Do Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Has there ever been a more exciting time to do physics? Whether you are interested in the universal questions of matter and energy or just the next cool wireless gadget, whether you want to contribute to the big-picture discussion of all things nuclear or simply save a life with positron emission tomography, you should know that physics is a great place to begin the journey. In this talk, I'll expound a bit on career trajectories of hidden physicists, using both anecdotes and statistics, and conclude with a bit about my favorite research (the physics of Spandex) and pointers about getting science jobs for students, whether it's a summer research internship, an industry position, or in graduate school.

  12. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence...... management of water resources over the last thousand years or so. These findings call for a rethinking of current models of urban evolutions in the region. More importantly, this study illustrates the need for integrating different datasets at multiple spatial and temporal scales to address people-water......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...

  13. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested.

  14. Golden South Africa,Great Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa in 2008,China is celebrating"South Africa Week"to com memorate.H.E.Dr.Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma,the minister of South Africa,and the delegation attended the series of activities in China."South Africa Week"got great success and more and more Chinese people focus on the beautiful and attractive country-South Africa.Dr.Ayanda Ntsaluba,the Director General in Foreign Affairs of South Africa shared his view on the bilateral relations and cooperation,and the development of South Africa with the iournalist of China's Foreign Trade magazine.

  15. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  16. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  17. Jupiter Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on March 1, 1979. The spacecraft was 3 million miles (5 million kilometers) from Jupiter at the time. The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (upper right) and the turbulent region immediately to the west. At the middle right of the frame is one of several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. The structure in every feature here is far better than has ever been seen from any telescopic observations. The Red Spot and the white oval both reveal intricate and involved structure. The smallest details that can be seen in this photo are about 55 miles (95 kilometers) across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  18. South China Sea: Disputes and Great Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinming

    2011-01-01

    In the South China Sea disputes, China has ample proof to claim sovereignty over the Xisha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nansha Islands (the Spratly Islands) while the claims of certain southeast Asian countries do not hold any water. The South China Sea disputes have their origins in the San Francisco Peace Treaty signed in 1951, the result of intervention by the United States and Great Britain in regional affairs. Even today, the United States has not discarded its Cold War mentality and continues to intervene in the South China Sea disputes. The only change in the United States' attitude is that it has changed its pretext for intervention from "containing Communist expansion" in the past to "preserving freedom of navigation in the South China Sea" in the present.

  19. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  20. Structural Basis for Cooperative Binding of Azoles to CYP2E1 as Interpreted through Guided Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joseph W.; Hartman, Jessica H.; Perry, Martin D.; Miller, Grover P.

    2015-01-01

    CYP2E1 metabolizes a wide array of small, hydrophobic molecules, resulting in their detoxification or activation into carcinogens through Michaelis-Menten as well as cooperative mechanisms. Nevertheless, the molecular determinants for CYP2E1 specificity and metabolic efficiency toward these compounds are still unknown. Herein, we employed computational docking studies coupled to Molecular Dynamics simulations to provide a critical perspective for understanding a structural basis for cooperativity observed for an array of azoles from our previous binding and catalytic studies (Hartman, JH et al (2014) Biochem Pharmacol 87, 523-33). The resulting 28 CYP2E1 complexes in this study revealed a common passageway for azoles that included a hydrophobic steric barrier causing a pause in movement toward the active site. The entrance to the active site acted like a second sieve to restrict access to the inner chamber. Collectively, these interactions impacted the final orientation of azoles reaching the active site and hence could explain differences in their biochemical properties observed in our previous studies, such as the consequences of methylation at position 5 of the azole ring. The association of a second azole demonstrated significant differences in interactions stabilizing the bound complex than observed for the first binding event. Intermolecular interactions occurred between the two azoles as well as CYP2E1 residue side chains and backbone and involved both hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds. The relative importance of these interactions depended on the structure of the respective azoles indicating the absence of specific defining criteria for binding unlike the well-characterized dominant role of hydrophobicity in active site binding. Consequently, the structure activity relationships described here and elsewhere are necessary to more accurately identify factors impacting the observation and significance of cooperativity in CYP2E1 binding and catalysis

  1. Role of CYP2E1-mediated metabolism in the acute and vestibular toxicities of nineteen nitriles in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Soler-Martín, Carla; Llorens, Jordi

    2012-01-25

    Allylnitrile, cis-crotononitrile, and 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile are known to cause vestibular toxicity in rodents, and evidence is available indicating that cis-2-pentenenitrile shares this effect. We evaluated nineteen nitriles for vestibular toxicity in wild type (129S1) and CYP2E1-null mice, including all the above, several neurotoxic nitriles, and structurally similar nitriles. A new acute toxicity test protocol was developed to facilitate evaluation of the vestibular toxicity by a specific behavioral test battery at doses up to sub-lethal levels while using a limited number of animals. A mean number of 8.5±0.3 animals per nitrile, strain and sex was necessary to obtain evidence of vestibular toxicity and optionally an estimation of the lethal dose. For several but not all nitriles, lethal doses significantly increased in CYP2E1-null mice. The protocol revealed the vestibular toxicity of five nitriles, including previously identified ototoxic compounds and one nitrile (trans-crotononitrile) known to have a different profile of neurotoxic effects in the rat. In all five cases, both sexes were affected and no decrease in susceptibility was apparent in CYP2E1-null mice respect to 129S1 mice. Fourteen nitriles caused no vestibular toxicity, including six nitriles tested in CYP2E1-null mice at doses significantly larger than the maximal doses that can be tested in wild type animals. We conclude that only a subset of low molecular weight nitriles is toxic to the vestibular system, that species-dependent differences exist in this vestibular toxicity, and that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism is not involved in this effect of nitriles although it has a role in the acute lethality of some of these compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A negative cooperativity mechanism of human CYP2E1 inferred from molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jue; Wei, Dong-Qing; Wang, Jing-Fang; Li, Yi-Xue

    2011-12-27

    Human cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) participates in the metabolism of over 2% of all the oral drugs. A hallmark peculiar feature of this enzyme is that it exhibits a pronounced negative cooperativity in substrate binding. However the mechanism by which the negative cooperativity occurs is unclear. Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations on human CYP2E1 to examine the structural differences between the substrate-free and the enzymes with one and two aniline molecules bound. Our results indicate that although the effector substrate does not bind in the active site cavity, it still can directly interact with the active site residues of human CYP2E1. The interaction of the effector substrate with the active site leads to a reorientation of active site residues, which thereby weakens the interactions of the active substrate with this site. We also identify a conserved residue T303 that plays a crucial role in the negative cooperative binding on the short-range effects. This residue is a key factor in the positioning of substrates and in proton delivery to the active site. Additionally, a long-range effect of the effector substrate is identified in which F478 is proposed to play a key role. As located in the interface between the active and effector sites, this residue structurally links the active and effector sites and is found to play a significant role in affecting substrate access and ligand positioning within the active site. In the negative cooperative binding, this residue can decrease the interactions of the active substrate with the active site by π-π stacking which then lowers the hydroxylation activity for the active substrate. These findings are in agreement with previous experimental observations and thus provide detailed atomistic insight into the poorly understood mechanism of the negative cooperativity in human CYP2E1.

  3. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  4. Predicting night-time natural ventilation in Stanford's Y2E2 building using an integral model in combination with a CFD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Giacomo; Gorle', Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Natural ventilation can significantly reduce energy consumption in buildings, but the presence of uncertainty makes robust design a challenging task. We will discuss the prediction of the natural ventilation performance during a 4 hour night-flush in Stanford's Y2E2 building using a combination of two models with different levels of fidelity: an integral model that solves for the average air and thermal mass temperature and a CFD model, used to calculate discharge and heat transfer coefficients to update the integral model. Uncertainties are propagated using polynomial chaos expansion to compute the mean and 95% confidence intervals of the quantities of interest. Comparison with building measurements shows that, despite a slightly to fast cooling rate, the measured air temperature is inside the 95% confidence interval predicted by the integral model. The use of information from the CFD model in the integral model reduces the maximum standard deviation of the volume-averaged air temperature by 20% when compared to using literature-based estimates for these quantities. The heat transfer coefficient resulting from the CFD model was found to be within the literature-based interval initially assumed for the integral model, but the discharge coefficients were found to be different.

  5. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  6. The Competitive Relationships of SN2, SN1, E2, E1 Reactions in Organic Chemistry%有机化学中SN2,SN1,E2,E1反应的相互竞争关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜志明; 潘英明

    2014-01-01

    有机化学中的SN2,SN1,E2,E1反应在学习中有着重要的作用,同时也是学习中易混淆的知识点.通过总结它们的反应机理、反应影响因素和反应相互竞争关系图,并利用竞争关系图解答了一些典型考研真题,方便读者理解和掌握SN2,SN1,E2,E1反应的相互竞争关系.

  7. The H{sub 2}E program wants to open the way to a sustainable energy; Le programme H{sub 2}E veut ouvrir la voie a une energie durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-01-15

    The H{sub 2}E program, which represents an investment of about 200 millions of euros during 7 years in research and technology, aims at manufacturing an hydrogen-sustainable and competitive energy line. The research effort will deal particularly with the development of innovating techniques for the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources, for the storage of hydrogen and the industrialization of fuel cells. (O.M.)

  8. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  9. Oxidation of Methyl and Ethyl Nitrosamines by Cytochromes P450 2E1 and 2B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M. Wade; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E1 is the major enzyme that oxidizes N-nitrosodimethylamine (N,N-dimethylnitrosamine, DMN), a carcinogen and also a representative of some nitrosamines formed endogenously. Oxidation of DMN by rat or human P450 2E1 to HCHO showed a high apparent intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect (KIE), ≥ 8. The KIE was not attenuated in non-competitive intermolecular experiments with rat liver microsomes (DV 12.5, D(V/K) 10.9, nomenclature of Northrop, D.B. (1982) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607–625) but was with purified human P450 2E1 (DV 3.3, D(V/K) 3.7), indicating that C-H bond breaking is partially rate-limiting with human P450 2E1. With N-nitrosodiethylamine (N,N-diethylnitrosamine, DEN), the intrinsic KIE was slightly lower and was not expressed (e.g., D(V/K) 1.2) in non-competitive intermolecular experiments. The same general pattern of KIEs was also seen in the D(V/K) results with DMN and DEN for the minor products resulting from the denitrosation reactions (CH3NH2, CH3CH2NH2, and NO2−). Experiments with deuterated N-nitroso-N-methyl,N-ethylamine demonstrated that the lower KIEs associated for ethyl compared to methyl oxidation could be distinguished within a single molecule. P450 2E1 oxidized DMN and DEN to aldehydes and then to the carboxylic acids. No kinetic lags were observed in acid formation; pulse-chase experiments with carrier aldehydes showed only limited equilibration with P450 2E1-bound aldehydes, indicative of processive reactions, as reported for P450 2A6 (Chowdhury, G. et al. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 8031–8044). These same features (no lag phase for HCO2H formation, lack of equilibration in pulse-chase assays) were also seen with (rat) P450 2B1, which has lower catalytic efficiency for DMN oxidation and a larger active site. Thus, the processivity of dialkylnitrosamine oxidation appears to be shared by a number of P450s. PMID:23186213

  10. Oxidation of methyl and ethyl nitrosamines by cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M Wade; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2012-12-18

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E1 is the major enzyme that oxidizes N-nitrosodimethylamine [N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)], a carcinogen and also a representative of some nitrosamines formed endogenously. Oxidation of DMN by rat or human P450 2E1 to HCHO showed a high apparent intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect (KIE), ≥8. The KIE was not attenuated in noncompetitive intermolecular experiments with rat liver microsomes {(D)V = 12.5; (D)(V/K) = 10.9 [nomenclature of Northrop, D. B. (1982) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607-625]} but was with purified human P450 2E1 [(D)V = 3.3; (D)(V/K) = 3.7], indicating that C-H bond breaking is partially rate-limiting with human P450 2E1. With N-nitrosodiethylamine [N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)], the intrinsic KIE was slightly lower and was not expressed [e.g., (D)(V/K) = 1.2] in noncompetitive intermolecular experiments. The same general pattern of KIEs was also seen in the (D)(V/K) results with DMN and DEN for the minor products resulting from the denitrosation reactions (CH(3)NH(2), CH(3)CH(2)NH(2), and NO(2)(-)). Experiments with deuterated N-nitroso-N-methyl-N-ethylamine demonstrated that the lower KIEs associated with ethyl versus methyl oxidation could be distinguished within a single molecule. P450 2E1 oxidized DMN and DEN to aldehydes and then to the carboxylic acids. No kinetic lags were observed in acid formation; pulse-chase experiments with carrier aldehydes showed only limited equilibration with P450 2E1-bound aldehydes, indicative of processive reactions, as reported for P450 2A6 [Chowdhury, G., et al. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 8031-8044]. These same features (no lag phase for HCO(2)H formation and a lack of equilibration in pulse-chase assays) were also seen with (rat) P450 2B1, which has a lower catalytic efficiency for DMN oxidation and a larger active site. Thus, the processivity of dialkyl nitrosamine oxidation appears to be shared by a number of P450s.

  11. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  12. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  13. Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

    2002-01-01

    The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member

  14. Great River Resource Management Study (Great III): Reconnaissance Report, Mississippi River - Saverton, Missouri to Cairo, Illinois,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Cape Girardeau, Mo Sewage Treament Primary 50.2 S.E. Missouri Stone Co. Mining • 49 Marquette Cement Co. Cement Plant • 43.5 City of Illmo, Mo Sewage...are a class of compounds of great stability under both heat and pressure that have been manufactured and used since 1929. Beginning in 1970, the uses of

  15. Evaluation of major types of Shiga toxin 2E-producing Escherichia coli bacteria present in food, pigs, and the environment as potential pathogens for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutin, Lothar; Krüger, Ulrike; Krause, Gladys; Miko, Angelika; Martin, Annett; Strauch, Eckhard

    2008-08-01

    Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing strains from food (n = 36), slaughtered pigs (n = 25), the environment (n = 21), diseased pigs (n = 19), and humans (n = 9) were investigated for production of Stx2e by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, for virulence markers by PCR, and for their serotypes to evaluate their role as potential human pathogens. Stx2e production was low in 64% of all 110 strains. Stx2e production was inducible by mitomycin C but differed considerably between strains. Analysis by nucleotide sequencing and transcription of stx(2e) genes in high- and low-Stx2e-producing strains showed that toxin production correlated with transcription rates of stx(2e) genes. DNA sequences specific for the int, Q, dam, and S genes of the stx(2e) bacteriophage P27 were found in 109 strains, indicating cryptic P27-like prophages, although 102 of these were not complete for all genes tested. Genes encoding intimin (eae), enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin (ehx), or other stx(1) or stx(2) variants were not found, whereas genes for heat-stable enterotoxins STI, STII, or EAST1 were present in 54.5% of the strains. Seven major serotypes that were associated with diseased pigs (O138:H14, O139:H1, and O141:H4) or with slaughter pigs, food, and the environment (O8:H4, O8:H9, O100:H30, and O101:H9) accounted for 60% of all Stx2e strains. The human Stx2e isolates did not belong to these major serotypes of Stx2e strains, and high production of Stx2e in human strains was not related to diarrheal disease. The results from this study and other studies do not point to Stx2e as a pathogenicity factor for diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans.

  16. Our great forgotten, chronic respiratory sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordejé Laguna, María Luisa

    2017-05-08

    Lung’s own properties make that nutritional support, besides covering the requirements can modulate its infl ammatory response. Lung tissue has a low glucose stock. Fatty acids are the main energy producer of type II pneumocytes, which use them in order to form phospholipids, essential for surfactant whose creation and release decrease in acute lung injury (ALI). Glutamine is a good substratum for endocrine cells and type II pneumocytes. Due to high nutritional risk, it is important its assessments in disorders as COPD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ADRS). Indirect calorimetry values the effect of ventilation and nutritional support, avoiding overfeeding. Hypophosphatemia and refeeding syndrome are frequent and need to be avoided because of their morbidity. In critically ill patients, malnutrition can lead to respiratory failure and increasing mechanical ventilation time. To avoid hypercapnia in weaning, glucose levels should be controlled. High lipids/carbohydrates ratio do not show usefulness in COPD neither mechanical ventilation removal. ALI patients beneficiate from an early start and the volume administered. Enteral nutrition with high fatty acids ratio (EPA, DHA and γ-linolenic acid) and antioxidants do not show any superiority. Omega-3 fatty acid in parenteral nutrition could modulate infl ammation and immunosuppression in a positive manner. The use of glutamine, vitamins or antioxidants in these patients could be justified.

  17. TMAO: A small molecule of great expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Zadlo, Anna; Ostaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic compound whose concentration in blood increases after ingesting dietary l-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine. Recent clinical studies show a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events defined as death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Several experimental studies suggest a possible contribution of TMAO to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases by affecting lipid and hormonal homeostasis. On the other hand, TMAO-rich seafood, which is an important source of protein and vitamins in the Mediterranean diet, has been considered beneficial for the circulatory system. Although in humans TMAO is known mainly as a waste product of choline metabolism, a number of studies suggest an involvement of TMAO in important biological functions in numerous organisms, ranging from bacteria to mammals. For example, cells use TMAO to maintain cell volume under conditions of osmotic and hydrostatic pressure stresses. In this article, we reviewed well-established chemical and biological properties of TMAO and dietary sources of TMAO, as well as looked at the studies suggesting possible involvement of TMAO in the etiology of cardiovascular and other diseases, such as kidney failure, diabetes, and cancer.

  18. [One year after the Great Tohoku Disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    After the great earthquake of March 11, 2011, at least seven hospitals with 723 beds along the Miyagi Prefecture northern coastline were so devastated they could no longer function, leaving only several available hospitals. The two crucial issues thus became maintaining communications and regional transport. Phones and wireless were knocked out in most hospitals and areas. Many of the severe cases had to be brought to the Tohoku University Hospital at Sendai from the above the hospitals. Tohoku University Hospital and other medical facilities in the Tohoku district were in a terrible crisis of electricity shortage. It was a critical situation, particularly for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis requiring artificial ventilation. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology, and prevent the neurological disease progressing after the earthquake. A large number of hospitals in coastal areas suffered devastating damage. We do not think it is feasible or even reasonable to restore such hospitals to what they were before the disaster. We started Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization as a disaster recovery model for revitalizing the areas reported to have scarce medical services. The project provides supports to local medical services, constructs a community coalition for medical information, sets up a biobank based on large-scale cohort studies, and provides educational training to produce highly specialized medical practitioners.

  19. History of photodynamic therapy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, D; Ackroyd, R

    2005-12-01

    Although the concept photodynamic therapy has been recognised for over a century, it is only over the last 25 years that it has been used in Great Britain. The first applications in the UK were in 1981 by John Carruth, who treated patients with advanced ENT and skin cancers. The following year, he and Stephen Bown set up the British Medical Laser Association (BMLA). Since that time, the use of PDT in the UK has slowly expanded in all fields of medicine and surgery. In 1986, Bown set up the National Medical Laser Centre (NMLC) and later collaborated with Liverpool gastroenterologist, Neville Krasner, in animal studies on rat colon. In 1997, Keyvan Moghissi founded the Yorkshire Laser Centre (YLC) and began treating patients with advanced inoperable bronchial and oesophageal cancers. Stan Brown in Leeds set up the Centre for Photobiology and Photodynamic Therapy at the University of Leeds, working in close collaboration with the Yorkshire Cancer Research Centre. Other pioneers include Hugh Barr in Gloucester, Colin Hopper in London, Grant Fullarton in Glasgow and Roger Ackroyd, Malcolm Reed and Nicky Brown in Sheffield. PDT has now been used in the UK in the treatment of skin, oral, ENT, oesophageal, lung, bladder and gynaecological malignancies.

  20. [Claude Fortier: the great history of neuroendocrinology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostène, William

    2005-05-01

    The work of Claude Fortier is linked to the history of neuroendocrinology. Through him and his pioneer work in Montreal with Hans Selye, the , and at Laval University in Quebec City in his own laboratory, where all researchers involved in the study of the hypothalamo-hypophysial adrenal axis have been through, it is the whole saga of the search for the neuropeptide CRH (corticotropin releasing factor), and the harsh fight for the Nobel distinction that can be related. Among Claude Fortier's scientific discoveries, the feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoid hormones on brain and pituitary function, the presence of both mineralo and glucocorticoid receptors in some brain structures, and the introduction of computer science in biomedical research, can be cited. The consequences of these discoveries are illustrated in the pathologies linked to stress (anxiety, depression, addiction). Claude Fortier was not only a great figure in biomedical science, honored by several distinctions, but also an important personality in the policy of research in which he played a prominent role in Quebec medical research and allowed it to rank among the best in the world.

  1. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  2. Natural Selection in the Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-12-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  4. Natural Selection in the Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. PMID:27795229

  5. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. What makes CERN’s research great

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As a newcomer to CERN, I find myself both honoured and humbled to have had the role of Research Director confided in me for five years.    My career has taken me from Hamburg to Stanford and Heidelberg and back to Hamburg, and although this is the first time I have been based at CERN, it is not my first involvement with the Laboratory. I was a member of the OPAL collaboration in the late 1980s, and chaired the LHCC from 2011 to 2014. In addition, over the past ten years I have enjoyed contacts with many colleagues at CERN, via joint European programmes and particularly in discussions on linear colliders. In this, my first message to personnel, I’d like to set out my view of what makes CERN’s research great, and where I’d like to see things when I step down at the end of 2020. First and foremost, I have to refer to the many excellent experts at CERN and to the thousands of users of our facilities. Their ideas are the backbone of all...

  7. The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  8. Expressing hNF-LE397K results in abnormal gaiting in a transgenic model of CMT2E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeffrey M.; Villalon, Eric; Shannon, Stephen G.; Barry, Devin M.; Markey, Rachel M.; Garcia, Virginia B.; Garcia, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT disease signs include distal limb neuropathy, abnormal gaiting, exacerbation of neuropathy, sensory defects, and deafness. We generated a novel line of CMT2E mice expressing a hNF-LE397K transgene, which displayed muscle atrophy of the lower limbs without denervation, proximal reduction in large caliber axons, and decreased nerve conduction velocity. In this study, we demonstrated that hNF-LE397K mice developed abnormal gait of the hind limbs. The identification of severe gaiting defects in combination with previously observed muscle atrophy, reduced axon caliber, and decreased nerve conduction velocity suggests that hNF-LE397K mice recapitulate many of clinical signs associated with CMT2E. Therefore, hNF-LE397K mice provide a context for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:22288874

  9. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  10. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  11. The Benchmarking of the Government to Employee (G2e) Technology Development: Theoretical Aspects of the Model Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Alvydas Baležentis; Gintarė Paražinskaitė

    2012-01-01

    Purpose—To fill the gap in the currently very rare discussion on the important topic of e-government research—design, development and usage of information and communication technologies for human resource management in the public sector and to formulate theoretical benchmarks for development of the government to employee (G2E) model.Design/methodology/approach—Literature analysis of mostly empirical research from the field of government to government (G2G), government to citizen (G2C) and bus...

  12. Estimation of fractional snow cover based on FengYun2E/VISSR over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fractional snow cover (FSC) is an important snow parameter in global climate change research and hydrological applications. Most of current fractional snow cover products are mainly determined from polar-orbit satellites sensors, such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). However, snow cover extent and fractional snow cover derived from polar-orbit satellites sensors show serious cloud obscuration daily, which can't satisfy the meteorological and hydrological applications. Taking advantage of high temporal resolution, geostationary satellites show potential to retrieve fractional snow cover with lower cloud obscuration in daily scale. In this paper, we propose a technique to estimate fractional snow cover over the Tibetan Plateau by Chinese geostationary satellite Fengyun-2E (FY2E) in two winters of 2011 and 2012. Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), Ratio Snow Index (RSI) and Difference Snow Index (DSI) based on 0.6μm and 3.9μm channel of Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) onboard FY2E are used to estimate the fractional snow cover. Landsat ETM+ data is treated as true value of fractional snow cover to develop the models based on VISSR snow indexes. When validated by ETM+ fractional snow cover, the model based on VISSR DSI with exponential curve fitting show the best performance in estimating fractional snow cover, with R-square of 0.62 and RMSE of 0.17. There are much more temporal data can be used to estimate the fractional snow cover based on FY2E VISSR in one day, which show lower cloud obscuration compared with MODIS fractional snow cover products.

  13. Contributions of caspase-8 and -9 to liver injury from CYP2E1-produced metabolites of halogenated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Yoshio; Kato, Ryuji; Sadamatsu, Maiko; Takano, Mina; Yasuda, Yuki; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Oishi, Chiyo; Imano, Hideki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-12

    1. Drug-induced liver injury is difficult to predict at the pre-clinical stage. This study aimed to clarify the roles of caspase-8 and -9 in CYP2E1 metabolite-induced liver injury in both rats and cell cultures in vitro treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), halothane or sevoflurane. The human hepatocarcinoma functional liver cell line was maintained in 3-dimensional culture alone or in co-culture with human acute monocytic leukemia cells. 2. In vivo, laboratory indices of liver dysfunction and histology were normal after administration of sevoflurane. CCl4 treatment increased blood AST/ALT levels, liver caspase-3 and -9 activities and liver malondialdehyde, accompanied by centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis. Halothane increased AST/ALT levels, caspase-3 and -8 activities (but not malondialdehyde) concomitant with widespread hepatotoxicity. In vitro, CCl4 treatment increased caspase-9 activity and decreased both mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell viability. In co-culture, halothane increased caspase-8 activity and decreased MMP and cellular viability. There were no toxic responses in CYP2E1 knockdown in monoculture and co-culture. 3. CYP2E1-inducing compounds play a pivotal role in halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity. 4. Changes in hepatocyte caspase-8 and -9 activities could be novel biomarkers of metabolites causing DILI, and in pre-clinical development of new pharmaceuticals can predict nascent DILI in the clinical stage.

  14. Near Infrared Counterpart of 2E 1613.5-5053, the Central Source in Supernova Remnant RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Archibald, Robert F; Scholz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    On 2016 June 22, 2E 1613.5-5053, the puzzling central compact object in supernova remnant RCW 103, emitted a magnetar-like burst. Using Director's Discretionary Time, we observed 2E 1613.5-5053 with the Hubble Space Telescope (WFC3/IR) and we report here on the detection of a previously unseen infrared counterpart. In observations taken on 2016 July 4 and August 11, we detect a new source ($m_\\mathrm{F110W} = 26.3$ AB mag and $m_\\mathrm{F160W} = 24.2$ AB mag) at the Chandra position of 2E 1613.5-5053 which was not detected in HST/NICMOS images from 2002 August 15 and October 8 to a depth of 24.5 AB mag (F110W) and 25.5 AB mag (F160W). We show that these deep IR observations rule out the possibility of an accreting binary but mimic IR emission properties of magnetars and isolated neutron stars. The presence or absence of a low-mass fallback disk cannot be confirmed from our observations.

  15. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  16. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  17. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  18. History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945. Volume 6. Results of the Great Patriotic War,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-06

    with the general/common/total enemyŖ. FOOTNOTE 1. Robert Sherwood. Roosevelt and Hopkins by the eyes of eyewitness, Vol. 2, p. 613. ENDFOOTNOTE. With...34, created with the aid of the military activities? Specialist in questions of the military doctrine of the USA Robert Tucker, the former consultant of...Central Committee of the CPA and the news- paper "Kyu Kuok " ("Rescue of the Fatherland") which was the publi- cation of the Viet Mingh. Not a small role

  19. Metaloproteinases 2 e 9 são preditoras de remodelação ventricular esquerda após o infarto do miocárdio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Cogni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O papel de metaloproteinases (MMP séricas após o infarto do miocárdio (IM é desconhecido. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o papel das MMP-2 e -9 séricas como marcadores prognósticos da remodelação ventricular seis meses após o IM anterior. MÉTODOS: Fizemos um registro prospectivo dos pacientes após o seu primeiro IM anterior. A atividade de MMP foi analisada entre 12 a 72 horas após o IM. Foi feito um ecocardiograma durante a internação e seis meses depois. RESULTADOS: Incluímos 29 pacientes; 62% mostraram remodelação ventricular. Os pacientes que mostraram remodelação tinham maior tamanho de infarto baseado nos valores pico da creatinofosfoquinase (CPK (p = 0,037, alta prevalência de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva em hospitais (p = 0,004, e redução da fração de ejeção (FE (p = 0,007. Os pacientes com remodelação ventricular tiveram menores níveis séricos de MMP-9 inativa (p = 0,007 e maiores níveis da forma ativa da MMP-2 (p = 0,011. Em um modelo de regressão logística multivariada, ajustado pela idade, pico de CPK, FE e prevalência de insuficiência cardíaca, os níveis séricos da MMP-2 e -9 estavam associados à remodelação (p = 0,033 e 0,044, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Níveis séricos mais elevados da MMP-9 inativa foram associados com a preservação dos volumes ventriculares esquerdos, e níveis séricos mais elevados da forma ativa da MMP-2 foram um preditor da remodelação seis meses após o IM.

  20. Cholera:a great global concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenicVibrio cholerae (V. cholerae)to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. TheV. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. TheO1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima.V. choleraeO1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistantV. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.