Sample records for voltri massif ligurian

  1. Linking serpentinite geochemistry with tectonic evolution at the subduction plate-interface: The Voltri Massif case study (Ligurian Western Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Cannaò, E.; Scambelluri, M.; Agostini, S.; Tonarini, S.; Godard, M.


    Recent geochemical work shows that subduction-zone serpentinites are repositories for fluid-mobile elements absorbed during interaction with sediment-derived fluids. Unraveling the geochemical fingerprint of these rocks helps to define timing of tectonic accretion of sediments along the subduction interface and the role of serpentinite in element recycling to volcanic arcs. Here we present the trace element and isotopic composition (B-O-H, Sr, Pb) of high-pressure serpentinites from the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Western Alps, Italy), to discuss their role as incompatible element carriers and their contribution to recycling of sediment-derived components in subduction zones. The serpentinites presented here record metamorphic olivine growth during eclogite-facies metamorphism and show undeformed and mylonitic textures. Field relations show that undeformed rocks are enclosed in deformed ones and that no metasedimentary rocks are present nearby. Undeformed serpentinite has very high δ11BSRM951 (from +26‰ to +30‰), low Sr and Pb isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7053-0.7069; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.131-18.205) and low As and Sb contents (0.1 and 0.01 μg/g, respectively). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions are +4.5‰ and -67‰, respectively. In contrast, mylonitic serpentinite shows lower δ11B (from +22‰ to +17‰), significant enrichment in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotopes (87Sr/86Sr up to 0.7105; 206Pb/204Pb up to 18.725), and enrichment in As and Sb (1.3 and 0.39 μg/g, respectively). δ18O of the mylonitic serpentinites reaches values of +5.9‰, whereas δD is comparable with that of undeformed rocks (approximately -70‰). In mylonitic serpentinites, the B and Sr isotopic values and the fluid-mobile element (FME) concentrations are near those for the Voltri metasedimentary rocks (calc- and mica-schists). Pb systematics also reveal influx of a crust-derived component. Our dataset shows that undeformed serpentinite still preserves an oceanic geochemical fingerprint

  2. 2D Numerical simulations of intraoceanic subduction: the case study of the Ligurian Alps. (United States)

    Malatesta, Cristina; Gerya, Taras; Federico, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni


    the serpentinized horizon in an oceanic lithosphere with the "atypical" structure controls the development and size of a serpentinite channel during subduction. The channel forms between the subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge as the result of infiltration of fluids released from the down-going plate. Circulation of slices from both the subducting and the overidding plates usually occurs inside the channel. The shape and therefore the type of flow inside the channel are influenced by several parameters such as for example the dip of the slab. We furthermore investigated the influence of singular changes in geometric and kinematic parameters on the entire "subduction system". We focused in detail on the development of a volcanic arc and particularly on the effects that convergence rate, initial inclination and age of the subducting slab have on its dimension, its distance from the trench and its age. Moreover, the numerical simulations allowed us to investigate the circulation patterns inside the serpentinite channel: we modeled the P-T paths produced during burial and exhumation of rocks involved in subduction and compared them to the ones of "real" rocks. Following this approach we have compared our model results with the present-day structure and metamorphism of the high pressure ophiolite Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps) in order to discuss the exhumation mechanisms. We conclude that formation of a serpentinite channel likely drives the exhumation of the eclogite-facies rocks. Our model appears to fit well several aspects of the Voltri Massif evolution; particularly the gaps in P-T peak conditions attained by the various tectonic slices, the dimension of such bodies, and the involvement of sedimentary rocks from different sources (oceanic vs continental types). REFERENCES Gerya T., Stöckhert B., Perchuk A.L. (2002). Tectonics, vol. 21, no. 6, 1056. Lagabrielle Y., Lemoine M. (1997). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/Earth and

  3. The Productive Ligurian Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, E; Couvelard, X; Caldeira, R M A


    In contrast with the behavior of the eddies in the open-ocean, the sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the constricted Ligurian Basin (NW Mediterranean), are unproductive but their combined effect, arranged in a rim-like fashion, contributes to the containment of a Productive Ligurian Pool (PLP). Data de- rived from MODIS satellite sensor showed persistent higher chlorophyll con- centrations in the centre of the basin, concurrent with high EKE values in its surroundings, derived from AVISO altimetry merged products. This sug- gested that this 'productive pool' is maintained by the intense (sub)mesoscale eddy activity in the rim. Numerical realistic experiments, using a Regional Ocean Model System, forced by MERCATOR and by a high-resolution COSMO- l7 atmospheric model, also showed that most of the sub-mesoscale eddies, during 2009 and 2010, are concentrated in the rim surrounding the basin, contributing to the formation of a basin-scale cyclonic gyre. We hypothesized that the interaction between eddies in the r...

  4. Incidence of Acinetobacter baumannii and other pathogens isolated from Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital San Carlo, Genoa - Voltri

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    Silvana Delfino


    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen of great impact especially in nosocomial settings due to its complex epidemiology that makes its control very difficult. In this study the strains isolated from the Intensive Care Unite were analysed. Materials and methods. All the patients admitted into intensive care of San Carlo Hospital,Voltri, Genoa, Italy (ASL 3 in the period from May to December 2009 were considered.A total of 63 patients were studied including 31 women and 32 men, with an average of 73 years old.The study considered the following biological samples (N: bronchial aspirate and sputum (84, urine (55, blood (28, and other materials (36.The positive samples were processed for strain identification and evaluations of its antibiotic susceptibility pattern by standard VITEK2 system, following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute Guidelines. Results and Conclusions. From samples taken into account, the prevalent percentage of bacterial species collected was registered by Gram negative (46.3%, followed by Gram positive (36.4%, and fungi (17.3%. Considering Gram negative isolates A. baumannii and Escherichia coli resulted among the prevalent pathogens (23.4 and 24.5% respectively. This microorganism was collected especially from bronchial aspirate (13 followed by urines (4, blood cultures (2 and other materials (3. On the basis of the analysis of the antibiotic susceptibility tests, colistin was active on the totality (100% of A. baumannii, followed by tigecycline (96.77%.Amikacin resulted also active against a large proportion of these isolates (93.3%. Present findings confirm the great multidrug resistance phenotype of A. baumanii against the main classes of antimicrobial agents and its dangerous diffusion in the Intensive Care Units. For these reasons a continuous surveillance of the evolution of this pathogen toward antibiotic resistance is requested. In this contest it will be important an evaluation of antibiotic


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    M. Prearo


    Full Text Available Aim of this investigation was to evaluate heavy metals contamination (mercury, cadmium and lead in fish and shellfish from Ligurian Sea. 58 muscle samples (45 fish and 13 shellfish were collected and analyzed. 20 samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs set by regulation for mercury (16 fish and 4 shellfish samples, while only one fish sample was not consistent with the MRL for lead. Therefore, 35,8% of Ligurian fishing turned out to be not adequate and potentially harmful for consumers. In order to estimate the real risk for human health it is necessary to enforce this study, correlating the results with fish species and with the effective fish consumption.

  6. Upper layer current variability in the Central Ligurian Sea

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    P. Picco


    Full Text Available Long-time series of surface currents and meteorological parameters were analysed to estimate the variability of the upper layer circulation as a preliminary study of the Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE07. Current meter data were collected by an upward-looking RDI Sentinel 300 kHz ADCP deployed in the Central Ligurian Sea (43°47.77' N; 9°02.85' E near the meteo-oceanographic buoy ODAS ITALIA1 for over eight months. The ADCP sampled the upper 50 m of water column at 8 m vertical resolution and 1 h time interval; surface marine and atmospheric hourly data were provided by the buoy. Currents were mainly barotropic and directed NW, according to the general circulation of the area, had a mean velocity of about 18 cm s−1 and hourly mean peaks up to 80 m s−1. Most of the observed variability in the upper thermocline was determined by inertial currents and mesoscale activity due to the presence of the Ligurian Front. Local wind had a minor role in the near-surface circulation but induced internal waves propagating downward in the water column.

  7. Study of tsunami propagation in the Ligurian Sea

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    E. Pelinovsky


    Full Text Available Tsunami propagation is analyzed for the Ligurian Sea with particular attention on the French coasts of the Mediterranean. Historical data of tsunami manifestation on the French coast are analyzed for the period 2000 B.C.–1991 A.D. Numerical simulations of potential and historical tsunamis in the Ligurian Sea are done in the context of the nonlinear shallow water theory. Tsunami wave heights as well as their distribution function is calculated for historical tsunamis and it is shown that the log-normal distribution describes reasonably the simulated data. This demonstrates the particular role of bottom irregularities for the wave height distribution function near the coastlines. Also, spectral analysis of numerical tide-gauge records is done for potential tsunamis, revealing the complex resonant interactions between the tsunami waves and the bottom oscillations. It is shown that for an earthquake magnitude of 6.8 (averaged value for the Mediterranean Sea the tsunami phenomenon has a very local character but with long duration. For sources located near the steep continental slope in the vicinity of the French-Italian Rivera, the tsunami tide-gauge records in the vicinity of Cannes – Imperia present irregular oscillations with a characteristic period of 20–30 min and a total duration of 10–20 h. For the western French coasts the amplitudes are significantly less with characteristic low-frequency oscillations (period of 40 min–1 h.

  8. On some electrical effects of the 1887 Ligurian earthquake (United States)

    Poirier, Jean-Paul; Perrier, Frédéric; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis


    Significant electrical effects were observed in association with the 23 February 1887 Ligurian earthquake. Magnetic oscillatory signals, recorded in several locations in France and England, are inconclusive, as they can be interpreted as a consequence of the shaking of the magnetometers induced by the seismic waves. While observations in a telephone switch in Cannes could suggest the presence of electrical currents during the earthquake, evidence that is more convincing was reported near Monaco, where a telegraph operator received an electric shock that caused muscular tetanisation. This could be the first reliable evidence of a strong coseismic electrical potential. The minimal ground electric potential difference able to generate this condition is estimated to be of the order of 40 V. These observations, combined with similar accounts in Italy and in Martinique during early operation of telegraph networks, also suggest the existence of electrical phenomena occurring seconds or minutes before the main shock.

  9. Determining the stress of rock massif



    Defining the stress rock massif is essential for design of underground facilities and methods of mining in the mines. Assessment the value of stress state of rock massif and rock strength in the various loads allows rational design. This is of particular importance when sizing columns, determining the extent of excavation, the cross-sections of underground rooms in problems with rock bursts and others. This paper briefly gives the basic methods of determining the rock massif stress as part of...

  10. On microseisms recorded near the Ligurian coast (Italy) and their relationship with sea wave height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, G.; Zunino, Andrea; Scafidi, D.;


    In this study, microseism recordings from a near coast seismic station and concurrent significant sea wave heights (H13 ) are analysed to calibrate an empirical relation for predicting sea wave height in the Ligurian Sea. The study stems from the investigation of the damaging sea storms occurred ...

  11. Suhard Massif. A geomorphological study

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    Liviu CARP


    Full Text Available Suhard Mts., part of the Northern Carpathians, stretch over an area of 323 sq km, in the shape of a  northwest-oriented ridge. This massif is composed of crystalline schists  (meso- and epimetamorphic, as well as sedimentary rocks pertaining to the trans-Carpathian flysch deposits (i.e. various types of sandstone, conglomerates and marls in the southwestern sector. Whereas this region is characterized by the occurrence of a wide range of carbonate rocks, we noted the scarcity of karst forms. Geological survey maps of the area indicate the occurrence of few folded structures; moreover, the massif is mostly part of an ample anticline whereby the axis underlies the valley of Bistrita Aurie river, accompanied by a large syncline underlying Cosna river valley (tributary of Dorna river. The prevalence of crystalline rocks within this anticlinorium results in the overall massif shape of these mountains (hence, the name, which is the foundation for the detail structural and lithological relief forms. The array of structural relief forms includes structural plateaus on sedimentary and crystalline carbonate rocks, and steep slopes in the form of both hogbacks and overthrust scarps. The lithological relief occurs primarily as a result of the contrasting chemical composition of various crystalline rocks, whereas sedimentary rocks seldom generate such forms and solely when favored by the structure, as well. Consequently, carbonate rocks are rather discrete and only stand out in the form of clints (lapies and gorges, or hums. As regards the matter of denudation surfaces, which has proved rather difficult to solve, we were able to determine the presence of an erosion surface ranging from 1200-1300 m to 1500-1600 m, wherein neotectonics played a significant role by fragmenting the original surface, particularly in the northwestern sector, where its fragments descend in the shape of consecutive steps towards Rotunda saddle. Periglacial modeling of the relief

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  13. Pleistocene glaciation of the Biokovo Massif

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    Manja Žebre


    Full Text Available Biokovo massif is situated in the coastal part of the Dinaric Mountains in Croatia. Detailed morphographic and morphometric analysis of the highest parts of the massif were used to determine the extent and characteristics of Late Pleistocene glaciation. The reconstruction of glaciers and calculations of equilibrium line altitude (ELA were carried out. Our research revealed that on the north-eastern side of the highest peak Sveti Jure two cirque glaciers with an overall area of 1 km2 were formed and their ELA was 1515 m a.s.l.

  14. Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in a doubly, two-way nested primitive equation model of the Ligurian Sea (United States)

    Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Rixen, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Testut, C.-E.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.


    The GHER 3D primitive equation model is implemented with three different resolutions: a low resolution model (1/4^o) covering the whole Mediterranean Sea, an intermediate resolution model (1/20^o) of the Liguro-Provençal basin and a high resolution model (1/60^o) simulating the fine mesoscale structures in the Ligurian Sea. Boundary conditions and the averaged fields (feedback) are exchanged between two successive nesting levels. The model of the Ligurian Sea is also coupled with the assimilation package SESAM. It allows to assimilate satellite data and in situ observations using the local adaptative SEEK (Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman) filter. Instead of evolving the error space by the numerically expensive Lyapunov equation, a simplified algebraic equation depending on the misfit between observation and model forecast is used. Starting from the 1st January 1998 the low and intermediate resolution models are spun up for 18 months. The initial conditions for the Ligurian Sea are interpolated from the intermediate resolution model. The three models are then integrated until August 1999. During this period AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature of the Ligurian Sea is assimilated. The results are validated by using CTD and XBT profiles of the SIRENA cruise from the SACLANT Center. The overall objective of this study is pre-operational. It should help to identify limitations and weaknesses of forecasting methods and to suggest improvements of existing operational models.

  15. Study of the seasonal cycle of the biogeochemical processes in the Ligurian Sea using a 1D interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raick, C.; Delhez, E.J.M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.


    A one-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model has been built to study the pelagic food web of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). The physical model is the turbulent closure model (version 1D) developed at the GeoHydrodynamics and Environmental Laboratory (GHER) of the University of L

  16. Application of an Ensemble Kalman filter to a 1-D coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenartz, F.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.


    The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been applied to a 1-D complex ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model of the Ligurian Sea. In order to improve the performance of the EnKF, an ensemble subsampling strategy has been used to better represent the covariance matrices and a pre-analysis st

  17. Underwater acoustic evidences of the 2011 autumnal floods in the Ligurian region (United States)

    Anagnostou, Marios; Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Bechini, Renzo; Nystuen, Jeffry


    In the northernmost sector of the western Mediterranean Sea the Ligurian Sea is a deep basin showing peculiar hydrodynamic and meteo-oceanographic features. The region is characterized by steep Alpine and Apennine southward slopes with the watershed at few tens of kilometers at the most far from the coast. This geological complexity and a particular atmospheric circulation coupled to the fact that the Ligurian coasts are among the most urbanized and industrialized along the entire Mediterranean coastline, determine a high flood hazard, especially in late summer - early autumn when the Ligurian Sea is still warm and strong perturbations reach the basin from the south. Over the past 40 years there have been about 40 major flash floods (about one flash flood per year) associated with severe damages and loss of human lives. The latest flash flood event occurred in Autumn 2011, which is the subject matter of this study. Late summer 2011 was dominated, as usual in the recent decades, by a prolongation of the hot season with clear skies and temperatures above climatology so that ocean had sufficient time to store a large amount of heat capable of emitting a strong evaporation in the air layers above and, through interactions with the cool and wet near surface atmospheric layers, to give rise to powerful convection. Such type of events can be partially forecasted by atmospheric models, monitored at a large scale through remote sensing using radars and satellites, observed in their real time evolution by land hydro-meteorological stations. Among other observational systems, underwater acoustics can contribute to the monitoring of these phenomena through the use of off-shore deployed sensors that collect and process underwater noise in the ocean. Indeed, ambient noise in the ocean is a combination of natural and anthropogenic sounds that include breaking waves, precipitation, vocalizations of marine mammals, ship noise and sonar. Since 2009, a Passive Aquatic Listener (PAL

  18. Back arc extension, tectonic inheritance, and volcanism in the Ligurian Sea, Western Mediterranean (United States)

    Rollet, Nadège; Déverchère, Jacques; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Guennoc, Pol; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Sosson, Marc; Truffert, Catherine


    The Ligurian basin, western Mediterranean Sea, has opened from late Oligocene to early Miocene times, behind the Apulian subduction zone and partly within the western Alpine belt. We analyze the deep structures of the basin and its conjugate margins in order to describe the tectonic styles of opening and to investigate the possible contributions of forces responsible for the basin formation, especially the pulling force induced by the retreating subduction hinge and the gravitational body force from the Alpine wedge. To undertake this analysis, we combine new multichannel seismic reflection data (Malis cruise, 1995) with other geophysical data (previous multichannel and monochannel seismic sections, magnetic anomalies) and constrain them by geological sampling from two recent cruises (dredges from Marco cruise, 1995, and submersible dives from Cylice cruise, 1997). From an analysis of basement morphology and seismic facies, we refine the extent of the different domains in the Ligurian Sea: (1) the continental thinned margins, with strong changes in width and structure along strike and on both sides of the ocean; (2) the transitional domain to the basin; and (3) a narrow, atypical oceanic domain. Margin structures are characterized by few tilted blocks along the narrow margins, where inherited structures seem to control synrift sedimentation and margin segmentation. On the NW Corsican margin, extension is distributed over more than 120 km, including offshore Alpine Corsica, and several oceanward faults sole on a relatively flat reflector. We interpret them as previous Alpine thrusts reactivated during rifting as normal faults soling on a normal ductile shear zone. Using correlations between magnetic data, seismic facies, and sampling, we propose a new map of the distribution of magmatism. The oceanic domain depicts narrow, isolated magnetic anomalies and is interpreted as tholeitic volcanics settled within an unroofed upper mantle, whereas calcalkaline volcanism

  19. Modeling jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca transport and stranding in the Ligurian Sea. (United States)

    Berline, L; Zakardjian, B; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y; Guihou, K


    Jellyfish blooms are generally attributed to a biological response to the environment, neglecting the role of transport patterns in redistributing existing populations. Here, we use high-resolution (1.25km) ocean modeling to examine the role of transport in the onshore arrival and abundance of the pelagic stinging jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca on the Ligurian Sea coast. Jellyfish are modeled as Lagrangian particles with a 0-300-m diel vertical migration typical of P. noctiluca. Over the course of a year, onshore arrivals are not restricted to the summer. Arrivals are concentrated at capes, but abundance can reach maxima in bays and in the lee of capes. Two factors impact jellyfish arrivals at the coast: the position of the Northern Current and the wind. A comparison of summer 2006 and available onshore jellyfish observations suggests a correct capture of the main stranding events by the model. These results have implications for understanding long-term fluctuations.

  20. Census of Ligurian Internal Medicine Wards of non-teaching hospitals

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    Micaela La Regina


    Full Text Available What is the future of internal medicine in Italy? Which competencies? Which potentialities? To this aim Ligurian FADOI Regional Society performed a census among 18 Internal Medicine Wards (IMWs in non-teaching Ligurian Hospital. We administered, by email, a questionnaire to the heads of IMWs. Data about staffing, equipment, skills, competencies and productivity during 2011 were collected from 1st to 31st November 2012. A total of 15/18 (83.3% chiefs answered to the questionnaire. The number of beds was largely variable among the wards. In 2011, mean diagnosis-related group (DRG-weight was 1.09 (range 0.91-1.6 and that revenues/costs ratio much higher than 1.5. Staff was quite adequate to standards defined by current law, only 33% has got a doctor:patients ratio superior to 1:6.4. However, annual hospitalizations exceed the availability of beds in medicine and the complexity of the patients would require a lower doctor:patients ratio, at least for a group of patients. In fact, 4 wards have a progressive care organization with a defined area for more seriously ill patients. Mean length of stay was 10 days. Expertise was wide, covering almost all medical sub-specialties. Acquired skills such as abdominal, heart and vascular ultrasounds, invasive procedures and their comprehensive knowledge make internists complete and cost-effective specialists. IMWs, as a concentrate of medical knowledge and skills, are the natural destination of current patients with co-morbidities. Staffing and number of beds should be revised according to this new demand. Their revenues/costs ratio resulted favorable and their global approach to patients and not to disease can be useful for resource rationalization. Wider and further studies are needed to improve the awareness of stakeholders about Internal Medicine.

  1. Correction of inertial oscillations by assimilation of HF radar data in a model of the Ligurian Sea (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, Luc; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Barth, Alexander


    This article aims at analyzing if high-frequency radar observations of surface currents allow to improve model forecasts in the Ligurian Sea, where inertial oscillations are a dominant feature. An ensemble of ROMS models covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars. A sensitivity study allows to determine optimal parameters for the ensemble filter. By assimilating observations in a single point, the obtained correction shows that the forecast error covariance matrix represents the inertial oscillations, as well as large- and meso-scale processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the velocity observations can correct the phase and amplitude of the inertial oscillations. Observations are shown to have a strong effect during approximately half a day, which confirms the importance of using a high temporal observation frequency. In general, data assimilation of HF radar observations leads to a skill score of about 30% for the forecasts of surface velocity.

  2. Correction of inertial oscillations by assimilation of HF radar data in a model of the Ligurian Sea (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, Luc; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Barth, Alexander


    This article aims at analyzing if high-frequency radar observations of surface currents allow to improve model forecasts in the Ligurian Sea, where inertial oscillations are a dominant feature. An ensemble of ROMS models covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars. A sensitivity study allows to determine optimal parameters for the ensemble filter. By assimilating observations in a single point, the obtained correction shows that the forecast error covariance matrix represents the inertial oscillations, as well as large- and meso-scale processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the velocity observations can correct the phase and amplitude of the inertial oscillations. Observations are shown to have a strong effect during approximately half a day, which confirms the importance of using a high temporal observation frequency. In general, data assimilation of HF radar observations leads to a skill score of about 30% for the forecasts of surface velocity.

  3. Behavioral Responses of Nave Cuvier’s Beaked Whales in the Ligurian Sea to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds (United States)


    unimpeded during all experimental phases. Figure 1. Map of Mediterranean Sea with expanded inset of the Ligurian Sea study area . Black spot indicates...from the home port of Savona. However, when these areas were searched, no visual or acoustic detections of Ziphius were made. Sightings reported by...twelve animals were successfully photo-documented: five adult females, three immature, two juveniles , one adult male and one subadult male. Of these

  4. Analysis of surface circulation structures along a frequently repeated XBT transect crossing the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas (United States)

    Ciuffardi, Tiziana; Napolitano, Ernesto; Iacono, Roberto; Reseghetti, Franco; Raiteri, Giancarlo; Bordone, Andrea


    A dataset of XBT (eXpendable BathyThermograph) temperature profiles collected by ships of opportunity along the Genova-Palermo route, since September 1999, is analyzed, together with altimetric observations and model results, with the purpose of identifying and characterizing robust circulation features along the track and investigating their variability. An anticyclone is found in the Ligurian Sea, just north of the Corsica Channel, not present in previous descriptions of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. It appears to be a recurrent feature, better defined and stronger in summer and in the beginning of autumn. In the northern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, the well-known Bonifacio dipole shows a similar seasonality, in agreement with previous observations. However, the Bonifacio anticyclone also displays a strong interannual variability, not previously recorded, with significant variations in position and shape. In fact, the data suggest the existence of two distinct summer circulation regimes related to the position and shape of the Ligurian anticyclone. When the latter is wider, filling the entire region north of the Corsica Channel, the circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea is isolated from that in the Ligurian Sea, in agreement with the common picture. However, the altimeter maps show that there are several cases in the last two decades in which the Ligurian anticyclone is small and displaced to the west, allowing an inflow through the Corsica Channel into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The two regimes appear to result from a delicate balance between the forcings acting in the two sub-basins and the topographic constraints.

  5. The Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM): matching local research and industrial needs on oceanographic data. (United States)

    Stroobant, M.; Locritani, M.; Marini, D.; Sabbadini, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Manzella, G.; Magaldi, M.; Aliani, S.


    DLTM is the Ligurian Region (north Italy) cluster of Centre of Excellence (CoE) in waterborne technologies, that involves about 120 enterprises - of which, more than 100 SMEs -, the University of Genoa, all the main National Research Centres dealing with maritime and marine technologies established in Liguria (CNR, INGV, ENEA-UTMAR), the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and the Experimental Centre of the Italian Navy (CSSN), the Bank, the Port Authority and the Chamber of Commerce of the city of La Spezia. Following its mission, DLTM has recently established three Collaborative Research Laboratories focused on: 1. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD_Lab) 2. High Performance Computing (HPC_Lab) 3. Monitoring and Analysis of Marine Ecosystems (MARE_Lab). The main role of them is to improve the relationships among the research centres and the enterprises, encouraging a systematic networking approach and sharing of knowledge, data, services, tools and human resources. Two of the key objectives of Lab_MARE are the establishment of: - an integrated system of observation and sea forecasting; - a Regional Marine Instrument Centre (RMIC) for oceanographic and metereological instruments (assembled using 'shared' tools and facilities). Besides, an important and innovative research project has been recently submitted to the Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). This project, in agreement with the European Directives (COM2009 (544)), is aimed to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for oceanographic and meteorological data in the Mediterranean Sea. The availability of adequate HPC inside DLTM is, of course, an important asset for achieving useful results; for example, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model is currently running on a high-resolution mesh on the cluster to simulate and reproduce the circulation within the Ligurian Sea. ROMS outputs will have broad and multidisciplinary impacts because ocean circulation affects the

  6. The ODAS Italia 1 buoy: More than forty years of activity in the Ligurian Sea (United States)

    Canepa, Elisa; Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Faimali, Marco; Traverso, Pierluigi; Cavaleri, Luigi


    The Ligurian Sea plays a relevant role in driving both the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea and the weather and climate of the area. In order to better understand the peculiarities of this basin, the Oceanographic Data Acquisition System (ODAS) Italia 1 buoy was developed and deployed in the early '70s. Throughout the years, the buoy has been fitted with updated measuring and data acquiring systems. Since 2003 the buoy has been part of the Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array network of fixed open ocean observatories with the W1-M3A identifier and presently constitutes one of the Mediterranean sites of the European FixO3 network. Recently, a deep-ocean sub-surface mooring line was, and is, deployed close to it in relation to specific projects. This multidisciplinary observing system is able to perform both long-term operational and ad-hoc monitoring from the lower atmosphere to the deep ocean. It is used for analysis of air-sea interaction processes, study of the physical proprieties of the water column, bio-geo-chemical monitoring of the sea, meteorological and oceanographic model evaluation, calibration of remotely sensed measurements, and development of innovative marine monitoring technologies. After reporting some historical notes and the description of the observing system, this paper summarises and reviews the main oceanographic and atmospheric studies performed during the last 15 years using the data acquired on board.

  7. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene coarse-grained deltas along the Ligurian coast (Italy)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ciampalini; M Firpo


    This study aims to develop a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the southern side of the Maritime Alps and of the Ligurian Sea during the Plio-Pleistocene. Five stratigraphic sections were measured and studied in the Segno River valley (Liguria, Italy). These sections are composed of Lower to Middle Pleistocene marine and continental deposits. Based on detailed mapping and sedimentological analysis, 12 marine and deltaic facies were identified. These facies were grouped into facies associations. Two allostratigraphic units were recognized, namely U1 and U2 from oldest to youngest. The lower unit (U1) represents the evolution of a coarse-grained delta developed in a valley or embayment. Within the deltaic sequence, transgressive and highstand systems tracts were recognized. The coarsening/shallowing upward trend observed within the sections suggests that the delta prograded rapidly in the landward portion of the canyon adjacent to the paleo-river outlet. The upper boundary of U1 is represented by a subaerial unconformity overlain by U2, which is composed of sediments deposited by several alluvial fan systems.

  8. Characterization and cartography of some Mediterranean soft-bottom benthic communities (Ligurian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somaschini


    Full Text Available Soft-bottom benthic communities were studied along the Western coast of the Ligurian Sea with a new approach using both videocamera surveys and collected samples. The preliminary distribution of soft-bottoms and the definition of the limits and status of seagrass beds were carried out in September 1991, using an underwater vehicle provided with a videocamera and towed by a boat. Moreover, 90 benthic samples were collected at 5-40 m depth in order to characterize the macrobenthic soft-bottom communities. Six soft-bottom benthic assemblages and two sea grass biotopes (Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica were revealed by means of underwater images and multivariate analysis (TWINSPAN on samples collected. The communities inhabiting the infralittoral sandy and coarse sediments corresponded to those previously described in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas a large complex transition between sandy and muddy communities was recognized on circalittoral soft-bottoms. Information obtained with this approach was used to draw a map of the investigated areas at 1:10,000 scale. The employment of the two techniques was cost effective for both time and research effort.

  9. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys? (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.


    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  10. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France) (United States)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.


    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is not yet sufficient to

  11. Long-term decline of radiocesium concentration in seafood from the Ligurian Sea (Northern Italy) after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallelli, Giovanni; Panatto, Donatella; Perdelli, Fernanda [Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Universitadi Genova, Genova (Italy); Pellegrino, Claudio [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte Liguria, Val d`Aosta (Italy)


    The activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 40}K in tissues from fish, mollusc and shellfish of the Ligurian sea was measured during 1987-1988. The mean annual concentrations in 1987 were 5.92{+-}4.1 Bq/kg (wet tissue) for {sup 137}Cs and 2.7{+-}1.5 Bq/kg for {sup 134}Cs and 2.46{+-}1.82 and 0.33{+-}0.57 Bq/kg respectively in 1988. The mean value of {sup 40}K activity was 138.6{+-}22.1 Bq/kg. Contamination was significantly higher in the littoral area up to 1000m from the coast (8.39{+-}7.6 and 1.74{+-}2.08 Bq/kg respectively versus 2.91{+-}1.87 and 0.58{+-}0.59 Bq/kg respectively in the open sea). The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) had the highest radioactivity values and could be utilized as an indicator of radioactivity pollution. There were no significant differences regarding the trophic level, the seafood phylum, or the east and west Ligurian sea areas. Long-term reduction in the sea habitat was estimated at about 200 days for {sup 137}Cs and 110 days for {sup 134}Cs, reflecting differences in the physical half-life of these radionuclides. These values were lower than those found in terrestrial foodstuff and could have reflected dilution of the contaminants in the open sea. The effective dose equivalent for the Ligurian population of radiocesium originating from seafood was estimated at 1.3 {mu}Sv in 1987 and 0.5 {mu}Sv in 1988. These values represent 0.8 and 0.3% respectively of the annual dose (180 {mu}Sv/year) due to {sup 40}K intake with the diet.

  12. Mass transport deposits as witness of Holocene seismic activity on the Ligurian margin, Western Mediterranean (ASTARTE project) (United States)

    Samalens, Kevin; Cattaneo, Antonio; Migeon, Sébastien


    The Ligurian Margin (Western Mediterranean) is at the transition between the Southern Alpes and the Liguro-Provençal margin and it is one of the most seismic areas of France. Several historic earthquakes have been indexed; the strongest, on February 23rd, 1887, occurred offshore Menton and Imperia and also caused a tsunami wave. Its equivalent magnitude has been estimated between 6 and 6.5. In addition, a moderate recurrent seismicity shakes the margin. The aim of this study is to understand the link between seismic activity and slope destabilization, and to identify the sedimentary deposits resulting from mass transport or turbidity currents. During Malisar (Geoazur laboratory), Prisme 2 and Prisme 3 (Ifremer) cruises, bathymetry, seafloor imagery (SAR), geophysics data (CHIRP SYSIF and high resolution seismics), and sediment cores have been acquired on the continental slope, focussing on canyons and submarine landslides, and in the basin. These data record numerous mass transport deposits (slump, debrites) in the different physiographic areas of the margin. To search for evidences of past Ligurian margin seismicity during the Holocene, we focused on the northeast part of the margin, the Finale area. We identified and sampled acoustically transparent Mass Transport Deposits up to 20-m thick in the bottom of three coaleshing canyons: Noli, Pora and Centa canyons from W to E in the area offshore Finale Ligure. We also recovered an MTD in the collecting deeper canyon system. MTDs in cores appear as sediment with different degrees of deformation (tilted blocks, slump, debrites) and are topped by hemipelagites. The radiocarbon age of the top of MTDs can be considered synchronous and centered around 4900 yr BP. Mass wasting occurring over more than 50 km of the Ligurian margin could indicate that an earthquake stroke the Finale area sector at that time.

  13. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vandromme


    Full Text Available An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton, chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea. From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is

  14. Assimilation of HF radar data in a regional model of the Ligurian Sea (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, Luc; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie


    An ensemble of ROMS models with 1/60 degree resolution, covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars run by the NATO Undersea Research Center (now CMRE). The following perturbations are applied to the members of the ensemble: the wind forcing field, the open sea boundary conditions, and a supplementary term in the momentum equation. An ensemble Kalman (EnKF) filter is then used to assimilate hourly-averaged radial currents into the model. A observation operator extracts the corresponding model radial currents from the model currents, then smooths them in the azimuthal direction as a function of distance to the radar. The observations are spatially dense, and not uncorrelated to one another, which is approximated in our experiment by increasing the observation error variance. Different cases are run, with the estimation vector containing the model state (in which case it is called the state vector) or multiple model states at different time steps. In the latter case, the filter is closely related to the Ensemble Smoother and the Asynchronous EnKF. The impact of different parameters is studied: the correlation length of the localization function, the (experimentally determined) total observational error, the stochastic perturbation in the momentum equation, the assimilation window length, etc. The update vector generated by the data assimilation scheme is analyzed to examine whether inertial oscillations are present and corrected. The model surface temperature is also compared with satellite images in order to assess the impact of assimilating one variable (surface currents) on another one (surface temperature).

  15. Sexual behaviour in Ligurian (Northern Italy) adolescents and young people: suggestions for HPV vaccination policies. (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lugarini, Jessica; Sasso, Tiziana; Sormani, Maria Pia; Badolati, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto


    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted virus, and persistent infection with high-risk types is the necessary factor for cervical cancer. We investigated sexual behaviour and the age of the first sexual intercourse among young people (14-24 years) in Liguria (Northern Italy) in order to provide information that might orient the country's future vaccination policy. The Italian Authorities offer free vaccination to 12-year-old females, however a better prevention of HPV would to be implemented by introducing the vaccine to new cohorts of females after the first year of the vaccination campaign. Our survey was carried out from 1st May 2006 to 31st December 2007 and involved 3474 volunteers. We administered a written questionnaire to students (14-24 years) and workers (20-24 years). The median age+/-MAD of the sexual debut was 15+/-1 for both females and males in students group and 16+/-1 for both males and females in workers group. This study provides evidence that many Ligurian adolescents have their first sexual experience at a very early age, and often without protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Furthermore, a large percentage of all age-groups are sexually active and have multiple partners. The aim of this study was to identify those cohorts of females to whom vaccination should be offered free of charge. To this end, we calculated the percentage of infections that could be avoided by vaccination in each age-class: the younger the subjects, the higher the number of preventable infections. Our findings suggest that current HPV vaccination should be implemented by introducing new cohorts, especially young girls (14-16 years).

  16. Water Place Names in the Pre-Latin Ligurian Context. A Study in Prehistoric Toponomastics and Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perono Cacciafoco


    Full Text Available This paper outlines a new applied epistemological aspect of the so-called Convergence Theory that is aimed to develop a potentially “homogeneous” vision between the different approaches in the field of Indo-European linguistics. This work tries to reconstruct an Italian and European toponymic area characterized by place names linked to the root *alb-, with a delineation of the “semantic steps” produced, over the centuries, by the same root, following a potential all-embracing approach. It seems that paleo-Ligurian place names of the type Alba, Old European river names Albis and the like, as well as their ablauting forms Olb- (> Orb- in Romance Ligurian, do not directly reflect the proto-Indo-European adjective *albho- 'white'; but rather they all seem to continue a pre-proto-Indo-European extended root *Hal-bh- 'water', cognate with the Sumerian Halbia (> Akkadian Halpium 'spring', 'well', 'water mass', 'water hole'. A further analysis of this *Hal-bh-, moreover, leads to a comparison with the proto-Indo-European root *Hal- 'nourish'. The proto-Indo-European suffixed form *HwaH-r- 'water', then, demonstrates a similar diffusion.

  17. Ordovician chitinozoan biozonation of the Brabant Massif, Belgium. (United States)

    Samuelsson, J; Verniers, J


    Chitinozoans from seven Ordovician units (Abbaye de Villers, Tribotte, Rigenée, Ittre, Bornival, and Brutia formations and a new unnamed unit, here provisionally called the Asquempont unit) belonging to the mainly concealed Brabant Massif, Belgium are described herein. Fifty-six samples were taken from rocks cropping out at the south-eastern rim of the massif in the Orneau, Dyle-Thyle and Senne-Sennette valleys. Microfossil preservation is moderate to poor, and the chitinozoans occur in low numbers. Taxonomically, the recovered chitinozoans are distributed into 29 taxa, some placed under open nomenclature. Together with earlier published graptolite and acritarch data, the analysis of the chitinozoan assemblages resulted in an improved chronostratigraphy of the investigated formations. We propose a local chitinozoan biozonation with 11 zones for the Brabant Massif. The oldest investigated units yielded chitinozoans typical for North Gondwana, and younger units (starting in the middle Caradoc), yielded some taxa also common in Baltica. As the Brabant Massif formed part of the microcontinent Avalonia, the chitinozoan assemblages recovered from the massif support the inferred drifting of Avalonia from high latitudes towards middle latitudes in the Ordovician as was suggested earlier.

  18. Application of a SEEK filter to a 1D biogeochemical model of the Ligurian Sea: Twin experiments and real data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raick, C.; Alvera-Azcarate, A.; Barth, A.; Brankart, J.-M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.


    The Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter has been implemented to assimilate in-situ data in a 1D coupled physical-ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea. The biogeochemical model describes the partly decoupled nitrogen and carbon cycles of the pelagic food web. The GHER hydrodynamic model (

  19. Short term summer to autumn variability of dissolved lipid classes in the Ligurian sea (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Duflos


    Full Text Available Changes in concentration and composition of Iatroscan-measured dissolved lipids were examined at a daily to month scale, in relation to the hydrological and biological context at a central site of the Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean during the PECHE-DYNAPROC 2 experiment (14 September to 17 October 2004. Lipid concentrations (excluding hydrocarbons (TLd-HC and TLd-HC to DOC ratios in the 0–1000 m water column, varied from 5.3 to 48.5 μg l−1 and 0.01 to 0.09, respectively. The highest TLd-HC concentration values were found in the 0–50 m surface layer, coinciding with phytoplankton biomass. Significant correlations (p<0.01, n=87 between glycolipids from chloroplast membranes, namely the monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, a major component of dissolved lipids (25.1±10.8% of TLd-HC, n=166, and various phytoplankton pigments (chlorophyll cs-170, violaxanthin, diadinoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein, suggested that picoeucaryote phytoplankton were a major source of dissolved lipids. Lipid metabolites (free fatty acids, alcohols, diacylglycerols and monoacylglycerols, an other important component of TLd-HC (37.6±11.1%, n=166, showed a greater degree of degradation of lipids in this transitional period than previously observed earlier in the year. Zooplankton wax and steryl ester biomarkers (WSE and triacylglycerols showed a distinct periodicity in the mesopelagic layer throughout the period investigated. Concentrations of WSE (5.5–13.6 μg/l increased in the 0–150 m surface layer, mid-way through the cruise (4–6 October, before the winter mixing. WSE were observed later and deeper in the mesopelagic layer (6–11 October, accompanied by rebounds in hydrocarbons (6–8 October and phospholipid concentrations (12 October in the 400–1000 m depth layer. Zooplankton migration and/or fecal pellet egestion, followed by DOM release from POM, were likely responsible for the appearance of these lipid signatures

  20. La géologie du massif de Gigondas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchter, J.H.G.


    A l’E d’Orange-Avignon, au pied du Mt. Ventoux, s’élève un petit massif, qui est limité au N et à l’W par l’Ouvèze (fig. 1), à l'E par la route de Vaison—Malaucène—le Barroux et au S par la route du Barroux à Vacqueras. Dans la littérature géologique ce massif se trouve le plus souvent indiqué sous

  1. Ordovician magmatism in the Lévézou massif (French Massif Central): tectonic and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean


    New U-Pb dating on zircon yielded ca. 470 Ma ages for the granitoids from the Lévézou massif in the southern French Massif Central. These new ages do not support the previous interpretation of these granitoids as syn-tectonic intrusions emplaced during the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous thrusting. The geochemical and isotopic nature of this magmatism is linked to a major magmatic Ordovician event recorded throughout the European Variscan belt and related to extreme thinning of continental margins during a rifting event or a back-arc extension. The comparable isotopic signatures of these granitoids on each side of the eclogite-bearing leptyno-amphibolitic complex in the Lévézou massif, together with the fact that they were emplaced at the same time, strongly suggest that these granitoids were originally part of a single unit, tectonically duplicated by either isoclinal folding or thrusting during the Variscan tectonics.

  2. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland). (United States)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna


    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential.

  3. Assymmetric eddy populations in adjacent basins – a high resolution numerical study of the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Casella


    Full Text Available A high-resolution ocean circulation modelling system forced with a high-resolution numerical wind product was used to study the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy population of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, contrasting eddy-activity between the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian sub-basins. Numerical solutions reproduced some of the known regional dynamics, namely the occurrence and oceanic implications of Mistral events, the convective cell leeward of the Gulf of Lion, as well as the Balearic frontal system. Calculated transport across the Corsica Channel followed a similar trend, when compared to the transport computed from a moored current meter. The analysis of the results showed that surface eddy activity is mostly confined to the boundary-currents, whereas in the deeper layers most eddies are concentrated on the central-deeper part of the basins. The Liguro-Provençal basin shows a much higher concentration of intermediate and deep-water eddies, when compared to the Tyrrhenian basin. Sub-mesoscale surface eddies tend to merge and migrate vertically onto intermediate waters. Intense eddy activity in the boundary-current surrounding the Liguro-Provençal Gyre, concentrate high-productivity, manifested by higher concentrations of mean sea surface chlorophyll, in the central part of the gyre, defined herein as the Ligurian Productive Pool (LPP. On average, the Tyrrhenian was mostly oligotrophic except for a small productive vortice in the south-eastern (leeward side of Corsica. The transport in the Tyrrhenian Gyre, and across the basin is one order of magnitude higher than the transport calculated for the Liguro-Provençal basin. A high concentration of eddies in the passage between the Balearic Archipelago and Sardinia suggests retention and longer residence times of nutrient rich water in the "Ligurian pool", compared to a "fast draining" Tyrrhenian basin. Previous studies support the cyclonic gyre circulation generated in the Liguro

  4. Origin of gabbroic sequences from the Ligurian ophiolites: implications for lower crust generation at slow spreading settings (United States)

    Tribuzio, R.; Renna, M.; Sanfilippo, A.


    The Ligurian Jurassic ophiolites (northern Apennines, Italy) are lithospheric remnants of an embryonic slow spreading basin that developed in conjunction with the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. These ophiolites are characterized by km-scale gabbroic sequences intruded into mantle peridotites and exposed at the seafloor. These gabbroic sequences mostly consist of troctolites, olivine-gabbros and clinopyroxene-rich gabbros and locally include olivine-rich troctolite bodies (Renna and Tribuzio, 2011). The large-scale gabbroic sequences from the Ligurian ophiolites also enclose a few mantle peridotite bodies and bear striking structural and compositional resemblances to the gabbroic sequences from modern slow spreading ridges (Sanfilippo and Tribuzio, 2011). Field observations and petrological and geochemical data are used to constrain a conceptual model for the formation of the gabbroic sequences from the Alpine ophiolites. The proposed model begins with a hot mantle evolution under plagioclase facies conditions, in which melt transport occurred mainly in the form of grain scale porous flow. In particular, reactive channeling of olivine-saturated melts formed replacive dunitic conduits, whereas residual orthopyroxene-saturated melts led to melt impregnation of the mantle section. The hot lithospheric evolution is followed by an evolution characterized by melt transport through fractures, which started with crystallization of melt into gabbroic dikes. This diking event is likely correlated with the formation of the olivine-rich troctolites. These rocks show a process of infiltration of MORB-type melts saturated in plagioclase + clinopyroxene into an olivine-spinel matrix that is inferred to have formed in mantle melt conduits of replacive origin. As the mantle section cooled significantly, the dip of the melt migration structures evolved from sub-vertical to sub-horizontal. This is shown by the occurrence of sill-shaped gabbroic intrusions, which locally

  5. Towards Responsible Massification: Some Pointers for Supporting Lecturers (United States)

    Albertyn, Ruth M; Machika, Pauline; Troskie-de Bruin, Christel


    Teaching large classes poses many challenges to lecturers where massification is a reality in higher education. There are implications for both teaching and effective learning in this context. The need for accountability to learners in education provision served as motivation for a study of large classes in the largest faculty of one university…

  6. Massification in Higher Education: Large Classes and Student Learning (United States)

    Hornsby, David J.; Osman, Ruksana


    In introducing the special issue on "Large Class Pedagogy: Opportunities and Challenges of Massification" the present editorial takes stock of the emerging literature on this subject. We seek to contribute to the massificaiton debate by considering one result of it: large class teaching in higher education. Here we look to large classes…

  7. Attenuation of S wave in the crust of Ordos massif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-gui; CHUO Yong-qing; CHEN Shu-qing; JIN Chun-hua


    We presented attenuation characteristics of S waves in the crust of Ordos massif. Using 487 pieces of digital oscillograms of 19 seismic events recorded by 32 seismologic stations located on Ordos massif and its surroundings, we have calculated the parameter of three-segment geometric attenuation and give the relation of inelastic attenuation Q value with frequency in the crust of Ordos massif, site responses of 32 stations, and source parameters of 19 events by the genetic algorithm. The results indicate that Q value (at 1 Hz) of S-wave in the crust of Ordos massif is much larger than that in the geologically active tectonic region. The site responses of the 32 stations in the high-frequency section do not show clear amplification effect except one or two stations, while in the low-frequency section, there is difference among the stations. The logarithmic value of seismic moment and the magnitude ML of 19 seismic events has a very good linear relationship.

  8. Observed development of the vertical structure of the marine boundary layer during the LASIE experiment in the Ligurian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Schiano, M.E.; Pensieri, S.


    In the marine environment, complete datasets describing the surface layer and the vertical structure of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL), through its entire depth, are less frequent than over land, due to the high cost of measuring campaigns. During the seven days of the Ligurian Air-Sea...... Interaction Experiment (LASIE), organized by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) in the Mediterranean Sea, extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements were collected from instruments placed on a spar buoy and a ship. Standard surface meteorological measurements were collected by meteorological...... and dry air from land advected over a colder sea, induced a stably stratified Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) and a consequent change in the structure of the vertical profiles of potential temperature and relative humidity....

  9. The geology of uranium in the Saint-Sylvestre granite district (Limousin, Massif Central, France); La geologie de l'uranium dans le massif granitique de Saint-Sylvestre (Limousin - Massif Central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquaire, C.; Moreau, M.; Barbier, J.; Ranchin, G.; Carrat, H.G.; Coppens, R.; Senecal, J.; Koszotolanyi, C.; Dottin, H


    This report concerns the geology of uranium in Limousin, more particularly in the St-Sylvestre massif, and the related phenomena: regional geology, petrographic and geochemical zonal distribution observed in various granite massifs, uranium movement in connection with surface alteration, geochronology of uranium ore. The work is made up of six articles covering the various scientific aspects listed above. Each article is headed with an abstract. The paper comprises the following chapters: Foreword by Marcel ROUBAULT. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Outline of geological conditions in Northern Limousin and distribution of uraniferous occurrences. 2. J. BARBIER, G. RANCHIN, H. G. CARRAT and R. COPPENS Geology of the St-Sylvestre Massif and uranium geochemistry - Introduction to laboratory studies - Problems of methodology. 3. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Petrographical and geochemical zones in the St-Sylvestre granite massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central'). 4. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Uranium geochemistry in the St-Sylvestre Massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central') - Occurrences of primary geochemical uranium and replacement processes. 5. J. SENEGAL Monograph of the Brugeaud orebody. 6. R. COPPENS, Ch. KOSZTOLANYI and H. DOTTIN Geochronological study of the Brugeaud mine. 1969. (authors) [French] Ce memoire est consacre a la geologie de l'uranium dans le Limousin, plus specialement dans le massif de St-Sylvestre, et aux phenomenes qui s'y rattachent: geologie regionale, phenomenes de zonalite petrographique et geochimique dans certains massifs granitiques, mouvements de l'uranium lies a l'alteration superficielle, geochronologie du minerai d'uranium. L'ouvrage comprend six articles qui recouvrent les differents aspects scientifiques enumeres. Chacun de ces six articles est precede d'un resume. La composition du memoire st la suivante: Marcel ROUBAULT, Preface. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Esquisse geologique du

  10. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.


    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  11. Hydrogeology of the Olševa massif (Slovenia

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    Jure Krivic


    Full Text Available Olševa consists of highly pervious carbonates, forming a relatively big fractured and karstified aquifer. Due to its high-altitude mountainous nature, the aquifer is unpolluted and therefore has to be regarded as a potential source of drinking water for the future.The Olševa aquifer is tectonically divided into three parts. Groundwater from the two smaller aquifers, covering areas of 1,9 and 0,8 km2, located in eastern part of Ol{eva massif, flows toward Northeast into Meža river basin. In spite of several transversal faults, the rest of Olševa massif forms a relatively uniform aquifer that is conveying groundwater in westerly direction towards Rjavica valley. Rjavica valley in Austria represents the discharge area of a majority of groundwater from the main Ol{eva aquifer.

  12. Miocene mass-transport sediments, Troodos Massif, Cyprus (United States)

    Lord, A.R.; Harrison, R.W.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Stone, B.D.; Varol, O.


    Sediment mass-transport layers of submarine origin on the northern and southern flanks of the Troodos ophiolitic massif are dated biostratigraphically as early Miocene and late Miocene, respectively and therefore represent different seismogenic events in the uplift and erosional history of the Troodos terrane. Analysis of such events has potential for documenting Miocene seismic and uplift events regionally in the context of changing stress field directions and plate vectors through time. ?? 2009 The Geologists' Association.

  13. Complete Alpine reworking of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey (United States)

    Cenki-Tok, B.; Expert, M.; Işık, V.; Candan, O.; Monié, P.; Bruguier, O.


    This study focuses on the petrology, geochronology and thermochronology of metamorphic rocks within the northern Menderes Massif in western Turkey. Metasediments belonging to the cover series of the Massif record pervasive amphibolite-facies metamorphism culminating at ca. 625-670 °C and 7-9 kbars. U-Th-Pb in situ ages on monazite and allanite from these metapelites record crustal thickening and nappe stacking associated with the internal imbrication of the Anatolide-Taurides platform during the Eocene. In addition, new 39Ar/40Ar single muscovite grain analyses on deformed rocks were performed in three localities within the northern Menderes Massif and ages range from 19.8 to 25.5 Ma. These mylonites may be related to both well-known detachments, Simav to the north and Alaşehir to the south, which accommodate Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the Menderes core complex. U-Th-Pb data on monazite grains (22.2 ± 0.2 Ma) from migmatites emplaced within the Simav detachment confirm these ages.

  14. Geologic Evolution of the Gyala Peri Massif, Southeastern Tibet (United States)

    Kidd, W.; Zeitler, P.; Meltzer, A.; Lim, C.; Chamberlain, C.; Zheng, L.; Geng, Q.; Tang, Z.


    At both the eastern and western terminations of the Himalaya, strong coupling between surface and tectonic processes is manifested in the development of active antiforms in close proximity to large river gorges. In southeastern Tibet the peaks Gyala Peri and Namche Barwa occupy a metamorphic massif that shows remarkable similarities to the Nanga Parbat massif in NW Pakistan, including exposure of high-grade gneisses intruded by Plio-Pleistocene granites. Nanga Parbat has been proposed to constitute a 'tectonic aneurysm' involving erosionally focused strain and related metamorphic reworking. As the Namche Barwa/Gyala Peri massif appears to be quite similar to Nanga Parbat in its geology and geologic setting, we suggest it has a similar origin. Most information to date has been reported from Namche Barwa, with Gyala Peri remaining largely unexplored. Here we report observations from a well-exposed section along the western margin of Gyala Peri. In the west near the Lulang River, a brittle fault zone up to ~1 km wide juxtaposes a metasedimentary/mylonite section on the east against Lhasa/Gandese gneisses and granitoid rocks to the west. The steeply dipping fault zone shows a dominantly east-up (reverse) sense of brittle motion. The lower portion of the Lhasa/Gangdese metamorphic section is cut by dikes of at least two granite phases, a medium-grained Gangdese-like granite, and a leucocratic pegmatite. East of the brittle fault zone, and the metasediments and planar foliated mylonites, there is an ~500 m thick section of S/C mylonites having a dominant reverse and subordinate dextral sense of shear. East of, or possibly in the eastern part of this ductile fault, grey gneisses [presumed basement] are intruded by a syntectonic(?) muscovite granite. Ar-Ar K-feldspar data from Gangdese rocks just west of the brittle fault zone drop to ages of 4 Ma, substantially younger than the pattern seen further to the west at Bayi. Overall, the geology of this section is quite similar

  15. Temporal variations of zooplankton biomass in the Ligurian Sea inferred from long time series of ADCP data

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    R. Bozzano


    Full Text Available Three years of 300 kHz ADCP data collected in the central Ligurian Sea are analyzed to investigate the variability of the zooplankton biomass and the Diel Vertical Migrations (DVM in the upper thermocline. After a pre-processing aimed at avoiding the slant range attenuation, hourly volume backscattering strength time series are obtained. Despite the lack of concurrent net samples collection, different migration patterns are identified and their temporal variability examined by means of time-frequency analysis. The effect of changes in the environmental condition is also investigated. Highest zooplankton biomasses are observed in April–May just after the peak of surface primary production in March–April. The main migration pattern points to a "nocturnal" migration with zooplankton organisms occurring deeper in the water column during the day and shallower at night. Also twilight migration is highlighted during this study. The largest migrations are recorded in November–December, corresponding to lowest backscattering strength values and are likely attributable to larger and more active organisms (i.e. euphausiids and mesopelagic fish. The results suggest further applications of the historical ADCP time series available.

  16. Spatial variation of deep diving odontocetes' occurrence around a canyon region in the Ligurian Sea as measured with acoustic techniques (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Neuheimer, Anna; Au, Whitlow


    Understanding the distribution of animals is of paramount importance for management and conservation, especially for species that are impacted by anthropogenic threats. In the case of marine mammals there has been a growing concern about the impact of human-made noise, in particular for beaked whales and other deep diving odontocetes. Foraging (measured via echolocation clicks at depth) was studied for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) using three passive acoustics recorders moored to the bottom of the ocean in a canyon area in the Ligurian Sea between July and December 2011. A Generalized Linear Model was used to test whether foraging was influenced by location and day of the year, including the possibility of interactions between predictors. Contrary to previous studies conducted by visual surveys in this area, all species were detected at all locations, suggesting habitat overlapping. However, significant differences were found in the occurrence of each species at different locations. Beaked and sperm whales foraged significantly more in the northern and western locations, while long-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins hunted more in the northern and eastern location.

  17. Differences in foraging activity of deep sea diving odontocetes in the Ligurian Sea as determined by passive acoustic recorders (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Neuheimer, Anna


    Characterizing the trophic roles of deep-diving odontocete species and how they vary in space and time is challenged by our ability to observe foraging behavior. Though sampling methods are limited, foraging activity of deep-diving odontocetes can be monitored by recording their biosonar emissions. Daily occurrence of echolocation clicks was monitored acoustically for five months (July-December 2011) in the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) using five passive acoustic recorders. Detected odontocetes included Cuvier's beaked whales (Zipuhius cavirostris), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). The results indicated that the foraging strategies varied significantly over time, with sperm whales switching to nocturnal foraging in late September whereas Risso's dolphins and pilot whales foraged mainly at night throughout the sampling period. In the study area, winter nights are about five hours longer than summer nights and an analysis showed that pilot whales and Risso's dolphins adjusted their foraging activity with the length of the night, foraging longer during the longer winter nights. This is the first study to show that marine mammals exhibit diurnal foraging patterns closely correlated to sunrise and sunset.

  18. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif (United States)

    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.


    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  19. Higher Education, Changing Labour Market and Social Mobility in the Era of Massification in China (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.


    This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…

  20. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

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    T. Sasvári


    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  1. Groundwater chemistry of the Oban Massif, South-Eastern Nigeria

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    Solomon John Ekwere


    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical study of the fractured/weathered basement of the Oban Massif, southeastern Nigeria has been carried out. Results indicated that concentrations of major cations and anions exhibited the following order of abundance: Ca>Na>Mg>K and HCO3>SO4>Cl, respectively, with minor variations across sampling seasons. Ca-Na-Cl-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 water types have been identified as major facies, resultant from congruent influences of weathering (mainly silicates, ion exchange processes, and water mixing.

  2. Exotic crustal components at the northern margin of the Bohemian Massif-Implications from Usbnd Thsbnd Pb and Hf isotopes of zircon from the Saxonian Granulite Massif (United States)

    Sagawe, Anja; Gärtner, Andreas; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Gerdes, Axel


    The Saxonian Granulite Massif is located at the northern margin of the Saxo-Thuringian Zone of the peri-Gondwana Bohemian Massif. Eight felsic and mafic granulites were studied with respect to their geochemistry and Usbnd Pb zircon geochronology. The felsic granulites are interpreted to be derived from continental crust of possible granitoid composition. An origin from depleted mantle sources with IAT to MORB composition can be assumed for the mafic granulites. The peak of metamorphism is thought to be timed at about 340 Ma, while several earlier metamorphic events are supposed to have occurred at about 355-360, 370-375, 405, and 450 Ma. They reveal a complex and polyphased geologic evolution of the Saxonian Granulite Massif. Protolith emplacement likely took place at c. 450 and 494 Ma. Hf isotopic data suggest Mesoproterozoic crustal ages at least for parts of the massif. As these crustal ages are exotic for the Bohemian Massif, their origin has to be searched elsewhere. Potential source areas could be Amazonia and Baltica, of which the latter is the one preferred. Furthermore, a composite architecture with at least two components-the felsic granulites with Mesoproterozoic crustal model ages, and the mafic granulites of potential island arc origin-is hypothesised. Their amalgamation to the recent appearance of the Saxonian Granulite Massif is likely bracketed between 375 and 340 Ma.

  3. The sequence of moderate-size earthquakes at the junction of the Ligurian basin and the Corsica margin (western Mediterranean): The initiation of an active deformation zone revealed? (United States)

    Larroque, Christophe; Delouis, Bertrand; Sage, Françoise; Régnier, Marc; Béthoux, Nicole; Courboulex, Françoise; Deschamps, Anne


    A new seismically active zone is found in the southern part of the Ligurian basin, 80-km west of Corsica (western Mediterranean). The activity began in February 2011 with a foreshock (ML 4) and a mainshock (ML 5.3) 5 days later, followed by numerous aftershocks. We first analyze the fore- and mainshock in detail. We compare the results obtained using classical methods (linear location in a 1D medium and focal mechanisms from P and S polarities) and new approaches (non-linear location in a 3D medium and waveform modeling for determining the seismic moment and the focal mechanism). Both methods provided similar results for location, depth (in the range of 6-13 km) and focal mechanisms, which reveal reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented N-S and NE-SW. We then locate 27 of the aftershocks in the 3D model and find a 10-km-long NE-SW alignment with a depth between 7 and 16 km. In 2012 and 2013, three other moderate-size events (ML 3.8, 4 and 4.5) occurred and confirm that this zone is still active. The epicentral area is located in the oceanic domain of the Ligurian Basin. From analysis of the bathymetry and high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles, no morphologic anomaly at surface and no inherited fault in the shallow ~ 4 km depth were imaged, which suggest that no significant deformation occurred in the area since 5 Ma. Thus, the structure(s) activated during the 2011-2013 sequence remain unknown. In light of these results, we point out a notable difference on both sides of the Ligurian Basin: the northern margin, close to the alpine chain, suffered strong earthquakes and large cumulated deformation since 5 Ma, while the southern margin, close to the Corsica-Sardinia continental block, is poorly deformed since 5 Ma.

  4. Carbonation of subduction-zone serpentinite (high-pressure ophicarbonate; Ligurian Western Alps) and implications for the deep carbon cycling (United States)

    Scambelluri, Marco; Bebout, Gray E.; Belmonte, Donato; Gilio, Mattia; Campomenosi, Nicola; Collins, Nathan; Crispini, Laura


    Much of the long-term carbon cycle in solid earth occurs in subduction zones, where processes of devolatilization, partial melting of carbonated rocks, and dissolution of carbonate minerals lead to the return of CO2 to the atmosphere via volcanic degassing. Release of COH fluids from hydrous and carbonate minerals influences C recycling and magmatism at subduction zones. Contradictory interpretations exist regarding the retention/storage of C in subducting plates and in the forearc to subarc mantle. Several lines of evidence indicate mobility of C, of uncertain magnitude, in forearcs. A poorly constrained fraction of the 40-115 Mt/yr of C initially subducted is released into fluids (by decarbonation and/or carbonate dissolution) and 18-43 Mt/yr is returned at arc volcanoes. Current estimates suggest the amount of C released into subduction fluids is greater than that degassed at arc volcanoes: the imbalance could reflect C subduction into the deeper mantle, beyond subarc regions, or storage of C in forearc/subarc reservoirs. We examine the fate of C in plate-interface ultramafic rocks, and by analogy serpentinized mantle wedge, via study of fluid-rock evolution of marble and variably carbonated serpentinite in the Ligurian Alps. Based on petrography, major and trace element concentrations, and carbonate C and O isotope compositions, we demonstrate that serpentinite dehydration at 2-2.5 GPa, 550 °C released aqueous fluids triggering breakdown of dolomite in nearby marbles, thus releasing C into fluids. Carbonate + olivine veins document flow of COH fluids and that the interaction of these COH fluids with serpentinite led to the formation of high-P carbonated ultramafic-rock domains (high-P ophicarbonates). We estimate that this could result in the retention of ∼0.5-2.0 Mt C/yr in such rocks along subduction interfaces. As another means of C storage, 1 to 3 km-thick layers of serpentinized forearc mantle wedge containing 50 modal % dolomite could sequester 1.62 to

  5. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea (United States)

    Azzellino, A.; Gaspari, S.; Airoldi, S.; Nani, B.


    The physical habitat of cetaceans occurring along the continental slope in the western Ligurian Sea was investigated. Data were collected from two different sighting platforms, one of the two being a whale-watching boat. Surveys, conducted from May to October and from 1996 to 2000, covered an area of approximately 3000 km 2 with a mean effort of about 10,000 km year -1. A total of 814 sightings was reported, including all the species occurring in the area: Stenella coeruleoalba, Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Ziphius cavirostris, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis. A Geographic Information System was used to integrate sighting data to a set of environmental characteristics, which included bottom gradient, area between different isobaths, and length and linearity of the isobaths within a cell unit. Habitat use was analysed by means of a multi-dimensional scaling, MDS, analysis. Significant differences were found in the habitat preference of most of the species regularly occurring in the area. Bottlenose dolphin, Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale were found strongly associated to well-defined depth and slope gradient characteristics of the shelf-edge and the upper and lower slope. The hypothesis of habitat segregation was considered for Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale. Canonical discriminant functions using depth and slope as predictors outlined clear and not overlapping habitat preferences for Risso's dolphin and Cuvier's beaked whale, whereas a partial overlapping of the habitat of the other two species was observed for sperm whale. Such a partitioning of the upper and lower slope area may be the result of the common feeding habits and suggests a possible competition of these three species. A temporal segregation in the use of the slope area was also observed for sperm whales and Risso's dolphins. Fin whales, and the occasionally encountered common dolphin and long

  6. Short term variability of dissolved lipid classes during summer to autumn transition in the Ligurian sea (NW Mediterranean

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    M. Goutx


    Full Text Available Changes in concentration and composition of dissolved lipid classes (Iatroscan TLC/FID were examined at daily to month scale, in relation to the hydrological and biological situation at a central site of the Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean during the PECHE-DYNAPROC 2 experiment (14 September to 17 October. Dissolved lipid concentrations (TLd and lipid to DOC ratios varied in the range 5.3–48.5 μ g l−1 and 0.01 to 0.08 respectively, along the 0–1000 m water column. The highest TLd concentration values were found in the 0–150 m surface layer coinciding with phytoplankton biomass. Lipid class composition provided valuable information on the origin of DOM, and the changes that occurred during the period investigated. The significant correlations (p<0.01, n=87 between glycolipids from chloroplast membrane (MGDG (38.7±8.5% of TLd, n=166, and various phytoplankton pigments (chlorophyll cs-170, violaxanthin, diadinoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein, suggested that picoeucaryotes were the major source of dissolved lipids. Lipid metabolites (37.6±11.1%, n=166, the second most important compounds in TLd, showed a greater degree of degradation of lipids in this transition period than previously observed earlier in the year. A contribution of lipids to DOM in the mesopelagic zone was observed before the winter mixing: At mid time of the cruise (4–6 October, zooplankton wax esters biomarkers (WE, 5.5–13.6 μg L−1 appeared in the 0–150 m surface layer. WE were observed later and deeper in the mesopelagic layer (6 to 11 October, accompanied by re-increases of hydrocarbons (6–8 October and phospholipids concentrations (12 October in the 400–1000 m depth layer. Zooplankton migration and/or fecal pellets egestion, followed by DOM release from POM, were likely responsible for the appearance of these lipid signatures in the mesopelagic layer, which occurred during the period of low wind (<15 knots

  7. UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean : A tale of a Tethys fragment (Edough Massif, NE Algeria) and its geodynamic consequences (United States)

    Bruguier, Olivier; Bosch, Delphine; Caby, Renaud; Fernandez, Laure; Abdallah, Nachida; Arnaud, Nicolas; Hammor, Dalila; Laouar, Rabah; Mechati, Medhi; Monié, Patrick; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Toubal, Abder


    The Edough Massif of NE Algeria is part of the Maghrebides, a peri-Mediterranean Alpine belt that extends from Morocco to Tunisia. The belt resulted mainly from the eastward retreat of the Tethyan slab and from the drift of continental fragments, some of which finally collided with the north African margin. In this study we report the recent discovery of metamorphic diamonds (5-30 μm in size) included in a garnet megacryst and identified by Raman spectroscopy and the characteristic sharp band at 1332 cm-1 for crystalline diamond. The studied megacryst was taken from a weathered actinolitite horizon inserted within a major mylonite-ultramylonite band, which outcrops at the base of an allochtonous oceanic unit thrust onto the African paleomargin. The host garnet is almandine-dominant with a sharp increase in grossular component in the rim and is rich in exsolution of small acicular rutile needles. Major and trace elements show a gradual but significant zonation from core to rim characterized by a decrease in HREE, Y and Mn, typical of a prograde growth in a closed system. Trace element analyses of large prismatic rutile (up to 300 μm) indicate that the host metamorphic rock was a mafic protolith of MORB affinity and the Zr-in-rutile thermometry indicates a temperature range of 724-778°C for rutile growth. U-Pb analyses of these large rutile crystals provide an age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Minute zircons (≤ 30μm), disseminated in the garnet, display a multifaceted appearance and low Th/U ratios consistent with a metamorphic origin. The lack of HREE depletion in these zircons indicates that their metamorphic growth was not coeval with garnet. U-Pb analyses and Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicate they nucleated at 20.9 ± 2.2 Ma during near isothermal decompression related to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean to the

  8. Geology and hydrogeology of the Čemernica mountain massif, Western Serbia

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    Milenić Dejan


    Full Text Available The mountain massif of Čemernica, Western Serbia, is an orogenic feature of the Inner Dinarides. Hitherto, hydrogeological prospecting of the Massif was all on a regional scale, not detailed. Only scanty data, previously collected, were mappable on a scale larger than 1:100 000. The 2005 to 2008 research of the Čemernica Mountain Massif included geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance and mapping, the employment of remote sensing, a geophysical survey, the monitoring of quantitative and qualitative groundwater variation parameters, etc. The groundwaters of Čemernica are a large potential resource of water supply to multiple users. This paper is a contribution to the study of the geology and hydrogeology of the Čemernica Mountain Massif.


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    Alexey Strizhenok


    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  10. Slime mould flora of the Ślęża massif

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    Wanda Stojanowska


    Full Text Available In four succeding years 1971-1974 field investigation on the Myxomycetes of Ślęża massif has been carried out. Up to the present only 4 species of slime molds from this region were known. My last investigations give 63 new species and 4 new varieties to slime molds flora of Ślęża massif, and 5 new species to Silesia slime mold flora.

  11. Cenozoic rejuvenation events of Massif Central topography (France): Insights from cosmogenic denudation rates and river profiles (United States)

    Olivetti, Valerio; Godard, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier


    The French Massif Central is a part of the Hercynian orogenic belt that currently exhibits anomalously high topography. The Alpine orogenesis, which deeply marked Western European topography, involved only marginally the Massif Central, where Cenozoic faulting and short-wavelength crustal deformation is limited to the Oligocene rifting. For this reason the French Massif Central is a key site to study short- and long-term topographic response in a framework of slow tectonic activity. In particular the origin of the Massif Central topography is a topical issue still debated, where the role of mantle upwelling is invoked by different authors. Here we present a landscape analysis using denudation rates derived from basin-averaged cosmogenic nuclide concentrations coupled with longitudinal river profile analysis. This analysis allows us to recognize that the topography of the French Massif Central is not fully equilibrated with the present base level and in transient state. Our data highlight the coexistence of out-of-equilibrium river profiles, incised valleys, and low cosmogenically derived denudation rates ranging between 40 mm/kyr and 80 mm/kyr. Addressing this apparent inconsistency requires investigating the parameters that may govern erosion processes under conditions of reduced active tectonics. The spatial distribution of denudation rates coupled with topography analysis enabled us to trace the signal of the long-term uplift history and to propose a chronology for the uplift evolution of the French Massif Central.

  12. Mass-transport deposit and mélange formation in the Ligurian accretionary complex (NW-Italy) via mutual interactions of tectonic, sedimentary and diapiric processes (United States)

    Festa, A.; Codegone, G.; Dilek, Y.; Ogata, K.; Pini, G.


    Slope instability and material removal from the overriding plate are common in frontal wedges of subduction-accretionary complexes, form mass-transport deposits (MTDs), and play an important role in controlling the internal dynamics of a critical taper Coulomb wedge and its slope instability. We present different examples of ancient MTDs emplaced during the late Cretaceous-Miocene evolution of the External Ligurian accretionary wedge and the related wedge-top basins (Epiligurian Units Auct.) in the NW-Apennines, Italy. These MTDs consist of sedimentary mélanges or olistostromes and display heterogeneous deformation controlled by the degree of sediment consolidation and the velocity of gravitational processes (Festa et al., 2010 IGR; Pini et al., 2011 Springer Book). Decimeter- to meter-thick shear zones associated with localized visco-plastic deformation and highly disturbed rounded and/or subangular blocks randomly distributed in a brecciated matrix form the two end-members of structures. Crosscutting relationships between MTDs and coherent successions, tectonic mélanges - broken formation and injection bodies (shaly-dykes and/or diapirs) allow us to document their time-progressive development, the correlation with tectonic and diapiric processes, and the material redistribution forming polygenic mélanges in the frontal part of the External Ligurian accretionary wedge. Out-of-sequence "megathrust" and strike-slip faulting, fluid overpressure, presence of low-permeable layers and methane-rich fluid circulation in the sedimentary column were the main factors that controlled the emplacement of various MTDs. In all the examples described, mass-transport was closely associated and had mutual interactions with tectonic and diapiric processes (Festa, 2011 GSA Sp Publ). Tectonics played the most prominent role (directly and indirectly), whereas fluid flow and overpressure strongly controlled the mechanical behavior of sediments and facilitated the emplacement of

  13. Will the French Riviera disappear? Ancient and present day submarine landslides along the north-western Ligurian Margin (NW Mediterranean) under the microscope (United States)

    Hassoun, V.; Migeon, S.; Larroque, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.


    The integration between seismic-reflection and bathymetric data highlighted more than one thousand and three hundred ancient and recent scars and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) related to submarine failures along the whole northern margin of the Ligurian Basin. Several types of failures are pointed out along the margin according to their morphology, distribution and origin: (1) Numerous superficial landslides affected largely the inner walls of canyons and the upper continental slope at the vicinity of the main mountain-supplied rivers where the sedimentation rates are the strongest and thus contribute to the progressive stressing of the slope. This type of scars is mainly observed in the western margin where the thickness of plio-quaternary sediment is the lowest. (2) Large-scale scars and successive MTDs affecting the upper part of interfluves in the Gulf of Genova (Finale Slide and Portofino Slide) could have been triggered by earthquakes as well as by indirect effects of the last sea level drop. (3) At the north-eastern margin, offshore of Imperia, there is a large promontory bounded by a network of N60°E faults on its southern side and characterized by the presence of many landslides of variable sizes associated to unconformities could correspond to the different phases of recent, and perhaps present-day, uplift of the Imperia Promontory. (4) Deep scars along the base of the continental slope and possibly related to the seismic activity of a neighbouring fault, as the Cirque Marcel located near the Marcel Fault which appears on the seafloor as a 10-km long scarp trending N60°E. (5) In the western basin, near of the foot of the continental slope, the bathymetry is mark by a convexity which corresponds on the seismic data to the superposition of several thick MTDs. (6) In the deep basin and the eastern part of the Ligurian Basin, the thick plio-quaternary deposits are constitute by an alternation between continuous reflectors corresponding to hemipelagic

  14. The deformation of the Egersund-Ogna anorthosite massif, south Norway: finite-element modelling of diapirism


    Barnichon, Jean-Dominique; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Hoffer, Benoit; Charlier, Robert; Jongmans, Denis; Duchesne, Jean-Clair


    This paper aims at testing the mechanical relevance of the petrological model of anorthosite massif diapiric emplacement. The Egersund-Ogna massif (S. Norway) is of particular interest because recent petrological and geochronological data constrain the initial geometry, emplacement conditions and timing (about 2 m.y.). The formation of this anorthosite massif is in agreement with the classical petrological model, in which accumulation of plagioclase takes place in a deep-seated magma chamber ...

  15. Physical and dynamical characteristics of a 300 m-deep anticyclonic eddy in the Ligurian Sea (Northwest Mediterranean Sea): Evidence from a multi-platform sampling strategy (United States)

    Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Alvarez, Alberto


    We describe the physical and dynamical characteristics of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy observed in August 2013 over the shelf-break region of the northeastern sector of the Ligurian Sea, between the northeastern edge of the Northern Current (NC) and the coast. Results derive from a dense dataset of temperature, salinity and current measurements obtained from a multi-platform sampling strategy as well as from a diagnostic simulation with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) at a horizontal resolution of 1.8 km. Model results are obtained from a strong nudging to observations and, as they are physically balanced, they allow a three-dimensional diagnosis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of the eddy. The eddy is centered around 9.5°E, 43.94°N, about 20 km from the coast, and has a radius of 16 km. It is characterized by low-density waters and penetrates the thermocline down to at least 300 m reflecting the main features of the NC. Horizontal velocities near the surface are around 0.4 m s-1, while at 150 m are still significantly high and close to 0.2 m s-1. Vertical velocities were estimated from model results; absolute values are below 4 m day-1 until depths shallower than 150 m and increase with depth to 15 m day-1. The eddy's presence inverts the northwestwards flow traditionally portrayed in the region determining a southeastwards coastal circulation that replenishes coastal waters with those originating from the NC. We discuss several possible eddy formation mechanisms and suggest that its formation depends on the directionality of the NC when it enters the Ligurian Sea, as a result of the adjustment of the shear and orbital components of the current's relative vorticity.

  16. Tectonic Inversion Along the Algerian and Ligurian Margins: On the Insight Provided By Latest Seismic Processing Techniques Applied to Recent and Vintage 2D Offshore Multichannel Seismic Data (United States)

    Schenini, L.; Beslier, M. O.; Sage, F.; Badji, R.; Galibert, P. Y.; Lepretre, A.; Dessa, J. X.; Aidi, C.; Watremez, L.


    Recent studies on the Algerian and the North-Ligurian margins in the Western Mediterranean have evidenced inversion-related superficial structures, such as folds and asymmetric sedimentary perched basins whose geometry hints at deep compressive structures dipping towards the continent. Deep seismic imaging of these margins is difficult due to steep slope and superficial multiples, and, in the Mediterranean context, to the highly diffractive Messinian evaporitic series in the basin. During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey (2009, R/V Atalante), 2D marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were collected along the Algerian Margin using a 4.5 km, 360 channel digital streamer and a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array. An advanced processing workflow has been laid out using Geocluster CGG software, which includes noise attenuation, 2D SRME multiple attenuation, surface consistent deconvolution, Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. This processing produces satisfactory seismic images of the whole sedimentary cover, and of southward dipping reflectors in the acoustic basement along the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia, that are interpreted as inversion-related blind thrusts as part of flat-ramp systems. We applied this successful processing workflow to old 2D marine MCS data acquired on the North-Ligurian Margin (Malis survey, 1995, R/V Le Nadir), using a 2.5 km, 96 channel streamer and a 1140 cu. in. air-gun array. Particular attention was paid to multiple attenuation in adapting our workflow. The resulting reprocessed seismic images, interpreted with a coincident velocity model obtained by wide-angle data tomography, provide (1) enhanced imaging of the sedimentary cover down to the top of the acoustic basement, including the base of the Messinian evaporites and the sub-salt Miocene series, which appear to be tectonized as far as in the mid-basin, and (2) new evidence of deep crustal structures in the margin which the initial processing had failed to

  17. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.


    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  18. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori


    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas


    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  20. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion (United States)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim


    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  1. Preliminary Results of Three-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Imaging at the Vicinity of Nigde Massif (United States)

    Bülent Tank, Sabri; Ozaydin, Sinan; Uslular, Göksu; Delph, Jonathan; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Karas, Mustafa; Sandvol, Eric


    Magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected to examine the electrical resistivity structure of a metamorphic core complex known as the Niǧde Massif and a northeast - southwest aligned fault zone (Central Anatolian Fault Zone, CAFZ) bounding this massif on the east in Central Anatolia. The Nigde Massif is a crystalline dome close to Inner-Tauride Suture at the southern part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. The sinistral CAFZ (in the south it is called Ecemis fault) is a 700 km long, 2 to 80 km wide zone with an offset of 60 to 80 km. Three-dimensional numerical modeling routines based on data-space modeling (WSINV3DMT and ModEM) were used to invert the MT data collected at forty-seven high quality soundings. The resulting models suggest that (i) there is a large and circular high resistivity, dome-like anomaly that coincides with the Niǧde Massif. This block includes intrusive (Üçkapılı-like) granitoids at the heart of the massif extending to northeast. (ii) Beneath the massif there is a deeper (> 25 km) and relatively higher conductive zone that may have developed as a result of partial melting and is responsible for earlier defined lateral underflow to the northeast. (iii) Clear evidence for low angle normal sense detachment faults bounding the massif were found on several cross sections. (iv) Seismically active Ecemis fault appears as a low to high conductivity interface mostly hidden beneath non-conformable Eocene cover (iv) Ulukısla basin sediments appear as a highly conductive layer. (v) Ophiolitic mélange on the southeast side of Ecemis fault dominate the area with a high conductivity layer.

  2. Tephrochronology of the Mont-Dore volcanic Massif (Massif Central, France): new 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene activity (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Pastre, Jean-François; Nehlig, Pierre; Guillou, Hervé; Scao, Vincent; Scaillet, Stéphane


    The Mont-Dore Massif (500 km2), the youngest stratovolcano of the French Massif Central, consists of two volcanic edifices: the Guéry and the Sancy. To improve our knowledge of the oldest explosive stages of the Mont-Dore Massif, we studied 40Ar/39Ar-dated (through single-grain laser and step-heating experiments) 11 pyroclastic units from the Guéry stratovolcano. We demonstrate that the explosive history of the Guéry can be divided into four cycles of explosive eruption activity between 3.09 and 1.46 Ma (G.I to G.IV). We have also ascertained that deposits associated with the 3.1-3.0-Ma rhyolitic activity, which includes the 5-km3 "Grande Nappe" ignimbrite, are not recorded in the central part of the Mont-Dore Massif. All the pyroclastites found in the left bank of the Dordogne River belong to a later explosive phase (2.86-2.58 Ma, G.II) and were channelled down into valleys or topographic lows where they are currently nested. This later activity also gave rise to most of the volcanic products in the Perrier Plateau (30 km east of the Mont-Dore Massif); three quarters of the volcano-sedimentary sequence (up to 100 m thick) was emplaced within less than 20 ky, associated with several flank collapses in the northeastern part of the Guéry. The age of the "Fournet flora" (2.69 ± 0.01 Ma) found within an ash bed belonging to G.II suggests that temperate forests already existed in the French Massif Central before the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The Guéry's third explosive eruption activity cycle (G.III) lasted between 2.36 and 1.91 Ma. It encompassed the Guéry Lake and Morangie pumice and ash deposits, as well as seven other important events recorded as centimetric ash beds some 60 to 100 km southeast of the Massif in the Velay region. We propose a general tephrochronology for the Mont-Dore stratovolcano covering the last 3.1 My. This chronology is based on 44 40Ar/39Ar-dated events belonging to eight explosive eruption cycles each lasting between 100 and 200

  3. Paleoproterozoic anorogenic granitoids of the Zheltav sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan): Structural position and geochronology (United States)

    Tretyakov, A. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Shatagin, K. N.; Kotov, A. B.; Ryazantsev, A. V.; Pilitsyna, A. V.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Plotkina, Yu. V.


    The basement of the Zheltav sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan) is composed of different metamorphic rocks united into the Anrakhai Complex. In the southeastern part of the massif, these rocks form a large antiform with the core represented by amphibole and clinopyroxene gneissic granite varieties. By their chemical composition, dominant amphibole (hastingsite) gneissic granites correspond to subalkaline granites, while their petroand geochemical properties make them close to A-type granites. The U-Pb geochronological study of accessory zircons yielded an age of 1841 ± 6 Ma, which corresponds to the crystallization age of melts parental for protoliths of amphibole gneissic granites of the Zheltav Massif. Thus, the structural-geological and geochronological data make it possible to define the Paleoproterozoic (Staterian) stage of anorogenic magmatism in the Precambrian history of the Zheltav Massif. The combined Sm-Nd isotopic—geochronological data and age estimates obtained for detrital zircons indicate the significant role of the Paleoproterozoic tectono-magmatic stage in the formation of the Precambrian continental crust of sialic massifs in Kazakhstan and northern Tien Shan.

  4. The rockfall observatory in the Reintal, Wetterstein Massif, German Alps (United States)

    Schöpa, Anne; Turowski, Jens M.; Hovius, Niels


    The Reintal is an Alpine valley in the Wetterstein Massif close to the Zugspitze, Germany's highest mountain. Due to the variety of active geomorphic processes, including rockfalls off the steep limestone cliffs, debris flows, and snow avalanches, and the river Partnach, the Reintal has been the field area of many geomorphological and hydrological research campaigns over the last few decades. In 2014, the Geomorphology Section of the GFZ Potsdam started to install a monitoring network to detect and classify rockfalls in the Reintal. The network includes six seismic stations, optical and infrared cameras, and two weather stations measuring air and rock temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. The continuous observations of the network are supplemented by repeated field campaigns including terrestrial laser scans of a prominent rockfall niche at the Hochwanner mountain. The about 1,500 m high north face of the Hochwanner experienced the detachment of a 2.8 Mio m3 rockfall about 500 years ago that created the so-called Steingerümpel (German for rock debris deposit) and dammed the river Partnach. The cliff still shows high rockfall activity, and an 80,000 m3 block can be expected to fall in the near future. In this contribution, the layout of the observatory and details of the seismic network centered around the Hochwanner north face are described. Furthermore, the network data of a severe thunderstorm event in June 2016, that triggered many rockfalls and debris flows in the Reintal, is presented.

  5. Critical Reflection on the Massification of Higher Education in Korea: Consequences for Graduate Employment and Policy Issues (United States)

    Yeom, Min-ho


    The paper critically reviews the results of Korean massification in higher education (HE) and focuses on the consequences related to graduate employment. By analysing statistical data and reviewing related articles, this study explores the process of the massification of HE, investigates major factors influencing the expansion, and analyses and…

  6. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library (United States)

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima


    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  7. Calibration of the Khibiny Massif velocity model using registration of industrial explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asming V.E.


    Full Text Available Monitoring of geodynamic activity of the Khibiny Massif assumes an accurate location of seismic events occurring here. This requires on the one hand knowledge of seismic wave velocities in the massif and adjacent territories and on the other hand software tools for seismic location in inhomogeneous media. The Seismic Configurator program developed in the Kola Branch of Geophysical Survey of RAS enables to create velocity models of 3D media, locate events and compute apparent velocities of seismic waves propagating along different paths. As a result of registration of industrial explosions in Khibiny, a set of apparent velocities of Pwaves along paths crossing the massif has been obtained. 2D and 3D velocity models matched the observations have been fitted by these data using the Seismic Configurator program. A method of modification of the existing location system for practical usage of the models has been proposed

  8. Dating of the Variscan magnesian plutonism of the external crystalline massifs of the Alps: the Sept Laux granite (Belledone massif, France). Datation du plutonisme magnesien varisque des massifs cristallins externes des Alpes: l'exemple du granite des Sept Laux (massif de Belledonne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debon, F.; Bartefy, J.C. (BRGM, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Cocherie, A. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)); Menot, R.P. (Universite de Saint-Etienne, 42 (France)); Vivier, G. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France))


    The emplacement of the Sept Laux granite has been dated at 332 [+-] 13 Ma by the single-zircon lead-evaporation technique. This age is placed in the framework of the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Belledonne massif. Taken with earlier age determinations, it highlights the existence of two major Carboniferous plutonic suites in the external crystalline massifs of the Alps, one early ([approx]330 Ma) and magnesian, the other later ([approx]300 Ma) and more ferriferous. (authors). 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. An early Palaeozoic supra-subduction lithosphere in the Variscides: new evidence from the Maures massif (United States)

    Bellot, Jean-Philippe; Laverne, Christine; Bronner, Georges


    Petrographic and geochemical studies of peridotites and melagabbros from the Maures massif (SE France) provide new constraints on the Early Palaeozoic evolution of the continental lithosphere in Western Europe. Peridotites occur as lenses along a unit rooted in the main Variscan suture zone. They are dominantly spinel peridotites and minor garnet-spinel peridotites. Spinel peridotites represent both residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates. Mantle-related dunites and harzburgites display high temperature textures, with olivine (Mg#0.90), orthopyroxene (Mg#0.90) and spinel (TiO2 Morena to the Bohemian massif.

  10. U-Pb ages and morphology of zircons from different granites within the Saxonian Granulite Massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, Anja [Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (Germany). Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit; Gaertner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf [Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (Germany). Sektion Geochronologie


    The Saxonian Granulite Massif comprises various granitoid intrusions with different stages of deformation but of similar ages. However, there is only little knowledge about the magmatic source of these rocks. Combining the external and internal morphology of zircons and taking into consideration their Th-U values allows the differentiation of the granitoids into at least two groups of distinct evolution.

  11. Massification and Diversification as Complementary Strategies for Economic Growth in Developed and Developing Countries (United States)

    Tyndorf, Darryl; Glass, Chris R.


    Numerous microeconomic studies demonstrate the significant individual returns to tertiary education; however, little empirical evidence exists regarding the effects of higher education massification and diversification agendas on long-term macroeconomic growth. The researchers used the Uzawa-Lucas endogenous growth model to tertiary education…

  12. The Massification of Higher Education in the UK: Aspects of Service Quality (United States)

    Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola


    This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…

  13. The Massification of Higher Education in the UK: Aspects of Service Quality (United States)

    Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola


    This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…

  14. Distribution of trace elements in organs of six species of cetaceans from the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean), and the relationship with stable carbon and nitrogen ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Das, K. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Pellegrini, R. De; Drava, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Lepoint, G. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Minganti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy)], E-mail:; Poggi, R. [Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ' Giacomo Doria' - Via Brigata Liguria, 9 I-16121 Genova (Italy)


    Mercury (total and organic), cadmium, lead, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc concentrations were measured in different organs of 6 different cetacean species stranded in an area of extraordinary ecological interest (Cetaceans' Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea) along the coast of the Ligurian Sea (North-West Mediterranean). Stable-isotopes ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were also measured in the muscle. A significant relationship exists between {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, mercury concentration and the trophic level. The distribution of essential and non-essential trace elements was studied on several organs, and a significant relationship between selenium and mercury, with a molar ratio close to 1, was found in the cetaceans' kidney, liver and spleen, regardless of their species. High selenium concentrations are generally associated with a low organic to total mercury ratio. While narrow ranges of concentrations were observed for essential elements in most organs, mercury and selenium concentrations are characterised by a wide range of variation. Bio-accumulation and bio-amplification processes in cetaceans can be better understood by comparing trace element concentrations with the stable-isotopes data.

  15. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Matthew W., E-mail: [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes-EMBL-CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Nurizzo, Didier, E-mail:; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble (France)


    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is a new beamline dedicated to the completely automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined.

  16. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal (United States)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires


    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  17. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia (United States)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Iwamori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Tatsuji; Haraguchi, Satoru; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.


    Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene-historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K-Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3% of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975-1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within

  18. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)


    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  19. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana. II. Description of a new species of Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Scorpiones: Buthidae). (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R


    A new remarkable species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Buthidae) is described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of this new species brings further evidence about the biogeographic patterns of distribution presented by most species of the genus Ananteris, which are highly endemic in most biogeographic realms of South America, including the Tepuys and Inselberg Massifs.

  20. Organic matter recycling in a beach environment influenced by sunscreen products and increased inorganic nutrient supply (Sturla, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean). (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Trielli, Francesca


    The beaches are sites where the human influence may be strong and the beach ecosystems have often shown a high sensibility to environmental alterations. These zones may be affected by a large series of anthropogenic-derived pressures, such as unbalanced inorganic nutrient input, that may cause anomalous development of primary production, altering the structure of the trophic webs. Furthermore, the utilisation of cosmetic sunscreen products is reaching unexpected levels, thus assuming a potentially important as well as unknown role in the contamination of marine environments. The present study was planned to test the response of the beach ecosystem to increases in inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and to the input of a widely used cosmetic sunscreen product. A short-term laboratory experiment was carried out on microsystems consisting of sediments and seawater from the swash zone of a Ligurian city beach (Sturla). The processes related to organic matter (OM) recycling and some microbial food web components (bacteria and micro-autotrophic organisms) were analysed. The multivariate statistical analysis of the results showed that the increase in inorganic nutrients and sunscreen caused only a transient alteration in the OM recycling processes in the seawater. The sedimentary processes, instead, were different in the different systems, although starting from the same condition. In the sediment, surprisingly, an increase in inorganic nutrients did not lead to an increase in the primary biomass nor to significantly higher bacterial abundance, while the sunscreen caused increased OM recycling, especially devoted to protein and lipid mobilisation, supporting a growing bacterial and autotrophic community by reducing the bottom-up pressure. Additional toxicity tests performed on protozoa highlighted that, while the inorganic nutrients seemed to show no effects, sunscreen decreased the protozoan viability, thus likely favouring microautotrophic and bacterial

  1. The Sidi Mohamed peridotites (Edough Massif, NE Algeria): Evidence for an uppe mantle origin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soraya Hadj Zobir; Roland Oberhänsli


    The Hercynian Edough massif is the easternmost crystalline massif of the Algerian coast. It consists of two tectonically superposed units composed of micaschists, gneisses, and peridotite. This study concentrates on the small and isolated Sidi Mohamed peridotite outcrop area (0.03 km2). The Sidi Mohamed peridotite is composed mainly of harzburgites (Mg-rich olivine and orthopyroxene as major minerals). The Ni (2051–2920 ppm), Cr (2368–5514 ppm) and MgO (∼28–35 wt.%) whole-rock composition and the relative depletion in Nb make these harzburgites comparable to depleted peridotites related to a subduction zone. We suggest that the Sidi Mohamed ultramafic body was derived directly from the upper mantle and tectonically incorporated into the gneiss units of the Edough metamorphic core complex in a subduction environment.

  2. Timing and Style of Deformation in the Floresta Massif, Axial Eastern Cordillera, Colombia (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Stockli, D. F.; Mora, A.


    The Floresta Massif is one of the largest exposures of Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian rocks in the Eastern Cordillera. Estimates for the age of onset of shortening-related deformation in the Eastern Cordillera range from late Cretaceous to late Miocene (e.g., Hoorn et al., 1995; Bayona et al., 2008; Parra et al., 2009). The massif is typically interpreted as being exhumed along a high-angle reverse fault (the Soapaga fault) that reactivated Mesozoic extensional structures (e.g., Kammer and Sanchez, 2006). We examined these dual linked issued with new zircon U/Th-He (ZHe) data, new geological mapping and previously published apatite fission track (AFT) data from the Floresta Massif and the associated footwall strata. Previously, an overturned Paleozoic - Cretaceous sequence was mapped emplaced on Tertiary strata along the Soapaga fault. However, new geologic mapping identifies two previously unrecognized thrusts which place, from west to east, Paleozoic strata on Jurassic strata (Fault 3), Jurassic strata on Cretaceous strata (Fault 2) and Cretaceous strata on Tertiary strata (along the previously identified Fault 1). These results are confirmed by AFT and ZHe data. ZHe ages show no resetting in the Tertiary footwall strata, but show partial resetting in the Cretaceous strata and full resetting in the Jurassic and Paleozoic strata. Similarly, AFT data show older ages in the Cretaceous strata than in the Jurassic or Paleozoic strata. Fully reset ZHe ages from Jurassic strata show that exhumation of the Floresta Massif was ongoing by at least the early Oligocene (~ 30 Ma). However, this deformation post-dates an older episode of deformation associated with partially reset ZHe ages in the Cretaceous strata. Based on a decrease in lag time in detrital ZHe data, we infer that the earlier episode of deformation occurred in the mid - late Eocene (45 - 35 Ma).

  3. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps


    S. Monnier; C. Camerlynck; F. Rejiba; Kinnard, C.; Galibert, P.-Y.


    We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The rock glacier is a young (probably 0.15–0.16 m ns−1) and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of ...

  4. Crystal structure of modular sodium-rich and low-iron eudialyte from Lovozero alkaline massif (United States)

    Rozenberg, K. A.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Aksenov, S. M.


    The structure of the sodium-rich representative of the eudialyte group found by A.P. Khomyakov at the Lovozero massif (Kola Peninsula) is studied by X-ray diffraction. The trigonal cell parameters are: a = 14.2032(1) and c = 60.612(1) Å, V = 10589.13 Å3, space group R3m. The structure is refined to the final R = 5.0% in the anisotropic approximation of atomic displacement parameters using 3742|F| > 3σ( F). The idealized formula ( Z = 3) is Na37Ca10Mn2FeZr6Si50(Ti, Nb)2O144(OH)5Cl3 · H2O. Like other 24-layer minerals of the eudialyte group, this mineral has a modular structure. Its structure contains two modules, namely, "alluaivite" (with an admixture of "eudialyte") and "kentbrooksite," called according to the main structural fragments of alluaivite, eudialyte, and kentbrooksite. The mineral found at the Lovozero alkaline massif shows some chemical and symmetry-structural distinctions from the close-in-composition labyrinthite modular mineral from the Khibiny massif. The difference between the minerals stems from different geochemical conditions of mineral formation in the two regions.

  5. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.


    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  6. Crystallization and emplacement of the Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif (Quebec, Canada) (United States)

    Woussen, G.; Dimroth, E.; Corriveau, L.; Archer, P.


    The Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif underlies an area of over 20,000 km2 and has been emplaced into migmatitic gneisses of the central granulite terrain of the Grenville Province of the Canadian shield. Field data and petrography in an area straddling the anorthosite-gneiss contact, close to Chicoutimi (Quebec) permits an outline of its tecto-magmatic evolution. Depositional magmatic textures in the massif reveals that it crystallized from a magma in a relatively calm tectonic environment. The absence of fusion in pelitic gneisses at the contact proves that the crystallization did not take place at the level presently exposed. The parallelism of subvertical foliation in the enveloping gneisses and the anorthosite indicates that both were deformed together. It is suggested that the deformation results from a diapiric ascent of the anorthosite massif after its consolidation at depth. The depth of consolidation of the anorthosite is estimated at ˜ 25 30 km from subsolidus reaction between plagioclase and olivine. The diapiric ascent is further substantiated by the fact that three sets of mafic dykes of different ages, intrusive into the anorthosite, have a mineralogy which indicates successively decreasing P, T conditions of emplacement from granulite fades to amphibolite facies. An evolution of the basement gneisses and the anorthosite is proposed as a working hypothesis; it relies on the fact that metabasite dyke swarms in the basement gneisses represent a period of major crustal extension and could be used as a stratigraphic subdivision of the Grenville Province.

  7. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry (United States)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František


    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  8. Tourist Activities-Disturbance Factors of Natural Environment in Ciucaș Massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița Costina SĂFTOIU


    Full Text Available The study outlines how tourism activities can disturb the natural environment in Ciucaș Massif. Methods used are based on bibliographic research and GIS analysis of morphometric features. Results show that the Ciucaș Massif, as one of the most important mountain in central Romania, is made of conglomerates, which lend specific features to topography. Having several natural sights (The Old Ladies Council, The Sphinx of Bratocea, Zăganului Ridge this massif is declared a protected natural area. The geomorphologic processes: compactions, mudflows, the deepening of tourist paths, rills and gully erosion have a negative impact on the landscape and even on the entire environment, causing erosion and loss of soil and vegetation. Also, the increased number of tourist accommodation facilities and 21 marked tourist trails have resulted in shrinking of forest areas, hayfields and pastures.These numerous changes which occur in this mountain area, lead, in time, to radical, irreversible changes and can affect the local economic development.

  9. Geophysical Constraints on the Nature of Atlantis Massif, 30°N MAR (United States)

    Blackman, D.


    Recent drilling at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N, provides new insights into oceanic core complex (OCC) development. IODP Expeditions 304/305 had high recovery in the footwall of the detachment capping the central dome of the massif: Hole U1309B, 100 m deep; Hole U1309D, 1415 m. Recovery of a dominantly gabbroic sequence challenges prior interpretations that this OCC was mainly ultramafic, geophysical data having suggested much of the uplifted core was mantle peridotite, with Moho less than 1 km deep. Although models based on prior analysis fit the data well and were consistent with outcrops of serpentinized peridotite on the south face of Atlantis Massif, it is now clear that additional complexity needs to be incorporated in the geophysical analysis. The southern ridge is morphologically distinct from the central dome. Does this indicate that the south and central parts of this OCC are fundamentally different? Or, is the serpentinized peridotite exposed on the south wall (and found in a few loose fragments on top of the central dome) a thin veneer of mantle rock that has deformed around a dominantly gabbroic core? The occurrence of many gabbroic samples from the southern ridge could support the latter but models of serpentinization that drives the Lost City hydrothermal system near the peak of the massif might favor the former. New analysis of geophysical data provide further constraints on the scale of possible variability. Prior seismic analysis suggested fresh mantle might shoal by a couple hundred meters 1-2 km north of Site U1309. In contrast, gravity data suggest the highest density rocks occur at and to the south of the site. These observations will be combined in a 3D model of Atlantis Massif and we expect to report initial results. Downhole logging indicates that bulk density increases steadily from 2.8 to 2.9 g/cc downhole. Log and core sample seismic velocity are variable within a 5.5-6.8 km/s range, lower values where degree of alteration

  10. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.


    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca. 178-151 Ma) volcanic complex set in a diffuse extensional back-arc setting heralding the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Published paleo-hot spring sites for the Deseado Massif, plus additional sites identified during our recent field studies, reveal a total of 23 locations, five of which were studied in detail to determine their geologic and facies associations. They show structural, lithologic, textural and biotic similarities with Miocene to Recent hot spring systems from the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones, New Zealand, as well as with modern examples from Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A. These comparisons aid in the definition of facies assemblages for Deseado Massif deposits - proximal, middle apron and distal siliceous sinter and travertine terraces and mounds, with preservation of many types of stromatolitic fabrics - that likely were controlled by formation temperature, pH, hydrodynamics and fluid compositions. Locally the mapped hot spring deposits largely occur in association with reworked volcaniclastic lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments, silicic to intermediate lava domes, and hydrothermal mineralization, all of which are related to local and regional structural lineaments. Moreover, the numerous geothermal and significant epithermal (those with published minable resources) deposits of the Deseado Massif geological province mostly occur in four regional NNW and WNW hydrothermal-structural belts (Northwestern, Northern, Central, and Southern), defined here by alignment of five or more hot

  11. Garzon Massif basement tectonics: A geopyhysical study, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia (United States)

    Bakioglu, Kadir Baris

    The mechanics and kinematics of basement tectonic uplifts, such as the Laramide Rocky Mountain orogeny, remain poorly understood and controversial. The debate continues in part because of the limited number of well-documented present day analogs. The Garzon Massif rising between the Upper Magdalena Valley and the Llanos Basin of Colombia is an active basement uplift with well, seismic, gravity, and magnetic data available. In the past 10 Ma, PreCambrian age granitic rocks of the Garzon Massif have been uplifted and displaced against Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Upper Magdalena Valley along the Garzon fault. Aerogravimetric data calibrated by well data and 2D seismic data were used to model the geometry of the Garzon fault and the top of basement (Saldana Fm) in 2 dimensions. The density models provide an independent estimate of fault orientation. A high density airborne gravity and magnetic survey were flown over the Garzon fault in 2000, including 2,663 line km along 1 x 5 and 1 x 4 km flight lines at elevations of 2564 and 4589 m above mean sea level. An initial depth model was derived from the well logs, seismic reflection profile, and down-hole velocity surveys. Airborne gravity data was used to produce a Bouguer anomaly gravity map. Average rock densities were estimated from density logs, seismic velocities, and formation rock types. The regional gravity field was estimated and 2-dimensional forward models were constructed with average densities from the wells, seismic velocities, and rock types, and the initial depth model. Since the model fit is dependent on the density assumed for the Garzon Massif rocks, multiple densities and dip angles were tested. The gravity analysis indicates that the Garzon fault is a basement thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle under the Massif. Best-fit models show a true dip of 12 to 17 degrees to the southeast. A regional density and magnetic susceptibility model of the entire Massif is consistent with dense

  12. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco) (United States)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric


    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  13. Conditions of crystallization of the Ural platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs: evidence from melt inclusions (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Puchkov, Victor; Prikhod'ko, Vladimir; Stupakov, Sergey; Kotlyarov, Alexey


    Conditions of the Ural platinum-bearing ultramafic massifs formation attract attention of numerous researchers. A most important peculiarity of such plutons is their dunite cores, to which commercial Pt deposits are related. There are a different opinions about genesis of these massifs and usual methods not always can solve this question. As a result of melt inclusions study in the Cr-spinel the new data on physical and chemical parameters of dunite crystallization of the Nizhnii Tagil platinum-bearing ulrabasic massif (Ural) was obtained. The comparative analysis of Cr-spinels, containing melt inclusions, has shown essential differences of these minerals from chromites of the ultrabasic ophiolite complexes and of modern oceanic crust. Contents of major chemical components in the heated and quenched melt inclusions are close to those in the picrite and this testifies dunite crystallization from ultrabasic (to 24 wt.% MgO) magma. On the variation diagrams for inclusions in Cr-spinel the following changes of chemical compositions are established: during SiO2 growth there is falling of FeO, MgO, and increase of CaO, Na2O contents. Values of TiO2, Al2O3, K2O and P2O5 remain as a whole constant. Comparing to the data on the melt inclusions in Cr-spinel from the Konder massif, we see that values of the most part of chemical components (SiO2, TiO2, K2O, P2O5) are actually overlapped. At the same time, for the Nizhnii Tagil platinum-bearing massif the big maintenances of FeO and CaO in inclusions are marked. Distinct dependence of the majority of components from the MgO content in inclusions is observed: values TiO2, Al2O3 FeO, CaO and Na2O fall at transition to more magnesia melts. On the peculiarities of distribution of petrochemical characteristics melt inclusions in considered Cr-spinels are co-ordinated with the data on evolution of compositions of melts and rocks of model stratified ultramafic plutons during their crystallization in the magmatic chambers. On the

  14. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France) (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.


    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the

  15. Methyl mercury distributions in relation to the presence of nano- and picophytoplankton in an oceanic water column (Ligurian Sea, North-western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Cossa, Daniel; Marty, Jean-Claude; Migon, Christophe; Averty, Bernard; Dufour, Aurélie; Ras, Josephine


    Recent findings on the distribution of methylated mercury (MeHg T) in waters have highlighted the importance of organic carbon remineralization on the production of these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we present the first time-series (20 monthly samplings between July 2007 and May 2009) of high-resolution vertical profiles (10-12 depths in a 2350 m water column) of MeHg T distributions in an open ocean environment, the Ligurian Sea (North-western Mediterranean Sea). Concentrations varied within the sub-picomolar range (general mean: 0.30 ± 0.17 pmol L -1, n = 214) with the lowest values at the surface, increasing with depth up to the oxygen minimum zone, and decreasing slowly at greater depth. Concentrations in the surface waters never exceeded 0.15 pmol L -1, while the highest concentrations (up to 0.82 pmol L -1) were associated to the hypoxycline during the autumn bloom. A detailed vertical MeHg T profile reveals a "double-peak" pattern, coincidental with the two microbial layers described by Tanaka and Rassoulzadegan (2002), the so-called "microbial food web" in the euphotic zone (microbial loop" in the aphotic zone (>100 m). Temporal variations in the MeHg T abundance and distribution in the water column were linked to seasonality. The highest MeHg T concentrations were found in the oxygen minimum zone during the period of stratification, and coincide with the greatest abundance of nano- and picophytoplankton (cyanobacteria, nanoflagellates, etc.) in the euphotic layer. None of our deep MeHg T measurements (˜100 m above the sea bottom) revealed a significant sedimentary source of MeHg T. We explored the correlation between MeHg T concentrations and the apparent oxygen utilization, a proxy of organic matter remineralization, over the study period. Results of this study strengthen the hypothesis that net mercury methylation in the open ocean occurs in the water column, is linked to organic matter regeneration, and is promoted by the presence of small

  16. An overview on geochemistry of Proterozoic massif-type anorthosites and associated rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Maji; A Patra; P Ghosh


    A critical study of 311 published WR chemical analyses,isotopic and mineral chemistry of anorthosites and associated rocks from eight Proterozoic massif anorthosite complexes of India, North America and Norway indicates marked similarities in mineralogy and chemistry among similar rock types.The anorthosite and mafic-leucomafic rocks (e.g.,leuconorite,leucogabbro, leucotroctolite,anorthositic gabbro,gabbroic anorthosite,etc.)constituting the major part of the massifs are characterized by higher Na2O + K2O, Al2O3, SiO2 Mg#and Sr contents,low in plagioclase incompatible elements and REE with positive Eu anomalies. Their 18O %0 (5.7 –7.5), initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034–0.7066)and Nd values (+1.14 to +5.5)suggest a depleted mantle origin. The Fe-rich dioritic rocks occurring at the margin of massifs have isotopic, chemical and mineral composition more close to anorthosite –mafic-leucomafic rocks. However, there is a gradual decrease in plagioclase content, An content of plagioclase and XMg of orthopyroxene, and an increase in mafic silicates, oxide minerals content, plagioclase incompatible elements and REE from anorthosite – mafic-leucomafic rocks to Fe-rich dioritic rocks. The Fe-rich dioritic rocks are interpreted as residual melt from mantle derived high-Al gabbro melt, which produced the anorthosite and mafic-leucomafic rocks. Mineralogically and chemically, the K-rich felsic rocks are distinct from anorthosite –mafic-leucomafic-Fe-rich dioritic suite. They have higher 18O values (6.8 –10.8%) and initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7067-0.7104). By contrast, the K-rich felsic suites are products of melting of crustal precursors.

  17. Discovery and implications of the high-pressure pelitic granulite from the Jiaobei massif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiwen; WEI Chunjing; GENG Yuansheng; ZHANG Lifei


    The high pressure pelitic granulite with peak assemblage of garnet + kyanite + ternary feldspar + muscovite + rutile was discovered in Qixia area in the Precambrian Jiaobei massif, where high pressure basic granulites are widely distributed. The metamorphic peak conditions for the pelitic granulite were calculated as T = 800-840℃ and P =1.0-1.25 GPa on the basis of P-T pseudosection. The post peak P-T path is characterized first by an isothermal decompression (ITD) pattern and then by an isobaric cooling (IBC) pattern, indicating a geodynamic process related to thinning of thickened continental crust.

  18. Deglaciation and post-glacial environmental evolution in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; García, Cristina; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel


    This study examines the process of deglaciation of the Western Massif of Picos de Europa through field work, geomorphological mapping, sedimentary records and absolute datings of 14C. This massif has several peaks over 2,400 m a.s.l. (Peña Santa de Castilla, 2,596 m; Torre Santa María, 2,486 m; Torre del Mediu, 2,467 m). It is composed mainly by Carboniferous limestones. This area has been intensively affected by karstic dissolution, Quaternary glaciers and fluvio-torrential processes (Miotke, 1968; Moreno et al, 2010; Ruiz-Fernández et al, 2009; Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). At present day, periglacial processes are active at the highest elevations (Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). We have identified four main glacial stages regarding the deglaciation of the massif: (i) maximum advance corresponding to the Last Glaciation, (ii) retreat and stabilization after the maximum advance, (iii) Late Glacial, and (iv) Little Ice Age. Sedimentological studies also contribute data to the understanding of the chronological framework of these environmental changes. The datings of the bottom sediments in two long sequences (8 and 5.4 m) provided a minimum age of 18,075 ± 425 cal BP for the maximum advance stage and 11,150 ± 900 cal BP for retreat and stabilization in the phase following the maximum advance. The ongoing analyses of these sequences at very high resolution will provide new knowledge about the environmental conditions prevailing since the deglaciation of the massif. References Miotke, F.D. (1968). Karstmorphologische studien in der glazial-überformten Höhenstufe der Picos de Europa, Nordspanien. Hannover, Selbtverlag der Geografischen Gessellschaft, 161 pp. Moreno, A., Valero, B.L., Jiménez, M., Domínguez, M.J., Mata, M.P., Navas, A., González, P., Stoll, H., Farias, P., Morellón, M., Corella, J.P. & Rico, M. (2010). The last deglaciation in the Picos de Europa National Park (Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain). Journal of Quaternary Science, 25 (7), 1076-1091. Ruiz

  19. Permeability Structure Beneath the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex (United States)

    McCaig, A. M.; Titarenko, S.


    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) has been venting low temperature (50-90 °C) alkaline fluids for at least 120,000 years. It is located close to the crest of the transform wall of the Atlantis Massif (30 °N, MAR), and is underlain by detachment fault schists and serpentinized peridotites with minor gabbro. Only 5km to the north, IODP Hole 1309D sampled 1400 m of gabbroic rocks. An almost linear thermal gradient of ~100 °C/km has recently been measured in the Hole during IODP expedition 340T, a unique piece of data in young ocean crust. The combination of a steep conductive gradient in proximity to a long lived hydrothermal system places severe constraints on the permeability structure of the Massif. We have used Comsol Multiphysics to create the first 2-D topographic model of the LCHF using a N-S profile through the vent site and Hole 1309D. Initial models use a constant basal heat flow (0.2 W/m2) which produces a steady state conductive gradient of about 85 °C/km using temperature-dependent conductivity and heat capacity. We include a low permeability basal layer and in some models a lower permeability zone beneath the IODP Hole with a boundary dipping steeply southwards, corresponding to a boundary between gabbro and serpentinite inferred from seismic tomography. We have used two top boundary conditions; (1) a mixed boundary condition in which dT/dz =0 if flow is upwards, and T=0 if flow is downwards, and (2) T=0. The first boundary condition is normally used in hydrothermal modelling but produces serious vent temperature artifacts at low upward flow rates since heat cannot escape conductively. The second boundary condition produces more stable models and has been shown by Wilcock (1998) to reproduce the form of hydrothermal circulation accurately. However vent temperatures can only be approximated due to the upper thermal boundary layer produced. With a constant permeability in the upper part of the model, transient high temperature vents form near the

  20. Early Ukrainian-Belarusian-Polish traditional melo-massif: Interethnic wedding macro-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko Iryna


    Full Text Available Through rhythm-typological analysis and cartography the author has detected a similarity in the typological structure of early traditional musical forms belonging to agricultural and wedding genres on the territory which unites Ukraine, Belarus (within its ethnic area at the beginning of the 20th century, Eastern Poland (the Vistula river basin, and Lithuania (Dzūkija and Aukštaitija. This concerns several dozen song types, composed of items from a common grammatical base, forming the Ukrainian- Belarusian-Polish early-traditional melo-massif ‒ UBPEM. These types share interethnic (2-4-lingual areals, which do not correlate with linguistic ones.

  1. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Mérida Andes and the Santander Massif, NW South America (United States)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard; Mora, Andrés


    New apatite U-Pb and multiphase 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the high to medium temperature (~ 500 °C-~ 300 °C) thermal histories of igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the Mérida Andes of Venezuela, and new apatite and zircon fission track data constrain the ~ 500 °C-~ 60 °C thermal histories of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic rocks of the adjacent Santander Massif of Colombia. Computed thermal history envelopes using apatite U-Pb dates and grain size information from an Early Palaeozoic granodiorite in the Mérida Andes suggest that it cooled from > 500 °C to histories. The generally accepted timing of amalgamation of Pangaea along the Ouachita-Marathon suture pre-dates Late Permian to Triassic cooling recorded in basement rocks of the Mérida Andes by > 30 Ma, and its effect on rocks preserved in north-western South America is unknown. We interpret late Permian to Triassic cooling in the Mérida Andes to be driven by exhumation. Previous studies have suggested that a short phase of shortening and anatexis is recorded at ~ 253 Ma in the Maya Block, which may have been adjacent to the basement rocks of the Mérida Andes in the Late Permian. The coeval onset of exhumation in the Mérida Andes may be a result of increased coupling in the magmatic arc, which was located along the western margin of Pangaea. Triassic extension is documented in the Central Cordillera of Colombia and Ecuador between ~ 240 Ma and ~ 215 Ma, although extension at this time has not been clearly identified in the Mérida Andes or the Santander Massif. Permian to Triassic cooling is not recorded in the structurally isolated Caparo Block in the southern Mérida Andes, suggesting that it may have constituted a distinct fault block in the Triassic. New fission track data from the Santander Massif suggest that it started exhuming at ~ 40 Ma during a period of accelerated convergence between the Nazca/Farallòn Plate and the western margin of South America. Exhumation in the Santander

  2. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules (United States)

    Bowler, Matthew W.; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A.; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph


    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined. PMID:26524320

  3. Structure and metamorphism of the Gran Paradiso massif, western Alps, Italy (United States)

    Brouwer, F. M.; Vissers, R. L. M.; Lamb, W. M.


    The pressure-temperature-time trajectory and structural history of high-pressure rocks presently exposed in the Gran Paradiso massif provide constraints on the processes that caused their thermal evolution and exhumation. High-pressure metamorphism of the rocks is found to have culminated at temperatures around 525 °C and pressures of 12 to 14 kbar. After high-pressure metamorphism, the rocks cooled during initial decompression, while undergoing top-to-the-west shear on chlorite-bearing shear bands and larger scale shear zones. Biotite-bearing shear bands and larger shear zones related to top-to-the-east deformation affected the Gran Paradiso massif during reheating to temperatures of around 550 °C at 6 to 7 kbar. Further exhumation occurred at relatively high temperatures. A potentially viable explanation of the observed stage of reheating before final cooling and exhumation is breakoff of a subducting slab in the upper mantle, allowing advective heat transfer to the base of the crust. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at

  4. Rapakivi texture in porphyritic dikes within the Karavanke Granitic Massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bellieni


    Full Text Available The northern Karavanke Granitic Massif straddles the Slovenian–Austrian border. The investigated area lies in northern Slovenia, and extends from the western Slovenian–Austrian border to the east for about 30 km, with a maximum width of 2 km. The massif exhibits a bimodal magmatic association comprising mainly syenogranite and syenite with contemporaneous gabbroic rocks. Rocks of intermediate composition are less abundant and show field, textural and chemical features suggesting that they have formed as a result of the interaction (mixing and mingling between felsic and mafic magmas. Plagioclasemantled alkali feldspars occur in dikes of porphyritic syenite, which cut larger bodies of gabbroic rocks. Field, mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical evidences suggest that the porphyritic syenite is a hybrid rock, formed by the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas. The formation of plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar can be explained by the introduction of alkali feldspar from felsic, syenogranitic magma into more mafic magma, causing local undercooling in the portion of mafic magma surrounding the crystals. This resulted in the growth of cellular plagioclase, with quartz infilling, in a thermally and compositionally equilibrating system.

  5. Monazite geochronology, magmatism, and extensional dynamics within the Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlos, E J [University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences, Geological Science Department, 1 University Station C1100, Austin, TX 78712-0254 (United States); Baker, C B; Cemen, I [Oklahoma State University, School of Geology, 105 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Sorensen, S S [Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, PO Box 37012, MRC 119, Washington, DC, 20013-7012 (United States); Hancer, M [Pamukkale Universitesi, Muhendislik Fakultesi, Jeoloji Muh. Bolmu, Denizli, 20070 Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail:


    Geochemical and geochronological data were collected from S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude a detachment that bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif core complex (Aegean region, western Turkey). The granites may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the rocks range from 21.7{+-}4.5 Ma to 9.6{+-}1.6 Ma ({+-}1{sigma}), which could record their exhumation history. Higher uncertainty in the ages is attributed to monazite common Pb, but the range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) images that document complex textures within the granites. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase, plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, evidence for fluid interaction, and multiple generations of microcracks. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate additional complexities when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth and multiple episodes of deformation.

  6. New radiocarbon chronology of a late Holocene landslide event in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy (United States)

    Hajdas, Irka; Sojc, Ursula; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Akçar, Naki; Deline, Philip


    The Ferret valley Arp Nouva peat bog located in the Mont Blanc massif was critically evaluated since previously published radiocarbon dates have led to controversial conclusions on the formation of the swamp. Radiocarbon dating of roots from three pits of up to 1 m depth was applied to discuss the question whether the historical documented rock avalanche occurring in AD 1717 overran the peat bog or formed it at a later stage. Our results indicate that the rock avalanche formed the Arp Nouva peat bog by downstream blockage of the Bellecombe torrent. Furthermore, careful sample preparation with consequent separation of roots from the bulk peat sample provides possible explanation for the too old 14C ages of bulk peat samples dated previously (Deline and Kirkbride, 2009 and references therein). This work demonstrates that a combined geomorphological and geochronological approach is the most reliable way to reconstruct landscape evolution, especially in light of apparent chronological problems. The key to successful 14C dating is a careful sample selection and the identification of material that might be not ideal for chronological reconstructions. References Deline, Philip, and Martin P. Kirkbride. "Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)".Geomorphology 103 (2009): 80-92.

  7. Features of change of permanent snow patches in the Mongun-Taiga Massif, 1966–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ganyushkin


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to perennial snow patches of Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (south-western Tuva, their morphology, present state and dynamics over the last 45 years. We created a scheme of snow patch classification with regard to genesis of relief and position on the slopes. Dynamics of snow patches is analyzed for periods between several time points – 1966 (on basis of aerial photos, 2000, 2007–2008 and 2011 (on basis of field measurements and observations. From 1966 to 2008 the number of snow patches decreased by 4 times, the total area – by 15 times, the altitudinal zone of snow patches moved 250–300 m up. In 2008–2011 the altitudinal zone of snow patches partly recovered, its lower limit moved 250 m down, periglacial snow patches recovered, a new type – snow patches of buried ice and debris-covered glaciers appeared. It could be the first face of the process of small glaciers recovery in the massif. Using the changes of the altitudinal position of snow patches in comparison with data of the closest meteorological station we estimated the amount of annual precipitation, critical for the existence of local snow patches.

  8. Methane Seepage at Hyperalkaline Springs in the Ronda Peridotite Massif (Spain) (United States)

    Etiope, G.; Vadillo, I.; Whiticar, M. J.; Marques, J. M.; Carreira, P. M.; Tiago, I.; Benavente, J.; Jimenez, P.; Urresti, B.


    Methane-rich, hyperalkaline spring waters and bubbling pools have been sampled in the Ronda peridotite massif in southern Spain. Water chemistry (T: 17.1-21.5 ºC; pH: 10.7-11.7; DO: migration pathways along faults. Similar 'dry' seepage of abiotic gas was observed in the Philippines, New Zealand, Turkey and Italy. Like other land-based serpentinization systems, the Ronda peridotite massif is characterized by low heat flow (<40 mW/m2), with temperatures <60°C at depths of 1.5 km. At these low T and high pH conditions, CO32- is the only available carbon source dissolved in the water, and unlikely contributes to catalysed Fischer-Tropsch Type reactions. Methane production from CO2 hydrogenation in a gas phase system (unsaturated fractured rocks) cannot be excluded. The presence of ruthenium-enriched chromitites in the Ronda peridotites may support the hypothesis that CH4 is produced by CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by Ru minerals, even at temperatures below 100°C, as demonstrated in recent laboratory experiments (Etiope and Ionescu, 2014, Geofluids, in press).

  9. The age of Earth's largest volcano: Tamu Massif on Shatsky Rise (northwest Pacific Ocean) (United States)

    Geldmacher, Jörg; van den Bogaard, Paul; Heydolph, Ken; Hoernle, Kaj


    This study presents laser step-heating 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of basaltic lava samples from Tamu Massif, the oldest and largest edifice of the submarine Shatsky Rise in the northwest Pacific and Earth's proposed largest volcano. The rocks were recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324, which cored 160 m into the igneous basement near the summit of Tamu Massif. The analyzed lavas cover all three major stratigraphic groups penetrated at this site and confirm a Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age for the onset of Shatsky Rise volcanism. Lavas analyzed from the lower and middle section of the hole yield plateau ages between 144.4 ± 1.0 and 143.1 ± 3.3 Ma with overlapping analytical errors (2σ), whereas a sample from the uppermost lava group produced a significantly younger age of 133.9 ± 2.3 Ma suggesting a late or rejuvenated phase of volcanism. The new geochronological data infer minimum (average) melt production rates of 0.63-0.84 km3/a over a time interval of 3-4 million years consistent with the presence of a mantle plume.

  10. Stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous-Palaeogene sequences in the southern and eastern Menderes Massif (western Turkey) (United States)

    Özer, Sacit; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkar, İzver; Toker, Vedia; Sari, Bilal


    The stratigraphy of the uppermost levels of the Menderes Massif is controversial and within its details lie vital constraints to the tectonic evolution of south-western Turkey. Our primary study was carried out in four reference areas along the southern and eastern Menderes Massif. These areas lie in the upper part of the Menderes metamorphic cover and have a clear stratigraphic relationship and contain datable fossils. The first one, in the Akbük-Milas area, is located south-east of Bafa Lake where the Milas, then Kızılağaç and Kazıklı formations are well exposed. There, the Milas formation grades upwards into the Kızılağaç formation. The contact between the Kızılağaç and the overlying Kazıklı formation is not clearly seen but is interpreted as an unconformity. The Milas and Kızılağaç formations are also found north of Muğla, in the region of Yatağan and Kavaklıdere. In these areas, the Milas formation consists of schists and conformably overlying platform-type, emery and rudist-bearing marbles. Rudists form the main palaeontological data from which a Santonian-Campanian age is indicated. The Kızılağaç formation is characterized by reddish-greyish pelagic marbles with marly-pelitic interlayers and coarsening up debris flow deposits. Pelagic marbles within the formation contain planktonic foraminifera and nanoplankton of late Campanian to late Maastrichtian age. The Kazıklı formation is of flysch type and includes carbonate blocks. Planktonic foraminifera of Middle Palaeocene age are present in carbonate lenses within the formation. In the Serinhisar-Tavas area, Mesozoic platform-type marbles (Yılanlı formation) belonging to the cover series of the Menderes Massif exhibit an imbricated internal structure. Two rudist levels can be distinguished in the uppermost part of the formation: the first indicates a middle-late Cenomanian age and the upper one is Santonian to Campanian in age. These marbles are unconformably covered by the

  11. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena


    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  12. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar Lallena, Jorge; Monceret, Eric


    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded...

  13. Massification, Bureaucratization and Questing for "World-Class" Status: Higher Education in China since the Mid-1990s (United States)

    Ngok, Kinglun


    Purpose: This article aims to review the latest developments of the higher education sector in China since the mid-1990s by focusing on the expansion of university education. Design/methodology/approach: It is argued that while massification of higher education is an important indication of the progress in China's higher education system, the…

  14. University Reform in the Post-Massification Era in Japan: Analysis of Government Education Policy for the 21st Century. (United States)

    Reiko, Yamada


    Examines government higher education policy and Japanese higher education reform in the globalization and post-massification eras. Explores the effects of market mechanisms on Japanese higher education policy, the kinds of phenomena that have emerged in this period, and the impact of the government policy shift on Japanese higher education. (EV)

  15. The Triassic reworking of the Yunkai massif (South China): EMP monazite and U-Pb zircon geochronologic evidence (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Yu; Sano, Yuji; Zhou, Han-Wen; Xiang, Hua; Takahata, Naoto


    Geohistory of the Yunkai massif in South China Block is important in understanding the geodynamics for the build-up of this block during the Phanerozoic orogenies. To investigate this massif, we conduct EMP monazite and U-Pb zircon geochronological determinations on mineral inclusions and separate for seventeen samples in four groups, representing metamorphic rocks from core domain, the Gaozhou Complex (amphibolite facies, NE-striking) and the Yunkai Group (greenschist facies, NW-striking) of this massif and adjacent undeformed granites. Some EMP monazite ages are consistent with the NanoSIMS results. Monazite inclusions, mostly with long axis parallel to the cleavage of platy and elongated hosts, give distinguishable age results for NW- and NE-trending deformations at 244-236 Ma and 236-233 Ma, respectively. They also yield ages of 233-230 Ma for core domain gneissic granites and 232-229 Ma for undefomed granites. Combining U-Pb zircon ages of the same group, 245 Ma and 230 Ma are suggested to constrain the time of two phases of deformation. Aside from ubiquity of Triassic ages in studied rocks, ages of detrital monazite in the meta-sandstone match the major U-Pb zircon age clusters of the metamorphic rock that are largely concentrated at Neoproterozoic (1.0-0.9 Ga) and Early Paleozoic (444-431 Ma). Based on these geochronological data, Triassic is interpreted as representing the time for recrystallization of these host minerals on the Early Paleozoic protolith, and the also popular Neoproterozoic age is probably inherited. With this context, Yunkai massif is regarded as a strongly reactivated Triassic metamorphic terrain on an Early Paleozoic basement which had incorporated sediments with Neoproterozoic provenances. Triassic tectonic evolution of the Yunkai massif is suggested to have been controlled by converging geodynamics of the South China and Indochina Blocks as well as mafic magma emplacement related to the Emeishan large igneous province (E-LIP).

  16. Cambrian to Lower Ordovician complexes of the Kokchetav Massif and its fringing (Northern Kazakhstan): Structure, age, and tectonic settings (United States)

    Degtyarev, K. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Shatagin, K. N.


    A comprehensive study of the Lower Palaeozoic complexes of the Kokchetav Massif and its fringing has been carried out. It has allowed for the first time to discover and investigate in detail the stratified and intrusive complexes of the Cambrian-Early Ordovician. Fossil findings and isotope geochronology permitted the determination of their ages. The tectonic position and internal structures of those complexes have also been defined and their chemical features have been analyzed as well. The obtained data allowed us to put forward a model of the geodynamic evolution of Northern Kazakhstan in the Late Ediacaran-Earliest Ordovician. The accumulation of the oldest Ediacaran to Earliest Cambrian siliciclastics and carbonates confined to the Kokchetav Massif and its fringing occurred in a shallow shelf environment prior to its collision with the Neoproterozoic Daut island arc: complexes of the latter have been found in the northeast of the studied area. The Early Cambrian subduction of the Kokchetav Massif under the Daut island arc, their following collision and exhumation of HP complexes led to the formation of rugged ground topography, promoting deposition of siliceous-clastic and coarse clastic units during the Middle to early Late Cambrian. Those sediments were mainly sourced from eroded metamorphic complexes of the Kokchetav Massif basement. At the end of the Late Cambrian to the Early Ordovician within the boundaries of the massif with the Precambrian crust, volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary units along with gabbros and granites with intraplate affinities were formed. Simultaneously in the surrounding zones, which represent relics of basins with oceanic crust, N-MORB- and E-MORB-type ophiolites were developed. These complexes originated under extensional settings occurred in the majority of the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and Northern Tian Shan. In the Early Floian Stage (Early Ordovician) older heterogeneous complexes were overlain by relatively monotonous

  17. Remains of early Ordovician mantle-derived magmatism in the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera) (United States)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Cottle, John M.; Hart, Craig J. R.


    An Early Ordovician magmatic event has been documented in the Santander Massif (north-Eastern Cordillera, Colombia). Three U/Pb laser ablation ages of 477 ± 2 Ma (Arenig), were obtained from metamorphosed and foliated calc-alkaline diorites. The 176Hf/177Hf values in zircons from these meta-diorites, yielded epsilon Hf values (ɛHft) > 0 (Mean = 2 ± 1, at 477 Ma). These data allow interpretation of the origin of these zircons from a radiogenic initial Hf isotope source, which is characteristic of the Earth's mantle. This, together with the fact that the rocks have been affected subsequently by tectonometamorphic processes, suggests that the early Ordovician diorites have been emplaced in a supra-subduction tectonic setting, related to onset of the Iapetus Ocean closure.

  18. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia


    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  19. Mass-balance modelling of Ak-Shyirak massif Glaciers, Inner Tian Shan (United States)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Barandun, Martina; Belozerov, Egor; Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alena


    Tian Shan is a water tower of Central Asia. Rapid and accelerating glacier downwasting is typical for this region. Study sites - Sary-Tor glacier and Glacier No.354 are located in Ak-Shyirak massif, Naryn headwaters. Sary-Tor was chosen as representative for Ak-Shyirak (Ushnurtsev, 1991; Oledeneniye TianShanya, 1995) for direct mass-balance measurements in 1985-1991. Glacier No.354 was an object of direct mass-balance measurements for 2011-2016. An energy-balance distributed A-Melt model (Rets et al, 2010) was used to reconstruct mass-balance for the glaciers for 2003-2015. Verification of modelingresults showed a good reproduction of direct melting measurements data on ablation stakes and mass loss according to geodetic method. Modeling results for Glacier No. 354 were compared to different modeling approach: distributed accumulation and temperature-index melt (Kronenberg et al, 2016)

  20. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.


    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  1. Spatial coincidence of rapid inferred erosion with young metamorphic massifs in the Himalayas (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Montgomery, David R.; Hallet, Bernard


    A spatially distributed rate-of-erosion index (EI) based on models of bedrock river incision documents a strong spatial correspondence between areas of high erosion potential and young metamorphic massifs as well as structural highs throughout the Himalayas. The EI is derived from slopes and drainage areas calculated from a hydrologically corrected digital elevation model (GTOPO30) combined with precipitation data (IIASA) to generate synthetic annual stream discharges. These variables drive three generalized process models to produce EI maps that, while differing in detail, provide an internally consistent, spatially continuous index of large-scale erosion rates. The large spatial variation in potential erosion rates in the Himalayas suggested by the EI patterns contrasts with the uniform convergence of the Indian subcontinent. If these EI gradients persist through time, they support the emerging view of a positive feedback between localized, rapid erosion and upward advection of lower crust.

  2. Acidification des eaux de source et saturnisme dans le Massif vosgien.



    Les recherches menées à  l'occasion du programme DEFORPA ont montré que les dépôts acides et la sylviculture avaient directement contribué à une acidification des sols et des eaux de surface du Massif vosgien. L'étude de la variation de l'acidité des eaux de source depuis 30 ans a confirmé une acidification progressive de l'eau captée sur les roches les plus pauvres, comme le grès vosgien. Nous avons expérimentalement vérifié que cette acidification a considérablement augmenté la teneur en pl...

  3. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sougnez


    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  4. Cancrinite from nepheline syenite (mariupolite) of the Oktiabrski massif, SE Ukraine, and its growth history (United States)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Pieczka, Adam; Heflik, Wiesław; Sikorska, Magdalena


    Secondary cancrinite, (Na5.88K< 0.01)∑ 5.88(Ca0.62 Fe0.01Mn0.01Zn< 0.01 Mg< 0.01)∑ 0.64[Si6.44Al 5.56O24](CO3)0.67(OH)0.26(F< 0.01,Cl< 0.01)·2.04H2O), was found as accessory component of mariupolite (albite-aegirine nepheline syenite) from the Oktiabrski massif in the Donbass (SE Ukraine). It probably crystallized from a subsolidus reaction involving nepheline (and sodalite?) and calcite dissolved in the aqueous-carbonic fluid at the maximum temperature of 930 °C, decreasing to hydrothermal conditions. It is depleted in sodium, calcium and carbon, what results in the occurrence of vacant positions at both cationic and anionic sites. Ca-deficient cancrinite crystallized from the same hydrothermal Si-undersaturated fluids enriched in the ions such as Na+, Ca2 +, Cl-, F-, HCO3-, which formed calcite, sodalite, natrolite and fluorite. It has dark-red CL colours with patchy zoning, what indicates the variable/diverse fluid composition during its formation. In the CL spectrum of cancrinite only one broad emission band at 410 nm is observed, which can be attributed to O* center (the recombination of a free electron with an O- hole center). The formation of secondary CO3-rich species, i.e. cancrinite and calcite in mariupolite suggests that redox conditions in the Oktiabrski massif were oxidizing at the postmagmatic stage.

  5. Investigation of a hydrological system related to the stability of slope sediments off the Nice Aiport, Ligurian Sea - preliminary data and a sketch for a MSP drilling proposal (United States)

    Henry, P.; Stegmann, S.; Sultan, N.; Sage, F.; Migeon, S.; Kopf, A.


    The sedimentary instability of submarine slopes poses a major geohazard and threatens coastal infrastructure both on- and offshore. The Ligurian Margin, Southern France, represents such a potentially unstable slope where factors favouring instability include seismicity, groundwater charging, presence of weak minerals, high sediment accumulation rates, anthropogenic impact by construction, and slope oversteepening. On the 16th of October 1979 a major submarine landslide (~8.7 km2) affected the coastal system offshore Nice and resulted in destruction of an embankment at the Nice airport, a debris flow cutting two submarine cables tens of kilometres away from the sliding area, and a tsunami wave of 2-3 m at the nearby coast. It was proposed several years ago that overpressuring linked to the hydrogeological condition could have been the trigger mechanism of the Nice Airport failure, and seawater composition in this area further suggested that fresh ground water is released offshore by coastal aquifers. The hydrogeological triggering model is also supported by sedimentary and seismic data indicating that gently seaward-dipping permeable layers of sediment may provide aquifer pathways down to a maximum depth of 150 m. An investigation of the superficial sediments (max. 30 mbsf) was recently performed in close collaboration between France (e.g. PRISME cruise with RV L'Atalante, 2007) and Germany (e.g. M73 cruise with RV Meteor, 2007). The study included geophysical acquisition, in situ pore pressure and shear strength measurements (CPTU devices, Penfeld penetrometer) as well as gravity coring. For long- and mid-term measurements, piezometers, which acquire the pore pressure at five different depth levels within the sediment, were installed by IFREMER Brest, France. Short-term measurements were carried out with the marine shallow-water FF-CPTU probe by the MARUM Bremen, Germany, while geochemical analysis was performed on pore water extracted from the cores. The main

  6. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research. (United States)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha


    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it

  7. The Gondwana Orogeny in northern North Patagonian Massif: Evidences from the Caita Có granite, La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori


    Full Text Available Structural analyses in the northern part of the North Patagonia Massif, in the foliated Caita Có granite and in La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, indicate that the pluton was intruded as a sheet-like body into an opening pull-apart structure during the Gondwana Orogeny. Geochronological studies in the massif indicate a first, lower to middle Permian stage of regional deformation, related to movements during indentation tectonics, with emplacement of foliated granites in the western and central areas of the North Patagonian Massif. Between the upper Permian and lower Triassic, evidence indicates emplacement of undeformed granitic bodies in the central part of the North Patagonian Massif. A second pulse of deformation between the middle and upper Triassic is related to the emplacement of the Caita Có granite, the development of mylonitic belts, and the opening of the Los Menucos Basin. During this pulse of deformation, compression direction was from the eastern quadrant.

  8. Typologie des aquifères du cristallin: exemple des massifs des Aiguilles rouges et du Mont-blanc (France, Italie et Suisse)


    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Gabus, Jacques-Henri


    This hydrogeological study of the crystalline aquifers of the Mont-Blanc and the Aiguilles Rouges massifs is part of the AQUITYP project, which has been carried out at the Geology Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (GEOLEP). This study has encompassed the observation, sampling and systematic chemical analysis of more than 160 surface and groundwaters. Many of the springs are located within the numerous galleries and tunnels which cut the crystalline massifs of t...

  9. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif (United States)

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter


    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  10. A one-month study of the zooplankton community at a fixed station in the Ligurian Sea: the potential impact of the species composition on the mineralization of organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mousseau


    Full Text Available The cruise project was designed to study temporal variations of the ecosystem during the summer-autumn transition and focused on the part played by zooplankton as top-down controllers, and the relative importance of top-down versus bottom-up controls. Zooplankton should play a key role both in the vertical transfer of particulate organic matter and in the mineralisation of organic matter. Although the importance of species diversity is well recognized, the impact of diversity on carbon fluxes is rarely considered. Trophic roles of zooplankton range from strict herbivory to strict carnivory, with all possible combinations (i.e. omnivory between these two extremes. Feeding strategies are also very diverse, for example, active predators, passive filter feeders or suspension feeders co-exist (Bamstedt at al., 2000. As the metabolic cost of these different trophic roles and ways of feeding should be different, a physiological diversity must be considered in any assessment of the role of zooplankton in the flux of organic matter (e.g. Longhurts and Harrison, 1989. At a minimum,, species and functional diversities contribute to the diversity of exported organic matter (Steinberg et al., 2000; Madin et al., 2001. Fecal pellets, the organic matter egested by zooplankton, differ in form, size and weight, and hence in their sedimentation and degradation rates (Turner, 2002. The downward flux of organic matter thus depends on not only on physical and chemical processes but also on biological variables.

    The area sampled, located in the central part of the Ligurian Sea is next to the DYFAMED site, a time-series station monthly monitored for several years now. The zone is considered to be oligotrophic and protected from strong advective processes (Andersen and Prieur, 2000. The two cruises DYNAmic of the rapid PROCess (DYNAPROC 1 in May 1995 and DYNAPROC 2, the present study were devoted to factors controlling the vertical flux of matter on short time

  11. Canyons within the slope of the Bohemian Massif created subsequent to the meteorite impact at the end of the Mesozoic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiricek, Rudolf [Moravian Oil Co., Hodonin (Czech Republic)


    The origin of the deep canyons both in south Moravia and in Lower Austria is attributed to major sea-level changes, possibly caused by the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary meteorite impact at Chicxulub (Mexico) and also to the contemporaneous uplift of the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). The canyons were eroded by river activity during the Bohemian Massif uplift at the time of the global sea-level fall. The Nesvacilka Canyon was eroded to a depth of 2000 m, which is comparable to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. The deep erosion penetrated through the Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments into the Palaeozoic formations and/or the granitoid basement. The canyons have been filled with Palaeogene marine sediments, which are up to 1400 m thick. (author)

  12. The Borodinskii Massif of potassium porphyric granite: Results of U-Pb dating and its tectonic position (Fennoscandian Shield) (United States)

    Baltybaev, Sh. K.; Rizvanova, N. G.; Glebovitsky, V. A.


    It has been demonstrated for the first time that the Svecofennian crustal porphyric granites in the southeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield are clearly subdivided into two age groups of 1.87 and 1.80 Ga. The representative of the first group is the Kuznechenskii Massif of porphyric granites with a U-Pb age of 1874 ± 4 Ma belongs to the group of plutons formed during the orogenic stage of Svecofennide evolution. The Borodinskii Massif with an age of 1797 ± 2 Ma is a member of the second group: these plutons were formed under tectonically stable (epiplatform) conditions. Therefore, the formation of porphyric granites occurred as the result of repeated generation of crustal magmas during multistage accretional growth of the Svecofennian crust.

  13. Solid Inclusions in Au-nuggets, genesis and derivation from alkaline rocks of the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvorani Sami N.


    Full Text Available A total of 112 Au-nuggets, collected from alluvial placer deposits of the Ingarinda River from the Guli massif, located in northem Siberia, Russia, were investigated. The Guli massif consists of a huge dunite-clinopyroxenite complex (the largest complex in the world, an alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite (melilite, nephelinite, ijolite enveloping the dunite and carbonatite intrusions, associated with disseminated schlieren type chromitite and Au-Ag, Pt placer deposits. The nuggets are characterized by various sizes and shapes and show chemical compositions Au, Au-Ag and AuCu, typical for a derivate of carbon-atites and/or ultramafic complexes. A great variety of oxide, silicate, REE-minerals, carbonate and sulphide inclusions have been detected in the nuggets, which are identical in mineralogy and chemical composition to mineral constituents of the alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite surrounding the Guli dunite core complex thus, considered as the source for Au-nuggets.

  14. A MASSIF Effort To Determine The Mass-Luminosity Relation for Stars of Various Ages, Metallicities, and Evolution States (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Beedict, G. Fritz; Gies, Douglas R.; Golimowski, David A.; Ianna, Philip A.; Mason, Brian; McArthur, Barbara; Nelan, Edmund; Torres, Guillermo


    The MASSIF (Masses and Stellar Systems with Interferometry) Team will use SIM to investigate the mass content of the Galaxy - from huge stars to barely glimmering brown dwarfs, and from hot white dwarfs to exotic black holes. We will target various samples of the Galactic population to determine and relate the fundamental characteristics of mass, luminosity, age, composition, and multiplicity - attributes that together yield an extensive understanding of the stars. Our samples will include distant clusters that span a factor of 5000 in age, and commonplace stars and substellar objects that lurk near the Sun. The principal goals of the MASSIF Key Project are to (1) define the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars in five fundamental clusters so that effects of age and metallicity can be mapped (Trapezium, TW Hydrae, Pleiades, Hyades, and M67), and (2) determine accurate masses for representative examples of nearly every type of star, stellar descendant or brown dwarf in the Galaxy.

  15. Theoretical relation between water flow rate in a vertical fracture and rock temperature in the surrounding massif

    CERN Document Server

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe


    A steady-state analytical solution is given describing the temperature distribution in a homogeneous massif perturbed by cold water flow through a discrete vertical fracture. A relation is derived to express the flow rate in the fracture as a function of the temperature measured in the surrounding rock. These mathematical results can be useful for tunnel drilling as it approaches a vertical cold water bearing structure that induces a thermal anomaly in the surrounding massif. During the tunnel drilling, by monitoring this anomaly along the tunnel axis one can quantify the flow rate in the discontinuity ahead before intersecting the fracture. The cases of the Simplon, Mont Blanc and Gotthard tunnels (Alps) are handled with this approach which shows very good agreement between observed temperatures and the theoretical trend. The flow rates before drilling of the tunnel predicted with the theoretical solution are similar in the Mont Blanc and Simplon cases, as well as the flow rates observed during the drilling....

  16. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone: Proposal for a new zone of the Iberian Massif. Variscan implications (United States)

    Arenas, Ricardo; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Martín Parra, Luis Miguel; Matas, Jerónimo; González del Tánago, José; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Fuenlabrada, Jose M.; Andonaegui, Pilar; Garcia-Casco, Antonio


    Correlation of a group of allochthonous terranes (referred to as basal, ophiolitic and upper units) exposed in the NW and SW of the Iberian Massif, is used to propose a new geotectonic zone in the southern branch of the Variscan Orogen: the Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone. Recent advances in SW Iberia identify most of the former Ossa-Morena Zone as another allochthonous complex of the Iberian Massif, the Ossa-Morena Complex, equivalent to the Cabo Ortegal, Órdenes, Malpica-Tui, Bragança and Morais complexes described in NW Iberia. The new geotectonic zone and its counterparts along the rest of the Variscan Orogen constitute an Internal Variscan Zone with ophiolites and units affected by high-P metamorphism. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone includes a Variscan suture and pieces of continental crust bearing the imprint of Ediacaran-Cambrian events related to the activity of peri-Gondwanan magmatic arcs (Cadomian orogenesis). In the Iberian Massif, the general structure of this geotectonic zone represents a duplication of the Gondwanan platform, the outboard sections being juxtaposed on top of domains located closer to the mainland before amalgamation. This interpretation offers an explanation that overcomes some issues regarding the differences between the stratigraphic and paleontological record of the central and southern sections of the Iberian Massif. Also, equivalent structural relationships between other major geotectonic domains of the rest of the Variscan Orogen are consistent with our interpretation and allow suspecting similar configurations along strike of the orogen. A number of issues may be put forward in this respect that potentially open new lines of thinking about the architecture of the Variscan Orogen.

  17. Discovery of Ordovician–Silurian metamorphic monazite in garnet metapelites of the Alpine External Aiguilles Rouges Massif


    Schulz, Bernhard; Raumer, Jürgen F. von


    The pre-Mesozoic, mainly Variscan metamorphic basement of the Col de Bérard area (Aiguilles Rouges Massif, External domain) consists of paragneisses and micaschists together with various orthogneisses and metabasites. Monazite in metapelites was analysed by the electron microprobe (EMPA-CHIME) age dating method. The monazites in garnet micaschists are dominantly of Variscan age (330–300 Ma). Garnet in these rocks displays well developed growth zonations in Fe–Mg–Ca–Mn and crystallized at maxi...

  18. A new interpretation for the garnet zoning in metapelitic rocks of the silgará formation, southwestern santander massif, colombia


    Ríos Reyes Carlos Alberto; Castellanos Alarcón Oscar Mauricio; Takasu Akira


    A Barrovian sequence of the Silgará Formation at the southwestern Santander Massif, Colombian Andes, contains zoned garnets in which major and trace element zoning correlates with distribution of mineral inclusions, which may indicate that garnet growth rate varied through time and affected both composition and texture ofgarnets, although different garnet producing reactions have also played an important role in the chemical zoning of garent. However, a local metasomatism process associated t...

  19. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana: Description of one new genus and species (Scorpiones: Chactidae). (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R


    A new genus and species, Spinochactas mitaraka gen. n., sp. n. (Chactidae) are described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of the new genus and species brings further evidence of the biogeographic pattern of distribution presented by some elements of the family Chactidae endemic to the Tepuys or to the Inselberg formations of South America.

  20. The first dating results for gabbro of the dunite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro complex of the Chistop massif (North Urals) (United States)

    Petrova, G. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Lvov, P. A.; Maslov, A. V.


    The first data on the Late Riphean age by U-Pb and Sm-Nd analysis (≥922 ± 14 and 686 ± 19 Ma, respectively) were obtained for rocks of the dunite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro complex of the Chistop massif in the Patinum-bearing Belt of the Urals. These data allow one to assume that the formation of the Ural paleoocean probably started immediately after the break-up of Rodinia.

  1. The Arequipa Massif of Peru: New SHRIMP and isotope constraints on a Paleoproterozoic inlier in the Grenvillian orogen (United States)

    Casquet, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Galindo, C.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Rapela, C. W.; Torres, P.


    The enigmatic Arequipa Massif of southwestern Peru is an outcrop of Andean basement that underwent Grenville-age metamorphism, and as such it is important for the better constraint of Laurentia-Amazonia ties in Rodinia reconstruction models. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating has yielded new evidence on the evolution of the Massif between Middle Paleoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic. The oldest rock-forming events occurred in major orogenic events between ca. 1.79 and 2.1 Ga (Orosirian to Rhyacian), involving early magmatism (1.89-2.1 Ga, presumably emplaced through partly Archaean continental crust), sedimentation of a thick sequence of terrigenous sediments, UHT metamorphism at ca. 1.87 Ga, and late felsic magmatism at ca. 1.79 Ga. The Atico sedimentary basin developed in the Late-Mesoproterozoic and detrital zircons were fed from a source area similar to the high-grade Paleoproterozoic basement, but also from an unknown source that provided Mesoproterozoic zircons of 1200-1600 Ma. The Grenville-age metamorphism was of low- P type; it both reworked the Paleoproterozoic rocks and also affected the Atico sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism was diachronous: ca. 1040 Ma in the Quilca and Camaná areas and in the San Juán Marcona domain, 940 ± 6 Ma in the Mollendo area, and between 1000 and 850 Ma in the Atico domain. These metamorphic domains are probably tectonically juxtaposed. Comparison with coeval Grenvillian processes in Laurentia and in southern Amazonia raises the possibility that Grenvillian metamorphism in the Arequipa Massif resulted from extension and not from collision. The Arequipa Massif experienced Ordovician-Silurian magmatism at ca. 465 Ma, including anorthosites formerly considered to be Grenvillian, and high-T metamorphism deep within the magmatic arc. Focused retrogression along shear zones or unconformities took place between 430 and 440 Ma.

  2. The investigation of molybdenum migration in aqueous media landscape of the Khibiny massif to develop environmental activities

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    Sulimenko L.P.


    Full Text Available Relations of natural and technogenic factors at forming of molybdenum making streams in superficial and underground waters in the Khibiny massif have been studied. The priority sources of receipt of molybdenum in water objects have been considered. Taking into account hydrogeochemistrical properties of molybdenum the terms of strategy of decline of its negative influence on superficial currents in the conditions of productive mining complex activity have been defined

  3. The Central Iberian arc, an orocline centered in the Iberian Massif and some implications for the Variscan belt (United States)

    Martínez Catalán, José R.


    An arcuate structure, comparable in size with the Ibero-Armorican arc, is delineated by Variscan folds and magnetic anomalies in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif. Called the Central Iberian arc, its sense of curvature is opposite to that of the Ibero-Armorican arc, and its core is occupied by the Galicia-Trás-os-Montes Zone of NW Iberia, which includes the Rheic suture. Other zones of the Iberian Massif are bent by the arc, but the Ossa-Morena and South Portuguese zones are not involved. The arc formed during the Late Carboniferous, at final stages of thermal relaxation and collapse, and an origin related with right-lateral ductile transpression at the scale of the Variscan belt is proposed. The Central Iberian arc explains the width of the Central Iberian Zone, clarifies the position of the allochthonous terranes of NW Iberia, and opens new perspectives for correlations with the rest of the Variscan belt, in particular, with the Armorican Massif, whose central zone represents the continuation of the southwest branch of the arc detached by strike-slip tectonics.

  4. Platinum group element mineralization of the Svetly Bor and Veresovy Bor clinopyroxenite-dunite massifs, Middle Urals, Russia (United States)

    Stepanov, S. Yu.; Malitch, K. N.; Kozlov, A. V.; Badanina, I. Yu; Antonov, A. V.


    The new data for the geology and mineralogy of the platinum group element (PGE) mineralization related to the chromite-platinum ore zones within the dunite of the Svetly Bor and Veresovy Bor massifs in the Middle Urals are discussed. The geological setting of the chromite-platinum ore zones, their platinum content, compositional and morphological features of the platinum group minerals (PGM) are compared to those within the Nizhny Tagil massif, the world standard of the zonal complexes in the Platinum Ural belt. The chromite-platinum orebodies are spatially related to the contacts between differently granular dunites. Majority of PGM are formed by Pt-Fe alloys that are close in terms of stoichiometry to isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe), and associated with Os-Ir alloys, Ru-Os and Ir-Rh sulfides, and Ir-Rh thiospinels of the cuproiridsite-cuprorhodsite-ferrorhodsite solid solution. The tetraferroplatinum (PtFe)-tulameenite (PtFe0.5Cu0.5) solid solution and Pt-Cu alloys belong to the later PGM assemblage. The established features of the chromite-platinum ore zones testify to the highly probable identification of the PGE mineralization within the dunite of the Svetly Bor and Vesesovy Bor massifs and could be used in prospecting and exploration for platinum.

  5. Lower Pliensbachian caldera volcanism in high-obliquity rift systems in the western North Patagonian Massif, Argentina (United States)

    Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel; Strazzere, Leonardo; Falco, Juan I.; Dristas, Jorge A.


    In the Cerro Carro Quebrado and Cerro Catri Cura area, located at the border between the Neuquén Basin and the North Patagonian Massif, the Garamilla Formation is composed of four volcanic stages: 1) andesitic lava-flows related to the beginning of the volcanic system; 2) basal massive lithic breccias that represent the caldera collapse; 3) voluminous, coarse-crystal rich massive lava-like ignimbrites related to multiple, steady eruptions that represent the principal infill of the system; and, finally 4) domes, dykes, lava flows, and lava domes of rhyolitic composition indicative of a post-collapse stage. The analysis of the regional and local structures, as well as, the architectures of the volcanic facies, indicates the existence of a highly oblique rift, with its principal extensional strain in an NNE-SSW direction (˜N10°). The analyzed rocks are mainly high-potassium dacites and rhyolites with trace and RE elements contents of an intraplate signature. The age of these rocks (189 ± 0.76 Ma) agree well with other volcanic sequences of the western North Patagonian Massif, as well as, the Neuquén Basin, indicating that Pliensbachian magmatism was widespread in both regions. The age is also coincident with phase 1 of volcanism of the eastern North Patagonia Massif (188-178 Ma) represented by ignimbrites, domes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Marifil Complex, related to intraplate magmatism.

  6. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia) (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.


    In the northwestern part of Anatolia along the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone, the Kazdağ and Uludağ metamorphic massifs form an E-W trending belt between the Sakarya Continent in the north and the Menderes Massif in the south. Internal succession of these two massifs have been described as metamorphic complexes consisting of various kinds of micaschists, quartz mica schist, gneisses, amphibolites and marbles. In the Kazdağ metamorphics, metaophiolites have been described additionally (Okay et al., 1991; Yaltırak and Okay, 1994; Okay et al., 1996; Duru et al., 2004). These metamorphic complexes were considered to form the basement of the Sakarya Continent tectonically overlain by the Early Permian (Topuz et al., 2004) to Late Triassic (Okay and Monie, 1997; Okay et al., 2002) Karakaya Complex. This old basement and the Karakaya Complex were suggested to be unconformably overlain by Liassic and younger platform limestones and detritals (Altıner et al., 1991). In the literature, it has also been suggested that the Kazdağ Massif had experienced polyphase metamorphism, first during Carboniferous time, second during Early Triassic and third during Tertiary (Bingöl, 1971; Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Satır, 2000). In this study we mapped the Kazdağ Massif on 1/25000 scale, studied its internal stratigraphy and structures and performed some petrologic analyses and radiogenic age determinations. Stratigraphically in the lower part of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence, there is a part of an oceanic crust represented by metaultramafic rocks and gabbroic metacumulates. Geochemistry of these banded metagabbros show a mid-oceanic affinity. This oceanic crust is overlain, along an unconformity, by a platform type marble succession. At the base of the marbles, there is a basal conglomerate, clasts of which derived from the underlying ultramafic sequence. Thick white marble sequence is overlain along a gradational boundary with a metadetrital succession consisting of quartz mica

  7. Late Carboniferous remagnetisation of Palaeozoic rocks in the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany (United States)

    Zwing, A.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    During stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetisation experiments on Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonate and clastic rocks from the north-eastern part of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, three components of magnetisation (A, B, C) are identified. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the local present day geomagnetic field. Component B is mainly observed from 260 up to 550 °C during thermal demagnetisation and is carried by magnetite. In two localities, where red siltstones and red carbonate rocks were sampled, component B is stable up to 670 °C, indicating the presence of hematite. Three clusters of in situ B directions can be identified, which are controlled by the tectonic position of the sampling areas. These are from NW to SE: the Remscheid anticline (RA), the Lüdenscheid syncline (LS) and the Attendorn and Wittgenstein synclines (AS/WS). Standard and inclination-only fold tests, using parametric resampling, yield optimal statistical parameters at increasing amounts of untilting ranging from 0% in the South up to 57% in the North of the NE Rhenish Massif. Despite the variations in optimal untilting, the resulting site mean directions of component B do not differ significantly in inclination. These results are interpreted to reflect the acquisition of magnetisation during progressive northward migration of the deformation front in Late Carboniferous times. The resulting palaeolatitudes (RA: 1°S +2°-3°; LS: 2°S +3°-2°; AS/WS: 1°S +3°-4°) are in good agreement with the predicted position of the sampling area in the Late Carboniferous, as derived from a published Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica and Laurentia. The unblocking temperature spectra and the synfolding nature of B yield strong evidence that chemical processes, possibly driven by fluid migration during orogenesis, caused this remagnetisation. A third component C was observed in zones of tight folding with steeply dipping to overturned bedding planes and is

  8. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai


    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  9. Ductile deformation of garnet in mylonitic gneisses from the Münchberg Massif (Germany) (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Axel; Pawlowski, Jan; Leiss, Bernd; Heinrichs, Till; Seidel, Madlen; Kronz, Andreas


    Mylonitic gneisses from the Münchberg Massif contain single grains (type I) and polycrystalline aggregates (type II) of garnet displaying a distinct elongation parallel to a macroscopic lineation which is interpreted as the result of ductile deformation. Lattice-preferred orientations of quartz (textures) symmetrical to the macroscopic foliation and lineation and the lack of rotational microfabrics indicate that the bulk deformation was pure shear at least during the latest strain increments. Garnet textures measured by EBSD together with microprobe analyses demonstrate that these two structural types of garnet can be related to two different processes of ductile deformation: (1) For the single grains stretching can be attributed to diffusion creep along grain boundary zones (Coble creep). The related mass transfer is indicated by the fact that primary growth zones are cut off at the long faces of the grains while the related strain shadow domains do not show comparable chemical zoning. Pressure solution and precipitation suitable to produce similar structures can be largely ruled out because retrogressive reactions pointing to the presence of free hydrous fluids are missing. (2) For the polycrystalline garnet aggregates consisting of cores grading into fine-grained mantles, dislocation creep and associated rotation recrystallization can be assumed. Continuous lattice rotation from the core to the outer polycrystalline rim allow a determination of the related dominant slip systems which are {100} and equivalent systems according to the cubic lattice symmetry. The same holds for garnets which appear to be completely recrystallized. For this type of fine-grained aggregates an alternative nucleation model is discussed. Due to penetrative dislocation glide in connection with short range diffusion and the resulting lattice rotation, primary growth zones are strongly disturbed. Since for the considered rock unit of the Münchberg Massif peak metamorphic temperatures

  10. Dichotomy of The Messada Pluton, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: From Rifting to Subduction (United States)

    Vasilatos, Charalampos


    The Messada pluton is a mafic intrusion that is located about 12 km SW of Serres town, (Macedonia Greece) that intrudes the two mica, biotite and the augen gneisses of the Vertiskos formation (Serbo-Macedonian massif). The aim of this study is to investigate, define and evaluate the geochemical characteristics of the pluton in order to determine the geotectonic environment in which the parental magma has been formed. The Mesada pluton is a mid to coarse grained intrusion presenting petrographic variety from diorite and quartz diorite to tonalite and granodiorite. The variety in petrography reflects its chemical inhomogeneity in major and trace elements. It is suggested that parts of pluton have been formed by distinctly different types of magmas originated in diverse geotectonic settings. Those parts of quartz diorite and tonalite composition, present similar geochemical characteristics, LILE/HFSE ratios and negative Nb, but no Ti anomalies in their primitive mantle normalized trace elements spider grams. They exhibit higher HFS values than those of granodioritic composition. Moreover, their ORG normalized spider grams not only suggest that they have been evolved by a common parental magma, but also present the typical characteristics of a “crust dominated” within plate pluton that may have been formed in an early stage during rifting, prior to a subsequent subduction episode. This interpretation may be in accordance with the suggestion for the Gondwanian origin of the more silicic Triassic rift related meta-granites (e.g. Arnea plutonic complex) of the Serbo-Macedonian massif. In contrary; the parts of Mesada pluton of granodioritic composition, exhibit a calc-alkaline to high K calc-alkaline magmatic suite and present higher LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, related to a higher crustal component contribution for the magma genesis. Furthermore, their primitive mantle normalized spider grams’ present negative anomalies at Nb and Ti. These characteristics

  11. Differential denudations of the Argentera Alpine external crystalline massif (SE France) revealed by fission track thermo-chronology (zircons, apatites); Denudations differentielles du massif cristallin externe alpin de l'Argentera (Sud-Est de la France) revelees par thermochronologie traces de fission (apatites, zircons)

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    Bigot-Cormier, F.; Sosson, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-UMR 6526), Geosciences Azur, 06 - Valbonne (France); Poupeau, G. [Maison des Geosciences, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    A fission track thermo-chronological study of the Argentera external crystalline massif (western Alps) reveals tectonic blocks with differential vertical motions. The northwest area cooled down about 300 deg. C from the Upper Cretaceous and the remaining of the massif crossed the 250 deg. C isotherm in the 29-20 Ma time interval, after the internal nappe over-thrust. Moreover the massif cooled below 120 deg. C more than 12.5 Ma ago and its denudation rate increased locally 6 Ma ago and more generally since 3.5 Ma in relation with the reverse motion along the Bersezio fault. (authors)

  12. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil (United States)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros


    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  13. The Thermal Regime of Air in the Rarău Massif

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    Mihailescu Catalin Mihai


    Full Text Available The air temperature variability and locally global warming impact, in the North Eastern Carpathians, have analyzed, namely in the high area of the Massif Rarău, as the environmental implications of these changes. Also taking into account the touristic potential of this area, some aspects of thermal regime change have been highlighted, with implications for tourism. For this study the string climate data have been used from the meteorological station Rarău, currently belonging to the Faculty of Geography and Geology, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The yearly average of air temperature at the meteorological station Rarău was 2.5°C over the period 1958-2015. The annual variations were from -1.3°C in comparition with the annual average in 1980 to +1.7°C in 2015. The lowest monthly average was in January, 6.7°C, the highest in July, 11.8°C and annual average amplitude was 18.5°C.

  14. Palaeostress perturbations near the El Castillo de las Guardas fault (SW Iberian Massif) (United States)

    García-Navarro, Encarnación; Fernández, Carlos


    Use of stress inversion methods on faults measured at 33 sites located at the northwestern part of the South Portuguese Zone (Variscan Iberian Massif), and analysis of the basic dyke attitude at this same region, has revealed a prominent perturbation of the stress trajectories around some large, crustal-scale faults, like the El Castillo de las Guardas fault. The results are compared with the predictions of theoretical models of palaeostress deviations near master faults. According to this comparison, the El Castillo de las Guardas fault, an old structure that probably reversed several times its slip sense, can be considered as a sinistral strike-slip fault during the Moscovian. These results also point out the main shortcomings that still hinder a rigorous quantitative use of the theoretical models of stress perturbations around major faults: the spatial variation in the parameters governing the brittle behaviour of the continental crust, and the possibility of oblique slip along outcrop-scale faults in regions subjected to general, non-plane strain.

  15. The Montagne Noire migmatitic dome emplacement (French Massif Central): new insights from petrofabric and AMS studies (United States)

    Charles, Nicolas; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan


    In the southern French Massif Central, the Montagne Noire axial zone is a NE-SW elongated granite-migmatite dome emplaced within Visean south-verging recumbent folds and intruded by syn- to late-migmatization granitoids. The tectonic setting of this dome is still disputed, thus several models have been proposed. In order to better understand the emplacement mechanism of this dome, petrofabric and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) studies have been carried out. In the granites and migmatites that form the dome core, magmatic texture and to a lesser extent weak solid-state texture are dominant. As a paramagnetic mineral, biotite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of 135 AMS sites, the magnetic fabrics appear as independent of the lithology but related to the dome architecture. Coupling our results with previous structural and geochronological studies, allows us to propose a new emplacement model. Between 340-325 Ma, the Palaeozoic series underwent a compressional deformation represented by nappes and recumbent folds involving the thermal event leading to partial melting. Until ˜325-310 Ma, the dome emplacement was assisted by diapiric processes. An extensional event took place at ˜300 Ma, after the emplacement of the late to post-migmatitic granitic plutons. In the northeast side of the dome, a brittle normal-dextral faulting controlled the opening of the Graissessac coal basin.

  16. Spatial variability in channel and slope morphology within the Ardennes Massif, and its link with tectonics

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    N. Sougnez


    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 years. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This work focuses on a wide range of slope and river channel morphometric indices to study their behavior and strength in regions affected by low to moderate tectonic activity. We selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm year−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our data indicate that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronous, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  17. Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet from UHPM rocks (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan). (United States)

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Dieing, Thomas; Golovin, Aleksandr V; Toporski, Jan


    Confocal Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-grade metamorphic calc-silicate rocks from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan) reveals that these fluid inclusions consist of almost pure water with different step-daughter phases (e.g., calcite, mica and rare quartz). These fluid inclusions are characterized by negative crystal shape of the host-garnet and they exclusively occur within the core of garnet porphyroblasts. These observations are consistent with their primary origin, most likely at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. The euhedral newly formed garnet, different in color and composition, was found to be associated with these fluid inclusions. It is proposed that newly formed garnet and water fluid inclusions appear by reaction between the hydrous fluid and the garnet-host. These fluid inclusions provide an unequivocal record of almost pure H(2)O fluids, indicating water-saturated conditions within subducted continental crust during prograde stage and/or ultrahigh-P metamorphism.

  18. IODP Expedition 340T: Borehole Logging at Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

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    Donna Blackman


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 340T returned to the 1.4-km-deep Hole U1309D at Atlantis Massif to carry out borehole logging including vertical seismic profiling (VSP. Seismic, resistivity, and temperature logs were obtained throughout the geologic section in the footwall of this oceanic core complex. Reliable downhole temperature measurements throughout and the first seismic coverage of the 800–1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf portionof the section were obtained. Distinct changes in velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility characterize the boundaries of altered, olivine-rich troctolite intervals within the otherwise dominantly gabbroic se-quence. Some narrow fault zones also are associated with downhole resistivity or velocity excursions. Small deviations in temperature were measured in borehole fluid adjacent to known faults at 750 mbsf and 1100 mbsf. This suggests that flow of seawater remains active along these zones of faulting and rock alteration. Vertical seismic profile station coverage at zero offsetnow extends the full length of the hole, including the uppermost 150 mbsf, where detachment processes are expected to have left their strongest imprint. Analysis of wallrock properties, together with alteration and structural characteristics of the cores from Site U1309, highlights the likely interplay between lithology, structure, lithospheric hydration, and core complex evolution.

  19. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps

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    S. Monnier


    Full Text Available We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR. The rock glacier is a young (probably <6000 yr and active landform. The GPR survey consisted of two CMP measurements and four constant-offset profiles. From CMP measurements, the radar wave velocity in exposed shallow massive ice is 0.165–0.17 m ns−1. The constant-offset GPR data was processed and analysed in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy and model the radar wave velocity in two dimensions. The integration of the morphology, the velocity models, and the stratigraphy emphasized, in the upper half of the rock glacier, the good correspondence between high radar wave velocities (>0.15–0.16 m ns−1 and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of a glacial massive ice core embedded into diamictons. Our study of the Sachette rock glacier highlights possible significance of rock glaciers and interactions between glacier and permafrost in alpine environments.

  20. Time scales of regional circulation of saline fluids in continental aquifers (Armorican massif, Western France

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    A. Armandine Les Landes


    Full Text Available In recent decades, saline fluids have been sampled worldwide at great depths in continental basements. Although some of them have been attributed to marine transgressions the mechanisms allowing their circulation is not understood. In this paper, we describe the horizontal and vertical distribution of moderately saline fluids (60 to 1400 mg L−1 sampled at depths ranging from 41 to 200 m in aquifers at the regional scale of the Armorican Massif (northwestern France. The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations are in good agreement with both the altitudinal and vertical limits and succession of the three major transgressions between the Mio-Pliocene and Pleistocene ages. The mean chloride concentration for each transgression area is exponentially related to the time spanned until present. It defines the potential laws of leaching of marine waters by fresh meteoric waters. The results of the Armorican aquifers provide the first observed constraints for the time scales of seawater circulation in the continental basement and the subsequent leaching by fresh meteoric waters. The general trend of increasing chloride concentration with depth and the time frame for the flushing process provide useful information to develop conceptual models of the paleo-functionning of Armorican aquifers.

  1. Re-evaluation of lead isotopic data, southern Massif Central, France (United States)

    Sinclair, A. J.; Macquar, J. C.; Rouvier, H.


    Three independent Pb isotope homogenizing processes operating on large volumes of rock material during limited intervals in the Phanerozoic have been used to define a unique evolutionary curve for rock and ore lead isotopic compositions of the southern Massif Central, France. The model is 126_2004_Article_BF00196336_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered}{text{ x}}_{text{t}} = 18.641{text{ }} - {text{ 9}}{text{.56(e}}^{{text{L1*t}}} - 1{text{)}} {text{y}}_{text{t}} = 15.678{text{ }} - {text{ 0}}{text{.06934(e}}^{{text{L2*t}}} - 1{text{)}} {text{ z}}_{text{t}} = 38.701{text{ }} - {text{ 30}}{text{.8(e}}^{{text{L3*t}}} - 1{text{)}} where xt, yt and zt are the calculated isotopic ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb respectively) at time t years ago and L1, L2 and L3 are the decay constants of 238U, 235U and 232Th respectively. The model gives the following ages for averages of the three sets of data used in its generation: age of mineralization for carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ore of Les Malines, ca. 150 Ma; emplacement of the Saint-Guiral-Liron granite, ca. 290 Ma; and an estimated average age of a group of Cambrian syngenetic deposits, ca. 520 Ma. These ages are in close agreement with ages determined by independent methods.

  2. Nature of radioactive contamination of components of ecosystems of streamflows from tunnels of Degelen massif. (United States)

    Panitskiy, A V; Lukashenko, S N


    The paper provides data on environmental contamination due to radionuclides' migration with water. As a result of investigations there was obtained data on character of contamination of soil cover, surface water and underflow from tunnels of Degelen massif. Character of radionuclides' spatial distribution in environment was also shown. Mobility ranges of radionuclides' vertical and horizontal movements have been established in soils both across and along the stream flow. There was also shown a possibility to forecast radionuclides' concentration in soil by specific activity of these radionuclides in water. Different concentrations of radionuclides in associated components of the ecosystem (surface waters - ground waters - soils) have shown disequilibrium of their condition in this system. Generalization of investigation results for tunnel water streams' with water inflows, chosen as investigation objects in this work, allows to forecast radionuclides' behavior in meadow soils and other ecosystems of water streams from tunnels of Degelen test site. Based on analysis of curves, describing radionuclides' behavior in horizontal direction, we can forecast, that at this stage (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu would not be distributed more than 1.5 km from the access to the daylight surface, (90)Sr - not more than 2 km. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Raman mapping of coesite inclusions in garnet from the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan). (United States)

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Hutsebaut, Didier; Theunissen, Karel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stepanov, Alexander S


    Coesite inclusions occur in a wide range of lithologies and coesite is therefore a powerful ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) indicator. The transformation of coesite to quartz is evidenced by three optically well identifiable characteristics (e.g. palisade textures, radial crack patterns, polycrystalline quartz pseudomorphs). Under overpressure monomineralic coesite (on an optical basis), lacking the above transformation characteristics may survive. Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on monomineralic coesite inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-bearing garnet-clinozoisite-biotite gneisses of the Barchi-Kol area (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan). These coesite inclusions are euhedral and display a characteristic anisotropic hallo. However, Raman maps and separate spectra of these inclusions display shifted bands for coesite and quartz. Microscopically undetectable, quartz shows on the Raman map as a thin shell around coesite inclusion. Shift of the main coesite band allows to estimate their overpressure: coesite inclusions record 0-2.4 GPa in garnet and zircon. The quartz shell remains under lower pressure 0-1.6 GPa. The possible application of coesite and quartz Raman geobarometers for UHP metamorphic rocks is discussed.

  4. A large and complete Jurassic geothermal field at Claudia, Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz, Argentina (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.


    Late Jurassic geothermal deposits at Claudia, Argentinean Patagonia, are among the largest (40 km2) and most varied in the Deseado Massif, a 60,000 km2 volcanic province hosting precious metals (Au, Ag) mineralization generated during diffuse back arc spreading and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Both siliceous sinter and travertine occur in the same stratigraphic sequence. Deposits range from those interpreted as fluvially reworked hydrothermal silica gels, to extensive apron terraces, to a clustering of high-temperature subaerial vent mounds. Paleoenvironmentally diagnostic textures of sinters include wavy laminated, bubble mat and nodular fabrics, and for travertines comprise fossil terracette rims, wavy laminated, bubble mat, spherulitic, oncoidal, and peloidal fabrics. Of special note is the presence of relatively large (to 25 cm high), inferred subaqueous "Conophyton" structures in travertines, which serve as analogs for some Precambrian stromatolites and imply the presence of relatively deep pools maintained by voluminous spring discharges. The Claudia geothermal field is geographically and geologically linked to the Cerro Vanguardia epithermal project (total resource of ~ 7.8 million ounces Au equivalent) via proximity, similar veins, and structural linkages, making it an especially large and relevant prospect for the region. The combined Claudia-Cerro Vanguardia hydrothermal system likely represents a fortuitous alignment of focused fluid flow and structure conducive to forming a giant epithermal ore deposit, with respect to size, ore concentration and potentially duration, in the Late Jurassic of Patagonia.

  5. First insights on the molybdenum-copper Bled M'Dena complex (Eglab massif, Algeria) (United States)

    Lagraa, Karima; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Debat, Pierre; Kolli, Omar


    Molybdenum-Copper showings in the Eglab massif (eastern part of the Reguibat rise of Algeria), are found in quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite of the Bled M'Dena complex, a Paleoproterozoic circular structure of ∼5 km in diameter, comprising volcanic and intrusive suites. The latter consist of quartz-diorite, quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite with a metaluminous normative composition. They display an "adakitic character" with moderate light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment, minor Eu anomalies, high Sr/Y ratio and low Yb concentration, suggestive of a hydrous, arc magma of volcanic-arc affinity. The mineralization occurs mostly in quartz + molybdenite + chalcopyrite stockwork veins marked by widespread propylitic alteration along the selvages. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are commonly associated with calcite, which precipitated at relatively late stages of the hydrothermal alteration. Fluid inclusions related to the mineralization stage, range from aqueous to aqueous-carbonic to solid bearing. The latter inclusions have the highest homogenization temperature (up to ∼400 °C), are salt saturated, and commonly contain molybdenite and/or chalcopyrite crystals. The petrology and geochemistry of the host rocks, the style of the hydrothermal alteration, the ore mineral associations, and the characteristics of the fluid inclusions, are all coherent in indicating that the Bled M'Dena represents a Paleoproterozoic porphyry style Mo mineralization, which is far unreported in the African continent.

  6. Use of a garbage dump by some mammal species in the Majella massif (Abruzzo, Italy

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    Aldo Martina


    Full Text Available Abstract In several previous works the presence of urban solid wastes in the feeding habits of some animal species has been documented. This study was carried out to discover which species visit a rubbish dump located in an area of the Majella massif. Monthly nightime direct observations, from September 1990 to May 1992, revealed the presence of dogs Canis [lupus] familiaris, domestic cats Felis [silvestris] catus, wolves Canis lupus and red foxes Vulpes vulpes. The fox was the most frequently observed species. Fox visits to the dump were distributed more continuously during the entire period of the study then the other species. An "asymmetry analysis" was carried out to find out the animals' favourite time to use the dump. The analysis produced time lag values of 02:00 A.M. to 05:00 A.M. The wolf was observed the least. During the monthly observations a similar trend between the cat and wolf came to light. The two species also visited the dump at similar times (wolf: 07:00-11:00 P.M.; cat: 05:00-10:00 P.M.. Dog visits to the dump were less continuous in comparison with other species: no preferred time was revealed. Some environmental factors, related to the geographical area and management of the dump limited waste availability. This probably had an effect on the presence of the animals.

  7. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs (United States)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.


    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of less than 1 mm fines and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% Incompatible-Trace-Element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm - 4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31 % agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass- weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their

  8. Rb-Sr middle Devonian age of cordierite bearing migmatites from Lyonnais area (French Massif Central). Age Rb-Sr, Devonien moyen des migmatites a cordierite du Lyonnais (Massif central Francais)

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    Duthou, J.L. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Chenevoy, M.; Gay, M. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))


    On the basis of Rb-Sr whole rock data, a middle Devonian age (384[+-]16 Ma) is ascribed to the cordierite bearing migmatites (gneiss d'Aubusson) in the Lyonnais area. In the barrovian domain, this anatexis is therefore synchronous throughout the northern part of the french ''Massif Central''. Rb and Sr concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and isotopic compositions by mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 28 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  9. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria); Metamorphisme miocene de granites panafricains dans le massif de l`Edough (Nord-Est de l`Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammor, D. [Universite d`Annaba, El Hadjar Annaba (Algeria). Dept. de Geologie; Lancelot, J. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique


    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595{+-} My and 606{+-}55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18{+-} My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors) 18 refs.

  10. Dirty or Tidy ? Contrasting peraluminous granites in a collapsing Orogen: Examples from the French Massif Central (United States)

    Villaros, Arnaud; Pichavant, Michel; Moyen, Jean-François; Cuney, Michel; Deveaud, Sarah; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie


    Post collisional collapse commonly enhances crustal melting. Such melting typically produces peraluminous granitic magmas. In the French Massif Central, a mid-crustal segment of the western Variscan belt, two large granitic bodies were produced during the collapse of the Variscan Belt. The St Sylvestre Leucogranitic Complex (SSyL) in the western part of the Massif Central and the Velay Migmatitic Complex (VMC) in the Eastern part. Although these two complexes are formed in similar geodynamic context they present meaningful petrological and geochemical differences. The VMC (~305 Ma) is clearly intrusive in migmatitic terranes. The migmatitic host recorded two successive melting events M3 (720 °C and 5kb) dated between 335 and 315 Ma and M4 (850°C and 4 kb) dated at 305 Ma. The compositions of the VMC are strictly H2O-undersaturated and ranges from leucogranitic to granodioritic. Three main successive granite types have been distinguished (1) A heterogeneous banded biotite granite, (2) A main biotite-cordierite granite, where cordierite can be prismatic, as cockade or pseudomorphic (3) a late magmatic with large K-feldspar phenocryst and prismatic cordierite. The compositions of the VMC granites are quite similar to typical Australian S-type granites in the sense that they also show a positive correlation between ferromagnesian abundance and aluminosity. The SSyL (~320 Ma) is intrusive in upper greenschist facies to upper amphibolite migmatitic metasediment and orthogneiss (~3kb). The compositional variety observed in the SSyL suggests a continuous trend from a moderately mafic, peraluminous magma (cd- and sill- granite) to a H2O saturated granite ("two-mica" granite) facies and finally to an extremely felsic, H2O-saturated magma. Three granitic units have been recognized in the SSyL: (1) the western "Brame Unit" composed of the less evolved cd- and sill- granite facies (2) the central "St Sylvestre Unit", composed mainly by U-rich two-mica granite, intruded by two

  11. The magmatic history of the Vetas-California mining district, Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia (United States)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Valencia, Víctor; Hart, Craig J. R.


    The Vetas-California Mining District (VCMD), located in the central part of the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera), based on U-Pb dating of zircons, records the following principal tectono-magmatic events: (1) the Grenville Orogenic event and high grade metamorphism and migmatitization between ˜1240 and 957 Ma; (2) early Ordovician calc-alkalic magmatism, which was synchronous with the Caparonensis-Famatinian Orogeny (˜477 Ma); (3) middle to late Ordovician post-collisional calc-alkalic magmatism (˜466-436 Ma); (4) late Triassic to early Jurassic magmatism between ˜204 and 196 Ma, characterized by both S- and I-type calc-alkalic intrusions and; (5) a late Miocene shallowly emplaced intermediate calc-alkaline intrusions (10.9 ± 0.2 and 8.4 ± 0.2 Ma). The presence of even younger igneous rocks is possible, given the widespread magmatic-hydrothermal alteration affecting all rock units in the area. The igneous rocks from the late Triassic-early Jurassic magmatic episodes are the volumetrically most important igneous rocks in the study area and in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. They can be divided into three groups based on their field relationships, whole rock geochemistry and geochronology. These are early leucogranites herein termed Alaskites-I (204-199 Ma), Intermediate rocks (199-198 Ma), and late leucogranites, herein referred to as Alaskites-II (198-196 Ma). This Mesozoic magmatism is reflecting subtle changes in the crustal stress in a setting above an oblique subduction of the Panthalassa plate beneath Pangea. The lower Cretaceous siliciclastic Tambor Formation has detrital zircons of the same age populations as the metamorphic and igneous rocks present in the study area, suggesting that the provenance is related to the erosion of these local rocks during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous, implying a local supply of sediments to the local depositional basins.

  12. High-pressure metamorphism in the Early Variscan subduction complex of the SW Iberian Massif (United States)

    Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Matas, Jerónimo; Martín Parra, Luis M.


    Several units exposed in the boundary area of the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ) preserve petrographic and thermobarometric evidence for an early metamorphic episode (M1), developed under a high-P, low to intermediate-T gradient, related to Early Variscan subduction in the SW Iberian Massif. In the OMZ, these are the Cubito-Moura Unit (Pmin ~ 9.2 kbar and T = 395 ± 45 °C), blueschists from its basal mélange (Pmin ~ 12.4 kbar and T = 310 ± 11 °C), and the underlying Fuenteheridos Group (P = 10.9 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 449 ± 31 °C). The equivalent units in the SPZ are the La Minilla Formation (P = 8.7 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 388 ± 16 °C) and the lawsonite pseudomorphs-bearing Pulo do Lobo Formation. All these units formed part of an approximately NE verging orogenic wedge (present coordinates) developed by the accretion of subducted slabs of the outermost margin of Gondwana and other elements of the Rheic Ocean realm, from at least the Middle Devonian to the lowermost Tournaisian. High-pressure rocks were subsequently emplaced on more internal zones of the OMZ that only experienced a younger high-T, low to intermediate-P metamorphism (M2). This high-T event was coeval with magmatic activity from the uppermost Devonian to the Middle Mississippian, probably as a consequence of transtensional lithospheric thinning and/or delamination of the lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the Gondwana margin. Pre-Late Devonian synorogenic sedimentation in forearc and back-arc basins of the subduction complex evolved to a Late Devonian-Middle Mississippian foreland basin system in early collisional stages. Finally, a new Middle-Late Mississippian fold-and-thrust belt with opposite (SW) vergence and new foreland basins developed during late collisional stages.

  13. Alpine thermal events in the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (southeastern Serbia) (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Wetzel, Andreas; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht


    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a crystalline belt situated between the two diverging branches of the Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system, the northeast-vergent Carpatho-Balkanides and the southwest-vergent Dinarides and the Hellenides. We have applied fission-track analysis on apatites and zircons, coupled with structural field observations in order to reveal the low-temperature evolution of the SMM. Additionally, the age and geochemistry of the Palaeogene igneous rocks (i.e. Surdulica granodiorite and dacitic volcanic rocks) were determined by the LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology of zircons and geochemical analysis of main and trace elements in whole-rock samples. Three major cooling stages have been distinguished from the late Early Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The first stage represents rapid cooling through the partial annealing zones of zircon and apatite (300-60 °C) during the late Early to early Late Cretaceous (ca. 110-ca. 90 Ma). It is related to a post-orogenic extension following the regional nappe-stacking event in the Early Cretaceous. Middle to late Eocene (ca. 48-ca. 39 Ma) cooling is related to the formation of the Crnook-Osogovo-Lisets extensional dome and its exhumation along low-angle normal faults. The third event is related to regional cooling following the late Eocene magmatic pulse. During this pulse, the areas surrounding the Surdulica granodiorite (36 ± 1 Ma) and the slightly younger volcanic bodies (ca. 35 Ma) have reached temperatures higher than the apatite closure temperature (120 °C) but lower than ca. 250 °C. The geochemistry of the igneous samples reveals late- to post-orogenic tectonic setting during magma generation.

  14. Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene melilitic volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif: petrology and mineral chemistry

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    Skála Roman


    Full Text Available Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif represent the easternmost part of the Central European Volcanic Province. These alkaline volcanic series include rare melilitic rocks occurring as dykes, sills, scoria cones and flows. They occur in three volcanic periods: (i the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene period (80–59 Ma in northern Bohemia including adjacent territories of Saxony and Lusatia, (ii the Mid Eocene to Late Miocene (32.3–5.9 Ma period disseminated in the Ohře Rift, the Cheb–Domažlice Graben, Vogtland, and Silesia and (iii the Early to Late Pleistocene period (1.0–0.26 Ma in western Bohemia. Melilitic magmas of the Eocene to Miocene and Pleistocene periods show a primitive mantle source [(143Nd/144Ndt=0.51280–0.51287; (87Sr/86Srt=0.7034–0.7038] while those of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene period display a broad scatter of Sr–Nd ratios. The (143Nd/144Ndt ratios (0.51272–0.51282 of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene rocks suggest a partly heterogeneous mantle source, and their (87Sr/86Srt ratios (0.7033–0.7049 point to an additional late- to post-magmatic hydrothermal contribution. Major rock-forming minerals include forsterite, diopside, melilite, nepheline, sodalite group minerals, phlogopite, Cr- and Ti-bearing spinels. Crystallization pressures and temperatures of clinopyroxene vary widely between ~1 to 2 GPa and between 1000 to 1200 °C, respectively. Nepheline crystallized at about 500 to 770 °C. Geochemical and isotopic similarities of these rocks occurring from the Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene suggest that they had similar mantle sources and similar processes of magma development by partial melting of a heterogeneous carbonatized mantle source.

  15. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil (United States)

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.


    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  16. Rockfall hazard assessment by means of the magnitude-frequency curves in the Montserrat Massif (central Catalonia, Spain): first insights (United States)

    Janeras, Marc; Domènech, Guillem; Pons, Judit; Prat, Elisabet; Buxó, Pere


    Montserrat Massif is located about 50 km North-West of Barcelona (Catalonia, North-Eastern Spain). The rock massif is constituted by an intercalation of conglomerate and fine layers of siltstones due to the Montserrat fan-delta sedimentation within the Eocene age. The current relief is consequence of the several depositional episodes and the later tectonic uplift, leading to stepped slopes up to 250 m high, and a total height difference close to 1000 m. Montserrat Mountain has been a pilgrimage place since the settlement of the monastery, around the year 1025, and a spot of touristic interest, mostly within the last 150 years, when the first rack railway was inaugurated to reach the sanctuary. The amount of 2.4 M visitors in 2014 reveals the potential risk derived from rockfalls. To assess and mitigate this risk, a plan funded by the Catalan government is currently under development. Three rockfall mechanisms and magnitude ranges have been identified (Janeras et al. 2011): 1) physicochemical weathering causing the detachment of pebbles and aggregates (0.0001 - 0.1 m3); 2) thermic-induced tensions responsible for the generation of slabs and plates (0.1 - 10 m3); and 3) intersection of structural joints within the rock mass resulting in blocks of 10 - 10,000 m3. In order to quantify the rockfall hazard, a magnitude-frequency analysis has been performed starting from an event-based inventory gathered from field surveillance and historical research. A methodology has been applied to take the maximum profit of only 30 registers with information on volume and date. The massif has been split into several domains with sampling homogeneity. For each one, there have been defined several periods of time during which, all the rockfall events of a given volume have been recorded. Thus, the magnitude-frequency relationship, for each domain, has been calculated. Results show that the curves are well fitted by a power law with exponents ranging from -0.59 to -0.68 for magnitudes

  17. Geometry and thermal structure of the Menderes Massif Core Complex (Western Turkey), implications for thermal evolution of Hellenic subduction zone (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Tuduri, Johann; Bouchot, Vincent; Beccaletto, Laurent; Lahfid, Abdeltif


    The eastern Mediterranean region is one of the most promising geothermal areas, with more than 250 geothermal fields discovered in Turkey (Parlaktuna, 2013), in a region of active tectonics and volcanism. Although the potential of these deep geothermal resources has not been systematically investigated yet, the geothermal activity of the western Turkey area is the most recent signature of the high heat flow (120-140 mW/m²; Aydin, 2005, from Teczan, 1995). Based on Turkish data, 2084 MWt are being utilized for direct applications and most of the energy originates from the Menderes Massif (Baba et al., 2015). This large-scale thermal anomaly at the surface is correlated to a long wavelength east-west increase of surface heat flow that could reflect the thermal state of Aegean subduction zone at depth. In order to better understand and characterize the possible connections between large-scale mantle dynamics and surface processes in space and time, we study the structure and thermal evolution of the Menderes Massif. Both the acceleration of the Aegean extension in the Middle Miocene and the recent escape of Anatolia have been proposed to result from several slab tearing events, the first one being located below western Turkey and the Eastern Aegean Sea. These events have triggered the formation of metamorphic complexes with contrasted exhumation P-T paths. While the extension in the Aegean domain is well-characterized with high-temperature domes in the center and east, the succession of several metamorphic events in the Menderes Massif and their significance in terms of geodynamics is still debated. Hence, the exhumation history is key to understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal signature of the Hellenic slab and its tearing/detachment. The Menderes Massif displays a large variety of metamorphic facies, from the Barrovian type metamorphism in the Eocene (the Main Menderes Metamorphism) to the coeval (?) HP-LT metamorphism on the southernmost

  18. Geological and geochemical reconnaissance in the central Santander Massif, Departments of Santander and Norte de Santander, Colombia (United States)

    Evans, James George


    The central Santander Massif is composed of Precambrian Bucaramanga Gneiss and pre-Devonian Silgara Formation intruded by Mesozoic quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and alaskite and Cretaceous or younger porphyry. Triassic (Bocas Formation), Jurassic (Jordan and Giron Formations).and Cretaceous (Tambor, Rosa Blanca, Paja, Tablazo, Simiti, La Luna, and Umir Formations) sedimentary rocks overlie the metamorphic rocks and are younger than most of the intrusions. A geological and geochemical reconnaissance of part of the central Santander Massif included the Vetas and California gold districts. At Vetas the gold is generally in brecciated aphanitic quartz and phyllonite. Dark-gray material in the ore may be graphite. The ore veins follow steep west-northwest- and north-northeast-striking fracture zones. No new gold deposits were found. Additional geochemical studies should concentrate on western Loma Pozo del Rey and on improvement of the gold extraction process. At California the gold is in pyritiferous quartz veins and quartz breccia. Ore containing black sooty material (graphite?) is highly radioactive. Some of the mineralization is post-Lower Cretaceous. Soil samples indicate that gold deposits lie under the thick blanket of soil on the ridges above the zone of mining. Three principal gold targets are outlined by gold and associated minerals in pan concentrates. The close relation of gold and copper anomalies suggests that copper may be useful as a pathfinder for gold elsewhere in the region. Based on occurrences of gold or high concentrations of pyrite or chalcopyrite in pan concentrates and on analytical data, eight potential gold targets are outlined in the central massif. Reconnaissance of the surrounding region is warranted.

  19. Geochemistry, geochronology, and cathodoluminescence imagery of the Salihli and Turgutlu granites (central Menderes Massif, Western Turkey): Implications for Aegean tectonics (United States)

    Catlos, E. J.; Baker, C.; Sorensen, S. S.; Çemen, I.; Hançer, M.


    The Menderes Massif (western Turkey) is an important metamorphic core complex located in the Aegean region; geochemical and geochronological data from this extensional domain facilitates our understanding of large-scale extension of the Earth's lithosphere. S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude the Alasehir detachment which bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the granites range from 21.7±4.5 Ma to 9.6±1.6 Ma (±1s). The range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) imagery that document complex textures within the samples. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase (some with shocked cores consistent with magma mixing), plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, clear evidence for fluid infiltration, and multiple generations of microcracks and microfaults. The granites may have evolved from compositionally distinct magma sources, as Salihli samples in general contain allanite as the major accessory mineral, whereas Turgutlu granites contain monazite. However, the CL imagery document similar alteration textures. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate a level of complexity when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to the large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth, and multiple episodes of deformation.

  20. Relationship between Bajo Pobre and Chon Aike formations (Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina):a melt inclusions study (United States)

    Busà, T.; Bellieni, G.; Fernandez, R.; Hecheveste, H.; Piccirillo, E. M.


    The Deseado Massif covers the centre-east of the Santa Cruz Province, in the extra-Andean Patagonia. Although the Deseado Massif is mainly composed of silicic volcanic rocks (Chon Aike Formation, CA; 151.5 ±0.5 - 177.8 ±0.4 Ma), mafic and intermediate volcanites (Bajo Pobre Formation, BP; 152.7 ±0.5 and 164 ±0.3 Ma) outcrop largely in the central part of the Massif. In this paper quarz-trapped melt inclusions (rhyolitic in composition) from selected samples of the BP and the CA are analysed. On the basis of major elements content, for BP the sequence from andesite (BP whole rock) to ryholite (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be modelled by simple fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz and apatite. As regards trace elements, a good calculated/measured ratio (around 1 ±0.2) is obtained assuming only a relatively high apatite fractionation. Since the apatite fractionation amount is not acceptable for major elements, the evolution of BP Formation cannot be modelled by a simple process of fractional crystallisation, and a contamination process probably occurred. The sequence from BP to CA cannot be modelled by fractional crystallisation. 30% batch melting of BP andesite (BP whole rock) produces a magma from which the CA ryholites (trapped as inclusions in quartz) can be obtained by Rayleigh fractional crystallisation of ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, quartz, apatite and small amounts of zircon and minor allanite. Since the latter one was not observed in the analysed sample, a contamination process during magma evolution cannot be completely excluded. Finally, on the basis of the different trace elements concentration (Nb anomaly, different content in LILE, B/Be and B/Nb), it is possible to suppose that, at the time of the BP and CA emplacement, a changing in the tectonic setting, from subduction to a lithospheric extension, was active.

  1. Using remote sensing imagery and GIS to identify land cover and land use within Ceahlau Massif (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using remote sensing imagery and GIS to identify land cover and land use within Ceahlău Massif (Romania. In this study we considerer land cover and land use asessment within Ceahlău Massif (Romania using satellite imagery and GIS . To achieve this goal, we used a Landsat 7 ETM + satellite image, which was processed using specialized software in analyzing satellite images and GIS software in several stages:  Downloading, importing and layer stack of all spectral bands composing satellite image;  Establishment of areas of interest for each category of land cover and land use, which were digitized on - screen and for which spectral signatures characteristics were established;  Supervised image classification using Maximum Likelihood Method;  Importing the resulting m ap (raster in GIS environment and creating the final land cover/land use map for Ceahlău Massif. In the study area we identified nine land cover/land use classes: deciduous forests, mixed forests, coniferous forests, secondary grasslands, subalpine vegeta tion, alpine meadows, agricultural land, lakes and built area. By analizing the spatial distribution of these classes, it was found that forests are the best represented class, occupying an area of 188.4 km² (56.4% of total, followed by secondary grassl and, which occupies an area of 68.2 km² (20.4% of total, lakes (26.6 km² or 7.98% of total and agricultural land (16.1 km² or 4.86%

  2. La simulation stochastique des fractures pour évaluer l'incertitude géotechnique dans le cas d'un tunnel en massif rocheux



    Les massifs rocheux sont hétérogènes, discontinus et anisotropes. Le comportement mécanique d'un massif dépend fortement de la fracturation naturelle et de ses propriétés, qui doivent donc être prises en compte en particulier dans les travaux de creusement des ouvrages souterrains. On présente ici une application d'une méthodologie complète qui part de la géologie structurale d'un massif et arrive à la simulation géomécanique au voisinage d'un tunnel, en passant par l'analyse des données sur ...

  3. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.


    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  4. Research the dynamical characteristics of slow deformation waves as a rock massif response to explosions during its outworking (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg


    As a result of long-term natural geomechanics and geophysical observation data on mines of complex ore rocks, generalization of the non-linear reaction of rock massif to heavy dynamic influences have been established. In addition, pendulum type waves have been observed and the sources of them have been located inside geoblocks of different hierarchic levels (Oparin et al., 2010). At the same time, these waves propagate with wide low (compared with seismic waves) velocity values (Kurlenja et al., 1993; Oparin et al., 2006). Research into the massif state with the use of the dynamic systems theory approach (Naimark et al., 2009; Chulichkov, 2003; Hachay et al., 2010) has been developed to ascertain the criteria of dissipative regimes changing for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. To realize such research we used the data from the seismic record of the Tashtagol mine for the two-year period from June 2006 up to June 2008. We used the space-time coordinates for all dynamic massif event responses, which occurred during that period inside the mine space and for the explosions - values fixed by seismic station energy (Hachay et al., 2010). The phase diagrams of the massif state for the northern and southern parts of the mine space were plotted in coordinates Ev(t) and d(Ev(t))/dt, t - time - in parts of 24 hours, Ev - the dissipated massive seismic energy - in joules. Hachay et al., (2010) analysed the morphology of seismic response phase trajectories on the explosion influences during different serial intervals in the southern part of the mine. In that period, according to data for different explosions in the mine, the majority of the total energy had been injected into the southern part of the mine. Moreover, at the end of 2007, just in the southern part, the strongest rock burst during the whole history of the working mine happened. We developed a new processing method of seismological information in real, which we can use directly in the

  5. Les roches basiques et ultrabasiques des Lacs Robert et le Trias de Chamrousse (Massif de Belledonne) Etude petrologique et geologique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.


    La région que j’ai étudiée et relevée est située dans les Alpes françaises, à environ 4° longitude est et 50°15’ latitude nord, et à environ 2000 mètres d’altitude. Elle fait partie de la chaîne dite „chaîne de Belledonne” qui s’étend des massifs de Beaufort et du Grand Mont dans le N N E jusqu’à ce

  6. Sedimentary geology as a key to understanding the tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic-Early Tertiary Paikon Massif, Vardar suture zone, N Greece (United States)

    Brown, Sally A. M.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.


    This paper demonstrates how sedimentary evidence can provide a key to elucidating the regional tectonic and palaeoceanographic significance of a complex partly metamorphic terrane, in this case the Paikon Massif. The Paikon Massif is located centrally within the Vardar-Axios zone of N Greece and is critical to the reconstruction of Neotethys in the E Mediterranean region. The massif is here restored as a single tectono-stratigraphic unit of Jurassic to Early Tertiary age that originated along the margin of a continental unit known as the Serbo-Macedonian Zone. In this area, a Mesozoic oceanic basin, the Almopias Ocean, opened in the Triassic between the Serbo-Macedonian continent to the NE and another continental unit, the Pelagonian Zone, to the SW. Initial deep-water deposition along the northwesterly passive margin of the Almopias Ocean is represented within the Paikon Massif by metamorphosed redeposited carbonates and hemipelagic sediments (Gandatch Formation). Above, this the Jurassic Paikon Volcanic Group comprises two volcanogenic units of island arc-type (Livadia and Kastaneri Formations). The arc developed along the SW margin of the Serbo-Macedonian continent in response to NE subduction of the Almopias Ocean. The subduction also resulted in the opening of a related back-arc basin in Mid-Late Jurassic, represented by the Guevgueli ophiolite, now to the NE of the Paikon Massif. The massif underwent ductile deformation and inferred HP/LT metamorphism during Late Jurassic time, related to subduction beneath the Serbo-Macedonian active margin. Exhumation took place rapidly by Kimmeridgian time, followed by a shallow-water transgression (Khromni Limestones). Subsequent emergence and fluvial deposition (Ghrammos Formation) reflect a regional extensional or transtensional event. Following a marine transgression, influenced by eustatic sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence (Aptian-Albian), a carbonate platform developed throughout the Paikon Massif (Cretaceous

  7. Two-stage fluid flow and element transfers in shear zones during collision burial-exhumation cycle: Insights from the Mont Blanc Crystalline Massif (Western Alps) (United States)

    Rolland, Y.; Rossi, M.


    The Mont-Blanc Massif was intensely deformed during the Alpine orogenesis: in a first stage of prograde underthrusting at c. 30 Ma and in a second stage of uplift and exhumation at 22-11 Ma. Mid-crustal shear zones of 1 mm-50 m size, neighbouring episyenites (quartz-dissolved altered granite) and alpine veins, have localised intense fluid flow, which produced substantial changes in mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry. Four main metamorphic zones are oriented parallel to the strike of the massif: (i) epidote, (ii) chlorite, (iii) actinolite-muscovite ± biotite and (iv) muscovite ± biotite. In addition, phlogopite-bearing shear zones occur in the chlorite zone, and calcite-bearing shear zones are locally found in the muscovite zone. The initial chemical composition of the granitic protolith is relatively constant at massif scale, which allows investigating compositional changes related to shear zone activity, and subsequent volume change and elements mobility. The variations of whole-rock composition and mineral chemistry in shear zones reflect variations in fluid/rock ratios and fluid's chemistry, which have produced specific mineral reactions. Estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes are of the order of 106 m3/m2. The mineral assemblages that crystallised upon these fluid-P-T conditions are responsible for specific major and trace element enrichments. The XFe (Fe/Fe + Mg) pattern of shear zone phyllosilicates and the δ13C pattern of vein calcite both show a bell-type pattern across the massif with high values on the massif rims and low values in the centre of the massif. These low XFe and δ13C values are explained by down temperature up-flow of a Fe-Mg-CO2-rich and silica-depleted fluid during stage 1, while the massif was underthrusting. These produced phlogopite, chlorite and actinolite precipitation and quartz hydrolysis, resulting in strong volume losses. In contrast, during stage 2 (uplift), substantial volume gains occurred on the massif rims due to the

  8. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central'); Geologie et mineralisations uraniferes de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses - 92 (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur rappelle les observations faites au cours de l'etude geologique de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais). Puis se servant de differentes methodes, il etablit une chronologie des formations. Enfin, il termine par un essai de reconstitution de l'histoire geologique de ce bassin de subsidence. Dans la deuxieme partie, il commente la decouverte de 17 anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. Il situe ces differentes anomalies dans la serie stratigraphique. Ceci lui permet de replacer les depots successifs de l'uranium dans l'histoire de la plaine. Enfin, il indique l'interet de ces anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. (auteur)

  9. Cockade-textured cataclasite and silica gel from damage zone in carbonated ultramafics: markers of cycles of seismic activity? (United States)

    Scarsi, Marco; Crispini, Laura; Garofalo, Paolo; Capponi, Giovanni


    Shallow crustal processes occurring during seismic slips and generating fracture networks are of great interest due to their complex interplay with a spectrum of other geological processes . Our study focuses on faults with peculiar core textures, similar to those of "cockade breccia" (Genna et al., 1996) and "clast cortex grains" (Rempe et al., 2014), and on their relation with syntectonic hydrothermal alteration linked with Au bearing-quartz and chalcedony veins. Our work aims to study the enviromental conditions for the formation of such peculiar texture, their relation with the hydrothermal vein system and their potential as shallow seismic indicators. We present field, microstructural and petrochemical data of a peculiar damage zone of fault rocks located in carbonated peridotites and serpentinites of the Ligurian Alps (Voltri Massif, Italy). These are mainly reverse faults, which are coeval with syntectonic Au-bearing quartz veins and chalcedony veins (Giorza et al., 2010), in which lherzolites occupy the hangingwall of the faults and serpentinites the footwall. The fault rocks show evidence for carbonation, as olivine and serpentine are clearly transformed into an assemblage made of magnesite, dolomite and minor ankerite. The damage zones of the faults are serpentinite-rich and about 10 m in thickness, while the cataclasite cores are carbonate-rich and ca. 1 m thick. The top of the fault core shows the occurrence of a chalcedony shear veins with chatter marks and slikenlines on the surface. The "cockade breccia" is made of spherical aggregates of Fe-Mg carbonates and are 1 mm to 3 cm in size. These aggregates show cores of microcrystalline Fe-Mg carbonates, and concentric outer layers of relatively coarser Fe-Mg carbonates with radial or laminated texture. In some cases, these aggregates show evidence for rotation along secondary slip zones. We interpret all these features as the products of chemical interaction between the olivine and serpentine initially

  10. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France (United States)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel


    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  11. Research on isotope geology: Isotopes ages of volcanic rocks from Ryeongnam Massif, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung; Kim, Yoo Sook [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Chronostratigraphy of most volcanic rocks in the Ryeongnam Massif have been undefined or mis-classified in different geological maps due to total absence of reported isotope ages. Twenty-four new isotope ages are given for age-undefined volcanic units and some related igneous bodies. Most of volcanic rocks show high [La/Yb]n ratios and LREE enrichments which are characteristics of subduction-related high-K calc-alkali volcanic rocks occurred in the active continental margin. Preliminary results on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios({delta}{sup 13}C=-1.7{approx}-6.2 per mil; {delta}{sup 18} O=-21.6{approx}-24.7 per mil) of druse- or phenocryst-calcite from andesitic and basaltic rocks in the southern coastal region indicate a magmatic origin. Based on new K-Ar whole-rock ages, chronological guidelines are established as follows: 1) Gayasan andesite (78{+-}4Ma) - Gurye andesitic tuff (81{+-}4Ma); 2) Gurye andesite (68{+-}4Ma) - Suncheon andesitic tuff (67{+-}3Ma) - Yeosu basaltic andesite (67{+-}3Ma) - Narodo andesite (70{+-}3Ma); 3) Taebaeg Baegbyeongsan basaltic andesite (62{+-}3Ma) - Gurye Obongsan andesite (64{+-}3Ma) - Yeosu dacite (63{+-}3Ma) - Dolsando andesite (62{+-}3Ma) - Jangheung Buyongsan andesite (65{+-}3Ma); 4) Suncheon Joryedong andesite (55{+-}2Ma) - Goheung andesite (56{+-}3Ma); 5) Taebaeg Baegbyeonsan basaltic andesite (48{+-}2Ma) - Yeosu basalt (51{+-}3Ma). Resetted age (49{+-}2Ma) of an intrusive rhyolite implies the timing of thermal alteration in the Wondong Fe-Mine of the Taebaegsan Mineralized Belt. K-Ar hornblende ages of two hornblendite stocks in the southern Jangsu suggests apparent emplacement-ages of late Triassic (210{+-}9Ma) and early Permian (274{+-}10Ma), independently. K-Ar hornblende age (1023{+-}37Ma) of the Ogbang amphibolite implies a reduction of original age due to later thermal effect probably attributed to either later intrusion or regional metamorphism. (author). 56 refs., 19 tabs., 14 figs.

  12. Nanogranitoids in garnet clinopyroxenites of the Granulitgebirge (Bohemian Massif): evidence for metasomatism and partial melting? (United States)

    Borghini, Alessia; Ferrero, Silvio; Wunder, Bernd; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Ziemann, Martin A.


    Primary nanogranitoids occur in garnet from the garnet clinopyroxenites of the Granulitgebirge, Bohemian Massif. They form clusters in the inner part of the garnet, and may occur both as polycrystalline and glassy inclusions with size from 5 to 20 µm. Because of their random distribution in garnet these inclusions are interpreted as primary inclusions, thus formed during the growth of the garnet. Garnet does not show any major element zoning. Nanogranitoids were identified in garnet clinopyroxenites from two different locations and show slightly different mineral assemblages. Kumdykolite or albite, phlogopite, osumilite, kokchetavite and a variable amount of quartz occur in both locations. However, osumilite is more abundant in one locality and kokchetavite in the other. All these phases are identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Both assemblages are consistent with the origin of these inclusions as former droplets of melt. Nanogranitoids from one locality have been re-homogenized at 1000°C and 22 kbar to a hydrous glass of granodioritic/quartz-monzonitic composition in a piston cylinder apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions correspond to the formation of the host garnet (O'Brien & Rötzler, 2003) and thus of melt entrapment. Nanogranitoid-bearing garnet clinopyroxenites occur in bodies of serpentinized peridotites, hosted in turn in felsic granulites. The garnet clinopyroxenites show granoblastic texture dominated by garnet and clinopyroxene porphyroblasts with a variable amount of interstitial plagioclase, biotite, two generations of amphiboles (brown and green) and rutile and opaque minerals as accessories. The bulk rock composition is basic to intermediate, and the garnet chemistry varies from 24% Alm, 65% Prp and 11% Grs to 38% Alm, 36% Prp and 26 % Grs between one outcrop and the other. The origin of the investigated inclusions could be due to different processes: localized melting of metasomatized mafic rocks with simultaneous production of garnet or

  13. Microfracturing and fluid mixing in granites: W (Sn) ore deposition at Vaulry (NW French Massif Central) (United States)

    Vallance, Jean; Cathelineau, Michel; Marignac, Christian; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Fourcade, Serge; Martineau, François; Fabre, Cécile


    The Vaulry W-(Sn) mineralisation, located at the eastern boundary of the Blond rare metal leucogranite, is contained in a set of subvertical quartz veins, locally with muscovite and minor quartz selvages. The sequence of deposition was: (1) milky quartz, predominantly as fracture filling, generally affected by subsequent ductile deformation; (2) hyaline quartz-wolframite-cassiterite; (3) minor sulphides. Other sets of quartz veinlets, although generally barren are observed in the Blond massif. Fluid migration at the microscopic scale within the granite and in the vicinity of quartz fractures was constrained by studying the geometry of fluid-inclusion planes and fluid-inclusion chemistry in and outside the mineralised area. Three major sets of subvertical fluid-inclusion planes are recognised: a N050°-060°E set, mostly developed in the veins and in the immediate vicinity, a N110°-130°E set, regionally developed in the granite and a N140-160°E set of local extent. As a whole, the density of FIP decreases from the mineralised zones toward the barren part of the pluton, except for the N140°-160°E set. These are locally abundant around quartz veinlets with similar orientations that form a broad "N-S" band near the Blond locality. Mineralising fluids observed as primary inclusions in cassiterite and in undeformed hyaline quartz are mostly aqueous, with moderate salinity and a minor volatile component, at variance with many other W-(Sn) deposits in the Variscan belt. Ore deposition occurred around 315°C, at an estimated depth of 5.5 km, under hydrostatic to slightly suprahydrostatic pressures. It resulted from fluid mixing, in the central part of a large hydrothermal system, between two end-members: (i) a hot (425-430°C) moderately saline fluid, that contained a diluted volatile component and, although Na-dominated, minor amounts of Li and Ca. The estimated δ18O indicates that this fluid was completely equilibrated with the tectono-magmatic pile (pseudo

  14. Generation and evolution processes of Paleoproterozoic massive-type Sancheong anorthosite complex, Yeongnam massif, Korea (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Deok-Seon


    The Paleoproterozoic (˜1.87-1.79 Ga) Sancheong anorthosite complex in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, consists of massive-type and foliation-type Sancheong anorthosite (SA), Fe-Ti ore body (FTO), and mafic granulite (MG). We report their characteristics and interrelation on foliations, occurrences, lithofacies, composition minerals, suggesting the generation and evolution processes of the Sancheong anorthosite complex with the origin of their foliations. The main characteristics and interrelation are as follows: multilayer structures of FTO, straight-, anastomosing-, uneven-types FTO and MG veins derived from blocking associate with size reduction of SA, gradual or irregular boundaries of SA blocks, FTO and MG showing bulbous lobate margins and comb structures between SA blocks, flow foliations and linear arrangements of FTO and MG, discontinuous shear zone of SA, orientation of FTO and MG foliations parallel to the boundaries of SA blocks, predominance of FTO and MG foliations toward the boundaries of SA blocks, flow folding structures of FTO and MG foliation, lithfacies change of MG into FTO by the injection of MG into SA, and very similar assemblage of mafic minerals and chemical composition of ilmenite and almost equal occurrence and foliation features between FTO and MG. Such evidences indicate that the SA, FTO, MG foliations are magmatic foliations which were formed in a not fully congealed state of SA from the results of the fracturing of partly congealed SA, the injection and flow of FTO and MG melts into the fractured SA, the dynamic intercompaction between them. It also implies that the SA, FTO, MG were not formed from the intrusion and differentiation of magmas which were different from each other in genesis and age but from the multiple fractionation and polybaric crystallization of the coeval and cogenetic magma. Our new model suggests that the Sancheong anorthosite complex was generated and evolved as following sequence: the

  15. Transient thrust events recorded in the Aare Massif, Bernese Alps (Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland) (United States)

    Hartvich, F.; Stemberk, J.


    The Grimsel Test Site (GTS) is located at an altitude of 1730 m a.s.l. in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif 300 - 500 m under the surface. In November 2012, documented faults within the GTS were instrumented for 3-D monitoring of fault slips in the scope of the LArge Scale MOnitoring project (LASMO). In total 7 devices were installed across faults crossing a 350 m long section of the GTS. The instrumented faults have various strike: W-E, SW-NE, WNW-ESE and WSW-ENE. The faults are instrumented with optical-mechanical extensometers TM71 which allow to measure 3D micro-displacements as well as rotations on the basis of the moiré effect of optical interference. The devices installed in GTS reach the accuracy better than 0.007 mm and the angular deviation between two blocks separated by a discontinuity - i.e. their relative rotation - can be measured with a resolution better than 0.00016 rad. Regular monitoring has started on Dec. 5,2012 and the reading is performed regularly once per day. The first results of 3-D fault displacement monitoring show transient slips recorded during 2 short periods along all monitored faults, alternating with long periods of tectonic quiescence without any fault activity. The measured directions of fault slips enable us to estimate two approximately N - S oriented compression events, causing northwards thrust movements. First period lasted from Dec. 27, 2012 to Feb. 13, 2013. However, major phase of the displacement occurred between Jan. 26 and 29, 2013. Recorded fault slips represent northwards oriented thrusts and strike-slips. A value of individual slips ranges from 0.004 to 0.04 mm. Moreover, the strike-slip movements were recorded during days when two local micro-earthquakes were observed close to GTS: on Jan. 29, 2013 (M = 1.29) and on Feb. 13, 2013 (M = 1.15). The second period of activity lasted from Sept. 7, 2013 to Oct. 28, 2013, and occurred after more than 7 months of no recorded fault slips. The main phase of the

  16. Geomorphological map of glaciated gorges in a granitic massif (Gredos range, Central Spain). (United States)

    Campos, Néstor; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David


    A detailed geomorphological map on a 1:10,000 scale is presented for a high mountain area in Gredos range (Iberian Central System), this area is located in a granitic massif 160 km West of Madrid and comprises three gorges : La Vega, Taheña-Honda and La Nava. Only few detailed geomorphological maps of the Gredos range are available despite the wide diversity of landforms, in order to improve the understanding of this zone, this geomorphological map of the area has been produced, showing in detail the geomorphologic diversity of these gorges. The map was created with the aid of 25 cm resolution aerial photographs, 25 cm resolution satellite images, Iberpix 3D images provided by the Spanish National Geographic Institute and verified with field work. The landforms were delimitated with a stereoscope and satellite image pairs and digitized using GIS and CAD software, in some areas 3D glasses has been used with 3D images and the software Esri ArcScene. The landforms resulting from interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images were classified using the IGUL (Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne) legend system (developed at the end of the 1980s) combined with the legend proposed by Peña et al. (1997) and some personal adaptations. The map legend includes 45 landforms divided into seven sections: structural, hydrography, fluvial, gravitative, glacial, nival and anthropic landforms. The use of both legend systems allows us to represent the landform types distributed over an area of 40 km2 and to identify the geomorphic processes involved in their morphogenesis, this variety of processes and landforms identified demonstrated that geomorphological cartography obtained by combining traditional image interpretation and GIS technology facilitates the production of geomorphological maps and the obtaining of valuable data for identify and understand surface processes and landforms. References: Maillard, B., Lambiel, C., Martin, S., Pellitero, R., Reynard, E

  17. Ssismic Methodologies Applied To The Characterization Of Fractured Rock Massifs: Case Studies (United States)

    Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Font-Capo, J.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Perez-Estaun, A.


    The detailed characterization of fractured media in the shallow subsurface is becoming important. The detailed knowledge of the fracture network is mandatory in any hydrogeological model to constrain the potential pathways for water circulation. The geophysical methodolgies can provide a detailed image of the fractured rock and also the 3D distribution of physical properties. Two case studies are discussed in this work. The characterization of fractures in a waste disposal site and, the design and construction of a subway tunnel. In the first case, a multiseismic experiment was carried out in an old abandoned uranium mine. 2D and 3D seismic experiments including VSP, surface seismic reflection and travel time seismic tomography provided a 3D image of the internal structure of a granitic massif for hydrogeological studies of the preferred paths for the migration of contaminants. The tectonic stability of the site was also addressed by means of seismic measurements. The joint interpretation of all the available data enabled the interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the 3D seismic tomography image as the fragile fractures and the alteration associated to them. A 3D image of the geometry of the heterogeneous weathered surface layer was also obtained. This surface is controlled by the complex network of faults and dykes observed in the area. The second case study involves 2D and 3D seismic experiments to aid the horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in a densely populated city is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the acquisition experiments. The instrumentation can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required, deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building fundations, sewage system


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    Full Text Available A Jurassic- Cretaceous carbonate succession crops out along the Zyghosti Rema, Kozani (Northern Greece. The substratum consists of the ophiolitic succession of the Vourinos Massif (Pelagonian Domain: serpentinites tectonically overlain by basalts, with thin lenses of radiolarian cherts of middle Bathonian age. The contact with the overlying Jurassic limestones is tectonic. Eight informal units have been distinguished within the Mesozoic limestones, from the base upwards. (A bioclastic, intraclastic and oolitic packstone (Callovian- Oxfordian. (B bioclastic packstone and coral boundstone (Oxfordian . (C bioclastic and oncoidal wackestone with Clypeina jurassica (Oxfordian- Upper Kimmeridgian. (D (Upper Kimmeridgian- Portlandian: oncoidal packstone and rudstone (facies D1; intraclastic and bioclastic grainstone and packstone (facies D2; neptunian dykes with intraclastic and bioclastic wackestone and packstone filling (facies D3; neptunian dykes with Fe-Mn rich laterite filling and with pink silty filling of early Late Cretaceous age. An unconformity surface, due to emersion and erosion of the platform during the latest Jurassic- Early Cretaceous, is overlain by (E intraclastic, bioclastic packstone and grainstone (Cenomanian. (F massive body of debrites with coral, echinoderm, algae and rudist large clasts (facies F1 (Cenomanian; turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic and lithoclastic rudstone and grainstone (facies F2. (G thin bedded bioclastic mudstone and wackestone with planktonic foraminifers and radiolarians, alternating with turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic packstone and rudstone and with conglomeratic levels and slumped beds of the previous turbidites (upper Santonian- lower Campanian. (H: bioclastic packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H1 (lower Campanian - ?Maastrichtian; amalgamated turbiditic beds of bioclastic wackestone and packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H2; turbiditic beds of bioclastic

  19. Geotectonic setting of the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (NE-Poland) - constraints for 3D geological modelling (United States)

    Wiszniewska, Janina; Petecki, Zdzislaw; Rosowiecka, Olga; Krzemińska, Ewa


    Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (SAM) is located within 200 km long Mesoproterozoic magmatic terrane called Mazury Complex (NE Poland) (Wiszniewska et al. 2002). This is a belt of granitoids and associated mafic and intermediate igneous rocks followed an E-W trending lineament extending from the Baltic Sea through northern Poland and southern Lithuania to western Belarus. Crystalline basement of the Suwałki region is covered by a thick pile (550-1300m) of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, which are dipping towards the SW East European Craton`s border. SAM is a complex structure composed primarily of magmatic massif type anorthosites, surrounded by a rim of norite-gabbronorite and diorite rocks. SAM is characterized by magnetic and gravimetric negative anomalies. The gravimetric one is related to anorthosite massif. It is surrounded by a few positive anomalies, which reflect occurrences of denser rocks such as granite, monzodiorite and granodiorite. The large magnetic anomaly is supposed to reflect an effect of an negative inclination of remanent magnetization of anorthosite rocks. This hypothesis was confirmed by magnetic modelling along DSS POLONAISE'97 profile P4 (Petecki, 2006). Existing measurements however do not show prevailing negative inclinations, even though they prove very high remanent magnetization of anorthosites. A pronounced residual magnetic anomalies of Udryń and Krzemianka are related to Fe-Ti-(V) ore deposits recognized by deep boreholes. Based on potential field data it was suggested that anorthosite bottom reaches 2,5-4,5 km depth. Thus it is evident that the geological architecture of SAM and its surrounding area is not fully recognized. The problem is supposed to be resolved using modern methods of geophysical transformations and 3D modelling using GeoModeller software. The final result of the research will be to recognize spatial structure of the SAM and its surrounding. Petrological, mineralogical, geochronological (U-Pb SHRIMP method on

  20. Petrology of an aegirine-riebeckite gneiss-bearing part of the Hesperian massif: The Galiñeiro and surrounding areas, Vigo, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor, P.


    The investigated area forms part of the crystalline basement of the southwestern half of the Iberian peninsula (Hesperian Massif). In it, Precambrian paragneisses of predominantly greywacke composition surround granite-gneisses with whole-rock Rb-Sr ages of 486-500 m.y. Hercynian granites are intrus

  1. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method (United States)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk


    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  2. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia) (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex


    This work presents an improved geomorphological methodology that uses 3D model of relief, remotely-sensed data, geological, geophysical maps and tools of Geographical Information Systems. On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 the Digital Elevation model (DEM) of Khibiny massif was developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. A DEM was used for analyzing landform by extracting the slope gradient, curvature, valley pro?les, slope, aspect and so on. The results were gradually re?ned from the interpretation of satellite imagery and geological map Geomorphological analysis will allow us to determine spatial regularities in inner massive construction. We try to found areas where gas emissions (CH4/H2) enrich, according to morphometry, geology, tectonic and other environments. The main regional blocks were de?ned by different morphological evidences: impression zone, similar to subsidence caldera; uplift zone, domed area (located in the highest part of massif and zone of intersection of main faults) and others. It says that there are the few stages in the development of the Khibiny massif. There is no common concept of the consequence of intrudes magmatic phases now. And we hope that our geomorphical analysis take a new evidences about this problems. Locations of the blocks' borders (tectonic zones) were recognized by lineament analysis of valleys and tectonic faults presented in relief. Erosion system is represented by valleys of 4 ranks. It inherits the zone of tectonic disturbances 3 groups of faults were recognized: 1) Global lineament system cross whole peninsula - existing before Khibiny massif intrusion; 2) Faults associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence and magma differentiation and with later collision history during magma cooling; 3) Crack system related to neotectonic process. We believed that if different magmatic phases intrude in similar tectonic environment, the common spatial system of faults will be formed. Really we

  3. The conservation status of mammals and avifauna in the Montagne des Français massif, Madagascar

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    Georgina Starkie


    Full Text Available The Montagne des Français is a limestone massif in northern Madagascar, which is characterised by a wide range of biotopes including xerophytic karst, gallery forest, dry western forest, grassland and caves. It is situated only 12 km from the regional capital, Antsiranana, and few, if any areas of primary forest remain. In the first comprehensive study to have been carried out at this location we report the presence of 12 mammal species. We also report the presence of 63 bird species. We use data derived from both structured and semi - structured interviews to assess the conservation status of the mammals and birds within the massif. Our study shows that local beliefs are dominated by taboos or fady and that these vary within families and communities. Current anthropogenic pressures on biodiversity include zebu grazing, charcoal production, hunting and rice cultivation. The massif was afforded Temporary Protected Area Status in 2006 and our results suggest that this protection should be made permanent. We propose opportunities for further research and sustainable development initiatives that could contribute to the conservation of the biological resources within the massif. Success in conserving this area will only be achieved if the local communities are fully engaged. RÉSUMÉ: La Montagne des Français est un massif calcaire au nord de Madagascar, caractérisé par une vaste gamme de biotopes, y compris une formation calcaire connue localement sous le nom de ‘tsingy’ avec une végétation xérophyte, une forêt riveraine, une forêt sèche de l’ouest, des zones herbeuses et des grottes. Elle se trouve à 12 km seulement de la plus grande ville du nord, Antsiranana, et présente une couverture de forêts intactes extrêmement réduite. Le travail sur le terrain a été réalisé par des bénévoles de Frontier et des chercheurs de Frontier et de l’Université d’Antsiranana. Des inventaires on été effectués pendant une année, au

  4. Zircon typology combined with SmNd whole-rock isotope analysis to study Brioverian sediments from the Armorican Massif (United States)

    Dabard, M. P.; Loi, A.; Peucat, J. J.


    The identification of source materials contributing to mature terrigenous clastic deposits is made difficult due to a lack of useful discriminant criteria. SmNd isotope analysis can provide some indication of the present of mantle-derived constituents in clastic rocks. However, since this method is based on whole-rock samples, it is only possible to obtain the averaged composition of the different source materials involved. Moreover, SmNd isotope systematics can be strongly influenced by the presence of heavy minerals rich in rare earth elements and/or displaying isotopic ratios very different to the sedimentary host. In this manner, 0.1% of zircon or 0.01% of monazite from an extraneous source is sufficient to modify significatively the SmNd signature of the whole-rock. The typological study of zircon populations is an extremely valuable tool, especially since this mineral is highly resistant and exhibits a morphology controlled by the physical and chemical conditions under which it crystallized. Zircons that have been reworked in a sedimentary deposit display typologies that make it possible to identify the different igneous rock-types present in the source region. Moreover the typological study can be associated with a single-grain PbPb dating. This twofold approach was applied to Brioverian sedimentary rocks (Neoproterozoic III to Early Palaeozoic in age) from the Central Brittany Domain (Armorican Massif, NW France). It is proposed that these deposits inherited a major component from juvenile crustal materials ( ɛND(540) = - 1.4 to - 6.3), reflecting the presence of igneous precursors with a dominantly mantle-derived origin (zircon sub-types S19, S20, S24, S25 etc.), to which was added another component of crustal anatectic affinity (zircon sub-types S2, S6, S7 etc.). Two igneous source regions are identified on the basis of the present study: the anatectic granitic massifs of the Mancellian Batholith (540 Ma), along with a coeval ignimbritic

  5. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history? (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali


    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  6. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Pd in the magnetitite layer within the upper gabbro of the Mesoarchean Nuasahi Massif (Orissa, India) (United States)

    Prichard, Hazel M.; Mondal, Sisir K.; Mukherjee, Ria; Fisher, Peter C.; Giles, Nicolas


    Palladium concentrations of 1-3 ppm with an average Pt/Pd ratio of 0.15 have been located for the first time in a magnetitite layer in the Nuasahi Massif in Orissa India. This layer occurs at a high stratigraphic level in the complex and is nearly 4-km long and 5-12-m thick. The sections of the Pd-rich zone identified to date extend over a distance of 1 km at the southern end of the layer. Several phases of mineralization are evident. The first, primary assemblage of platinum-group minerals (PGM) contains Pd-sulfides (vysotskite), Pd-Pb alloys (zvyagintsevite), and a Pd-In alloy, a mineral probably new to mineralogy. These PGM are confined to central magnetite grains in the magnetitites. The magnetite grains with exsolved fine laths of ilmenite at centers are referred to as central magnetite grains. These central magnetite grains are commonly surrounded by blebs of ilmenite and magnetite that contain the majority of the PGM. These are dominated by Pd-antimonides, variably altered to Pd-oxides, and other PGM including PtAs2 (sperrylite), RuS2 (laurite), and IrRhAsS (irarsite/hollingwothite). Many of these PGM also occur in the interstitial silicates, with rare occurrences in the central magnetite grains. We propose that the platinum-group elements (PGE) crystallized during a minor sulfide saturation event that occurred as the magnetitites crystallized. This event produced the minor Cu-sulfides in these magnetitites. Later introduction of antimony and arsenic, during the alteration event that produced the blebby ilmenite and magnetite, led to the more primary PGM being succeeded by the main PGM assemblage, dominated by Pd-antimonides. These are associated with secondary Cu minerals and sperrylite. Subsequent oxidation during weathering in the hot wet Indian climate produced the Pd-oxides. The Nuasahi Massif is a sill-like Archean layered ultramafic-mafic intrusion genetically linked to high-Mg siliceous basalt or boninites and is characterized by unusually thick

  7. Phase equilibria modelling and zircon dating for Precambrian metapelites from Xinghuadukou Group in Lvlin Forest of Erguna Massif, NE China (United States)

    Xu, Jiulei; Zheng, Changqing; Tajcmanova, Lucie; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Xuechun; Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhaoyuan


    Xinghuadukou Group, the basement metamorphic complex of Erguna Massif in NE China, is considered to be Mesoproterozoic with Sm-Nd age of 1157±32 Ma. However, the new zircon data from these metamorphic supracrustal rocks in Lvlin Forest show that they formed in Neoproterozoic with the age of 800 Ma. Old zircon age with 2.5 Ga, 2.0 Ga and 1.8 Ga, indicate that the Erguna Massif had an affinity to both Columbia and Rodinia continents. Furthermore, we also present 500 Ma metamorphic age in micashists and 500 Ma age of adjacent granitoids that might have thermally influenced its surrounding. No detailed studies have been undertaken on the metamorphic evolution of the Xinghuadukou Complex. The typical paragneissic mineral assemblage of garnet sillimanite mica schist is Grt+Sil+Bt+Mus+Qtz±Kfs. (Zhou et al., 2011) proposed that the Xinghuadukou Complex appears to have undergone similar granulite facies metamorphic conditions based on the similarity of mineral assemblages to the Mashan Complex in the Jiamusi Massif, NE China. However, the new phase equilibria modelling result shows that these rocks are high amphibolite facies product with 650℃. We can easily find K-feldspar formed by partial melting due to the consuming of muscovite. Also the remaining muscovite is directly connected with a fluid channel in thin sections which indicate that the remaining muscovite formed from retrograde with the existence of fluid. The zoned garnet has low MgO and high CaO content in rims and high MgO and low CaO content in core. It seems that this garnet has high pressure and low temperature (HP-LT) in rims and low pressure and high temperature (LP-HT) in core which would point to an anti-clockwise metamorphic evolution. Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Zhao, G.C., Liu, F.L., Qiao, D.W., Ren, S.M. and Liu, J.H., 2011b. A> 1300km late Pan-African metamorphic belt in NE China: new evidence from the Xing'an block and its tectonic implications. Tectonophysics, 509(3): 280-292.

  8. Apatite fission track thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia (United States)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Vladimir S.


    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of the absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (Usbnd Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. The Rbsbnd Sr isochron age of this alkaline magmatic complex which is located at the center of Kola Peninsula is 368 + 6 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between + 520 and - 950 m and yielded AFT ages between 290 and 268 Ma with an age uncertainty (1σ) of between ± 19 Ma (7%) and ± 42 Ma (15%). Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5 and 14.4 μm. Inverse time-temperature modeling was conducted on the age and track length data from seven samples of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data from three samples with the most reliable data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma-rapid cooling from > 110 °C to 70 °C/50 °C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma-a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma-slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20 °C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr.

  9. Mantle refertilization by melts of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite: Evidence from the Ronda peridotite massif, southern Spain (United States)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Gervilla, Fernando; Hidas, Károly


    Geochemical studies of primitive basalts have documented the presence of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite in their mantle sources. The processes whereby melts with the signature of garnet pyroxenite are produced in the mantle are, however, poorly understood and somewhat controversial. Here we investigate a natural example of the interaction between melts of garnet pyroxenite derived from recycled plagioclase-rich crust and surrounding mantle in the Ronda peridotite massif. Melting of garnet pyroxenite at ˜1.5 GPa generated spinel websterite residues with MREE/HREE fractionation and preserved the positive Eu anomaly of their garnet pyroxenite precursor in whole-rock and clinopyroxene. Reaction of melts from garnet pyroxenite with depleted surrounding peridotite generated secondary fertile spinel lherzolite. These secondary lherzolites differ from common spinel lherzolite from Ronda and elsewhere by their lower-Mg# in clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, lower-Cr# in spinel and higher whole-rock Al2O3, CaO, Sm/Yb and FeO* at a given SiO2. Remarkably, secondary spinel lherzolite shows the geochemical signature of ghost plagioclase in the form of positive Eu and Sr anomalies in whole-rock and clinopyroxene, reflecting the transfer of a low-pressure crustal imprint from recycled pyroxenite to hybridized peridotite. Garnet pyroxenite melting and melt-peridotite interaction, as shown in the Ronda massif, may explain how the signature of subducted or delaminated crust is transferred to the mantle and how a garnet pyroxenite component is introduced into the source region of basalts. The efficiency of these processes in conveying the geochemical imprint of crustal-derived garnet pyroxenite to extruded lavas depends on the reactivity of pyroxenite melt with peridotite and the mantle permeability, which may be controlled by prior refertilization reactions similar to those documented in the Ronda massif. Highly fertile heterogeneities produced by pyroxenite

  10. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

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    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science


    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  11. Soil thermal regime and geomorphogenesis at Fuentes Carrionas massif (Cantabrian Range, NW Iberian Peninsula). (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Serrano Cañadas, Enrique


    Fuentes Carrionas is a massif within the Cantabrian Range, in NW Iberian Peninsula. Its altitude ranges between 1400 and 2500 meters and its climate is an oceanic/Mediterranean transition one, with cold temperatures and heavy snowfall in the winter/early spring season, and a warm and dry summer season. Due to its outstanding altitude and lithological variety in the Cantabrian Range context, Fuentes Carrionas holds some periglacial activity (gelifluction, frost shattering) which is absent elsewhere in NW Iberian Peninsula. This work is relates the soil thermal regime across the mountain gradient to landforms formation. 14 thermometers (11 i-button, protected in a plastic can, and three UTL data loggers) were buried at a shallow depth (10 cm.) between autumn 2009 and summer 2012. 12 thermometers were placed between 1900 and 2400 m.a.s.l. at 250 meters altitude interval at the four main aspects. Two additional thermometers were place in the Curavacas N face for permafrost identification. Thermometers were calibrated to yield a measurement every 6 hours starting from 8 AM during one year's time. Data was collected annually in the summer season. Some additional soil temperature data was obtained from an external project in the same area for the 2007-2009 interval. In this case thermometers were "Hobbo" model, and they were also buried to a shallow depth. Results show a permafrost free mountain range. Annual average soil temperatures range between 1 and 8 degrees Celsius. Snow pack appears as a decisive factor in winter temperatures, as the zero curtain effect can be tracked in many cases. Snow cover patterns show a distinctive behavior between S and N aspects, with a 3 months snow cover on the southern faces and between 6 and 9 at the northern analogues. This cover has a relevant impact on geomorphological processes. There is a clear relation between spring snow melt and solifluction or channelized erosion. Also, snow cover prevents the occurrence of freeze/thaw cycles

  12. Mineralogy and ore fluid chemistry of the Roc Blanc Ag deposit, Jebilet Hercynian massif, Morocco (United States)

    Essarraj, Samira; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Tarantola, Alexandre; Leisen, Mathieu; Hibti, Mohamed


    The Roc Blanc Ag deposit is located about 20 km north of Marrakesh city (Morocco) in the Jebilet Hercynian massif. The ore bodies consist of N-S to NE-SW quartz (±carbonates) veins hosted by the Sarhlef marine sediments. These series, deposited in a Devonian-Carboniferous rift basin context, were deformed during the Hercynian orogeny, and submitted to low-grade regional metamorphism. Two major stages of fluid circulation and metal deposition are distinguished on the basis of mineralogical and paleo-fluid studies carried out on quartz and dolomite (microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions, and O, H stable isotope data): (i) an early Fe-As stage, characterized by the circulation of metamorphic aqueous-carbonic fluids, under P-T conditions lower than 200 MPa ± 20 MPa and 400 °C respectively, along N-S structures; (ii) the ore stage, characterized by the circulation of a Na-Mg-K ± Ca high salinity brine, poor in gas but rich in metals such as Fe, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, ± Cu (salinity ranging from 19.6 wt% to likely more than 30 wt% NaCl equiv.) and the deposition of a sphalerite/dolomite-calcite assemblage; such a fluid likely evolved to a Na-K-(Ca-Mg)-Ag brine, with significant Pb and Sb concentrations and lower Sr, Ba and Zn concentrations than in the preceding fluid (salinity up to 19.4 wt% NaCl equiv.). The Ag content of the second mineralizing brine ranges from 0.9 mmol/kg to 9.4 mmol/kg solution (100 ppm-1000 ppm), whereas the base metal brine is generally Ag poor (up to 1.3 mmol/kg solution: 140 ppm). Dilution of the Ag brine by low salinity fluids (<6 wt% NaCl equiv., and Th from 130° to 230 °C) seems to be the main driving mechanism for the Ag ore deposition at Roc Blanc, with a possible involvement of cooling and reduction reactions in black schists. Base metal and Ag fluids may have circulated at average temperatures around 200 ± 30 °C or slightly higher and under hydrostatic pressures, along dominant E-W structures. The ore

  13. Biomineralization of iron-phosphates in the water column of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) (United States)

    Cosmidis, Julie; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume; Busigny, Vincent; Lebeau, Oanez; Jézéquel, Didier; Noël, Vincent; Dublet, Gabrielle; Othmane, Guillaume


    The availabilities of iron and phosphorus have considerably impacted biological productivity in past and present natural aquatic environments, and therefore have been key regulators of climate changes over geological time scales. Microbial organisms are known to play important roles in reactions that drive Fe and P cycling at redox interfaces in Earth's surface environments. Here we study the depth variations of Fe and P speciation in Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France), a deep (bottom depth ˜92 m) and permanently stratified lake with anoxic and ferruginous conditions in the water column below ˜60 m depth. We particularly focus on the potential roles of microbes on Fe and P transformations and traces left by these processes in the sedimenting particular matter. Bulk chemical analyses, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Fe K-edge were performed to characterize the mineralogy and Fe oxidation state of solid particles at different depths in the water column and in sediments deposited at the bottom of the lake. Fe is mainly hosted by Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides and phyllosilicates in the shallower oxygenated water column of the lake (25 m). The amount of Fe in suspended matter increases with depth, and an additional amorphous Fe(II)-Fe(III)-phosphate phase is detected close to the chemocline (at 56 m depth), while vivianite (an Fe(II)-phosphate with a formula of Fe(II)3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) becomes dominant in the deeper anoxic water (67 m and 86 m depths). Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides are preserved down to these depths in the water column suggesting that Fe-reduction has little impact on the particulate Fe budget over the monimolimnion. These Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides undergo reductive dissolution at the surface of the sediments, where vivianite is the main Fe-bearing phase. These results are confirmed by imaging at the micrometer and nano-scales using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based scanning

  14. Multiple Feldspar replacement in Hercynian granites of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain) (United States)

    Fàbrega, Carles; Parcerisa, David; Gómez-Gras, David


    The core of the Montseny-Guilleries Massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges) is mainly composed by late-Hercynian granitoids (leucogranites and granodiorites) intruded within Cambrian to Carnoniferous metasediments. The granites are unconformably covered by Triassic (Buntsandstein) and Paleocene red beds at the western boundary, preserving a continuous outcrop of the Permo-Triassic unconformity for about 20 km. In the southwestern Montseny-Guilleries Massif the granites are covered by the Buntsandstein red sandstones that overlain a peneplain paleorelief called the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface. Beneath the palaeosurface the granite displays a characteristic pink colouration. This pink alteration is characterized by precipitation of minute heamatite crystals and albitization of pristine plagioclases (mostly labradorite). The secondary albite is pseudomorphic (mono- or polycrystalline), optically continuous, non-luminiscent, contains widespread microporosity and displays compositions about Ab98. These features are typical of low temperature replacive feldspars (Kastner and Siever, 1979). Albitization of plagioclases is almost total close to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface and progressively decreases towards depth, displaying a 150-200 m thick alteration profile. The formation of this profile was controlled by fluid circulation along macro- and microfractures and crystal boundaries. Inside the plagioclase crystals fluid pathways were microfractures, twinning and cleavage planes and crystalline defects. The secondary albite holds widespread unconnected micron-size porosity often filled by Fe-oxides. The reaction front is sharp and displays an abrupt composicional change (Ab65 to Ab98) at micron scale. Porosity only appears to be connected at this reaction front surface. The geometrical arrangement of this alterations suggest that albitization was a shallow process related with Na-rich descending fluids linked to the Permo-Triassic palaeosurface, in a similar way to

  15. Strain partitioning in the Belledonne and Pelvoux massifs. Some clues to understand the Variscan tectono-thermal evolution. (United States)

    Fréville, Kévin; Trap, Pierre; Faure, Michel; Melleton, Jeremie; Blein, Olivier


    This contribution presents new structural, petrological, geochemical and geochronological data obtained in the Variscan basement of the Alpine Belledonne and Pelvoux External Crystalline massifs. The Belledonne-Pelvoux area is a stack of four litho-tectonic units. The uppermost unit is the early Ordovician Chamrousse ophiolite. It overthrusts a volcanic-sedimentary unit (VSU) made of an alternation of volcanoclastic rocks, plagiogranites and metapelites. The VSU crops out in the eastern Belledonne and western Pelvoux massifs. It is unconformably overlain by a Visean sandstone-conglomerate series with felsic lava (keratophyres). The lowermost litho-tectonic unit is made of felsic and mafic migmatites and granitoids that form the major part of the Pelvoux massif. The western boundary of this tectonic pile is the "synclinal median" strike-slip fault, on the western side of which crops out the Belledonne micaschist unit made of Cambro-ordovician turbiditic series. The structural analysis revealed four main tectono-thermal events: Dx, D1, D2, and D3. Dx is only recorded in relictual metamorphic assemblage in Ky-Grt-Ab bearing micaschist from the VSU holding an obduction metamorphic gradient (3kbar, 370°C up to 7kbar, 430°C). The age of the Dx event remains unknown. The D1 event, characterized by westward low-angle dipping foliation (S1) and a NE-SW striking stretching lineation (L1), is responsible for the crustal thickening resulting of the Eastward emplacement of the Chamrousse ophiolite upon the VSU. D1 is coeval with a barrovian metamorphism with P-T conditions of 6kbar, 600°C recorded in metapelites, and partial melting developed at the base of the VSU. Monazite LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating revealed that D1 crustal thickening occurred at 337±7 Ma. D2 is a sinistral transpressional deformation responsible for the folding of S1 and L1, and the development of a NE-SW trending pervasive sub-vertical foliation S2. In the lower structural domain, i.e. the partially molten

  16. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, A.; Santos, J. F.; Azevedo, M. R.; Mendez, M. H.; Ribeiro, S.


    The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain). The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization. (Author) 13 refs.

  17. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy). (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo


    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  18. High grade metamorphism in the Bundelkhand massif and its implications on Mesoarchean crustal evolution in central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Singh; S B Dwivedi


    The Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC) in the central part of the Bundelkhand massif preserves a supracrustal unit which includes pelitic (garnet–cordierite–sillimanite gneiss, garnet–sillimanite gneiss, biotite gneiss and garnet–biotite gneiss) and mafic (hornblende–biotite gneiss and garnetiferous amphibolite) rocks. Granulite facies metamorphism of the complex initiated with breaking down of biotite to produce garnet and cordierite in the pelitic gneisses. Geothermobarometric calculations indicate metamorphic conditions of 720°C/6.2 kbar, followed by a retrograde (687°C/4.9 kbar) to very late retro-grade stages of metamorphism (579°C/4.4 kbar) which is supported by the formation of late cordierite around garnet. The P–T conditions and textural relations of the garnet–cordierite-bearing gneiss suggest a retrograde cooling path of metamorphism.


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    Full Text Available Rare clasts of richly fossiliferous uppermost Albian (Vraconian auctt. glauconitic and phosphatic, ammonite-bearing limestone have been found in the Eocene Cuccuru ’e Flores Conglomerate in the area of M. Albo massif (eastern Sardinia. The limestone is wholly comparable in facies and fossil assemblage to the classical outcrop known in the Orosei area. The fossil content includes also brachiopods and abundant planktonic foraminifers of the Thalmanninella (formerly Rotalipora appenninica Zone. In the palaeontological part the brachiopods Orbirhynchia parkinsoni and Capillithyris capillata are described and discussed. Vraconian highly condensed deposits, characterized by basal erosional gaps of variable importance, have particular relevance, being known to be widely distributed in the northern Tethyan margin with common characteristics, such as authigenic glauconite, phosphatic nodules and a rich outer-shelf fauna. 

  20. Multistage evolution of UHT granulites from the southernmost part of the Gföhl Nappe, Bohemian Massif, Lower Austria (United States)

    Schantl, Philip; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred


    A detailed petrological investigation has been undertaken in leucocratic kyanite-garnet bearing and mesocratic orthopyroxene bearing granulites from the Dunkelsteiner Wald, Pöchlarn-Wieselburg and Zöbing granulite bodies from the Moldanubian Zone in the Bohemian Massif (Austria). A combination of textural observations, conventional geothermobarometry, phase equilibrium modelling as well as major and trace element analyses in garnet enables us to confirm a multistage Variscan metamorphic history. Chemically homogenous garnet cores with near constant grossular-rich plateaus are considered to reflect garnet growth during an early HP/UHP metamorphic evolution. Crystallographically oriented rutile exsolutions restricted to those grossular-rich garnet cores point to a subsequent isothermal decompression of the HP/UHP rocks. Overgrowing garnet rims show a pronounced zonation and are interpreted as the result of dehydration melting reactions during an isobaric heating phase which could have taken place near the base of an overthickened continental crust, where the previously deeply subducted rocks were exhumed to. For this HP granulite facies event maximum PT conditions of ~1050 °C and 1.6 GPa have been estimated from leucocratic granulites comprising the peak mineral assemblage quartz, ternary feldspar, garnet, kyanite and rutile. The pronounced zoning of garnet rims indicates that the HP granulite facies event must have been short lived since diffusion in this temperature region is usually sufficient fast to homogenize a zoning pattern in garnet. A retrogressive metamorphic stage is documented in these rocks by the replacement of kyanite to sillimanite and the growth of biotite. This retrograde event took place within the granulite facies but at significantly lower pressures and temperatures with ~0.8 GPa and ~760 °C. This final stage of re-equilibration is thought to be linked with a second exhumation phase into middle crustal levels accompanied by intensive

  1. Temporal evolution of mineralization events in the Bohemian Massif inferred from the Re-Os geochronology of molybdenite (United States)

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Haluzová, Eva; Creaser, Robert A.; Pašava, Jan; Veselovský, František; Breiter, Karel; Erban, Vojtěch; Drábek, Milan


    Molybdenite is a common mineral accompanying Sn-W, Au, and base metal mineralizations located in different geotectonic units of the Bohemian Massif, but it is also widespread in granitoids and/or related quartz veins/pegmatites forming disseminated Mo mineralization. Thirty Re-Os ages were obtained for molybdenite samples from the Bohemian Massif to provide constraints on the timing and duration of mineralization event(s) within the framework of previously published geochronological data for the host and/or associated rocks. The obtained data for Sn-W-(Li) deposits in the Erzgebirge metallogenetic province indicate the predominance of one and/or multiple short-time mineralization events taking place between ˜319 and 323 Ma, with the exception of the Krupka deposit associated with the Altenberg-Teplice caldera where the data may suggest prolonged activity until ˜315 Ma. The ages of the Pb-Zn-(Au-Mo) Hůrky u Rakovníka and Fe-Cu-As Obří důl mineralizations from the exocontacts of the Čistá pluton and Krkonoše-Jizera Plutonic Complex, respectively, provide evidence for synchronous emplacement of the ore and the associated granitic rocks. In contrast, the Padrť Fe-As-Mo mineralization postdates the age of the associated Padrť granite. Disseminated Mo mineralization in Cadomian and Variscan granitoids and/or related to quartz veins/pegmatites provides Re-Os ages that overlap with the previously published geochronological data for the host rocks, suggesting coeval evolution. Molybdenite samples from the Sázava suite granites of the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (CBPC) have resolvable younger ages than their host granites, but similar to the age of spatially related Au mineralization which is associated with the latest evolution of the CBPC.

  2. Discovery of the Early Paleozoic post-collisional granites in northern margin of the Erguna massif and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guang; SUN Fengyue; ZHAO Caisheng; LI Zhitong; ZHAO Ailin; PANG Qingbang; LI Guangyuan


    The Luoguhe intrusion, located in Mohe County, Heilongjiang Province, is mainly composed of monzogranite, quartz diorite and granodiorite, with minor diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite. The intrusion can be divided into two lithological units, I.e. Quartz diorite and monzogranite units, with affinities to high-K calc-alkaline series. The quartz diorite unit (SiO2: 54.79%―58.30%, Na2O/CaO: 0.79―1.53 and Shand index: 0.77―0.82) belongs to metaluminous rocks. And the monzogranite unit (SiO2: 65.29%―66.45%, Na2O/CaO:1.73―3.43 and Shand index <1.05) can be considered as weakly peraluminous rocks. The intrusion is characterized by high REE abundance (∑REE = 180.2―344.3 μg/g), medium-strong negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.33―0.82), weak REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 4.12―10.45], enrichments in Rb, Th, U, K, La, Ce, Nd, Hf, Zr and Sm, but strong depletions of Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti. These characteristics of major, REE and trace elements indicate that the intrusion was formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compressional to extensional regime, which can be classified as post-collisional granitoids. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analyses yield ages of 517±9 and 504±8 Ma for the quartz diorite and monzogranite units, respectively. The discovery of Early Paleozoic post-collisional granites in the northern margin of the Erguna massif indicates that the northern branch of Paleo-Asian Ocean between Siberian plate and Erguna massif was closed in the Early Paleozoic and the Salair orogeny ended ca. 500 Ma ago.

  3. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French alpine massifs - application to future climate and snow cover (United States)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.; Déqué, M.


    In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM) for the control period (1961-1990) and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2) by the mid- and late of the 21st century (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a) that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern part of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  4. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French alpine massifs – application to future climate and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowski-Etchevers


    Full Text Available In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM for the control period (1961–1990 and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2 by the mid- and late of the 21st century (2021–2050 and 2071–2100. These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern part of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  5. Lithosphere destabilization by melt percolation during pre-oceanic rifting: Evidence from Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Ranalli, Giorgio


    Orogenic peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolite Massifs (Lanzo, Voltri, External and Internal Ligurides, - NW Italy, and Mt. Maggiore - Corsica) derive from the mantle lithosphere of the Ligurian Tethys. Field/structural and petrologic/geochemical studies provide constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle during pre-oceanic passive rifting of the late Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. Continental rifting by far-field tectonic forces induced extension of the lithosphere by means of km-scale extensional shear zones that developed before infiltration of melts from the asthenosphere (Piccardo and Vissers, 2007). After significant thinning of the lithosphere, the passively upwelling asthenosphere underwent spinel-facies decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. Silica-undersaturated melt fractions percolated through the lithospheric mantle via diffuse/focused porous flow and interacted with the host peridotite through pyroxenes-dissolving/olivine-precipitating melt/rock reactions. Pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation modified the composition of the primary silica-undersaturated melts into derivative silica-saturated melts, while the host lithospheric spinel lherzolites were transformed into pyroxene-depleted/olivine-enriched reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. The derivative liquids interacted through olivine-dissolving/orthopyroxene+plagioclase-crystallizing reactions with the host peridotites that were impregnated and refertilized (Piccardo et al., 2015). The saturated melts stagnated and crystallized in the shallow mantle lithosphere (as testified by diffuse interstitial crystallization of euhedral orthopyroxene and anhedral plagioclase) and locally ponded, forming orthopyroxene-rich/olivine-free gabbro-norite pods (Piccardo and Guarnieri, 2011). Reactive and impregnated peridotites are characterized by high equilibration temperatures (up to 1250 °C) even at low pressure, plagioclase-peridotite facies

  6. U-Pb geochronology by La-CIP-MS and petrography of Sao Carlos massif - stanniferous province of Rondonia; Geocronologia U-Pb por La-ICP-MS e petrografia do macico Sao Carlos - Provincia Estanifera de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debowski, Beatriz P.; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Nogueira, Camila; Almeida, Bruna Saar de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)


    U-Pb dating by ICP-MS-LA were performed in four samples of the Massif Sao Carlos massif, representative of the younger Granites of Rondonia belonging to the stanniferous province of the same State. Dated samples are granites of pink in colour and coarse-grained to porphyry with main mineralogy consisting of feldspar pertitic to mesopertitic, quartz, plagioclase in lower proportion, biotite and amphibole in some cases. Ages obtained were 986 ± 14 Ma, 974 ± 10 Ma, ± 8 Ma 992.7 and 996 ± 8 Ma and represent the age of crystallization of the Massif. Such ages are concordant with others reported on the bibliography ratifying the inclusion of the massif in the younger Granites of Rondonia, which are directly associated with the most significant mineralization of cassiterite in the State.

  7. New fission-track age constraints on the exhumation of the central Santander Massif: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Northern Andes, Colombia (United States)

    Amaya, Sergio; Zuluaga, Carlos Augusto; Bernet, Matthias


    The Late Cretaceous to late Neogene exhumation history of the central Santander Massif in the Northern Andes of Colombia is controlled by the geodynamic interactions between the Caribbean, South American and Nazca plates, as well as the Neogene collision and accretion of the Panama arc. Slab-breakoff of the Caribbean plate, with the tip of the slab tear presently being located beneath Bucaramanga, and the east-west oriented Caldas tear are the main structures relating seismic activity and Late Miocene to Pleistocene magmatic/hydrothermal activity and associated gold mineralization in the central Santander Massif. Here we present new apatite (AFT) and zircon fission-track (ZFT) data from 18 samples collected along two profiles in the California-Vetas block (including the Rio Charta), to the south of the Rio Charta fault, and from Bucaramanga to Picacho on the western flank of the central Santander Massif. The fission-track data are used for time-temperature history modelling and for estimating long-term average exhumation rates. The California-Vetas block in the central Santander Massif to the north of the Rio Charta fault cooled rapidly at a rate of about 24 °C/Myr between 10 and 5 Ma. Fast cooling was not related to post-magmatic cooling or hydrothermal activity, but rather to exhumation, with rates based on apatite fission-track cooling ages on the order of 0.3-0.4 km/Myr. However, long-term average exhumation rates since the Late Cretaceous, based on zircon fission-track data, were only on the order of 0.1-0.2 km/Myr. Our data indicate that next to the Rio Charta fault also the Surata fault contributed to the exhumation of the California-Vetas block. The western flank of the central Santander Massif, shows a more complete thermal history along the Bucaramanga-Picacho profile, with the exposure of an exhumed zircon fission-track partial annealing zone. Thermal history modelling of zircon fission-track data of this profile shows that after burial and heating from

  8. Post-Hercynian subvolcanic magmatism in the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) (United States)

    Romano, V.; Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tranchina, A.


    In the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) dykes and subvolcanic bodies intrude diffusively both Hercynian metamorphic rocks and late-Hercynian granitoids. They range in composition from basaltic andesites to dacite-rhyodacites and can be ascribed to the extensive magmatic activity that affects the entire Hercynian orogenic belt in late Paleozoic - early Mesozoic time. The geodinamic framework of the magmatic activity is still matter of debate, nevertheless most authors agree in correlating magmatism both to the late-orogenic collapse of the Hercynian belt and to the lithosphere thinning responsible for the subsequent continental rifting. In this work, we propose a petrogenetic model for acidic to basic hypabissal bodies from southern Calabria in order to define the nature of sources, discriminate magmatic processes and supply a contribution in the geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic in the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. In relation to their geochemical affinity, studied dykes have been divided in two groups: a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and a tholeiitic one. Dykes belonging to the former group, andesitic and dacitic-rhyodacitic in composition, show typical features of subduction-related magmatism, such as LILE and LREE enrichments, depletions in HFSE, peaks in Rb, Th and Ce, accentuated troughs in Ba, Nb-Ta, P and Ti (White and Dupré, 1986; McCulloch and Gamble, 1991), contrasting with the late Hercynian collisional context. On the other side, features typical of intra-plate magmatic activity, such as a moderate enrichment in Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf and Sm relative to MORB composition are also present in studied rocks (Shimizu & Arculus, 1975; Pearce, 1982). REE-patterns are strongly to weakly fractionated for the andesitic rocks (Lan/Ybn = 10.03-13.98) and the dacitic-rhyodacitic ones (Lan/Ybn = 6.00 to 2.82), respectively. The latter rocks exhibit a very slight negative Eu anomaly, whereas no Eu anomaly is recognizable in the andesite

  9. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    " (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6

  10. Palaeomagnetic studies in the Permian Basin of Largentière and implications for the Late Variscan rotations in the French Massif Central (United States)

    Henry, B.; Becq-Giraudon, J. F.; Rouvier, H.


    Detailed geological observations and palaeomagnetic analyses were carried out in the Largentière Stephano-Autunian basin and on the Stephanian deposits of the Alès coalfield, both located at the southeastern margin of the French Massif Central. Because of unfavourable rock types, the Alès Stephanian deposits did not yield any results. The palaeomagnetic pole (164.9 degE, 45.4 degN, K=89, A_95=4.1 deg) deduced from a study of the Autunian sediments of the Largentière Basin agrees very well with the reference pole for stable Europe. The Lodève-Largentière area, that is the southeastern border of the Massif Central, has been stable since Early Permian time with respect to stable Europe, whereas the western part (the Saint-Affrique Rodez Basin and, probably, the Brive Basin) has been rotated counterclockwise.

  11. Magnesite-bearing fracture zones of the Zlatibor ultrabasic massif (Serbia as a discrete structural-morphological type of magnesite deposits in ultrabasites

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    Ilić Miloje


    Full Text Available In this paper, a discrete structural-morphological type of magnesite deposits in ultrabasites, i.e., in magnesite-bearing fracture zones, is presented. The most prominent occurrences of such zones in Serbia are in the Zlatibor ultrabasic massif and they are economically very significant because they contain large reserves of high-quality magnesite, as well as of the accompanying sepiolite.

  12. Reassignment to the Middle Devonian of some rugose corals investigated by LE MAÎTRE (1934) in the Chalonnes Formation from the Southeastern Armorican Massif (France)



    Nine taxa of rugose corals collected by LEMAÎTRE (1934) and coming from the Chalonnes Formation of the Southeastern Armorican Massif in France have been revised. They belong to the genera Stringophyllum WEDEKIND, 1922, Sociophyllum BIRENHEIDE, 1962, Acanthophyllum DYBOWSKI, 1873, Beugniesastraea COEN-AUBERT, 1989 and Fasciphyllum SCHLÜTER, 1885. Among this material, Stringophyllum acanthicum (FRECH, 1885), Sociophyllum elongatum (SCHLÜTER, 1881), Acanthophyllum vermiculare (GOLDFUSS, 1826) an...

  13. Observations sur le contact ouest du granite des Sept-Laux près du Rivier d’Allemont (Massif de Belledonne S.L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der A.H.


    La stratification des roches cristallines (d'âge antéstéphanien) des massifs centraux des Alpes est en général à peu près parallèle à la schistosité. Également les intrusions granitiques y sont plus ou moins concordantes. Cependant les recherches sous la direction du Professeur E. Niggli de Leiden

  14. Mass flux into the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif: Orogen-parallel transport, lower crustal flow, or both? (United States)

    Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.; Braun, J.


    Relative to most of the Himalaya, the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif requires an additional mass flux into its base to balance extreme rates of surface denudation (>10 mm/a) over the last ~2-3 Ma. One proposed source is middle to lower crustal flow into the massif (e.g., Zeitler et al., 2001), which while likely inactive elsewhere along strike, may be sustainable by very rapid surface denudation, a high geothermal gradient, and thermal weakening of rocks beneath the syntaxes. An alternative source is orogen-parallel (OP) transport due to oblique convergence and strain partitioning along the Himalayan arc (e.g., Seeber and Pêcher, 1998). Several observations including (1) predominantly orogen-normal slip on the frontal thrusts deduced from seismic events, (2) OP extension accommodated on orogen-normal structures, and (3) distributed and segmented strike-slip faulting trending parallel to the arc are consistent with strain partitioning and OP mass transport. A key question is can this mechanism supply sufficient mass to the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, or is local channel flow required? We explore mass transport into the western Himalayan syntaxis region using lithospheric-scale 3D mechanical and coupled thermo-mechanical models of an arcuate orogen. The crust is either frictional plastic or power-law viscous, with a constant low viscosity lower crust present in some experiments. Applied velocity boundary conditions are transmitted to the base of the crust by a strong frictional plastic mantle lithosphere, and mantle detachment/subduction drives formation of a bivergent, arcuate orogen. To assess the magnitude of mass transport from strain partitioning, we first explore purely mechanical experiments featuring a 5-km-high Tibet-like plateau above a weak lower crust and with a frictional plastic decollement that dips at 10° beneath the incipient orogen, similar to the Himalayan basal detachment. Preliminary results show gravitational feedback from the plateau drives

  15. Quantitatively structural control of the karst based on speleological cave survey data: Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Spain) (United States)

    Ballesteros, D.; Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; García-Sansegundo, J.; Borreguero, M.; Sendra, G.


    Speleological cave survey characterizes each cave passage by a 3D line (called shot survey) defined by its length, direction and dipping. This line represents the three-dimensional geometry of the karst system and cave passage scale and can be statistically analyzed and compared with the geometry of the massif discontinuities. The aim of this work is to establish the quantitative influence of the structural geology in caves based on the comparison between cave survey data, joint and bedding measurements with stereographic projection. 15 km of cave surveys from Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain) were chosen to illustrate the method. The length of the cavities range between 50 to 4,438 m and their depth is up to 738 m. The methodology of work includes: 1) cave survey collection from caving reports; 2) geological mapping and cross-sections with cavities projection;3) data collection of bedding and joints in caves and near outcrops;4) definition of families of joints and bedding planes by stereographic projection; 5) definition of groups of cave passages from stereographic projection (based on their directions and dipping) and 6) comparison between bedding, families of joints and cave survey data by stereographic projection. Seven families of joints have been defined in all the area of study. The joint families are: J1) sub-vertical, J2) N63/68SE, J3) N29E/46NW, J4) N52E/72NW, J5) N129E/17NE, J6) N167E/57NE and J7) N180E/26E; the bedding is N30-55/60-80NE. Five groups of cave passages have been defined. "A" group of cave passage is formed by sub-vertical series; it is represented by the 61 % of all the cave passages and is conditioned by the joint families J1, J3, J4 and J6, as well as their intersections. "B" group is formed by N10W-N10E/3-20N galleries; it corresponds with the 13 % of the series and is controlled by the intersection between families J5 and J6. "C" group is defined by N20-70E/0-50NE passages; it is represented by the 13 % of the

  16. Incidence of mass movement processes after an historical episode of heavy snowfall in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain) (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David


    This research examines a mass movement event caused in the context of the Great Blizzard of 1888, one of the most severe recorded blizzards in the history of Europe, whose implications go far beyond. In the Asturian Massif the episode consisted in four linked and consecutive snowstorms that took place between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with a depth ranging between 5 and 7 m, snow avalanches and flooding, causing dozens of deaths and large material damage. The Asturian Massif belongs to the Atlantic-climate area and is composed mainly by sedimentary and metamorphic paleozoic rocks. Many sectors of the Massif are between 1.000 and 2.000 m a.s.l., and its topography is characterized by a great height difference and steep slopes. Because of the lack of deep soils suitable for farming, the main traditional activity has been livestock keeping, and goods traffic. We have devised a method that enables the reconstruction of this event on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, geographical location and socio-economic impact. The mass movement episode has been studied through the issues of 6 newspapers published in Asturias between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888, the ancient meteorological station data of the University of Oviedo, and field work. A logical database structure has been designed with the aim to store and cross the information for statistical analysis. Thirty six mass movement worthy of consideration were documented, 28 of them causing material damage (six homes destroyed and at least 22 interruptions with the traffic flow on roads, highways and railways). Ten high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities were affected by mass movement. We must consider that only the most important events, or those that happened in crowded places, have been considered by the newspapers, so the total number of mass movements should be considered as a minimum figure. We have got to identify and classify 27 of them; 16

  17. U-Pb dating of granodiorite and granite units of the Los Pedroches batholith. Implications for geodynamic models of the southern Central Iberian Zone (Iberian Massif) (United States)

    Carracedo, M.; Paquette, J. L.; Alonso Olazabal, A.; Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Tiepolo, M.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.


    The first U-Pb geochronological results on the magmatic alignment of the Los Pedroches batholith are presented. The batholith is composed of a main granodioritic unit, several granite plutons and an important acid to basic dyke complex, all of them intrusive after the main Variscan regional deformation phase, D1, along the boundary between the Ossa-Morena and Central Iberian zones (SW Iberian Massif). Zircons from samples on both extremes of the granodiorite massif record nearly simultaneous magmatic crystallization at ca. 308 Ma, while the emplacement of granite plutons was diachronic between 314 and 304 Ma. The U-Pb results combined with new field and textural observations allow to better constrain the age of Variscan deformations D2 and D3 across the region, while the age of D1 remains imprecise. Transcurrent D2 shearing-tightening of D1 folds occurred around 314 Ma (lower Westphalian) in relation to the emplacement of the first granitic magmas. D3 faults and shear bands bearing a strong extensional component developed at ca. 308 Ma (upper Westphalian), associated to the intrusion of the main granodiorite pluton (granodiorite) of the batholith. Together with available geochemical and geophysical information, these results point to the Variscan reactivation of lithospheric fractures at the origin and subsequent emplacement of hybrid magmas within this sector of the Massif.

  18. The last stages of the Avalonian-Cadomian arc in NW Iberian Massif: isotopic and igneous record for a long-lived peri-Gondwanan magmatic arc (United States)

    Andonaegui, Pilar; Arenas, Ricardo; Albert, Richard; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gerdes, Axel


    The upper allochthonous units of NW Iberian Massif contain an extensive Cambrian magmatism (c. 500 Ma), covering felsic to mafic compositions. The magmatic activity generated large massifs of granitoids and gabbros, with calc-alkaline and tholeiitic compositions respectively. Petrological and geochemical features of these massifs are characteristic of volcanic arc. The plutons intruded siliciclastic sedimentary series deposited in the periphery of the West Africa Craton. U-Pb/Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircon in the siliciclastic host series, indicate continental arc activity between c. 750 Ma and c. 500 Ma. It was characterized by a large variety of isotopic sources, including from very old continental input, even Archean, to the addition of a significant amount of juvenile mafic material. These isotopic sources experienced an extensive mixing that explains the composition and isotopic features (εHft from - 50 until + 15) of the represented Cambrian plutons. The Cambrian igneous rocks of the upper units of NW Iberia are related to the latest activity of the Avalonian-Cadomian arc. From the Middle Cambrian arc activity in the periphery of Gondwana was replaced by pronounced extension associated with the development of continental rifting, which finally led to separation of the microcontinent Avalonia. Subsequent drifting of Avalonia to the North caused progressive opening one of the main Paleozoic ocean, the Rheic Ocean.

  19. Zircon geochronology of the Klyuchevskoi gabbro-ultramafic massif and the problem of the age of the Mohorovicic paleoboundary in the Central Urals (United States)

    Ivanov, K. S.; Krasnobaev, A. A.; Smirnov, V. N.


    The Klyuveskoi gabbro-ultramafic massif is the most representative ophiolite complex on the eastern portion of the Uralian paleoisland arc part. The massif is composed of dunite-harzburgite (tectonized mantle peridotites) and dunite-wehrlite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro (layered part of the ophiolite section) rock associations. The U-Pb age was obtained for the accessory zircons from the latter association using a SHRIMP-II ion microprobe at the Center for Isotopic Research at the Karpinskii Russian Geological Research Institute. The euhedral zircon crystals with thin rhythmic zoning from dunites are 441.4 ± 5.0 Ma in age. Zircons from olivine clinopyroxenite show three age clusters with sharply prevalent grains 449.0 ± 6.8 Ma in age. Two points give 1.7 Ga, which is probably related to the age of the mantle generating the layered complex. One value corresponds to 280 Ma, which possibly reflects exhumation of ultramafic rocks in the upper crust during the collision of the Uralian foldbelt. Thus, dunites and olivine pyroxenites from the Klyuchevskoi massif are similar in age at 441-449 Ma. The bottom of the layered part of the ophiolite section corresponds to the M paleoboundary and, consequently, the age of the Mohorovicic discontinuity conforms with the Ordovician-Silurian boundary in this part of the Urals.

  20. The systematics and paleobiogeographic significance of Sub-Boreal and Boreal ammonites (Aulacostephanidae and Cardioceratidae from the Upper Jurassic of the Bohemian Massif

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    Hrbek Jan


    Full Text Available Upper Jurassic marine deposits are either rarely preserved due to erosion or buried under younger sediments in the Bohemian Massif. However, fossil assemblages from a few successions exposed in northern Bohemia and Saxony and preserved in museum collections document the regional composition of macro-invertebrate assemblages and thus provide unique insights into broad-scale distribution and migration pathways of ammonites during the Late Jurassic. In this paper, we focus on the systematic revision of ammonites from the Upper Oxfordian and Lower Kimmeridgian deposits of northern Bohemia and Saxony. The ammonites belong to two families (Aulacostephanidae and Cardioceratidae of high paleobiogeographic and stratigraphic significance. Six genera belong to the family Aulacostephanidae (Prorasenia, Rasenia, Eurasenia, Rasenioides, Aulacostephanus, Aulacostephanoides and one genus belongs to the family Cardioceratidae (Amoeboceras. They show that the Upper Jurassic deposits of the northern Bohemian Massif belong to the Upper Oxfordian and Lower Kimmeridgian and paleobiogeographically correspond to the German-Polish ammonite branch with the geographical extent from the Polish Jura Chain to the Swabian and Franconian Alb. Therefore, the occurrences of ammonites described here imply that migration pathway connecting the Polish Jura Chain with habitats in southern Germany was located during the Late Oxfordian and Early Kimmeridgian in the Bohemian Massif.


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    Sergey V. Rasskazov


    Full Text Available Devonian dikes of the Urik-Belaya and Shagayte-Gol-Urik zones and Miocene lavas of the Urik volcanic field are spatially associated with each other at the structural junction between the Neoproterozoic Tuva-Mongolian massif and Siberian craton. The former dike belt is represented by basalts and basaltic andesites of tholeiitic series and the latter one by trachybasalts, trachyandesitic basalts of moderately alkaline series and trachybasalts, phonotephrites of highly alkaline one. The Urik volcanic field is composed of trachybasalts and trachyandesitic basalts of moderately alkaline series. A partial similarity between magmatic series of different age is found in terms of major oxides, trace elements, and Sr, Pb isotopes. The common component corrected for age was defined through its converging mixing trends with those of the lithospheric mantle and crust. The component identification was a basis for deciphering the nature of isotopic and geochemical heterogeneity of evolved magmatic sources. It was inferred that the common component characterizes either a modified (depleted reservoir of the lower mantle or, more likely, a local region of the convecting asthenospheric mantle that underlies the Tuva-Mongolian massif. The latter interpretation assumes the formation of a locally convecting asthenosphere in the middle Neoproterozoic, along with the development of the Oka zone at the massif, and puts constrains on later sufficient processing of the asthenosphere due to rising plumes or subducting slabs.

  2. Heat and mass transfers in the Late variscan: evidence from gold depôsits in the French Massif Central (United States)

    Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M. C.; Fourcade, S.; Marignac, C.


    In many medium- to high-grade metamorphic terranes of the West European Variscan belt, there are few, if any, reliable mineral records of the retrograde path. The S Limousin area (W French Massif Central) is a good example: there, the lithotectonic pile (including numerous granite intrusions) was "freezed" below ca. 350°C (Ar dating of white micas) since ca. 340 Ma. Yet, there is evidence for subsequent, sometimes pervasive, fluid and heat pulses although the latter were not accompanied by widespread retrograde metamorphism (insufficient duration/amount). A major episode of heat and mass transfer corresponds to the formation of gold deposits, thought to have occurred at ca. 305 Ma. The study of fluid inclusions from these deposits and surrounding rocks demonstrates the persistence of heat and fluid production at depth, although the pattern of fluid circulation changed with time. (i) In a first, protracted stage (340-305 Ma), fluid circulation in the Limousin top-middle crust (300-350 Mpa, 11-13 km depth) was restricted to a set of structural drains (shear-zones hosting early quartz veins) and involved volatile-bearing (CO2-dominated) fluids that, from O-isotope evidence, were focused from deep reservoirs where used heat advection resulted in a long-lived ductile behaviour of the shear-zones contrasting with the brittle regime prevailing in the surrounding crust. (ii) Around 305 Ma, when the Limousin pile was in the upper crust (above ca. 5 km), a change occurred in the pattern of fluid circulation, simultaneously with the inception of post-thickening extension. Pervasive fluid flow occurred through a network of interconnected microcraks while the nature of the fluids was changing. A hot eas, at the scale of the "upper crust reservoir" diffuse deposition of arsenopyrite resulted in a huge regional As anomaly in the Limousin gneisses. The source of the hot saline fluid is speculative. By comparison with the SE French Massif Central, the existence of a large magmatic

  3. Age, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting of the Permian bimodal volcanic rocks in the eastern Jiamusi Massif, NE China (United States)

    Bi, Jun-Hui; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Yu; Liu, Xi-Wen; Ji, Zheng


    We present new in situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for volcanic rocks from the Jiejinkou and Baoqing areas in the eastern Jiamusi Massif. These volcanic rocks are bimodal and consist of basalts, basaltic andesites, rhyolites, and rhyolitic tuffs that can be subdivided into mafic and silicic groups. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS indicates that these volcanic rocks were erupted between the Early and Middle Permian (290-267 Ma). The mafic rocks in this area have positive εNd(t) (+0.07 to +6.43) values, and are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in heavy REE, Nb, and Ta. From these rocks, the meta-basalt of Jinlu and basaltic andesite of Taipinggou and Haojiatun were derived from parental magmas generated by the partial melting of depleted mantle wedge material that was metasomatized by subduction-related melts. These magmas then underwent variable degrees of fractional crystallization and assimilated insignificant amounts of crustal material. The meta-basalt of Liming likely originated from the metasomatized mantle-derived melts hybridized by the convective asthenosphere during the evolution of the magmas. In comparison, the silicic rocks have negative εNd(t) and variable zircon εHf(t) values, are enriched in the large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and LREE, and are depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), yielding arc-like geochemical signatures. The geochemical and zircon εHf(t) characteristics of Jiangfeng and Longtouqiao rhyolites are indicative of formation from magmas generated by the partial melting of mafic lower crustal material, whereas the Liming meta-rhyolite was probably produced from a source involving some depleted mantle components. The bimodal volcanic rocks provide convincing evidence that the Early-Middle Permian volcanism in the Jiamusi Massif occurred in an extensional environment probably associated with slab break-off during the westward

  4. Sylvicultural procedures in catchment areas of the mountain streams as exemplified by the Skrzyczne massif in Poland

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    Małek Stanisław


    Full Text Available Extensive disintegration of spruce forests in the Beskidy Mts. in South Poland generates a need to regenerate sizeable areas as well as to rebuild forest stands which have defended themselves against breakdown. In practice, the magnitude of relevant management tasks does not allow for keeping up with the progressive destruction of forest, especially at higher altitudes, where natural regeneration does not occur as much as necessary. In addition, the species composition is limited to spruce, sometimes accompanied by beech and fir, whereas other species have a negligible share. What may be helpful in solving this problem is the method of regeneration of such areas and of establishment of under-canopy cultures, consisting of patchwork, multi-stage regeneration task performance, starting from the areas with the best chance of reforestation success and using the existing self-sown trees. Such areas undoubtedly include habitats with better water balance, i.e. humid habitats (in the case of larger areas, distinguished in the forest management plan as humid forest site types. The aim of the present study was to propose management of watercourses and headwater areas in the region of the Skrzyczne massif where the selected catchments are situated on the southern (the Malinowski Stream and the northern (the Roztoka Czyrna stream slopes of this massif. The research was carried out in August 2012 and included juxtaposition of available hydrological maps with actual field conditions along with identification of springs and streams and the course of their beds in order to update the existing data. The updating of the forest numerical maps in the existing databases of the State Forests IT System (SILP included verification of the course of streams and determination of their nature (permanent or periodic with a division into the existing ones and the added ones. The data was recorded against the background of the division of the forest surface, contour lines

  5. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J


    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available

  6. Evolution of hut access facing glacier shrinkage in the Mer de Glace basin (Mont Blanc massif, France) (United States)

    Mourey, Jacques; Ravanel, Ludovic


    Given the evolution of high mountain environment due to global warming, mountaineering routes and huts accesses are more and more strongly affected by glacial shrinkage and concomitant gravity processes, but almost no studies have been conducted on this relationship. The aim of this research is to describe and explain the evolution over the last century of the access to the five alpine huts around the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif), the larger French glacier (length = 11.5 km, area = 30 km²), a major place for Alpine tourism since 1741 and the birthplace of mountaineering, by using several methods (comparing photographs, surveying, collecting historical documents). While most of the 20th century shows no marked changes, loss of ice thickness and associated erosion of lateral moraines generate numerous and significant changes since the 1990s. Boulder falls, rockfalls and landslides are the main geomorphological processes that affect the access, while the glacier surface lowering makes access much longer and more unstable. The danger is then greatly increased and the access must be relocated and/or equipped more and more frequently (e.g. a total of 520 m of ladders has been added). This questions the future accessibility to the huts, jeopardizing an important part of mountaineering and its linked economy in the Mer de Glace area.

  7. High-yielding aquifers in crystalline basement: insights about the role of fault zones, exemplified by Armorican Massif, France (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Bour, Olivier; Aquilina, Luc; Dewandel, Benoît


    While groundwater constitutes a crucial resource in many crystalline-rock regions worldwide, well-yield conditions are highly variable and barely understood. Nevertheless, it is well known that fault zones may have the capacity to ensure sustainable yield in crystalline media, but there are only a few and disparate examples in the literature that describe high-yield conditions related to fault zones in crystalline rock basements. By investigating structural and hydraulic properties of remarkable yielding sites identified in the Armorican Massif, western France, this study discusses the main factors that may explain such exceptional hydrogeological properties. Twenty-three sites, identified through analysis of databases available for the region, are investigated. Results show that: (1) the highly transmissive fractures are related to fault zones which ensure the main water inflow in the pumped wells; (2) the probability of intersecting such transmissive fault zones does not vary significantly with depth, at least within the range investigated in this study (0-200 m); and (3) high yield is mainly controlled by the structural features of the fault zones, in particular the fault dip and the presence of a connected storage reservoir. Conceptual models that summarize the hydrological properties of high-yield groundwater resources related to fault zones in crystalline basement are shown and discussed.


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    Fuat IŞIK


    Full Text Available The study area is located within the Central Anatolian Massif around Yeşilhisar (Kayseri. The oldest rock units in the area are ophiolitic rocks which are mainly found as gabbro and dunites. The gabbros are dark green,blackish green coloured and hard, thin-medium granular hipidiomorf textured. Main Composition of gabbroic rocks are hornblende, clinopyroxen, plagioclase, quartz and opaque minerals, sphene and spinel are accessory minerals. The dunites are yellowish, greenish yellow coloured and fragile and stockwork textured. The main components of the dunites are olivine, pyroxen and chromite. The gabbroic rocks are mainly toleitic and can be classified as metaaluminious rocks. Main and trace element variations indicate that the fractionation of hornblende and Fe-Ti oxide minerals. Ratio of Condridite normalized Light REE to Heavy REE displays no enrichment La/LuN = 0.26. Trace and REE contents of the gabbroic rocks indicate that these rocks were a product of MORB like source.

  9. The evolution of a late-Variscan high-T/low-P region: the southeastern margin of the Bohemian massif (United States)

    Büttner, S.; Kruhl, J. H.

    A characteristic feature of the Moldanubian part of the central European Variscides is late-orogenic high-T/low-P metamorphism. Its past history and the possible reasons for this metamorphism are highlighted by the tectonometamorphic development at the south- eastern margin of the Bohemian massif. During the Variscan orogeny, at ca. 340 Ma, two different crustal segments were juxtaposed by thrusting (the Drosendorf unit on top of the Monotonous unit). This probably marks a collisional event that is widespread in the southeastern Moldanubian zone. The collision was followed by crustal uplift accompanied by strong heating in the lowermost structural unit (Monotonous unit). During the subsequent orogenic collapse, the Moldanubian nappe pile was thrust over parts of the Moravo-Silesian terrane. A late stage of crustal extension under greenschist-facies conditions is linked with pluton emplacement. In general, magmatic underplating as well as delamination of the lithospheric mantle explains the high-T/low-P metamorphism and the large-scale plutonism in the southeastern Moldanubian zone.

  10. Characteristics of Polycrystalline Garnets in Micaschists From the Southern Menderes Massif (Turkey) and the Solitude Range (BC, Canada) (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Seaton, N.


    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of garnets in metamorphic rocks has revealed the presence of grain boundaries within what appear, based on morphology, to be single crystals. There have only been a few previous studies that have described these types of polycrystals in nature. In this study we analyzed garnets from two suites of metamorphic rocks: kyanite-staurolite schist from the Solitude Range, SW Rocky Mountains (BC, Canada), and mica schist from the southern Menderes Massif (western Turkey). Garnets from both sites are growth zoned and formed during a single metamorphic event, although the Solitude Range garnets record in their zoning and inclusion textures a change from chloritoid-present to staurolite- present (chloritoid-out) reaction history. The garnet-bearing rocks from these sites formed at P-T conditions of 430-550 C, 7-8 kbar (Menderes) and 550-600 C, 6-7 kbar (BC). Less than 10% of the garnets analyzed are polycrystals, but all polycrystals detected have similar characteristics: high-angle misorientation boundaries that crosscut inclusions and inclusion trails. Most polycrystals have 2-3 domains (crystals), but one complex polycrystal was comprised of 16 distinct lattice domains. In most cases, misorientation boundaries crosscut growth zoning, but one Menderes polycrystal exhibited distinct zoning in each domain. Most polycrystals likely formed early in the garnet growth history as closely-spaced nuclei coalesced, but clustering (coalescence) continued throughout the history of garnet crystallization in these rocks.

  11. A new species of the genus Pristimantis (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) associated with the moderately elevated massifs of French Guiana. (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Courtois, Elodie A; Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Marty, Christian; Kok, Philippe J R


    We describe a new Pristimantis from French Guiana, northern South America, which is mainly distinguished from known phenotypically related congeners (i.e. species from the polyphyletic unistrigatus species group) occurring at low and middle elevations in the Guiana Shield by the combination of a distinct tympanum, a lower ratio of tibia vs. hand length, a reddish groin region, and a distinct advertisement call consisting of clusters of generally four short notes. The new species inhabits pristine primary forests on the slopes of isolated massifs reaching more than 400 m elevation, and seems not to occur below ca. 200 m above sea level. Such a sharp altitudinal limit suggests a strong influence of thermal variation on the distribution of the species, and therefore a potential sensitivity to climate change. With only nine isolated populations documented so far, the new species should be prioritized for conservation. Historical climate fluctuations during the Quaternary are likely responsible for the distribution pattern of the new species. 

  12. Multidisciplinary characterisation of sedimentary processes in a recent maar lake (Lake Pavin, French Massif Central and implication for natural hazards

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    E. Chapron


    Full Text Available Sedimentation processes occurring in the most recent maar lake of the French Massif Central (Lake Pavin are documented for the first time based on high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric surveys and by piston coring and radiocarbon dating on a sediment depocentre developed on a narrow sub aquatic plateau. This new data set confirms the mid Holocene age of maar lake Pavin formation at 6970±60 yrs cal BP and highlights a wide range of gravity reworking phenomena affecting the basin. In particular, a slump deposit dated between AD 580–640 remoulded both mid-Holocene lacustrine sediments, terrestrial plant debris and some volcanic material from the northern crater inner walls. Between AD 1200 and AD 1300, a large slide scar mapped at 50 m depth also affected the southern edge of the sub aquatic plateau, suggesting that these gas-rich biogenic sediments (laminated diatomite are poorly stable. Although several triggering mechanisms can be proposed for these prehistoric sub-aquatic mass wasting deposits in Lake Pavin, we argue that such large remobilisation of gas-rich sediments may affect the gas stability in deep waters of meromictic maar lakes. This study highlights the need to further document mass wasting processes in maar lakes and their impacts on the generation of waves, favouring the development of dangerous (and potentially deadly limnic eruptions.

  13. U-Th-Pb dating of the Brossasco ultrahigh-pressure metagranite, Dora-Maira massif, western Alps

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    Paquette, J.L.; Montel, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chopin, C. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Geologie


    The Brossasco metagranite is part of the coherent ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Dora-Maira massif and, although it has reached Alpine peak metamorphic conditions of about 725 C/30 kbar, still locally preserves an undeformed magmatic texture. In order to obtain new chronological constraints on this key area of the western Alps, we studied the behaviour of the U-Th-Pb system in zircons and monazites from such an undeformed facies. Only zircon fractions containing very small needle-shaped inclusions are concordant at 304{+-}3 Ma. This result is interpreted as the emplacement age of the granite. All other zircons show an old inherited memory and the more U-rich of these crystals were affected by an episodic Pb loss with a poorly defined lower intercept at 60{+-}45 Ma. Both TIMS (thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry) and electron-microprobe analysis of monazites show that this last event has also disturbed their U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic systems, without resetting them completely. Comparison with cofacial rock-types which have been completely reworked under these extreme P-T conditions shows that deformation and mass transfer as well as the nature of the protoliths and the characteristics of their zircons have a much more pronounced influence on the behaviour of isotopic systems than the temperature and/or pressure parameters. This evidence is an obvious limitation to the use of the blocking-temperature concept. (orig.)

  14. Mantle lithosphere transition from the East European Craton to the Variscan Bohemian Massif imaged by shear-wave splitting

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    L. Vecsey


    Full Text Available We analyse splitting of teleseismic shear-wave recorded during the PASSEQ passive experiment (2006–2008 focussed on the upper mantle structure across the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ. 1009 pairs of the delay times of the slow split-shear waves and orientations of the polarized fast-shear waves exhibit lateral variations across the array, as well as backazimuth dependences of measurements at individual stations. While a distinct regionalization of the splitting parameters exists in the Phanerozoic part of Europe, a correlation with the large-scale tectonics around the TESZ and in the East European Craton (EEC is less evident. No general and abrupt change in the splitting parameters (anisotropic structure can be related to the Teisseyre–Tornquist Zone (TTZ, marking the edge of the Precambrian province on the surface. Instead, regional variations of anisotropic structure were found along the TESZ/TTZ. We suggest a south-westward continuation of the Precambrian mantle lithosphere beneath the TESZ and the adjacent Phanerozoic part of Europe, probably as far as towards the Bohemian Massif.

  15. Present state and dynamics of glacio-nival systems of Mongun-Taiga and Tavan-Bogdo-Ola mountain massifs

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    K. V. Chistyakov


    Full Text Available Climate-induced variations of glacio-nival systems (snow patches, glaciers, stone-ice formations of the high-mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga and Tavan-Bogdo-Ola (north slope were investigated for 1966-2013 period using results of field observations and analysis of aerial photos. Regional 25-year climatic cycles of the variations have been determined. Characteristics of response of glacio-nival objects to the climate changes were obtained. Results of preliminary mass balance calculations made for the 2012/13 glaciological year and values of the mass balance index calculated for the period 1966-2013 for the Seliverstov Glacier together with recorded climate cooling, increase of snow accumulation, and slowing down of glacier snout retreats give evidence to beginning of new 25-year cycle that is expected to be more favorable phase for existence of the above glacio-nival systems. Five-phase scheme of retreats of the valley glaciers happened after the LIA maximum was constructed on the basis of results of field observations performed for many years. Each phase is characterized by different retreat mechanisms as well as by different response to the same climate change that can be used as a basis for forecasting of future glacial dynamics. Rates of the thermokarst processes determined from observations and general mechanisms of dynamics of stone-ice formations are also discussed in the paper.

  16. Soil Heterogeneity Reflected in Biogeography of Beech Forests in the Borderland Between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians

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    Samec Pavel


    Full Text Available Soil environment characteristics naturally affect the biogeographical classification of forests in central Europe. However, even on the same localities, different systems of vegetation classification de-scribe the forest types according to the naturally dominant tree species with different accuracy. A set of 20 representative natural beech stands in the borderland between the Bohemian Massif (Hercyni-an biogeographical subprovince and the Outer Western Carpathians (Westcarpathian subprovince was selected in order to compare textural, hydrostatic, physico-chemical and chemical properties of soils between the included geomorphological regions, bioregions and biotopes. Differences in the soils of the surveyed beech stands were mainly due to volume weight and specific weight, maximum capillary capacity (MCC, porosity, base saturation (BS, total soil nitrogen (Nt and fulvic acids. Specifics in the relations between these soil characteristics indicated that transient trans-Hercynian beech forests developed in the borderland between the two compared subprovinces. Soils of the investigated Hercynian beech forests were generally characterized by lower BS and lower Nt. Soils of the trans-Hercynian beech forests were more similar to the Carpathian beech forest soils than soils in the other Hercynian beech forests. Soils of the trans-Hercynian and Carpathian beech forests showed similarly higher BS, deeper occurrence of humic substances, lower specific weight and also higher MCC. Higher content of humic substances as well as MCC indicated an equal effect on forest ecology, which may contribute to more accurate classification of forests.

  17. Preliminary palynological analysis of a Holocene peat bog from Apakará-tepui (Chimantá Massif, Venezuelan Guayana

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    Rull, V.


    Full Text Available Preliminary palynological analysis of a Holocene peat bog from Apakará-tepui (Chimantá Massif, Venezuelan Guayana.- This paper reports the preliminary palynological results, at a millennial scale, of a Holocene peat bog sequence, since around 8.0 cal kyr BP to the present, obtained in the summit of the Apakará-tepui (2170 m elevation, in the Chimantá massif, located in the neotropical Venezuelan Guayana. The early Holocene was characterized by a vegetation different to the present, in which trees and shrubs dominated and Myrica (Myricaceae was the main element of the gallery forests around a permanent water body, as indicated by the continuous presence of Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae in high percentages. Around the middle Holocene (5.3 cal kyr BP, a shift towards more herbaceous and non-flooded communities occurred, and the present day vegetation established. This has been interpreted as a shift from warmer and wetter climates to cooler and drier conditions. The first phase, from 8.0 to 5.3 cal kyr BP, falls within a warming phase widely documented worldwide, known as the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The millennial trends shown here will be refined with further studies at centennial to decadal time scales. These results support the hypothesis that the best sites to detect paleoenvironmental changes in the summits of the tabular Guayana mountains are close to altitudinal ecotones.

    Análisis palinológico preliminar de una turbera holocena del Apakará-tepui (Macizo de Chimantá, Guayana venezolana.- Este artículo presenta los resultados palinológicos preliminares, a escala de milenios, de una secuencia holocena, desde 8.0 cal kyr BP hasta la actualidad, obtenida en la cima del Apakará-tepui (2170 m de altitud, en el Macizo del Chimantá, situado en la región neotropical de la Guayana venezolana. El Holoceno temprano se caracterizó por una vegetación diferente a la actual, dominada por árboles y arbustos, en la que

  18. Geological setting and petrogenesis of symmetrically zoned, miarolitic granitic pegmatites at Stak Nala, Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, northern Pakistan (United States)

    Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Wairrach, Y.; Kausar, A.B.; Snee, L.W.


    Miarolitic granitic pegmatites in the Stak valley in the northeast part of the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, in northern Pakistan, locally contain economic quantities of bi- and tricolored tourmaline. The pegmatites form flat-lying sills that range from less than 1 m to more than 3 m thick and show symmetrical internal zonation. A narrow outer or border zone of medium-to coarse-grained oligoclase - K-feldspar - quartz grades inward to a very coarse-grained wall zone characterized by K-feldspar - oligoclase - quartz - schorl tourmaline. Radiating sprays of schorl and flaring megacrysts of K-feldspar (intermediate microcline) point inward, indicating progressive crystallization toward the core. The core zone consists of variable mixtures of blocky K-feldspar (intermediate microcline), oligoclase, quartz, and sparse schorl or elbaite, with local bodies of sodic aplite and miarolitic cavities or "pockets". Minor spessartine-almandine garnet and lo??llingite are disseminated throughout the pegmatite, but were not observed in the pockets. The pockets contain well-formed crystals of albite, quartz, K-feldspar (maximum microcline ?? orthoclase overgrowths), schorl-elbaite tourmaline, muscovite or lepidolite, topaz, and small amounts of other minerals. Elbaite is color-zoned from core to rim: green (Fe2+- and Mn2+-bearing), colorless (Mn2+-bearing), and light pink (trace Mn3+). Within ???10 cm of the pegmatites, the granitic gneiss wallrock is bleached owing to conversion of biotite to muscovite, with local quartz and albite added. Schorl is disseminated through the altered gneiss, and veins of schorl with bleached selvages locally traverse the wallrock up to 1 m from the pegmatite contact. The schorl veins can be traced into the outer part of the wall zone, which suggests that they formed from aqueous fluids derived during early saturation of the pegmatite-forming leucogranitic magma rich in H2O, F, B, and Li. Progressive crystallization resulted in a late-stage sodic

  19. Latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician rift-related magmatic activity in the Kouřim Unit, Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Machek, Matej; Sláma, Jiří; Janoušek, Vojtěch


    Pre-collisional history of high-grade Variscan complexes is mostly difficult to reveal, due to intense reworking during the development of the orogenic belt. An ancient magmatism could provide a unique possibility to study it. The Kouřim Unit represents an extensive pre-Variscan plutonic body involved into the tectonic collage of the Kutná Hora Crystalline Complex, at the northern margin of the Moldanubian Domain in the Bohemian Massif. The LA-ICP-MS zircon ages and geochemical characteristics of (meta-)igneous rocks from the Kouřim Unit allow us to determine the timing and nature of magmatic activity within this part of the Bohemian Massif and thus to decipher its pre-Variscan evolution. The Kouřim Unit is composed of strongly metamorphosed and deformed sequence of magmatic rocks, dominated mainly by various types of migmatites, coarse-grained orthogneisses and minor metadiorites. The newly obtained LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages of four orthogneisses ranging between 486 ± 2 Ma and 484 ± 2 Ma are interpreted as timing the magma crystallization. The single metadiorite gave concordia age of 337 ± 2 Ma interpreted as the age of migmatitization. Few discordant older ages from metadiorite are considered as older xenocrysts more or less reset during the Variscan metamorphism. The orthogneisses are acid (SiO2 = 68.6-76.4 wt. %), exclusively subaluminous and seem to form a single calc-alkaline trend, whereas the metadiorite is intermediate (SiO2 = 54.3 wt. %; mg# = 61), distinctly metaluminous and displays tholeiitic character. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the orthogneisses show LREE enrichment (LaN/YbN = 1.5-8.9) and deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.42-0.32); the NMORB-normalized spiderplots feature LILE/HFSE enrichment with deep negative Nb- Ta-Ti anomalies. In contrast, both patterns of metadiorite resemble those of NMORB (LaN/YbN = 0.5, Eu/Eu* = 0.96). The apparent magmatic arc-like geochemical signature of the orthogneisses is interpreted as

  20. Microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korea: Implications for olivine fabric transition in mantle shear zones (United States)

    Park, Munjae; Jung, Haemyeong


    Large-scale emplaced peridotite bodies may provide insights into plastic deformation process and tectonic evolution in the mantle shear zone. Due to the complexity of deformation microstructures and processes in natural mantle rocks, the evolution of pre-existing olivine fabrics is still not well understood. In this study, we examine well-preserved transitional characteristics of microstructures and olivine fabrics developed in a mantle shear zone from the Yugu peridotite body, the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula. The Yugu peridotite body predominantly comprises spinel harzburgite together with minor lherzolite, dunite, and clinopyroxenite. We classified highly deformed peridotites into four textural types based on their microstructural characteristics: proto-mylonite; proto-mylonite to mylonite transition; mylonite; and ultra-mylonite. Olivine fabrics changed from A-type (proto-mylonite) via D-type (mylonite) to E-type (ultra-mylonite). Olivine fabric transition is interpreted as occurring under hydrous conditions at low temperature and high strain, because of characteristics such as Ti-clinohumite defects (and serpentine) and fluid inclusion trails in olivine, and a hydrous mineral (pargasite) in the matrix, especially in the ultra-mylonitic peridotites. Even though the ultra-mylonitic peridotites contained extremely small (24-30 μm) olivine neoblasts, the olivine fabrics showed a distinct (E-type) pattern rather than a random one. Analysis of the lattice preferred orientation strength, dislocation microstructures, recrystallized grain-size, and deformation mechanism maps of olivine suggest that the proto-mylonitic, mylonitic, and ultra-mylonitic peridotites were deformed by dislocation creep (A-type), dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (D-type), and combination of dislocation and diffusion creep (E-type), respectively.

  1. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks bounding the Santa Marta massif - NW corner of Colombia, South America (United States)

    Bayona, G.; Jimenez, G.; Silva, C.


    The Santa Marta massif (SMM) is a complex terrain located in the NW margin of South America, bounded by the left-lateral Santa Marta fault to the west and the right-lateral Oca fault to the north. The SMM is cored by Precambrian metamorphic and Jurassic intrusive rocks, whereas along the SE flank crop out Jurassic volcanic rocks overlying unconformably by Limestones of Cretaceous age. Paleomagnetic analysis of 30 sites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous units in the SE region uncovered two principal magnetic components. The component "a", isolated in low coercivity and temperatures, has declinations to the north and moderate positive inclinations representing the actual field direction (n=11, D=347.6 I=23 K=30.77, a95=8.4). The component "c", with high coercivity and temperatures, has two orientations. After two-step tilt corrections, the first has northward declination and positive, low inclination (n=9, D=12, I=3, K=18.99, a95=12.1); this direction was uncovered in Cretaceous and some Jurassic rocks near to the Santa Marta fault, and we consider it as a Cretaceous component. The second direction was uncovered only in Jurassic rocks and has NNE declinations with negative-low inclinations (n=9, D=11.3 I=-14.3 K=12.36, a95=15.2); this direction represents a Jurassic component. Jurassic and Cretaceous directions isolated in areas faraway of the Santa Marta Fault suggest slight clockwise vertical-axes rotation. The Jurassic component suggests northward translation of the SMM from Paleolatitude -7.3, to near the magnetic equador in the Cretaceous, and to northern latitudes in the Cenozoic.

  2. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan (United States)

    Hewitt, Kenneth


    The Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif has some of the greatest relief on Earth and highest measured rates of uplift, denudation, and river incision in bedrock. Many studies have sought to understand how its morphology relates to geotectonic evolution and glaciations. However, few catastrophic rock slope failures had been recognised and many of their impacts had been attributed to other processes. Recently more than 150 of these landslides have been found within a 100-km radius of Nanga Parbat (8125 m). New discoveries are reported east, north and west of Nanga Parbat along the Indus streams. Most generated long-run-out rock avalanches that dammed the Indus or its tributaries, some impounding large lakes. They initiated episodes of intermontane sedimentation followed by trenching and removal of sediment. Valley-floor features record a complex interplay of impoundment and sedimentation episodes, superimposition of streams in pre-landslide valley floors, and exhumation of buried features. These findings depart from existing reconstructions of Quaternary events. A number of the rock-avalanche deposits were previously misinterpreted as tills or moraine and their associated lacustrine deposits attributed to glacial lakes. Features up to 1000 m above the Indus, formerly seen as tectonically raised terraces, are depositional features emplaced by landslides, or erosion terraces recording the trenching of valley fill in landslide-interrupted river reaches. Unquestionably, tectonics and glaciation have been important but decisive and misread formative events of the Holocene involve a post-glacial, landslide-fragmented fluvial system. The latter has kept valley developments in a chronic state of disequilibrium with respect to climatic and geotectonic controls. Accepted glacial chronologies are put in doubt, particularly the extent and timing of the last major glaciation. The pace and role processes in the Holocene have been seriously underestimated.

  3. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of granite hosted rhyodacites associated with a disseminated pyrite mineralization (Arnolz, Southern Bohemian Massif, Austria) (United States)

    Göd, Richard; Kurzweil, Johannes; Klötzli, Urs


    The study focuses on a subvolcanic rhyodacite dyke intruding a fine grained biotite granite and paragneisses of the South Bohemian Massif, part of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in Central Europe. The subvertical dyke strikes NNE, displays a thickness of about 30 m and has been traced by boulder mapping for approximately 7 km. The rhyodacites have been affected by two hydrothermal fluids. An older one of oxidizing condition giving rise to a reddish to brownish type of rock (Type I) and a younger fluid of reducing condition causing a greenish variety (Type II). The hydrothermal alteration is associated with the formation of the clay minerals chlorite, sericite, kaolinite and smectite and a disseminated pyrite mineralization. Bulk chemistries of the rhyodacites emphasize the hydrothermal alterations to be isochemical with the exception of sulphur enriched up to a maximum of 0.6 wt%. Trace element composition of the rhyodacites points to a barren geochemical environment in terms of base and precious elements. Sulphur isotope investigations of pyrites from the rhyodacites and the hosting granites respectively yield d34S data ranging from +0.07 to -2.22 ‰, emphasizing a magmatic origin of the sulphur. Geochronological investigations yield in situ U/Pb zircon ages of 312 ± 4 Ma for the biotite granite and of 292 ± 4 Ma for the rhyodacitic dykes indicating a time gap of ≈ 20 Ma between these two intrusive events. A contemporaneous but geochemically specialized granitic intrusion associated with NW striking "felsitic" dykes occurs about 10 to 20 km to the NW of Arnolz. However, the rhyodacites around Arnolz differ significantly from these felsitic dykes in their geochemistry and alteration phenomena which points to a different magmatic source. This coincides with a change in the orientation of the dykes from a NW direction controlling the geochemically specialized intrusions in the NW to a dominating NNE direction mirrored by the studied rhyodacites at Arnolz.


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    Ríos Reyes Carlos Alberto


    Full Text Available A Barrovian sequence of the Silgará Formation at the southwestern Santander Massif, Colombian Andes, contains zoned garnets in which major and trace element zoning correlates with distribution of mineral inclusions, which may indicate that garnet growth rate varied through time and affected both composition and texture ofgarnets, although different garnet producing reactions have also played an important role in the chemical zoning of garent. However, a local metasomatism process associated to the action of late magmatic fluids associated to the emplacement of the Pescadero Pluton (external forcing mechanism would be also considered. In particular, Ca, Mn and Y zoning patterns in some garnets correspond with inclusion-rich vs. inclusion-free zones, althoughthe distribution of inclusions does not correlate with chemical zoning (i.e., the same inclusions are found in Ca-rich and Ca-poor zones of the garnet. There is a similar lack of correlation with accessory phases (apatite, monazite, xenotime, ilmenite or rutile. In a garnet from the garnet-staurolite zone, a high Mn core containsabundant and randomly oriented apatite, monazite and ilmenite inclusions, while a euhedral low Ca mantle zone is inclusion-free and the high Ca / low Mn rim zone contains apatite, monazite and ilmenite aligned parallel to the margins of the garnet. Inclusions in garnet can also represent mineral phases were not completely consumed during garnet growth. Association of garnet zoning trends and patterns with inclusion distribution may help differentiatebetween processes that identically affect major-element zoning but that produced variable textures in the garnet.

  5. Glacial history of a mid-altitude mountain massif: cartography and dating in the Chablais area (France, Switzerland) (United States)

    Perret, A.; Reynard, E.; Delannoy, J.-J.


    The Chablais area, considered as one of the cradles of glaciology (de Charpentier, 1841; Morlot, 1859), has been studied for a long time but several questions still remain unresolved. This study aims to reconstruct the glacial history of the massif, in order to explain the glacial landforms, which constitute an important part of the local geomorphology. The study focuses on the last glacial cycle (OIS 5 - OIS 2). The area is primarily associated with the the Valais glacier, by several local glacial flows and, to a lesser extent, by the Giffre glacier. Its position at the interface of the important Valais glacial flow and less powerful local flows is a specificity of the study area, which implies several bifurcations, penetration of the main glacier into laterals valleys, damming situations, and different responses of the various ice bodies to climatic changes. The study is divided in four steps. (1) The first step was to carry out a wide bibliographic survey to identify the state of knowledge, especially in relation to areas previously poorly studied and areas that needed to be reconsidered given developments in dating methods. (2) Field surveys allowed us to complete observations and prepare local geomorphological maps (of glacial landforms and associated phenomena). (3) The third step was to assemble heterogeneous data (old and new maps, Digital Terrain Models, aerial photographies) in a GIS to establish maps of glacial stages. (4) Finally, the absolute and relative chronology of deglaciation (Guitter, 2003) was completed by cosmogenic nuclide dating. Results have allowed us to address the conditions of glacial landform deposition and evolution in a mid-altitude mountain range, and show the need to be prudent in comparing results of different dating methods. Our results suggest that the ages obtained are overall too young in regard to 10Be ages on the northern alpine foreland (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004) and are in conflict with 14C dates obtained in the area

  6. A Search for Amino Acids and Nucleobases in the Martian Meteorite Roberts Massif 04262 Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Baker, Eleni M.; Smith, Karen E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.


    The investigation into whether Mars contains signatures of past or present life is of great interest to science and society. Amino acids and nucleobases are compounds that are essential for all known life on Earth and are excellent target molecules in the search for potential Martian biomarkers or prebiotic chemistry. Martian meteorites represent the only samples from Mars that can be studied directly in the laboratory on Earth. Here, we analyzed the amino acid and nucleobase content of the shergottite Roberts Massif (RBT) 04262 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We did not detect any nucleobases above our detection limit in formic acid extracts; however, we did measure a suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids in hot-water extracts with high relative abundances of beta-alanine and gamma-amino-eta-butyric acid. The presence of only low (to absent) levels of several proteinogenic amino acids and a lack of nucleobases suggest that this meteorite fragment is fairly uncontaminated with respect to these common biological compounds. The distribution of straight-chained amine-terminal eta-omega-amino acids in RBT 04262 resembled those previously measured in thermally altered carbonaceous meteorites. A carbon isotope ratio of -24(0/00) +/- 6(0/00) for beta-alanine in RBT 04262 is in the range of reduced organic carbon previously measured in Martian meteorites (Steele et al. 2012). The presence of eta-omega-amino acids may be due to a high temperature Fischer-Tropschtype synthesis during igneous processing on Mars or impact ejection of the meteorites from Mars, but more experimental data are needed to support these hypotheses.

  7. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of granite hosted rhyodacites associated with a disseminated pyrite mineralization (Arnolz, Southern Bohemian Massif, Austria) (United States)

    Göd, Richard; Kurzweil, Johannes; Klötzli, Urs


    The study focuses on a subvolcanic rhyodacite dyke intruding a fine grained biotite granite and paragneisses of the South Bohemian Massif, part of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in Central Europe. The subvertical dyke strikes NNE, displays a thickness of about 30 m and has been traced by boulder mapping for approximately 7 km. The rhyodacites have been affected by two hydrothermal fluids. An older one of oxidizing condition giving rise to a reddish to brownish type of rock (Type I) and a younger fluid of reducing condition causing a greenish variety (Type II). The hydrothermal alteration is associated with the formation of the clay minerals chlorite, sericite, kaolinite and smectite and a disseminated pyrite mineralization. Bulk chemistries of the rhyodacites emphasize the hydrothermal alterations to be isochemical with the exception of sulphur enriched up to a maximum of 0.6 wt%. Trace element composition of the rhyodacites points to a barren geochemical environment in terms of base and precious elements. Sulphur isotope investigations of pyrites from the rhyodacites and the hosting granites respectively yield d34S data ranging from +0.07 to -2.22 ‰, emphasizing a magmatic origin of the sulphur. Geochronological investigations yield in situ U/Pb zircon ages of 312 ± 4 Ma for the biotite granite and of 292 ± 4 Ma for the rhyodacitic dykes indicating a time gap of ≈ 20 Ma between these two intrusive events. A contemporaneous but geochemically specialized granitic intrusion associated with NW striking "felsitic" dykes occurs about 10 to 20 km to the NW of Arnolz. However, the rhyodacites around Arnolz differ significantly from these felsitic dykes in their geochemistry and alteration phenomena which points to a different magmatic source. This coincides with a change in the orientation of the dykes from a NW direction controlling the geochemically specialized intrusions in the NW to a dominating NNE direction mirrored by the studied rhyodacites at Arnolz.

  8. Monazite and zircon as major carriers of Th, U, and Y in peraluminous granites: examples from the Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Breiter, Karel


    The chemical compositions of zircon and monazite and the relationships between the contents of Th, U, Y, and REE in both minerals and in the bulk samples of their parental rocks were studied in three Variscan composite peraluminous granite plutons in the Bohemian Massif. It was established that granites of similar bulk composition contain zircon and monazite of significantly different chemistry. Monazite typically contains 5-13 wt% (rarely up to 28 wt%) ThO2, 0.4-2 wt% (up to 8.2 wt%) UO2, and 0.5-2 wt% (up to 5 wt%) Y2O3, whereas zircon typically contains less than 0.1 wt% (rarely up to 1.7 wt%) ThO2, less than 1 wt% UO2 (in the Plechý/Plockenstein granite, commonly, 1-2 wt% and scarcely up to 4.8 wt% UO2), and less than 1 wt% Y2O3 (in the Nejdek pluton often 2-5, maximally 7 wt% Y2O3). Monazite is an essential carrier of thorium, hosting more than 80 % of Th in all studied granites. Monazite also appears to be an important carrier of Y (typically 14-16 %, and in the Melechov pluton, up to 81 % of the total rock content) and U (typically 18-35 % and occasionally 6-60 % of the total rock budget). The importance of zircon for the rock budget of all the investigated elements in granites is lower: 4-26 % U, 5-17 % Y, and less than 5 % Th.

  9. Geochemistry and tectonostratigraphy of the basal allochthonous units of SW Iberia (Évora Massif, Portugal): Keys to the reconstruction of pre-Pangean paleogeography in southern Europe (United States)

    Fernández, Rubén Díez; Fuenlabrada, José Manuel; Chichorro, Martim; Pereira, M. Francisco; Sánchez-Martínez, Sonia; Silva, José B.; Arenas, Ricardo


    The basal allochthonous units of NW and SW Iberia are members of an intra-Gondwana suture zone that spreads across the Iberian Massif and was formed during the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia in the late Paleozoic. This suture zone is made of allochthonous terranes and is currently preserved as a tectonically dismembered ensemble. A multi-proxy analysis is applied to the basal allochthonous units of Iberia to test their affinity and potential usage for tracing a suture zone. A comparison of the lithostratigraphy, tectonometamorphic evolution, geochronology, and geochemical characteristics of the Ediacaran series of these units reveals striking affinities. They derive from rather similar immature sedimentary successions, deposited along the same continental margin, and in relation to a Cadomian magmatic arc. Sm-Nd systematics indicates that the isotopic sources are among the oldest of the Iberian Massif (ca. 2.15-1.5 Ga), suggesting a very strong contribution from the West African Craton. These Ediacaran series were affected by high-P and low- to medium-T metamorphism (blueschist to eclogite facies) during the Late Devonian (ca. 370 Ma). They occur below allochthonous ophiolitic sequences, and on top of autochthonous or parautochthonous domains lacking of high-P and low- to medium-T Devonian metamorphism, i.e., tectonically sandwiched between lithosphere-scale thrusts. The combination of all these characteristics makes these particular Ediacaran series different from the rest of the terranes of the Iberian Massif. Such singularity could be useful for tracing more occurrences of the same suture zone along the Variscan orogen, particularly in cases where its preservation and recognition may be cryptic. It also contributes to improve the paleogeographic reconstruction of the margin of Gondwana during the Ediacaran.

  10. From ocean depths to mountain tops: uplift of the Troodos Massif (Cyprus) constrained by (U-Th)/He thermochronology and geomorphic analysis (United States)

    Morag, N.; Haviv, I.; Katzir, Y.


    The Troodos Massif of Cyprus, rising to nearly 2000 meters above sea level, encompasses one of the world's classic ophiolites. Following its formation at a seafloor spreading center in Late Cretaceous times, this slice of the NeoTethyan oceanic lithosphere was uplifted and eventually exposed on mountain tops during the Neogene. The final uplift and exhumation of the Troodos was previously assigned to Pleistocene age by observations in the circum-Troodos sedimentary strata. However, quantitative thermochronological and geomorphological data from the Massif itself were not available. Here we use apatite (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology complemented by zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track data, and combined with geomorphic analysis to constrain the exhumation and uplift history of the Troodos ophiolite. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages vary with depth from ~ 22 Ma at the top of the Gabbro sequence to ~ 6 Ma at the bottom of the sequence. The deepest sample from a Gabbro pegmatitic dyke intruding the ultramafic sequence yielded an age of ~ 3 Ma. Thermal modeling of apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track data delineates Plio - Pleistocene initiation of rapid uplift and exhumation of the Troodos ophiolite. The estimated cumulative exhumation since its initiation is 2-3 km. No evidence was found for significant uplift of the central Troodos area prior to that time. The geomorphic analysis delineates a bull's-eye zone at the center of the Troodos Massif, where local relief and channel steepness index are highest. The boundaries of this zone roughly correspond with the Mt. Olympus mantle outcrop and suggest recent, differential uplift of this zone relative to its surroundings. The most likely mechanism, which could drive such a focused bull's-eye uplift pattern is hydration of ultramafic rocks (serpentinization) leading to a decrease in rock density and subsequent diapiric uplift of the serpentinized lithospheric mantle.

  11. Permian volcanisms in eastern and southeastern margins of the Jiamusi Massif, northeastern China: zircon U-Pb chronology, geochemistry and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG En; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; PEI FuPing; Yu Yang; Zhang XingZhou


    LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical data for the Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks from eastern and southeastern margins of the Jiamusi Massif are presented to understand the regional tectonic evolution. Zircons from eight representative volcanic rocks are euhedral-subhedral in shape and dis-play striped absorption and fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning as well as high Th/U ratios (0.33-2.37), implying a magmatic origin. The dating results show that the Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks in the study area can be divided into two stages, I.e., the Early Permian (a weighted mean 206pb/238U age of 288 Ma) and the Middle Permian volcanisms (a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 268 Ma). The former is com-posed mainly of basalt, basaltic-andesite, andesite and minor dacite. They are characterized by low SiO2 contents, high Mg# (0.40-0.59), enrichment in Na (Na2O/K2O = 1.26-4.25) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), relative depletion in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength ele-ments (HFSEs), indicating that an active continental margin setting could exist in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Massif in the Early Permian. The latter consists mainly of rhyolite and minor dacite with high SiO2 (77.23%-77.52%), low MgO (0.11%-0.14%), enrichment in K2O (Na2O/K2O ratios <0.80) and Rb, Th, U and depletion in Eu, Sr, P and Ti, implying a crust-derived origin. Therefore, it is proposed that the Middle Permian volcanic rocks could have formed under the collision of the Jiamusi and the Khanka Massifs.

  12. Microbial structures and microencrusters in the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous deposits from Buila-Vânturariţa massif (South Carpathians

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    Andreea Ut̡a


    Full Text Available The Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous limestones from Buila-Vânturariţa massif partly consisting of reef build-ups, are characterised by an important component of microbial organisms. This paper describes and illustrates some of the most important structures interpreted as having a microbial nature: “Tubiphytes” and Bacinella-type structures, cyanobacterial structures, micritic crusts, and peloidal structures. Most of these structures are related to different shallow-water environments, from intertidal, high-energy environment, to protected low energy subtidal environment.

  13. Magnetic fabric and microstructures of Late Paleozoic granitoids from the North Patagonian Massif: Evidence of a collision between Patagonia and Gondwana? (United States)

    López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Tomezzoli, Renata N.


    Widespread Late Paleozoic magmatism in northern Patagonia is a target to test hypotheses on the long standing question over the origin of Patagonia. In recent years, a dispute over whether it is an accreted crustal block that collided with Gondwana in Paleozoic times or an autochthonous part of South America has taken place. As part of a multidisciplinary study, an integrated microstructural and magnetic fabric study was carried out on the Late Carboniferous Yaminué Complex and the Early Permian Navarrete Plutonic Complex, both exposed in the northeastern corner of the North Patagonian Massif (40.5°S, 67.0°W). Other investigated units are the Late Carboniferous Tardugno Granodiorite, the newly defined Cabeza de Vaca Granite and the Late Permian San Martin pluton. Over 300 oriented cores from 60 sites were collected for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. A systematic analysis of around 100 petrographic thin sections was performed to characterize the microstructures of the different magmatic units. Microstructures in the Yaminué Complex are indicative of a transition from magmatic to solid-state deformation. Microstructures of the orthogneiss of tonalitic composition suggest an early stage in the emplacement history of this complex. The Cabeza de Vaca Granite, intrusive in Yaminué Complex, is the most evolved unit and records less intense high-temperature solid-state deformation which suggests that the stress field that controlled the emplacement of the Yaminué Complex outlasted it. According to petrologic and structural considerations, the Navarrete Plutonic Complex has been subdivided into three facies, i.e. Robaina, Guanacos and Aranda, respectively. Microstructures of the Navarrete Plutonic Complex are mostly magmatic to submagmatic, versus the solid-state fabric that characterizes the Robaina facies at the contact with the Yaminué Complex. Combined analyses of AMS and microstructural data lead us to suggest that the Yaminué Complex

  14. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

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    Takasu Akira


    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  15. Low-temperature thermal evolution of the Azov Massif (Ukrainian Shield Ukraine) — Implications for interpreting (U Th)/He and fission track ages from cratons (United States)

    Danišík, Martin; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.; Privalov, Vitaliy A.; Panova, Elena A.; Frisch, Wolfgang; Spiegel, Cornelia


    The low-temperature thermal evolution of the Azov Massif (eastern part of the Ukrainian Shield, Ukraine) is investigated by combined zircon fission track (ZFT), apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology. The data help to better understand the geodynamic evolution of the Azov Massif and the adjacent intra-cratonic rift basin (Dniepr-Donets Basin) as follows: ZFT data reveal that the Precambrian crystalline basement of the Azov Massif was heated to temperatures close to ˜ 240 °C during the Late Palaeozoic. The heating event is interpreted in terms of burial of the basement beneath a several kilometres thick pile of Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary deposits of the adjacent Dniepr-Donets Basin. During Permo-Triassic times, large parts of the basement were affected by a thermal event related to mantle upwelling, associated magmatic activity and increased heat flow in the adjacent rift. The major part of the basement cooled to near-surface conditions in the Early to Middle Triassic and since then was thermally stable as suggested by AFT and AHe data. Further, AFT data confirm Late Triassic magmatic activity in the Azov Massif, which, however, did not influence regional thermal pattern. The northern part of the basement and its sedimentary cover record a cooling event in the Jurassic, which was probably related to erosion. However, although Ar-Ar data of Jurassic magmatic activity in the Donbas Foldbelt are about 20 My younger than the AFT data, thermal relaxation after elevated heat flow associated with this magmatic event cannot be completely ruled out. Our results reveal apparent inconsistencies between AFT and AHe data: the AHe ages corrected for alpha ejection according to the standard procedure [Farley, K.A., Wolf, R.A., Silver, L.T., 1996. The effect of long alpha-stopping distances on (U-Th)/He ages. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(21), 4223-4229.; Farley, K.A., 2002. (U-Th)/He dating: Techniques, calibrations, and applications

  16. Reconstruction of the rock fall/avalanche frequency in the Mont Blanc massif since the Last Glacial Maximum. New results using 10Be cosmogenic dating and reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Gallach, Xavi; Ogier, Christophe; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien


    Rockfalls and rock avalanches are active processes in the Mont Blanc massif, with infrastructure and alpinists at risk. Thanks to a network of observers (hut keepers, mountain guides, alpinists) set up in 2007 present rockfalls are well surveyed and documented. Rockfall frequency over the past 150 years has been studied by comparison of historical photographs, showing that it strongly increased during the three last decades, especially during hot periods like the summer of 2003 and 2015, due to permafrost degradation driven by the climate change. In order to decipher the possible relationship between rockfall occurrence and the warmest periods of the Lateglacial and the Holocene, we start to study the morphodynamics of some selected high-elevated (>3000 m a.s.l.) rockwalls of the massif on a long timescale. Contrary to low altitude, deglaciated sites where study of large rockfall deposits allows to quantify frequency and magnitude of the process, rockfalls that detached from high-elevated rockwalls are no more noticeable as debris were absorbed and evacuated by the glaciers. Therefore, our study focuses on the rockfall scars. Their 10Be dating gives us the rock surface exposure age from present to far beyond the Last Glacial Maximum, interpreted as the rockfall ages. TCN dating of rockfalls has been carried out at the Aiguille du Midi in 2007 (Boehlert et al., 2008), and three other sites in the Mont Blanc massif in 2011 (Gallach et al., submitted). Here we present a new data set of rockfall dating carried out in 2015 that improves the 2007 and 2011 data. Furthermore, a relationship between the colour of the Mont Blanc granite and its exposure age has been shown: fresh rock surface is light grey (e.g. in recent rockfall scars) whereas weathered rock surface is in the range grey to orange/red: the redder a rock surface, the older its age. Here, reflectance spectroscopy is used to quantify the granite surface colour. Böhlert, R., Gruber, S., Egli, M., Maisch, M

  17. Applicability of the RSCM geothermometry approach in a complex tectono-metamorphic context: The Jebilet massif case study (Variscan Belt, Morocco) (United States)

    Delchini, Sylvain; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Plunder, Alexis; Michard, André


    The Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) geothermometry approach allows determining the peak temperature recorded by metasediments through their metamorphic history. This technique, however, has been calibrated using Meso-Cenozoic metapelitic rocks that underwent a single metamorphic cycle. Until now, the reliability of the RSCM method has never been demonstrated for contexts with superposition of regional and contact metamorphism, such as many Variscan contexts. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the RSCM method to these polyphased metamorphism terrains and at investigating the cumulative molecular transformations of carbonaceous materials related to metamorphic superposition. To address the above issues, samples were collected in the Variscan Jebilet massif of the Moroccan Meseta. This massif was first affected by a regional, greenschist facies metamorphic event (D1 phase), and then by a higher-T, regional and contact metamorphism that reached the hornfels/amphibolite facies conditions (D2 and D2/D3 phases). Mineralogical, thermobarometric and RSCM methods have been used in this study to determine the peak T recorded by the studied rocks. The results obtained for greenschist facies metapelitic rocks show a good agreement between the mineralogical assemblage Chlorite-Phengite-Felspar-Quartz and the Raman temperatures ranging from 330 to 394 ± 50 °C. In the metapelitic rocks that underwent higher metamorphism grades (hornfels/amphibolite facies), four dominant mineral assemblages were observed: (1) Chlorite-Biotite, (2) Cordierite-Biotite, (3) Andalusite-Garnet-Bt, and (4) Andalusite-Cordierite-Biotite. The corresponding Raman temperatures vary respectively between 474 ± 50 °C and 628 ± 50 °C. The pseudo-sections generated for samples from the hornfels/amphibolite facies confirmed the peak temperatures measured by the RSCM method. Our results do not support clear evidence of potential molecular cumulative effect on CM

  18. Records of the otter in Orta and Orfento rivers (Abruzzo, Maiella Massif / Osservazioni preliminari sulla presenza della lontra nei fiumi Orta e Orfento (Abruzzo, Massiccio della Maiella

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    Paolo Barrasso


    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Otter, Lutra lutra (Linné, 1758, in Orta and Orfento rivers (Central Italy, Maiella massif is discussed. New records confirm the presence in Orta river, although with a very small population. Riassunto La presenza della lontra nei fiumi Orta e Orfento, nel massiccio della Maiella, viene discussa. Recenti rilevamenti ne confermano la presenza, sia pure con una popolazione di dimensioni molto ridotte, nel bacino del fiume Orta.

  19. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Middle-Late Ordovician Granites and Gabbros in the Erguna Region, NE China:Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of the Erguna Massif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Zhao; Wenliang Xu; Wei Wang; Jie Tang; Yihan Zhang


    Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data and whole-rock major and trace element data for the Middle to Late Ordovician gabbros and granites in the Erguna Massif, NE China were presented in this paper. The petrogenesis of these rocks and the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the massif were discussed. Zircons from the granites and gabbros are of magmatic origin based on their cathodolumi-nescence (CL) images. The206Pb/238U ages obtained from 20 spots on zircons from the granites range from 446±9 to 464±10 Ma, yielding a weighted mean age of 455±10 Ma; and 16 spots on zircons from the gabbros range from 465±10 to 466±7 Ma, yielding a weighted mean age of 465±2 Ma. Chemically, the Late Ordovician granites in the Erguna Massif are weakly peraluminous and similar to A-type granites. The granites and gabbros are all enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, K), and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti); they all exhibit marked negative Eu anomalies. Their zirconεHf(t) values range mainly from +1.86 to +6.21 (for the granites) and +1.39 to +3.89 (for the gabbros), except for one spot with a value of -0.27 (for a gabbro). TheTDM1 ages for the gabbros andTDM2 ages for the granites vary from 928 to 1 091 Ma and from 1 287 to 1 675 Ma, respectively. It is concluded that the primary magma of the granites could have been derived by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic newly accreted crustal ma-terial, whereas the primary magma of the gabbros originated by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. These Middle-Late Or-dovician granites and gabbros constitute a typical bimodal igneous rock association, implying an exten-sional environment that was probably related to the post-collisional development of the Erguna and Xing’an massifs in the early Early Paleozoic.

  20. Contribution méthodologique et expérimentale à l'étude de la diminution de la résistance des massifs rocheux par vieillissement


    Sorgi, Claudia; Auvray, Christophe


    National audience; La littérature scientifique concernant le phénomène du vieillissement des massifs rocheux est largement documentée. Il est clairement mis en évidence que certains facteurs responsables de l'affaiblissement dans le temps des propriétés géomécaniques des massifs rocheux sont intrinsèques aux matériaux rocheux (facteurs dits internes) alors que d'autres, dits externes, dépendent de l'environnement caractérisant l'ouvrage rocheux (température, hygrométrie...). Ainsi, pour que l...

  1. Pleistocene melting and rapid exhumation of the Nanga Parbat massif, Pakistan: Age and P- T conditions of accessory mineral growth in migmatite and leucogranite (United States)

    Crowley, J. L.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Bowring, S. A.


    Rapid Pleistocene exhumation of the core of the Nanga Parbat massif (northwestern Himalayan syntaxis) is inferred by combining U-Pb dates from monazite, xenotime, and zircon from migmatitic rocks and a leucogranite dike with pressure estimates that are closely linked to dated events in the melting and crystallization history. Exhumation rates of ˜ 11-13 mm/a were calculated from (i) migmatitic rocks that were produced at ˜ 1.7 Ma and 5.0 kbar by dehydration melting of biotite on decompression and (ii) veins with garnet and cordierite that crystallized at ˜ 1.0 Ma and 3.5 kbar. Tourmaline-bearing leucogranitic dikes separated from the source and ascended to crystallize near their solidus at ˜ 0.7 Ma. Modeling of Th/U in the leucogranite magma based on Th/U and U-Pb data from monazite, xenotime, and zircon shows a decrease from 1.1 to 0.2 over a span of 0.15 Ma. The implied acceleration of exhumation at ˜ 1.7 Ma may be linked to mid-crust flow as the evolving thermal structure of the Neogene metamorphism encountered the biotite dehydration-melting reaction. The rapid exhumation may have resulted from significant lowering of the effective viscosity of mid-crustal rocks, leading to vertical channel flow into the core of the Nanga Parbat massif along bounding shear zones.

  2. How is strain localized in a meta-granitoid, mid-crustal basement section? Spatial distribution of deformation in the central Aar massif (Switzerland) (United States)

    Wehrens, P.; Baumberger, R.; Berger, A.; Herwegh, M.


    This study investigates strain distribution in granitoid rocks formerly in the middle crust in the Central Aar massif, Switzerland and places the deformation behavior in the tectonic framework of the Alpine orogeny. Strain is heterogeneously distributed in terms of strain partitioning forming several hundreds of closely spaced shear zones (SZ) (>80 SZ/km with SZ thicknesses <10 cm; about 10 SZ/km with SZ thicknesses of 0.5-10 m) separating 3D bodies of low to moderate background strain. Both the degree of background-strain intensity as well as the number of shear zones increases from granitic to granodioritic host rocks and is controlled by primary variations in the mica content between 10 and 15 vol% (granodiorite) and <8 vol% (granite). Shear zones evolved from ductile shearing in granodiorites, whereas they often nucleated from fractures in the stronger granites. The majority of the steep shear zones preferentially accommodated upward motion by the southern block leading to an increase in peak metamorphic conditions from 250 °C in the North to 450 °C in the South of the Aar massif. The shear zones initiated at about 18-20 km depths during a stage of crustal thickening (Handegg phase). Subsequent deformation reactivated some shear zones with a gradual transition from reverse dip-slip over oblique-slip to strike-slip shear zones under local transpressional conditions (Oberaar phase).

  3. Gravimetric structure for the abyssal mantle massif of Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and its relation to active uplift

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    Full Text Available This paper presents gravimetric and morphologic analyses based on the satellite-derived data set of EGM2008 and TOPEX for the area of the oceanic mantle massif of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The free-air anomaly indicates that the present plate boundary is not situated along the longitudinal graben which cuts peridotite ridge, but about 20 km to the north of it. The high Bouguer anomaly of the peridotite ridge suggests that it is constituted mainly by unserpentinised ultramafic rocks. The absence of isostatic compensation and low-degree serpentinisation of the ultramafic rocks indicate that the peridotite ridge is sustained mainly by active tectonic uplift. The unparallel relation between the transform fault and the relative plate motion generates near north-south compression and the consequent tectonic uplift. In this sense, the peridotite massif is a pressure ridge due to the strike-slip displacement of the Saint Paul Transform Fault.

  4. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe (United States)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz


    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  5. Les variations récentes (1975-2000 de l’englacement dans le Massif de l’Aconcagua (Mendoza, Argentine

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    Julie Le Gall


    Full Text Available La région de Mendoza est particulièrement vulnérable au réchauffement climatique. Les glaciers du massif de l’Aconcagua ont amorcé un important retrait depuis la fin du Petit Âge de Glace. Or la disparition de ces glaciers risque d’entraîner une modification des régimes hydrologiques qui, jusqu’à présent, se caractérisaient par de hautes eaux estivales. Ce pic estival pourrait à l’avenir être atténué et remettre en cause les stratégies de gestion de la ressource en eau. Nous faisons ici le point sur les variations récentes de l’englacement et tentons de dessiner un scénario prospectif.Mendoza area is highly vulnerable to the global warming. The glaciers of the Aconcagua massif are currently shrinking, this trend of retreat began at the end of the Little Ice Age. The disappearance of glaciers may modify hydrological regimes. The discharge is currently at maximum during summer (related to glacier melt, but the peak discharge may occur during spring (related to snow melt in the next future. In this paper we synthesize the recent variations of the glaciers and propose a pattern of future variations.

  6. The hercynian compressive then extensive tectonic of the north flank of the Montagne Noire (southern French Massif Central) (United States)

    Turpaud, P.; Matte, P.


    The Montagne Noire, (southernmost edge of the Massif Central) is well known on its southern flank by low-grade spectacular hercynian nappes and southward recumbent folds. The northern flank, much less known is separated from the southern nappes by a large high grade metamorphic dome, the Axial Zone, which has been interpreted either as a purely extensive metamorphic core complex or as a compressive migmatitic antiform. The northern flank made of Lower Paleozoic epizonal sediments and granitic orthogneisses was previously interpreted as tectonic units separated by, NE-SW trending, southeastward verging thrusts. Our recent kinematic study shows a more complex structure and history: -- Some of the so-called southeastward thrusts (Brusque area) are in fact large, kilometre thick, ductile sinistral shear-zones with a southwestward thrust component (Guérangé-Lozes et Alsac, 1986), southward verging folds and slaty cleavage. That is the first major deformation in the Northern Montagne Noire and it is still undated. -- Closer to the Axial dome, in the Lacaune area, the most conspicuous structures are younger and related to large northeastward detachment with a LP/MT metamorphism. NE-SW trending lineations are here significant of a strong top to the NE shearing well expressed by fish-like biotites, synkinematic cordierites with helicitic inclusion trails, asymmetric boudinage and F2 northeastward drag folds. This spectacular detachment tectonic, which affects as well the whole northern flank of the granitic-gneissic Axial Zone, is dated by Ar39/Ar40 laser method on synkinematic micas at about 300--310 Ma. This event helped to the exhumation and denudation of the gneissic Axial Zone, just before the deposit of Stephanian limnic coal basins. The MT/BP metamophism is contemporaneous of the ductile detachment tectonic but some clues of gaps of metamorphism in the PT section indicate probably late normal faults with the same kinematics but posterior to the metamorphic climax

  7. Constraints on the Vertical Variation of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif From S and SKS Splitting (United States)

    Weeraratne, D. S.; Fischer, K. M.; Manners, U.; Meltzer, A.


    To constrain the magnitude and direction of seismic anisotropy beneath the Nanga Parbat region at the western end of the Himalaya collision zone, we measure shear wave splitting in teleseismic and regional shear phases recorded by the Nanga Parbat Seismic Experiment. At stations outside the Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif (NPHM), SKS and related core phases produce delay times, {δ t}, between 1.5 and 2.3 s with WNW-ESE fast directions. In contrast, regional S phases originating from the Hindu Kush with source depths of 200 km to 300 km produce similar fast directions, roughly E-W, but their delay times are significantly smaller ({δ t ≤ 0.5} s). The depth range sampled by the regional S phases largely lies within high velocity lithosphere imaged by regional shear wave tomography studies of East Asia which extends to more than 200 km depth in the Nanga Parbat region. We thus conclude that anisotropy within the lithosphere only contributes ~0.5 s to the total splitting observed for the teleseismic phases and that the sub-lithospheric mantle is responsible for 1.0 - 1.5 s. Within the interior of the NPHM, SKS paths from a wide range of back-azimuths produce null measurements. Laboratory studies of gneiss samples from Nanga Parbat suggest that as much as 21% shear wave anisotropy with a N-S fast axis may exist in the crust. In addition, deformation in the mantle lithosphere consistent with the roughly E-W compression of the Nanga Parbat orogen could also contribute to shallow N-S anisotropy. The null observations in the NPHM interior may therefore be explained by a two layer anisotropic model with N-S anisotropy in the crust and lithosphere that cancels splitting from roughly E-W sub-lithospheric anisotropy. At stations surrounding the NPHM, the dominant WNW-ESE fast directions in the SKS phases are aligned with the least principal stress direction of the India-Asia collision zone. However, the regional S phases indicate that lithospheric compression can only account

  8. Evidence of unadulterated mantle-depth, granitic melt inclusions: kumdykolite and kokchetavite crystallized from melt in Bohemian Massif granulites. (United States)

    O´Brien, Patrick J.; Ferrero, Silvio; Ziemann, Martin A.; Walczak, Katarzyna; Wunder, Bernd; Hecht, Lutz; Wälle, Markus


    Partial melting under near-UHP conditions of metagranitoids (now HP felsic granulites) at mantle depth in the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (Bohemian Massif, Poland) is recorded in small volumes of hydrous melt trapped as primary melt inclusions (MI) in peritectic garnets. When free of cracks connecting the inclusion with the leucocratic matrix, these "nanogranites" (≤ 50μm inclusion diameter) contain a unique assemblage including kumdykolite, kokchetavite and cristobalite - polymorphs of albite, K-feldspar and quartz, respectively. These usually metastable phases crystallized from the melt (glass?) during rapid exhumation (cm/a) at high T but the crack-free state strongly suggests over-pressuring of the inclusion with respect to the pressure-time path followed by the matrix. Reports of both kumdykolite and kokchetavite have been mainly from natural rocks equilibrated in the diamond stability field. The precise calculation of the PT path of the MI on cooling and the comparison with previous studies suggests, however, that pressure is not influential to their formation, ruling out the possible interpretation of kumdykolite and kokchetavite as indicators of ultra-high pressure conditions. Experimental re-homogenization of these crack-free nanogranites was achieved using a piston cylinder apparatus at 2.7 GPa and 875°C. These conditions are consistent with the results of geothermobarometric calculations on the host rock, suggesting that no H2O loss occurred during exhumation as this would have caused a shift of the inclusion melting T toward higher values. Coupled with the absence of H2O-loss microstructural evidence, e.g. decrepitation cracks and/or vesciculation in re-homogenized nanogranites, this evidence suggests that the nanogranites still preserve the original H2O content of the melt. Both experimental and microstructural evidence support the hypothesis that the presence of these polymorphs should be regarded as direct mineralogical criterion to identify former

  9. Contribution of the RSCM geothermometry to understanding the thermal history of the Hajjar deposit (Guemassa massif, Morocco). (United States)

    Delchini, S.; Lahfid, A.; Ramboz, C.; Branquet, Y.; Maacha, L.


    The knowledge of the thermal history of rocks is a key point for reconstructing the history of basins or mountain belts for mining or petroleum industries. Conventional techniques such as mineralogy, isotopic analysis, provide basic data concerning the maturity degree of organic matter. Recent new geothermometric approach based on the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) has been developed. This approach allows successfully estimating peak temperatures of advanced diagenesis to high-grade metamorphic rocks. The aim of this study is mainly to apply the RSCM geothermometry for 3D paleotemperatures cartography in the Guemessa area, a Hercynian massif located at 35 Km SW of Marrakech, Morocco. This area composed of the carboniferous metasediments, underwent tectonic, metamorphic and hydrothermal events that explain the presence of several base metal deposits like Zn-Pb-Cu Hajjar mine. Combining RSCM data and classical methods of thermometry like fluid inclusions and chlorite thermometry will allow a good understanding of thermal history of Hajjar deposits. The samples used in this study were collected around the Hajjar mine and from different depths in the Hajjar body collected in the footwall and hangingwall of the massive ore. Our peak temperature estimates show values superior to 500°C. These temperatures differ from the ones obtained by other classical methods, which are not higher than 450°C. Nevertheless, fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures of 450°C represent minimum trapping temperature conditions, since the fluids were trapped above boiling conditions. Also, 450°C represents minimum thermic condition for the biotite isograd. Higher Raman temperatures obtained in this work confirm the hypothesis of a late heat flow related to a deep granitic intrusion. This intrusion could be closer to the Hajjar deposit which would explain the higher Raman temperature around the mineralization. It is important to properly evaluate the consequences of

  10. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes, A.


    Full Text Available The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain. The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization.

    El plutón de Reguengos de Monsaraz es una intrusión varisca tardi- a post- tectónica localizada en la Zona de Ossa Morena (Cadena Varisca Ibérica. Los tipos litológicos dominantes son las tonalitas y las granodioritas aunque la zona mas interna del macizo está formada por rocas gabro-dioríticas. Las evidencias de campo muestran que todos los tipos litológicos son heterogéneos a escala mesoscópica y sugieren que el emplazamiento de los magmas máficos y félsicos fue contemporáneo. Los estudios petrográficos y geoquímicos muestran que los diferentes litotipos definen una secuencia continua con una afinidad calcoalcalina típica y composiciones variando desde metaluminosas a peraluminosas. En los diagramas de Harker se observan correlaciones rectilíneas sistemáticas, lo que sugiere que la mezcla de magmas tuvo un papel decisivo en su petrogénesis. Los datos isotópicos de Rb-Sr, usando un par mineral-mineral de una granodiorita

  11. Fluid-present disequilibrium melting in Neoarchean arc-related migmatites of Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea (United States)

    Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup


    The melting process of meta-igneous rocks was investigated via field, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Neoarchean (~ 2.51 Ga) migmatite complex in Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif. This complex consists primarily of garnet-free amphibolites and tonalitic migmatites, both of which contain hornblende, plagioclase and quartz as major constituents. Neosomes and leucosomes in the migmatite have dioritic-tonalitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic compositions, respectively. Compositions of hornblende (XFe = 0.39-0.42) and plagioclase (An24-27) vary little between the neosomes and leucosomes. The amphibolites show distinct depletions in Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti relative to large ion lithophile elements, suggesting an arc-related origin for their basaltic protolith. Leucosomes have lower contents of K2O, MgO, FeO*, TiO2, Zr, Rb, and rare earth elements (REE) than amphibolites and neosomes, but are higher in SiO2, Na2O, and Sr contents. Leucosomes and neosomes have positive [(Eu/Eu*)N = 1.32-7.26] and negative (0.71-0.97) Eu anomalies, respectively, which are attributed to the variable degree of plagioclase fractionation during the partial melting. The P-T condition for the migmatite formation was estimated to be ~ 700-730 °C and 4.7-5.5 kbar, primarily based on the hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry and phase equilibria. Various lines of textural evidence, such as the channel flow of melt along migmatitic layers and the segregation of melt into shear bands or boudin necks suggest a syn-deformation crystallization of melt. Chemical disequilibrium in migmatites is documented not only by petrographic and geochemical data but also by the REE modeling between melt product and source rock. Disequilibrium process is most likely attributed to the rapidity of melt extraction or migration, compared to chemical diffusion rate. In summary, the fluid-present disequilibrium melting of dioritic-tonalitic protoliths has produced tonalitic-trondhjemitic leucosomes in a dynamic

  12. 3D Detection, Quantification and Correlation of Slope Failures with Geologic Structure in the Mont Blanc massif (United States)

    Allan, Mark; Dunning, Stuart; Lim, Michael; Woodward, John


    A thorough understanding of supply from landslides and knowledge of their spatial distribution is of fundamental importance to high-mountain sediment budgets. Advances in 3D data acquisition techniques are heralding new opportunities to create high-resolution topographic models to aid our understanding of landscape change through time. In this study, we use a Structure-from-Motion Multi-View Stereo (SfM-MVS) approach to detect and quantify slope failures at selected sites in the Mont Blanc massif. Past and present glaciations along with its topographical characteristics have resulted in a high rate of geomorphological activity within the range. Data for SfM-MVS processing were captured across variable temporal scales to examine short-term (daily), seasonal and annual change from terrestrial, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and helicopter perspectives. Variable spatial scales were also examined ranging from small focussed slopes (~0.01 km2) to large valley-scale surveys (~3 km2). Alignment and registration were conducted using a series of Ground Control Points (GCPs) across the surveyed slope at various heights and slope aspects. GCPs were also used to optimise data and reduce non-linear distortions. 3D differencing was performed using a multiscale model-to-model comparison algorithm (M3C2) which uses variable thresholding across each slope based on local surface roughness and model alignment quality. Detected change was correlated with local slope structure and 3D discontinuity analysis was undertaken using a plane-detection and clustering approach (DSE). Computation of joint spacing was performed using the classified data and normal distances. Structural analysis allowed us to assign a Slope Mass Rating (SMR) and assess the stability of each slope relative to the detected change and determine likely failure modes. We demonstrate an entirely 3D workflow which preserves the complexity of alpine slope topography to compute volumetric loss using a variable threshold. A

  13. Timing and duration of partial melting and magmatism in the Variscan Montagne Noire gneiss dome (French Massif Central) (United States)

    Trap, Pierre; Roger, Françoise; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    Unravelling the detailed pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-D) evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks provides essential insights into the timing and duration of partial melting and related plutonism during crustal flow and migmatitic dome formation. The Montagne Noire Axial Zone (MNAZ) is a migmatitic dome located within the Variscan orogen in the southern French Massif Central. The timing of the main thermal event that was responsible for intense partial melting is still highly debated. In this study we present new laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) age data on micaschists, migmatites and granites that clarify the P-T-t-D evolution of the MNAZ. Structurally controlled samples were collected in order to constrain the timing of metamorphism, migmatization and plutonism regarding the main structural pattern D1, D2 and D3. D1 and D2 correspond to nappe stacking and dextral transpression, respectively. D3 is related to vertical shortening and coaxial thinning with a preferential NE-SW- to E-W-directed stretching. LA-ICP-MS analyses on the syntectonic Anglès, Soulié and Martys granites yielded U-Th/Pb monazite ages of 305 ± 1.5, 306 ± 1.9 and 314 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Five migmatitic rocks sampled in the eastern and central Espinouse area yielded in situ ages ranging between 312 ± 2 and 301 ± 2 Ma. Along the dome envelope, two garnet-staurolite-bearing micaschists near Saint-Pons-de-Thomières village gave in situ U-Th-Pb ages of 312.1 ± 2.1 and 309.0 ± 3.1 Ma. A fine-grained gneiss with a D3 fabrics in the eastern dome envelope yield a 208Pb/232Th mean age at 305.7 ± 3.9 Ma. All ages obtained in this study for the micaschists, migmatites and granites range between 315 and 301 Ma. We interpret this time span as the record of the high thermal event responsible for intense crustal partial melting within the lower and middle crust. The onset of partial melting occurred at ca. 315 Ma that marked the beginning of

  14. Diverse subaerial and sublacustrine hot spring settings of the Cerro Negro epithermal system (Jurassic, Deseado Massif), Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.


    The Late Jurassic (~ 150 Ma) Cerro Negro volcanic-epithermal-geothermal system (~ 15 km2 area), Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, includes two inferred volcanic emission centers characterized by rhyolitic domes linked along NW-SE regional faults that are associated with deeper level Au/Ag mineralization to the NW, and with shallow epithermal quartz veins and mainly travertine surface hot spring manifestations to the SE. Some travertines are silica-replaced, and siliceous and mixed silica-carbonate geothermal deposits also are found. Five hot spring-related facies associations were mapped in detail, which show morphological and textural similarities to Pleistocene-Recent geothermal deposits at Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.), the Kenya Rift Valley, and elsewhere. They are interpreted to represent subaerial travertine fissure ridge/mound deposits (low-flow spring discharge) and apron terraces (high-flow spring discharge), as well as mixed silica-carbonate lake margin and shallow lake terrace vent-conduit tubes, stromatolitic mounds, and volcano-shaped cones. The nearly 200 mapped fossil vent-associated deposits at Cerro Negro are on a geographical and numerical scale comparable with subaerial and sublacustrine hydrothermal vents at Mammoth Hot Springs, and affiliated with Yellowstone Lake, respectively. Overall, the Cerro Negro geothermal system yields paleoenvironmentally significant textural details of variable quality, owing to both the differential preservation potential of particular subaerial versus subaqueous facies, as well as to the timing and extent of carbonate diagenesis and silica replacement of some deposits. For example, the western fault associated with the Eureka epithermal quartz vein facilitated early silicification of the travertine deposits in the SE volcanic emission center, thereby preserving high-quality, microbial macro- and micro-textures of this silica-replaced "pseudosinter." Cerro Negro provides an opportunity to reconstruct

  15. Characteristics and origin of organic matter and basal respiration of soils from Majella massif (Central Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Basili, M.; Cioci, C.; Cocco, S.; Agnelli, A.; di Peco, D.; Ferraris, P.; Corti, G.


    The effects of the global climate change on the soil organic matter (SOM) are still open to debate. Many studies hypothesize an increase of the CO2 fluxes from the soil following the rise of air temperature, especially for the high latitude soils where the low temperatures have a protective effect on the SOM, holding the mineralization reactions back. We studied the feedback between soil and climate change in the Mediterranean environments, on patterned ground soils and soils developed from glacial lacustrine sediments found in the high-elevated areas (2500 m a.s.l.) of Majella massif (Central Apennines, Italy). Here, several profiles were opened and the soil described and sampled according to the recognized horizons. The samples were characterised according to the routine analyses and the SOM extracted according to the International Humic Substances Society protocol. The obtained humic and fulvic acids were characterised for elemental composition and by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Further, the basal respiration at 5°C, 20°C and 30°C for 20 days was determined on the samples collected from the superficial horizon of each soil. The extracted humic substances showed a particular composition, being mostly comprised of proteinaceous residues (amides II and III), polysaccarides, and esters and aliphatic compounds. This unusual chemical structure and the paucity of vegetation in the study area could support the hypothesis of a mainly soil animal origin of the SOM, probably due to residues of insects, arachnids and arthropods. In fact, the species belonging to these Orders are abundant in these ecosystems and, further, are often characterised by the presence of compounds, such as glycerine and glycoproteins, in their organic fluids that act as antifreezing systems. The basal respiration experiments indicated that the soil microbial community was active at 5°C, while at 20°C or 30°C rather no respiration occurred; further, after 20 days at both

  16. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.


    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  17. The timberline as result of the interactions among forest, abiotic environment and human activity in the Babia Gora massif, Western Carpathians (United States)

    Lajczak, Adam


    The timberline is one of the clearest and most easily discernible boundaries in nature (Troll 1973). Among the existing conceptual models clarifying the complex nature of the relationship between the timberline and the environment and human impact, the fullest seems to be the one presented by K. Holtmeier (2009). The quoted author comprehensively characterizes the timberline, taking into account its course, appearance and ecological characteristics. The aim of the work is to quantitatively assess the factors influencing the course of timberline and its changes over the last ca. 400 years in the Babia Góra massif (1725 m a.s.l.), the highest flysch ridge in the Western Carpathians, which is formed as an asymmetric ridge of kuesta type. Forests mainly in the upper montane zone have preserved their natural character in many areas. Old spruce tree growths are a particular advantage of the Babia Góra Mt., being there on the predominant section of the altitude zone of the timberline. In the rest of this zone, spruce forests have been under a direct or indirect influence of changes resulting from grazing with its 400-year history and forestry taking place about 100 years ago. The 60 m difference between the average altitude of the timberline on the northern (1335 m a.s.l.) and the southern slope (1395 m a.s.l.) on the Babia Góra Mt. can be explained with climatic conditions of these areas. The average gradient of the slope within the timberline ecotone on the southern slope of the massif is by 100 smaller, and the amount of solar energy delivered during the growing season is 40% higher (960 kWh/m2) than on the northern slope. The higher position of the timberline on the windward southern slope is favored by the dominant winds from S-W sector, thinner snow cover and earlier melting due to the lower precipitation on the slope and also due to the winnowing of snow onto the steep northern slope of the ridge. On the southern slope of the ridge there are no larger snow

  18. Two Variscan magmatic events in HT/LP g bt sil semipelitic gneisses (Guilleries massif, Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Iberia) (United States)

    Reche, Joan; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cirés, Jordi; Aleinikoff, John


    The Osor complex in the Guilleries massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges-CCR-,NE. Iberia) is a HT/LP Variscan metamorphic domain, where no evidences are found of previous high P episodes (Durán, H., 1985). Thus, the anomalous Variscan geotherm is thought to be generated during heating of a moderately thickened crust. Peak T of near 700±50°C occurs due to anomalous heat flow at 6±0.5 kbar and are recorded by an alternance of q-rich semi-pelitic gneisses. These rocks are Ca and alkali poor and Fe rich (FM ≈ 0.8) and contain the equilibrium assemblage g-bi-sil-crd-pl-q. Inclusions of st and hercinitic sp are found inside g, pl and bi. Garnets are big cm-sized porphyroblasts with a dominant sieve-like texture. In most samples g has a rotational/helicitic texture and is always found in the q-pl rich part of the matrix. A dominant foliation defined mainly by bi and fibrolitic sil (in places both reacted out to mimetic crd) wraps around the g porphyroblasts. Garnet shows cores that are inclusion rich (ilm, q) and subhedral rims almost devoid of inclusions. The q-pl rich domains are preferentially found located around g and on its pressure shadows but also homogeneously distributed as little matrix lenses or in bigger lenticular domains. In all cases the leucosomes are also wrapped by the dominant foliation (a previous foliation is deduced by opaque-q alignments inside g). The subhedral morphology of pl grains suggest that g-bearing, q-pl rich leucosomatic domains represent more or less modified pl-rich (trondhjemitic like)melt lenses having peritectic g generated during the main deformation episode. Relict st is found inside g at diverse crystal depth levels as well as inside pl and bi in the matrix. A Theriak-Domino (de Capitani & Petrakakis, 2010) model pseudosection suggest that a previous g st bi sil pl assemblage was de-stabilized during T increase (≈ 600 to 750 °C) at around 6 kbar to a g-pl-q-bi-liq giving the pl-rich (ksp-devoid) melts. In addition

  19. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Late Permian mafic intrusions along the boundary area of Jiamusi and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs and adjacent regions, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Mudanjiang Ocean (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Ge, Wen-chun; Yang, Hao; Xu, Wen-liang; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui


    This paper presents zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock major and trace element data, and Hf isotope data for the metagabbros from the Zhushan pluton and gabbros from the Taiping pluton along the boundary area of Jiamusi and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs and adjacent regions, which will not only place important constraints on the rock-forming ages, source characteristics and tectonic setting of these gabbros, but will also provide insights into understanding the Permian tectonic evolution between the Jiamusi Massif and the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif. Zircon U-Pb dating, determined using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and secondary-ion mass spectrometry, indicates that the magmatic zircons from the Zhushan and Taiping plutons yield 206Pb/238U ages of 256 ± 2 Ma and 259 ± 3 Ma, respectively, interpreted as the emplacement ages of the intrusions. The metagabbros from the Zhushan pluton display the geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline series rocks, and are enriched in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements, and depleted in Nb, Ta, P, Zr and Hf. The εHf(t) values of magmatic zircons in these metagabbros vary from - 5.47 to + 0.74. All these geochemical features indicate that the primary magma of the Zhushan pluton was derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The gabbros from the Taiping pluton are also enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Ba and U) relative to high field strength elements, and have negative Nb-Ta-P anomalies, with εHf(t) values of - 4.02 to - 1.70. It is inferred that they also formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The rocks from the Zhushan and Taiping plutons have similar petrogenetic processes, but their primary magmas are likely to be derived from two distinct magma sources based on geochemical and

  20. Upper mantle temperatures from teleseismic tomography of French Massif Central including effects of composition, mineral reactions, anharmonicity, anelasticity and partial melt (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan V.; Zeyen, Hermann; Stoll, Gerald; Werling, Friederike; Altherr, Rainer; Fuchs, Karl


    A new technique for interpretation of 3-D seismic tomographic models in terms of temperature, degree of partial melt and rock composition is presented and tested. We consider both anharmonic and anelastic temperature effects on seismic velocities as well as the effects of mineral reactions, composition and partial melt. It is shown that composition effect is small (less than 1% of velocity) if there are no strongly depleted, Mg-rich harzburgites. We calculate anharmonic temperature derivatives of seismic velocities from compositions of mantle xenoliths. The parameters of a non-linear frequency and temperature-dependent model of attenuation have been taken from published laboratory experiments and calibrated using global Q observations in the upper mantle. For every block of the tomographic model we calculate the absolute temperature and melt fraction required to fit the observed Vp perturbation, the average temperature of the tomographic layer being constrained by the observed surface heat flow. With these temperatures we calculate attenuation, density, Vp and Vs from petrophysical modelling, using the average for 80 mantle xenoliths samples from the French Massif Central. The technique is applied to a recently published 3-D teleseismic P wave tomographic model of the upper mantle beneath the French Massif Central. The observed velocity perturbations are probably caused there by variations in temperature. Temperature does not reach the dry solidus temperature (except for a few tomographic blocks), although it comes close to it at the depth of 60-100 km below volcanic areas. At high subsolidus temperatures the contribution of anelasticity to velocity perturbations is at least as important as the combined effect of anharmonicity and mineral reactions. Our model is consistent with the Pn velocities from refraction seismic studies, QS estimations from surface waves, observed gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow, as well as with the composition and

  1. Weathering profiles in granitoid rocks of the Sila Massif uplands, Calabria, southern Italy: New insights into their formation processes and rates (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Critelli, Salvatore; Borrelli, Luigi; Coniglio, Sabrina; Muto, Francesco; Perri, Francesco


    In this paper we characterized several weathering profiles developed on granitoid rocks in the Sila Massif upland (Calabria, southern Italy), integrating detailed macro- and micromorphological observations with physico-mechanical field tests and petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analyses. We focused our attention on the main weathering and pedogenetic processes, trying to understand apparent discrepancies between weathering grade classes based on field description and geomechanical properties, and two common weathering indices, such as the micropetrographic index (Ip) and the chemical index of alteration (CIA). Our results showed that sericite on plagioclase and biotite chloritization, that represent inherited features formed during late-stage hydrothermal alteration of granitoid rocks, may cause an overestimation of the real degree of weathering of primary mineral grains under meteoric conditions, especially in lower weathering grade classes. Moreover, the frequent identification of Fe-Mn oxides and clay coatings of illuvial origin (rather than or in addition to those formed in situ), both at the macro- and microscale, may also explain an overestimation of the weathering degree with respect to field-based classifications. Finally, some apparent inconsistencies between field geomechanical responses and chemical weathering were interpreted as related to physical weathering processes (cryoclastism and thermoclastism), that lead to rock breakdown even when chemical weathering is not well developed. Hence, our study showed that particular caution is needed for evaluating weathering grades, because traditional field and geochemical-petrographic tools may be biased by inherited hydrothermal alteration, physical weathering and illuvial processes. On the basis of chronological constraints to soil formation obtained from a 42 ka-old volcanic input (mixed to granite parent materials) detected in the soil cover of the Sila Massif upland, a first attempt to estimate

  2. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey (United States)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas


    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of Early Jurassic volcanic rocks in the Erguna Massif, northeast China: Petrogenesis and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture belt (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Jie; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng


    The Mongol-Okhotsk suture belt played an important role in the tectonic evolution of northeast Asia during the Mesozoic. However, few studies have examined the influence of this tectonic belt on the geological evolution of northeast China. In this paper, we present zircon U-Pb geochronology, major and trace element geochemistry, and zircon Hf-O isotopic data for Early Jurassic volcanic rocks in the Erguna Massif of northeast China, with the aim of constraining the evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture belt and its influence on the tectonic history of China during the Early Jurassic. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the trachybasalt and basaltic andesite in the study area were erupted between 193 ± 5 Ma and 181 ± 9 Ma (i.e., in the Early Jurassic). These Early Jurassic volcanic rocks belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, as well as being depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements such as Nb and Ta. The rocks show a small negative Eu anomaly. The zircon εHf (182 Ma) values of the volcanic rocks range from - 1.9 to + 5.1, corresponding to TDM1 values of 640-901 Ma and TDM2 values of 901-1345 Ma. Zircons from two volcanic rocks yield δ18O values of 7.2‰ ± 1.5‰ (n = 19) and 6.6‰ ± 0.7‰ (n = 35). Geochemically, these Early Jurassic volcanic rocks are similar to those from active continental margin settings, and their primary magmas could have been derived from the partial melting of a lithospheric mantle wedge modified by fluid from a subducted slab. The discovery of Early Jurassic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Erguna Massif, together with the coeval porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, indicates that an active continental margin existed in the Erguna area during the Early Jurassic. Taken together, we conclude that southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate took place beneath the Erguna Massif during the Early Jurassic.

  4. Surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 10Be of Late Holocene rock avalanches onto glaciers in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy (United States)

    Deline, Philip; Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter W.


    Rock avalanching represents a potential high risk for growing infrastructure and people living in high mountain areas. This hazardous process is due to steep slopes, high relief, intensive rock fracturing, seismicity, paraglacial control, periglacial climatic conditions and the presence and interaction of snow, glaciers, and permafrost. The timing of rock avalanche recurrence intervals and the recognition of their spatial extension are essential. Very steep and elevated slopes on the Italian flank of the Mont Blanc massif are prone to rock avalanches (RAs) which travel onto glaciers. Whereas small RAs occurred in the Glacier du Miage basin during the 20th Century (the latest in July 2012), large RAs (volume > 1 M m3) travelled repeatedly onto Glaciers de Triolet, Frébouge, and la Brenva during the late Holocene The nature of the granitic deposit which largely overlaps the bottom of the upper Val Ferret over 2 km has been discussed since the 19th century. This extensive deposit was attributed to either glacial, or a September 12th 1717 AD rock avalanche, or a complex mixture of glacial, earlier RA and 1717 RA origin. Surface exposure dating of 16 boulders of the deposit shows that the 1717 RA, covering the whole upper Ferret valley floor, was one of the largest late Holocene RAs of the Alps, with a rock volume of 10-15 M m3 and a likely similar volume of glacier ice travelling more than 7 km downvalley. Two main RA deposits are lying downstream of the Glacier de Frébouge: a sheet of granite boulders with an open-work structure covers the south side of the Val Ferret, which ran > 100 m up the opposite metasedimentary side of the valley; a smaller RA deposit is located at the south and east margins of the large Frébouge polygenic fan. Surface exposure dating of 7 granite boulders of these deposits could in particular confirm whether the larger RA occurred sometime between 991 and 1154 AD, as suggested by a radiocarbon-dated piece of wood. Large RAs (volume > 2 M m3

  5. A case study for natural cascading hazard: the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain) (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David


    In this paper we study the events triggered by the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif as a case study that shows how one hazard can be the main cause of another hazard occurring. The reconstruction of the chain of hazards triggered by the episode has been done on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, event geographical location, and socio-economic impact. The episode has been studied through the analysis of the issues published in six different newspapers between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888. We have collected the data of the ancient meteorological station of the University of Oviedo, and those contained in parish documents. Field work consisted in visual inspection and interviews to the contemporary residents. The information has been stored and crossed for statistical analysis using a logical database structure that has been designed with this purpose. The snowfall episode consisted in four consecutive snowstorms that occurred between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with an average depth ranging between 5 and 7 m. The snow accumulations were the main cause of material damage, affecting 27 high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities. However, we have to consider that the newspapers only reflected those events affecting densely populated areas along with those which affected vital economic spaces (railway lines, roads in mountain passes, etc.). There were more than 200 interruptions with the traffic flow and communication outages, hampering economic activities. Snow built up on the roofs added extra weight to the structure of the buildings so more than 900 constructions collapsed, killing three persons and causing the loss of more than 19.000 head of cattle. Moreover, these snow accumulations were the basis of an episode of sixty-four snow avalanches that, undoubtedly, meant the main personal damage with a number of dead and wounded that reached 29 and 23 respectively. During the snowfall

  6. Instability of a highly vulnerable high alpine rock ridge: the lower Arête des Cosmiques (Mont Blanc massif, France) (United States)

    Ravanel, L.; Deline, P.; Lambiel, C.; Vincent, C.


    Glacier retreat and permafrost degradation are actually more and more thought to explain the increasing instability of rock slopes and rock ridges in high mountain environments. Hot summers with numerous rockfalls we experienced over the last two decades in the Alps have indeed contributed to test/strengthen the hypothesis of a strong correlation between rockfalls and global warming through these two cryospheric factors. Rockfalls from recently deglaciated and/or thawing areas may have very important economic and social implications for high mountain infrastructures and be a fatal hazard for mountaineers. At high mountain sites characterized by infrastructures that can be affected by rockfalls, the monitoring of rock slopes, permafrost and glaciers is thus an essential element for the sustainability of the infrastructure and for the knowledge/management of risks. Our study focuses on a particularly active area of the Mont Blanc massif (France), the lower Arête des Cosmiques, on which is located the very popular Refuge des Cosmiques (3613 m a.s.l.). Since 1998, when a rockfall threatened a part of the refuge and forced to major stabilizing works, observations allowed to identify 10 detachments (20 m3 to > 1000 m3), especially on the SE face of the ridge. Since 2009, this face is yearly surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning to obtain high-resolution 3D models. Their diachronic comparison gives precise measurements of the evolution of the rock slope. Eight rock detachments have thus been documented (0.7 m3 to 256.2 m3). Rock temperature measurements at the ridge and the close Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.), and observations of the evolution of the underlying Glacier du Géant have enable to better understand the origin of the strong dynamics of this highly vulnerable area: (i) rock temperature data suggest the presence of warm permafrost (i.e. close to 0°C) from the first meters to depth in the SE face, and cold permafrost in the NW face; (ii) as suggested by the

  7. Chromium-rich lawsonite in high-Cr eclogites from the Făgăras Massif (South Carpathians) (United States)

    Negulescu, E.; Săbău, G.


    Lawsonite is a relatively rare phase in natural rocks, because of its thermal decomposition during exhumation, and Cr-bearing lawsonite being restricted to only a few occurrences worldwide. Here we report Cr-lawsonite in eclogites hosted in a medium-grade metamorphic complex. Several high-Cr eclogite lenses occur in the Topolog Complex (Făgăras Massif) of dominantly gneissic-amphibolitic composition. High Cr contents are the result of emerald-green mm-sized nodules containing Cr-rich minerals, embedded in a gray-green matrix of kyanite, clinopyroxene, garnet, amphibole, zoisite, and rutile. Garnets occur as porphyroblasts or in coronas around clinopyroxene aggregates probably replacing former magmatic pyroxene. Relict gabbroic textures (sometimes pegmatoid) and whole rock geochemistry indicate a gabbroic cumulate origin. The REE pattern, displaying a slight positive Eu anomaly and a tea spoon-shaped LREE depletion is also indicative of a cumulate origin, as also noted by Pe Piper & Piper (2002) for the Othrys gabbro (as well as others in the Vourinos and Pindos ophiolitic suites) with the same unusual REE-pattern. The emerald-green Cr-rich nodules are unevenly distributed in the rock, and always enclosed in Cr-rich clinopyroxenes (up to 5.46% Cr2O3) which may exhibit Cr-diffusion haloes towards normal Cr-free matrix pyroxene. The nodules consist of diablastic chromite, rutile and Cr-rich kyanite of up to 15.67 wt% Cr2O3, Cr-bearing epidote, to which Cr-rich staurolite (up to 10.45% Cr2O3; XMg up to 0.68) and Cr-rich lawsonite (up to 9.17% Cr2O3) may exceptionally associate. Cr concentrations in kyanite and lawsonite are, to our knowledge, the highest reported so far. Cr-lawsonite was identified in a single sample, as small single phase inclusions armoured in Cr-kyanite. Equilibrium PT-conditions of 2.6 GPa and 610o C were derived from the garnet-mantled clinopyroxene aggregates using multi-equilibria calculation with the PTGIBBS routine of Brandelik & Massonne

  8. Evaluation of fluxes of suspended matters and bedload in the small granitic Strengbach catchment (Vosges massif, France) (United States)

    Cotel, Solenn; Viville, Daniel; Pierret, Marie Claire; Benarioumlil, Sylvain; Chabaux, François


    Transport of suspended matters (SM) and bedload in river controls the erosion process and elements export of a catchment. Furthermore, the SM are heavily involved in the migration of organic matter, metals and pollutants. The knowledge of the dynamics of the SM export is also essential to better understand the hydrogeochemical functioning of natural ecosystem. We investigated this question at the scale of a catchment; the Strengbach basin (site of OHGE - Observatoire Hydro-Géochimique de l'Environnement) where meteorological and hydrological data are monitored since 30 years. This small granitic basin (0,8km²) is located in the Vosges massif at altitudes between 883m and 1146m with 1400mm mean annual precipitations. A first evaluation of the solid fluxes exported at the Strengbach catchment was carried out on the basis of fortnightly sampling and measurement (Viville et al., 2012). Two automatic water samplers have been set up at the outlet of the basin in december 2012, in order to 1) evaluate the potential bias generated by the sampling frequency and 2) improve the SM flux calculation accuracy especially by taking into account the high flow events. These two samplers allowed regular sampling at 16h time step as well as high flow events sampling. At the same time, the bedload flux was estimated fortnightly by measuring the volume of sediments accumulated in a flume. However, the characteristics of the small Strengbach catchment (low water level, low SM concentration and mountainous winter climatic conditions) required to adapt the conventionally used systems. In this way, the SM annual flux estimated with the data from the two samplers varied between 7,5T and 8,8T during the three years of the study. By comparison, the SM annual flux obtained with previous method (only fortnightly sampling) was significantly different with values ranging from 2,8T to 16,6T. The contribution from each sampler and thus each sampling strategy to the improvement of the SM flux

  9. Underground electromagnetic activity in two regions with contrasting seismicity: a case study from the Eastern Alps and Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Koktavý, Pavel; Stemberk, Josef; Macků, Robert; Trčka, Tomáš; Škarvada, Pavel; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Meurers, Bruno; Rowberry, Mattew; Marti, Xavi; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Berhnard; Mitrovic, Ivanka


    Electromagnetic emissions (EME) occur during the fracturing of solid materials under laboratory conditions and may represent potential earthquake precursors. We recorded EME from May 2015 to October 2015 in two caves situated in contrasting seismotectonic settings. Zbrašov Aragonite Caves are located close to the seismically quiescent contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians while Obir Caves are located near the seismically active Periadriatic Fault on the southern margin of the Eastern Alps. The specific monitoring points are located at depths of tens of metres below the ground surface as such places are assumed to represent favourably shielded environments. The EME signals were continuously monitored by two custom-made Emission Data Loggers (EDLOG), comprising both analogue and digital parts. The crucial analogue component within the EDLOG is a wideband shielded magnetic loop antenna. To be able to observe EME related rock deformation and microfracturing we recorded signals between 10 and 200 kHz with a sampling frequency of 500 kHz. An ultralow noise preamplifier placed close to the antenna increases the signal-to-noise ratio. Further signal processing consisted of filtering, such as antialiasing and interference rejection, and additional amplification to fit the signal to the full scale range of the AD convertor. The digital part of the EDLOG comprises a range of PC components such as high-capacity replaceable data storage and unbuffered RAM, high-speed multichannel DAQ cards, and custom made control software in the programming environment LabVIEW. During our EME monitoring all the raw data were stored. This has allowed us to perform advanced data processing and detailed analysis. During the study period some artificial EME signals were observed in Zbrašov Aragonite Caves. This artificial noise may have overprinted any natural signals and is most likely to relate to the pumping of CO2. In contrast, markedly different signals were

  10. Monazite chemical age and composition correlations, an insight in the Palaeozoic evolution of the Leaota Massif, South Carpathians (United States)

    Săbău, Gavril; Negulescu, Elena


    . On the other hand, the chemical variability of the monazite grains enables separation of discrete populations, which cluster in ternary chemical plots (LREE - Y+Nd+MREE - U+Th+Ca, LREE - Nd+MREE - Y) and display similar chondrite-normalized lanthanide patterns, quantitatively evaluated by ratios such as (La/Nd)CN, (Nd/Gd)CN, (Gd/Y)CN, (U/Th)CN, (Y/Y*)CN, and (Eu/Eu*)CN. The correspondence between age and chemical clusters endorses their geological relevance and make a case for geunuine tectonothermal events. Distinct compositional domains corresponding to well-defined age clusters have been identified in gneissic rocks of the Leaota Massif, South Carpathians, highlighting the lower Paleozoic evolution of a crustal fragment detached during the Cambrian from northern Gondwana. Relict ages of Panafrican affinity of around 530 Ma are heavily overprinted by Lower Ordovician crustal thickening followed by tectonic relaxation coeval with granitization (around 470 Ma), followed in turn by high-pressure metamorphism at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (Negulescu et al., 2015) and final tectonic stacking associated to Variscan docking to Laurussia + Avalonia, reflected in a high-pressure overprint at 350-325 Ma. References Kelly N. M., Harley S. L., Möller A. et al. (2012) Chemical Geology 322-323, 192-208 Montel J.-M., Foret S., Veschambre M., Nicollet C., Provost A. (1996) Chemical Geology 131, 37-53 Săbău G., Negulescu E. (2013) GSTF International Journal of Geological Sciences 1/ 1, 20-29 Negulescu E., Săbău G., Massonne H.-J. (2015) EGU2015-6663

  11. Constraints on strain rate and fabric partitioning in ductilely deformed black quartzites (Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone, Iberian Massif) (United States)

    Puelles, Pablo; Ábalos, Benito; Fernández-Armas, Sergio


    The Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone is a is 30-40 km wide and 400 km long, NW-SE trending structure located at the boundary between the Ossa-Morena and Central-Iberian Zones of the Iberian Massif. Two elongated domains can be differentiated inside: the Obejo-Valsequillo domain to the NE and the Ductile Shear Belt (DSB) to the SW. The former exhibits Precambrian to Cambrian volcano-sedimentary rocks unconformably overlaying a Neoproterozoic basement formed by the "Serie Negra". The latter, 5-15 km wide, is composed mainly of metamorphic tectonites including the "Serie Negra" and other units located structurally under it. The petrofabric of "Serie Negra" black quartzites from the DSB is analyzed in this study with the Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction technique (EBSD). Black quartzites represent originally siliceous, chemical-biochemical shallow-water marine deposits, currently composed almost exclusively of quartz and graphite. Macroscopically they exhibit an outstanding planolinear tectonic fabric. Petrographically, coarse- and fine-grained dynamically recrystallized quartz bands alternate. The former contain quartz grains with irregular shapes, mica inclusions and "pinning" grain boundaries. Oriented mica grains and graphite particles constrain irregular quartz grain shapes. Quartz ribbons with chessboard microstructures also occur, indicating recrystallization under elevated temperatures coeval with extreme stretching. Fine-grained recrystallized quartz bands are dominated by quartz grains with straight boundaries, triple junctions, a scarcer evidence of bulging, and a higher concentration of dispersed, minute graphite grains. Quartz lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) patterns permit to identify two well-developed maxima for [c] axes: one close to the Y structural direction and the other one around Z, and -axes girdles normal to Y and Z. Although both [c] axis maxima appear in the coarse- and fine-grained bands, subsets can be isolated with grain cluster

  12. The current deglaciation of the Ortles-Cevedale massif (Eastern Italian Alps): impacts, controls and degree of imbalance (United States)

    Carturan, L.; Filippi, R.; Seppi, R.; Gabrielli, P.; Notarnicola, C.; Bertoldi, L.; Paul, F.; Rastner, P.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.


    The Ortles-Cevedale is the largest glacierized mountain group of the Italian Alps hosting 112 ice bodies, with a total area of 76.8 km2. Since the 1980's, this massif is undergoing a rapid deglaciation, as most of the mountain ranges in the European Alps. The aims of this work were: i) to quantify area and volume change of the Ortles-Cevedale glacier system from the 1980s to the 2000s; ii) to improve the knowledge of factors controlling the spatial variability of the deglaciation; and iii) to assess the degree of imbalance of individual glaciers with respect to the present climate conditions. Two inventories were created, based on Landsat5 TM scenes of 20-09-1987 and 31-08-2009. Contrast-enhanced composites (bands TM5, TM4 and TM3), aerial photos and field surveys (for the most recent period) were used to correct the automatic delineation of glaciers derived from a hard classification based on a threshold applied to a TM3/TM5 ratio image. Since Landsat scenes were acquired at the end of the ablation seasons and fresh snow was absent, the accumulation areas could be roughly determined by mapping the snow covered area. This region was identified from the difference in reflectance between snow and ice in the near infrared band of Landsat (TM4), and mapped after correcting topographic effects to determine surface reflectance. The area-averaged geodetic mass budget was then calculated for the individual glaciers by differencing two Digital Terrain Models (2000s minus 1980s, derived from LiDAR and aerial photogrammetry) and combining the result with the glacier outlines. Afterwards, we examined the mass balance data using statistical analyses (Correlation matrices, Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis). This allowed us highlighting clusters of glaciers, which exhibit a similar behavior, identify the outlayers and the relative influence of the factors controlling spatial variability of the mass losses. Finally, we assessed the degree of imbalance of individual

  13. La couverture tertiaire du flanc nord du massif du Troodos et de la partie méridionale de la Mésaoria : étude stratigraphique et micropaléontologique The Terciary Sediments of the Northern Flank of the Stroodos Massif and the Southern Part of Mesaoria : Stratigraphic and Micropaleonlogical Study

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    Baroz F.


    Full Text Available Le massif pluto-volcanique du Troodos est ceinturé par une importante série sédimentaire le plus souvent à dominante crayeuse dont l'âge va du Maestrichtien au Messinien, époque à laquelle le Troodos émerge. La mer revient en transgression au Pliocène. Après une recherche bibliographique réinterprétant les principaux résultats des travaux antérieurs, une étude pétrographique, micropaléontologique et stratigraphique est réalisée à partir des échantillons recueillis suivant treize profils, sur le flanc N du Troodos et dans la partie méridionale de la Mésaoria. Cette étude montre que les craies résultent de la lithification de boues à Globigérinidés redéposées dans lesquelles les figures de courant et les slumps sont nombreux. Ces dépôts, qui s'organisent en un système progradantà partir du haut fond sous-marin du Troodos, forment sur son flanc N une série condensée présentant de nombreux et souvent spectaculaires hiatus stratigraphiques. Elle caractérise un environnement qui, bathyal inférieur au Maestrichtien-Paléocène, évolue en un milieu de dépôt néritique au Messinien. The plutonic-volcanic Troodos Massif is surrounded by thick sedimentory series, often developed in a predominantly chalky facies ; their age ranges from Maastrichtian to Messinian during which period the Troodos Massif emerged. The sea transgressively returned in Pliocene times. Hoving studied the references which lead to a reinterpretation of the main findings of previous investigations, a petrogrophic, micropaleontological and stratigrophic study of rock somples hos been made, gathered along thirteen profiles on the northern flank of the Troodos Massif and in the southern part of Mesaoria. The study reveals that the chalky resulted from a lithification of redeposited glogigerina oozes, showing numerous current marks and slump structures. These progroding deposits laid down on a Troodos seamount at the time, form a condensed series

  14. Pb-Pb Dating mono zircon from Gloria Norte Massif, Sergipano belt; Datacao de Pb-Pb em monozircao do Macico Gloria Norte, faixa Sergipana

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    Lisboa, V.A.C.; Rosa, M.L.S.; Conceicao, H., E-mail: [Pós-Graduacão em Geociências e Análise de Bacias/Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A. [Pós-Graduacão em Geociências/Universidade Federal do Pará, Belem, PA (Brazil); Rios, D.C. [Departamento de Geologia/Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    The Gloria Norte Massif (MGN) has about 50 km{sup 2} in area, lies between the cities of Nossa Senhora da Gloria and Monte Alegre, northeastern Sergipe state, is composed of monzonitic rocks, being intrusive in metasediments Domain Macurure, in the Sergipano Belt. In this study Pb-Pb geochronological determinations were performed using the evaporation technique single crystals of zircon in MGN. Two samples were analyzed (03A and 12A) and the results were ages of 646 ± 2.5 Ma and 650 ± 4.5 Ma, place this magmatism in the Cryogenian period. These data may imply that around 645-655 Ma, there was an active magmatic arc in this region of the Sergipano Belt. (author)


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    Achille Casale


    Full Text Available Four species of genus Duvalius (sensu stricto are known so far from caves and upper hypogean zone (M.S.S. in the Taygetos massif (Peloponnese, Southern Greece: Duvalius (Duvalius taygetanus Casale, 1979, D. (D. genesti Casale & Vigna Taglianti, 1984, D. (D. diaphanus (Rottenberg, 1874, and D. (D. mirei Deuve, 2001. Two of them, D. diaphanus and D. mirei, are large sized, sibling species with reduced but still evident and pigmented eyes, syntopic at high altitude above 2000 m a.s.l.. The male features and characters of the male genitalia of D. mirei are here described for the first time, and compared with those of D. diaphanus. Furthermore, a key for identification of the four sympatric Duvalius species known so far from Taygetos Mt. is provided.

  16. Extensional deformation of post ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and exhumation process of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie massif,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索书田; 钟增球; 游振东


    A detailed tectonic analysis demonstrates that the present ob served regional tectonic configuration of the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Da bie massif was mainly formed by the extension processes of the post-lndosinian continent-continent oblique collision between the Sino-Korean and V’angtze cratons and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM). The configuration is characterized by a regional tectonic pattern similar to metamorphic core complexes and by the development of multi-layered detachment zones. On the basis of the identification of compressional and extensional fabrics, it is indicated that the exhumation and uplift of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks from the mantle depth to the surface can be divided into at least three different decompression retrogressive metamo rphism and tectonic deformation stages, in which the subhorizontal crustal-scale extensional flow in the middle-lower crust under amphibolite facies conditions is an important geodynamic process in the exhu

  17. 寒区岩屑堆中汞化合物行为研究%Study of Mercury Compounds Behaviour in Technogenous Rock Massifs of Cryolitozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.M. Shesternyov; S.B. Tataurov


    At gold mining in the 19th~20th centuries on technogenous deposits of cryolitozone, considerable amounts of mercury-containing elements (amalgams) have been accumulated. Urgency of their utilization is caused by necessity of providing safe vital activity. It can be achieved when elaborating up-todate technologies providing self-support of utilization as a consequence of extracting precious metals. Difficulty of this problem realization is caused by the absence of theoretical and applied elaborations of making the appropriate works in cryolitozone. The main trends of the problem solving on the grounds of creating scientific method foundations for investigating the cryolitozone amalgams transformation have been considered in the paper. Dynamics has been shown and the revealed regularities of their transformation,testifying of the occurrence of hydrometallurgic processes in cryolitozone massifs in situ, resulted in the decline of gold reserves at decreasing dispersity and increasing hallmarking, have been analyzed.



    Gal, Frédérick


    Ce travail est basé sur l'étude d'un continuum eau de pluie – eau de surface – eau minérale, en utilisant différents outils chimiques et géochimiques. La zone d'étude se situe en bordure Est du Massif Central Français. Elle comprend des entités géographiques et géologiques variées (complexe granito-gneissique et cristallophyllien – Monts du Forez et du Lyonnais d'âge hercynien, graben Oligocène du Forez à venues volcaniques miocènes).La première partie repose sur l'étude en isotopes stables (...

  19. Geochemical evolution of the banded iron formations of the Voronezh Crystalline Massif in the early Precambrian: Sources of matter and geochronological constraints (United States)

    Savko, K. A.; Bazikov, N. S.; Artemenko, G. V.


    The banded iron formations (BIFs) of the Voronezh Crystalline Massif occur at three stratigraphic levels: Mesoarchean, Neoarchean, and Paleoproterozoic. In comparison with Paleoproterozoic BIFs, the Archean BIFs are enriched in TiO2, Al2O3, Cr, Ni, and REEs. All the BIFs are characterized by positive Eu anomalies, absence of Ce anomalies, and predominance of HREEs over LREEs. The Paleoproterozoic BIFs show no evidence of clastic or hydrothermal contamination. The low Ni/Fe ratios indicate that the BIFs are younger than 2.7 Ga and their formation was followed by a sharp drop of the level of the mantle Ni supply. On the other hand, very low (iron accumulation—no later than the Great Oxidation Event of ~2.47 Ga.

  20. Role of mineralogy and particle-size distribution on patterned ground genesis in no-permafrost soils. Majella massif (Italy) and English Lake District (United Kingdom) (United States)

    Cioci, C.; Basili, M.; Cocco, S.; Agnelli, A.; Warburton, J.; Corti, G.


    Patterned ground soils form by self-organization thanks to soil heaving caused by seasonal variation of ice table, but also in no-permafrost affected soils thanks to diurnal or seasonal freeze/thaw cycles. The genesis of the superficial soil pattern is thought to be due to cryo-selection of the skeletal particles, which is induced by freezing/thawing cycles of the water present in the saturated active soil layer. Other conditions required for the formation of a patterned ground are: moderate to null slope, scarce vegetation and the presence of a sufficient amount of fine materials (fines). If all this attains, the stones are easily pushed out the freezing area, so producing sorted features where skeleton and fines are rather segregated. Patterned ground soils were described in a wide range of no-permafrost affected environments. Here, we report on the role of soil mineralogy and particle-size distribution in the genesis of patterned ground in two sites where permafrost is some meters deep (Majella massif, Central Italy) or absent (English Lake District, North West England). Majella massif (Monte Amaro, 2793 m a.s.l.) is at 42° North of latitude and is mainly composed by limestone, while English Lake District (Scafell Pike, 978 m a.s.l.) is at 54° North of latitude and is mainly composed by laminated mudstone and siltstone. Patterned ground soils described on the Majella massif are smaller than those at English Lake: the sorted circles of Majella massif have a diameter of about 5-7 cm while those of the English Lake have a diameter of about 15-20 cm. In each site several soil profiles were dug till about 1 m of depth, described and sampled according to the recognized horizons. All the soils are well drained thanks to high skeleton content (60 to 80%), which is also responsible of preventing soil saturation. The results of mineralogical and particles-size analysis show that the formation of a saturated active layer is possible thanks to the formation of an

  1. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.


    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  2. Alteration and chemical U-Th-total Pb dating of heterogeneous high-uranium zircon from a pegmatite from the Aduiskii massif, middle Urals, Russia (United States)

    Zamyatin, Dmitry A.; Shchapova, Yuliya V.; Votyakov, Sergey L.; Nasdala, Lutz; Lenz, Christoph


    The U-Th-Pb isotope system in the accessory mineral zircon may be disturbed, as for instance by the secondary loss of radiogenic lead. The recognition of such alteration is crucial for the sound interpretation of geochronology results, in particular for chemical dating by means of an electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA). Here we present the example of high-U zircon samples from a granite pegmatite from the Aduiskii Massif, Middle Urals, Russia. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of samples was characterised by EPMA, including joint probability distribution (JPD) analysis of back-scattered electrons (BSE), cathodoluminescence (CL) and U M β images, and by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We found a high-U interior region (U up to 11.4 wt%) without any obvious indication of alteration. This domain has stoichiometric composition, and its Raman spectrum is similar to that of amorphous ZrSiO4. In addition, altered lower-U regions are present that are non-stoichiometric and contain non-formula elements such as Ca, Al, Fe, and water up to several wt%. Their Raman spectra yielded a band near 760-810 cm-1 which is not related to any ZrSiO4 vibration; we assign it tentatively to the symmetric stretching of (UO2)2+ groups. This assignment is supported by the observation of a fairly intense PL phenomenon whose spectral position and vibrational-coupling structure strongly indicates a uranyl-related emission. Altered zones were formed by both fluid-driven diffusion reaction and coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes. The variation of BSE and CL intensities in amorphous high-U zircon is controlled by its chemical composition and the presence of water and uranyl groups. We have determined a weighted mean EPMA age of 246 ± 2 Ma, which agrees reasonably well with previous dating results for the Aduiskii Massif.

  3. The Garzón Massif, Colombia-a new ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic complex in the Early Neoproterozoic of northern South America (United States)

    Altenberger, U.; Mejia Jimenez, D. M.; Günter, C.; Sierra Rodriguez, G. I.; Scheffler, F.; Oberhänsli, R.


    The Garzón Complex of the Garzón Massif in SW Colombia is composed of the Vergel Granulite Unit (VG) and the Las Margaritas Migmatite Unit (LMM). Previous studies reveal peak temperature conditions for the VG of about 740 °C. The present study considers the remarkable exsolution phenomena in feldspars and pyroxenes and titanium-in-quartz thermometry. Recalculated ternary feldspar compositions indicate temperatures around 900-1,000 °C just at or above the ultra-high temperature-metamorphism (UHTM) boundary of granulites. The calculated temperatures range of exsolved ortho- and clinopyroxenes also supports the existence of an UHTM event. In addition, titanium-in-quartz thermometry points towards ultra-high temperatures. It is the first known UHTM crustal segment in the northern part of South America. Although a mean geothermal gradient of ca 38 °C km-1 could imply additional heat supply in the lower crust controlling this extreme of peak metamorphism, an alternative model is suggested. The formation of the Vergel Granulite Unit is supposed to be formed in a continental back-arc environment with a thinned and weakened crust behind a magmatic arc (Guapotón-Mancagua Gneiss) followed by collision. In contrast, rocks of the adjacent Las Margaritas Migmatite Unit display "normal" granulite facies temperatures and are formed in a colder lower crust outside the arc, preserved by the Guapotón-Mancagu Gneiss. Back-arc formation was followed by inversion and thickening of the basin. The three units that form the modern-day Garzón Massif, were juxtaposed upon each other during collision (at ca. 1,000 Ma) and exhumation. The collision leading to the deformation of the studied area is part of the Grenville orogeny leading to the amalgamation of Rodinia.

  4. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Imiter Pan-African granitoids (Saghro massif, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Geotectonic implications (United States)

    Baidada, Bouchra; Cousens, Brian; Alansari, Abdelkhalek; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Barbey, Pierre; Ilmen, Said; Ikenne, Moha


    The Imiter inlier (eastern part of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas) is located on the northwestern border of the West African Craton (WAC) and exhibits a range of Pan-African granitoids. Three massifs that crosscut the Imiter Saghro Group were targeted in this work: the Igoudrane granodiorite, Bou Teglimt granodiorite and Bou Fliou granite. We present here additional geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which define two distinct groups: (i) the Igoudrane massif (677 Ma) and (ii) the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (576 Ma) and the Bou Fliou granite (550 Ma). Geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline signature of the studied granitoids. Both groups of granitoids are slightly peraluminous and show strong negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti in multi-element plots normalized to the primitive mantle. The granitoids have low 143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.5116-0.5117), with TDM model ages ranging from 1.73 to 1.52Ga. The εNd(t) values are negative, decreasing from the Igoudrane samples (-1.1 to -3.1) to the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (-3.0 to -3.3) and Bou Fliou (-4.2 to -4.8). All these data suggest a mixed magmatic origin involving a juvenile mantle source and an old, at least Paleoproterozoic crust. Given Mesoproterozoic rocks are lacking or very scarce in the Anti-Atlas, these results confirm the existence of an old cratonic basement beneath the eastern Anti-Atlas, and therefore suggest that the northern border of the West African Craton must be placed further to the north, as suggested by previous work in this region.

  5. The Chineysky gabbronorite-anorthosite layered massif (NorthernTransbaikalia, Russia): its structure, Fe-Ti-V and Cu-PGE deposits, and parental magma composition (United States)

    Gongalsky, Bronislav I.; Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda A.; Ariskin, Alexey A.; Nikolaev, George S.


    The 1858 ± 17 Ma Chineysky layered anorthosite-gabbronorite massif is located in the southern part of the Siberian platform, within the Kodaro-Udokan metallogenic province of Northern Transbaikalia. The Chineysky Massif outcrops over approximately 130 km2 and contains Russia's largest V ore resources, hosted within titanomagnetite-rich layers, concentrated in the Magnitny and Etyrko deposits. The titanomagnetite ore reserves were estimated at 2 billion tons with 30 % Fe and 10 % TiO2 on average. In addition, two large Cu-PGE deposits—Rudny and Kontactovy—are hosted in the contact rocks between the intrusion and the sandstone floor rocks. A distinctive feature of the Chineysky sulfide ore is their Cu-enriched composition with much lesser amounts of nickel and cobalt (Cu/Ni/Co 76:7:1). The sulfide ore contains up to 355 ppm PGE and 30 ppm Au + Ag. Three types of sulfide mineralization have been distinguished: (1) endo-contact disseminated sulfides within gabbronorite, (2) exo-contact impregnations in sandstone, and (3) veins of massive sulfides in the exo-contact sandstone. The ore consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, with less abundant pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Co-Ni arsenides and sulfoarsenides, linneite-group minerals, sphalerite, cubanite, and millerite. In addition, many rare minerals were recognized in the ores, including PGM (sperrylite, michenerite, merenskyite, etc.). Using the latest version of the COMAGMAT-5 program, the parental magma temperature ( 1150 °C), its composition ( 55 wt.% SiO2, 5.8 % MgO), and the most primitive olivine (Fo77) and plagioclase (An69) compositions were calculated. According to the model, titanomagnetite starts to crystallize at T < 1133 °C (fO2 = NNO + 0.5), triggering sulfide liquid immiscibility when the silicate magma had 0.15 to 0.1 wt.% S.

  6. U-Pb (LA-PIMMS) Ages of Inherited Zircons from Early Palaeozoic Granitoids of the W Sudetes, N Bohemian Massif, Central Europe: Implications for Neoproterozoic Continental Reconstructions (United States)

    Crowley, Q. G.; Patocka, F.; Kachlík, V.


    A U-Pb laser ablation plasma ionisation multi-collector mass spectrometry (LA-PIMMS) geochronological study of zircons from early Palaeozoic (meta)granitoids of the Czech W Sudetes (E Saxothuringian Zone), NW Bohemian Massif, was carried out in order to determine the range of inherited age spectra preserved in these lithologies. Backscattered SEM images indicate that many zircons have distinct cores and rims. The majority of inherited zircon components yield concordant U-Pb ages that fall into the following age ranges: (1) 520-770 Ma, (2) 1.9-2.2 Ga and (3) ca. 3.0 Ga. These three age populations are typical of the W African Craton and the Armorican Terrane Assemblage of Europe. The age spectra correspond to Cadomian, Birimian / Icartian / Eburnean / Burkinian and Leonian events respectively. Some previous Pb-Pb zircon and whole rock Nd studies of similar lithologies from the W Sudetes (e.g. Hegner &Kröner, 2000) have attributed the presence of Mesoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages to a peri-Amazonian provenance. Although some zircons from this study have yielded apparent Mesoproterozoic ages, they are discordant and can be resolved into early Palaeozoic to Neoproterozoic lower intercept and Palaeoproterozoic to Archaean upper intercept components. This unequivocally proves that an inherited Grenvillian component does not exist in these lithologies. We therefore favour derivation of the Saxothuringian zone and associated members of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage from a W African Craton Gondwanan setting. References: Hegner, E, &Kröner, A. 2000. Review of Nd data and xenocrystic and detrital ages from the pre-Variscan basement in the Eastern Bohemian Massif: speculations on palinspastic reconstructions. In: Franke, W., Altherr, R., Haak, V. &Oncken, O. (eds.), Orogenic Processes: Quantification and Modelling in the Variscan Belt of Central Europe Geological Society of London Special Publication, 179, 113-129.

  7. Tectonic and regional metamorphic implications of the discovery of Middle Ordovician conodonts in cover rocks east of the Green Mountain massif, Vermont (United States)

    Ratcliffe, N.M.; Harris, A.G.; Walsh, G.J.


    Middle Ordovician (late Arenigian - early Caradocian) conodonts were recovered from a dolostone lens in carbonaceous schist 30 m below the base of the Pinney Hollow Formation in the Eastern Cover sequence near West Bridgewater, Vermont. These are the first reported fossils from the metamorphic cover sequence rocks east of the Green Mountain, Berkshire, and Housatonic massifs of western New England. The conodonts are recrystallized, coated with graphitic matter, thermally altered to a color alteration index (CAI) of at least 5, and tectonically deformed. The faunule is nearly monospecific, consisting of abundant Periodon aculeatus Hadding? and rare Protopanderodus. The preponderance of Periodon and the absence of warm, shallow-water species characteristic of the North American Midcontinent Conodont Province suggest a slope or basin depositional setting. The conodont-bearing carbonaceous schist is traceable 3 km southeast to the Plymouth area, where it had been designated the uppermost member of the Plymouth Formation, previously regarded as Early Cambrian in age. The age and structural position of the carbonaceous schist above dolostones of the Plymouth Formation but below the Pinney Hollow Formation (upper Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian?) suggest that this unit may be correlative or time transgressive with the Ira Formation, which underlies the Taconic allochthons in the Vermont Valley. Such a correlation supports the concept of placing the western limit of the root zone of the Taconic allochthons beneath the Pinney Hollow Formation. An approximate absolute age assignment for the conodont-bearing rock is between 470 and 454 Ma. This suggests that dynamothermal metamorphism during the Taconian orogeny on the east flank of the Green Mountains was younger than early Caradocian, which is in accord with the middle Caradocian age of the Ira Formation west of the Green Mountain massif.

  8. On the Theoretical Contribution to the Massification of Marxist Philosophy of Shen Hu%胡绳对马克思主义哲学大众化的理论贡献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Shen Hu wrote a lot of works on the massification of Marxist Philosophy from Anti-Japanese War to the founding of the People’ s Republic of China. Exploring the thought of the massification of Marxist Philosophy by collecting and collating those works systematically, it will give impetus to the research on the academic thought of Shen Hu.%胡绳的马克思主义哲学大众化文章、著作颇丰,散见于抗战前、抗战中、解放战争及新中国成立后不同历史时期。系统搜集和整理这些作品,深入挖掘胡绳关于马克思主义哲学大众化思想,有助于推进胡绳学术思想的全面深入研究。

  9. Detrital zircon age distribution from Devonian and Carboniferous sandstone in the Southern Variscan Fold-and-Thrust belt (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central), and their bearings on the Variscan belt evolution (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Li, Xian-hua; Chu, Yang; Ji, Wenbin; Xue, Zhenhua


    In the Southern French Massif Central, the Late Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the Montagne Noire area provide clues to decipher the successive tectonic events that occurred during the evolution of the Variscan belt. Previous sedimentological studies already demonstrated that the siliciclastic deposits were supplied from the northern part of the Massif Central. In this study, detrital zircon provenance analysis has been investigated in Early Devonian (Lochkovian) conglomerate and sandstone, and in Carboniferous (Visean to Early Serpukhovian) sandstone from the recumbent folds and the foreland basin of the Variscan Southern Massif Central in Montagne Noire. The zircon grains from all of the samples yielded U-Pb age spectra ranging from Neoarchean to Late Paleozoic with several age population peaks at 2700 Ma, 2000 Ma, 980 Ma, 750 Ma, 620 Ma, 590 Ma, 560 Ma, 480 Ma, 450 Ma, and 350 Ma. The dominant age populations concentrate on the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. The dominant concordant detrital zircon age populations in the Lochkovian samples, the 480-445 Ma with a statistical peak around 450 Ma, are interpreted as reflecting the rifting event that separated several continental stripes, such as Armorica, Mid-German Crystalline Rise, and Avalonia from the northern part of Gondwana. However, Ediacaran and Cambrian secondary peaks are also observed. The detrital zircons with ages at 352 - 340 Ma, with a statistical peak around 350 Ma, came from the Early Carboniferous volcanic and plutonic rocks similar to those exposed in the NE part of the French Massif Central. Moreover, some Precambrian grains recorded a more complex itinerary and may have experienced a multi-recycling history: the Archean and Proterozoic grains have been firstly deposited in Cambrian or Ordovician terrigenous rocks, and secondly re-sedimented in Devonian and/or Carboniferous formations. Another possibility is that ancient grains would be inherited grains, scavenged from an underlying but not

  10. Le Massif du Taburno-Camposauro, une montagne calcaire en position de charnière à l'échelle de l'Apennin méridional (Italie du Sud

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    Bruno Comentale


    Full Text Available Le massif du Taburno-Camposauro, bloc calcaire tectoniquement soulevé, occupe une position de charnière dans l'Apennin méridional, du fait du morcellement orographique qui permet l'établissement d'une communication entre les deux versants, tyrrhénien et adriatique, de la péninsule italienne. En complément de ce morcellement redevable à la néotectonique plio-pléistocène en extension, le massif juxtapose de vigoureux escarpements de faille et des topographies sommitales à aplanissements partiels, ultérieurement karstifiées. En replaçant ce massif dans le contexte géomorphologique régional, et en en soulignant les nombreuses analogies avec le massif voisin du Matese, ce travail conduit une analyse microtectonique des escarpements de faille associés à des déformations de brèches, alors que le lien génétique entre ces dernières et les topographies sommitales fait l'objet d'une discussion.The Taburno-Camposauro limestone faulted block has a key location between tyrrhenian and adriatic sides of the Southern Apennines, because of the relief disruption due to extensional Plio-Pleistocene neotectonics. From this, results a contrasted landscape, with prior gentle erosional landsurfaces (Upper Miocene-Early Pliocene? subsequently disrupted by huge fault scarps. After a microtectonic analysis along these fault scarps, also considering the deformation of breccia – which are regarded as genetically linked with the erosional landsurfaces shaping –, the discussion deals with the regional geomorphic pattern, mainly the nearest Matese mountain.

  11. Impact de l’alteration sur le bilan chimique des diatexites du Massif de l’Edough (Annaba, NE Algérien

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    Hadj-Zobir, Soraya


    Full Text Available The studied section, located on the eastern part of the Edough massif (region of Annaba, Algeria, is characterized by a Mediterranean climate and the area is one of the most humid of Algeria (precipitation between 750 and 1200 mm/year. It consists of diatexites with homogeneous petrographic and metamorphic facies. The primary minerals are quartz, feldspar, oligoclase and biotite whereas weathering products are mostly represented by illite and montmorillonite. Although all samples comprise the same mineral composition, due to changes in the mode, the chemistry of this diatexites is very heterogeneous. The chemical analyses of the rocks reveal a progressive evolution in the composition in terms of gains and losses in Ca, Na, K, Fe, Mg and in trace elements. The values of the Chemical Index of Change (CIA = 62.79 - 68.32, of the Chemical index of Weathering (CIW = 63.92 - 70.79, the Freshness Index (IFRAIS = 76 - 46.35 and the high value of the loss of ignition (L.O.I > 2% as well as the Rb/Sr ratio >1 indicate that the distribution of the chemical elements along the section is entirely controlled by weathering (bisiallitisation alteration type during a long time.

    [fr] La zone d’étude, constituée de diatexites, est située sur le flanc NE du massif de l’Edough (région de Annaba/ Algérie. Le massif, qui est l’un des plus arrosé d’Algérie (entre 750 et 1200 mm/an, se caractérise par un climat de type méditerranéen. Les diatexites montrent un faciès pétrographique et métamorphique homogène. Les minéraux primaires dominants sont le quartz, le feldspath potassique, l’oligoclase et la biotite alors que ceux d’altération sont représentés par des minéraux néoformés tels que la kaolinite, l’illite, la montmorillonite et dans une moindre mesure la séricite. A l’opposé de la minéralogie, la chimie des diatexites est hétérogène. Les analyses chimiques du matériel prélevé, du sommet vers la base des roches

  12. Geochemistry of Coesite-Bearing Pyrope Quartzites and Related Rocks From the Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps: New Results and the Enigma of the Jadeite-Rocks (United States)

    Schertl, H.


    In contrast to the extensive petrological and geochronological work on the various ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks of the coesite-bearing unit of the Dora Maira Massif, there is still a deficiency of basic geochemical data. A complete suite of geochemical data for pyrope quartzites, various intercalations of phengite-schists and jadeite-bearing rocks, as well as country rock gneisses from different localities within the southern Dora Maira Massiv is now available, which was studied in detail in order to establish the nature of the different protoliths and their primary relationships (Schertl and Schreyer, 2008; see also Chopin, 1984 and Compagnoni and Hirajima, 2001). Typically, the pyrope quartzites are high in Mg and strongly depleted in Na, Ca, Fe, Cu, P, Rb, Ba, Sr against their country rock gneisses which essentially exhibit a granitic bulk composition. The country rocks have a peraluminous chemistry; they generally are corundum normative and best attributed to S-type granites. Trace element contents of phengite-schist inclusions in pyrope quartzite confirm their close relationship to the granitic country rocks. Internal variations of Na, Ca versus K, Mg are matched by Rb, Ba and Sr, which is in line with some phengite-schists to contain higher amounts of phengite or higher amounts of jadeite-pseudomorphs, respectively. The origin of the jadeite-rich rocks is still a matter of debate. Jadeite-bearing layers and jadeite quartzite forming conformable bands and boudins within pyrope quartzite differ generally by their lower contents in K, Mg, Rb and higher contents in Na, Fe, Ca, Mn, P and Zn. Earlier suggestions that these layers represent former melts seem unlikely in the view of their almost constant mass behaviour for SiO2 and Al2O3 relative to the surrounding pyrope quartzites. The present study indicates that the pyrope quartzites were formed metasomatically whereas an evaporitic nature of the protolith can be ruled out. Discrimination plots

  13. Age and isotopic marks of K-rich Manning Massif trachybasalts: an evidence for Lambert-Amery rift-system initiation (East Antarctica) (United States)

    Leitchenkov, German; Belyatsky, Boris; Lepekhina, Elena; Antonov, Anton; Krymsky, Robert; Andronikov, Alex; Sergeev, Sergey


    Volcanic rocks from the Manning Massif, which is situated in the western flank of the Paleozoic-Late Mesozoic Lambert Rift (East Antarctica), belong to a rare type of alkaline magmatism within the Precambrian East Antarctic Craton. K-rich olivine trachybasalts compose some flows resting upon a surface of Precambrian granulite terrain, each flow of 2.5-7 m in thickness and total section not less than 30 m. Each flow sequence comprises of glassy chilled base with vitroporphyritic texture, fine-plated vesicular basalt with interstitial texture, massive fine-grained basalt with porphyritic microlitic texture, amigdaloidal aphanitic basalt with poikilophytic texture, and vesicular mandelstone of slag crust with vitroporphyritic texture [Andronikov et al., 1998]. Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic age of this eruption was estimated as 40-50 Ma and the main reason for this Cenozoic continental volcanism was supposed the post-rift tectonic activity [Andronikov et al., 1998]. But the isotopic characteristics of these trachybasalts are very similar to those obtained for the part of spinel lherzolite and spinel-garnet lherzolite xenoliths from the Mesozoic alkaline picrite of the adjacent Jetty Peninsula region. That could be evidence of the trachybasalt mantle source in long-lived enriched upper mantle beneath the region, either under the lowermost levels of spinel lherzolite facies or on the highest levels of garnet lherzolite facies conditions. To reveal tectonic position of these enigmatic volcanics, we have studied 16 samples from different parts of basaltic flows for U-Pb geochronology and Pb-Sr-Nd-Os isotopic characteristics. U-Pb SIMS SHRIMP-II analysis was performed for 68 apatite grains from 5 samples. All obtained data-points are approximated by discordia line (MSWD=1.6) on Tera-Wasserburg diagram, corresponding to the age of 346±46 Ma. Common Pb isotope composition of these apatites differs from the model by increased 206Pb/204Pb (19.8) and 207Pb/204Pb (18.3) that means the

  14. Carboniferous magmatism in the Evora Massif (southwest Portugal, Ossa-Morena Zone): from typical arc calc-alkaline to adakitic-like magmatism (United States)

    Lima, Selma M.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ramos, Joao M. F.


    The Evora Massif is one of the subdivisions of western Ossa-Morena Zone. It is a dome-like structure mainly composed of Ediacaran, Cambrian and Ordovician country rocks, affected by medium- and high-grade metamorphism coeval with the emplacement of several mafic to felsic intrusive bodies. The last magmatic event recorded in this area (Carboniferous) consists of calc-alkaline volcanism and voluminous plutonism (mainly composed by tonalites, gabbros, diorites and late-orogenic granodiorites and granites) [1]. Detailed chemical and isotopic studies from Evora Massif plutons were performed in the last few years. Whole-rock chemical and isotopic data suggest that the Hospitais tonalite (HT), Alto de Sao Bento area (ASB) and Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (RM) resulted from fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas followed by mixing with variable proportions of crustal melts [2-4]. U-Pb ID-TIMS data indicate an age of 337-335 for the RM [4]. The Pavia pluton is a multiphase granitic body constructed incrementally by the episodic emplacement of several batches of magma (at 328 Ma, ca. 324 Ma and 319-317 Ma) [5]. The main granitic phases range from tonalite to two-mica granite that contain rare surmicaceous and fine-grained enclaves, and granitic and amphibolitic xenoliths. On the other hand, they are cut by abundant rhyodacite porphyries, microgranites (s.l.) and pegmatite dikes, predominantly oriented NE-SW and NW-SE. Although each phase seems to represent a distinct batch of magma, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest a similar and fairly homogenous source for all the constituent phases. Initial 87Sr/86Sr varies between 0.70428 and 0.7058 and ɛ Ndt ranges from -3.4 to +0.4, pointing towards a mantle or juvenile crust origin. A higher variation is observed in whole-rock δ18O (5.6-9.6 o), consistent with assimilation of crust. The PP was interpreted as the result of assimilation-fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma. Substantial differences between

  15. Age and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Khanka Massif: Geochemical and Re-Os isotopic evidence from Sviyagino mantle xenoliths (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Chun-Guang; Wang, Feng; Ge, Wen-Chun; Sorokin, A. A.; Wang, Zhi-Wei


    New geochemical and Re-Os isotopic data of mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic Sviyagino alkali basalts from the Russian Far East provide insights into the age and evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Khanka Massif, within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). These mantle xenoliths are predominantly spinel lherzolites with minor spinel harzburgite. The lherzolites contain high whole-rock concentrations of Al2O3 and CaO, with low forsterite content in olivine (Fo = 89.5-90.3%) and low Cr# in spinel (0.09-0.11). By contrast, the harzburgite is more refractory, containing lower whole rock Al2O3 and CaO contents, with higher Fo (91.3%) and spinel Cr# (0.28). Their whole rock and mineral compositions suggest that the lherzolites experienced low-degree (1-4%) batch melting and negligible metasomatism, whereas the harzburgite underwent a higher degree (10%) of fractional melting, and experienced minor post-melting silicate metasomatism. Two-pyroxene rare earth element (REE)-based thermometry (TREE) yields predominant equilibrium temperatures of 884-1043 °C, similar to values obtained from two-pyroxene major element-based thermometry (TBKN = 942-1054 °C). Two lherzolite samples yield high TREE relative to TBKN (TREE - TBKN ≥ 71 °C), suggesting that they cooled rapidly as a result of the upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle material that underplated a cold ancient lithosphere. The harzburgite with a low Re/Os value has an 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.11458, yielding an Os model age (TMA) relative to the primitive upper mantle (PUM) of 2.09 Ga, and a Re depletion ages (TRD) of 1.91 Ga; both of which record ancient melt depletion during the Paleoproterozoic ( 2.0 Ga). The 187Os/188Os values of lherzolites (0.12411-0.12924) correlate well with bulk Al2O3 concentrations and record the physical mixing of ancient mantle domains and PUM-like ambient mantle material within the asthenosphere. This indicates that the SCLM beneath the Khanka

  16. Velocity analysis and application of synthetic seismograms in the area of the Vranovice and the Nesvačilka troughs (Bohemian Massif

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    Bibiana Brixová


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of velocity analysis performed in the Nesvačilka and Vranovice troughs. The troughs extend in the south-eastern part of the Bohemian Massif (the Moravian Block. As both belong to the most promising areas of the Bohemian Massif in the search for and production of hydrocarbons, their geological and geophysical survey is very important. Therefore, one of the key points is to determine the accurate data on the depth of the significant geological and stratigraphic units, which form the Nesvačilka and the Vranovice troughs. For this purpose the velocity analysis and the application of synthetic seismograms have been defined and applied. The results indicate that the lithostratigraphic units of the studied region are characterized by a large velocity interval. Based on the data from well log measurements (check shots and synthetic seismograms the following velocities of seismic waves were determined in single lithostratigraphic units: 2.4–3.3 km/s in sediments of Flysch nappes, 2.7–3.6 km/s in the Palaeogene sediments, 3.3–4.3 km/s in the Jurassic sediments (3.7–5.1 km/s in carbonates and 3.5–4.8 km/s in pelites and conglomerates, 4–5.4 km/s in the Carboniferous sediments, and 4.6–6.6 km/s in the Devonian carbonates. Moreover, the synthetic seismograms and check shot results point to significant velocity interfaces. We discovered that: (a within the sediments of Flysch nappes velocities in Menilitic Formation are higher than in the Submenilitic and the Ždánice-Hustopeče formations, (b interface sediment of the Flysch nappes and Palaeogene deposits is characterized by a decrease of velocity, and (c big contrast of velocity reflects the boundary between the carbonates (the Devonian and the Jurassic and their surrounding rocks. The velocity analysis helps significantly for mapping of the Outer Carpathian Flysch nappes (the Pouzdřany Unit and especially the Ždánice Unit, the Neogene deposits, the

  17. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia) (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas


    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  18. Petrogenesis and geochemistry of circa 2.5 Ga granitoids in the Zanhuang Massif: Implications for magmatic source and Neoarchean metamorphism of the North China Craton (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Kusky, Timothy; Wang, Lu; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin; Fu, Dong


    The tectonic framework of the North China Craton (NCC) during late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic (circa 2.5 Ga) is still lacking comprehensive understanding due to subsequent strong deformation and metamorphic overprinting events. Circa 2.5 Ga magmatic and metamorphic activities are widely spread throughout the NCC, which can be used as an efficient target to better understand the tectonic evolution at this period. In this study, based on a detailed field, structural, geochemical, geochronological and Sm-Nd isotopic study, we focus our work on the Haozhuang granitoids in the Zanhuang Massif located at the eastern margin of the Central Orogenic Belt of the NCC. The granitoids mainly include undeformed pegmatite and granodiorite. One pegmatite and two granodiorite samples yield zircon 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2513 ± 29 Ma, 2511 ± 36 Ma and 2528 ± 18 Ma, respectively. The granodiorites show metaluminous and shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with A-type granite affinity. The circa 2.5 Ga granodiorites have highly negative εNd(t) values (- 29.22 - 33.12) and TDM model ages between 2671 Ma and 3151 Ma. This work shows clearly, from whole-rock major and trace elements and Sm-Nd isotopic studies, that the Haozhuang granodiorites were derived from partial melting of old and thickened TTG crust rather than mantle sources, and formed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. With geochemical comparison studies to other similar-aged granitic rocks in the Zanhuang Massif, we suggest that these granitic rocks possibly have a certain correlation during the magma evolution. Coupled with our previous geochemical and isotopic studies on circa 2.5 Ga mafic dike swarms, we propose that the similar-aged granitic rocks and mafic dike swarms were produced by an east-dipping subduction polarity reversal event following an arc-continent collision between the Fuping/Wutai island arc and Eastern Block of the NCC above a west-dipping slab. The east

  19. Macroseismic investigation of the 2008-2010 low magnitude seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif, Belgium. The link between macroseismic intensity and geomorphology (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Vleminckx, Bart; Camelbeeck, Thierry


    Between July 2008 and January 2010 a seismic swarm took place in a region 20 km south of Brussels, Belgium. The sequence started on the 12th of July 2008 with a ML = 2.2 event and was followed the day after by the largest event in the sequence (ML = 3.2). Thanks to a locally installed temporary seismic monitoring system more than 300 low magnitude events, with events as low as ML = -0.7, have been detected. Results of the relocations of the different hypocenters and analysis of the focal mechanisms show that the majority of these earthquakes took place at several km's depth (3 to 6 km) along a (possibly blind) 1.5 km long NW-SE fault (zone) situated in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Brabant Massif. Remarkably, 60 events (0.6 ˜ ML ˜ 3.2) were felt, or heard only sometimes, by the local population. This was detected by the "Did you feel it?" macroseismic inquiries on the ROB seismology website ( For each event a classical macroseismic intensity map has been constructed based on the average macroseismic intensity of each community. Within a single community, however, the reported macroseismic intensities locally often vary ranging between non-damaging intensities of I and IV (on the EMS-98 scale). Using the average macroseismic intensity of a community therefore often oversimplificates the local intensity, especially in hilly areas in which local site effects could have influenced the impact of the earthquakes at the surface. In this presentation we investigate if the perception of the people of how they experienced the small events (sound, vibrations) was influenced by local geomorphological site effects. First, based on available borehole and outcrop data a sediment thickness map of the Cenozoic and Quaternary cover above the basement rocks of the Brabant Massif is constructed in a 200 km2 area around the different epicenters. Second, several electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles are conducted in order to locally improve the

  20. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central). (United States)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand


    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  1. Geology of the epithermal Ag-Au Huevos Verdes vein system and San José district, Deseado massif, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Gutierrez, Ronald; Nelson, Eric P.; Layer, Paul W.


    The San José district is located in the northwest part of the Deseado massif and hosts a number of epithermal Ag-Au quartz veins of intermediate sulfidation style, including the Huevos Verdes vein system. Veins are hosted by andesitic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and locally by rhyodacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Chon Aike Formation. New 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the age of host rocks and mineralization define Late Jurassic ages of 151.3 ± 0.7 Ma to 144.7 ± 0.1 Ma for volcanic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and of 147.6 ± 1.1 Ma for the Chon Aike Formation. Illite ages of the Huevos Verdes vein system of 140.8 ± 0.2 and 140.5 ± 0.3 Ma are 4 m.y. younger than the volcanic host rock unit. These age dates are among the youngest reported for Jurassic volcanism in the Deseado massif and correlate well with the regional context of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. The Huevos Verdes vein system has a strike length of 2,000 m, with several ore shoots along strike. The vein consists of a pre-ore stage and three main ore stages. Early barren quartz and chalcedony are followed by a mottled quartz stage of coarse saccharoidal quartz with irregular streaks and discontinuous bands of sulfide-rich material. The banded quartz-sulfide stage consists of sulfide-rich bands alternating with bands of quartz and bands of chlorite ± illite. Late-stage sulfide-rich veinlets are associated with kaolinite gangue. Ore minerals are argentite and electrum, together with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, minor bornite, covellite, and ruby silver. Wall rock alteration is characterized by narrow (220°C. Kaolinite occurring with the late sulfide-rich veinlet stage indicates pH 315°, whereas strike directions of <315° are predicted with an induced dextral strike-slip movement. The components of the structural model appear to be present on a regional scale and are not restricted to the San José district.

  2. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia) (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas


    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  3. U-Pb LA-SF-ICP-MS zircon geochronology of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: palaeotectonic constraints for Gondwana-derived terranes in the Eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Meinhold, Guido; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Frei, Dirk; Himmerkus, Felix; Reischmann, Thomas


    The Pirgadikia Terrane in northern Greece forms tectonic inliers within the Vardar suture zone bordering the Serbo-Macedonian Massif to the southwest. It comprises Cadomian basement rocks of volcanic-arc origin and very mature quartz-rich metasedimentary rocks. U-Pb laser ablation sector-field inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of detrital zircons from the latter reveal a marked input from a Cadomian-Pan-African source with minor contribution from Mesoproterozoic, Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean sources. The metasedimentary rocks are correlated with Ordovician overlap sequences at the northern margin of Gondwana on the basis of their maturity and zircon age spectra. The Pirgadikia Terrane can be best interpreted as a peri-Gondwana terrane of Avalonian origin, which was situated close to the Cadomian terranes in the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Palaeozoic, very much like the Istanbul Terrane. The second unit investigated is the Vertiskos Terrane, which constitutes the major part of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif in Greece. It comprises predominantly igneous rocks of Silurian age and minor metasedimentary rocks of unknown age and provenance. U-Pb analyses of detrital zircons from a garnetiferous mica schist of the Vertiskos Terrane indicate derivation from 550 to 1,150 Ma-old source rocks with a major Cadomian peak. This, combined with minor input of >1,950 Ma-old zircons and the absence of ages between ca. 1.2 and 1.7 Ga suggests a NW Africa source. The protolith age of the garnetiferous mica schist is presumably Early Ordovician. One sample of garnet-bearing biotite gneiss, interpreted as meta-igneous rock, comprises predominantly subhedral zircons of igneous origin with late Middle Ordovician to Silurian ages. We suggest that the rock association of the Vertiskos Terrane is part of an ancient active-margin succession of the Hun superterrane, comparable to successions of the Austro- and Intra-Alpine Terranes. The new data of this study provide evidence

  4. Ga, Ca, and 3d transition element (Cr through Zn) partitioning among spinel-lherzolite phases from the Lanzo massif, Italy: Analytical results and crystal chemistry

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    Wogelius, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fraser, D.G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    Ultramafic rocks exposed in Lanzo massif, Italy is a record of mantle geochemistry, melting, sub-solidus re-equilibration. Plagioclase(+ spinel)-lherzolite samples were analyzed by Scanning Proton Microscopy, other techniques. Previous work postulated partial melting events and a two-stage sub-solidus cooling history; this paper notes Ga enrichment on spinel-clinopyroxene grain boundaries, high Ga and transition element content of spinel, and pyroxene zonation in Ca and Al. Trace element levels in olivine and orthopyroxene are also presented. Zoning trends are interpreted as due to diffusion during cooling. Olivine-clinopyroxene Cr and Ca exchange as well as clinopyroxene and spinel zonation trends indicate that the massif experienced at least two sub-solidus cooling episodes, one at 20 kbar to 1000 C and one at 8 kbar <750C. Ga levels in cores of Lanzo high-Cr spinels are high (82-66 ppM) relative to other mantle spinels (66-40 ppM), indicating enrichment. Ga content of ultramafic spinels apparently increases with Cr content; this may be due to: increased Ga solubility stemming from crystal chemical effects and/or higher Ga activities in associated silicate melts. Thus, during melting, high-Cr residual spinel may tend to buffer solid-phase Ga level. These spinels are not only rich in Ga and Cr (max 26.37 el. wt %), but also in Fe (max 21.07 el. wt %), Mn (max 3400 ppM), and Zn (max 2430 ppM). These enrichments are again due to melt extraction and partitioning into spinel structure. Low Ni (min 1050 ppM) levels are due to unsuccessful competition of Ni with Cr for octahedral structural sites caused by crystal field. Comparisons of change in partitioning vs Cr content among several 3d transition elements for spinels from Lanzo, other localities allow us to separate crystal field effects from bulk chemical effects and to show that in typical assemblages, inversion of olivine-spinel partition coefficient for Ni from <1 to >1 should occur at 11% el. wt. Cr in spinel.

  5. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model (United States)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas


    The Balkan Peninsula was formed during the Mesozoic collision of Gondwana and Eurasia, associated with the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. As a result, two ophiolitic belts were formed: Dinaride-Hellenide ophiolitic belt in the southwest and the Vardar ophiolitic belt in the northeast. The bulk of Balkan ophiolites originated in the Jurassic (Robertson & Karamata, 1994), and only recently the Late Cretaceous Sava-zone ophiolites are discovered. Ophiolit-like outcrops of Mount Klepa in the Central Macedonia represents a part of Late Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere within the Sava Zone, comprising of pillow lavas, sheet flows, columns, hyaloclastites, dikes as well as cumulates. In this study we investigate the geodynamic setting and evolution of the Late Cretaceous Klepa Massif. Our working hypotheses we want to test is that Klepa Massif represents a new ocean opened through rifting after the closure of Tethyan ocean(s) and collision of Europe and Gondwana already in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This hypothesis contradicts the accepted model suggesting that Sava ophiolites represent a relic of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed in the Late Cretaceous. During detailed structural geology field studies, the ophiolitic rock sequence of Klepa Mountain area was mapped in several profiles and about 60 rock samples were taken. These field data in addition to the north-south trending outcrops of the Klepa ophiolite and the north-south trending shear zones which bound the Klepa basalt, lead to the assumption of the existence of a pull apart basin. With the help of microstructural analyses we will determine the deformation history and temperatures which also will be confirmed by the analyses of calcite twins (Ferril et al., 2004). Quartz grain size analysis of quartz bearing rocks, were used for stress piezometry. Furthermore, quartz crystal geometry and crystallographic orientations, which were measured with the Fabric Analyser G60 (Peternell et al., 2010), reveal

  6. Première datation U_Pb des orthogneiss œillés de la zone axiale de la Montagne noire (Sud du Massif central) : nouveaux témoins du magmatisme ordovicien dans la chaîne VarisqueU_Pb dating of Augen orthogneisses from the Axial Zone of the Montagne Noire (Southern of Massif Central): new witness of Ordovician magmatism into the Variscan Belt (United States)

    Roger, Françoise; Respaut, Jean-Patrick; Brunel, Maurice; Matte, Philippe; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    We present new U-Pb results on felsic Augen orthogneisses from the Axial Zone of the Montagne Noire (French Massif Central). The data indicate Ordovician ages, 456±3 and 450±6 Ma for two samples collected at 'Pont-de-Larn' and 'Gorges d'Héric', respectively. These ages are interpreted as the igneous emplacement age of the granitic protolith. To cite this article: F. Roger et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  7. Stratigraphie et sédimentologie des « calcaires à Productus » du Carbonifère inférieur de la Montagne noire (Massif central, France)Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Lower Carboniferous 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire (Massif Central, France) (United States)

    Poty, Édouard; Aretz, Markus; Barchy, Laurent

    The 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire are microbial build-ups. Two formations are defined and dated respectively as Uppermost Visean (Upper Warnantian-Brigantian) and Serpukhovian on the basis on corals. That makes these limestones out to be younger than previously stated (Lower and base of Upper Warnantian-Asbian and base of Brigantian) and indicates that the development of the olistoliths and thrusts including them, due to the Variscan orogeny, was at least as young as the Upper Serpukhovian. The Serpukhovian limestones of the Montagne Noire are correlated with the Lanet Limestone (Mouthoumet Massif, Corbières) and Ardengost Limestone (central Pyrenees). To cite this article: É. Poty et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 843-848.

  8. A 3D geological model for the Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Massif (Colombia): Assessment of geological uncertainty using a stochastic approach based on Bézier curve design (United States)

    González-Garcia, Javier; Jessell, Mark


    The Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Massif (RTVM) is an active volcanic complex in the Northern Andes, and understanding its geological structure is critical for hazard mitigation and guiding future geothermal exploration. However, the sparsity of data available to constrain the interpretation of this volcanic system hinders the application of standard 3D modelling techniques. Furthermore, some features related to the volcanic system are not entirely understood, such as the connectivity between the plutons present in its basement (i.e. Manizales Stock, El Bosque Batholith). We have developed a methodology where two independent working hypotheses were formulated and modelled independently (i.e. a case where both plutons constitute distinct bodies, and an alternative case where they form one single batholith). A Monte Carlo approach was used to characterise the geological uncertainty in each case. Bézier curve design was used to represent geological contacts on input cross sections. Systematic variations in the control points of these curves allows us to generate multiple realisations of geological interfaces, resulting in stochastic models that were grouped into suites used to apply quantitative estimators of uncertainty. This process results in a geological representation based on fuzzy logic and in maps of model uncertainty distribution. The results are consistent with expected regions of high uncertainty near under-constrained geological contacts, while the non-unique nature of the conceptual model indicates that the dominant source of uncertainty in the area is the nature of the batholith structure.

  9. Kumdykolite, kokchetavite, and cristobalite crystallized in nanogranites from felsic granulites, Orlica-Snieznik Dome (Bohemian Massif): not an evidence for ultrahigh-pressure conditions (United States)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Ziemann, Martin A.; Angel, Ross J.; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Wunder, Bernd


    A unique assemblage including kumdykolite and kokchetavite, polymorphs of albite and K-feldspar, respectively, together with cristobalite, micas, and calcite has been identified in high-pressure granulites of the Orlica-Snieznik dome (Bohemian Massif) as the product of partial melt crystallization in preserved nanogranites. Previous reports of both kumdykolite and kokchetavite in natural rocks are mainly from samples that passed through the diamond stability field. However, because the maximum pressure recorded in these host rocks is <3 GPa, our observations indicate that high pressure is not required for the formation of kumdykolite and kokchetavite, and their presence is not therefore an indicator of ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Detailed microstructural and microchemical investigation of these inclusions indicates that such phases should instead be regarded as (1) a direct mineralogical criteria to identify former melt inclusions with preserved original compositions, including H2O and CO2 contents and (2) indicators of rapid cooling of the host rocks. Thus, the present study provides novel criteria for the interpretation of melt inclusions in natural rocks and allows a more rigorous characterization of partial melts during deep subduction to mantle depth as well as their behavior on exhumation.

  10. Age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean: Insight from rutile and minute zircon inclusions in a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst (Edough Massif, NE Algeria) (United States)

    Bruguier, Olivier; Bosch, Delphine; Caby, Renaud; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Fernandez, Laure; Hammor, Dalila; Laouar, Rabah; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Abdallah, Nachida; Mechati, Mehdi


    Diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks witness for subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle and their return to shallow levels. In this study we present U-Pb and trace elements analyses of zircon and rutile inclusions from a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst collected in a mélange unit exposed on the northern margin of Africa (Edough Massif, NE Algeria). Large rutile crystals (up to 300 μm in size) analyzed in situ provide a U-Pb age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde to peak subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Trace element analyses of minute zircons (≤30 μm) indicate that they formed in equilibrium with the garnet megacryst at a temperature of 740-810 °C, most likely during HP retrograde metamorphism. U-Pb analyses provide a significantly younger age of 20.7 ± 2.3 Ma attributed to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean Orogen to the Oligocene/early Miocene, thus unambiguously relating UHP metamorphism to the Alpine history. Exhumation of these UHP units is coeval with the counterclockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block and most likely resulted from subduction rollback that was driven by slab pull.

  11. Rapid sexual maturity and short life span in the blue-legged frog and the rainbow frog from the arid Isalo Massif, southern-central Madagascar. (United States)

    Guarino, Fabio M; Tessa, Giulia; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Andreone, Franco


    Longevity and age at sexual maturity were estimated in two anurans from the arid Isalo Massif (southern-central Madagascar), the blue-legged frog (Mantella expectata) and the rainbow frog (Scaphiophryne gottlebei). Phalanges from 69 individuals of M. expectata and 38 individuals of S. gottlebei were analyzed, using the skeletochronological method, in samples collected during two periods: January-February and November-December 2004. The male gonads of both species were also analyzed in order to better correlate reproductive activity with phenology. The phalangeal diaphysis in adults of both species was composed of two concentric bone layers: an innermost endosteal bone, which was less developed or sometimes lacking in S. gottlebei, and an outermost and broader layer of periosteal bone. Lines of arrested growth (LAGs) were observed in both species, although their recognition was more problematic and their distinctiveness much less evident in S. gottlebei. The results presented here indicate that M. expectata and S. gottlebei have a short life span and attain sexual maturity within the first active season after metamorphosis. Maximum longevity was 3 years in M. expectata and 2 years in S. gottlebei. In S. gottlebei the adult body size is likely attained during the same season in which metamorphosis occurs, but then breeding occurs only after the first latency period. Thus, mature individuals have only one LAG, corresponding to 1 year. The low number of individuals with two LAGs suggests that most animals die before the second latency period.

  12. Monazite-(Ce in Hercynian granites and pegmatites of the Bratislava massif, Western Carpathians: compositional variations and Th-U-Pb electron-microprobe dating

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    Pavel Uher


    Full Text Available Monazite-(Ce represents a characteristic magmatic accessory mineral of the Hercynian peraluminous S-type granites to granodiorites and related granitic pegmatites of the Bratislava Granitic Massif (BGM, Malé Karpaty Mountains, Central Western Carpathians, SW Slovakia. Monazite forms euhedral to subhedral crystals, up to 200 μm in size, usually it is unzoned in BSE, rarely it reveals oscillatory or sector zoning. Thorium concentrations of 2 to 9 wt. % ThO2 (≤0.09 apfu and local elevated uranium contents (≤4.3 wt. % UO2, ≤0.04 apfu are characteristic for the pegmatite monazites. Both huttonite ThSiREE-1P-1 and cheralite Ca(Th,UREE-2 substitutions took place in the studied monazite. Electron-microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating of the granites and pegmatites gave an isochron age of 353±2 Ma (MSWD = 0.88, n = 290, which confirmed the meso-Hercynian, Carboniferous, Lower Mississipian magmatic crystallization. An analogous age (359±11 Ma was obtained from monazite from adjacent paragneiss, corresponding to the age of the Hercynian contact thermal metamorphism related to the granite intrusion of BGM. Monazite in some granite shows also older clastic or authigenic grains or zones (~505 to 400 Ma, with maximum of 420±7 Ma which probably represents inherited material from the Lower Paleozoic metapelitic to metapsammitic protolith of BGM.

  13. Isotopically light carbon dioxide in nitrogen rich gases: the gas distribution pattern in the French Massif Central, the Eifel and the western Eger Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Weinlich


    Full Text Available Based on characteristics of the distribution pattern of the western Eger Rift spring gases, a distribution pattern is presented for the gases of the French Massif Central. The central parts of these areas with ascending magmatic CO2 are characterised by high gas fluxes, high CO2 contents of up to 99.99 vol% and isotopially heavy CO2. In the peripheries, the decrease of d13C values of CO2 and CO2 contents in the gas phase is compensated by a rise in N2 contents. It can be demonstrated that gas fractionation in contrary to mixtures with isotopically light biogenic or crustal CO2 controls the distribution pattern of gas composition and isotopic composition of CO2 in these spring gases. Dissolution of CO2 results in formation of HCO3 ? causing isotope fractionation of CO2 and an enrichment of N2 in the gas phase. With multiple equilibrations, values of about ?17 ? or lower are obtained. The scale of gas alteration depends on the gas flux and the gas-water ratios respectively and can result in N2-rich gases. Essential for the interpretation are gas flux measurements with mass balances derived for most of the springs. Without such mass balances it is not possible to discriminate between mixture and fractionation. The processes of isotopic and chemical solubility fractionations evidently control the gas distribution pattern in other regions as well.

  14. High-resolution imaging of the Pyrenees and Massif Central from the data of the PYROPE and IBERARRAY portable array deployments (United States)

    Chevrot, Sébastien; Villaseñor, Antonio; Sylvander, Matthieu; Benahmed, Sébastien; Beucler, Eric; Cougoulat, Glenn; Delmas, Philippe; Blanquat, Michel; Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Grimaud, Franck; Lagabrielle, Yves; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mocquet, Antoine; Pauchet, Hélène; Paul, Anne; Péquegnat, Catherine; Quillard, Olivier; Roussel, Sandrine; Ruiz, Mario; Wolyniec, David


    The lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees, which holds the key to settle long-standing controversies regarding the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Pyrenees, are still poorly known. The temporary PYROPE and IBERARRAY experiments have recently filled a strong deficit of seismological stations in this part of western Europe, offering a new and unique opportunity to image crustal and mantle structures with unprecedented resolution. Here we report the results of the first tomographic study of the Pyrenees relying on this rich data set. The important aspects of our tomographic study are the precision of both absolute and relative traveltime measurements obtained by a nonlinear simulated annealing waveform fit and the detailed crustal model that has been constructed to compute accurate crustal corrections. Beneath the Massif Central, the most prominent feature is a widespread slow anomaly that reflects a strong thermal anomaly resulting from the thinning of the lithosphere and upwelling of the asthenosphere. Our tomographic images clearly exclude scenarios involving subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Pyrenees. In contrast, they reveal the segmentation of lithospheric structures, mainly by two major lithospheric faults, the Toulouse fault in the central Pyrenees and the Pamplona fault in the western Pyrenees. These inherited Hercynian faults were reactivated during the Cretaceous rifting of the Aquitaine and Iberian margins and during the Cenozoic Alpine convergence. Therefore, the Pyrenees can be seen as resulting from the tectonic inversion of a segmented continental rift that was buried by subduction beneath the European plate.

  15. 40 Ma years of hydrothermal W mineralization during the Variscan orogenic evolution of the French Massif Central revealed by U-Pb dating of wolframite (United States)

    Harlaux, Matthieu; Romer, Rolf L.; Mercadier, Julien; Morlot, Christophe; Marignac, Christian; Cuney, Michel


    We present U-Pb thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) ages of wolframite from several granite-related hydrothermal W±Sn deposits in the French Massif Central (FMC) located in the internal zone of the Variscan belt. The studied wolframite samples are characterized by variable U and Pb contents (typically <10 ppm) and show significant variations in their radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions. The obtained U-Pb ages define three distinct geochronological groups related to three contrasting geodynamic settings: (i) Visean to Namurian mineralization (333-327 Ma) coeval with syn-orogenic compression and emplacement of large peraluminous leucogranites (ca. 335-325 Ma), (ii) Namurian to Westphalian mineralization (317-315 Ma) synchronous with the onset of late-orogenic extension and emplacement of syn-tectonic granites (ca. 315-310 Ma) and (iii) Stephanian to Permian mineralization (298-274 Ma) formed during post-orogenic extension contemporaneous with the Permian volcanism in the entire Variscan belt. The youngest ages (276-274 Ma) likely reflect the reopening of the U-Pb isotopic system after wolframite crystallization and may correspond to late hydrothermal alteration (e.g. ferberitization). Our results demonstrate that W(±Sn) mineralization in the FMC formed during at least three distinct hydrothermal events in different tectono-metamorphic settings over a time range of 40 Ma.

  16. Pb-Pb zircon ages of the Porto Nacional high-grade metamorphic terrain, northern portion of the Goias Massif, central Brazil

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    Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio de Sousa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail:;; Barros, Gisele Ribeiro de [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica (PIBIC)]. E-mail:


    Single zircon Pb-evaporation ages were determined for a mafic granulite, two enderbites and a kinzigite of the Porto Nacional High-Grade Metamorphic Terrain (PNHGT) in the Goias massif. Zircons from mafic granulites and one of the enderbites of yielded average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages of 2125{+-}3 Ma and 2153{+-}1 Ma, respectively, being interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. The other enderbite, whose zircons presented round terminations, yielded an average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb age of 2097 {+-} 2 Ma. Zircons from the kinzigite, displaying cores and rims overgrowth, presented {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages ranging between 2027 and 2115 Ma. However, a very homogeneous zircon crystal without overgrowth yielded age of 2100 {+-} 2 Ma, with a distinctive low Th/U value (0.02). This zircon is interpreted as a metamorphic crystal and its age probably sets the age of the granulite facies metamorphism, indicating that the PNHGT is a result of the Transamazonian thermotectonic event. (author)

  17. Extensional deformation of post ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and exhumation process of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie massif, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A detailed tectonic analysis demonstrates that the present observed regional tectonic configuration of the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Dabie massif was mainly formed by the extension processes of the post-Indosinian continent-continent oblique collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM). The configuration is characterized by a regional tectonic pattern similar to metamorphic core complexes and by the development of multi-layered detachment zones. On the basis of the identification of compressional and extensional fabrics, it is indicated that the exhumation and uplift of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks from the mantle depth to the surface can be divided into at least three different decompression retrogressive metamorphism and tectonic deformation stages, in which the subhorizontal crustal-scale extensional flow in the middle-lower crust under amphibolite facies conditions is an important geodynamic process in the exhumation of UHP metamorphic rocks. Moreover, the extensional flow is probably driven by delamination and magmatic underplating of thickened lithospheric mantle following the continental oblique collision.

  18. New insights from U Pb zircon dating of Early Ordovician magmatism on the northern Gondwana margin: The Urra Formation (SW Iberian Massif, Portugal) (United States)

    Solá, A. R.; Pereira, M. F.; Williams, I. S.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Montero, P.; Bea, F.; Zinger, T.


    The Central Iberian-Ossa-Morena transition zone (SW Iberian Massif) represents a segment of the northern Gondwana margin with a long geodynamic evolution, characterized by the superposition of Cadomian and Variscan events. The Early Ordovician is mainly represented by porphyritic felsic volcaniclastic rocks (the Urra Formation) that pass up into a siliciclastic sediments typical of the Central Iberian Zone (Lower Ordovician Armorican Quartzite Formation). The Urra Formation unconformably overlies the previously deformed and metamorphosed Ediacaran sediments of the Série Negra (with Ossa-Morena Zone paleogeographic affinity). New SHRIMP zircon data obtained from the Urra Formation volcaniclastic rocks indicate an Early Ordovician age ( 206Pb/ 238U ages ranging from 494.6 ± 6.8 Ma to 488.3 ± 5.2 Ma) for this magmatic event. The inherited zircon cores indicate the presence of multicycle protoliths with different Precambrian ages: Neoproterozoic (698-577 Ma), Paleoproterozoic (2.33 Ga) and Paleoarchean (3.2-3.3 Ga). There is a noticeable lack of Meso- to Neoarchean and Mesoproterozoic ages. The data support the hypothesis that the volcaniclastic rocks were derived by partial melting of Cadomian basement (linked to a West African Craton provenance). The Urra Formation volcaniclastic rocks have rhyolitic to dacitic compositions, are peraluminous and similar to calc-alkaline high-K series suites elsewhere. Isotopic signatures present a wide range of values ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) t = 0.7085-0.7190, more restricted ɛNd t (- 2.65 to - 0.35) and δ18O = 9.63-10.34‰, compatible with magmas derived from crustal rocks, including portions of the lower crust. Some samples show disturbance of the Rb-Sr system as shown by unrealistic values for ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) t < 0.703, probably due to Variscan deformation and metamorphism. The volcaniclastic rocks with a significant sedimentary contribution (upper unit) are distinguished from the others by the lowest values of ɛNd t (- 5.53 to - 4

  19. Subduction Metamorphism of Ophicarbonates beyond the Stability of Antigorite: insights into Carbonate Dissolution vs. Decarbonation from the Almirez ultramafic massif (S. Spain) (United States)

    Menzel, Manuel; Garrido, Carlos J.; López Sánchez Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly


    Subduction zone processes play a key role in determining the time and length-scales of long-term element cycles like the deep carbon cycle. Recent improvements in thermodynamic modelling of fluid properties at high pressure and new experiments have underlined the importance of carbonate dissolution by subduction fluids from dehydration reactions for the transfer of carbon out of the subducting slab. However, natural case studies are scarce, in particular regarding the impact of fluids generated by serpentinite dehydration, which are considered as a major dissolution agent for carbon due to the high temperature of antigorite breakdown (about 650°C) and the potentially large volumes of hydrated peridotites occurring in the upper part of the subducting oceanic mantle lithosphere. Here we report the occurrence of meta-ophicarbonate lenses within prograde Chl-harzburgites in the Almirez ultramafic massif (Betic Cordillera, S. Spain). The presence of these lenses indicates that carbonate minerals were preserved beyond the stability conditions of antigorite and were not dissolved by deserpentinization fluids. The largest meta-ophicarbonate lens in the Almirez Chl-harzburgites measures 8 x 160 m and is composed of a high-grade assemblage of olivine, Ti-clinohumite, diopside, chlorite, dolomite, calcite and Cr-bearing magnetite with a granofelsic to banded appearance. In this assemblage we identified, for the first time in the Betic Cordillera, aragonite inclusions in olivine and diopside using coupled EBSD and chemical mapping. Calcite-dolomite thermometry and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling constrain the peak metamorphic conditions to 1.7 - 1.9 GPa and 680 °C at very low XCO2. These conditions compare well with P-T-estimates for the surrounding Chl-harzburgites. There is strong evidence that the protolith of the carbonate rocks within Chl-harzburgites was an ophicarbonate zone: bulk rock contents of Ni and Cr are similarly high in the carbonate rocks as in Atg

  20. Layered granitoids: Interaction between continental crust recycling processes and mantle-derived magmatism: Examples from the Évora Massif (Ossa-Morena Zone, southwest Iberia, Portugal) (United States)

    Moita, Patrícia; Santos, José F.; Pereira, M. Francisco


    In this paper, field, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic (Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd) information from three areas within the Évora Massif (Iberian Variscan Orogen) is presented and discussed aiming at to unravel the relationships between granitoids and units mapped as migmatites and also to evaluate the interplay between mantle and crustal derived magmas. One of the areas - Almansor - displays a well-developed compositional layering (concordant with the regional Variscan structure) which was considered, in previous works, as an alternation of leucosome and melanosome. In this study, the layering is described as intercalation of diatexites, weakly foliated granitoids and trondhjemitic veins. Diatexites have characteristics of crustal melts plus restitic material and, according to geochemical and isotopic evidence, result from anatexis of Ediacaran metasediments. Weakly foliated granitoids and trondhjemitic veins from Almansor have calc-alkaline signatures and may be related to each other by crystal fractionation processes; however, the mixing between mafic (mantle-derived) and felsic (diatexitic melt) magmas revealed by the isotopic data may also explain their genesis. In the Alto de São Bento area, several igneous lithologies (tonalites, granodiorites, porphyritic granites and leucogranites) are present and show typical isotropic igneous textures. Despite structural and textural differences, geochemical data support, for most rocks, an origin from the same calk-alkaline suite, also present at Almansor. The Alto de São Bento leucogranites have an isotopic signature that, although different from that obtained in the Almansor diatexites, is still compatible with an origin involving melting of Ediacaran metasediments; compositions, with very low contents of usually incompatible elements, flat normalized REE patterns and strong negative Eu anomalies, suggest that the anatectic melt has undergone crystal fractionation processes before reaching the composition

  1. Pyroclastic chronology of the Sancy stratovolcano (Mont-Dore, French Massif Central): New high-precision 40Ar/39Ar constraints (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Scaillet, Stéphane; Pastre, Jean-François; Nehlig, Pierre


    The Sancy (16 km2) is the youngest of the two stratovolcanoes that constitute the Mont-Dore Massif (Massif Central, France). The restricted number of high precision radio-isotopic ages currently limits our knowledge of the pyroclastic chronology of this edifice which is the source of many tephra layers detected in middle Pleistocene sequences in southeast Europe. To improve our knowledge of the building phases of this stratovolcano, we collected thirteen pyroclastic units covering the entire proximal record. We present 40Ar/39Ar single grain laser dating performed in the facility hosted at the LSCE (Gif-sur-Yvette, France). The 40Ar/39Ar ages range from 1101 ± 11 ka to 392 ± 7 ka (1σ external). Four pyroclastic cycles lasting on average 100 ka were identified (C. I to C. IV). C. I corresponds to the earlier explosive phase between 1101 ka and 1000 ka and starts about 100 ka earlier than previously thought. The second pyroclastic cycle (C. II) is the main pyroclastic episode spanning from 818 to 685 ka. This cycle is constituted of a minimum of 8 major pyroclastic eruptions and includes a major event that corresponds to a large plinian eruption at 719 ± 10 ka (1σ external) and recorded as a 1.4 m thick layer 60 km south-east of the Sancy volcano. The link between this large eruption and formation of a caldera stays however, hypothetical. The third pyroclastic cycle (C. III) found in the northeastern part of the Sancy (Mont-Dore valley) spanned from 642 to 537 ka. Finally, the youngest pyroclastic cycle (C. IV) starts at 392 ka and probably ends around 280 ka. The age versus geographic location of each pyroclastic cycle indicates three preferential directions of channeling of the pyroclastic events and/or collapse of the volcanic edifice: northwest to west (C. I), southeast (C. II) and finally north to northeast (C. III and IV). The new high precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Queureuilh bas pyroclastic unit (642 ± 9 ka) is identical within error with the U/Pb age

  2. Similar crustal evolution in the western units of the Adrar Souttouf Massif (Moroccan Sahara) and the Avalonian terranes: Insights from Hf isotope data (United States)

    Gärtner, Andreas; Villeneuve, Michel; Linnemann, Ulf; Gerdes, Axel; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Hofmann, Mandy


    The Adrar Souttouf Massif is located at the western margin of the West African Craton and consists of several NNE-SSW trending units. Of them, the two westernmost have been interpreted to be linked with the Avalonian terrane assemblage and Meguma, respectively. New Hf isotopic data corroborates the Avalon correlation but has no impact one way or another on the possible Meguma connection, as there is no Hf data available from the latter. The obtained pattern of εHf(t) values vs. zircon age of the likely Avalonia related Oued Togba unit is similar to published data from Avalonia. Zircons of this unit show characteristic patterns of crustal mixing at 0.7 to 1.3 Ga and 1.75 to 2.25 Ga, while juvenile crust was likely formed around 0.6 to 0.75 Ga, from 1.2 to 2.2 Ga, and between 2.5 and 3.2 Ga. The zircons of the Sebkha Gezmayet unit reveal crustal mixing for the entire Palaeozoic and Neoproterozoic, from 2.05 to 2.11 Ga, and 2.8 to 2.9 Ga. Juvenile crust formation is interpreted to have occurred from 0.5 to 0.7 Ga, at around 2.1 Ga, and at ca. 2.9 Ga. As Mesoproterozoic zircons are abundant in the likely Avalonia-like Oued Togba unit, but uncommon at the West African Craton, their origin has to be found elsewhere. A comparison of available Hf data from Amazonia and Baltica, the two potential source cratons of Avalonia, shows similarities but is hampered by the lack of available data from Amazonia. Finally, a few grains from both units have Eoarchaean model ages. Among similar grains from other peri-Gondwanan terranes, they give indication of partial recycling of Eoarchaean crust in the vicinity of the northwestern West African Craton.

  3. Tracing long term tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens by U-Pb zircon geochronology: Proterozoic to Jurassic tectonics of the Santander Massif, northern Colombia (United States)

    Valencia, V. A.; Cardona, A.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ruiz, J.; Ibañez, M.


    Accurate orogenic models are nedded to reconstruct complex tectonic histories of long lived convergent margins. Integrated zircon U-Pb geochronology on igneous, sedimentary and metasedimentry rocks within single crustal domains is a powerful tool, as it can be used to trace the timing of rock forming events, magmatic style and episodity, and identify crustal recycling. U-Pb detrital zircon and magmatic geochronology was carried on multiple litostratigraphic units of the Santander Massif in the northeastern Andes, in order to reconstruct its long term Late Proterozoic to Early Mesozoic tectonic evolution. Major zircon forming events includ well defined Grenvillian, Late Neoproterozoic to Ordovician, Silurian, Early Permian and Jurassic events. Major peaks of activity at ca. 197 Ma, 440-410 Ma and 470-490 Ma and 950-1052 Ma, support the existence of continental scale tectonic cycles. Older Mesoproterozoic (1.3-1.5 Ga) crustal input in metasediments and magmatic rocks link these units to crustal recycling on the margins of the Amazon Craton, whereas the older 950-1052 Ma peak indicates the link of this crustal segment with other Andean Grenvillian remnant. Previous interpretations of the Paleozoic Silgara Formation seem incorrect, as acquired dates from this study includ different metamorphic units, deposited and formed after the Silurian and Permian during final stages of Pangea's assemblage, probably as Laurentia migrated to its final Alleghanian position. Finally the presence of the NW South America Jurassic arc is also present in the region by granitoid ages. The limited input of this arc signature within the contemporaneous and overlapping Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks suggest that this arc was developed in a back arc setting.

  4. Estimation of groundwater flow directions and the tensor of hydraulic conductivity in crystalline massif rocks using information from surface structural geology and mining exploration boreholes (United States)

    Florez, C.; Romero, M. A.; Ramirez, M. I.; Monsalve, G.


    In the elaboration of a hydrogeological conceptual model in regions of mining exploration where there is significant presence of crystalline massif rocks., the influence of physical and geometrical properties of rock discontinuities must be evaluated. We present the results of a structural analysis of rock discontinuities in a region of the Central Cordillera of Colombia (The upper and middle Bermellon Basin) in order to establish its hydrogeological characteristics for the improvement of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the region. The geology of the study area consists of schists with quartz and mica and porphyritic rocks, in a region of high slopes with a nearly 10 m thick weathered layer. The main objective of this research is to infer the preferential flow directions of groundwater and to estimate the tensor of potential hydraulic conductivity by using surface information and avoiding the use of wells and packer tests. The first step of our methodology is an analysis of drainage directions to detect patterns of structural controls in the run-off; after a field campaign of structural data recollection, where we compile information of strike, dip, continuity, spacing, roughness, aperture and frequency, we built equal area hydro-structural polar diagrams that indicate the potential directions for groundwater flow. These results are confronted with records of Rock Quality Designation (RQD) that have been systematically taken from several mining exploration boreholes in the area of study. By using all this information we estimate the potential tensor of hydraulic conductivity from a cubic law, obtaining the three principal directions with conductivities of the order of 10-5 and 10-6 m/s; the more conductive joint family has a NE strike with a nearly vertical dip.

  5. Effects of tectonics and lithology on long profiles of 16 rivers of the southern Central Massif border between the Aude and the Orb (France) (United States)

    Larue, Jean-Pierre


    The analysis of longitudinal profiles of river channels and terraces in the southern Central Massif border, between the Aude and the Orb, allows the detection of anomalies caused by lithology and/or tectonic distortions. The rivers which have abnormally high slope and non-lithological knickzones indicate the main uplifted zones: the Montagne Noire and the Saint-Chinian ridge. A geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of detrital deposits was carried out as a basis for correlating the different formations, reconstructing the palaeodrainage and finding the main uplift and fluvial incision stages. During the Miocene, uplift remains limited as it is shown by the correlative fine deposits in the Languedocian piedmont. The Messinian incision (5.7-5.3 Ma) does not cross the Saint-Chinian ridge. On the other hand, fluvial incision becomes widespread in the Montagne Noire during the Upper Pliocene (3.4-2 Ma) when coarse deposits overlie either the Pliocene clay in the Orb palaeovalley or the Messinian conglomerates at the Cesse outlet. An Upper Pliocene uplift of the Montagne Noire and of the Saint-Chinian ridge is the cause of this incision and also of the diversion of the Cesse towards the Aude. Where the uplift rate was higher than incision rate, knickzones have developed like in the Avant-Monts south-side. The knickzones of lithological origin maintain a strong vertical stability during all the river incision stages. On the other hand, those of tectonic origin or base level lowering record upstream migration and their rate of retreat is controlled by the river discharge. As incision occurs only during the cold/temperate transition periods during the Quaternary, upward erosion slowly migrates (15 km since the Upper Pliocene, on the Orb) and so does not reach the riverheads.

  6. Fluxed-melting of shallow and hot high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Namcha Barwa Massif: A new mechanism for the generation of adakitic melts (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Liu, J.; Hou, Z.; Gao, L.; Xie, K.


    Extremely rapid exhumation has been a major factor leading to rapid advection of relatively hot crustal rocks into shallow crustal levels in the Namcha Barwa massif. In such a hot tectonic regime, it is conceivable that hot crustal material can undergo partial melting assisted by excessive water. Previous studies indeed have documented extremely young Na-rich granitic rocks (63.5 and up to 237.1), consistent with garnet either as a non-reactant phase or as a residue phase; (2) these leucosomes have similar Sr isotope compositions to their host rocks, but some of them have Nd isotope compositions significantly deviated from their host by ~4-5 epsilon units. Since high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Namcha Barwa were already shallower than 10 km in the past 5 million years, these data is best explained by water- fluxed melting of granitic components in the source rocks. This interpretation is also consistent with at water- present and relatively lower temperature conditions, both apatite and garnet behaves as non-reactant phases during a partial melting event, which could lead to depletion of garnet-compatible elements as well as negative shift in Nd isotope compositions in the amphibolite- or metapelite-derived melts. Our data emphasize that at rapidly exhumed and relatively hot tectonic regimes (e.g. the Nanga Parbat and Namcha Barwa areas), fluxed-melting of high-graded metamorphic rocks at relatively shallower crustal levels could be another important mechanism to produced adakitic magma and associated porphyritic Cu-Au deposits.

  7. Mesozoic exhumation history and palaeolandscape of the Iberian Massif in eastern Galicia from apatite fission-track and (U+Th)/He data (United States)

    Grobe, R. W.; Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Stuart, F. M.


    Apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U+Th)/He (AHe) data, combined with time-temperature inverse modelling, reveal the cooling and exhumation history of the Iberian Massif in eastern Galicia since the Mesozoic. The continuous cooling at various rates correlates with variation of tectonic boundary conditions in the adjacent continental margins. The data provide constraints on the 107 timescale longevity of a relict paleolandscape. AFT ages range from 68 to 174 Ma with mean track lengths of 10.7 ± 2.6 to 12.6 ± 1.8 μm, and AHe ages range from 73 to 147 Ma. Fastest exhumation (≈0.25 km/Ma) occurred during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous main episode of rifting in the adjacent western and northern margins. Exhumation rates have decreased since then and have been approximately one order of magnitude lower. Across inland Galicia, the AFT data are consistent with Early Cretaceous movement on post-Variscan NE trending faults. This is coeval with an extensional episode offshore. The AHe data in this region indicate less than 1.7 km of denudation in the last 100 Ma. This low exhumation suggests the attainment of a mature landscape during Late Cretaceous post-rift tectonic stability, whose remains are still preserved. The low and steady rate of denudation prevailed across inland Galicia despite minor N-S shortening in the northern margin since ≈45 Ma ago. In north Galicia, rock uplift in response to NW strike-slip faulting since Early Oligocene to Early Miocene has caused insufficient exhumation (<3 km) to remove the Mesozoic cooling signal recorded by the AFT data.

  8. Search for an artificially buried karst cave entrance using ground penetrating radar: a successful case of locating the S-19 Cave in the Mt. Kanin massif (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar


    Full Text Available The S-19 Cave was with its explored depth of 177 m one of the most important caves of the Mt. Kanin massif, but after its discovery in 1974, a huge snow avalanche protection dyke was constructed across the cave entrance. To excavate the buried cave, the accurate location of the cave had to be determined first. Since the entrance coordinates were incorrect and no markers were available, application of geophysical techniques was necessary to do this. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR with special 50 MHz rough terrain antennas was selected as the single suitable geophysical method for the given conditions where thick debris overlay a rugged limestone surface. Nevertheless, it was not possible to directly detect the relatively narrow cave entrance itself due to data resolution limits. However, a historical photo of the area showed that the cave entrance was located in a local depression, which therefore represented the main target of the GPR survey. Seven GPR profiles were measured across the rough and steep surface causing difficulties in traversing the area with sensitive research equipment. In all recorded radargrams a small depression was clearly imaged under debris, and recognized as a topographic feature with the cave entrance. Based on the GPR data interpretation, the exact location for digging was determined and the thickness of debris assessed at 6.5–7 m. A massive excavation by a dredger resulted in a successful opening of the cave entrance, confirming both its geophysically determined location and its estimated depth. The application of an advanced geophysical method was therefore proven successful in providing a solution to this specific case in karst exploration and an important cave was saved.

  9. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border. (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K


    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  10. GPS and TerraSAR-X time series measure temperate glacier flow in the Mont Blanc massif (France): the Argentière glacier test site. (United States)

    Ponton, F.; Walpersdorf, A.; Gay, M.; Trouvé, E.; Mugnier, J. L.; Fallourd, R.; Cotte, N.; Ott, L.; Serafini, J.


    We present measurements of the surface velocity of the Argentière glacier in the Mont Blanc massif, France, obtained by SAR and GPS observations. We produce surface velocity fields from several couples of descending and ascending TerraSAR-X acquisitions repeated at 11 days intervals in spring 2009, using the offset power tracking technique. Moreover, we dispose of four years of GPS data acquired continuously on the Argentière glacier. Our local permanent GPS network is composed of two stations on the glacier at altitudes of 2441 m and 2770 m, and two stations in static places, one in the valley of Chamonix at an altitude of 1121 m and the other on a rock outcrop near the glacier at the altitude of 2835 m. The measurements yield average displacement rates of about 13 cm/day for the upper glacier station (2770 m) and 17 cm/day for the lower site (2441 m). These in situ GPS results have been used already to validate the displacement rates of a corner reflector on the glacier measured by SAR interferometry. Here, we will use the GPS observations to validate longitudinal profiles of the surface velocity field obtained by offset power tracking. The combination of continuous GPS time series and successive TerraSAR-X images yield new information on temperate glacier dynamics, constraining an annual variability of the displacement rates of up to 28 %, with fastest flow in late summer, and a spatial variability of the displacement rates of up to 50%, with fastest flow at the bottom of the glacier. The continuous monitoring (in space and time) of the Argentière glacier flow over several annual cycles can be used to examine the correlation with climatological parameters such as temperature and cumulated precipitations and provides an exceptional data set for improving models of temperate glacier flow mechanisms.

  11. A Dynamic Pressure Component in UHP Whiteschists from the Dora-Maira Massif (Western Alps, Italy) Revealed By Pressure-Induced Incipient Amorphization of Quartz (United States)

    Frezzotti, M. L.; Palmeri, R.; Godard, G.; Ferrando, S.; Compagnoni, R.


    We report the micro-Raman evidence for pressure-induced incipient amorphization of quartz in the UHP Brossasco-Isasca Unit (Dora-Maira Massif, Italian western Alps). Fifteen quartz inclusions in garnet were studied that comprise single crystals and aggregates of two-to-four crystals, along with one matrix crystal in a strain shadow. Palisade quartz, from coesite inversion, is also observed in garnet. The straight alignment of inclusions in prograde garnet indicates that quartz grew during garnet growth at about 650°C and 2.8 GPa, from HP to UHP metamorphic conditions. In single quartz crystals, disordering of lattice and densification (i.e., diaplectic glass) are revealed by two additional bands in Raman spectra: the former at 480 cm-1, derived from tetrahedral densified SiO2 amorphous phase composed of four-membered rings, and the latter at 605 cm-1, from defect structures involving partially broken SiO2 bonds. At the P-T metamorphic conditions of garnet growth, coesite is the thermodynamically stable form of crystalline silica. The existence of a lower enthalpy configuration, however, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for phase transition at constant pressure. If a kinetically accessible path is not available for the transition to ensue, metastable denser amorphous phase is formed instead. Amorphization of α-quartz requires experimental (or theoretical) lithostatic (hydrostatic) pressures > 15 GPa, while in presence of deviatoric stresses (i.e., non-lithostatic conditions), required pressures are lowered down to ≤ 5 GPa, at room temperature. Previous numerical geodynamic models suggested that in UHP terranes tectonic overpressure, greater than up to 0.3 GPa the lithostatic one, may be locally present (Gerya et al., 2008, Lithos, 103, 236-256). Our study confirms the presence of transitory pressure deviations from lithostatic values during prograde UHP metamorphism on a time scale that allows minerals to record these pressures.

  12. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle? (United States)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.


    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  13. A microstructural and argon laserprobe study of shear zone development at the western margin of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, western Himalaya (United States)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Kelley, Simon P.; Magennis, Lochlann

    A sample of banded amphibolite from the western margin of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif as Sassi has been studied using microstructural and 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe techniques to investigate the relationship between deformation and argon isotope variations in a natural system. Amphibolite-grade deformation occurred during south-directed overthrusting of the Kohistan arc over India along the Main Mantle Thrust and was overprinted by extensional reactivation of the earlier fabric and the formation of biotite-rich shear zones. Subsequent deformation along discrete fine-grained fault zones was characterised by the formation of scapolite, chlorite and K-feldspar, early plastic deformation and later cataclasis. Different minerals developed during this history show a wide range in apparent 40Ar/39Ar ages. Biotite, chlorite and scapolite exhibit much lower concentrations of excess argon, indicating their equilibration in a fluid relatively poor in excess argon. A `true' age of ca. 8 Ma from biotite represents a minimum age for deformation associated with formation of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and also precludes Pliocene metamorphism in this area of the syntaxis. Both high- and low-closure temperature minerals (amphiboles and feldspars) record apparent ages which are associated with the incorporation of excess argon within the mineral lattice. Although differential thermal resetting of minerals at different closure temperatures is important, variations in the inherited 40Ar/36Ar ratio throughout the sample is dominated by deformation and fluid infiltration. Consequently it appears that within deforming metamorphic rocks, areas with significantly different argon isotope compositions may be present and need not be homogenised by diffusion.

  14. Constraints on the crustal structure of the internal Variscan Belt in SW Europe: A magnetotelluric transect along the eastern part of Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Massif (United States)

    Pous, Jaume; MartíNez Poyatos, David; Heise, Wiebke; Santos, Fernando Monteiro; Galindo-ZaldíVar, Jesús; Ibarra, Pedro; Pedrera, Antonio; Ruiz-ConstáN, Ana; Anahnah, Farida; GonçAlves, Rui; Mateus, Antonio


    The Iberian Massif is the best exposed segment of the European Variscan Belt. It includes relatively well preserved terranes that were accreted by transpression along time and resulted in a number of geotectonic units that formed part of the Late Paleozoic assembly of the Pangaea Supercontinent. In SW Iberia, these units are the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ), and the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ). A 210 km long NE-SW magnetotelluric profile was carried out through the CIZ, from the OMZ-CIZ boundary toward the north, reaching the Tagus (Cenozoic) basin. Data dimensionality analysis resulted in a suitable 2-D electrical resistivity structure, allowing a 2-D inversion of the data set. Complementary available geophysical data (deep seismic, gravity and aeromagnetic) and a comparison with a detailed geological cross section led us to constrain the interpretation of the 2-D electrical resistivity structure of the CIZ crust. The results show, for the upper crust, the existence of diverse conductive/resistive bodies that correlate well with known geological features (sedimentary basins, faults, granitic plutons, mineralized systems). A mild but steady conductive band is located along the middle and lower crust that is interpreted as a mafic granulite basement. The upper section of this band connects with several elongated shallow conductors, providing further evidence for the existence, in the Central Iberian Zone, of a complex décollement system where the major faults are rooted. Such a crustal architecture is viewed as the northward continuation of the Variscan large-scale structures previously recognized in the southern sectors (OMZ and SPZ).

  15. Cambrian rift-related magmatism in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberian Massif): Geochemical and geophysical evidence of Gondwana break-up (United States)

    Sarrionandia, F.; Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Eguiluz, L.; Ábalos, B.; Rodríguez, J.; Pin, C.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.


    Volcanic rocks of Cambrian age from Zafra (Ossa-Morena Zone, Iberian Massif) are the result of rift processes that affected Cadomian arc units accreted to the NW edge of Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian transition. Tephrite to rhyolite volcanics define an alkaline transitional association (Coombs type). Basic-ultrabasic rocks exhibit typical alkaline REE-patterns, strongly enriched in LREE with respect to HREE. Two parental magmas are identified, one with a mantle signature, lack of Nb negative anomaly and εNd500Ma + 3.8 to + 4.2; another with crustal contribution, minor Nb negative anomaly and εNd500Ma + 0.8 to + 1.8. Intermediate-acid rocks show variable REE fractionation and share geochemical characteristics of both basic-ultrabasic groups with restricted εNd500Ma + 2.2 to 3.1 and general absence of Nb negative anomaly. Basic-ultrabasic melts resulted from different amounts of partial melting of a homogeneous source and segregation at the garnet-spinel transition zone. We argue that the "Hales transition" recently recognized in reflection seismic experiments of SW Iberia might image such a source region. Mantle-derived magmas ponded at the base of the crust and weakly interacted with crustal rocks/melts, whilst intermediate-acid rocks were generated by plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± amphibole fractionation. Melt ascent took place through fractures, with limited crustal interaction. Based upon the new geochemical results and complementary cartographic and geophysical data, a model is presented for the Cambrian break-up of North Gondwana due to magma ascent from the mantle.

  16. Structural and Thermochronological Constraints on the Coupling Between Exhumation, Denudation and Tectonics in the Himalaya: Insights From the Ama Drime Massif, Tibet- Nepal (United States)

    Jessup, M. J.; Cottle, J. M.; Newell, D. L.; Berger, A. L.; Spotila, J. A.


    Focused denudation and mid-crustal flow are coupled in many active tectonic settings, including the Himalaya where exhumation of mid-crustal rocks is accommodated by thrust faults and low-angle detachment systems during crustal shortening. New structural data demonstrates that the most recently active tectonic feature in the Mt. Everest region is the Ama Drime Massif (ADM), a trans-Himalayan antiformal structure that protrudes ~ 70 km north from the crest of the Himalaya and displaces the South Tibetan Detachment system. Previous investigations interpreted the N-S striking shear zones and fault systems that bound either side of the ADM as the Main Central thrust. Our data show that these are 100-300 m thick normal-sense shear zones that are kinematically linked to young brittle faults that offset Quaternary deposits and record active E-W extension. Geochemical tracers in hot springs along the western shear zone indicate devolatilization of crustal rocks suggesting active metamorphism and/or melting beneath the ADM. Integration of high-to low-T thermochronometric methods, including U(-Th-)Pb, Apatite Fission Track and (U-Th)/He, yield important information regarding the timing and rate of exhumation of the ADM. These data reveal that rapid exhumation of material from the mid-crust during E-W extension began in the mid-Miocene and that a high rate of uplift / denudation persisted into the Pliocene. The southern end of the ADM is centered on the Arun River gorge, which previous geomorphological instigations defined as a prime candidate for climate-tectonic coupling. We combine our results with these exiting data to propose that active exhumation of deep crustal rocks of the ADM during E-W extension is coupled with denudation in the Arun River gorge. This model provides important quantitative constraints on the dynamic feedbacks between climate and tectonics in collisional orogens as well as the evolution of trans-Himalayan rivers and antiformal structures.

  17. Afflux massif de brûlés : la doctrine française de triage en temps de paix (United States)

    Bargues, L.; Fall, M.M.


    Summary Les situations de catastrophe impliquant un grand nombre de brûlés peuvent survenir à tout moment après un incendie, une attaque terroriste, une explosion industrielle ou un accident de transport. Les différentes sociétés internationales de brûlologie ont publié des recommandations sur la préparation à l’afflux massif de brûlés. La Société Française d’Étude et de Traitement des Brûlés (SFETB) propose le triage des victimes selon la Surface Cutanée Brûlée (SCB), l’inhalation de fumées et les lésions traumatiques associées. Ce plan cherche à catégoriser les victimes et à attribuer à chaque patient un lit adapté à ses besoins thérapeutiques (centre des brûlés, réanimation médicale ou chirurgicale, service d’urgences, chirurgie, poste de triage). Les Services d’Aide Médicale Urgente (SAMU) sont au coeur du dispositif : premiers soins, poste Médical Avancé (pMA), régulation, triage et transport, renfort en matériel dans l’hôpital de proximité. Un plan catastrophe pour brûlés doit être adapté aux capacités hospitalières du pays. PMID:26668563

  18. Did Patagonia collide against Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic? Some Insights From Magnetic Fabrics of Granitoids in the North Patagonian Massif. (United States)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Lopez de Luchi, M. G.; Tomezzoli, R. N.


    The Paleozoic tectonic evolution of Patagonia has been a matter of much debate in the last two decades. There is no consensus on whether the North Patagonian Massif (NPM) was accreted by a frontal collision to Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic or if it shared a similar paleotectonic evolution with other Gondwana blocks during the Paleozoic. Different geologic, geochronologic, geophysical and structural data have been interpreted either as supporting or refuting the collisional model. Paleomagnetic data obtained so far is consistent with an authochtonous evolution since the Devonian, but it does not rule out relative displacements of up to 1500 km between Patagonia and Gondwana.Therefore, a Late Paleozoic frontal collision cannot be definitely ruled out on the basis of paleomagnetic data alone. As part of a muldisciplinary research project a magnetic fabric study, by means of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), was carried out on Late Paleozoic granitoids exposed in northeastern NPM. Two main composite units were studied, the highly to variably foliated Yaminue Complex, poorly dated as Late Carboniferous and ranging in composition from tonalite to leuco-granite, and the much less deformed granodiorites to monzoganites of the Early Permian (283 Ma) Navarrete complex. While the former is composed of both ferro and paramagnetic units, with a dominance of the latter; the Navarrete plutons are basically ferromagnetic. Directional and scalar AMS results joined with meso and microstructural studies permitted the characterization of the deformational and magmatic fabric of the different units. An evolutionary picture of the succesive intrusive events in NPM emerged which confirms an important NNE-SSW contractional event associated with intrusion of the different units that compose the Yaminue Complex. This event ended before the intrusion of the Navarrete Complex, which is governed by a different stress regime. Our results fit the hypothesis of a collisional event

  19. Structure and temporal variations of a magmatic CO2 degassing site in the Bohemian Massif (Europe): an integrated geophysical-geochemical-sedimentological study (United States)

    Flechsig, C.; Nickschick, T.; Kaempf, H. W.; Mrlina, J.; Bussert, R.


    The Bohemian Massif, as a part of the Variscan orogenic belt, is one of the largest stable intracontinental zone of pre-Permian rocks in Central and Western Europe. Its geodynamically most active western part, the West Bohemia/Vogtland region, shows persistent seismic activity of recurring earthquake swarms (up to M 4.5) and intense CO2 degassing at the surface (mofettes) with mantle-derived He-isotope signatures. To understand the fluid migration in the subsurface and its control by tectonics is one research issue which must be addressed to clarify the possible link to the earthquake generation. We present results of an interdisciplinary study of near-surface sediments in a mofette field. The study comprises geophysical (gravimetry and geoelectrics), geochemical (CO2 soil gas and gas flux measurements), and sedimentological investigations. The investigations reveal a positive correlation between areas of high soil gas (CO2) concentration and flux with geophysical anomalies (negative self potential, positive structures of low electrical resistivity, decreased density) as well as with specific sediment properties (content of pyrite and organic material, occurrence of dispersed pebbles, uplifted clay layer). These features are thought to be directly or indirectly related to the magmatic caused fluid flow. Soil gas (CO2) flux and concentration anomalies spread out with a linear trend, suggesting the fault control on gas ascent. Negative self potential anomalies at the degassing spots were interpreted considering as having been caused by a downward movement of the meteoric water balancing the upward CO2 gas flux. The model of the active mofettes has to consider its bonding to deep-seated faults and can be tracked. The results fit into a tectonic model in which the mofette fields are in the centers of two independent pull-apart basin-like structures.

  20. Monazite U-Th-Pb EPMA and zircon U-Pb SIMS chronological constraints on the tectonic, metamorphic, and thermal events in the inner part of the Variscan orogen, example from the Sioule series, French Massif Central (United States)

    Do Couto, Damien; Faure, Michel; Augier, Romain; Cocherie, Alain; Rossi, Philippe; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei


    In the northern Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule metamorphic series exposes from top to bottom the tectonic superposition of the Upper Gneiss Unit (UGU), Lower Gneiss Unit (LGU), and Para-autochthonous Unit (PAU). The nappe stacking developed throughout two prograde syn-metamorphic events: D1 is a top-to-the-SW shearing coeval with a probable Devonian migmatization and D2 is a top-to-the-NW shearing event. Both events were completed before the unconformable deposition of the undeformed and unmetamorphosed "Tufs anthracifères" formation, dated at ca 330 Ma (Late Visean). Furthermore, the UGU experienced a high-pressure metamorphism ascribed to a D0 event during which eclogite or granulite crystallized in several parts of the UGU. Monazite U-Th-Pb and zircon U-Pb SIMS datings were carried out in order to constrain the ages of these D0, D1, and D2 tectono-metamorphic events. These new geochronological results are placed in a P-T-t diagram constructed for the UGU, LGU, and PAU. Monazite sampled in UGU, LGU, and PAU rocks yields similar 365-350 Ma ages consistent with the D2 event dated in other places of the French Massif Central. A zoned monazite grain from a granulitic paragneiss yields 416 ± 15 and 362 ± 14 Ma ages interpreted as those of the D0 and D2 events, respectively. Zircon from the same granulitic paragneiss yields SIMS ages at 343 ± 2 and 328 ± 2 Ma that are interpreted as recrystallization processes associated with post-thickening thermal events, possibly recording the onset of orogenic collapse of the Northern Massif Central. It is worth to note that neither monazite nor zircon recorded the D1 event.

  1. Mesure et modélisation des contraintes naturelles dans un massif rocheux alpin. Effets de la topographie, de l'anisotropie et des contraintes tectoniques; application au projet de tunnel Maurienne-Ambin.


    Mayeur, Bertrand


    Le projet de tunnel de base Maurienne-Arnbin, qui traversera les Alpes sur plus de 50 km de longueur et sous un 'recouvrement de terrain atteignant au maximum 2500 m, pose le problème de la prévision des états de contraintes naturelles dans les massifs rocheux ; le comportement du rocher pendant l'excavation aussi bien que la stabilité de l'ouvrage en dépendent. Pour étudier cette question complexe, nous avons eu recours à plusieurs approches complémentaires. Il s'agit tout d'abord d'une étud...

  2. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif; Estudio geoquimico de los procesos de interaccion agua-roca sobre sistemas goetermales de aguas alcalinas en granitoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buil gutierrez, B.; Garcia Sanz, S.; Lago San Jose, M.; Arranz Uague, E.; Auque Sanz, L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)


    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  3. Re-Os and Lu-Hf isotopic constraints on the formation and age of mantle pyroxenites from the Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Bizimis, Michael; Haluzová, Eva; Sláma, Jiří; Svojtka, Martin; Hirajima, Takao; Erban, Vojtěch


    We report on the Lu-Hf and Re-Os isotope systematics of a well-characterized suite of spinel and garnet pyroxenites from the Gföhl Unit of the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria). Lu-Hf mineral isochrons of three pyroxenites yield undistinguishable values in the range of 336-338 Ma. Similarly, the slope of Re-Os regression for most samples yields an age of 327 ± 31 Ma. These values overlap previously reported Sm-Nd ages on pyroxenites, eclogites and associated peridotites from the Gföhl Unit, suggesting contemporaneous evolution of all these HT-HP rocks. The whole-rock Hf isotopic compositions are highly variable with initial εHf values ranging from - 6.4 to + 66. Most samples show a negative correlation between bulk rock Sm/Hf and εHf and, when taking into account other characteristics (e.g., high 87Sr/86Sr), this may be explained by the presence of recycled oceanic sediments in the source of the pyroxenite parental melts. A pyroxenite from Horní Kounice has decoupled Hf-Nd systematics with highly radiogenic initial εHf of + 66 for a given εNd of + 7.8. This decoupling is consistent with the presence of a melt derived from a depleted mantle component with high Lu/Hf. Finally, one sample from Bečváry plots close to the MORB field in Hf-Nd isotope space consistent with its previously proposed origin as metamorphosed oceanic gabbro. Some of the websterites and thin-layered pyroxenites have variable, but high Os concentrations paralleled by low initial γOs. This reflects the interaction of the parental pyroxenitic melts with a depleted peridotite wall rock. In turn, the radiogenic Os isotope compositions observed in most pyroxenite samples is best explained by mixing between unradiogenic Os derived from peridotites and a low-Os sedimentary precursor with highly radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Steep increase of 187Os/188Os at nearly uniform 187Re/188Os found in a few pyroxenites may be connected with the absence of primary sulfides, but the presence of minor

  4. Micas from mariupolite of the Oktiabrski massif (SE Ukraine): an insight into the host rock evolution--geochemical data supported by Raman microspectroscopy. (United States)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Pieczka, Adam


    Muscovite and two dark mica varieties (the coarse-crystalline, pegmatitic, and fine-crystalline with signs of early weathering) representing members of the biotite series, originating from mariupolite of the Oktiabrski massif, (Ukraine), were investigated along with their solid inclusions using electron microprobe and Raman micro-spectroscopy to discuss their genesis and relationship to the parental magma. The coarse-crystalline, pegmatitic biotite, (K1.90Rb0.02Na0.01)(Fe3.56(2+)Mg1.34Ti0.36Fe0.34(3+)Mn0.03)[(Si5.73Al2.10Fe0.17(3+))O20](OH3.24 F0.76) represents the primary, magmatic annite that crystallized from an alkaline, Fe-rich and Mg-depleted host magma, whereas the fine-crystalline biotite, partly altered to vermiculite, (K1.75Rb0.03Na0.03)(Fe3.23(3+)Fe1.16(2+)Mg0.26Mn0.04Ti0.10)[(Si5.16 Al2.84)O20](OH)4.00, devoid of F, represents a re-equilibrated or secondary, post-magmatic Fe(3+)-bearing mica crystallized from alkaline to the subalkaline host magma. Muscovite, (K1.96Na0.06)(Al3.97Fe0.06(2+))[(Si5.99Al2.01)O20](OH)4, with low Na/(Na+K) ratio, low Fe and devoid of Ti and also F, forms only tiny, subhedral flakes formed in the post-magmatic, hydrothermal stage. The primary, unaltered biotite contains numerous solid inclusions of primary origin (albite, aegirine, zircon, K-feldspar, nepheline, pyrochlore, magnetite) and secondary origin (natrolite, hematite, Ti-Mn oxides/hydroxides); most of them are accompanied by a carbonaceous substance, all confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Snow control on active layer and permafrost in steep alpine rock walls (Aiguille du Midi, 3842 m a.s.l, Mont Blanc massif) (United States)

    Magnin, Florence; Westermann, Sebastian; Pogliotti, Paolo; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    Permafrost degradation through the thickening of the active layer and the rising temperature at depth is a crucial process of rock wall stability. The ongoing increase in rock falls observed during hot periods in mid-latitude mountain ranges is regarded as a result of permafrost degradation. However, the short-term thermal dynamics of alpine rock walls are misunderstood since they result of complex processes related to the interaction of local climate variables, heterogeneous snow cover and heat transfers. As a consequence steady-state and long-term changes that can be approached with simpler process mainly related to air temperature, solar radiations and heat conduction were the most common dynamics to be studied so far. The effect of snow on the bedrock surface temperature is increasingly investigated and has already been demonstrated to be an essential factor of permafrost distribution. Nevertheless, its effect on the year-to-year changes of the active layer thickness and of the permafrost temperature in steep alpine bedrock has not been investigated yet, partly due to the lack of appropriate data. We explore the role of snow accumulations on the active layer and permafrost thermal regime of steep rock walls of a high-elevated site, the Aiguille du Midi (AdM, 3842 m a.s.l, Mont Blanc massif, Western European Alps) by mean of a multi-methods approach. We first analyse six years of temperature records in three 10-m-deep boreholes. Then we describe the snow accumulation patterns on two rock faces by means of automatically processed camera records. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature towards timing and magnitude of snow accumulations are performed using the numerical permafrost model CryoGrid 3. The energy balance module is forced with local meteorological measurements on the AdM S face and validated with surface temperature measurements at the weather station location. The heat conduction scheme is calibrated with

  6. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of high-grade rocks from the Upper Allochthonous Terrane of Bragança and Morais Massifs (NE Portugal); geodynamic consequences (United States)

    Mateus, A.; Munhá, J.; Ribeiro, A.; Tassinari, C. C. G.; Sato, K.; Pereira, E.; Santos, J. F.


    Bragança and Morais Massifs are part of the mega-klippen ensemble of NW Iberia, comprising a tectonic pile of four allochthonous units stacked above the Central-Iberian Zone autochthon. On top of this pile, the Upper Allochthonous Terrane (UAT) includes different high-grade metamorphic series whose age and geodynamic meaning are controversial. Mafic granulites provided U-Pb zircon ages at 399 ± 7 Ma, dating the Variscan emplacement of UAT. In contrast, U-Pb zircon ages of ky- and hb-eclogites, felsic/intermediate HP/HT-granulites and orthogneisses (ca. 500-480 Ma) are identical to those of gabbros (488 ± 10 Ma) and Grt-pyroxenites (495 ± 8 Ma) belonging to a mafic/ultramafic igneous suite that records upper mantle melting and mafic magma crustal underplating at these times. Gabbros intrude the high-grade units of UAT and did not underwent the HP metamorphic event experienced by eclogites and granulites. These features and the zircon dates resemblance among different lithologies, suggest that extensive age resetting of older events may have been correlative with the igneous suite emplacement/crystallisation. Accordingly, reconciliation of structural, petrological and geochronological evidence implies that the development and early deformation of UAT high-grade rocks should be ascribed to an orogenic cycle prior to ≈ 500 Ma. Undisputable dating of this cycle is impossible, but the sporadic vestiges of Cadomian ages cannot be disregarded. The ca. 500-480 Ma time-window harmonises well with the Lower Palaeozoic continental rifting that trace the Variscan Wilson Cycle onset and the Rheic Ocean opening. Subsequent preservation of the high heat-flow regime, possibly related to the Palaeotethys back-arc basin development (ca. 450-420 Ma), would explain the 461 ± 10 Ma age yielded by some zircon domains in felsic granulites, conceivably reflecting zircon dissolution/recrystallisation till Ordovician times, long before the Variscan paroxysm (ca. 400-390 Ma). This

  7. Oxygen isotopes reveal crustal contamination and a large, still partially molten magma chamber in Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central) (United States)

    France, Lydéric; Demacon, Mickael; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Briot, Danielle


    The two main magmatic properties associated with explosive eruptions are high viscosity of silica-rich magmas and/or high volatile contents. Magmatic processes responsible for the genesis of such magmas are differentiation through crystallization, and crustal contamination (or assimilation) as this process has the potential to enhance crystallization and add volatiles to the initial budget. In the Chaîne des Puy series (French Massif Central), silica- and H2O-rich magmas were only emitted during the most recent eruptions (ca. 6-15 ka). Here, we use in situ measurements of oxygen isotopes in zircons from two of the main trachytic eruptions from the Chaîne des Puys to track the crustal contamination component in a sequence that was previously presented as an archetypal fractional crystallization series. Zircons from Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme display homogeneous oxygen isotope compositions with δ18O = 5.6 ± 0.25‰ and 5.6 ± 0.3‰, respectively, and have therefore crystallized from homogeneous melts with δ18Omelt = 7.1 ± 0.3‰. Compared to mantle derived melts resulting from pure fractional crystallization (δ18Odif.mant. = 6.4 ± 0.4‰), those δ18Omelt values are enriched in 18O and support a significant role of crustal contamination in the genesis of silica-rich melts in the Chaîne des Puys. Assimilation-fractional-crystallization models highlight that the degree of contamination was probably restricted to 5.5-9.5% with Rcrystallization/Rassimilation varying between 8 and 14. The very strong intra-site homogeneity of the isotopic data highlights that magmas were well homogenized before eruption, and consequently that crustal contamination was not the trigger of silica-rich eruptions in the Chaîne des Puys. The exceptionally strong inter-site homogeneity of the isotopic data brings to light that Sarcoui volcano and Puy de Dôme were fed by a single large magma chamber. Our results, together with recent thermo-kinetic models and an experimental

  8. Cadomian S-type granites as basement rocks of the Variscan belt (Massif Central, France): Implications for the crustal evolution of the north Gondwana margin (United States)

    Couzinié, Simon; Laurent, Oscar; Poujol, Marc; Mintrone, Michaël; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Moyen, Jean-François; Bouilhol, Pierre; Vezinet, Adrien; Marko, Linda


    From the Neoproterozoic to the early Paleozoic, the northern Gondwana margin was sequentially shaped by the Cadomian accretionary and the Variscan collisional orogens which offers the opportunity to investigate the relative extent of crust production/reworking in both geodynamic settings. In the eastern part of the Variscan French Massif Central (FMC), the Velay Orthogneiss Formation (VOF) represents a consistent lithological unit of the pre-Variscan basement and comprises augen gneisses and leucogneisses. Such rocks constitute a unique record of the pre-Variscan magmatic history and bear critical information on the crustal evolution of the northern Gondwana margin. Here, we present whole-rock major and trace element compositions indicating that: (i) the VOF shows a remarkable geochemical homogeneity; (ii) the protolith of the augen gneisses corresponds to strongly peraluminous, ;S-type; porphyritic granites originating from partial melting of an Ediacaran sedimentary sequence; (iii) the leucogneisses are former leucogranites generated by fractionation of the magma at the origin of the porphyritic granites; and (iv) the whole suite emplaced at shallow crustal levels (< 7 km). U-Pb LA-(MC-)ICP-MS analyses on zircon yielded similar emplacement ages of c. 542 Ma and a narrow range of εHf(t) clustering around 0 for the protoliths of both augen and leucogneisses. This homogeneous Hf isotope signature, notably uncommon for S-type granites, would originate from a sequential process of: (i) inherited zircon dissolution during melting and ascent in the crust due to Zr-undersaturated conditions, (ii) isotopic homogenization of the melt by advection and elemental/isotopic diffusion, followed by (iii) early saturation upon emplacement owing to rapid cooling at shallow crustal levels. We propose that partial melting of Ediacaran sediments occurred during inversion of a Cadomian back-arc basin and was promoted by the high thermal gradient typical of thinned crust domains


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos O.M


    Full Text Available Metacarbonate rocks (pure and impure marbles, carbonate-silicate rocks, calc-silicate rocks and carbonate-bearing silicate rocks form a very complex group within the metamorphic sequence of the Silgará Formation at the central Santander Massif (CSM. These rocks are interpreted as derived from a sedimentary sequence (including limestones and dolostones, carbonate-bearing mudstones,  sandstones, tuffaceous and evaporitic sediments and marlstones overprinted by near-isochemical regional metamorphism. They usually appear as scarce intercalations from millimeter up to meter scale, within the high-grade pelitic rocks, in the lower part of the metamorphic section, although the proportion of metacarbonate rocks can be higher and different marble layers are exploited. We report for the first time the occurrence of a "reaction calcic exoskarn", which corresponds to
    such metacarbonate rocks, taking into account that a skarn can be developed during regional metamorphism and by different metasomatic processes, adjacent to intrusive bodies, along faults and shear zones, and what defines these rocks as a skarn is its mineralogy, which includes a variety of calc-silicate and associated minerals, usually dominated by garnet and pyroxene. Therefore, this paper focus attention to the occurrence of metacarbonate and
    related rocks, which occurs as small scale reactions zones that show a gradational contact from garnet-bearing pelitic rocks to marbles or carbonate-silicate rocks, giving particular interest to the calc-silicate rocks, which are characterized by the presence of elongated grains of banded clinopyroxene (diopside and scapolite and massive
    or scattered garnet. Several reaction-zones occur in the contact between impure calcite marble and garnet-bearing metapelite and the sequence of mineral assemblages in these reaction zones is: biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet (Zone I, biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet staurolite epidote

  10. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France) (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel


    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  11. Petrological evolution of subducted rodingite from seafloor metamorphism to dehydration of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite (Cerro del Almirez massif, southern Spain) (United States)

    Laborda-López, Casto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto


    Rodingites are common rocks associated with serpentinites in exhumed terrains that experienced subduction and high pressure metamorphism. However, the response of these rocks to devolatilization and redox reactions in subduction settings is not well constrained. In the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (southern Spain) rodingites constitute about 1-2% of the total volume of exposed rocks. Metarodingites are enclosed in antigorite-serpentinite and chlorite-harzburgite separated by a transitional zone that represents the front of prograde serpentinite-dehydration in a paleo-subduction setting (Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011). Metarodingites occur as boudin lenses, 1 to 20 m in length and 30 cm to 2 m in thickness. During serpentinization of peridotite host rocks, dolerites and basalts precursor of rodingites underwent intense seafloor metasomatism, causing the enrichment in Ca and remobilization of Na and K. Subsequent metamorphism during subduction transformed the original igneous and seafloor metamorphic mineralogy into an assemblage of garnet (Ti-rich hydrogrossular), diopside, chlorite, and epidote. During prograde metamorphism, garnet composition changed towards higher andradite contents. High-pressure transformation of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite released fluids which induced breakdown of garnet to epidote in metarodingites. Ti liberation by this latter reaction produced abundant titanite. Released fluids also triggered the formation of amphibole by alkalis addition. Highly recrystallized metarodingites in chlorite-harzburgite present a new generation of idiomorphic garnet with composition equal to 10-30% pyrope, 30-40% grossular and 35-55% almandine + spessartine. This garnet has titanite inclusions in the core and rutile inclusions in the rim. The contact between metarodingites and ultramafic rocks consists of a metasomatic zone (blackwall) with variable thickness (7 to 40 cm) constituted by chlorite, diopside, and titanite

  12. Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century (United States)

    Magnin, Florence; Josnin, Jean-Yves; Ravanel, Ludovic; Pergaud, Julien; Pohl, Benjamin; Deline, Philip


    High alpine rock wall permafrost is extremely sensitive to climate change. Its degradation has a strong impact on landscape evolution and can trigger rockfalls constituting an increasing threat to socio-economical activities of highly frequented areas; quantitative understanding of permafrost evolution is crucial for such communities. This study investigates the long-term evolution of permafrost in three vertical cross sections of rock wall sites between 3160 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc massif, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) steady-state conditions to 2100. Simulations are forced with air temperature time series, including two contrasted air temperature scenarios for the 21st century representing possible lower and upper boundaries of future climate change according to the most recent models and climate change scenarios. The 2-D finite element model accounts for heat conduction and latent heat transfers, and the outputs for the current period (2010-2015) are evaluated against borehole temperature measurements and an electrical resistivity transect: permafrost conditions are remarkably well represented. Over the past two decades, permafrost has disappeared on faces with a southerly aspect up to 3300 m a.s.l. and possibly higher. Warm permafrost (i.e. > - 2 °C) has extended up to 3300 and 3850 m a.s.l. in N and S-exposed faces respectively. During the 21st century, warm permafrost is likely to extend at least up to 4300 m a.s.l. on S-exposed rock walls and up to 3850 m a.s.l. depth on the N-exposed faces. In the most pessimistic case, permafrost will disappear on the S-exposed rock walls at a depth of up to 4300 m a.s.l., whereas warm permafrost will extend at a depth of the N faces up to 3850 m a.s.l., but possibly disappearing at such elevation under the influence of a close S face. The results are site specific and extrapolation to other sites is limited by the imbrication of local topographical and transient effects.

  13. Characterization of alluvial dust sources and their temporal development - a multi-sensor approach for the Aïr Massif, Niger (United States)

    Feuerstein, Stefanie; Schepanski, Kerstin


    One of the world's largest sources of atmospheric dust is the Sahara. It is said that 55% of the total global dust emission can be linked to the desert in northern Africa. Thus, understanding the Saharan dust sources is of great importance to estimate the total global dust load and its variability. Especially one type of dust sources has gained attention in dust research in recent years: The emission of dust from sediments formed by hydrologic processes, so called alluvial dust sources. These sediments were either formed in the past under the influences of a more humid paleoclimate or are deposited recently, e.g. during strong precipitation events when surficial runoff leads to the activation of wadi systems or to the occurrence of flash floods. Especially the latter phenomenon is able to deliver a huge amount of potentially erodible sediments. The research presented here focuses on the characterization of these alluvial dust sources with special attention on their temporal variability in relation to wet and dry phases. A study area covering the Aïr Massif in Niger is analysed over a four years time span from January 2013 to December 2016. The whole cycle from sediment formation to dust emission is illustrated by using data of various satellite sensors that are able to capture the processes taking place at the land surface as well as in the atmosphere: (1) The rainfall distribution for the study area is shown by time series of the TRMM precipitation estimates. A catchment analysis of the area helps to estimate the amount of surficial runoff and to detect areas of potential sediment accumulation. (2) Changes in the sediment structure of the land surface are analysed using atmospherically corrected time series of NASA's Landsat-8 OLI satellite. A land cover classification shows the distribution of alluvial sediments over the area; fresh layers of alluvial deposits are detected. Furthermore, the evolution of the vegetation cover, which inhibits dust emission, is

  14. Protracted, coeval crust and mantle melting during Variscan late-orogenic evolution: U-Pb dating in the eastern French Massif Central (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Couzinié, Simon; Zeh, Armin; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Gardien, Véronique; Chelle-Michou, Cyril


    The late stages of the Variscan orogeny are characterized by middle to lower crustal melting and intrusion of voluminous granitoids throughout the belt, which makes it akin to "hot" orogens. These processes resulted in the development of large granite-migmatite complexes, the largest of which being the 305-300-Ma-old Velay dome in the eastern French Massif Central (FMC). This area also hosts a wide range of late-Variscan plutonic rocks that can be subdivided into four groups: (i) cordierite-bearing peraluminous granites (CPG); (ii) muscovite-bearing peraluminous granites (MPG); (iii) K-feldspar porphyritic, calc-alkaline granitoids (KCG) and (iv) Mg-K-rich (monzo)diorites and lamprophyres ("vaugnerites"). New results of LA-SF-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon and monazite dating on 33 samples from all groups indicate that both granites and mafic rocks emplaced together over a long period of 40 million years throughout the Carboniferous, as shown by intrusion ages between 337.4 ± 1.0 and 298.9 ± 1.8 Ma for the granitoids, and between 335.7 ± 2.1 and 299.1 ± 1.3 Ma for the vaugnerites. Low zircon saturation temperatures and abundant inherited zircons with predominant late Ediacaran to early Cambrian ages indicate that the CPG and MPG formed through muscovite or biotite dehydration melting of ortho- and paragneisses from the Lower Gneiss Unit. The KCG and vaugnerites contain very few inherited zircons, if any, suggesting higher magma temperatures and consistent with a metasomatized lithospheric mantle source for the vaugnerites. The KCG can be explained by interactions between the CPG/MPG and the vaugnerites, or extensive differentiation of the latter. The new dataset provides clear evidence that the eastern FMC was affected by a long-lived magmatic episode characterized by coeval melting of both crustal and mantle sources. This feature is suggested here to result from a lithospheric-scale thermal anomaly, triggered by the removal of the lithospheric mantle root. The spatial

  15. Multi-stage metasomatism revealed by trace element and Li isotope distributions in minerals of peridotite xenoliths from Allègre volcano (French Massif Central) (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; Deloule, Etienne; France, Lydéric; Ingrin, Jannick


    The modal, chemical, and isotopic compositions of mantle peridotite are largely modified by metasomatic processes, which may affect them repeatedly. Xenoliths are commonly used to characterize those metasomatic processes along with the structure, and chemical and isotopic compositions of mantle domains. Nevertheless, the original mantle signatures born by mantle xenoliths are potentially obscured by the interactions occurring between the host magma and the xenolith itself. Here we attempt to identify to which degree the original Li content and isotopic composition, as well as other trace element contents of mantle xenoliths, can be modified by interaction with the host magma. Peridotite xenoliths that have suffered extensive exchange with the entraining magma were sampled in the solidified lava lake of Allègre, Southern French Massif Central, in order to decipher the signature related to peridotite-melt interaction, and to further unravel the evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. In-situ trace element analyses of clinopyroxene (Cpx) were performed via LA-ICP-MS, and the Li content and isotopic composition of pyroxene and olivine (Ol) via SIMS. Negative HFSE anomalies (Ti/Eu ratios as low as 437) and markedly high LREE/HREE ratios ((La/Yb)N as high as 79) are characteristic of mantle metasomatism at depth. Lithium isotope systematics indicates that at least two different metasomatic events affected the peridotite. Exceptionally high Li contents in Cpx (up to 50 ppm) and slight Li enrichment of Ol rims are ascribed to diffusive Li influx with a positive δ7Li value (+ 3.2‰) from the host magma after entrainment. Conversely, Ol cores preserve extremely light Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li as low as - 25‰) with high Li contents (up to 4.4 ppm) compared to normal mantle, indicating a metasomatic event that occurred before xenolith entrainment. The negative δ7Li signature of this early metasomatism may be related to subduction-related fluids

  16. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo


    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  17. Late Eocene-Early Oligocene two-mica granites in NW Turkey (the Uludağ Massif): Water-fluxed melting products of a mafic metagreywacke (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.


    This paper deals with the petrogenesis of two-mica granites within the amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks in the Uludağ Massif (NW Turkey). The two-mica granites are represented by three different types (i) a 17 km long and 1.5 km-wide strongly foliated and lineated metagranite, (ii) a relatively younger circular granite, 11 km by 6.5 km, free of any penetrative fabric, and (iii) up to 5 m thick dikes of unfoliated granite-porphyries. Mineral constituents include quartz, plagioclase, microcline, biotite, muscovite and minor apatite, zircon, ilmenite and monazite. U-Pb zircon dating indicates that the metagranite was emplaced at 35 ± 1 Ma (2σ, latest Eocene) and the unfoliated granite at 28 ± 1 Ma (2σ) (Early-Late Oligocene boundary). Overall, the two-mica granites are characterized by (i) a restricted bulk composition (SiO2 70-76 wt.%), (ii) near-linear to linear inter-element variations, (iii) high concentrations of Al2O3, Sr, Ba, LREEs, and low abundances of Rb, Y, Sc and HREEs, comparable with adakitic rocks, (iv) variably pronounced concave-upward shape of HREEs and absent to feeble Eu anomaly, (v) relatively high Na2O, CaO and Sr, and lower K2O and Rb contents at identical silica contents relative to the classical S-type granites. 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd(i) values range from 0.7052 to 0.7080, and 0.7 to - 3.6, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb(i) values range from 18.23 to 18.69, 207Pb/204Pb(i) from 15.63 to 15.70 and 208Pb/204Pb(i) from 38.48 to 38.77. 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd(i), and εNd(i) and 207Pb/204Pb(i) values are negatively correlated. Isotopic variation and negative correlations can best be explained by a heterogeneous source, including an older crustal component and a more juvenile basic component. Magma temperatures are estimated as 754-790 °C based on zircon and monazite saturation. All these features such as (i) relatively Na-, Ca- and Sr-rich compositions, (ii) isotopically heterogeneous source with inferred residual phases such as garnet and

  18. Extensional orogenic collapse captured by strike-slip tectonics: Constraints from structural geology and Usbnd Pb geochronology of the Pinhel shear zone (Variscan orogen, Iberian Massif) (United States)

    Fernández, Rubén Díez; Pereira, Manuel Francisco


    The late Paleozoic collision between Gondwana and Laurussia resulted in the polyphase deformation and magmatism that characterizes the Iberian Massif of the Variscan orogen. In the Central Iberian Zone, initial continental thickening (D1; folding and thrusting) was followed by extensional orogenic collapse (D2) responsible for the exhumation of high-grade rocks coeval to the emplacement of granitoids. This study presents a tectonometamorphic analysis of the Trancoso-Pinhel region (Central Iberian Zone) to explain the processes in place during the transition from an extension-dominated state (D2) to a compression-dominated one (D3). We reveal the existence of low-dipping D2 extensional structures later affected by several pulses of subhorizontal shortening, each of them typified by upright folds and strike-slip shearing (D3, D4 and D5, as identified by superimposition of structures). The D2 Pinhel extensional shear zone separates a low-grade domain from an underlying high-grade domain, and it contributed to the thermal reequilibration of the orogen by facilitating heat advection from lower parts of the crust, crustal thinning, decompression melting, and magma intrusion. Progressive lessening of the gravitational disequilibrium carried out by this D2 shear zone led to a switch from subhorizontal extension to compression and the eventual cessation and capture of the Pinhel shear zone by strike-slip tectonics during renewed crustal shortening. High-grade domains of the Pinhel shear zone were folded together with low-grade domains to define the current upright folded structure of the Trancoso-Pinhel region, the D3 Tamames-Marofa-Sátão synform. New dating of syn-orogenic granitoids (SHRIMP Usbnd Pb zircon dating) intruding the Pinhel shear zone, together with the already published ages of early extensional fabrics constrain the functioning of this shear zone to ca. 331-311 Ma, with maximum tectonomagmatic activity at ca. 321-317 Ma. The capture and apparent cessation

  19. Protracted, coeval crust and mantle melting during Variscan late-orogenic evolution: U-Pb dating in the eastern French Massif Central (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Couzinié, Simon; Zeh, Armin; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Gardien, Véronique; Chelle-Michou, Cyril


    The late stages of the Variscan orogeny are characterized by middle to lower crustal melting and intrusion of voluminous granitoids throughout the belt, which makes it akin to "hot" orogens. These processes resulted in the development of large granite-migmatite complexes, the largest of which being the 305-300-Ma-old Velay dome in the eastern French Massif Central (FMC). This area also hosts a wide range of late-Variscan plutonic rocks that can be subdivided into four groups: (i) cordierite-bearing peraluminous granites (CPG); (ii) muscovite-bearing peraluminous granites (MPG); (iii) K-feldspar porphyritic, calc-alkaline granitoids (KCG) and (iv) Mg-K-rich (monzo)diorites and lamprophyres ("vaugnerites"). New results of LA-SF-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon and monazite dating on 33 samples from all groups indicate that both granites and mafic rocks emplaced together over a long period of 40 million years throughout the Carboniferous, as shown by intrusion ages between 337.4 ± 1.0 and 298.9 ± 1.8 Ma for the granitoids, and between 335.7 ± 2.1 and 299.1 ± 1.3 Ma for the vaugnerites. Low zircon saturation temperatures and abundant inherited zircons with predominant late Ediacaran to early Cambrian ages indicate that the CPG and MPG formed through muscovite or biotite dehydration melting of ortho- and paragneisses from the Lower Gneiss Unit. The KCG and vaugnerites contain very few inherited zircons, if any, suggesting higher magma temperatures and consistent with a metasomatized lithospheric mantle source for the vaugnerites. The KCG can be explained by interactions between the CPG/MPG and the vaugnerites, or extensive differentiation of the latter. The new dataset provides clear evidence that the eastern FMC was affected by a long-lived magmatic episode characterized by coeval melting of both crustal and mantle sources. This feature is suggested here to result from a lithospheric-scale thermal anomaly, triggered by the removal of the lithospheric mantle root. The spatial

  20. Cadomian magmatism and metamorphism at the Ossa Morena/Central Iberian zone boundary, Iberian Massif, Central Portugal: Geochemistry and P-T constraints of the Sardoal Complex (United States)

    Henriques, S. B. A.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Tajčmanová, L.; Dunning, G. R.


    A well preserved Cadomian basement is exposed in the Iberian Massif, Central Portugal, at the Ossa Morena/Central Iberian zone boundary, which allows the determination of reliable geochemical data. A sequence of Cadomian and Variscan magmatic and tectonometamorphic events has been already described for this area and are documented in other areas of the Avalonian-Cadomian orogen. However, the geochemical information concerning the Cadomian basement for this area is still limited. We present whole rock geochemical and oxygen isotopic information to characterize the igneous protoliths of the Sardoal Complex, located within the Tomar-Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone, and identify their tectonic setting. We use detailed petrography, mineral chemistry and P-T data to characterize the final Cadomian tectonometamorphic event. The Sardoal Complex contains orthogneiss and amphibolite units. The protoliths of the orthogneiss are calc-alkaline magmas of acid composition and peraluminous character that were generated in an active continental margin in three different stages (ca. 692 Ma, ca. 569 Ma and ca. 548 Ma). The most significant processes in their petrogenesis are the partial melting of old metasedimentary and meta-igneous crust at different crustal levels and the crystal fractionation of plagioclase, alkali feldspars, apatite, zircon and Fe-Ti oxides. The protoliths of the amphibolite, older than ca. 540 Ma, are tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas of basic composition that display N-, T- and E-MORB affinities. They were generated in an active continental margin. Crustal contamination and fractional crystallization of hornblende and diopside were involved in their petrogenesis. However, the fractional crystallization was not significant. The magmatic activity recorded in the Sardoal Complex indicates the existence of a long-lived continental arc (ca. 692-540 Ma) with coeval felsic and mafic magmatism. The final stage of the Cadomian metamorphism is usually represented in other

  1. Relationship Between Far Field Stresses, Fluid Flow and High-Pressure Deserpentinization in Subducting Slabs: a Case Study From the Almirez Ultramafic Massif (United States)

    Dilissen, Nicole; Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Jesús Román-Alpiste, Manuel


    Serpentinite dehydration during prograde metamorphism plays a crucial role in subduction dynamics. Observations from exhumed paleo-subduction metamorphic terranes suggest that the discharge of deserpentinization fluids from the subducting slab takes place along different pathways and mechanisms [e.g. 1-3]. Analysis of intermediate-depth focal solutions in active subduction zones indicates that slabs are subjected to different principal stress fields characterized primarily by downdip compression and downdip tension [4]. Although it is well known that far field stresses play a crucial role on fluid flow channeling, their potential impact on the kinetics of serpentinite dehydration and subsequent fluid escape in subducting slabs is still poorly understood. Here, we present a detailed structural and microstructural study to investigate the relationships between far field stresses, fluid flow and high-pressure deserpentinization in the Almirez ultramafic massif (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) [1, 2]. This massif preserves the high-pressure breakdown of antigorite (Atg-) serpentinite to prograde chlorite (Chl-) harzburgite, which are separated by a sharp isograd [2, 5]. The Chl-harzburgite reaction products show either a granofels or spinifex-like texture indicating crystallization under different overstepping of the Atg-out reaction. The two different textural types of Chl-harzburgite occur below the Atg-out isograd as alternating, meter-wide lenses with either a granofels or spinifex texture. From field measurements, we infer that during antigorite dehydration the minimum compressive stress was subnormal to the dehydration front and the paleo-slab surface. This stress field is consistent with subduction zones with slabs under downdip compression at intermediate depths [4]. The detailed microstructural study —combining µ-CT and EBSD-SEM [6]— of Chl-harzburgite across a c. 15 m wide lens reveals that the SPO and CPO of olivines with contrasting textures are strongly

  2. Recharge areas and hydrochemistry of carbonate springs issuing from Semmering Massif, Austria, based on long-term oxygen-18 and hydrochemical data evidence (United States)

    Yehdegho, Beyene; Reichl, Peter


    Résumé. Les teneurs en oxygène-18 et l'hydrochimie des sources émergeant du massif de Semmering ont été suivies de manière intensive dans le but de caractériser les zones de recharge et l'évolution hydrochimique. L'effet d'altitude sur le δ18O a été déterminé grâce aux données isotopiques et hydrogéologiques de petites sources de référence, principalement en terrains cristallins; cet effet est d'environ -0,27 et -0,21‰ par 100 m pour les versants respectivement nord et sud du massif. En appliquant ces valeurs, l'altitude moyenne de recharge des sources a été calculée. Pour les sources à fort débit issues des carbonates, elle est comprise entre 1,100 et 1,400 m, compatible avec le cadre topographique et hydrogéologique des calcaires et des dolomies de l'Austro-alpin inférieur alimentant ces sources. La composition chimique des sources des carbonates est dominée par les ions Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- et SO42-. Les sources sont presque toutes proches de la saturation par rapport à la calcite, mais sont sous-saturées en dolomite (sauf quelques sources proches de la saturation). Comme cela est habituel en ce qui concerne le dioxyde de carbone fourni par les sols en régions montagneuses, la pCO2 équilibrante moyenne est faible, comprise entre 10-3.0 et 10-2.5 atm (0,1 à 0,3% en volume). En ce qui concerne les variations à long terme, le pH, SIc, Sid et la pCO2 équilibrante sont soumis à des variations saisonnières, alors que les concentrations en Ca2+, Mg2+ et HCO3- ne varient pratiquement pas. En intégrant les résultats de δ18O et les données hydrochimiques, la variabilité altitudinale du chimisme des eaux souterraines des carbonates est démontrée. Reflétant les variations d'activité biologique et des conditions de recharge dans les zones d'alimentation, une covariation négative résulte de l'altitude de recharge et de la pCO2 et la concentration en HCO3- n'est pas modifiée par aucun des termes source ou puits, ce qui fait varier

  3. 冲击矿渣堆的人工冻结技术研究及合理采矿技术的进展%A Study of Artificial Cryogenesis Technology of Fluvial Filled-up Massifs and the Development of Appropriate Mining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Vorobiev; S. Cheburashkin


    The tailing dump of concentrating mills is specific ground massifs in permafrost areas, which -impacts on geological environment heavily. The deposits are important, namely, the sources of the rare metals in the Norilsk industrial area. The engineering process of the permafrost tailing dump mining is discussed in this paper based on the study of the artificial cryogenesis.

  4. Geochemical Study of Natural CO2 Emissions in the French Massif Central: How to Predict Origin, Processes and Evolution of CO2 Leakage Étude géochimique des émissions naturelles de CO2 du Massif Central : origine et processus de migration du gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battani A.


    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of some results obtained within the French ANR (National Agency of Research supported Géocarbone-Monitoring research program. The measurements were performed in Sainte-Marguerite, located in the French Massif Central. This site represents a natural laboratory for CO2/fluid/rock interactions studies, as well as CO2 migration mechanisms towards the surface. The CO2 leaking character of the studied area also allows to test and validate measurements methods and verifications for the future CO2 geological storage sites. During these surveys, we analyzed soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations. We sampled and analyzed soil gases, and gas from carbo-gaseous bubbling springs. A one-month continuous monitoring was also tested, to record the concentration of CO2 both in atmosphere and in the soil at a single point. We also developed a new methodology to collect soil gas samples for noble gas abundances and isotopic analyses, as well as carbon isotopic ratios. Our geochemical results, combined with structural geology, show that the leaking CO2 has a very deep origin, partially mantle derived. The gas rises rapidly along normal and strike-slip active faults. CO2 soil concentrations (also showing a mantle derived component and CO2 fluxes are spatially variable, and reach high values. The recorded atmospheric CO2 is not very high, despite the important CO2 degassing throughout the whole area. Cette étude présente les principaux résultats de campagnes de monitoring géochimique menées en 2006 et 2007 dans le cadre du projet Géocarbone-Monitoring, sur le site de Sainte-Marguerite, situé dans le Massif Central. Ce site constitue un « laboratoire naturel » pour l’étude des interactions CO2/fluides/roches et des mécanismes de migration du CO2 vers la surface, à l’échelle des temps géologiques. Le caractère particulièrement émissif de cet « analogue » permet également de tester et valider des méthodes de mesure et

  5. Geochemical Study of Natural CO{sub 2} Emissions in the French Massif Central: How to Predict Origin, Processes and Evolution of CO{sub 2} Leakage; Etude geochimique des emissions naturelles de CO{sub 2} du Massif Central: origine et processus de migration du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battani, A.; Deville, E.; Faure, J.L.; Jeandel, E.; Noirez, S.; Tocque, E.; Benoit, Y.; Schmitz, J.; Parlouar, D. [Institut francais du petrole, IFP, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Sarda, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Gal, F.; Le Pierres, K.; Brach, M.; Braibant, G.; Beny, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Pokryszka, Z.; Charmoille, A.; Bentivegna, G. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique ALATA, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pironon, J.; De Donato, P.; Garnier, C.; Cailteau, C.; Barres, O.; Radilla, G.; Bauer, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    This study presents an overview of some results obtained within the French ANR (National Agency of Research) supported Geocarbone-Monitoring research program. The measurements were performed in Sainte-Marguerite, located in the French Massif Central. This site represents a natural laboratory for CO{sub 2}/fluid/rock interactions studies, as well as CO{sub 2} migration mechanisms towards the surface. The CO{sub 2} leaking character of the studied area also allows to test and validate measurements methods and verifications for the future CO{sub 2} geological storage sites. During these surveys, we analyzed soil CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations. We sampled and analyzed soil gases, and gas from carbo-gaseous bubbling springs. A one-month continuous monitoring was also tested, to record the concentration of CO{sub 2} both in atmosphere and in the soil at a single point. We also developed a new methodology to collect soil gas samples for noble gas abundances and isotopic analyses, as well as carbon isotopic ratios. Our geochemical results, combined with structural geology, show that the leaking CO{sub 2} has a very deep origin, partially mantle derived. The gas rises rapidly along normal and strike-slip active faults. CO{sub 2} soil concentrations (also showing a mantle derived component) and CO{sub 2} fluxes are spatially variable, and reach high values. The recorded atmospheric CO{sub 2} is not very high, despite the important CO{sub 2} degassing throughout the whole area. (authors)

  6. Diagenetic and post-diagenetic alteration (thermicity, oxidation) of carboniferous coals from the French Massif Central (Saint-Etienne, Graissessac and other areas); Alteration diagenetique et post-diagenetique (thermicite, oxydation) des charbons carboniferes du Massif Central francais (Saint-Etienne, Graissessac et autres lieux)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copard, Y.


    This work deals with some prominent properties of the organic matter (OM), such as its to record the thermal history of basins, (hydro)thermal events of more limited influence or oxidising processes. Two of these topics have been developed in the frame of the study of Carboniferous coals sampled in several basins in the Massif Central. As a consequence of the tectonic regime that prevailed at the end of Hercynian orogenesis, thermal domes and even faults acting as conduits for hydrothermal fluids, have generated a heterogeneous hyper-thermicity in the studied basins. Local coalification conditions such as Maximum Paleo-temperatures of Burial (MP TB), paleo-burial depths, durations of maturation, have been estimated. A compilation of OM characteristic parameters suggests that some mature coals have been affected by a restricted hyperthermal activity, while others lave solely recorded a simple oxidation. Astonishingly, this latter process that occurred at low temperature, is characterised by an increase in. Tmax (and a decrease in Hydrogen Index), which mimics a classical thermal degradation. This peculiar behaviour is reinforced both by the study of profiles of weathered mature coals and by oxidation experiments. The considered oxidation process consists in two successive reaction stages. The first is defined by a notable loss in hydrogen and a weak gain in oxygen, while the second, is characterised by a weak loss in hydrogen and a gain in oxygen. The increase in Tmax occurs at the beginning of the second stage, this later one being reached all the more -faster than the raw coal is poor in hydrogen (i.e. has reached a high level of maturity). This alteration process preferentially affects the periphery of the carbon skeleton (Base Structural Units) by provoking the degradation of 'thermo-labile / oxi-labile' functional groups. -fence, these features Justify and explain the strong similarity evidenced between the effects of thermal and oxidising processes

  7. P-T evolution of the garnet-amphibolites from the Quanji Massif: Amalgamation of the continental blocks in NW China and Links to assembly of the Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Chen, N.; Mustafa, H. A.; Li, X.; Xia, B.; Wang, Q.; Sun, M.


    The garnet-bearing amphibolites from the eastern Quanji Massif, NW China had documented five-stage mineral growth, preserves important records of late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic processes and provide insights into the assembly history of the Quanji Massif with the Tarim Craton and other unknown continental blocks. The stage M1 is presented by assemblage of plagioclase + quartz + hornblende + porphyroblastic garnet core + rutile. P-T conditions for this stage cannot be quantitatively estimated. The stage M2 is represented by the porphyroblastic garnet rim with the matrix quartz, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, rutile and ilmenite. P-T conditions for this stage are estimated to be 1.0-1.2 GPa and 700-750 °C. The stage M3 is shown by symplectitic coronas of hornblende + plagioclase ± ilmenite around the embayed M2 porphyroblastic garnets and yields P-T conditions of 0.6-0.7 GPa and 600-650 °C. The stage M4 is represented by small garnet rings immediately growing on the embayed M2 garnet or around the M2 pyroxene and hornblende, or by assemblage of fine-grain garnet + hornblende + sodium plagioclase growing from the M3 intergrowth of hornblende + Calcium plagioclase. The stage M5 is represented by albite, chlorite, epidote and actinolite growing in greenschist-facies conditions reasonably of 400-500 °C at relatively lower pressures. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on the metamorphic zircon indicates that the M2 garnet porphyroblast and related assemblage and the M3 coronas grew at ca. 1.95 Ga; the M4 garnet growth occurred at ca. 1.82 Ga with reference to regional geochronological data. Both M2 and M4 garnets and related assemblages are indicative of medium P/T-type metamorphism. Qualitative and quantitative P-T estimates for stages M1, M2 and M3 define a clockwise P-T path. The resulting data suggest two late Paleoproterozoic collisional metamorphic events with important implication for amalgamation of the Quanji Massif with unknown continental blocks in NW China and

  8. Distribution of Uranium and Molybdenum Deposits and Their Relations with Medium Massifs in Central Asian Orogenic Zone%中亚造山带东段铀、钼矿床分布与中间地块的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵济安; 张履桥; 牟保磊


    Based upon recent research achievements on polymetallic ore deposits in the eastern section of Central Asian orogenic belt, the authors selectively studied uranium and molybdenum deposits, to explore diversity of the metallogenic sources and the various stages of mineralization in connection with the geochemical behaviors of uranium and molybdenum elements. Because there are many medium massifs, the relationship between mineralization and the medium massifs is also discussed from view of tectonics. These medium massifs have experienced cracking of continental margin, displacement, and collision orogenesis of plates. The ore-forming material was reformed many times and be concentrated. It is indicated that the Indosinian mineralization in the north margin of North China craton of Indo-Chinese epoch and in the Hinggan-Mongolian orogenic belt is related to the extension in the settings of underplating.%在近年来中亚造山带东段多金属矿床研究取得新进展的基础上,选择铀、钼两类矿床,结合铀、钼元素的地球化学行为探讨成矿物质来源的多样性和成矿的多阶段演化.此外,从构造研究角度,结合中亚造山带东段中大量中间地块存在的构造现象,讨论中间地块与成矿作用的关系:中间地块经历了从大陆边缘的裂解、漂移和板块碰撞造山作用,在漫长而复杂的地质过程中遭受的多次改造,有利成矿物质的反复被萃取和聚集.最后提出印支期华北克拉通北缘和北部造山带的成矿作用与底侵背景下的伸展作用密切相关.

  9. Thermal conditions of rock slopes below unstable infrastructure in Alpine permafrost area: the cases of the Cosmiques hut and the Grands Montets cable-car station (Mont Blanc massif) (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Magnin, Florence; Mörtl, Christian; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    Thermal state of steep permafrost-affected rock faces is crucial to assess the safety and reliability of mountain infrastructure as current permafrost degradation affects the rock slope stability. In the Mont-Blanc massif, 23 infrastructures are built on such a rock face with 13 of them that are characterized by a high risk of destabilization (Duvillard et al., 2015), including the upper station of the Grands Montets cable car (3325 m a.s.l.) as well as the Cosmiques hut (3613 m a.s.l.) on which we will focus. These two buildings have already been affected by different geomorphological processes. A rockfall event (600 m3) occurred for example on the SE face on the Arête inférieure des Cosmiques on the 21st of August 1998 (Ravanel et al., 2013) and the Grands Montets case shows a slow subsidence of the stairway over the last decade. In order to better assess the role of the permafrost in these processes and to gain insight on possible future geomorphic activity, we characterized the current permafrost conditions and simulated its changes up to the end of the 21st century using two complementary approaches: (i) the result of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) surveys carried out in October 2016 on the northern and southern faces right below the Cosmiques hut (at the level of the foundations) and at the Aiguilles des Grands Montets; (ii) the modeling of mean annual rock surface temperature for 2016 and at the end of the 21st century (Magnin et al., in rev.). Duvillard P.-A., Ravanel L., Deline P. (2015). Risk assessment of infrastructure destabilisation due to global warming in the high French Alps. Journal of Alpine Research, 103 (2). Magnin F., Josnin J.-Y., Ravanel L., Pergaud J., Pohl B., Deline P. (in rev.). Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century. The Cryosphere Discuss., doi:10.5194/tc-2016-132. Ravanel L., Deline P., Lambiel C. and Vincent C. (2013). Instability of a high alpine

  10. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis


    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with

  11. Early Triassic change in the erosional level in the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif revealed by detrital garnet assemblages from the Buntsandstein siliciclastics of southern Poland (United States)

    Kowal-Linka, Monika; Walczak, Klaudia


    Garnets, as constituents of various magmatic and metamorphic rocks, show different chemical compositions depending on the type of magma or primary rock, the temperature, and the pressure. This diversity of chemical compositions makes detrital garnets a very useful tool for provenance analysis and deciphering changes in erosional levels of source areas. Preliminary works reveal that the Lower and Middle Buntsandstein terrigenous and marine sandstones cropping out in southern Poland (50˚ 28'20"N, 18˚ 04'33"E and 50˚ 27'35"N, 18˚ 07'23"E) are characterized by very different heavy mineral assemblages (HMA) and types of detrital garnets. The aim of the research is to recognize the source areas and causes of these distinct variations using petrographic analysis, heavy mineral analysis, and electron probe microanalysis. During the Early Triassic, the area under study was located between two landmasses: the eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif (BM) to the west and Pre-Carpathian Land (PCL) to the east. Presently, the sampled area is situated ˜50 km from the NE margin of the BM, which consists of many garnet-bearing rocks and is a presumable source area for the examined grains. The PCL was hidden under the Carpathians during the Alpine orogeny and knowledge of its composition is very limited. Petrographic analysis shows that the older sandstones are red to rusty quartz arenites with a hematite-rich matrix and well-rounded grains (aeolian deposits). The younger sandstones are bicolored quartz wackes (dirty pink with grey patches) with a calcite matrix and angular to rounded grains (shallow marine deposits). The arenites contain zircon, tourmaline, and rutile grains accompanied by garnet, staurolite, apatite, and topaz. The opaque heavy minerals include ilmenite, ilmenite-rutile aggregates, magnetite and rarely chromian spinel. In contrast, the HMA from the wackes consist mostly of garnets, while the minerals listed above occur in subordinate amounts. The garnets from

  12. UHP-UHT peak conditions and near-adiabatic exhumation path of diamond-bearing garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Haifler, Jakub; Kotková, Jana


    Intermediate garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif, contain microdiamonds enclosed in garnet and zircon. The variable mineral assemblage of these rocks allows for an evaluation of the P-T evolution using numerous univariant equilibria and thermodynamic modelling, in addition to the ternary feldspar solvus, Ti-in-garnet, Zr-in-rutile and Ti-in-zircon thermometry. Zircon mantle domains with diamond inclusions contain 111-189 ppm Ti, reflecting temperatures of 1037-1117 °C. The peak pressure consistent with diamond stability corresponds to c. 4.5-5.0 GPa. Ti-in-garnet thermometry using the Ti content of diamond-bearing garnet core yielded temperatures of 993-1039 °C at c. 5.0 GPa. An omphacite inclusion in garnet (reflecting c. 2.3-2.4 GPa at c. 1050 °C) and metastably preserved kyanite represent relics of eclogite-facies conditions. The dominant high-pressure granulite-facies mineral assemblage of low-Ca garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, antiperthitic feldspar and quartz equilibrated at 1.8-2.1 GPa and c. 1050 °C, based on the XGrs isopleth of the garnet mantle, garnet-feldspar-kyanite-quartz univariant equilibria and ternary feldspar solvus. Our thermodynamic modelling shows that a steep decrease of XGrs from a maximum core value of 0.32 to 0.17 at the rim as well as a rimward XMg increase (from 0.42 to 0.50) are consistent with significant decompression without heating. The latter is related to omphacite and kyanite breakdown reactions producing garnet and plagioclase. The Ti content in the rim zone of zircon (13-42 ppm), exsolved plagioclase and K-feldspar associated with matrix diopside and garnet rim, and late biotite reflect temperatures of c. 830-900 °C at c. 1.4 GPa. A similar temperature is recorded by matrix rutile grains, containing 2028-4390 ppm Zr and representing a relatively homogeneous population in contrast to rutile enclosed in garnet with variable Zr content. Our results show that the garnet

  13. Continental crust subducted deeply into lithospheric mantle: the driving force of Early Carboniferous magmatism in the Variscan collisional orogen (Bohemian Massif) (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Holub, František; Franěk, Jan; Vrána, Stanislav


    The vigorous Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous plutonic activity in the core of the Bohemian Massif was marked by a transition from normal-K calc-alkaline, arc-related (~375-355 Ma), through high-K calc-alkaline (~346 Ma) to (ultra-)potassic (343-335 Ma) suites, the latter associated with mainly felsic HP granulites enclosing Grt/Spl mantle peridotite bodies. The changing chemistry, especially an increase in K2O/Na2O and 87Sr/86Sri with decrease in 143Nd/144Ndi in the basic end-members, cannot be reconciled by contamination during ascent. Instead it has to reflect the character of the mantle sources, changing over time. The tectonic model invokes an oceanic subduction passing to subduction of the attenuated Saxothuringian crust under the rifted Gondwana margin (Teplá-Barrandian and Moldanubian domains). The deep burial of this mostly refractory felsic metaigneous material is evidenced by the presence of coesite/diamond (Massonne 2001; Kotková et al. 2011) in the detached UHP slices exhumed through the subduction channel and thrusted over the Saxothuringian basement, and by the abundance of felsic HP granulites (> 2.3 GPa), some bearing evidence for small-scale HP melt separation, in the orogen's core (Vrána et al. 2013). The subduction channel was most likely formed by 'dirty' serpentinites contaminated by the melts/fluids derived from the underlying continental-crust slab (Zheng 2012). Upon the passage through the orogenic mantle, the continental crust-slab derived material not only contaminated the adjacent mantle forming small bodies/veins of pyroxenites (Becker 1996), glimmerites (Becker et al. 1999) or even phlogopite- and apatite-bearing peridotites (Naemura et al. 2009) but the felsic HP-HT granulites also sampled the individual peridotite types at various levels. Eventually the subducted felsic material would form an (U)HP continental wedge under the forearc/arc region, to be later redistributed under the Moldanubian crust by channel flow and crustal

  14. Iron mineralization and associated skarn development around southern contact of the Eğrigöz pluton (northern Menderes Massif-Turkey) (United States)

    Uǧurcan, Okşan Gökçen; Oyman, Tolga


    The Eğrigöz pluton is located in the northern portion of the Menderes Massif, which is the largest known metamorphic core complex that is also characterized by large-scale extension. Kalkan and Karaağıl skarn deposits are located on the southern border of the Eğrigöz Pluton, whereas Katrandağ mineralization developed along the roof pendant. Skarnization in these three areas is associated with the peraluminous, I-type, calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline Eğrigöz Pluton. Geochemical characteristics of the pluton indicate that it was generated in a continental arc setting. Kalkan, Karaağıl, and Katrandağ skarns are hosted in marble bands in two-mica gneiss of the Kalkan Formation, a locally dolomitic and clay-bearing limestone of the Arıkaya Formation and locally dolomitised limestone of the Balıkbaşı Formation, respectively. Skarn development occurred sequentially in two stages, prograde and retrograde. In Kalkan skarn, prograde stage is characterized by clinopyroxene (Di56-73 Hd26-43 Joh1-2), garnet (Adr45-69 Grs30-52 Alm0-1.4 Sps0.7-2.3), amphibole, and magnetite, whereas retrograde stage is dominated by epidote, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, and calcite. In Karaağıl, both calcic and magnesian skarn association occurred as a result of local variations in dolomite content in Arıkaya Formation. The prograde assemblage of magnesian skarn is composed chiefly of spinel, amphibole and olivine. These mineral assemblages were, partially or fully, altered to serpentine, talc, and chlorite during retrograde alteration. Mesh textures of the serpentine indicates that the serpentine was altered from olivine. Olivine was completely destroyed during retrograde alteration without relict grains remaining. Calcic skarn paragenesis include garnet (Grs36-80Adr20-62Alm0-2.2Sps0.2-2.6), clinopyroxene (Di81-92 Hd7-19 Jo0-1), and plagioclase, that belongs to the earlier stage, and amphibole of the retrograde stage. High grossular end member of the garnet probably

  15. Mass transfer and fluid evolution in late-metamorphic veins, Rhenish Massif (Germany): insight from alteration geochemistry and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling (United States)

    Marsala, Achille; Wagner, Thomas


    Element mobility and fluid-rock interaction related to the formation of late-metamorphic quartz veins have been studied by combination of mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry, mass balance analysis and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling. The quartz veins are hosted by very low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The veins record two stages of evolution, a massive vein filling assemblage with elongate-blocky quartz, chlorite, apatite and albite, and a later open space filling assemblage with euhedral crystals of quartz, ankerite-dolomite and minor calcite and sulfides. Detailed mass balance analysis of an alteration profile adjacent to a representative quartz vein demonstrates that element mobility is restricted to the proximal zone. The most important element changes are gain of Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and CO2, and loss of Si, K and Na. The data demonstrate that wall-rock carbonation is one of the main alteration features, whereas mobility of Si, K and Na are related to dissolution of quartz and destruction of detrital feldspar and muscovite. The whole-rock geochemical data, in conjunction with fluid composition data and pressure-temperature estimates, were used as input for fluid-mineral equilibria modeling in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-C-S-O-H-B-F-Cl. Modeling involved calculation of rock-buffered fluid compositions over the temperature interval 100-500 °C, and reaction-path simulations where a rock-buffered high-temperature fluid reacts with fresh host-rocks at temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C. Calculated rock-buffered fluid compositions demonstrate that retrograde silica solubility is a strong driving force for quartz leaching in the temperature-pressure window of 380-450 °C and 0.5 kbar. These conditions overlap with the estimated temperatures for the initial stage of vein formation. Reaction-path models show that high-temperature alteration can produce the observed silica leaching, suggesting that

  16. Fluid composition and evolution in coesite-bearing rocks (Dora-Maira massif, Western Alps): implications for element recycling during subduction (United States)

    Philippot, Pascal; Chevallier, Pierre; Chopin, Christian; Dubessy, Jean


    Fluid inclusions and F, Cl concentration of hydrous minerals were analysed in the coesite-pyrope quartzite, the interlayered jadeite quartzite and their country-rock gneiss from the Dora-Maira massif using a combination of microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, synchrotron X-ray microfiuorescence and electron microprobe analysis. Three populations of fluid inclusions were recognized texturally and can be related to distinct metamorphic stages. A low-salinity aqueous fluid occurs in the retrogressed country gneiss and as late secondary inclusions in jadeite quartzite and chloritized pyrope. An earlier secondary population is found in matrix quartz of the jadeite- and pyro-pe-quartzites. This population can be related to the early decompression and so to incipient breakdown of garnet into phlogopite-bearing assemblages. The inclusion fluid is highly saline (up to 84 wt% equivalent NaCl) and contains Na, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn as major cations. In pyrope quartzite, additional K was found in these brines, which locally coexist with CO2-rich inclusions. The oldest fluid inclusions are preserved in kyanite grains included in fresh pyrope and in pyrope itself. In pyrope, all inclusions have decrepitated and contain magnesite, an Mg-phosphate, sheet-silicate(s), a chloride and an opaque phase, with no fluid preser ved. In contrast, the kyanite inclusions in pyrope preserve primary H2O-CO2 low-salinity fluid inclusions, probably owing to the low compressibility of the kyanite inclusions and host garnet. In spite of in-situ re-equilibration, these inclusions can be interpreted as relics of the dehydration fluid that attended pyrope growth. These correlations between textural and chemical fluid inclusion data and metamorphic stages are consistent with the fluid composition calculated from the halogen content of different generations of phlogopite and biotite. The preservation of different fluid compositions, both in time and space, is evidence for local control and possibly origin