WorldWideScience

Sample records for voltage supply circuit

  1. Inverter-based circuit design techniques for low supply voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Palani, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes intuitive analog design approaches using digital inverters, providing filter architectures and circuit techniques enabling high performance analog circuit design. The authors provide process, supply voltage and temperature (PVT) variation-tolerant design techniques for inverter based circuits. They also discuss various analog design techniques for lower technology nodes and lower power supply, which can be used for designing high performance systems-on-chip.    .

  2. Near-Threshold Computing and Minimum Supply Voltage of Single-Rail MCML Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed applications, MOS current mode logic (MCML is a good alternative. Scaling down supply voltage of the MCML circuits can achieve low power-delay product (PDP. However, the current almost all MCML circuits are realized with dual-rail scheme, where the NMOS configuration in series limits the minimum supply voltage. In this paper, single-rail MCML (SRMCML circuits are described, which can avoid the devices configuration in series, since their logic evaluation block can be realized by only using MOS devices in parallel. The relationship between the minimum supply voltage of the SRMCML circuits and the model parameters of MOS transistors is derived, so that the minimum supply voltage can be estimated before circuit designs. An MCML dynamic flop-flop based on SRMCML is also proposed. The optimization algorithm for near-threshold sequential circuits is presented. A near-threshold SRMCML mode-10 counter based on the optimization algorithm is verified. Scaling down the supply voltage of the SRMCML circuits is also investigated. The power dissipation, delay, and power-delay products of these circuits are carried out. The results show that the near-threshold SRMCML circuits can obtain low delay and small power-delay product.

  3. A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Hao; Chen Xingbi, E-mail: huhao21@uestc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions. (semiconductor devices)

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hu; Xingbi, Chen

    2010-09-01

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions.

  5. Low-power operation using self-timed circuits and adaptive scaling of the supply voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Niessen, C.; Sparsø, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that for certain types of applications like sampled audio systems, self-timed circuits can achieve very low power consumption, because unused circuit parts automatically turn into a stand-by mode. Additional savings may be obtained by combining the self...... of voltage scaling has been used previously in synchronous circuits, and the contributions of the present paper are: 1) the combination of supply scaling and self-timed circuitry which has some unique advantages, and 2) the thorough analysis of the power savings that are possible using this technique.>......-timed circuits with a mechanism that adaptively adjusts the supply voltage to the smallest possible, while maintaining the performance requirements. This paper describes such a mechanism, analyzes the possible power savings, and presents a demonstrator chip that has been fabricated and tested. The idea...

  6. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  7. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  8. Low Voltage Power Supply Incorporating Ceramic Transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Imori, M

    2007-01-01

    A low voltage power supply provides the regulated output voltage of 1 V from the supply voltage around 48 V. The low voltage power supply incorporates a ceramic transformer which utilizes piezoelectric effect to convert voltage. The ceramic transformer isolates the secondary from the primary, thus providing the ground isolation between the supply and the output voltages. The ceramic transformer takes the place of the conventional magnetic transformer. The ceramic transformer is constructed from a ceramic bar and does not include any magnetic material. So the low voltage power supply can operate under a magnetic field. The output voltage is stabilized by feedback. A feedback loop consists of an error amplifier, a voltage controlled oscillator and a driver circuit. The amplitude ratio of the transformer has dependence on the frequency, which is utilized to stabilize the output voltage. The low voltage power supply is investigated on the analogy of the high voltage power supply similarly incorporating the cerami...

  9. Current regulators for I/SUP 2/L circuits to be operated from low-voltage power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Hansen, Ole

    1980-01-01

    A new bandgap current reference is described which can be used to control the injector current of I/SUP 2/L circuits for supply voltages down to about 1 V. For small currents the total injector current is obtained as a mirror of the reference current. For large injector currents the current control...... is performed by a series regulator which compares the injector current of one I/SUP 2/L gate to the reference current. The described reference current can be adjusted to give a variation with temperature of about 60 ppm/°C over the temperature range -10 to +70°C. However, in some applications a nonzero......, but well controlled temperature coefficient is desired. It is shown how a temperature stable ring oscillator with I/SUP 2/L gates can be constructed by tailoring the temperature dependence of the supply current appropriately....

  10. Note: Wide-range and high-resolution on-chip delay measurement circuit with low supply-voltage sensitivity for SoC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Duo; Hung, Yu-Chan

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an on-chip delay measurement (OCDM) circuit with a wide delay-measurement range, a high delay-measurement resolution and low supply-voltage sensitivity for efficient detection, and diagnosis in the high-performance system-on-chip (SoC). The proposed cascade-stage measurement structure can simultaneously achieve a delay-measurement range of several nanoseconds and a quantization resolution of several picoseconds. The proposed delay-measurement circuit has a high immunity to supply voltage variations without any additional calibration or self-biasing circuit. The delay-measurement range is 5.25 ns with 6 ps resolution; and the average delay resolution variation is 0.41% with ±10% supply voltage variations.

  11. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable...

  12. Fault Modeling and Testing for Analog Circuits in Complex Space Based on Supply Current and Output Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of fault for analog circuits. A two-dimensional (2D fault model is first proposed based on collaborative analysis of supply current and output voltage. This model is a family of circle loci on the complex plane, and it simplifies greatly the algorithms for test point selection and potential fault simulations, which are primary difficulties in fault diagnosis of analog circuits. Furthermore, in order to reduce the difficulty of fault location, an improved fault model in three-dimensional (3D complex space is proposed, which achieves a far better fault detection ratio (FDR against measurement error and parametric tolerance. To address the problem of fault masking in both 2D and 3D fault models, this paper proposes an effective design for testability (DFT method. By adding redundant bypassing-components in the circuit under test (CUT, this method achieves excellent fault isolation ratio (FIR in ambiguity group isolation. The efficacy of the proposed model and testing method is validated through experimental results provided in this paper.

  13. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  14. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  15. Isolated Fast High-Voltage Switching Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Electrically isolated switching circuit supplies pulses at potentials up to 6.5 kV and currents up to 6.5 A, lasting as long as few microseconds. Turn-on time about 40 ns; turn-off time about 3 microseconds. Electrically isolated from control circuitry by means of fiber-optic signal coupling and isolated power supply. Electrical isolation protects both technician and equipment. This and similar circuits useful in such industrial and scientific applications as high-voltage, high-frequency test equipment; electrostatic-discharge test equipment; plasma-laboratory instrumentation; spark chambers; and electromagnetic-interference test equipment.

  16. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  17. 30 CFR 77.901 - Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of low- and medium-voltage three... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901 Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits. (a) Low- and medium-voltage circuits supplying...

  18. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  19. Design of wide output voltage AC-DC power supply based on buck-boost circuit%基于Buck-Boost电路的宽输出电压AC-DC电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文城; 刘尧; 王秀荣

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种宽输出电压的AC DC开关电源,其主要特征是输出电压可以在较大范围内任意调节,解决了传统的开关电源只能输出几个特定电压值的问题.该设计的核心是反激变换电路和Buck-Boost电路.分析了这两种电路的工作原理及其应用,并且给出了具体的设计.实验表明,设计的电源能较好地实现了输出电压的宽范围调节.%AC-DC switching power supply with a wide range voltage output was designed. Its main feature is that the output voltage can be adjusted in a wide range. The problem that the traditional switching power supplies only have few specific voltage outputs is solved in the design. The flyback convert circuit and Buck-Boost circuit are the cores of the design. The working principle and applications of these two circuits are analyzed. The concrete design is given in this paper. The experiments show that a wide range regulation of the output voltage has been more successfully achieved in the design of the power supply.

  20. 基于MCU控制的开关电源稳压电路设计%Design for voltage regulator circuit of switching power supply based on MCU control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑红; 邢军

    2015-01-01

    A voltage regulator circuit of the switching power supply based on MCU control was designed,which is com-posed of rectification filtering circuit,push-pull power conversion circuit and control circuit. In this circuit,the output voltage of the switching power supply is controlled by regulating PWM via the MCU. The digital signal output by MCU is converted into analog signal through the DAC0832. The analog signal is taken as the reference voltage of the second pin of the switching con-trol chip SG3525. SG3525 generates PWM control pulse automatically according to the variation of reference voltage to regulate the output pulse width of the switching tube,so the purpose of regulating the output voltage is achieved. The experimental re-sults show that the output voltage adjustable range is 28~36 V,the maximum output current is 15 A,and the efficiency of the switching power supply is 89%.%设计了一款基于MCU控制的开关电源稳压电路,该系统主要由整流滤波电路、推挽式功率变换电路和控制电路组成,并通过MCU调节PWM控制开关电源输出电压.MCU输出的数字信号通过DAC0832转换为模拟信号,该模拟信号作为开关控制芯片SG3525第二管脚的基准电压,SG3525根据基准电压的变化自动产生PWM控制脉冲,调节开关管的输出脉宽,从而达到调节输出电压的目的.实验表明,输出电压可调范围为28~36 V,最大输出电流Imax=15 A,开关电源的效率为η=89%.

  1. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  2. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.I. Jr.

    2000-06-20

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  3. Adaptive Voltage Management Enabling Energy Efficiency in Nanoscale Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Alexander E.

    Battery powered devices emphasize energy efficiency in modern sub-22 nm CMOS microprocessors rendering classic power reduction solutions not sufficient. Classical solutions that reduce power consumption in high performance integrated circuits are superseded with novel and enhanced power reduction techniques to enable the greater energy efficiency desired in modern microprocessors and emerging mobile platforms. Dynamic power consumption is reduced by operating over a wide range of supply voltages. This region of operation is enabled by a high speed and power efficient level shifter which translates low voltage digital signals to higher voltages (and vice versa), a key component that enables communication among circuits operating at different voltage levels. Additionally, optimizing the wide supply voltage range of signals propagating across long interconnect enables greater energy savings. A closed-form delay model supporting wide voltage range is developed to enable this capability. The model supports an ultra-wide voltage range from nominal voltages to subthreshold voltages, and a wide range of repeater sizes. To mitigate the drawback of lower operating speed at reduced supply voltages, the high performance exhibited by MOS current mode logic technology is exploited. High performance and energy efficient circuits are enabled by combining this logic style with power efficient near threshold circuits. Many-core systems that operate at high frequencies and process highly parallel workloads benefit from this combination of MCML with NTC. Due to aggressive scaling, static power consumption can in some cases overshadow dynamic power. Techniques to lower leakage power have therefore become an important objective in modern microprocessors. To address this issue, an adaptive power gating technique is proposed. This technique utilizes high levels of granularity to save additional leakage power when a circuit is active as opposed to standard power gating that saves static

  4. To Implement Energy Efficient of Integer Unit by Higher Voltage Flip Flop Based on Minimum operating Dual Supply Voltage Techinque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Subhashini,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the most energy-efficient operation, this brief presents a circuit design technique for separating the power supply voltage (VDD of flip-flops (FFs from that of combinational circuits, called the higher voltage FF (HVFF. Although VDD scaling can reduce the energy, the minimum operating voltage (VDDmin of FFs prevents the operation at the optimum supply voltage that minimizes the energy, because the VDDmin of FFs is higher than the optimum supply voltage. In HVFF, the VDD of combinational logic gates is reduced below the VDDmin of FFs while keeping the VDD of FFs at their VDDmin. This makes it possible to minimize the energy without power and delay penalties at the nominal supply voltage (1.2 V as well as without FF topological difications. A four bit alu is designed in these paper by using dual supply voltage usig DSCH.

  5. 49 CFR 236.551 - Power supply voltage; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply voltage; requirement. 236.551 Section... supply voltage; requirement. The voltage of power supply shall be maintained within 10 percent of rated voltage....

  6. Debugging on High-voltage Power Supply,Focusing Power Supply and Magnetic Field Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU; Rui

    2015-01-01

    High-voltage power supply,focusing power supply and magnetic field power supply are the main parts of the power supply system of the EMIS(Electro-Magnetic Isotope Separator)supplying the ion source.In 2015,a high-voltage power supply,power supply for focusing and

  7. Optimization of Temperature Coefficient and Noise Analysis of MOSFET- Only Voltage Reference Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi.p

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of temperature coefficient and comparison of output noise of two MOSFET only voltage references are introduced. The circuit behavior is analytically described and the performance of the proposed circuits are confirmed through 180nm CMOS technology in virtuoso and the simulation results are presented. Both the circuits can be operated with supply voltage varies from 0.5-1.2V.The output voltage references varied over a temperature range of -25℃ to 50℃.

  8. Variation-aware adaptive voltage scaling for digital CMOS circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wirnshofer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing performance demands in integrated circuits, together with limited energy budgets, force IC designers to find new ways of saving power. One innovative way is the presented adaptive voltage scaling scheme, which tunes the supply voltage according to the present process, voltage and temperature variations as well as aging. The voltage is adapted “on the fly” by means of in-situ delay monitors to exploit unused timing margin, produced by state-of-the-art worst-case designs. This book discusses the design of the enhanced in-situ delay monitors and the implementation of the complete control-loop comprising the monitors, a control-logic and an on-chip voltage regulator. An analytical Markov-based model of the control-loop is derived to analyze its robustness and stability. Variation-Aware Adaptive Voltage Scaling for Digital CMOS Circuits provides an in-depth assessment of the proposed voltage scaling scheme when applied to an arithmetic and an image processing circuit. This book is written for engine...

  9. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area of any coal mine shall be protected by suitable circuit breakers of adequate interrupting...

  10. 用于开关电源的高精度多基准带隙电压源设计%Design of High-Precision Multi-Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit for Switching Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁; 赵荣建; 李书馨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of conventional band-gap reference circuit, a novel multi-voltage band-gap reference source for switching power supply was proposed using curvature compensation, high power gain feedback and buffer isolation technologies. The circuit achieved a high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and low temperature drift coefficient. Simulation based on 0. 5 μm CMOS technology at process corner TT, showed that, in the temperature range from -25 °C to 150 ℃, the multi-voltage reference circuit had a temperature drift coefficient less than 3×106/℃ and a PSRR of -78 dB, and it was capable of delivering four reference voltages: -3 V, 1. 2 V, 1 V and 0. 2 V.%带隙基准源是开关电源的重要组成部分.在对传统带隙基准源电路进行分析的基础上,结合曲率校正技术、高增益反馈技术和缓冲隔离技术,提出了一款应用于开关电源的高电源抑制比、低温漂系数和多基准输出新型基准源电路.基于0.5μm CMOS工艺,对电路进行仿真.结果表明,在-25℃~150℃范围内和典型(TT)工艺角下,设计的基准源温漂系数小于3×10-6/℃,PSRR为-78 dB,可产生3V,1.2 V,1V,0.2V四个基准输出电压.

  11. A New Low Voltage P-MOS Bulk Driven Current Mirror Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Dugaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new low voltage current mirror circuit using bulk driven technique. Bulk driven technique is used to reduce the threshold of PMOS u sed in low voltage current mirror circuits (LVCM.T he Proposed circuit consist of 4 PMOS and 5 NMOS. The proposed circuit operated at +0.85 V supply voltage.The bandwidth of this circuit has also been enhanced using resistive compensation technique. T he proposed circuit has been simulated in Cadence Desi gn Environment in UMC 180nm CMOS technology. A transfer characteristic of the proposed circuit has been discussed. The proposed circuit find applicat ion in low voltage and low power analog integrated circuit s.

  12. Design techniques for low-voltage analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakús, Matej; Stopjaková, Viera; Arbet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a review and analysis of different design techniques for (ultra) low-voltage integrated circuits (IC) are performed. This analysis shows that the most suitable design methods for low-voltage analog IC design in a standard CMOS process include techniques using bulk-driven MOS transistors, dynamic threshold MOS transistors and MOS transistors operating in weak or moderate inversion regions. The main advantage of such techniques is that there is no need for any modification of standard CMOS structure or process. Basic circuit building blocks like differential amplifiers or current mirrors designed using these approaches are able to operate with the power supply voltage of 600 mV (or even lower), which is the key feature towards integrated systems for modern portable applications.

  13. Modeling self-priming circuits for dielectric elastomer generators towards optimum voltage boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Plinio; Rossiter, Jonathan; Homer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    One of the main challenges for the practical implementation of dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) is supplying high voltages. To address this issue, systems using self-priming circuits (SPCs) — which exploit the DEG voltage swing to increase its supplied voltage — have been used with success. A self-priming circuit consists of a charge pump implemented in parallel with the DEG circuit. At each energy harvesting cycle, the DEG receives a low voltage input and, through an almost constant charge cycle, generates a high voltage output. SPCs receive the high voltage output at the end of the energy harvesting cycle and supply it back as input for the following cycle, using the DEG as a voltage multiplier element. Although rules for designing self-priming circuits for dielectric elastomer generators exist, they have been obtained from intuitive observation of simulation results and lack a solid theoretical foundation. Here we report the development of a mathematical model to predict voltage boost using self-priming circuits. The voltage on the DEG attached to the SPC is described as a function of its initial conditions, circuit parameters/layout, and the DEG capacitance. Our mathematical model has been validated on an existing DEG implementation from the literature, and successfully predicts the voltage boost for each cycle. Furthermore, it allows us to understand the conditions for the boost to exist, and obtain the design rules that maximize the voltage boost.

  14. Kirchhoff voltage law corrected for radiating circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    When a circular loop composed by a RLC is put to oscillate, the oscillation will eventually vanish in an exponentially decaying current, even considering superconducting wires, due to the emission of electric and magnetic dipole radiation. In this work we propose a modification on the Kirchhoff voltage law by adding the radiative contributions to the energy loss as an effective resistance, whose value is relatively small when compared to typical resistance value, but fundamental to describe correctly real circuits. We have also analysed the change in the pattern of the radiation spectra emitted by the circuit as we vary both the effective and electrical resistance.

  15. A Comparative Study of Ultra-Low Voltage Digital Circuit Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Arthurs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low voltage digital circuit design is an active research area, especially for portable applications such as wearable electronics, intelligent remote sensors, implantable medical devices, and energy-harvesting systems. Due to their application scenarios and circuit components, two major goals for these systems are minimizing energy consumption and improving compatibility with low-voltage power supplies and analog components. The most effective solution to achieve these goals is to reduce the supply voltage, which,however, raises the issue of operability. At ultra-low supply voltages, the integrity of digital signals degrades dramatically due to the indifference between active and leakage currents. In addition, the system timing becomes more unpredictable as the impact of process and supply voltage variations being more significant at lower voltages. This paper presents a comparative study among three techniques for designing digital circuits operating at ultra-low voltages, i.e., Schmitt-triggered gate structure, delayinsensitive asynchronous logic, and Fully-Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator technology. Results show that despite the tradeoffs, all eight combinations of these techniques are viable for designing ultra-low voltage circuits. For a given application, the optimum circuit design can be selected from these combinations based on the lowest voltage, the dynamic range, the power budget, the performance requirement, and the available semiconductor process node.

  16. A Comparative Study of Ultra-Low Voltage Digital Circuit Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Arthurs,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low voltage digital circuit design is an active research area, especially for portable applications such as wearable electronics, intelligent remote sensors, implantable medical devices, and energy-harvesting systems. Due to their application scenarios and circuit components, two major goals for these systems are minimizing energy consumption and improving compatibility with low-voltage power supplies and analog components. The most effective solution to achieve these goals is to reduce the supply voltage, which,however, raises the issue of operability. At ultra-low supply voltages, the integrity of digital signals degrades dramatically due to the indifference between active and leakage currents. In addition, the system timing becomes more unpredictable as the impact of process and supply voltage variations being more significant at lower voltages. This paper presents a comparative study among three techniques for designing digital circuits operating at ultra-low voltages, i.e., Schmitt-triggered gate structure, delay insensitive asynchronous logic, and Fully-Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator technology. Results show that despite the trade offs, all eight combinations of these techniques are viable for designing ultra-low voltage circuits. For a given application, the optimum circuit design can be selected from these combinations based on the lowest voltage, the dynamic range, the power budget, the performance requirement, and the available semiconductor process node.

  17. Low-Voltage Process-Compensated VCO with On-Chip Process Monitoring and Body-Biasing Circuit Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Ken; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    2009-01-01

    A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) tolerant to process variations at lower supply voltage was proposed. The circuit consists of an on-chip threshold-voltage-monitoring circuit, a current-source circuit, a body-biasing control circuit, and the delay cells of the VCO. Because variations in low-voltage VCO frequency are mainly determined by that of the current in delay cells. a current-compensation technique was adopted by using an on-chip threshold-voltage-monitoring circuit and body-biasing...

  18. High-precision analog circuit technology for power supply integrated circuits; Dengen IC yo koseido anarogu kairo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, A.; Suzuki, T.; Mizoe, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    With the recent rapid spread of portable electronic appliances, specification requirements such as compact power supply and long operation with batteries have become severer. Power supply ICs (integrated circuits) are required to reduce power consumption in the circuit and perform high-precision control. To meet these requirements, Fuji Electric develops high-precision CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog technology. This paper describes three analog circuit technologies of a voltage reference, an operational amplifier and a comparator as circuit components particularly important for the precision of power supply ICs. (author)

  19. Dual voltage power supply with 48 volt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschl, Joachim; Proebstle, Hartmut; Sirch, Ottmar [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Automotive electrics/electronics have just reached a period of tremendous change. High voltage systems for Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid or Battery Electric Vehicles with high power electric motors, high energy accumulators and electric climate compressors will be introduced in order to achieve the challenging targets for CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency and to anticipate the mobility of the future. Additionally, innovations and the continuous increase of functionality for comfort, safety, driver assistance and infotainment systems require more and more electrical power of the vehicle power supply at all. On the one hand side electrified vehicles will certainly achieve a significant market share, on the other hand side they will increase the pressure to conventional vehicles with combustion engines for fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. These vehicles will be enabled to keep their competitiveness by new functions and the optimization of their electric systems. A dual voltage power supply with 48 Volt and 12 Volt will be one of the key technologies to realize these requirements. The power capability of the existing 12 Volt power supply has reached its limits. Further potentials can only be admitted by the introduction of 48 Volt. For this reason the car manufacturers Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche and Volkswagen started very early on this item and developed a common specification of the new voltage range. Now, it is necessary to identify the probable systems at this voltage range and to start the developments. (orig.)

  20. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  1. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  2. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne Johan; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1) con

  3. The voltage-current relationship and equivalent circuit implementation of parallel flux-controlled memristive circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Feng Fei; Dong Wei; Pan Sai-Hu

    2013-01-01

    A flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth cubic nonlinearity is taken as an example,upon which the voltage-current relationships (VCRs) between two parallel memristive circuits-a parallel memristor and capacitor circuit (the parallel MC circuit),and a parallel memristor and inductor circuit (the parallel ML circuit)-are investigated.The results indicate that the VCR between these two parallel memristive circuits is closely related to the circuit parameters,and the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage stimulus.An equivalent circuit model of the memristor is built,upon which the circuit simulations and experimental measurements of both the parallel MC circuit and the parallel ML circuit are performed,and the results verify the theoretical analysis results.

  4. A Pulsed Power Supply with Sag Compensation using Controlled Gradational Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamada, Masaki; Tashiro, Shojirou; Iwata, Akihiko

    A pulsed power supply with sag compensation using controlled gradational voltage to increase the flatness of output waveforms has been developed.The sag compensation circuit consists of compensation units connected in series. Each compensation unit consists of capacitances, diodes, and semiconductor switches. The capacitances of each unit are charged with different voltages by 2n (V0, 2V0, 4V0, ···). The compensation voltages, which has 2n-1 steps, is generated by switching the semiconductor switches of each unit in a binary sequence. Using this method, compensation voltage waveforms up to 6.2kV with 31 steps can be obtained with 5 compensation units. The sag compensation circuit has been adapted to a direct switch type pulsed power supply, which generates 7kV pulsed voltage with a pulse width of 700μs, thus realizing sag compensation.

  5. Design and Implementation of Voltage-Mode MIN/MAX Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a general architecture for analog implementation of MIN/MAX and other rank order circuits is presented. Based on general architecture, proposed MIN/MAX circuits are implemented. The proposed circuits are composed of a differential amplifier with merged n-inputs and a MCSAL circuit to choose the desired input. The advantages of the proposed structure are simplicity, very high resolution, very low supply voltage requirements, very low output resistor, low power dissipation, low active area and simple expansion for multiple inputs by adding only three transistors for each extra input. The post-layout simulation results of proposed circuits are presented by HSPICE software in 0.35-µm CMOS process technology. The total power dissipation of proposed circuits is about 110-µW. Also, the total active area is about 550-µm2 for five-input proposed circuits, and would be negligibly increased for each extra input.

  6. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply with Minimized Circuit Input-to-Output Parasitic Capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Petersen, Lars Press; Knott, Arnold;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 300-Watt isolated power supply for MOS gate driver circuit in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the developed power supply is having a very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, thus maximizing its noise immunity. This makes ...

  7. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  8. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  9. Background voltage distortion influence on power electric systems in the presence of the Steinmetz circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Luis; Pedra, Joaquin [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Caro, Manuel [IDOM Ingenieria y Arquitectura, C. Barcas 2, 46002 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    In traction systems, it is usual to connect reactances in delta configuration with single-phase loads to reduce voltage unbalances and avoid electric system operation problems. This set is known as Steinmetz circuit. Parallel and series resonances can occur due to the capacitive reactance of the Steinmetz circuit and affect power quality. In this paper, the series resonance ''observed'' from the supply system is numerically located. The study of this resonance is important to avoid problems due to background voltage distortion. Experimental measurements are also presented to validate the obtained numerical results. (author)

  10. 30 CFR 75.900 - Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900 Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit breakers...

  11. The Current-voltage Characteristics Simulation of the Betavoltaic Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Urchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize betavoltaic power supply it was calculated the current-voltage characteristics when changing the depth of the upper p-layer and at changing doping levels structure areas. It is shown that an increase in the depth reduces the short-circuit current and thus reduces the open circuit voltage. It has been observed that the concentration of the lightly doped region more significantly influence on the current-voltage characteristics than the depth of the p-n-junction. The concentration of the n-region, equal to 1014 cm – 3, can be considered as during betavoltaic power supply design. It is shown that, by increasing the power supply activity the conversion efficiency of the structure increases, too.

  12. Noise tolerant voltage-controlled LC oscillator circuits for deep submicron VLSI system-on-a-chip radio circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Typpö, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    This thesis studies the problems with maintaining the spectral purity of fully integrated VCO circuits for radio frequency synthesizers in single-chip system designs. LC tank circuit oscillator circuits are shown to convert amplitude variation in the tank circuit voltage into frequency modulation, if voltage dependent capacitances are present in the tank circuit. Since the parasitic capacitances of the gain transistors and the capacitance of the varactor device in a VCO circuit are voltage de...

  13. New energy management circuit applied in electric self-power supply over high voltage side%新型高压侧自供电电源设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李衍川; 江和

    2014-01-01

    分析了高压电场能量收集的原理,建立静电场耦合分布电容模型,并通过实验证明了模型的参考价值。随后,分析使用整流桥电路进行能量管理时的最佳功率点,并从增大超级电容充电电流的角度,设计了一种新型的管理电路,即同步电荷提取电路,以获得最佳的能量存储能力。结果证明存在一个最佳占空比使得收集的能量最大化,从而缩短无线节点在线监测工作周期。%The theory of energy harvested from the high voltage is analyzed, and then the corresponding model of coupling capacitance derived from static electric field is built, and several experiments are conducted to study whether the model is valuable. Then, according to what the result reveals, the optimal power point is found out when energy is managed by rectifier circuit. The value of charged current to super capacitor is used as the judge-ment whether the circuit system has the best storage performance. In that respect, management circuit is improved as a technology called Synchronous Electric Charge Extract, because the rectifier circuit can’ t perform as good as it is under ultrahigh voltage. It turns out that there is an optimal duty to maximize the energy harvested, so that the energy harvester can scavenge much more energy to cancellout the power loss. As a result, online monitoring period could be shortened greatly.

  14. A dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for voltage multiplier based X-ray power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, S [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Besar, R; Venkataseshaiah, C, E-mail: shahidsidu@hotmail.co [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for series resonant inverter fed voltage multiplier (VM) based X-ray power supply. In this control scheme the outputs voltage of two parallel connected series resonant inverters are mixed before supplying to VM circuit. The output voltage of the power supply is controlled by varying the phase-shift between the output voltages of two inverters. In order to achieve quick rise of output voltage, the power supply is started with zero phase-shift and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target voltage, the phase-shift is increased to a value which corresponds to target output voltage to prevent overshoot. The proposed control scheme has been shown to have good performance. Experimental results based on the scaled-down laboratory prototype are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed dual-mode phase shift modulation control scheme.

  15. Development of Medium-Voltage and Large-Capacity Uninterruptible Power Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kansuke; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Yoda, Kazuyuki

    A 2-MVA uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system has been developed for compensating for voltage dips in a medium voltage network. The UPS system realizes a high efficiency (99.7%) during single-pulse switching. In this paper, the UPS configurations, storage devices, and transfer switches are compared. Thereafter, the details of the UPS system, the results of the short-circuit test and the system efficiencies are described.

  16. Ultra-low-voltage design of energy-efficient digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Reynders, Nele

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on increasing the energy-efficiency of electronic devices so that portable applications can have a longer stand-alone time on the same battery. The authors explain the energy-efficiency benefits that ultra-low-voltage circuits provide and provide answers to tackle the challenges which ultra-low-voltage operation poses. An innovative design methodology is presented, verified, and validated by four prototypes in advanced CMOS technologies. These prototypes are shown to achieve high energy-efficiency through their successful functionality at ultra-low supply voltages.

  17. Low Voltage Analog Circuit Design Based on the Flipped Voltage Follower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire for portability of electronics equipment generated a need for low power system in battery products like hearing aids, implantable cardiac pacemakers, cell phones and hand held multimedia terminals. Low voltage analog circuit design differs considerably from those of high voltage analog circuit design. This paper present the basic cell knows as “flipped voltage follower” for low voltage/ low power operation. The detailed classification of basic topologies derived from the FVF cell is presented and there is a low voltage current mirror based on FVF cell has been presented. All the Circuit has been simulated using Hspice tool 0.18µm CMOS Technology. Different quality factors such as frequency response, power consumption are considered. A compression also made between previous current mirror and new designed current mirror. The layout of the current mirror has been also designed using Cadence tool.

  18. 250 kV 6 mA compact Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhan-Wen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Xiao-Long; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Jun-Run; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Miao, Tian-You; Su, Tong-Ling; Yao, Ze-En

    2016-08-01

    A compact power supply system for a compact neutron generator has been developed. A 4-stage symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit is adopted to produce 250 kV direct current high-voltage. A 2-stage 280 kV isolation transformer system is used to drive the ion source power supply. For a compact structure, safety, and reliability during the operation, the Cockcroft-Walton circuit and the isolation transformer system are enclosed in an epoxy vessel containing the transformer oil whose size is about ∅350 mm × 766 mm. Test results indicate that the maximum output voltage of the power supply is 282 kV, and the stability of the output voltage is better than 0.63% when the high voltage power supply is operated at 250 kV, 6.9 mA with the input voltage varying ±10%.

  19. 250 kV 6 mA compact Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhan-Wen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Xiao-Long; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Jun-Run; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Miao, Tian-You; Su, Tong-Ling; Yao, Ze-En

    2016-08-01

    A compact power supply system for a compact neutron generator has been developed. A 4-stage symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit is adopted to produce 250 kV direct current high-voltage. A 2-stage 280 kV isolation transformer system is used to drive the ion source power supply. For a compact structure, safety, and reliability during the operation, the Cockcroft-Walton circuit and the isolation transformer system are enclosed in an epoxy vessel containing the transformer oil whose size is about ∅350 mm × 766 mm. Test results indicate that the maximum output voltage of the power supply is 282 kV, and the stability of the output voltage is better than 0.63% when the high voltage power supply is operated at 250 kV, 6.9 mA with the input voltage varying ±10%.

  20. The supply voltage apparatus of the CUORE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Baú, A.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Passerini, A.; Pessina, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Electronics system of experiments for the study of rare decays, such as the neutrino-less double beta decay, must be very stable over very long expected runs. We introduce our solution for the power supply of such an experiment, CUORE. In this case the power supply chain consists of a series of ACDCs, followed by DCDCs and then Linear Regulators. We emphasize here our approach to the DCDC regulation system that was designed with a complete rejection of the switching noise, across 100 MHz bandwidth. In the experimental layout the DCDC will be located far from the very front-end, with long connecting cables (10 m). We introduced our very simple and safe solution to prevent huge over-voltages, due to the energy stored in the inductance of the cables, generated after the release of accidental short circuits, so avoiding destructive effects. Some micro-controllers are present on every board and take care of the DCDC operation. These micro-controllers are managed from the control room, via CAN BUS protocol coupled via optical fibres. CUORE is an array of 1000 cryogenic detectors that will need 30 of our DCDCs.

  1. The supply voltage apparatus of the CUORE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Baú, A.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Passerini, A. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Piazza della Scienza 3 Milano (Italy); Università di Milano Bicocca - Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza della Scienza 3 Milano (Italy); Pessina, G., E-mail: Pessina@mib.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Piazza della Scienza 3 Milano (Italy); Università di Milano Bicocca - Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza della Scienza 3 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The Electronics system of experiments for the study of rare decays, such as the neutrino-less double beta decay, must be very stable over very long expected runs. We introduce our solution for the power supply of such an experiment, CUORE. In this case the power supply chain consists of a series of ACDCs, followed by DCDCs and then Linear Regulators. We emphasize here our approach to the DCDC regulation system that was designed with a complete rejection of the switching noise, across 100 MHz bandwidth. In the experimental layout the DCDC will be located far from the very front-end, with long connecting cables (10 m). We introduced our very simple and safe solution to prevent huge over-voltages, due to the energy stored in the inductance of the cables, generated after the release of accidental short circuits, so avoiding destructive effects. Some micro-controllers are present on every board and take care of the DCDC operation. These micro-controllers are managed from the control room, via CAN BUS protocol coupled via optical fibres. CUORE is an array of 1000 cryogenic detectors that will need 30 of our DCDCs.

  2. Programmable Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker and Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Terry

    2008-01-01

    An instrumentation system that would comprise a remotely controllable and programmable low-voltage circuit breaker plus several electric-circuit-testing subsystems has been conceived, originally for use aboard a spacecraft during all phases of operation from pre-launch testing through launch, ascent, orbit, descent, and landing. The system could also be adapted to similar use aboard aircraft. In comparison with remotely controllable circuit breakers heretofore commercially available, this system would be smaller, less massive, and capable of performing more functions, as needed for aerospace applications.

  3. 30 CFR 75.902-1 - Maximum voltage ground check circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum voltage ground check circuits. 75.902-1... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.902-1 Maximum voltage ground check circuits. The maximum voltage used for such ground check circuits shall not exceed 40 volts....

  4. USING PHOTO-INDUCED OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    open-circuit voltage decay, silicon photovoltaic solar cells. ..... cells in series configuration encapsulated on a ceramic base with glass cover and has an effective .... silicon solar cells and should be used parallel to the common performance test ...

  5. Fast-responding short circuit protection system with self-reset for use in circuit supplied by DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A short circuit protection system includes an inductor, a switch, a voltage sensing circuit, and a controller. The switch and inductor are electrically coupled to be in series with one another. A voltage sensing circuit is coupled across the switch and the inductor. A controller, coupled to the voltage sensing circuit and the switch, opens the switch when a voltage at the output terminal of the inductor transitions from above a threshold voltage to below the threshold voltage. The controller closes the switch when the voltage at the output terminal of the inductor transitions from below the threshold voltage to above the threshold voltage.

  6. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.907 Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits. Trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits shall include grounding conductors, a ground check...

  7. 30 CFR 77.902-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.902-1 Section 77.902-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under §...

  8. Demonstration of a High Open-Circuit Voltage GaN Betavoltaic Microbattery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zai-Jun; SAN Hai-Sheng; CHEN Xu-Yuan; LIU Bo; FENG Zhi-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a GaN p-i-n diode is demonstrated.Under the irradiation of a 4× 4mm2 planar solid 63Ni source with an activity of 2mCi,the open-circuit voltage Voc of the fabricated single 2x2mm2 cell reaches as high as 1.62 V,the short-circuit current density Jsc is measured to be 16nA/cm2.The microbattery has a fill factor of 55%,and the energy conversion effciency of beta radiation into electricity reaches to 1.13%.The results suggest that GaN is a highly promising potential candidate for long-life betavoltaic microbatteries used as power supplies for microelectromechanical system devices.

  9. Temperature Stabilized Characterization of High Voltage Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Krarup, Ole

    2017-01-01

    High precision measurements of the masses of nuclear ions in the ISOLTRAP experiment relies on an MR-ToF. A major source of noise and drift is the instability of the high voltage power supplies employed. Electrical noise and temperature changes can broaden peaks in time-of-flight spectra and shift the position of peaks between runs. In this report we investigate how the noise and drift of high-voltage power supplies can be characterized. Results indicate that analog power supplies generally have better relative stability than digitally controlled ones, and that the high temperature coefficients of all power supplies merit efforts to stabilize them.

  10. A band-gap voltage reference for interface circuit of microsensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yi-jiang; XIAO Fei; ZHANG Er-dong

    2010-01-01

    A high performance CMOS band-gap voltage reference circuit that can be used in interface integrated circuit of microsenser and compatible with 0.6 μm (double poly) mix process is proposed in this paper.The circuit can be employed in the range of 1.8-8 V and carry out the first-order PTAT (proportional to absolute temperature) temperature compensation.Through using a two-stage op-amp with a NMOS input pair as a negative feedback op-amp,the PSRR (power supply rejection ratio) of the entire circuit is increased,and the temperature coefficient of reference voltage is decreased.Results from HSPICE simulation show that the PSRR is -72.76 dB in the condition of low-frequency,the temperature coefficient is 2.4×10-6 in the temperature range from-10 ℃ to 90℃ and the power dissipation is only 14 μW when the supply voltage is 1.8 V.

  11. Design of Plasma Generator Driven by High-frequency High-voltage Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yong-Nong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a high-frequency high-voltage power supply designed for plasma generator is presented. The powersupply mainly consists of a series resonant converter with a high-frequency high-voltage boost transformer. Due to theindispensable high-voltage inheritance in the operation of plasma generator, the analysis of transformer needconsidering not only winding resistance, leakage inductance, magnetizing inductance, and core-loss resistance, butalso parasitic capacitance resulted from the insulation wrappings on the high-voltage side. This research exhibits asimple approach to measuring equivalent circuit parameters of the high-frequency, high-voltage transformer with straycapacitance being introduced into the conventional modeling. The proposed modeling scheme provides not only aprecise measurement procedure but also effective design information for series-load resonant converter. The plasmadischarging plate is designed as part of the electric circuit in the series load-resonant converter and the circuit modelof the plasma discharging plate is also conducted as well. Thus, the overall model of the high-voltage plasmagenerator is built and the designing procedures for appropriate selections of the corresponding resonant-circuitparameters can be established. Finally, a high-voltage plasma generator with 220V, 60Hz, and 1kW input, along witha 22 kHz and over 8kV output, is realized and implemented.

  12. Dynamic Model of the Universal Motor Supplied by a Harmonic Voltage Dynamic Model of the Universal Motor Supplied by a Harmonic Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dupej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In present article a dynamic model of universal motors, based on the measured data is developed. Suppose that the supply voltage is harmonic and motor operate in open circuit loop. After representing of the mathematical model a simulation model based on the Matlab-Simulink is derived; this allows for the determination of the waveforms of the speed current and torque of the machine for different state operation. Induced voltage of the rotor is determined as a function of the magnetic core saturation and of the armature reaction.In present article a dynamic model of universal motors, based on the measured data is developed. Suppose that the supply voltage is harmonic and motor operate in open circuit loop. After representing of the mathematical model a simulation model based on the Matlab-Simulink is derived; this allows for the determination of the waveforms of the speed current and torque of the machine for different state operation. Induced voltage of the rotor is determined as a function of the magnetic core saturation and of the armature reaction.

  13. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply.

  14. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sohbatzadeh; Bagheri, M; S. Motallebi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed and saw tooth high voltage shapes at 8 KHZ. At first; we describe the electronic circuit features for generating high voltage (HV) wave forms including saw tooth, sinusoidal and pulsed forms. Then, we consider the effect of voltage shape on the electrical breakdown. Relative concentrations of chem...

  15. A novel on-chip high to low voltage power conversion circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui; Wang Songlin; Lai Xinquan; Ye Qiang; Mou Zaixin; Li Xianrui; Guo Baolong

    2009-01-01

    A novel power supply transform technique for high voltage IC based on the TSMC 0.6μm BCD process is achieved. An adjustable bandgap voltage reference is presented which is different from the traditional power supply transform technique. It can be used as an internal power supply for high voltage IC by using the push-pull output stage to enhance its load capability. High-order temperature compensated circuit is designed to ensure the precision of the reference. Only 0.01 mm2 area is occupied using this novel power supply technique. Compared with traditional technique, 50% of the area is saved, 40% quiescent power loss is decreased, and the temperature coefficient of the reference is only 4.48 ppm/℃. Compared with the traditional LDO (low dropout) regulator, this power conversion architecture does not need external output capacitance and decreases the chip-pin and external components, so the PCB area and design cost are also decreased. The testing results show that this circuit works well.

  16. A New Low Voltage P-MOS Bulk Driven Current Mirror Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Dugaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new low voltage current mirror circuit using bulk driven technique. Bulk driventechnique is used to reduce the threshold of PMOS used in low voltage current mirror circuits (LVCM.TheProposed circuit consist of 4 PMOS and 5 NMOS. The proposed circuit operated at +0.85 V supplyvoltage.The bandwidth of this circuit has also been enhanced using resistive compensation technique. Theproposed circuit has been simulated in Cadence Design Environment in UMC 180nm CMOS technology. Atransfer characteristic of the proposed circuit has been discussed. The proposed circuit find application inlow voltage and low power analog integrated circuits.

  17. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Qin, Hong; Wu, Shengli

    2017-04-01

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  18. Controllable Threshold Voltage in Organic Complementary Logic Circuits with an Electron-Trapping Polymer and Photoactive Gate Dielectric Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Toan Thanh; Sakai, Heisuke; Nguyen, Hai Thanh; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Murata, Hideyuki

    2016-07-20

    We present controllable and reliable complementary organic transistor circuits on a PET substrate using a photoactive dielectric layer of 6-[4'-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl]-3-ethoxycarbonylcoumarin (DPA-CM) doped into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and an electron-trapping layer of poly(perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether) (Cytop). Cu was used for a source/drain electrode in both the p-channel and n-channel transistors. The threshold voltage of the transistors and the inverting voltage of the circuits were reversibly controlled over a wide range under a program voltage of less than 10 V and under UV light irradiation. At a program voltage of -2 V, the inverting voltage of the circuits was tuned to be at nearly half of the supply voltage of the circuit. Consequently, an excellent balance between the high and low noise margins (NM) was produced (64% of NMH and 68% of NML), resulting in maximum noise immunity. Furthermore, the programmed circuits showed high stability, such as a retention time of over 10(5) s for the inverter switching voltage. Our findings bring about a flexible, simple way to obtain robust, high-performance organic circuits using a controllable complementary transistor inverter.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-VOLTAGE HIGH-FREQUENCY POWER SUPPLY FOR OZONE GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NACERA HAMMADI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage high-frequency power supply for ozone generation is presented in this paper. Ozone generation is intended to be used in air and in water disinfection. A power stage consisting of a single-phase full bridge inverter for regulating the output power, a current push-pull inverter (driver and a control circuit are described and analyzed. This laboratory build power supply using a high voltage ferrite transformer and a PIC microcontroller was employed to energize a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD ozone generator. The inverter working on the basis of control strategy is of simple structure and has a variation range of the working frequency in order to obtain the optimal frequency value. The experimental results concerning electrical characterization and water treatment using a cylindrical DBD ozone generator supplied by this power supply are given in the end.

  20. High performance AC–DC control power supply for low voltage ride through inverters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Saichand; Akshay Kumrawat; Vinod John

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a control power supply (CPS) design which is used to feed power to the subsystems of a power converter. The CPS design presented here maintains a constant 24Vdc output even over a wide (90Vrms to 270Vrms ) ac voltage variation at its input for a High Power Converter (HPC). The circuit design and closed loop control design of such a CPS are presented. During starting, the power supply to the control circuitry of the CPS in turn is obtained using a separate start-up power supply. The various design issues and details of the on-board power supply and start-up power circuit to ensure the reliable start-up and shut down of the CPS are analyzed. The CPS was tested for wide input voltage range (vin) and the performance validates the design. The CPS has also been tested for an input side voltage sag and its performance allows the HPC to meet the low voltage ride-through requirements.

  1. Programmable high voltage power supply with regulation confined to the high voltage section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D. (Inventor); Ruitberg, Arthur P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage power supply in a dc-dc converter configuration includes a pre-regulator which filters and regulates the dc input and drives an oscillator which applies, in turn, a low voltage ac signal to the low side of a step-up high voltage transformer. The high voltage side of the transformer drives a voltage multiplier which provides a stepped up dc voltage to an output filter. The output voltage is sensed by a feedback network which then controls a regulator. Both the input and output of the regulator are on the high voltage side, avoiding isolation problems. The regulator furnishes a portion of the drive to the voltage multiplier, avoiding having a regulator in series with the load with its attendant, relatively high power losses. This power supply is highly regulated, has low power consumption, a low parts count and may be manufactured at low cost. The power supply has a programmability feature that allows for the selection of a large range of output voltages.

  2. Silicon solar cells with high open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnucci, J. A.; Matthei, K. W.; Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Mccrosky, A.

    1980-01-01

    Open-circuit voltages as high as 0.645 V (AM0-25 C) have been obtained by a new process developed for low-resistivity silicon. The method utilizes high-dose phosphorus implantation, followed by furnace annealing and simultaneous oxide growth to form high-efficiency, shallow junctions. The effect of the thermally grown oxide is a reduction of surface recombination velocity; the oxide also acts as a moderately efficient AR coating. Boron doped silicon with resistivities from 0.1 to 0.3 ohm-cm has been processed according to this sequence; results show highest open-circuit voltage is attained with 0.1-ohm-cm starting material. The effects of bandgap narrowing, caused by high doping concentrations in the junction, were also investigated by implanting phosphorus over a wide range of dose levels.

  3. Development of power supply devices for limitations of short circuit on the ship's hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Cherneev, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have analysed the reasons and consequences of single-phase ground faults (hull faults). For all varieties of devices limiting the current single-phase ground faults, the most effective devices were found to be the arc-suppression coils with different switching circuits. In this case the measurement of circuit capacitance takes on a great importance. A number of variants of capacitance measurement is presented in the paper. The authors have had a detailed look at a device, limiting the single-phase short-circuit current. This device was developed on the basis of the Far Eastern Federal University under the direction of Dr. G.E. Kuvshinov. The device is provided with power supply that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC), and is realised due to the use of semiconductor devices - transistors and diodes - in a bridge circuit. The technical outcome of this power supply application consists in the reduction of size and weight parameters (compared to the closest analogues) in order to connect the controlled voltage rectifier to the alternating voltage source, including mass and size of the capacitor bank of the current limiting circuit, and enhancing the dynamic parameters of the stage of uncontrolled charge of the output capacitor of the controlled voltage rectifier.

  4. Characterization of a pulsed mode high voltage power supply for nuclear detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A. B.; Ahmad, T. S.; Abdullah, N. A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of a pulsed mode high voltage power supply (HVPS) using LT1073 chip. The pulsed modulated signal generated from this chip is amplified using a step-up ferrite core transformer of 1:20 turn ratio and then further multiplied and converted into DC high voltage output using a diode-capacitor arrangement. The circuit is powered by a 9V alkaline battery but regulated at 5V supply. It was found that the output for this setup is 520V, 87 μA with 10% load regulation. This output is suitable to operate a pancake-type GM detector, typically model LND 7317 where the plateau is from 475V to 675V. It was also found that when a β-source with intensity of 120 cps is used, the power consumption of the circuit is 5 V, 10.1 mA only. When the battery was left 'on' for 40 hours continuously, the battery's voltage has dropped to 6.9V, meaning that the 5V supply as well as 520V output is still maintained. It is noted that the minimum output voltage of 475V has reached when the regulated supply has reduced to 4.6V and consequently the 9V battery dropped to 6.5V, and this had happened after approximately 3 days of continuous operation. The power efficiency for this circuitry was found to be 89.5%. This result has far better in performance since the commercial portable equipment of this type has normally specified that not less than 8 hours continuous operation only. On the circuit design for this power supply, it was found that the enveloped frequency is 133 Hz with approximately 50% duty cycle. The modulated frequency during 'on' state was found to be 256 KHz in which the majority of power consumption is required.

  5. A low-power circuit for piezoelectric vibration control by synchronized switching on voltage sources

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Hui; Ji, Hongli; Zhu, Kongjun; Balsi, Marco; Giorgio, Ivan; dell'Isola, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, a vibration damping system powered by harvested energy with implementation of the so-called SSDV (synchronized switch damping on voltage source) technique is designed and investigated. In the semi-passive approach, the piezoelectric element is intermittently switched from open-circuit to specific impedance synchronously with the structural vibration. Due to this switching procedure, a phase difference appears between the strain induced by vibration and the resulting voltage, thus creating energy dissipation. By supplying the energy collected from the piezoelectric materials to the switching circuit, a new low-power device using the SSDV technique is proposed. Compared with the original self-powered SSDI (synchronized switch damping on inductor), such a device can significantly improve its performance of vibration control. Its effectiveness in the single-mode resonant damping of a composite beam is validated by the experimental results.

  6. 30 CFR 75.902 - Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.902 Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits. On or before September 30, 1970, low- and medium-voltage resistance grounded systems shall...

  7. 30 CFR 77.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices. High-voltage...

  8. 30 CFR 77.803-1 - Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voltage. 77.803-1 Section 77.803-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.803-1 Fail safe ground check circuits; maximum voltage. The maximum voltage used for ground check circuits under § 77.803 shall...

  9. Low power DCVSL circuits employing AC power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In view of changing the type of energy conversion in CMOS circuits, this paper investigates low power CMOS circuit design, which adopts a gradually changing power clock. First, we discuss the algebraic expressions and the corresponding properties of clocked power signals. Then the design procedure is summed up for converting complementary CMOS logic gates employing DC power to the power-clocked CMOS gates employing AC power. On this basis, the design of differential cascode voltage switch logic (DCVSL) circuits employing AC power clocks is proposed. The PSPICE simulations using a sinusoidal power-clock demonstrate that the designed power-clocked DCVSL circuit has a correct logic function and low power characteristics. Finally, an interface circuit to convert clocked signals into the standard logic levels of a CMOS circuit is proposed, and its validity is verified by computer simulations.

  10. Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low-voltage operation improves energy efficiency of logic circuits by a factor of 10×, at the expense of speed, which is acceptable for applications with low-to-medium performance requirements such as RFID, biomedical devices and wireless sensors. However, in 65/45 nm CMOS, variability and short-channel effects significantly harm robustness and timing closure of ultra-low-voltage circuits by reducing noise margins and jeopardizing gate delays. The consequent guardband on the supply voltage to meet a reasonable manufacturing yield potentially ruins energy efficiency. Moreover, high leakage currents in these technologies degrade energy efficiency in case of long stand-by periods. In this paper, we review recently published techniques to design robust and energy-efficient ultra-low-voltage circuits in 65/45 nm CMOS under relaxed yet strict timing constraints.

  11. Novel Low Loss Active Voltage Clamp Circuit for Series Connection of RCGCT thyristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Iwata, Akihiko

    This paper describes novel low loss active voltage clamp circuits for the series connection of RCGCT thyristors. For high voltage converters the series connection of power semiconductor devices is an essential technique for direct switching of high voltages. Several protection circuits have been applied to the series connection of RCGCT thyristors such as CRD snubber circuits which suppress over-voltages across RCGCT thyristors, and voltage balancing resistors to equalize voltage sharing in steady states. However, significant losses in these protection circuits lower the converter’s efficiency. We propose novel low-loss protection circuits, which have active voltage clamp snubber circuits and static voltage balancing circuits. The clamp capacitor voltage of the active voltage clamp snubber circuits are designed to be higher than the equally divided DC-Link voltage. This method can reduce the loss of the clamp circuit to no more than 1/10 of that of the conventional CRD snubber. Also the static voltage balancing circuits compensate for the voltage imbalance generated by the difference in the leakage current between the series connection RCGCT thyristors.

  12. 30 CFR 77.900 - Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving portable or mobile three-phase alternating current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.900 Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving portable or mobile three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit breakers. Low- and medium-voltage circuits...

  13. Flexible low-voltage organic integrated circuits with megahertz switching frequencies (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschieschang, Ute; Takimiya, Kazuo; Zaki, Tarek; Letzkus, Florian; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-09-01

    A process for the fabrication of integrated circuits based on bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with channel lengths as short as 1 µm on flexible plastic substrates has been developed. In this process, all TFT layers (gate electrodes, organic semiconductors, source/drain contacts) are patterned with the help of high-resolution silicon stencil masks, thus eliminating the need for subtractive patterning and avoiding the exposure of the organic semiconductors to potentially harmful organic solvents or resists. The TFTs employ a low-temperature-processed gate dielectric that is sufficiently thin to allow the TFTs and circuits to operate with voltages of about 3 V. Using the vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic semiconductor 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10 DNTT), TFTs with an effective field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of 107, a width-normalized transconductance of 1.2 S/m (with a standard deviation of 6%), and a signal propagation delay (measured in 11-stage ring oscillators) of 420 nsec per stage at a supply voltage of 3 V have been obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first time that megahertz operation has been achieved in flexible organic transistors at supply voltages of less than 10 V. In addition to flexible ring oscillators, we have also demonstrated a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in a binary-weighted current-steering architecture, based on TFTs with a channel length of 4 µm and fabricated on a glass substrate. This DAC has a supply voltage of 3.3 V, a circuit area of 2.6 × 4.6 mm2, and a maximum sampling rate of 100 kS/s.

  14. A Survey of Non-conventional Techniques for Low-voltage Low-power Analog Circuit Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khateb

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing integrated circuits able to work under low-voltage (LV low-power (LP condition is currently undergoing a very considerable boom. Reducing voltage supply and power consumption of integrated circuits is crucial factor since in general it ensures the device reliability, prevents overheating of the circuits and in particular prolongs the operation period for battery powered devices. Recently, non-conventional techniques i.e. bulk-driven (BD, floating-gate (FG and quasi-floating-gate (QFG techniques have been proposed as powerful ways to reduce the design complexity and push the voltage supply towards threshold voltage of the MOS transistors (MOST. Therefore, this paper presents the operation principle, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques, enabling circuit designers to choose the proper design technique based on application requirements. As an example of application three operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA base on these non-conventional techniques are presented, the voltage supply is only ±0.4 V and the power consumption is 23.5 µW. PSpice simulation results using the 0.18 µm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to verify the design functionality and correspondence with theory.

  15. Clipper circuit of pulse modulator used for klystron-5045 power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, A V

    2001-01-01

    While the operation of modulator to the pulsed transformer of klystron-5045, current through the primary winding of the pulse transformer (PT) continues to flow even upon the end of the klystron voltage operating pulse. This is determined by an energy stored in magnetizing inductance. The prolongation of magnetizing current passing process simultaneously with the premature choking of thyratron can cause high voltage of inverse polarity at the klystron, which cause the destruction of the cathode. We have considered the possibility of shortening time of magnetizing current passage for the charge of reasonable choice of clipper circuit parameters. The behavior of clipper circuit was studied in modulators used for the VEPP-5 (BINP, Russia) preinjector klystron power supply. The optimum operation run of the circuit was selected and its design features are described.

  16. Stabilizing Ferroresonance Oscillations in Voltage Transformers Using Limiter Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Radmanesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the multiple scales method and chaos theory for analyzing chaotic behavior of the voltage transformer (VT with linear core loss model. It is shown that ferroresonance phenomenon in VTs can be classified as chaotic dynamics, including a sequence of bifurcations such as period doubling bifurcation (PDB, saddle node bifurcation (SNB, Hopf Bifurcation (HB and chaos. Bifurcation diagrams and phase plane diagrams are drawn using a continuation method for linear core loss model and lyapunov exponents are obtained using the multiple scales method. At first an overview of the subject in the literature is provided. Then, ferroresonance phenomenon is introduced and its various types in a VT are simulated. Finally the effects of ferroresonance suppression circuit on stabilizing these oscillations are studied. The proposed approach is implemented using MATLAB, and simulation results are presented. The results show connecting the ferroresonance suppression circuit to the system configuration, causes great controlling effect on ferroresonance overvoltage.

  17. A combined noise analysis and power supply current based testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Pulendra, Vani K.; Yellampalli, Siva

    2005-05-01

    A technique integrating the noise analysis based testing and the conventional power supply current testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits is presented for bridging type faults due to manufacturing defects. The circuit under test (CUT) is a CMOS amplifier designed for operation at +/- 2.5 V and implemented in 1.5 μm CMOS process. The faults simulating possible manufacturing defects have been introduced using the fault injection transistors. The amplifier circuit is analyzed and simulated in SPICE for its performance with and without fault injections. The faults in the CUT are identified by observing the variation in the equivalent noise voltage at the output of CUT. In power supply current testing, the current (IPS) through the power supply voltage, VDD is measured under the application of an AC input stimulus. The effect of parametric variation is taken into consideration by determining the tolerance limit using the Monte-Carlo analysis. The fault is identified if the power supply current, IPS lies outside the deviation given by Monte-Carlo analysis. Simulation results are in close agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

  18. GEM voltage supply and real-time monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Karaventzas, Vasilios Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a GEM requires strong electrical fields that are able to initiate an electron avalanche. These electrical fields are generated by the application of high voltage in µm gaps. The scope of this project was to monitor the electrical parameters of the applied voltages, such as level and current flowing towards the detector. Therefore a real-time monitoring scheme was implemented. Additionally, a scheme for having all the voltages required for the operation of a GEM controllable, is proposed. The work conducted during this time-frame was targeted into developing the necessary parts for the operation of such device, whereas the integration of those into one functional circuit is to be conducted in a future work.

  19. 30 CFR 77.902 - Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902 Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits. On and after September 30, 1971, three-phase low- and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.511 - Low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution circuits and equipment; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.511 Low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution circuits and equipment; repair. No electrical work shall be performed on low-, medium-, or high-voltage distribution circuits or...

  1. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface....705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from the ground, any...

  2. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line...

  3. 30 CFR 75.803-1 - Maximum voltage ground check circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum voltage ground check circuits. 75.803-1 Section 75.803-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... § 75.803-1 Maximum voltage ground check circuits. The maximum voltage used for ground check...

  4. A novel voltage output integrated circuit temperature sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓波; 方志刚; 等

    2002-01-01

    The novel integrated circuit(IC) temperature sensor presented in this paper works similarly as a two-terminal Zener,has breakdown voltage directly proportional to Kelvin temperature at 10mV/℃,with typical error of less tha ±1.0℃ over a temperature range from-50℃to +120℃ .In addition to all the features that conventional IC temperature sensors have,the new device also has very low static power dissipation(0.5mW),low output impedance(less than 1Ω),execllent stability,high reproducibility,and high precision.The sensor's circuit design and layout are discussed in detail.Applications of the sensor include almost and type of temperature sensing over the range of -50℃-+125℃。The low impedance and linear output of the device make interfacing the readout or control circuitry especially easy.Due to the excellent performance and low cost of this sensor.more application of the sensor over wide temperature range are expected.

  5. Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu BIZON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.

  6. Analysis of power supply circuits for electroluminescent panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The electroluminescent panel is a light emitting device that requires for normal operations alternative voltages with peak to peak amplitudes in 100V… 300V range and frequencies in 100Hz … 2 kHz range. Its advantages, when compared with standard light sources like incandescent lamps, gas-discharge lamps or light emitting diodes (LEDs), are lower power consumption, flexible substrate and uniform light without observable luminous points. One disadvantage of electroluminescent panels is the complex power supply required to drive them, but the continuous improvement in passive and active integrated devices for switched mode power supplies will eventually solve this issue. The present paper studies different topologies for these power supplies and the effect of the electric parameters like the amplitude, frequency, waveform of the supplying voltage on the light emission and on power consumption for electroluminescent panels with different size and colors.

  7. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM).The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique.The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (Vth) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump.The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35μm EEPROM CMOS process.Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits.This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation.

  8. Study on the instantaneous protection reliability of low voltage circuit breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-guo; DU Tai-hang; LUO Yan-yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of enhancing the instantaneous protection reliability of low voltage circuit breakers and describes their main failure modes. The instantaneous failure mechanism of low voltage circuit breakers was analyzed so that measures to improve instantaneous protection reliability can be determined. Furthermore, the theory of the instantaneous characteristics Calibration device for low voltage circuit breakers and the method of eliminating the non-periodic component of test current are given in detail. Finally, the test results are presented.

  9. Digital-circuit analysis of short-gate tunnel FETs for low-voltage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Jing; Verhulst, Anne S.; Vandenberghe, William G.; Dehaene, Wim; Huang, Ru; Wang, Yangyuan; Groeseneken, Guido

    2011-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), with emphasis on short-gate TFETs, by simulation for low-power digital applications having a supply voltage lower than 0.5 V. A transient study shows that the tunneling current has a negligible contribution in charging and discharging the gate capacitance of TFETs. In spite of a higher resistance region in the short-gate TFET, the gate (dis)charging speed still meets low-voltage application requirements. A circuit analysis is performed on short-gate TFETs with different materials, such as Si, Ge and heterostructures in terms of voltage overshoot, delay, static power, energy consumption and energy delay product (EDP). These results are compared to MOSFET and full-gate TFET performance. It is concluded that short-gate heterostructure TFETs (Ge-source for nTFET, In0.6Ga0.4As-source for pTFET) are promising candidates to extend the supply voltage to lower than 0.5 V because they combine the advantage of a low Miller capacitance, due to the short-gate structures, and strong drive current in TFETs, due to the narrow bandgap material in the source. At a supply voltage of 0.4 V and for an EOT and channel length of 0.6 nm and 40 nm, respectively, a three-stage inverter chain based on short-gate heterostructure TFETs saves 40% energy consumption per cycle at the same delay and shows 60%-75% improvement of EDP at the same static power, compared to its full-gate counterpart. When compared to the MOSFET, better EDP can be achieved in the heterostructure TFET especially at low static power consumption.

  10. Equivalent realisation circuit for a class of non-ideal voltage-controlled memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saihu Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an equivalent realisation circuit with off-the-shelf components and devices is proposed, which can be used to equivalently implement a class of non-ideal voltage-controlled memristors. The mathematical models of the equivalent realisation circuit with three function arithmetic circuits are built and their fingerprints are analysed by the pinched hysteresis loops with bipolar periodic voltage stimuli. The numerical simulations are easily verified by experimental measurements, which indicate that when three function arithmetic circuits are linked, the equivalent realisation circuit can realise three non-ideal voltage-controlled memristors with different non-linearities.

  11. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-circuit making capacity of the circuit breaker is expressed in peak value and not in RMS value similar to breaking capacity. A series resistor or super-excitation is used to control the peak value of the short-circuit current in the equivalent test circuit. When using a series resistor, a higher rating of circuit breakers leads to a higher thermal capacity, thereby requiring additional space. Therefore, an effective, optimal design of the series resistor is essential. This paper proposes a method for reducing thermal capacity and selecting the optimal resistance to limit the making current by controlling the DC time constant of the test circuit.

  12. CMOS circuits for electromagnetic vibration transducers interfaces for ultra-low voltage energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Maurath, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Chip-integrated power management solutions are a must for ultra-low power systems. This enables not only the optimization of innovative sensor applications. It is also essential for integration and miniaturization of energy harvesting supply strategies of portable and autonomous monitoring systems. The book particularly addresses interfaces for energy harvesting, which are the key element to connect micro transducers to energy storage elements. Main features of the book are: - A comprehensive technology and application review, basics on transducer mechanics, fundamental circuit and control design, prototyping and testing, up to sensor system supply and applications. - Novel interfacing concepts - including active rectifiers, MPPT methods for efficient tracking of DC as well as AC sources, and a fully-integrated charge pump for efficient maximum AC power tracking at sub-100µW ultra-low power levels. The chips achieve one of widest presented operational voltage range in standard CMOS technology: 0.44V to over...

  13. A novel voltage output integrated circuit temperature sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓波; 赵梦恋; 严晓浪; 方志刚

    2002-01-01

    The novel integrated circuit (IC) temperature sensor presented in this paper works similarly as a two-terminal Zener, has breakdown voltage directly proportional to Kelvin temperature at 10 mV/℃, with typical error of less than ±1.0℃ over a temperature range from -50℃ to +125℃. In addition to all the features that conventional IC temperature sensors have, the new device also has very low static power dissipation ( 0.5 mW ) , low output impedance ( less than 1Ω), excellent stability, high reproducibility, and high precision. The sensor's circuit design and layout are discussed in detail. Applications of the sensor include almost any type of temperature sensing over the range of -50℃-+125℃. The low impedance and linear output of the device make interfacing the readout or control circuitry especially easy. Due to the excellent performance and low cost of this sensor, more applications of the sensor over wide temperature range are expected.

  14. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A.; Hunt, Thomas P.; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm2 in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip’s surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications. PMID:20625468

  15. Exploration of dual supply voltage logic synthesis in state-of-the-art ASIC design flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mahnke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual supply voltage scaling (DSVS for logiclevel power optimization at the has increasingly attracted attention over the last few years. However, mainly due to the fact that the most widely used design tools do not support this new technique, it has still not become an integral part of real-world design flows. In this paper, a novel logic synthesis methodology that enables DSVS while relying entirely on standard tools is presented. The key to this methodology is a suitably modeled dual supply voltage (DSV standard cell library. A basic evaluation of the methodology has been carried out on a number of MCNC benchmark circuits. In all these experiments, the results of state-of-the-art powerdriven single supply voltage (SSV logic synthesis have been used as references in order to determine the true additional benefit of DSVS. Compared with the results of SSV power optimization, additional power reductions of 10% on average have been achieved. The results prove the feasibility of the new approach and reveal its greater efficiency in comparison with a well-known dedicated DSVS algorithm. Finally, the methodology has been applied to an embedded microcontroller core in order to further explore the potentials and limitations of DSVS in an existing industrial design environment.

  16. High-Mixed-Voltage Analog and RF Circuit Techniques for Nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Pui-In

    2012-01-01

    This book presents high-/mixed-voltage analog and radio frequency (RF) circuit techniques for developing low-cost multistandard wireless receivers in nm-length CMOS processes.  Key benefits of high-/mixed-voltage RF and analog CMOS circuits are explained, state-of-the-art examples are studied, and circuit solutions before and after voltage-conscious design are compared. Three real design examples are included, which demonstrate the feasibility of high-/mixed-voltage circuit techniques.    Provides a valuable summary and real case studies of the state-of-the-art in high-/mixed-voltage circuits and systems; Includes novel high-/mixed-voltage analog and RF circuit techniques – from concept to practice; Describes the first high-voltage-enabled mobile-TVRF front-end in 90nm CMOS and the first mixed-voltage full-band mobile-TV Receiver in 65nm CMOS; Demonstrates the feasibility of high-/mixed-voltage circuit techniques with real design examples.  

  17. Analysis of Possibilities to Reduce the Voltages Induced in Multi-circuit and Multi-voltage Overhead Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Tarko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the issues of electromagnetic interactions in a four-circuit and dual-voltage power line. Such solutions are increasingly used in practice due to difficulties in land acquisition for the construction of new power lines. Lines of this type, however, have some disadvantages, incl. the electromagnetic interactions between the circuits and voltages induced as their consequence. These issues are considered in relation to an existing four-circuit, 110 kV and 15 kV line. Results of the studies of the interaction effects in a real system, and an analysis of selected ways to reduce the voltage induced in 15 kV line circuits are presented.

  18. A Simple Voltage Controlled Oscillator Using Bootstrap Circuits and NOR-RS Flip Flop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikla, Amphawan; Pongswatd, Sawai; Sasaki, Hirofumi; Fujimoto, Kuniaki; Yahara, Mitsutoshi

    This paper presents a simple and successful design for a voltage controlled oscillator. The proposed circuit is based on the use of two identical bootstrap circuits and a NOR-RS Flip Flop to generate wide-tunable sawtooth and square waves. Increasing control voltage linearly increases the output oscillation frequency. Experimental results verifying the performances of the proposed circuit are in agreement with the calculated values.

  19. Low Supply Bandgap Voltage Reference%低电压基准电压源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛静文; 陈廷乾; 陈诚; 任俊彦; 杨励

    2006-01-01

    A low power and high precision CMOS bandgap voltage reference circuit is presented. Prototype of the circuit is fabricated using the 0.18 μm CMOS process. It fulfills the first order PTAT (Proportion To Absolute Temperature) temperature curvature compensation with a good PSRR (Power Supply Rejection Ratio). The measured results of this circuit at 1.5 V show that the PSRR is 47 dB. And the output voltage varies from 1. 114-1. 117 V which is constant within 0. 269 % over the temperature range of 0 - 80 ℃. The power dissipation is 0.22 mW and the active area is 0. 057 mm2.%设计了一个低电源电压的高精密的CMOS带隙电压基准源,采用SMIC 0.18μm CMOS工艺.实现了一阶温度补偿,具有良好的电源抑制比.测试结果表明,在1.5 V电源电压下,电源抑制比为47 dB,在0~80℃的温度范围内,输出电压变化率为0.269%,功耗为0.22 mW,芯片核面积为0.057 mm2.

  20. Open circuit voltage characterization of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattipati, B.; Balasingam, B.; Avvari, G. V.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Several aspects of the open circuit voltage (OCV) characterization of Li-ion batteries as it applies to battery fuel gauging (BFG) in portable applications are considered in this paper. Accurate knowledge of the nonlinear relationship between the OCV and the state of charge (SOC) is required for adaptive SOC tracking during battery usage. BFG in portable applications requires this OCV-SOC characterization to meet additional constraints: (i) The OCV-SOC characterization has to be defined with a minimum number of parameters; (ii) It should be easily computable and invertible with few operations; and (iii) Computation of the model, its derivative and its inverse should be possible in a numerically stable way. With the help of OCV-SOC characterization data collected from 34 battery cells each at 16 different temperatures ranging from -25 °C to 50 °C, we present the following results in this paper: (a) A robust normalized OCV modeling approach that dramatically reduces the number of OCV-SOC parameters and as a result simplifies and generalizes the BFG across temperatures and aging, (b) Several novel functions for OCV modeling, (c) Efficient methods to simplify the computations of OCV functions, (d) Novel methods for OCV parameter estimation, and (e) A detailed performance analysis.

  1. A High Voltage Power Supply That Mitigates Current Reversals in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Ryan J.; Sarver, Scott A.; Sun, Liangliang; Brownell, Greg A.; Go, David B.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2017-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization typically employs two power supplies, one at each end of the capillary. One power supply is located at the proximal (injection) end of the capillary. The power supply located at the distal (detector) end of the capillary drives the electrospray. Electrophoresis is driven by the difference in potential between these power supplies. Separations that employ large capillary inner diameter, high conductivity background electrolyte, and high separation potentials generate higher current than that produced by the electrospray. Excess current flows through the electrospray power supply. Most power supplies are not designed to sink current, and the excess current will cause the electrospray voltage to deviate from its set point. We report a simple circuit to handle this excess current, allowing separations under a wide range of electrophoretic conditions.

  2. 电容降压式电路的设计原理%Design principle of capacitor-depressing-voltage circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海明; 杨国志; 李悦; 舒德泉

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the power transformer,capacitor-depressing-voltage circuit has a small size,economical and reliable power,high efficiency,so is often used.By analysis the circuit theory of capacitor-depressing-voltage DC power supply circuit under sinusoidal AC,this paper presented the three circuit schematic of capacitor-depressing-voltage DC power supply circuit,and summed up the conditions of use,component requirements,design parameters and notes about capacitor-depressing-voltage DC power supply circuit.%与电源变压器降压相比,电容降压具有电源体积小、经济、可靠、效率高等优点,所以常被使用.通过分析电容降压式直流电源电路在正弦交流电下的电路原理,给出三种电容降压式直流电源电路的原理图,并总结出设计电容降压式直流电源的使用条件、元器件要求、设计参数和注意事项.

  3. Combating the Reliability Challenge of GPU Register File at Low Supply Voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jingweijia; Song, Shuaiwen; Yan, Kaige; Fu, Xin; Marquez, Andres; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2016-09-11

    Supply voltage reduction is an effective approach to significantly reduce GPU energy consumption. As the largest on-chip storage structure, the GPU register file becomes the reliability hotspot that prevents further supply voltage reduction below the safe limit (Vmin) due to process variation effects. This work addresses the reliability challenge of the GPU register file at low supply voltages, which is an essential first step for aggressive supply voltage reduction of the entire GPU chip. We propose GR-Guard, an architectural solution that leverages long register dead time to enable reliable operations from unreliable register file at low voltages.

  4. Low Power, Reduced Dynamic Voltage Swing Domino Logic Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Salendra.Govindarajulu; Dr.T.Jayachandra Prasad; Rangappa, P

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic domino logic circuits are widely used in modern digital VLSI circuits. These dynamic circuits are often favoured in high performance designs because of the speed advantage offered over static CMOS logic circuits. The main drawbacks of dynamic logic are a lack of design automation, a decreased tolerance to noise and increased power dissipation. In this work, new reduced – swing domino logic techniques which provide significant low power dissipation as compared to traditional domino cir...

  5. CFD Simulation of Transonic Flow in High-Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage circuit breaker is an indispensable piece of equipment in the electric transmission and distribution systems. Transonic flow typically occurs inside breaking chamber during the current interruption, which determines the insulating characteristics of gas. Therefore, accurate compressible flow simulations are required to improve the prediction of the breakdown voltages in various test duties of high-voltage circuit breakers. In this work, investigation of the impact of the solvers on the prediction capability of the breakdown voltages in capacitive switching is presented. For this purpose, a number of compressible nozzle flow validation cases have been presented. The investigation is then further extended for a real high-voltage circuit breaker geometry. The correlation between the flow prediction accuracy and the breakdown voltage prediction capability is identified.

  6. Energy-aware Supply Voltage and Body Biasing Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Real-time Distributed Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUYajuan; WEIShaojun

    2005-01-01

    Technique of energy minimization by combining Dynamic voltage scheduling (DVS) and Adaptive body biasing voltage (ABB) method for distributed realtime system at design level is proposed. First, a simplified energy optimizing model is illustrated where the supply voltage or body biasing voltage is kept as constant according to each separated frequency region, thus calculation of exceeding equation is avoided. Divergence of simplified and analytic model within 5% indicates the accuracy of this model. Based on it, the proposed approach named LEVVS (Low energy supply voltage and body biasing voltage scheduling algorithm) explores space of minimizing energy consumption by finding optimal trade-off between dynamic and static energy. The corresponding optimal supply voltage and body biasing voltage are determined by an iterative method in which the supply voltage and body biasing voltage of tasks are adjusted according to the value of energy latency differential coefficient of each task and slack time distribution of the system. Experiments show that using LEVVS approach, 51% more average energy reduction can be obtained than employing DVS method alone. Furthermore the effects of switch capacitance and global slack on the energy saving efficiency of LEVVS are investigated. The smaller the global slack or average switch capacitance is, the more the energy saving of LEVVS compared with DVS is.

  7. 30 CFR 75.901 - Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits used underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of low- and medium-voltage three... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.901 Protection of low- and medium-voltage three-phase circuits used underground. (a) Low- and medium-voltage three-phase alternating-current...

  8. Unique Power Dense, Configurable, Robust, High-Voltage Power Supplies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Princeton Power will develop and deliver three small, lightweight 50 W high-voltage power supplies that have a configurable output voltage range from 500 to 50 kVDC....

  9. Note: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor high voltage pulse generation circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiwei; Wang, Pingshan

    2013-10-01

    We present two types of on-chip pulse generation circuits. The first is based on CMOS pulse-forming-lines (PFLs). It includes a four-stage charge pump, a four-stacked-MOSFET switch and a 5 mm long PFL. The circuit is implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. Pulses of ~1.8 V amplitude with ~135 ps duration on a 50 Ω load are obtained. The obtained voltage is higher than 1.6 V, the rated operating voltage of the process. The second is a high-voltage Marx generator which also uses stacked MOSFETs as high voltage switches. The output voltage is 11.68 V, which is higher than the highest breakdown voltage (~10 V) of the CMOS process. These results significantly extend high-voltage pulse generation capabilities of CMOS technologies.

  10. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... pulses at differential voltage levels of 60, 80 and 100 V, a frequency up to 5 MHz and a measured driving strength of 2.03 V/ns with the CMUT electrical model connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption at the ultrasound scanner operation...

  11. Analysis of crowbar action of high voltage DC power supply in the LHD ICRF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaodong [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Watari, T.; Seki, T.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Saito, K.

    1999-04-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating will be applied to the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the 2nd experimental campaign in 1998. The LHD ICRF system is characterised by its high power (up to 12 MW at final stage) and steady state operation for more than 30 minutes. One of the main R and D items was a high power and steady state transmitter. The RF transmitter system having a wide frequency range from 25 to 95 MHz was designed and fabricated. This report describes the analysis of the DC power supply that contains the crowbar circuit protecting the tetrode from the arcing inside the tube. The DC power supply of the transmitter is fed from the commercial AC electric line which also supply the power to the LHD helical and poloidal coil power supplies. The voltage drop of the commercial line when the ICRF crowbar action happened is the serious problem for all experimental system. This paper analyses the crowbar effect on the commercial line with and without leakage transformer between the step-up transformer of transmitter and the commercial line. (author)

  12. Optimal condition of memristance enhancement circuit using external voltage source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor provides nonlinear response in the current-voltage characteristic and the memristance is modulated using an external voltage source. We point out by solving nonlinear equations that an optimal condition of the external voltage source exists for maximizing the memristance in such modulation scheme. We introduce a linear function to describe the nonlinear time response and derive an important design guideline; a constant ratio of the frequency to the amplitude of the external voltage source maximizes the memristance. The analysis completely accounts for the memristance behavior.

  13. SOI-Based High-Voltage, High-Temperature Integrated Circuit Gate Driver for SiC-Based Power FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Mohammad A [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Blalock, Benjamin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Islam, Syed K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-based field effect transistors (FETs) are gaining popularity as switching elements in power electronic circuits designed for high-temperature environments like hybrid electric vehicle, aircraft, well logging, geothermal power generation etc. Like any other power switches, SiC-based power devices also need gate driver circuits to interface them with the logic units. The placement of the gate driver circuit next to the power switch is optimal for minimizing system complexity. Successful operation of the gate driver circuit in a harsh environment, especially with minimal or no heat sink and without liquid cooling, can increase the power-to-volume ratio as well as the power-to-weight ratio for power conversion modules such as a DC-DC converter, inverter etc. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit (IC) gate driver for SiC power FETs has been designed and fabricated using a commercially available 0.8-m, 2-poly and 3-metal bipolar-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-double diffused metal oxide semiconductor (DMOS) process. The prototype circuit-s maximum gate drive supply can be 40-V with peak 2.3-A sourcing/sinking current driving capability. Owing to the wide driving range, this gate driver IC can be used to drive a wide variety of SiC FET switches (both normally OFF metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and normally ON junction field effect transistor (JFET)). The switching frequency is 20-kHz and the duty cycle can be varied from 0 to 100-. The circuit has been successfully tested with SiC power MOSFETs and JFETs without any heat sink and cooling mechanism. During these tests, SiC switches were kept at room temperature and ambient temperature of the driver circuit was increased to 200-C. The circuit underwent numerous temperature cycles with negligible performance degradation.

  14. A Voltage Doubler Circuit to Extend the Soft-switching Range of Dual Active Bridge Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai;

    2017-01-01

    A voltage doubler circuit is realized to extend the soft-switching range of Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converters. No extra hardware is added to the DAB to form this circuit, since it is composed of the dc blocking capacitor and the low side full bridge converter, which already exist in DAB. With t...

  15. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground. 75.802 Section 75.802 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground. (a) Except as...

  16. Series-connected substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors with voltage-management circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; R Srinivasan; A K Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Cell voltage for a fully charged-substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor is about 2.3 V. Therefore, for applications requiring higher DC voltage, several of these ultracapacitors need to be connected in series. However, voltage distribution across each series-connected ultracapacitor tends to be uneven due to tolerance in capacitance and parasitic parallel-resistance values. Accordingly, voltage-management circuit is required to protect constituent ultracapacitors from exceeding their rated voltage. In this study, the design and characterization of the substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor with co-located terminals is discussed. Voltage-management circuit for the ultracapacitor is presented, and its effectiveness is validated experimentally.

  17. Interface circuit with adjustable bias voltage enabling maximum power point tracking of capacitive energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Lefeuvre, E.; Mathias, H.; Costa, F.

    2016-12-01

    The operation analysis of a new interface circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting with adjustable bias voltage is carried out in this paper. Two configurations determined by the open or closed states of an electronic switch are examined. The increase of the voltage across a biasing capacitor, occurring when the switch is open, is proved theoretically and experimentally. With the decrease of this biasing voltage which occurs naturally when the switch is closed due to imperfections of the circuit, the bias voltage can be maintained close to a target value by appropriate ON and OFF control of the switch. As the energy converted by the variable capacitor on each cycle depends on the bias voltage, this energy can be therefore accurately controlled. This feature opens up promising perspectives for optimization the power harvested by electrostatic devices. Simulation results with and without electromechanical coupling effect are presented. In experimental tests, a simple switch control enabling to stabilize the bias voltage is described.

  18. A CMOS frontend chip for implantable neural recording with wide voltage supply range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialin, Liu; Xu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Hu; Yatao, Guo; Peng, Li; Ming, Liu; Bin, Li; Hongda, Chen

    2015-10-01

    A design for a CMOS frontend integrated circuit (chip) for neural signal acquisition working at wide voltage supply range is presented in this paper. The chip consists of a preamplifier, a serial instrumental amplifier (IA) and a cyclic analog-to-digital converter (CADC). The capacitive-coupled and capacitive-feedback topology combined with MOS-bipolar pseudo-resistor element is adopted in the preamplifier to create a -3 dB upper cut-off frequency less than 1 Hz without using a ponderous discrete device. A dual-amplifier instrumental amplifier is used to provide a low output impedance interface for ADC as well as to boost the gain. The preamplifier and the serial instrumental amplifier together provide a midband gain of 45.8 dB and have an input-referred noise of 6.7 μVrms integrated from 1 Hz to 5 kHz. The ADC digitizes the amplified signal at 12-bits precision with a highest sampling rate of 130 kS/s. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) of the ADC is 8.7 bits. The entire circuit draws 165 to 216 μA current from the supply voltage varied from 1.34 to 3.3 V. The prototype chip is fabricated in the 0.18-μm CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.23 mm2 (including pads). In-vitro recording was successfully carried out by the proposed frontend chip. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474107, 61372060, 61335010, 61275200, 61178051) and the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-L11-01).

  19. Voltage-Mode All-Pass Filters Including Minimum Component Count Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two new first-order voltage-mode all-pass filters using a single-current differencing buffered amplifier and four passive components. Each circuit is compatible to a current-controlled current differencing buffered amplifier with only two passive elements, thus resulting in two more circuits, which employ a capacitor, a resistor, and an active element, thus using a minimum of active and passive component counts. The proposed circuits possess low output impedance, and hence can be easily cascaded for voltage-mode systems. PSPICE simulation results are given to confirm the theory.

  20. Determination of appropriate DC voltage for switched mode power supply (SMPS) loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Eko Adhi; Setiawan, Aiman; Purnomo, Andri; Djamal, Muchlishah Hadi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, most of modern and efficient household electronic devices operated based on Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) technology which convert AC voltage from the grid to DC voltage. Based on theory and experiment, SMPS loads could be supplied by DC voltage. However, the DC voltage rating to energize electronic home appliances is not standardized yet. This paper proposed certain method to determine appropriate DC voltage, and investigated comparison of SMPS power consumption which is supplied from AC and DC voltage. To determine the appropriate DC voltage, lux value of several lamps which have same specification energized by using AC voltage and the results is using as reference. Then, the lamps were supplied by various DC voltage to obtain the trends of the lux value to the applied DC voltage. After that, by using the trends and the reference lux value, the appropriate DC voltage can be determined. Furthermore, the power consumption on home appliances such as mobile phone, laptop and personal computer by using AC voltage and the appropriate DC voltage were conducted. The results show that the total power consumption of AC system is higher than DC system. The total power (apparent power) consumed by the lamp, mobile phone and personal computer which operated in 220 VAC were 6.93 VA, 34.31 VA and 105.85 VA respectively. On the other hand, under 277 VDC the load consumption were 5.83 W, 19.11 W and 74.46 W respectively.

  1. Failures’ Study of a New Character Three-Phase High Voltage Supply for industrial Microwave Generators with one magnetrons per Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Batit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article treats the development of one of the equivalent electrical models for a single phase power supply for one magnetron; in particular that of its own high voltage (HV transformer newly dimensioned. This single phase system supplies a voltage doubler and current stabilizer circuit, which supplies a single magnetron. Then, by star connecting the three identical models of the single-phase power supply for one magnetron, we obtain a new character three-phase high voltage power supply for industrial microwave generators with one magnetron per phase. The simulation with EMTP (Electro Magnetic Transcients Program in nominal operation has given the theoretical results close to the experimental measurements. Finally, the magnetrons’ failure of the microwave generator was also treated and allowed to observe the interaction’s influence between magnetrons; also the regulation of the anode current has been achieved successfully.

  2. Comparative Performance Analysis of XOR-XNOR Function Based High-Speed CMOS Full Adder Circuits For Low Voltage VLSI Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Tiwari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative study of high-speed, low-power and low voltage full adder circuits. Our approach is based on XOR-XNOR design full adder circuits in a single unit. A low power and high performance 9T full adder cell using a design style called “XOR (3T” is discussed. The designed circuit commands a high degree of regularity and symmetric higher density than the conventional CMOS design style as well as it lowers power consumption by using XOR (3T logic circuits. Gate Diffusion Input (GDI technique of low-power digital combinatorial circuit design is also described. This technique helps inreducing the power consumption and the area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. This paper analyses, evaluates and compares the performance of various adder circuits. Severalsimulations conducted using different voltage supplies, load capacitors and temperature variation demonstrate the superiority of the XOR (3T based full adder designs in term of delay, power and powerdelay product (PDP compared to the other full adder circuits. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the designed adder circuits against the conventional CMOS, TG and Hybrid full adder circuits in terms of power, delay and power delay product (PDP.

  3. Analysis and calculation of lightning-induced voltages in aircraft electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques to calculate the transfer functions relating lightning-induced voltages in aircraft electrical circuits to aircraft physical characteristics and lightning current parameters are discussed. The analytical work was carried out concurrently with an experimental program of measurements of lightning-induced voltages in the electrical circuits of an F89-J aircraft. A computer program, ETCAL, developed earlier to calculate resistive and inductive transfer functions is refined to account for skin effect, providing results more valid over a wider range of lightning waveshapes than formerly possible. A computer program, WING, is derived to calculate the resistive and inductive transfer functions between a basic aircraft wing and a circuit conductor inside it. Good agreement is obtained between transfer inductances calculated by WING and those reduced from measured data by ETCAL. This computer program shows promise of expansion to permit eventual calculation of potential lightning-induced voltages in electrical circuits of complete aircraft in the design stage.

  4. Short-circuit protection of LLC resonant converter using voltages across resonant tank elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Igorovych Zaikin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for the short-circuit protection of the LLC resonant converter. One of them uses the voltage across the capacitor and the other uses the voltage across the inductor of the resonant tank. These voltages can be processed (integrated or differentiated to recover the resonant tank current. The two circuits illustrated in the described methods make it possible to develop a robust LLC converter design and to avoid using lossy current measurement elements, such as a shunt resistor or current transformer. The methods also allow measuring resonant tank current without breaking high-current paths and connecting the measuring circuit in parallel with the inductor or capacitor of the resonant tank. Practical implementations of these indirect current measurements have been experimentally tested for the short-circuit protection of the 1600 W LLC converter.

  5. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... conditions is 0.936 mW including the load. The integrated circuits measured prove to be consistent and robust to local process variations by measurements....

  6. Maximum Output Power Control Using Short-Circuit Current and Open-Circuit Voltage of a Solar Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takahiro; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Otsubo, Masahisa; Hombu, Mitsuyuki

    2012-10-01

    A control method to optimize the output power of a solar cell is necessary because the output of a solar cell strongly depends on solar radiation. We here proposed two output power control methods using the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of a solar panel. One of them used a current ratio and a voltage ratio (αβ control), and the other used a current ratio and a short-circuit current-electric power characteristic coefficient (αγ control). The usefulness of the αβ and the αγ control methods was evaluated. The results showed that the output power controlled by our proposed methods was close to the maximum output power of a solar panel.

  7. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage, resistance grounded systems shall include a fail safe ground check circuit or other no less effective device... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on...

  8. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. 75.803 Section 75.803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance...

  9. Effect of Circuit Breaker Shunt Resistance on Chaotic Ferroresonance in Voltage Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADMANESH, H.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroresonance or nonlinear resonance is a complex electrical phenomenon, which may cause over voltages and over currents in the electrical power system which endangers the system reliability and continuous safe operating. This paper studies the effect of circuit breaker shunt resistance on the control of chaotic ferroresonance in a voltage transformer. It is expected that this resistance generally can cause ferroresonance dropout. For confirmation this aspect Simulation has been done on a one phase voltage transformer rated 100VA, 275kV. The magnetization characteristic of the transformer is modeled by a single-value two-term polynomial with q=7. The simulation results reveal that considering the shunt resistance on the circuit breaker, exhibits a great mitigating effect on ferroresonance over voltages. Significant effect on the onset of chaos, the range of parameter values that may lead to chaos along with ferroresonance voltages has been obtained and presented.

  10. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sohbatzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed and saw tooth high voltage shapes at 8 KHZ. At first; we describe the electronic circuit features for generating high voltage (HV wave forms including saw tooth, sinusoidal and pulsed forms. Then, we consider the effect of voltage shape on the electrical breakdown. Relative concentrations of chemical reactive species such as Oxygen, atomic Nitrogen and OH were measured using optical emission spectroscopy. Using a simple numerical model, we showed a HV with less rise time increases electron density, therefore a cold plasma jet can be produced with a minimal consumption electrical power

  11. A Protection Circuit for DC-DC Converter with Voltage Doubler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Elangovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain a protected voltage gain by employing a protection circuit for the voltage doubler or multiplier circuit in an isolated tyde DC-DC Converter. The entire set up consists of a phase shift converter with a protected bridge/voltage doubler rectifier on the output side. The operating frequency of the phase shift converter is 20-25kHz (depending on the requirement of the application which is high enough to improve the efficiency. Ferrite core transformer is used in place of ordinary air core transformer, which is small in size with number of turns of the transformer is reduced and the overall power density is increased. The doubler circuit consists of electrolytic capacitors, which are rated at 400V in order to comply with IEC65 requirements. This paper proposes an “electrolytic capacitor protection circuit”, which enables the voltage rating of the electrolytics to be reduced to 250V. This circuit results in cost savings of more than 50% in the price of the electrolytic filter capacitors. The circuits were simulated using PSPICE SOFTWARE and the following results were obtained. For an input voltage of 200V, an output of 200V and400V were obtained in bridge mode and doubler mode respectively.

  12. Simulation Analysis for Opening Performance of Medium Voltage Vacuum Circuit Breaker Based on ADAMS and Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xianliang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuit breakers play a important role in control and protect the power systemand the vacuum circuit breaker has beenwidely used in the field of medium voltage with its excellent opening performance.Virtual prototyping technology is alsobecamemore and more popularin design and optimization of the vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, the electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft Maxwell is used to analyze the electric repulsion of the circuit breaker in the case of open the rated short circuit breaking current. The 3D model that wasbuilt by CREOis imported into ADAMS. Thenconstraints, contact force, and the electric repulsion forcethat was analysezed in Ansoft Maxwell is added into the 3D model.Therefore, we can carry on the multi-body dynamics simulation to the 3D model. Then We can get the openingperformance of the vacuum circuit breakerin the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current. The simulation results show that the circuit breaker can still meet the performance requirements in the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current.

  13. On-line Monitoring System based on Vibration Signal of High Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High voltage circuit breaker is one of the most important switch apparatus in electrical power system. It play a role in the switch control, which can be used to switch the operating mode during normal operation (the equipment run or quit. In order to ensure the normal operation of the grid, it can be removed quickly when a malfunction on the device or circuit. Real-time online monitoring of high voltage circuit breaker can understand the running status, master the operation characteristics and its tend of development. As early as possible find the potential faults then take preventive measures timely, so as to ensure the reliable operation of power system. Online monitoring of high voltage circuit breakers can reduce the premature or unnecessary maintenance and maintenance cost, improve pertinence of the maintenance firstly. Secondly, it can improve the life of the switching device and improve the reliability of electric power system significantly. In this paper, on-line monitoring system based on vibration signal of high voltage circuit breaker is presented

  14. Nonfullerene Tandem Organic Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage of 1.97 V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenqing; Li, Shuixing; Huang, Jiang; Yang, Shida; Chen, Jiehuan; Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Minmin; Zhan, Xiaowei; Li, Chang-Zhi; Chen, Hongzheng

    2016-11-01

    Small-molecule nonfullerene-based tandem organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated for the first time by utilizing P3HT:SF(DPPB)4 and PTB7-Th:IEIC bulk heterojunctions as the front and back subcells, respectively. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% is achieved with an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 1.97 V, which is the highest voltage value reported to date among efficient tandem OSCs.

  15. Design and implementation of improved LsCpLp resonant circuit for power supply for high-power electromagnetic acoustic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, Yongming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Xinglan; Hou, Shuaicheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of an improved series-parallel inductor-capacitor-inductor (LsCpLp) resonant circuit power supply for excitation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The main advantage of the proposed resonant circuit is the absence of a high-permeability dynamic transformer. A high-frequency pulsating voltage gain can be achieved through a double resonance phenomenon. Both resonant tailing behavior and higher harmonics are suppressed by the improved resonant circuit, which also contributes to the generation of ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the proposed circuit can realize impedance matching and can also optimize the transduction efficiency. The complete design and implementation procedure for the power supply is described and has been validated by implementation of the proposed power supply to drive a portable EMAT. The circuit simulation results show close agreement with the experimental results and thus confirm the validity of the proposed topology. The proposed circuit is suitable for use as a portable EMAT excitation power supply that is fed by a low-voltage source.

  16. Operating Circuit Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breaker%高压断路器操作回路的故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红宇; 龙树峰

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes and studies the fault diagnosis operation requirements of high voltage circuit breaker operation circuit and the fault diagnosis method of high voltage circuit breaker.%本文对高压断路器操作回路的故障诊断操作要求和高压断路器操作回路的故障诊断方法进行了分析和研究。

  17. Complemenary body driving - a low voltage analog circuit technique for SOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, M. M.; Terry, S.; Blalock, B. J.; Yong, L.; Dufrene, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several analog circuit primitives that utilize the body terminal as a signal port. A cascode current mirror that can operate with an input and output voltage of 200 mV; and a rail-to-rail, constant transconductance gain block capable of 1 V operation are presented. These circuits have been implemented in a standard 0.351 partially-depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (PDSOI) CMOS process and should find wide application in next-generation analog circuit designs.

  18. Simple buck/boost voltage regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, J.; Rodriguez, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit corrects low or high supply voltage, produces regulated output voltage. Circuit has fewer components because inductory/transformer combination and pulse-width modulator serve double duty. Regulator handles input voltage variation from as low as one half output voltage to as high as input transistor rating. Solar arrays, fuel cells, and thermionic generators might use this regulator.

  19. Battery open-circuit voltage estimation by a method of statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snihir, Iryna; Rey, William; Verbitskiy, Evgeny; Belfadhel-Ayeb, Afifa; Notten, Peter H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The basic task of a battery management system (BMS) is the optimal utilization of the stored energy and minimization of degradation effects. It is critical for a BMS that the state-of-charge (SoC) be accurately determined. Open-circuit voltage (OCV) is directly related to the state-of-charge of the

  20. Transistorized Marx bank pulse circuit provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E. A.; Lewis, R. N.

    1968-01-01

    Base-triggered avalanche transistor circuit used in a Marx bank pulser configuration provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time. The avalanche-mode transistors replace conventional spark gaps in the Marx bank. The delay time from an input signal to the output signal to the output is typically 6 nanoseconds.

  1. Bi-directional high-side current sense circuit for switch mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Bruun, Erik; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2014-01-01

    and secondary sides of the transformer which is internally implemented inside the transformer. Therefore, curren t must be measured from the high voltage line in the presence of hig h input switching voltage. This paper proposes a resistive current s ensing circuit based on discrete components useful for input...

  2. Improvement of high-voltage staircase drive circuit waveform for high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Jimbo, Hayato; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, noninvasive or low-invasive modality, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), has been put into practice as an alternative to open surgery. HIFU induces thermal ablation of the target tissue to be treated. To improve the efficiency of HIFU, we have proposed a “triggered-HIFU” technique, which uses the combination of a short-duration, high-voltage transmission and a long-duration, medium-voltage transmission. In this method, the transmission device must endure high peak voltage for the former and the high time-average power for the latter. The triggered-HIFU sequence requires electronic scanning of the HIFU focus to maximize its thermal efficiency. Therefore, the transmission device must drive an array transducer with the number of elements on the order of a hundred or more, which requires that each part of the device that drives each element must be compact. The purpose of this work is to propose and construct such a transmission device by improving the staircase drive circuit, which we previously proposed. The main point of improvement is that both N and P MOSFETs are provided for each staircase voltage level instead of only one of them. Compared with the previous ultrasonic transmission circuit, high-voltage spikes were significantly reduced, the power consumption was decreased by 26.7%, and the transmission circuit temperature rise was decreased by 14.5 °C in the triggered-HIFU heating mode.

  3. Effect of voltage sags on digitally controlled line connected switched-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Different voltage disorders like voltage fluctuations, sags, frequency variations may occur in the power supply networks due to different fault conditions. These deviations from normal operation affects in different ways the line connected devices. Standards were developed to protect and ensure i...

  4. Five-Level Converter with Low Switching Frequency Applied as DC Voltage Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multi-level converter as a DC supply. Equations for the converter will be deduced in the nondissipative case. The equations provide solutions to DC voltage and the angle of converter voltage. In addition the spectrum for the harmonics after the elimination...

  5. Low voltage logic circuits exploiting gate level dynamic body biasing in 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taco, Ramiro; Levi, Itamar; Lanuzza, Marco; Fish, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the recently proposed gate level body bias (GLBB) technique is evaluated for low voltage logic design in state-of-the-art 28 nm ultra-thin body and box (UTBB) fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology. The inherent benefits of the low-granularity body-bias control, provided by the GLBB approach, are emphasized by the efficiency of forward body bias (FBB) in the FD-SOI technology. In addition, the possibility to integrate PMOS and NMOS devices into a single common well configuration allows significant area reduction, as compared to an equivalent triple well implementation. Some arithmetic circuits were designed using GLBB approach and compared to their conventional CMOS and DTMOS counterparts under different running conditions at low voltage regime. Simulation results shows that, for 300 mV of supply voltage, a 4 × 4-bit GLBB Baugh Wooley multiplier allows performance improvement of about 30% and area reduction of about 35%, while maintaining low energy consumption as compared to the conventional CMOS ⧹ DTMOS solutions. Performance and energy benefits are maintained over a wide range of process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations.

  6. Simulative and experimental investigation on stator winding turn and unbalanced supply voltage fault diagnosis in induction motors using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Negin; Poshtan, Javad; Azgomi, Hamid Fekri

    2015-11-01

    The three-phase shift between line current and phase voltage of induction motors can be used as an efficient fault indicator to detect and locate inter-turn stator short-circuit (ITSC) fault. However, unbalanced supply voltage is one of the contributing factors that inevitably affect stator currents and therefore the three-phase shift. Thus, it is necessary to propose a method that is able to identify whether the unbalance of three currents is caused by ITSC or supply voltage fault. This paper presents a feedforward multilayer-perceptron Neural Network (NN) trained by back propagation, based on monitoring negative sequence voltage and the three-phase shift. The data which are required for training and test NN are generated using simulated model of stator. The experimental results are presented to verify the superior accuracy of the proposed method.

  7. Modeling of the Voltage Waves in the LHC Main Dipole Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Formenti, F; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A

    2012-01-01

    When a fast power abort is triggered in the LHC main dipole chain, voltage transients are generated at the output of the power converter and across the energy-extraction switches. The voltage waves propagate through the chain of 154 superconducting dipoles and can have undesired effects leading to spurious triggering of the quench protection system and firing of the quench heaters. The phase velocity of the waves travelling along the chain changes due to the inhomogeneous AC behavior of the dipoles. Furthermore, complex phenomena of reflection and superposition are present in the circuit. For these reasons analytical calculations are not sufficient for properly analyzing the circuit behavior after a fast power abort. The transients following the switch-off of the power converter and the opening of the switches are analyzed by means of a complete electrical model, developed with the Cadence© suite (PSpice© based). The model comprises all the electrical components of the circuit, additional components simula...

  8. A kind of output voltage compensation design of low-voltage and high-current dc power supply%一种低压大电流直流电源的输出电压补偿设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢记华; 张锦鹏; 王金芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a kind of low-voltage&high-current power supply designed by VICOR DC-DC converter, Through sampling the loading point voltage and applying feedback circuit to adjust the voltage of converter to compensate the drop of the load in high current transmission, so as to achieve the stability of loading point voltage. This paper analyses the basic principle of compensation circuit in detail, introduces the component selection method and proves the feasibility of the circuit by designing and testing voltage compensation circuit.%文中基于一种采用VICOR DC-DC转换器设计的低压大电流直流电源,通过采样负载点电压,外加反馈电路来调节转换器输出电压,以补偿在大电流传输时负载线上的电压降,从而达到稳定负载点电压的目的。本文详细分析了电压补偿电路的原理,介绍了元器件选择方法,并通过电压补偿电路的设计和测试验证了该电路的可行性。

  9. Design and validation of a high-voltage levitation circuit for electrostatic accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Wu, S C; Zhou, Z B; Bai, Y Z; Hu, M; Luo, J

    2013-12-01

    A simple high-voltage circuit with a voltage range of 0 to 900 V and an open-loop bandwidth of 11 kHz is realized by using an operational amplifier and a MOSFET combination. The circuit is used for the levitation of a test mass of 71 g, suspended below the top-electrodes with a gap distance of 57 μm, so that the performance of an electrostatic accelerometer can be tested on the ground. The translation noise of the accelerometer, limited by seismic noise, is about 4 × 10(-8) m/s(2)/Hz(1/2) at 0.1 Hz, while the high-voltage coupling noise is one-order of magnitude lower.

  10. Thermodynamic derivation of open circuit voltage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, Michal; Wandschneider, Frank; Mazur, Petr

    2015-10-01

    Open circuit voltage of vanadium redox flow batteries is carefully calculated using equilibrium thermodynamics. This analysis reveals some terms in the Nernst relation which are usually omitted in literature. Due to the careful thermodynamic treatment, all uncertainties about the form of Nernst relation are removed except for uncertainties in activity coefficients of particular species. Moreover, it is shown (based again on equilibrium thermodynamics) that batteries with anion-exchange membranes follow different Nernst relation than batteries with cation-exchange membranes. The difference is calculated, and it is verified experimentally that the formula for anion-exchange membranes describes experiments with anion-exchange membranes better than the corresponding formula for cation-exchange membranes. In summary, careful thermodynamic calculation of open circuit voltage of vanadium redox flow batteries is presented, and the difference between voltage for anion-exchange and cation-exchange membranes is revealed.

  11. Effect of polymer aggregation on the open circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells: aggregation-induced conjugated polymer gel and its application for preventing open circuit voltage drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong; Park, Hui Joon; Bilby, David; Guo, L Jay; Kim, Jinsang

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the structure-dependent aggregation behavior of conjugated polymers and the effect of aggregation on the device performance of conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells, new conjugated polymers (PVTT and CN-PVTT) having the same regioregularity but different intermolecular packing were prepared and characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Photovoltaic devices were prepared with these polymers under different polymer-aggregate conditions. Polymer aggregation induced by thermal annealing increases the short circuit current but provides no advantage in the overall power conversion efficiency because of a decrease in the open circuit voltage. The device fabricated from a pre-aggregated polymer suspension, acquired from ultrasonic agitation of a conjugated polymer gel, showed enhanced performance because of better phase separation and reduced recombination between polymer/PCBM.

  12. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages. Part II: Fault loop impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. In this paper, the fault loop impedance of combined faults is compared with the fault loop impedance...... of single-phase-to-ground faults at the higher voltage level of the multiple-circuit line and it is demonstrated that they are similar for high short-circuit powers; however, the fault loop impedance of a combined fault may increase substantially as the short-circuit power of the system decreases......-phase-to-ground faults are also capable of protecting the line against combined faults, being only advisable to increase the resistive limit of the protection zone if the network has lower short-circuit power. If the length of the line at lower voltage level is less than of the lien at higher voltage level...

  13. Temperature- and supply voltage-independent time references for wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    De Smedt, Valentijn; Dehaene, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the possible circuit solutions to overcome the temperature- and supply voltage-sensitivity of fully-integrated time references for ultra-low-power communication in wireless sensor networks. The authors provide an elaborate theoretical introduction and literature study to enable full understanding of the design challenges and shortcomings of current oscillator implementations.  Furthermore, a closer look to the short-term as well as the long-term frequency stability of integrated oscillators is taken. Next, a design strategy is developed and applied to 5 different oscillator topologies and 1 sensor interface.All 6 implementations are subject to an elaborate study of frequency stability, phase noise, and power consumption. In the final chapter all blocks are compared to the state of the art. The main goals of this book are: • to provide a comprehensive overview of timing issues and solutions in wireless sensor networks; • to gain understanding of all underlying mechanisms by starti...

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  15. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  16. Anomalous open-circuit voltage from a high-Tc superconducting dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumby, C. W.; Jiang, Zhenan; Storey, J. G.; Pantoja, A. E.; Badcock, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the behavior of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) homopolar dynamo which outputs a DC open-circuit voltage when the stator is in the superconducting state, but behaves as a conventional AC alternator when the stator is in the normal state. We observe that this time-averaged DC voltage arises from a change in the shape of the AC voltage waveform that is obtained from a normal conducting stator. The measured DC voltage is proportional to frequency, and decreases with increasing flux gap between the rotor magnet and the HTS stator wire. We observe that the DC output voltage decreases to zero at large flux gaps, although small differences between the normal-conducting and superconducting waveforms are still observed, which we attribute to screening currents in the HTS stator wire. Importantly, the normalised pulse shape is found to be a function of the rotor position angle only. Based on these observations, we suggest that the origin of this unexpected DC effect can be explained by a model first proposed by Giaever, which considers the impact of time-varying circulating eddy currents within the HTS stator wire. Such circulating currents form a superconducting shunt path which "short-circuits" the high field region directly beneath the rotor magnet, at those points in the cycle when the rotor magnet partially overlaps the superconducting stator wire. This reduces the output voltage from the device during these periods of the rotor cycle, leading to partial rectification of the output voltage waveform and hence the emergence of a time-averaged DC voltage.

  17. Flexible and low-voltage integrated circuits constructed from high-performance nanocrystal transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David K; Lai, Yuming; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as a new class of solution-processable materials for low-cost, flexible, thin-film electronics. Although these colloidal inks have been shown to form single, thin-film field-effect transistors with impressive characteristics, the use of multiple high-performance nanocrystal field-effect transistors in large-area integrated circuits has not been shown. This is needed to understand and demonstrate the applicability of these discrete nanocrystal field-effect transistors for advanced electronic technologies. Here we report solution-deposited nanocrystal integrated circuits, showing nanocrystal integrated circuit inverters, amplifiers and ring oscillators, constructed from high-performance, low-voltage, low-hysteresis CdSe nanocrystal field-effect transistors with electron mobilities of up to 22 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), current modulation >10(6) and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V dec(-1). We fabricated the nanocrystal field-effect transistors and nanocrystal integrated circuits from colloidal inks on flexible plastic substrates and scaled the devices to operate at low voltages. We demonstrate that colloidal nanocrystal field-effect transistors can be used as building blocks to construct complex integrated circuits, promising a viable material for low-cost, flexible, large-area electronics.

  18. Pressure and Arc Voltage Measurement in a 252 kV SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jianying; GUO Yujing; ZHANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    The pressure distribution in an arcing chamber is critically important for the SF6 puffer circuit breaker design.In this paper,the pressure variation of four locations in the nozzle was measured by piezoresistive and fiber optical pressure sensors at two current levels of 10 kA and 50 kA.An arc voltage measurement was also taken.The results demonstrate that using either type of sensor with a connecting tube is able to detect the fast pressure variation in circuit breakers,however the possible distortion and delay to the pressure transient caused by the tube need further study.

  19. FEA identification of high order generalized equivalent circuits for MF high voltage transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Candolfi, Sylvain; Cros, Jérôme; Aguglia, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a specific methodology to derive high order generalized equivalent circuits from electromagnetic finite element analysis for high voltage medium frequency and pulse transformers by splitting the main windings in an arbitrary number of elementary windings. With this modeling approach, the dynamic model of the transformer over a large bandwidth is improved and the order of the generalized equivalent circuit can be adapted to a specified bandwidth. This efficient tool can be used by the designer to quantify the influence of the local structure of transformers on their dynamic behavior. The influence of different topologies and winding configurations is investigated. Several application examples and an experimental validation are also presented.

  20. Pressure and Arc Voltage Measurement in a 252 kV SF6 Puffer Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianying; Guo, Yujing; Zhang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    The pressure distribution in an arcing chamber is critically important for the SF6 puffer circuit breaker design. In this paper, the pressure variation of four locations in the nozzle was measured by piezoresistive and fiber optical pressure sensors at two current levels of 10 kA and 50 kA. An arc voltage measurement was also taken. The results demonstrate that using either type of sensor with a connecting tube is able to detect the fast pressure variation in circuit breakers, however the possible distortion and delay to the pressure transient caused by the tube need further study.

  1. Evaluation and Simulation of Black-box Arc Models for High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Niklas

    2004-01-01

    The task for this Master thesis was to evaluate different black-box arc models for circuit-breakers with the purpose of finding criteria for the breaking ability. A black-box model is a model that requires no knowledge from the user of the underlying physical processes. Black-box arc models have been used in circuit-breaker development for many years. Arc voltages from tests made in the High Power Laboratory in Ludvika were used for validation, along with the resistance calculated at current ...

  2. Simulation of the Effects of Several Factors on Arc Plasma Behavior in Low Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the properties of the arc plasma and the electromagnetic, heat and radiative phenomena, commercial computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS has been adapted and modified to develop the three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD)model of arc in a low voltage circuit breaker. The effects of the arc ignition location, venting size and gassing material on arc behavior have been investigated. The analysis of the results show that the arc velocity accelerates with the increase in the distance between arc ignition location and of the venting size, and the existence of the gassing material is beneficial to improving the arc voltage and reducing the arc temperature.

  3. A test technique for measuring lightning-induced voltages on aircraft electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a test technique used for the measurement of lightning-induced voltages in the electrical circuits of a complete aircraft is described. The resultant technique utilizes a portable device known as a transient analyzer capable of generating unidirectional current impulses similar to lightning current surges, but at a lower current level. A linear relationship between the magnitude of lightning current and the magnitude of induced voltage permitted the scaling up of measured induced values to full threat levels. The test technique was found to be practical when used on a complete aircraft.

  4. Design to conditioning circuits of dynamic compensation of reactive power in the intelligence voltage controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The paper introduces one design idea that making use of SCM to control Real-timely the dynamic compensation of reactive power.Firstly,design one Circuit to Sample the voltage and current,and by these datas we can easily calculate the power factor,and Voltage controller in the microcontroller to determine whether input the compensation capacitance according to the size of power factor,the paper also analyzes the principle of capacitance compensation and calculation method. Dynamic compensation for the entire process is quick and accurate.

  5. Development of high voltage power supply for the KSTAR 170 GHz ECH and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J.H., E-mail: jhjeong@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Y.S.; Joung, M.; Kim, H.J.; Park, S.I.; Han, W.S.; Kim, J.S.; Yang, H.L.; Kwak, J.G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sakamoto, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Oda, Y.; Hayashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • A 3.6 MW (−66 kV/55 A) gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH system in KSTAR. • The main power supply includes a total of 32 PSM based HV power supply modules. • The voltage regulation of individual HV power module and LV power module is 3 kV and 0.5 kV, respectively. • The gyrotron is protected by means of a fast solid-state switch (MOS-FET). • The HV switching system can turn off the 60 kV to the cathode within 3 μs in the event of gyrotron faults. -- Abstract: A 3.6 MW (66 kV/55 A) DC power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz EC H and CD system in KSTAR. The power supply system consists of a cathode power supply (CPS), an anode power supply (APS) and a body power supply (BPS). The cathode power supply is capable of supplying a maximum voltage of −66 kV and a current of 55 A to the cathode with respect to the collector using pulse step modulation (PSM). The high voltage switching system for the cathode is made by a fast MOS-FET solid-state switch which can turn off the high voltage to the cathode within 3 μs in the occurrence of gyrotron faults. The APS is a voltage divider system consisting of a fixed resistor and zener diode units with the capability of 60 kV stand-off voltage. The anode voltage with respect to the cathode is controlled in a range of 0–60 kV by turning the MOS-FET switches connected in parallel to each zener diode on and off. For high frequency current modulation of the gyrotron, the parallel discharge switch is introduced between the cathode and anode in order to clamp the charged voltage in the stray capacitance. The BPS is a DC power supply with the capability of 50 kV/160 mA. The nominal operation parameter of BPS was 23 kV and 10 mA, respectively, and the voltage output is regulated with a stability of 0.025% of the rated voltage. The series MOS-FET solid-state switch is used for on/off modulation in the body voltage sychronizing with anode voltage. The parallel discharge

  6. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J.; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-01

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  7. Origin of the high open circuit voltage in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells: Role of the reduced bimolecular recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-03-01

    The high open circuit voltage is an attractive feature for the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells. In this paper, by employing the macroscopic device model simulation, we investigate its origin for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Based on the calculated current density-voltage characteristics, it is revealed that compared to the excitonic solar cells, the fast thermal-activated exciton dissociation in the bulk due to the small exciton binding energy may improve the short circuit current and the fill factor, but its beneficial role on the open circuit voltage is marginal. The most significant contribution for the open circuit voltage comes from the reduced bimolecular recombination. In the perovskites, with the recombination prefactor many orders of magnitude smaller than that based on the Langevin's theory, the internal charge density level is significantly enhanced and the density gradient is removed, leading to the high quasi-Fermi level splitting and thus the small open circuit voltage loss. For the nonradiative recombination pathway due to the deep trap states, it may induce significant loss of open circuit voltage as the trap density is high, while for the moderately low density its effect on the open circuit voltage is small and negligible.

  8. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P., E-mail: GusevYP@mpei.ru; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun [National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed.

  9. A quasi-3-dimensional simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jizhi; Chen Xingbi

    2009-01-01

    A new quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) numeric simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure is proposed. The performances of the 3D structure are analyzed by combining some 2D device structures; the 2D devices are in two planes perpendicular to each other and to the surface of the semiconductor. In comparison with Davinci, the full 3D device simulation tool, the quasi-3D simulation method can give results for the potential and current distribution of the 3D high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure with appropriate accuracy and the total CPU time for simulation is significantly reduced. The quasi-3D simulation technique can be used in many cases with advantages such as saving computing time, making no demands on the high-end computer terminals, and being easy to operate.

  10. Research on The Mechanical State Parameter Extraction Method of High Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tianxu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High voltage circuit breakers play an important role in the power system. So it is necessary to implement the state detection of breakers in order to ensure stable and reliable running of the grid. The purpose of state detection is to provide reliable basis of maintenance by extracting mechanical state parameters accurately. This paper mainly focuses on the coil current signal feature extraction algorithm. To settle the problem of too much noise mixed with the current signal and signal distortion, the discrete wavelet transform algorithm is used to extract the coil current signal parameters. This paper also designs the FIR filter to extract stroke and speed parameters from travel-time waveform. The experiments show that the difference between the theoretical results and test results processed by the method in this paper is very small and the test results are able to accurately reflect operation states and mechanical features of high voltage circuit breakers.

  11. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages. Part I: Fault current magnitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. This paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of such combined faults, including the development...... of a formula for estimating the magnitude of the short-circuit current. It is demonstrated that if the faulted phase from the higher voltage level leads the faulted phase from the lower voltage level, a distance relay at the higher voltage level sees the fault in the forward direction, whereas a distance relay...... at the lower voltage level sees the fault in the reverse direction. The opposite happens if the lower voltage level leads the higher voltage level. It is also demonstrated that the magnitude of fault currents of combined faults is normally slightly larger than of equivalent single-phase-to-ground fault...

  12. Relationship of Open-Circuit Voltage to CdTe Hole Concentration and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenow, Joel N.; Burst, James M.; Albin, David S.; Reese, Matthew O.; Jensen, Soren A.; Johnston, Steven W.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Swain, Santosh K.; Ablekim, Tursun; Lynn, Kelvin G.; Fahrenbruch, Alan L.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the correlation of bulk CdTe and CdZnTe material properties with experimental open-circuit voltage (Voc) through fabrication and characterization of diverse single-crystal solar cells with different dopants. Several distinct crystal types reach Voc >900 mV. Correlations are in general agreement with Voc limits modeled from bulk minority-carrier lifetime and hole concentration.

  13. Driving CZTS to the SQ Limit: Solving the Open Circuit Voltage Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Richard A. [IBM Research, Yorktown, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; McCandless, Brian E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Kummel, Andrew C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Gordon, Roy G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A key objective of this 3 year research effort was to reduce the open circuit voltage (Voc) deficit, defined as the difference between the absorber band gap and the measured Voc to below 475mV from values at the beginning of this work of 630-730mV. To achieve this reduction, along with the attendant goals of higher Voc and efficiency, detailed studies into the fundamental understanding of existing limitations were undertaken.

  14. Design and Construction of Low Cost High Voltage dc Power Supply for Constant Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N. S.; Jayasankar, V.

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed load applications like laser based systems need high voltage dc power supplies with better regulation characteristics. This paper presents the design, construction and testing of dc power supply with 1 kV output at 300 W power level. The designed converter has half bridge switched mode power supply (SMPS) configuration with 20 kHz switching. The paper covers the design of half bridge inverter, closed loop control, High frequency transformer and other related electronics. The designed power supply incorporates a low cost OPAMP based feedback controller which is designed using small signal modelling of the converter. The designed converter was constructed and found to work satisfactorily as per the specifications.

  15. A comparative study of different transformer connections for railway power supply- mitigation of voltage unbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firat, Gurkan; Yang, Guangya; Ali Hussain Al-Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The railway represents a large power consumer that can cause uneven loading of the phases in the high voltage grid. These unbalanced loads supplied by the utility may lead to voltage unbalance problems in the system and thereby affects the other consumers connected to the same network. It is fact...... that, voltage unbalance appears mainly as a result of unbalanced currents at the points of common coupling drawn by unevenly distributed loads. Because of a significant amount of negative sequence current injected to the system, the power system components will suffer from consequent negative effects...... such as overheating, additional losses of lines and transformers, interference with communication systems etc. This paper presents a comparative study of some transformer connections which commonly used in railway supplying AC traction loads, for voltage unbalance mitigations. Simulations for comparison...

  16. Thermoacoustic and thermoreflectance imaging of biased integrated circuits: Voltage and temperature maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rosales, E.; Cedeño, E.; Hernandez-Wong, J.; Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Marin, E.; Gandra, F. C. G.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work a combined thermoacoustic and thermoreflectance set-up was designed for imaging biased microelectronic circuits. In particular, it was used with polycrystalline silicon resistive tracks grown on a monocrystalline Si substrate mounted on a test chip. Thermoreflectance images, obtained by scanning a probe laser beam on the sample surface, clearly show the regions periodically heated by Joule effect, which are associated to the electric current distribution in the circuit. The thermoacoustic signal, detected by a pyroelectric/piezoelectric sensor beneath the chip, also discloses the Joule contribution of the whole sample. However, additional information emerges when a non-modulated laser beam is focused on the sample surface in a raster scan mode allowing imaging of the sample. The distribution of this supplementary signal is related to the voltage distribution along the circuit.

  17. Thermoacoustic and thermoreflectance imaging of biased integrated circuits: Voltage and temperature maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Rosales, E.; Cedeño, E. [Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute, University of Campinas - Unicamp, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigación, CP 11500, México, DF (Mexico); Hernandez-Wong, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigación, CP 11500, México, DF (Mexico); CONACYT, México, DF, México (Mexico); Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Marin, E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigación, CP 11500, México, DF (Mexico); Gandra, F. C. G.; Mansanares, A. M., E-mail: manoel@ifi.unicamp.br [Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute, University of Campinas - Unicamp, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-25

    In this work a combined thermoacoustic and thermoreflectance set-up was designed for imaging biased microelectronic circuits. In particular, it was used with polycrystalline silicon resistive tracks grown on a monocrystalline Si substrate mounted on a test chip. Thermoreflectance images, obtained by scanning a probe laser beam on the sample surface, clearly show the regions periodically heated by Joule effect, which are associated to the electric current distribution in the circuit. The thermoacoustic signal, detected by a pyroelectric/piezoelectric sensor beneath the chip, also discloses the Joule contribution of the whole sample. However, additional information emerges when a non-modulated laser beam is focused on the sample surface in a raster scan mode allowing imaging of the sample. The distribution of this supplementary signal is related to the voltage distribution along the circuit.

  18. 线性直流稳压电源实验分析%Experimental Analysis of Linear DC Stabilized Voltage Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐红

    2012-01-01

    Stabilized voltage power supply is a important chapter of analog electronics technology course. In the course of teaching practice activities about linear DC stabilized voltage power supply, some phenomenon that test data is not accurate and components are burnt out often turn up. As a result, it is important to master circuit philosophy and test method of stabilized voltage power supply. Students can be familiar with stabilized vohage power supply which is made up of single phase bridge rectifier, capacitor filter and integration of the three terminal regulator and the method to test each technical indication of stabilized voltage power supply.%稳压电源是模拟电子技术课程中重要的章节,在线性直流稳压电源教学实验活动中,常会出现测试数据不准、烧坏元器件等现象,因此掌握稳压电源的电路原理及测试方法极为重要。通过线性稳压电源实验,使学生熟悉由单相桥式整流、电容滤波和集成三端稳压器组成的直流稳压电源;熟悉稳压电源各项技术指标的测量方法。

  19. A high-speed CMOS current op amp for very low supply voltage operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1994-01-01

    A CMOS implementation of a high-gain current mode operational amplifier (op amp) with a single-ended input and a differential output is described. This configuration is the current mode counterpart of the traditional voltage mode op amp. In order to exploit the inherent potential for high speed......, low voltage operation normally associated with current mode analog signal processing, the op amp has been designed to operate off a supply voltage of 1.5 V, and the signal path has been confined to N-channel transistors. With this design, a gain of 94 dB and a gain-bandwidth product of 65 MHz has been...

  20. Power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lige; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Huang, Jiang; Liu, Kaifeng; Zuo, Chen

    2015-12-21

    The filament is a key component for the electron emission in the high-voltage electron accelerator. In order to guarantee the stability of the beam intensity and ensure the proper functioning for the power supply in the airtight steel barrel, an efficient filament power supply under accurate control is required. The paper, based on the dual-switch forward converter and synchronous rectification technology, puts forward a prototype of power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage accelerator. The simulation is conducted with MATLAB-Simulink on the main topology and the control method. Loss analysis and thermal analysis are evaluated using the FEA method. Tests show that in this prototype, the accuracy of current control is higher than 97.5%, and the efficiency of the power supply reaches 87.8% when the output current is 40 A.

  1. A High Voltage High Frequency Resonant Inverter for Supplying DBD Devices with Short Discharge Current Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnin, Xavier; Brandelero, Julio; Videau, Nicolas; Piquet, Hubert; Meynard, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, the merits of a high-frequency resonant converter for supplying dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) devices are established. It is shown that, thanks to its high-frequency operating condition, such a converter allows to supply DBD devices with short discharge current pulses, a high repetition rate, and to control the injected power. In addition, such a topology eliminates the matter of connecting a high-voltage transformer directly across the DBD device ...

  2. Design of Multi-unit Control System of High Voltage Power Supply for LASCAR Scintillator Detector Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLijie; WangJinchuan; XiaoGuoqing; GuoZhongyan; ZhanWenlong; QiHuirong; XuZhiguo; ZhangLi; DingXianli; XuHushan; SunZhiyu; LiJiaxing; LiChen; WangMeng; ChenLixin; HuZhengguo; MaoRuishi; ZhaoTiecheng

    2003-01-01

    The power voltages of Photomultipliers (PMTs) at RIBLL LASCAR scintillator detector array are distributed between 900 V and 1 800 V irregularly. 392 CC123 modules are employed to supply high voltage for the PMT array. The CC123 module serves as PMT interface groupware package, and it can transform +12 V DC input voltage to ranges of 0~-2200 V for the PMT power supply corresponding to 0~+5 V output voltage from the control board crate. The relation of PMT power supply with the output voltage of the control crate is shown in Fig.1.

  3. Diagnosis of inverter switch open circuit faults based on neutral point voltage signal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei GUO

    Full Text Available Using the current signal to diagnose inverter faults information is apt to be affected by the load, noise and other factors; besides, it requires long diagnosis period with special algorithms and the diagnosis result is easily to be incorrect with no-load or light-load. Focusing on this issue, the logical analysis method is proposed for correlation logical analysis of leg neutral-point voltage and pulse signal to realize the diagnosis of the open circuit faults of inverter switches. The logical expressions of output signals of inverter power tube open-circuit faults is put forward and interrelated hardware circuit design is also elaborated. Delaying the rising edge of inverter power tube's pulse signal can effectively avoid the diagnosis error caused by the power tube's switching on/off. The experiment results show that the method can effectively diagnose the open-circuit faults of single-phase single power tube inverter in real-time and the hardware circuit cost is low, which shows it is effective and feasible.

  4. 高电源电压抑制比基准电压源的设计%Design of reference voltage source with high power supply rejection ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承蓬; 许维胜; 王翠霞

    2014-01-01

    在此通过对带隙基准电压源电路进行建模分析,针对逆变电路的中低频使用环境,设计了一个应用于高压逆变器电路中的高电源电压抑制比,低温度系数的带隙基准电压源。该电路采用1μm,700 V高压CMOS工艺,在5 V供电电压的基础上,采用一阶温度补偿,并通过设计高开环增益共源共栅两级放大器来提高电源电压抑制比,同时使用宽幅镜像电流偏置解决因共源共栅引起的输出摆幅变小的问题。基准电压源正常输出电压为2.394 V,温度系数为8 ppm/℃,中低频电压抑制比均可达到-112 dB。%Based on modeling and analysis of the bandgap reference voltage source circuit,a bandgap reference voltage source with high power supply rejection ratio and low temperature coefficient was designed for high-voltage low-frequency inverter circuit. CMOS process of 1 μm and 700 V high-voltage is used in this circuit,which adopts first-order temperature compensa-tion at 5 V voltage. A cascode two-stage amplifier with high open-loop gain was designed to improve the power supply rejection ratio. The wide mirror current bias circuit is used to solve the problem that the output swing becomes smaller due to the cascode circuit. The normal output voltage of the reference voltage source is 2.394 V,its temperature coefficient is 8 ppm/℃,and its low-medium frequency voltage rejection ratio can reach -112 dB.

  5. Automatic System for the D.C. High Voltage Qualification of the Superconducting Electrical Circuits of the LHC Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Bednarek, M; Jurkiewicz, P; Kotarba, A; Ludwin, J; Olek, S

    2008-01-01

    A d.c. high voltage test system has been developed to verify automatically the insulation resistance of the powering circuits of the LHC. In the most complex case, up to 72 circuits share the same volume inside cryogenic lines. Each circuit can have an insulation fault versus any other circuit or versus ground. The system is able to connect up to 80 circuits and apply a voltage up to 2 kV D.C. The leakage current flowing through each circuit is measured within a range of 1 nA to 1.6 mA. The matrix of measurements allows characterizing the paths taken by the currents and locating weak points of the insulation between circuits. The system is composed of a D.C. voltage source and a data acquisition card. The card is able to measure with precision currents and voltages and to drive up to 5 high voltage switching modules offering 16 channels each. A LabVIEW application controls the system for an automatic and safe operation. This paper describes the hardware and software design, the testing methodology and the res...

  6. A combined uninterruptible power supply and dynamic voltage compensator using a flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbach, Robert Stephen

    Due to recent technological advances in materials, power electronics, magnetic bearings and controls, the flywheel energy storage system has become a viable alternative to electrochemical batteries. The advantages of the flywheel system are its higher power density, insensitivity to environmental conditions, lack of hazardous materials and ease of checking the charge. One potential use is in a power distribution system. The flywheel energy storage system may be used as both an uninterruptible power supply as well as a means of dynamic voltage compensation to protect critical loads on radial distribution feeders. To perform dynamic voltage compensation, a comparison was performed which shows that the series injection of power is preferable to the shunt injection of power in utilizing the available kVA of the flywheel system motor/generator. The system was designed and modeled using the Electromagnetic Transients Program to ensure a proper dynamic response of the flywheel energy storage system in either mode of operation. The design incorporates a boost converter on the dc link to enable the load voltage to be maintained as the flywheel spins down. The same boost converter also allows for extended operation in the series compensation mode, by implementing a novel control scheme where sinusoidal pulse width modulation control is used for to compensate for smaller supply voltage dips, while the boost converter is used to control the compensation for larger supply voltage dips.

  7. An Adaptive Estimation Scheme for Open-Circuit Voltage of Power Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-circuit voltage (OCV is one of the most important parameters in determining state of charge (SoC of power battery. The direct measurement of it is costly and time consuming. This paper describes an adaptive scheme that can be used to derive OCV of the power battery. The scheme only uses the measurable input (terminal current and the measurable output (terminal voltage signals of the battery system and is simple enough to enable online implement. Firstly an equivalent circuit model is employed to describe the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery; the state-space representation of the electrical performance for the battery is obtained based on the equivalent circuit model. Then the implementation procedure of the adaptive scheme is given; also the asymptotic convergence of the observer error and the boundedness of all the parameter estimates are proven. Finally, experiments are carried out, and the effectiveness of the adaptive estimation scheme is validated by the experimental results.

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A current-mode voltage regulator with an embedded sub-threshold reference for a passive UHF RFID transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongqi, Liu; Chun, Zhang; Yongming, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a current-mode voltage regulator for a passive UHF RFID transponder. The passive tag power is extracted from RF energy through the RF-to-DC rectifier. Due to huge variations of the incoming RF power, the rectifier output voltage should be regulated to achieve a stable power supply. By accurately controlling the current flowing into the load with an embedded sub-threshold reference, the regulated voltage varies in a range of 1-1.3 V from -20 to 80 °C, and a bandwidth of about 100 kHz is achieved for a fast power recovery. The circuit is fabricated in UMC 0.18 μm mixed-mode CMOS technology, and the current consumption is only 1 μA.

  9. Monitoring operating temperature and supply voltage in achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    System dependability being a set of number of attributes, of which the important reliability, heavily depends on operating temperature and supply voltage. Any change beyond the designed specifications may change the system performance and could result in system reliability and hence dependability

  10. Monitoring operating temperature and supply voltage in achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    System dependability being a set of number of attributes, of which the important reliability, heavily depends on operating temperature and supply voltage. Any change beyond the designed specifications may change the system performance and could result in system reliability and hence dependability pr

  11. Monitoring operating temperature and supply voltage in achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    System dependability being a set of number of attributes, of which the important reliability, heavily depends on operating temperature and supply voltage. Any change beyond the designed specifications may change the system performance and could result in system reliability and hence dependability pr

  12. Voltage ripple compensation for grid connected electrolyser power supply using small DC link capacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Mathe, Laszlo; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate a three-phase-grid connected power supply using small DC link capacitor for electrolyser application. The hydrogen generation system requires low voltage and high current power supply. Thus the structure of the 3-phase power supply is defined as follows......: a three phase rectification, a small DC-link capacitor and a phase-shifted full-bridge converter with current doubler rectification. Design constraints and control problems are investigated. The advantages and problems caused by the use of small DC link capacitor are presented. The control of the system...

  13. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  14. High-Precision Multi-Wave Rectifier Circuit Operating in Low Voltage + 1.5 Volt Current Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Burapattanasiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is present high-precision multi-wave rectifier circuit operating in low voltage +/- 1.5 Volt current modes by CMOS technology 0.5 μm, receive input and give output in current mode, respond at high frequency period. The structure compound with high-speed current comparator circuit, current mirror circuit, and CMOS inverter circuit. PSpice program used for confirmation the performance of testing. The PSpice program shows operating of circuit is able to working at maximum input current 400 μAp-p, maximum frequency responding 200 MHz, high precision and low power losses, and non-precision zero crossing output signal.Keywords-component; rectifier circuit; high-precision; low voltage; current mode;

  15. Silicon-on-insulator-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit gate driver for silicon carbide-based power field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Huque, Mohammad A [ORNL; Blalock, Benjamin J [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-based field effect transistors (FETs) are gaining popularity as switching elements in power electronic circuits designed for high-temperature environments like hybrid electric vehicle, aircraft, well logging, geothermal power generation etc. Like any other power switches, SiC-based power devices also need gate driver circuits to interface them with the logic units. The placement of the gate driver circuit next to the power switch is optimal for minimising system complexity. Successful operation of the gate driver circuit in a harsh environment, especially with minimal or no heat sink and without liquid cooling, can increase the power-to-volume ratio as well as the power-to-weight ratio for power conversion modules such as a DC-DC converter, inverter etc. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit (IC) gate driver for SiC power FETs has been designed and fabricated using a commercially available 0.8--m, 2-poly and 3-metal bipolar-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-double diffused metal oxide semiconductor (DMOS) process. The prototype circuit-s maximum gate drive supply can be 40-V with peak 2.3-A sourcing/sinking current driving capability. Owing to the wide driving range, this gate driver IC can be used to drive a wide variety of SiC FET switches (both normally OFF metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and normally ON junction field effect transistor (JFET)). The switching frequency is 20-kHz and the duty cycle can be varied from 0 to 100-. The circuit has been successfully tested with SiC power MOSFETs and JFETs without any heat sink and cooling mechanism. During these tests, SiC switches were kept at room temperature and ambient temperature of the driver circuit was increased to 200-C. The circuit underwent numerous temperature cycles with negligible performance degradation.

  16. Development of a portable low-cost and low-noise DC/DC high voltage switching power supply for optics application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, K.-Y.; Chen, Y.-C. [Mingchi Univ. of Technology, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A commercial power supply is bulky in size, very expensive and produces extremely noisy voltage, carrying approximately 45 mV of surge at the maximum. An avalanche photo diode (APD) is used to detect weak fluorescent signals, making it easy to generate extremely intensified noise, and degrading the S/N ratio. In order to resolve this problem, this paper discussed the development of a portable high voltage transformer-free direct current (DC) drive circuit module with low cost, noise, and power for photoelectric components. The module can be used on photoelectric components requiring high reverse voltage, such as APDs, piezo transformers, vacuum florescent displays, and micro electric machines. The low-noise module effectively reduced the thermal noise of photodiodes, leading to an improvement in the S/N ratio of photoelectric components by approximately 37 per cent. The module was described in detail. Several graphs and tables were presented, including a comparison between various types of converters; the design structure of the control unit circuit; and diagram of converted circuit diagram. It was concluded that the module was efficient, compact, and portable and designed with a transformer-free circuitry. In addition, the power supply module was successfully developed and would be much more feasible to use in developing portable products, such as digital cameras, and other advanced products. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Design of the all solid high-voltage power supply for a gyrotron body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yihua [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Chen, Wenguang, E-mail: 430000485393@usc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Hu, Bo [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Kang, Zihua; Feng, Kun [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Huang, Jiaqi [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Completed design of all solid-state high-voltage power supply for gyrotron body on HL-2M ECRH. • Consist of 58 PSM modules and one BUCK module, controlled by DSP system. • Fabricated full voltage 35 kV, 200 mA BPS and tested in dummy load. • The BPS can operate in three modes: single pulse mode, multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode. - Abstract: Gyrotron plays an important role in the research of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on Tokomak. The high-frequency switched power supply technology and pulse step modulation (PSM) technology are used in the development of the all solid high-voltage body power supply (BPS) for 1 MW/105 GHz Gyrotron on ECRH system. Firstly, the basic structure of the BPS and its control system are introduced. Secondly, the software control algorithm of voltage stabilization and modulate method are developed. Finally, the design is verified by the experiments. The experimental results of the single pulse mode, the multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode, are shown. The output voltage of the power supply can reach 35 kV and the current at about 200 mA, which are adjustable in the full range. The maximum modulation frequency can reach 1 kHz and the front edge of the pulse can be adjust from 0 to 3 ms and the accuracy of the output voltage is less than 100 V. The results show that the control method is feasible and can be applied to other high power microwave sources.

  18. Elucidating the interplay between dark current coupling and open circuit voltage in organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Erwin, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A short series of alkyl substituted perylenediimides (PDIs) with varying steric bulk are used to demonstrate the relationship between molecular structure, materials properties, and performance characteristics in organic photovoltaics. Devices were made with the structure indium tin oxide/copper phthalocyanine (200 Å)/PDI (200 Å)/bathocuproine (100 Å)/aluminum (1000 Å). We found that PDIs with larger substituents produced higher open circuit voltages (VOC\\'s) despite the donor acceptor interface gap (Δ EDA) remaining unchanged. Additionally, series resistance was increased simultaneously with VOC the effect of reducing short circuit current, making the addition of steric bulk a tradeoff that needs to be balanced to optimize power conversion efficiency. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  19. A SQUID gradiometer module with wire-wound pickup antenna and integrated voltage feedback circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Guofeng [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yi, E-mail: y.zhang@fz-juelich.de [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang Shulin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); Krause, Hans-Joachim [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); and others

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the direct readout schemes for dc SQUID, Additional Positive Feedback (APF), noise cancellation (NC) and SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC), have been studied in conjunction with planar SQUID magnetometers. In this paper, we examine the NC technique applied to a niobium SQUID gradiometer module with an Nb wire-wound antenna connecting to a dual-loop SQUID chip with an integrated voltage feedback circuit for suppression of the preamplifier noise contribution. The sensitivity of the SQUID gradiometer module is measured to be about 1 fT/(cm {radical}Hz) in the white noise range in a magnetically shielded room. Using such gradiometer, both MCG and MEG signals are recorded.

  20. Voltage regulation and reactive power supply capability of distributed generation : applications in active distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Uluski, R. [Quanta Technology, New York, NY (United States); Vaziri, M. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Fransisco, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Problems regarding voltage regulation on distribution feeders arise when there is a large demand for reactive power. The addition of distributed generation changes the power flow and voltage profile of a power system. The current practice is to use distributed generation passively and perform voltage regulation as before. However, this may not function well with high distributed generation penetration. This presentation discussed voltage regulation and the reactive power supply capability of distributed generation. Several applications in active distribution systems were presented. Specifically, the presentation discussed distributed interconnection challenges; utility practices and limiting factors; and the real and reactive power capabilities of distributed generation. A case study was also presented. It was concluded that in order for distributed generation to actively participate in real and reactive power management of distribution systems, a change is needed in standards and utility guidelines, along with a better understanding of distributed generation technologies and controls. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  1. Ultra-Low-Voltage Self-Body Biasing Scheme and Its Application to Basic Arithmetic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Taco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gate level body biasing (GLBB is assessed in the context of ultra-low-voltage logic designs. To this purpose, a GLBB mirror full adder is implemented by using a commercial 45 nm bulk CMOS triple-well technology and compared to equivalent conventional zero body-biased CMOS and dynamic threshold voltage MOSFET (DTMOS circuits under different running conditions. Postlayout simulations demonstrate that, at the parity of leakage power consumption, the GLBB technique exhibits a significant concurrent reduction of the energy per operation and the delay in comparison to the conventional CMOS and DTMOS approaches. The silicon area required by the GLBB full adder is halved with respect to the equivalent DTMOS implementation, but it is higher in comparison to conventional CMOS design. Performed analysis also proves that the GLBB solution exhibits a high level of robustness against temperature fluctuations and process variations.

  2. High Open-Circuit Voltage Solar Cells Based on Organic-Inorganic Lead Bromide Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edri, Eran; Kirmayer, Saar; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary

    2013-03-21

    Mesoscopic solar cells, based on solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskite absorbers, are a promising avenue for converting solar to electrical energy. We used solution-processed organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite absorbers, in conjunction with organic hole conductors, to form high voltage solar cells. There is a dire need for low-cost cells of this type, to drive electrochemical reactions or as the high photon energy cell in a system with spectral splitting. These perovskite materials, although spin-coated from solution, form highly crystalline materials. Their simple synthesis, along with high chemical versatility, allows tuning their electronic and optical properties. By judicious selection of the perovskite lead halide-based absorber, matching organic hole conductor, and contacts, a cell with a ∼ 1.3 V open circuit voltage was made. While further study is needed, this achievement provides a general guideline for additional improvement of cell performance.

  3. Surge protective device response to steep front transient in low voltage circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuz, J.; Binczak, S.; Bilbault, J.M. [Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)], Emails: jerome.marcuz@ laposte.net, stbinc@u-bourgogne.fr, bilbault@u-bourgogne.fr; Girard, F. [ADEE Electronic, Pont de Pany (France)

    2007-07-01

    Surge propagation on cables of electrical or data lines leads to a major protection problem as the number of equipment based on solid-state circuits or microprocessors increases. Sub-microsecond components of real surge waveform has to be taken into account for a proper protection even in the case of surges caused by indirect lightning effects. The response of a model of transient voltage suppressor diode based surge protection device (SPD) to fast front transient is analytically studied, then compared to simulations, including the lines connected to the SPD and to the protected equipment. (author)

  4. Voltage Recovery of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG After a Short-Circuit Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    recovery of variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). A simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a DFIG developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented, and the control and protection schemes are described. A new control strategy is proposed to re......-establish the wind turbine terminal voltage after the clearance of an external short-circuit fault, and the restore the normal operation of the variable speed wind turbine with DFIG, which has been demonstrated by simulation results....

  5. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: applied to low voltage circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J W; Balestrero, A; Ghezzi, L; Tribulato, G; Cross, K J

    2010-05-01

    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1 x 10(6) images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  6. Effect of recombination on the open-circuit voltage of a silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.; Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of band-band Auger, band-trap Auger, and the ordinary Shockley-Read-Hall mechanism for carrier recombination on the open-circuit voltage VOC of a solar cell is presented. Under reasonable assumptions for the magnitude of rate constants and realistic values for trap densities, surface recombination velocities and band-gap narrowing, the maximum VOC for typical back surface field solar cells is found to lie in the range between 0.61 and 0.72 V independent of base width.

  7. Carbon nanotube-polybithiophene photovoltaic devices with high open-circuit voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patyk, Rodolfo L.; Huemmelgen, Ivo A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba PR (Brazil); Lomba, Bruno S.; Nogueira, Ana Flavia [Laboratorio de Nanotechnologia e Energia Solar, Instituto de Quimica, Unicamp, C.P. 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Furtado, Clascidia A.; Santos, Adelina Pinheiro [Laboratorio de Quimica de Nanoestruturas, CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Regina M.Q.; Micaroni, Liliana [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba PR (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    We report the preparation of photovoltaic devices using modified single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs. Devices are produced stacking on top of fluorine-doped tin-oxide, an electrochemically deposited polybithiophene layer, a layer of SWNT blended with poly(3-octylthiophene) and an evaporated top metal contact, Ca/Al or Al. Ca/Al-top-electrode devices achieve open-circuit voltages of 1.81 V and average power conversion efficiency of 1.48% at irradiance of 15.5 W m{sup -2}, spectrally distributed following AM1.5. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Numerical Electric Field Analysis of Power Status Sensor Observing Power Distribution System Taking into Account Voltage Divider Measurement Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Itoh, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Hisao; Wakuya, Hiroshi; Ohchi, Masashi

    We have proposed and preproducted the voltage-current waveform sensor of resin molded type for measuring the power factor and harmonics in power distribution systems. We have executed numerical electromagnetic analyses using the finite element method to estimate the characteristics and behaviours of the sensor. Although the magnetic field analyses for the current sensor have involved the measurement circuit, the electric field analyses have not included the measurement circuit for measuring voltage waveforms of power lines. In this paper, we describe the electric field analyses with the measurement circuit and prove the insulating strength of the proposed sensor permissible to the use in 22kV power distribution systems.

  9. Testing to Investigate Stress-LifetimeCharacteristics of High Voltage Printed Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Korashy, Oliver; Franke, Andreas; Gollor, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are typically used in all electronic equipment, including those conditioning or controlling high voltage (HV) for space satellite applications. With the use of new subsystems that require higher voltages (generally several hundred volts up to tens of kV), stress-lifetime issues are becoming more complex. In order to allow compact design and cost efficient production of HV modules, there is an increasing demand to improve the design of PCBs with encapsulation or conformal coating at higher voltages.Within a PCB there are a number of electrical field interfaces each of which can have individual stress- lifetime characteristics, and the influence of environmental aging should also be considered, which means a large number of sample types should be tested to gain experimental evidence to define the margin for each interface. This paper demonstrates a method to test multiple samples at a fixed DC voltage stress until the event of a breakdown, and presents test results from 6 single-sided encapsulated PCB samples.

  10. 空间辐射探测器滤波电路的设计%Design of Filter Circuit in High Voltage Unit of Particle Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟红; 于向前; 陈鸿飞; 邹鸿; 邹积清; 刘建文; 崔战国; 邵思霈

    2012-01-01

    To meet high stability, low ripple requirements of High Voltage Unit in Particle radiation detectors, to design a hybrid LC and RC filter circuit to reduce power supply ripple. Through the theoretical analysis, Pspice simulation and test,the results are verified. According to this design,a High Voltage Unit was made in a high -energy particle detector on a Satelite, output voltage ripple coefficient is small, met the design purposes. Test proved that this circuit design, simple, efficient, can provide a reference for this kind of circuit design.%为满足粒子辐射探测器高压电源高稳定、低纹波的要求,设计一种LC和RC混合滤波电路来降低电源纹波,并进行理论分析、PSpice仿真和试验对结果进行验证.按照这种设计实现的某型号卫星高能粒子探测器的高压电源,输出电压稳定、纹波系数小,达到设计目的.试验证明这种电路设计简单、高效,可为相关电路设计提供参考.

  11. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  12. Resilient architecture design for voltage variation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa

    2013-01-01

    Shrinking feature size and diminishing supply voltage are making circuits sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations within the microprocessor, caused by normal workload activity changes. If left unattended, voltage fluctuations can lead to timing violations or even transistor lifetime issues that degrade processor robustness. Mechanisms that learn to tolerate, avoid, and eliminate voltage fluctuations based on program and microarchitectural events can help steer the processor clear of danger, thus enabling tighter voltage margins that improve performance or lower power consumption. We describe

  13. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  14. Controlled Conjugated Backbone Twisting for an Increased Open-Circuit Voltage while Having a High Short-Circuit Current in Poly(hexylthiophene) Derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon

    2012-03-21

    Conjugated polymers with nearly planar backbones have been the most commonly investigated materials for organic-based electronic devices. More twisted polymer backbones have been shown to achieve larger open-circuit voltages in solar cells, though with decreased short-circuit current densities. We systematically impose twists within a family of poly(hexylthiophene)s and examine their influence on the performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. A simple chemical modification concerning the number and placement of alkyl side chains along the conjugated backbone is used to control the degree of backbone twisting. Density functional theory calculations were carried out on a series of oligothiophene structures to provide insights on how the sterically induced twisting influences the geometric, electronic, and optical properties. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering measurements were performed to investigate how the thin-film packing structure was affected. The open-circuit voltage and charge-transfer state energy of the polymer:fullerene BHJ solar cells increased substantially with the degree of twist induced within the conjugated backbone-due to an increase in the polymer ionization potential-while the short-circuit current decreased as a result of a larger optical gap and lower hole mobility. A controlled, moderate degree of twist along the poly(3,4-dihexyl-2,2′:5′,2′′- terthiophene) (PDHTT) conjugated backbone led to a 19% enhancement in the open-circuit voltage (0.735 V) vs poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based devices, while similar short-circuit current densities, fill factors, and hole-carrier mobilities were maintained. These factors resulted in a power conversion efficiency of 4.2% for a PDHTT:[6,6]-phenyl-C 71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71BM) blend solar cell without thermal annealing. This simple approach reveals a molecular design avenue to increase open-circuit voltage while retaining the short-circuit current. © 2012 American

  15. Energy-efficient and low-voltage design methodology for a supply-sensing CMOS biosensor using biofuel cells for energy-autonomous healthcare applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsuki; Ikeda, Kei; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2017-01-01

    The power sources of wearable sensors play a key role in sensing-system architecture. As potential power sources for sensors monitoring physiological signals near the human body, biofuel cells, which generate energy from the biological environment through chemical methods, have attracted much attention. However, the insufficient open-circuit voltage of biofuel cells owing to thermodynamic limitation is a basic issue. Thus, the use of biofuel cells as a power supply for a sensor imposes a strict limitation upon the power budget. In this report, we propose a design methodology for a low-voltage supply-sensing CMOS biosensor using biofuel cells. To explore the design methodology for performance optimization, a SPICE simulation was conducted. The simulated results reveal an optimum energy-efficient point in the biosensor design parameters. A fabricated 250 nm CMOS test chip was used to verify the validity of the design methodology and the measurement results matched the simulated results.

  16. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, D.

    2016-11-09

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  17. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, D; Kirchartz, T; Wheeler, S; Dimitrov, S; Abdelsamie, M; Gorman, J; Ashraf, R S; Holliday, S; Wadsworth, A; Gasparini, N; Kaienburg, P; Yan, H; Amassian, A; Brabec, C J; Durrant, J R; McCulloch, I

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized.

  18. Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage of PbS Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Woojun; Boercker, Janice E.; Lumb, Matthew P.; Placencia, Diogenes; Foos, Edward E.; Tischler, Joseph G.

    2013-07-01

    Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) show great promise toward improving solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum and enable multi-exciton generation. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. Here we report the highest open-circuit voltages to date for colloidal QD based solar cells under one sun illumination. This Voc of 692 +/- 7 mV for 1.4 eV PbS QDs is a result of improved passivation of the defective QD surface, demonstrating as a function of the QD bandgap (Eg). Comparing experimental Voc variation with the theoretical upper-limit obtained from one diode modeling of the cells with different Eg, these results clearly demonstrate that there is a tremendous opportunity for improvement of Voc to values greater than 1 V by using smaller QDs in QD solar cells.

  19. An Internal ALD-Based High Voltage Divider and Signal Circuit for MCP-based Photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Elagin, Andrey; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Frisch, Henry J.; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gregar, Joseph S.; Mane, Anil U.; Minot, Michael J.; Northrup, Richard; Obaid, Razib; Oberla, Eric; Alexander, Vostrikov; Wetstein, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    We describe a pin-less design for the high voltage (HV) resistive divider of the all-glass LAPPD (TM) 8 in,square thin photodetector module. The divider, which distributes high voltage applied to the photocathode to the two micro-channel plates (MCPs) that constitute the amplification stage, is comprised of the two MCPs and three glass mechanical spacers, each of which is coated with a resistive layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The three glass grid spacers and the two MCPs form a continuous resistive path between cathode and anode, with the voltages across the MCPs and the spacers determined by the resistance of each. High voltage is applied on an external tab on the top glass window that connects to the photocathode through the metal seal. The DC ground is supplied by microstrips on the bottom glass plate that form the high-bandwidth anode. The microstrips exit the package through the glass-frit seal of the anode base-plate and the package sidewall. The divider is thus completely internal, with no HV pins penetrating the low-profile flat glass package. Measurements of the performance of the divider are presented for the 8 in.-square MCP and spacer package in a custom test fixture and for an assembled externally pumped LAPPD (TM) prototype with an aluminum photocathode. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ANN-based system for a discrimination between unbalanced supply voltage and phase loss in induction motors

    OpenAIRE

    Refaat, Shady S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Iqbal, Atif

    2014-01-01

    It is documented that almost 98% of all voltage generated by electric utilities has up to 3% unbalance. Single phasing fault deserves special attention since phase loss is considered the worst case of unbalanced supply voltage. This paper focuses on unbalanced supply condition diagnosis and discrimination between an unbalance in the supply and phase loss fault. The discrimination will be based on the ratio of third harmonic to fundamental Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) magnitude components (RTH...

  1. Numerical modeling of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs and their interraction with the power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orama, Lionel R.

    In this work the interaction between series connected gas and vacuum circuit breaker arcs has been studied. The breakdown phenomena in vacuum interrupters during the post arc current period have been of special interest. Numerical models of gas and vacuum arcs were developed in the form of black box models. Especially, the vacuum post arc model was implemented by combining the existing transition model with an ion density function and expressions for the breakdown mechanisms. The test series studied reflect that for electric fields on the order of 10sp7V/m over the anode, the breakdown of the vacuum gap can result from a combination of both thermal and electrical stresses. For a particular vacuum device, the vacuum model helps to find the interruption limits of the electric field and power density over the anode. The series connection of gas and vacuum interrupters always performs better than the single gas device. Moreover, to take advantage of the good characteristics of both devices, the time between the current zero crossing in each interrupter can be changed. This current zero synchronization is controlled by changing the capacitance in parallel to the gas device. This gas/vacuum interrupter is suitable for interruption of very stressful short circuits in which the product of the dI/dt before current zero and the dV/dt after current zero is very high. Also, a single SF6 interrupter can be replaced by an air circuit breaker of the same voltage rating in series with a vacuum device without compromising the good performance of the SF6 device. Conceptually, a series connected vacuum device can be used for high voltage applications with equal distribution of electrical stresses between the individual interrupters. The equalization can be made by a sequential opening of the individual contact pairs, beginning with the interruptors that are closer to ground potential. This could eliminate the use of grading capacitors.

  2. Simple voltage-controlled current source for wideband electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy: circuit dependences and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, F.; Macías, R.; Bragós, R.; Lindecrantz, K.

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the single Op-Amp with load-in-the-loop topology as a current source is revisited. This circuit topology was already used as a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) in the 1960s but was left unused when the requirements for higher frequency arose among the applications of electrical bioimpedance (EBI). The aim of the authors is not only limited to show that with the currently available electronic devices it is perfectly viable to use this simple VCCS topology as a working current source for wideband spectroscopy applications of EBI, but also to identify the limitations and the role of each of the circuit components in the most important parameter of a current for wideband applications: the output impedance. The study includes the eventual presence of a stray capacitance and also an original enhancement, driving with current the VCCS. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements, an accurate model of the output impedance is provided, explaining the role of the main constitutive elements of the circuit in the source's output impedance. Using the topologies presented in this work and the proposed model, any electronic designer can easily implement a simple and efficient current source for wideband EBI spectroscopy applications, e.g. in this study, values above 150 kΩ at 1 MHz have been obtained, which to the knowledge of the authors are the largest values experimentally measured and reported for a current source in EBI at this frequency.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Flexible Transmission Mechanism with Multiclearance Joints for Ultrahigh Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission mechanism, of which the dynamic characteristics determine the reliability of the circuit breaker, is the principal component of the ultrahigh voltage (UHV circuit breaker. The characteristics of transmission mechanism are quick motion, high sensibility, and high reliability. The transmission mechanism with multiclearance joints present strong no-linear vibration feature which strongly affects the reliability of the UHV circuit breaker. In this investigation, a planar rigid-flexible coupling model of the transmission mechanism considering the clearance joints and the flexibility of components is established by using ADAMS software. The dynamic contact model in clearance joints is performed, based on clearance vector model of clearance joint. Then, the reliability of the model is proved by means of comparing the results of experiments. The simulation results show that the dynamic response of the mechanism is greatly influenced by the clearance and the flexibility of components has a role of suspension for the mechanism. Moreover, the influence of the clearance size, input speed, and number of clearance joints on the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism are also investigated.

  4. Factors limiting the open-circuit voltage in microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee P.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In studying photovoltaic devices made with silicon thin films and considering them according to their grain size, it is curious that as the crystalline fraction increases, the open-circuit voltage (Voc – rather than approaching that of the single-crystal case – shows a decline. To gain an insight into this behavior, observed in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H solar cells prepared under a variety of deposition conditions, we have used a detailed electrical-optical computer modeling program, ASDMP. Two typical μc-Si:H cells with low (~79% and higher (~93% crystalline volume fractions (Fc, deposited in our laboratory and showing this general trend, were modeled. From the parameters extracted by simulation of their experimental current density – voltage and quantum efficiency characteristics, it was inferred that the higher Fc cell has both a higher band gap defect density as well as a lower band gap energy. Our calculations reveal that the proximity of the quasi-Fermi levels to the energy bands in cells based on highly crystallized μc-Si:H (assumed to have a lower band gap, results in both higher free and trapped carrier densities. The trapped hole population, that is particularly high near the P/I interface, results in a strong interface field, a collapse of the field in the volume, and hence a lower open-circuit voltage. Interestingly enough, we were able to fabricate fluorinated μc-Si:H:F cells having 100% crystalline fraction as well as very large grains, that violate the general trend and show a higher Voc. Modeling indicates that this is possible for the latter case, as also for a crystalline silicon PN cell, in spite of a sharply reduced band gap, because the lower effective density of states at the band edges and a sharply reduced gap defect density overcome the effect of the lower band gap.

  5. Development of High-Voltage Vacuum Circuit Breaker%高电压真空断路器的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红亚; 李建基

    2011-01-01

    六氟化硫断路器在高压断路器中居主导地位,而真空断路器在中压领域占绝对优势,并在高电压领域崭露头角。阐述了开发高电压真空断路器的必要性,介绍了现有产品的结构与特点,并提出了研发高电压真空断路器需解决的技术问题及相关的应对措施。%Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers take a leading position in high-voltage circuit breakers and vacuum circuit breakers hold all the trumps in medium voltage field,making a figure in high-voltage field.Description was made to the necessity of development of high-voltage vacuum circuit breakers.Introduction was made to structure and features of the existing products.This paper raised technical issues to be solved in RD of high-voltage vacuum circuit breakers and their related countermeasures.

  6. High Input Voltage Discharge Supply for High Power Hall Thrusters Using Silicon Carbide Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulsio, Michael V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    A power processing unit for a 15 kW Hall thruster is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. The unit produces up to 400 VDC with two parallel 7.5 kW discharge modules that operate from a 300 VDC nominal input voltage. Silicon carbide MOSFETs and diodes were used in this design because they were the best choice to handle the high voltage stress while delivering high efficiency and low specific mass. Efficiencies in excess of 97 percent were demonstrated during integration testing with the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster. Electromagnet, cathode keeper, and heater supplies were also developed and will be integrated with the discharge supply into a vacuum-rated brassboard power processing unit with full flight functionality. This design could be evolved into a flight unit for future missions that requires high power electric propulsion.

  7. Real-Time Nanoscale Open-Circuit Voltage Dynamics of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joseph L; Tennyson, Elizabeth M; Hu, Miao; Huang, Jinsong; Munday, Jeremy N; Leite, Marina S

    2017-04-12

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites based on methylammonium lead (MAPbI3) are an emerging material with great potential for high-performance and low-cost photovoltaics. However, for perovskites to become a competitive and reliable solar cell technology their instability and spatial variation must be understood and controlled. While the macroscopic characterization of the devices as a function of time is very informative, a nanoscale identification of their real-time local optoelectronic response is still missing. Here, we implement a four-dimensional imaging method through illuminated heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy to spatially (perovskite solar cells in a low relative humidity environment. Local open-circuit voltage (Voc) images show nanoscale sites with voltage variation >300 mV under 1-sun illumination. Surprisingly, regions of voltage that relax in seconds and after several minutes consistently coexist. Time-dependent changes of the local Voc are likely due to intragrain ion migration and are reversible at low injection level. These results show for the first time the real-time transient behavior of the Voc in perovskite solar cells at the nanoscale. Understanding and controlling the light-induced electrical changes that affect device performance are critical to the further development of stable perovskite-based solar technologies.

  8. False Operation of Static Random Access Memory Cells under Alternating Current Power Supply Voltage Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takuya; Takata, Hidehiro; Nii, Koji; Nagata, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) cores exhibit susceptibility against power supply voltage variation. False operation is investigated among SRAM cells under sinusoidal voltage variation on power lines introduced by direct RF power injection. A standard SRAM core of 16 kbyte in a 90 nm 1.5 V technology is diagnosed with built-in self test and on-die noise monitor techniques. The sensitivity of bit error rate is shown to be high against the frequency of injected voltage variation, while it is not greatly influenced by the difference in frequency and phase against SRAM clocking. It is also observed that the distribution of false bits is substantially random in a cell array.

  9. Proportional integral plus multi-frequency resonant current controller for grid-connected voltage source converter under imbalanced and distorted supply voltage conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-bing HU; Wei ZHANG; Hong-sheng WANG; Yi-kang HE; Lie XU

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a current control scheme for a grid-connected pulse width modulator (PWM) voltage source converter (GC-VSC) under imbalanced and distorted supply voltage conditions. The control scheme is implemented in the positive synchronously rotating reference frame and composed of a single proportional integral (PI) regulator and multi-frequency resonant controllers tuned at the frequencies of 2ω and 6ω, respectively. The experimental results, with the target of eliminating the active power oscillations and current harmonics on a prototype GC-VSC system, validate the feasibility of the proposed current control scheme during supply voltage imbalance and distortion.

  10. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    Part I: Dynamic Voltage Restorer In the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of voltage at its source-side terminals is disturbed. In the first part of this thesis, a DVR configuration with no need of bulky dc link capacitor or energy storage is proposed. This fact causes to reduce the size of the DVR and increase the reliability of the circuit. In addition, the proposed DVR topology is based on high-frequency isolation transformer resulting in the size reduction of transformer. The proposed DVR circuit, which is suitable for both low- and medium-voltage applications, is based on dc-ac converters connected in series to split the main dc link between the inputs of dc-ac converters. This feature makes it possible to use modular dc-ac converters and utilize low-voltage components in these converters whenever it is required to use DVR in medium-voltage application. The proposed configuration is tested under different conditions of load power factor and grid voltage harmonic. It has been shown that proposed DVR can compensate the voltage sag effectively and protect the sensitive loads. Following the proposition of the DVR topology, a fundamental voltage amplitude detection method which is applicable in both single/three-phase systems for DVR applications is proposed. The advantages of proposed method include application in distorted power grid with no need of any low-pass filter, precise and reliable detection, simple computation and implementation without using a phased locked loop and lookup table. The proposed method has been verified

  11. Micro-power generator supplying source for integrated circuit chip based on Pb(Sn,Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Cui, Zhanzhong; Yan, Jinglong; Li, Kejie

    2011-04-01

    We have demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically that a tin-modified and niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Sn,Zr,Ti)O3) ferroelectric generator system can function as a micro-power supplying source for integrated circuit (IC) chip of separate nonelectric impulse input shock tube digital delay detonator. The ferroelectric ceramic phase transition under transverse shock wave compression can charge an external storage capacitor. The ferroelectric ceramic micro-pulsed-power system is capable of generating low output voltage pulses with an amplitude of 54.2 V and with transferred energy of 1.73 mJ, ultimately supplying an IC chip with micro-power. This work presents the methodology for theoretical analysis and experimental operation of the ferroelectric generator. Theoretical calculations are conducted based on circuit analysis law and principles of dynamic high pressure and shock wave physics. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  12. Open-circuit voltage analysis of p-i-n type amorphous silicon solar cells deposited at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Jian; Zhang Jian-Jun; Cao Yu; Wang Xian-Bao; Li Chao; Chen Xin-Liang; Geng Xin-Hua; Zhao Ying

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the contributions of p-a-SiC:H layers and i-a-Si:H layers to the open circuit voltage of p-i-n type a-Si:H solar cells deposited at a low temperature of 125 ℃.We find that poor quality p-a-SiC:H films under regular conditions lead to a restriction of open circuit voltage although the band gap of the i-layer varies widely.A significant improvement in open circuit voltage has been obtained by using high quality p-a-SiC:H films optimized at the "low-power regime" under low silane flow rates and high hydrogen dilution conditions.

  13. A 600kV 15mA Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply with high stability and low-ripple voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Tongling [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Yimin [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: zhangyim03@st.lzu.edu.cn; Chen Shangwen [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Yantong [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lv Huiyi [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Jiangtao [Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2006-05-10

    A Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply with high stability and low-ripple voltage has been developed. This power supply has been operated in a ns pulse neutron generator. The maximum non-load voltage is 600kV while the working voltage and load current are 550kV and 15mA, respectively. The tested results indicate that when the power supply is operated at 300kV, 6.7mA and the input voltage varies +/-10%, the long-term stability of the output voltage is S=(0.300-1.006)x10{sup -3}. The ripple voltage is {delta}U{sub P-P}=6.2V at 300kV, 6.8-8.3mA and the ratio of {delta}U{sub P-P} to the output voltage V{sub H} is {delta}U{sub P-P}/V{sub H}=2.1x10{sup -5}.

  14. An Ultra-low Power Memory with a Subthreshold Power Supply Voltage [PREPRINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Focus is thus on the driver VOH and receiver VIH values as they are affected by operating voltage and fan-out. In [15], the driver output and...with circuit simulation on the target 130 nm process. Fig. 3 shows the comparison of receiver VIL and VIH between the analytical model and circuit...m V) VDD (mV) simulation model ViH Fig. 1. MOS transistor IDS vs. VGS. 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 S

  15. Surface-charge accumulation effects on open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells based on photoinduced impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Huidong; Hsiao, Yu-Che; Hu, Bin

    2014-03-14

    The accumulation of dissociated charge carriers plays an important role in reducing the loss occurring in organic solar cells. We find from light-assisted capacitance measurements that the charge accumulation inevitably occurred at the electrode and photovoltaic layer interface for bulk-heterojunction ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al solar cells. Our results indicate, for the first time through impedance measurements, that the charge accumulation exists at the anode side of the device, and more importantly, we successfully identify the type of charge accumulated. Further study shows that the charge accumulation can significantly affect open circuit voltage and short circuit current. As a result, our experimental results from light assisted capacitance measurements provide a new understanding of the loss in open-circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent based on charge accumulation. Clearly, controlling charge accumulation presents a new mechanism to improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells.

  16. Discussion on Selectivity of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers%低压断路器的选择性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国标

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of selectivity for low voltage circuit breakers in distribution line. Focus on the coordinate of several circuit breakers and selectivity of overload and short circuit. This paper describes the latest selectivity technology of low voltage circuit breakers at home and abroad.%本文介绍了在配电线路中对不同低压断路器进行选择的原则。着重阐述了几种断路器之间的配合,过载情况、短路情况下的选择性。并阐述了国内外现阶段最新的低压断路器的选择性技术。

  17. The new voltage level 48 V for vehicle power supply; Die neue Spannungsebene 48 V im Kraftfahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doersam, Thomas [Daimler AG, Boeblingen (Germany). Bordnetzkonzepte; Kehl, Steffen [Porsche Aktiengesellschaft, Weissach (Germany). Sachgebiet verteilte Funktionen elektrische Energie und Verbrauch; Klinkig, Andreas [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Energiemanagement; Radon, Andre [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Bordnetzkonzepte und Energieeffizienz; Sirch, Ottmar [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Vorentwicklung Energiebordnetz

    2012-02-15

    The increasing requirements to the vehicle power supply in conventional cars have taken the 12 V power supply to its limits. The car manufacturers Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche and Volkswagen were aware of this subject very early and worked out a first specification for a second voltage level at 48 V. The OEMs explain the conditions and backgrounds for deriving the voltage range and the concepts, the tests and test conditions for any components which will be applied in this voltage level. Additionally, the car manufacturers describe the probably next milestones for standardization and the standard of the voltage level as well as some potential E/E architecture concepts. (orig.)

  18. The correlation of open-circuit voltage with bandgap in amorphous silicon-based pin solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, R. S.; Schiff, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    We briefly review the correlation of open-circuit voltages VOC with the bandgap of the intrinsic layer in amorphous silicon based pin solar cells. We discuss two mechanisms which limit VOC: intrinsic layer recombination, and the built-in potential VBI. In particular we discuss Li's proposal that the open-circuit voltages in higher bandgap cells (EG>1.9 eV) are VBI-limited. Based on computer simulations of pin solar cells we propose that VBI limitation occurs when the recombination limit to VOC exceeds the cell's field-reversal voltage VR. For a-Si:H based cells this field-reversal voltage occurs at about VBI-0.3 V. This proposal would account for the observation that VBI limitation occurs for VOC significantly smaller than VBI.

  19. Voltage sags due to the short-circuits on transmission lines; Afundamentos de tensao provocados por curto-circuitos em linhas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klock Junior, Odemar Solano [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the voltage sags influence on the buses, including the ones where consumers of the COPEL transmission electric system, determining the sags number and the approximate values for short-circuits on transmission lines. The voltage values, during the the short-circuit regime are obtained from the data for the short-circuit program. The short-circuits are simulated by the assembly of the electric system impedance matrix, from where the voltage values for short-circuits on any point of the electric system can be determined using simply calculations.

  20. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  1. The use of radial integrated circuits for the design of voltage-controlled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, M.

    A theoretical model for the behavior of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) used in millimeter-wave applications is presented, with attention concentrated on multi-diode structures. A radial structure is considered, featuring the VCOs operating in the Q band with ICs. The model developed examines the electromagnetic behavior of the circuit, taking into account multimodal functioning. Experimental results are presented for the frequency evolution with impedance. The design of a VCO, through integration of a Gunn diode and a varactor into a radial system, is described, including an analysis of the series resistance of the varactor. Optimum operational conditions are defined, as are device dimensions. Finally, the technique is extended to the design of power combiners.

  2. Origin of Open-Circuit Voltage Loss in Polymer Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Do; Yanagawa, Nayu; Shimazaki, Ai; Endo, Masaru; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2017-06-14

    Herein, the open-circuit voltage (VOC) loss in both polymer solar cells and perovskite solar cells is quantitatively analyzed by measuring the temperature dependence of VOC to discuss the difference in the primary loss mechanism of VOC between them. As a result, the photon energy loss for polymer solar cells is in the range of about 0.7-1.4 eV, which is ascribed to temperature-independent and -dependent loss mechanisms, while that for perovskite solar cells is as small as about 0.5 eV, which is ascribed to a temperature-dependent loss mechanism. This difference is attributed to the different charge generation and recombination mechanisms between the two devices. The potential strategies for the improvement of VOC in both solar cells are further discussed on the basis of the experimental data.

  3. The Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell with high open circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Zhishan; Liu, Sijia; Lu, Yilei; Wang, Shurong

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of two different sulfurization processes on the CZTS films were investigated, and the results indicated that a rapid high-temperature crystallization process after sulfurization was beneficial for CZTS thin films to obtain a compact and flat surface with large grains. However, a common sulfurization without rapid high-temperature crystallization process would easily lead to undesirable properties of films, such as rough surface with pin holes, which degenerate the performance of devices. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell based on a rapid high-temperature process after sulfurization achieved a high open circuit voltage of 722 mV and the best efficiency 3.32% was obtained.

  4. Study on Factors for Accurate Open Circuit Voltage Characterizations in Mn-Type Li-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Natthawuth Somakettarin; Tsuyoshi Funaki

    2017-01-01

    Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries under several experimental operating conditions, and discusses factors for accurate OCV determination. A test system is developed for OCV characterization based on the OCV pulse test method. Various factors for ...

  5. Study on the Mathematical Model of Dielectric Recovery Characteristics in High Voltage SF6 Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Wang, Feiming; Xu, Jianyuan; Xia, Yalong; Liu, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    According to the stream theory, this paper proposes a mathematical model of the dielectric recovery characteristic based on the two-temperature ionization equilibrium equation. Taking the dynamic variation of charged particle's ionization and attachment into account, this model can be used in collaboration with the Coulomb collision model, which gives the relationship of the heavy particle temperature and electron temperature to calculate the electron density and temperature under different pressure and electric field conditions, so as to deliver the breakdown electric field strength under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile an experiment loop of the circuit breaker has been built to measure the breakdown voltage. It is shown that calculated results are in conformity with experiment results on the whole while results based on the stream criterion are larger than experiment results. This indicates that the mathematical model proposed here is more accurate for calculating the dielectric recovery characteristic, it is derived from the stream model with some improvement and refinement and has great significance for increasing the simulation accuracy of circuit breaker's interruption characteristic. supported by Science and Technology Project of State Grid Corporation of China (No. GY17201200063), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277123), Basic Research Project of Liaoning Key Laboratory of Education Department (LZ2015055)

  6. Fuzzy diagnostic system for oleo-pneumatic drive mechanism of high-voltage circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Viorel

    2013-01-01

    Many oil-based high-voltage circuit breakers are still in use in national power networks of developing countries, like those in Eastern Europe. Changing these breakers with new more reliable ones is not an easy task, due to their implementing costs. The acting device, called oleo-pneumatic mechanism (MOP), presents the highest fault rate from all components of circuit breaker. Therefore, online predictive diagnosis and early detection of the MOP fault tendencies are very important for their good functioning state. In this paper, fuzzy logic approach is used for the diagnosis of MOP-type drive mechanisms. Expert rules are generated to estimate the MOP functioning state, and a fuzzy system is proposed for predictive diagnosis. The fuzzy inputs give information about the number of starts and time of functioning per hour, in terms of short-term components, and their mean values. Several fuzzy systems were generated, using different sets of membership functions and rule bases, and their output performances are studied. Simulation results are presented based on an input data set, which contains hourly records of operating points for a time horizon of five years. The fuzzy systems work well, making an early detection of the MOP fault tendencies.

  7. Fuzzy Diagnostic System for Oleo-Pneumatic Drive Mechanism of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Nicolau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oil-based high-voltage circuit breakers are still in use in national power networks of developing countries, like those in Eastern Europe. Changing these breakers with new more reliable ones is not an easy task, due to their implementing costs. The acting device, called oleo-pneumatic mechanism (MOP, presents the highest fault rate from all components of circuit breaker. Therefore, online predictive diagnosis and early detection of the MOP fault tendencies are very important for their good functioning state. In this paper, fuzzy logic approach is used for the diagnosis of MOP-type drive mechanisms. Expert rules are generated to estimate the MOP functioning state, and a fuzzy system is proposed for predictive diagnosis. The fuzzy inputs give information about the number of starts and time of functioning per hour, in terms of short-term components, and their mean values. Several fuzzy systems were generated, using different sets of membership functions and rule bases, and their output performances are studied. Simulation results are presented based on an input data set, which contains hourly records of operating points for a time horizon of five years. The fuzzy systems work well, making an early detection of the MOP fault tendencies.

  8. Design of CMOS bandgap voltage reference circuit with high PSR%一种高PSR CMOS带隙基准电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志伟; 姜岩峰

    2014-01-01

    为了降低芯片电路功耗,电源电压需要不断的减小,这将导致电源噪声对基准电压产生严重影响。为此针对这一问题进行相关研究,采用SMIC 0.18μm工艺,设计出一种低功耗、低温度系数的高PSR带隙基准电压源。仿真结果表明,该设计带隙基准源的PSR在50 kHz与100 kHz分别为-65.13 dB和-53.85 dB;在2~6 V电源电压下,工作电流为30μA,温度系数为30.38 ppm/℃,电压调整率为71.47μV/V。该带隙基准适用于在低功耗高PSR性能需求的LDOs电路中应用。%The power supply voltage needs to be constantly decreased to meet the requirement of reducing the low-power consumption of IC,but it may lead to the negative impact of power supply noise on the reference voltage. A low-power consump-tion bandgap voltage reference with high PSR (power supply rejection) and low-temperature coefficent was design based on in SMIC0.18μm process. The simulation results show that the PSR of the bandgap reference source is -65.13 dB at 50 kHz and -53.85 dB at 100 kHz respectively;at 2~6 V supply voltage,the supply current is 30 μA,the temperature coefficient is 30.38 ppm/℃,and the voltage regulation rate is 71.47 μV/V. The bandgap voltage reference is suitable for LDOs circuit which has the requirements of low-power consumption and high PSR.

  9. Influence of Copper Vapor on Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker Arcs During Stationary and Moving States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; RONG Mingzhe; WU Yi; XU Tiejun; SUN Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    The influence of copper vapor on the low-voltage circuit breaker arcs is studied. A three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) model of arc motion under the effect of external magnetic field is built up. By adopting the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT based on control-volume method, the above MHD model is solved. For the mediums of air-1% Cu and air-10% Cu, the distributions of stationary temperature, pressure, electrical potential and the arc motion processes are compared with those of a pure air arc. The copper vapor diffusion process in the arc chamber and the distribution of copper vapor mass concentration are also simulated. The results shows that the copper vapor has a cooling effect on the arc plasma and can decrease the stationary voltage as well. Moreover, the presence of copper vapor can decelerate the arc motion in the quenching chambers. The maximal copper vapor concentration locates behind the arc root because of the existence of a "double vortex" near the electrodes.

  10. Determining interface properties limiting open-circuit voltage in heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Riley E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Mangan, Niall M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Li, Jian V. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Lee, Yun Seog [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    2017-05-09

    The development of new thin-film photovoltaic (PV) absorbers is often hindered by the search for an optimal heterojunction contact; an unoptimized contact may be mistaken for poor quality of the underlying absorber, making it difficult to assess the reasons for poor performance. Therefore, quantifying the loss in device efficiency and open-circuit voltage (VOC) as a result of the interface is a critical step in evaluating a new material. In the present work, we fabricate thin-film PV devices using cuprous oxide (Cu2O), with several different n-type heterojunction contacts. Their current-voltage characteristics are measured over a range of temperatures and illumination intensities (JVTi). We quantify the loss in VOC due to the interface and determine the effective energy gap at the interface. The effective interface gap measured by JVTi matches the gap measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, albeit with higher energy resolution and an order of magnitude faster. We discuss potential artifacts in JVTi measurements and areas where analytical models are insufficient. Applying JVTi to complete devices, rather than incomplete material stacks, suggests that it can be a quick, accurate method to assess the loss due to unoptimized interface band offsets in thin-film PV devices.

  11. Ultra high open circuit voltage (>1 V) of poly-3-hexylthiophene based organic solar cells with concentrated light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    One approach to increasing polymer solar cell efficiency is to blend poly-(3-hexyl-thiophene) with poorly electron accepting fullerene derivatives to obtain higher open circuit voltage (Voc). In this letter concentrated light is used to study the electrical properties of cell operation at up...... to 2000 solar intensities of these photoactive blends. Comparison of solar cells based on five different fullerene derivatives shows that at both short circuit and open circuit conditions, recombination remains unchanged up to 50 suns. Determination of Voc at 2000 suns demonstrated that the same...

  12. Investigation of the interaction between the power electronic circuit and power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, H.P.; Hermann, R.; Knuth, D.; Schwarzenau, R.

    1977-05-01

    Sources and consequences of the interaction between power electronics, power supply systems and telecommunications equipment were examined with the aid of measuring procedures and are presented here, using selected examples from traction and industrial drive technology. Apart from this the most important variables necessary to assess the power-line load, such as power factor, relative harmonic content and noise current, were calculated for conventional and low feedback effects converters taking various influencing factors into consideration. Another point of main emphasis in this research work is the analysis of the energy conditions prevailing in static converters for single-phase and three-phase supplies in particular in the case of pulsing methods for power control free of feedback effects. The methods and circuits for compensation and balancing of surge loads are described in detail in accordance with their technological significance. In the field of static high speed reactive power compensation with thyristor-controlled power capacitors new circuits and control techniques were developed. Work in the field of filter circuits reveals new application possibilities in power supply-systems with a high load of harmonic currents. Innovated noise current-reducing converter-wiring and controlled tuned capacitor banks can contribute to the prevention of mains resonance and other interferring factors influencing the performance of telecommunications equipment.

  13. OPC Server and BridgeView Application for High Voltage Power Supply Lecroy 1458

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project was to develop an OPC server to communicate over an RS232 serial line. This communication media is commonly used with commercial instruments. The development was made for a High Voltage power supply in the context of the Alice [1] experiment. In addition, the structured modular concept will allow changing the transmission media or power supply type with little effort. The high voltage power supply should be accessible remotely through a network. OPC[2] is an acronym for OLE[3] for Process Control. OPC is based on the DCOM [3] communication protocol, which allows communication with any computer running a Windows based OS. This standard is widely used in industry to access device data through Windows applications. The concept is based on the client-server architecture. The hardware and the software architecture are described. Subsequently details of the implemented programs are given with emphasis on the possibility to replace parts of the software in order to use differ...

  14. Transient Recovery Voltages at the Main 132kV Line Bay GIS Circuit Breaker in a Windfarm

    OpenAIRE

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Okholm, J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) across the terminals of the main 132kV Line Bay GIS circuit breaker (GIS CB) for Walney 2, second phase of the Walney Offshore Wind Farm. Several simulations were performed where the influence of different parameters in the network was evaluated during a fault in the onshore substation. The rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) and the maximum crest voltage (Uc) of the TRV across the GIS CB were compar...

  15. High voltage power supplies for ITER RF heating and current drive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, T., E-mail: thibault.gassmann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arambhadiya, B.; Beaumont, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baruah, U.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion For Energy, C/3 Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Darbos, C.; Purohit, D.; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Albajar, F. [Fusion For Energy, C/3 Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gandini, F.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Omori, T. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Parmar, D.; Patel, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Rathi, D. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Singh, N.P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2011-10-15

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems to be installed for the ITER fusion machine are the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC) and, although not in the first phase of the project, lower hybrid (LH). These systems require high voltage, high current power supplies (HVPS) in CW operation. These HVPS should deliver around 50 MW electrical power to each of the RF H and CD systems with stringent requirements in terms of accuracy, voltage ripple, response time, turn off time and fault energy. The PSM (Pulse Step Modulation) technology has demonstrated over the past 20 years its ability to fulfill these requirements in many industrial facilities and other fusion reactors and has therefore been chosen as reference design for the IC and EC HVPS systems. This paper describes the technical specifications, including interfaces, the resulting constraints on the design, the conceptual design proposed for ITER EC and IC HVPS systems and the current status.

  16. Charging System of ECRH High-Voltage Power Supply and its Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国富; 丁同海; 刘保华; 姜书方

    2003-01-01

    High-voltage power supply (HVPS) of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating(ECRH) for HT-7 and HT-7U is presently being constructed. The high voltage (100 kV) en-ergy of HVPS is stored in the capacitor banks, and they can power one or two gyrotrons. All theoperation of the charging system will be done by the control system, where the field signals areinterfaced to programmable logic controller (PLC). The use of PLC not only simplifies the controlsystem, but also enhances the reliability. The software written by using configuration softwareinstalled in the master computer allows for remote and multiple operator control, and the statusand data information is also remotely available.

  17. A New Opamp-less CMOS Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit%一种新型无运放CMOS带隙基准电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯树; 王永禄; 张跃龙

    2012-01-01

    Theory of bandgap reference voltage and conventional bandgap reference circuits were presented, and a novel bandgap reference circuit without op-amp was designed. In the circuit, MOS current mirrors and negative feedback clamping technique were used to avoid the use of operational amplifier, thus eliminating effects of offset and power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) of the operational amplifier on accuracy of bandgap voltage reference. Based on 0. 18 μm standard CMOS process, the circuit was simulated using Spectre of Cadence. Simulation results showed that the bandgap voltage reference circuit had a temperature coefficient of 6. 73 ×10-6/℃ in the temperature range from -40 °C to 125 ℃, and a PSRR of 54. 8 dB, and it consumed 0. 25 mW of power from 2. 5 V supply.%介绍了带隙基准原理和常规的带隙基准电路,设计了一种新型无运放带隙基准电路.该电路利用MOS电流镜和负反馈箝位技术,避免了运放的使用,从而消除了运放带隙基准电路中运放的失调电压和电源抑制比等对基准源精度的影响.该新型电路比传统无运放带隙基准电路具有更高的精度和电源抑制比.基于0.18μm标准CMOS工艺,在Cadence Spectre环境下仿真.采用2.5V电源电压,在-40℃~125℃温度范围的温度系数为6.73×10-6/℃,电源抑制比为54.8dB,功耗仅有0.25 mW.

  18. Interface Modification of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Pivalic Acid to Enhance the Open-circuit Voltage

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Pivalic acid (PVA) was used as a new coadsorbent to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to modify the interface between the TiO2 films and electrolyte. The addition of PVA improved the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of devices by 8% by enhancing the open-circuit voltage. Copyright © 2009 The Chemical Society of Japan.

  19. Online high voltage power supply ripple estimation and feedforward in LEDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.

    1999-06-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. They propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points.

  20. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  1. A modified circuit topology for inductive pulsed power supply based on HTSPPTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Zhang, Cunshan; Wang, Teng; Gao, Mingliang; Li, Zhenmei; Zou, Guofeng

    2016-10-01

    High temperature superconducting pulsed power transformer (HTSPPT) provides an efficient method for inductive energy storage and current multiplication. The primary inductor of HTSPPT used for energy storage is made of high temperature superconducting coils, and the secondary inductor used for current pulse generation is made of normal conductor coils. In the initial circuit, the secondary inductor generates current pulse by switching out the coupled primary superconducting inductor. However, during the switching period, the leakage flux caused by imperfect coupling and the sudden change in primary current induce a voltage across the opening switch which exceeds the affordability of modern solid-state switches. In previous studies, a half-cycle oscillatory discharge circuit is proposed to mitigate these problems by using a capacitor to recapture the energy in the leakage flux and to slow down the turnoff of current in the primary. However, there are still some problems should be settled. For example, the output pulse cannot be adjusted, the residual energy cannot be recovered and the capacitor branch circuit may have an impact on the charging process. In the paper, a modified discharge circuit topology is introduced to solve these problems. A multi-module system comprising of several HTSPPTs charging in series connection and discharging in parallel is also designed and simulated. This system can be used to power an electromagnetic emission device.

  2. Low Voltage Power Efficient Tunable Shaper Circuit With Rail-To-Rail Output Range for the HYDE Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, J.; López-Ahumada, R.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, T.; Torralba, A.; Carvajal, R. G.; Martel, I.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a low voltage, low power readout front-end system implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology. A conventional architecture that consists of charge sensitive amplifier, pole/zero cancellation and shaper has been used. The work focuses on the design of novel circuit topologies in low voltage environment minimizing the power consumption in modern deep submicron CMOS technologies. An operational amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing that uses a gain boosting technique and class-AB output stage without extra power consumption has been used for the shaper. The circuit combines excellent performances with simplicity of design and suitability for low voltage operation. The system is intended to work with silicon detectors for nuclear physics applications and is optimized to match an input capacitance of 10 pF. The system features a peaking time of 500 ns, a power dissipation of 1.57 mW/channel and an equivalent noise charge of 201 e-.

  3. Symmetry-Breaking Charge Transfer in a Zinc Chlorodipyrrin Acceptor for High Open Circuit Voltage Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Bartynski, Andrew N.

    2015-04-29

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Low open-circuit voltages significantly limit the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Typical strategies to enhance the open-circuit voltage involve tuning the HOMO and LUMO positions of the donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively, to increase the interfacial energy gap or to tailor the donor or acceptor structure at the D/A interface. Here, we present an alternative approach to improve the open-circuit voltage through the use of a zinc chlorodipyrrin, ZCl [bis(dodecachloro-5-mesityldipyrrinato)zinc], as an acceptor, which undergoes symmetry-breaking charge transfer (CT) at the donor/acceptor interface. DBP/ZCl cells exhibit open-circuit voltages of 1.33 V compared to 0.88 V for analogous tetraphenyldibenzoperyflanthrene (DBP)/C60-based devices. Charge transfer state energies measured by Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence show that C60 forms a CT state of 1.45 ± 0.05 eV in a DBP/C60-based organic photovoltaic device, while ZCl as acceptor gives a CT state energy of 1.70 ± 0.05 eV in the corresponding device structure. In the ZCl device this results in an energetic loss between ECT and qVOC of 0.37 eV, substantially less than the 0.6 eV typically observed for organic systems and equal to the recombination losses seen in high-efficiency Si and GaAs devices. The substantial increase in open-circuit voltage and reduction in recombination losses for devices utilizing ZCl demonstrate the great promise of symmetry-breaking charge transfer in organic photovoltaic devices.

  4. 一种高电源抑制比低噪声的带隙基准源%A High Power Supply Rejection Ratio Low Noise Voltage Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 陈远龙; 王影; 张国俊

    2016-01-01

    基于SMIC 0.18μm CMOS工艺,设计了一种高电源抑制比低噪声的带隙基准源。此电路在3.3V电源电压下具有较好的温度系数,-40℃~125℃范围内的温度系数为8.6 ppm/℃,带隙基准电路输出电压约为1.195V。通过在基准中运放加入电源抑制比增强级电路提高中低频范围PSRR性能,在电路输出端再引入低通滤波器电路以提高中高频范围PSRR性能,并且低通滤波器有助于降低整个电路的噪声。采用Spectre软件进行仿真,结果显示,电源抑制比为-130.4@dc,-77.6@100KHz,输出噪声为24.8nV@100KHz。该带隙基准源电路非常适合于应用在高电源电压抑制比、低噪声的LDO电路中。%Based on SMIC 0.18μm CMOS process, a high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) low noise bandgap voltage reference was designed. The temperature coefficient of this circuit achieved 8.6ppm/℃ in the -40℃~125℃ temperature range when the input voltage was 3.3V, and the output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit wad 1.195V. A PSRR enhance stage was inserted into op-amp to enhance PSRR in low frequency range, and low pass filter was inserted in voltage reference to improve PSRR performance in high frequency range, besides the low pass filter was helpful to reduce noise of the whole circuit. The circuit was simulated with Spectre software. Simulation results showed that the PSRR was -130.4dB at dc and -77.6dB at 100KHz respectively, and output noise at 100KHz was 24.8nV. The bandgap voltage reference circuit was suitable for the high PSRR and low noise LDO.

  5. Conceptual design and circuit analyses for the power supplies of the NIO1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recchia, M., E-mail: mauro.recchia@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Bigi, M. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization phase 1) experiment, whose construction has started in 2010 at Consorzio RFX in Padova in collaboration with INFN-LNL, is a radio frequency Hydrogen negative ion source designed to produce a beam current of 130 mA with 60 keV particle energy. The aim of the experiment is to provide a highly flexible system to test material properties of source components and to benchmark simulation codes for beam optics and plasma behavior. The paper focuses on a conceptual design for NIO1 power supply system on the basis of given operational and performance requirements. The requested ratings fall well within those of products available on the market and the design includes standard commercial solutions for the individual power supplies. The ion source operates at -60 kV with respect to ground, leading to a number of design issues at system level and related to mutual connection between power supplies and load, layout and grounding. These aspects, along with the crucial point of ensuring protection to the arc prone beam source, are reviewed and discussed. The study leads to a scheme integrating high voltage power supplies, high current power supplies and a possible solution for passive protection components at the power supply output.

  6. Frequency-controlled voltage regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Converting input ac to higher frequency reduce size and weight and makes possible unique kind of regulation. Since conversion frequency is above range of human hearing, supply generated on audible noise. It also exploits highfrequency conversion features to regulate its output voltage in novel way. Circuit is inherently short-circuit proof.

  7. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu

    2015-11-01

    We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80-120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  8. Analysis of a dc SQUID readout scheme with voltage feedback circuit and low-noise preamplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Zhang, Yi; Schmelz, Matthias; Mück, Michael; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Lee, Yong-Ho; Stolz, Ronny; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed the dc SQUID with voltage feedback circuit (VFC) and a low-noise room-temperature preamplifier to evaluate the feasibility of a low-noise SQUID direct-coupled readout scheme (DRS), possibly eliminating the need for a two-stage scheme employing a SQUID preamplifier. The passive VFC, connected in parallel to the SQUID, consists of a resistor Rs in series with an inductor L s. This inductor is coupled to the SQUID by a mutual inductance Ms. The purpose of the VFC is to increase the SQUID’s flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient ∂V/∂Φ, thus reducing the preamplifier noise contribution δΦpreamp. However, at the same time, VFC introduces the thermal noise of Rs, δΦR, which may not be negligible. Generally, the noise of the readout scheme, δΦreadout, may thus include both δΦpreamp and δΦR, i.e., δΦreadout2 = δΦpreamp2 + δΦR2. To characterize the SQUID operation with VFC we introduced two dimensionless parameters, r = Rs/Rd and Δ = (M s/Mdyn) - (Rs/R d), where Rd and Mdyn = 1/(∂i/∂Φ) are dynamic properties of the SQUID itself. For assumed intrinsic SQUID parameters, we then numerically analyzed the dependence of δΦreadout noise components on r and Δ to determine their suitable ranges and the minimum of δΦreadout. To verify our analysis, we experimentally characterized, in liquid helium, three niobium SQUIDs with VFC, having suitably chosen r and Δ. The measured SQUID system flux noise was on the order of 1 μΦ0/√Hz, comparable to the intrinsic noise of the SQUID itself. The deduced equivalent voltage noise was comparable to that of a SQUID preamplifier in the two-stage readout. Simple single-stage ultra-low-noise SQUID DRS readout was thus demonstrated.

  9. Theoretical investigation of the open circuit voltage: P3HT/9,9'-bisfluorenylidene derivative devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Silvia

    2014-07-03

    The calculation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) value for a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell is complex due to the wide number of parameters involved in the processes. This study focuses the attention on the molecular parameters involved into the open circuit voltage and the PCE definitions and in particular on the electronic coupling and on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the acceptor. A simplified model system composed by a polymer as donor and a novel class of molecules (9,9'-bisfluorenylidene derivatives) as acceptor has been proposed as prototype to simulate the BHJ organic solar cell interface. Several substituents on different positions are tested and the chemical nature/position of substituents have a relevant influence on the electronic coupling and energy level values. Geometrical and electronic properties are obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations, respectively. A new hypothesis suggests that the minimization of the electronic coupling between the LUMO of the acceptor and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the donor can enhance the PCE reducing the recombination interface processes and calculations showing the possibility to minimize this parameter and fine-tune acceptor energy level through the acceptor functionalization. An accurate balance between electronic coupling and on the LUMO of the acceptor allows to propose the more performing candidate as electron acceptor in a P3HT/99'BF derivative BHJ solar cell.

  10. Simulation and Experimental Study of Arc Column Expansion After Ignition in Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; RONG Mingzhe; WU Yi; XU Tiejun; SUN Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    The dynamicprocess of arc pressure and corresponding arc column expansion, which is the main feature after arc ignition and has a significant effect on the breaking behaviour of low -voltage circuit breakers, is studied. By constructing a three dimensional mathematical model of air arc plasma and adopting the Control Volume Method, the parameters of arc plasma including temperature and pressure axe obtained. The variations of pressure field and temperature field with time are simulated. The result indicates that there are six stages for the process of arc column expansion according to the variation of pressure in arc chamber. In the first stage, the maximal pressure locates in the region close to cathode, and in the second stage the maximal pressure shifts to the region close to the anode. In the third stage, the pressure difference between the middle of arc column and the ambient gas is very large, so the arc column begins to expand apparently. In the fourth stage, the pressure wave propagates towards both ends and the maximal pressure appears at the two ends when the pressure wave reaches both sidewalls. In the fifth stage, the pressure wave is reflected and collides in the middle of the arc chamber. In the last stage, the propagation and reflection of pressure wave will repeat several times until a steady burning state is reached. In addition, the experimental results of arc column expansion, corresponding to the arc pressure variation, are presented to verify the simulation results.

  11. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields around High Voltage Power Supply in Hamadan Hospital Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Rostampour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Biological effects of non-ionizing radiation on the body of living organisms have been studied by researchers in recent years. High Voltage medical equipments are one of the sources generating electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic field intensity of the medical equipment installed at Hamadan hospitals and the potential hazards were investigated. The main purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of the electromagnetic field around high voltage power supplies in radiology ward of the Hamadan hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and we investigated the electromagnetic fields intensity around high voltage power supplies at Hamadan hospital wards. All measurements were performed using a calibrated Tesla-meter (HI-3603. The measurements were conducted at a range of distances varying from 25 cm to 3 m around the supporting high voltage power supply. Results: We found that the maximum intensity of the magnetic and electric fields at a distance of less than 1 m around the high voltage power supply was 29.625±5.738 mGauss and 25.17±0.92 V/m respectively, which is less than the safe amounts recommended by the ICNIRP for occupational exposure (5000 mG and 10000 V/m and even for public exposure (1000 mG and and 5000 V/m. The minimum intensity of EM fields for a less than 3 m distance was found to be 0.1±0.005 mGauss, which relates to a CT-scanner system installed at Farshchian hospital. Among the whole equipments evaluated in the current survey, the most intense magnetic and electric field was found to be for imaging technician office, which was 3.050±0.004 mGauss and 128.88±0.05 V/m respectively; it is lower than the tolerances recommended by the ICNIRP. Conclusion: According to our results, it seems that the EM field occupational exposure for radiation workers working at Hamadan hospitals does not exceed

  12. Fabrication of Ultra-Thin Printed Organic TFT CMOS Logic Circuits Optimized for Low-Voltage Wearable Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Shiwaku, Rei; Yokosawa, Koji; Shiba, Takeo; Mamada, Masashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-05-09

    Ultrathin electronic circuits that can be manufactured by using conventional printing technologies are key elements necessary to realize wearable health sensors and next-generation flexible electronic devices. Due to their low level of power consumption, complementary (CMOS) circuits using both types of semiconductors can be easily employed in wireless devices. Here, we describe ultrathin CMOS logic circuits, for which not only the source/drain electrodes but also the semiconductor layers were printed. Both p-type and n-type organic thin film transistor devices were employed in a D-flip flop circuit in the newly developed stacked structure and exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, including good carrier mobilities of 0.34 and 0.21 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-1), and threshold voltages of nearly 0 V with low operating voltages. These printed organic CMOS D-flip flop circuits exhibit operating frequencies of 75 Hz and demonstrate great potential for flexible and printed electronics technology, particularly for wearable sensor applications with wireless connectivity.

  13. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: yamada-takahiro@aist.go.jp [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Maezawa, Masaaki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Urano, Chiharu [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 3, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrated RSFQ digital components of a new quantum voltage noise source. • A pseudo-random number generator and variable pulse number multiplier are designed. • Fabrication process is based on four Nb wiring layers and Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions. • The circuits successfully operated with wide dc bias current margins, 80–120%. - Abstract: We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80–120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  14. Fabrication of Ultra-Thin Printed Organic TFT CMOS Logic Circuits Optimized for Low-Voltage Wearable Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Shiwaku, Rei; Yokosawa, Koji; Shiba, Takeo; Mamada, Masashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-05-01

    Ultrathin electronic circuits that can be manufactured by using conventional printing technologies are key elements necessary to realize wearable health sensors and next-generation flexible electronic devices. Due to their low level of power consumption, complementary (CMOS) circuits using both types of semiconductors can be easily employed in wireless devices. Here, we describe ultrathin CMOS logic circuits, for which not only the source/drain electrodes but also the semiconductor layers were printed. Both p-type and n-type organic thin film transistor devices were employed in a D-flip flop circuit in the newly developed stacked structure and exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, including good carrier mobilities of 0.34 and 0.21 cm2 V‑1 sec‑1, and threshold voltages of nearly 0 V with low operating voltages. These printed organic CMOS D-flip flop circuits exhibit operating frequencies of 75 Hz and demonstrate great potential for flexible and printed electronics technology, particularly for wearable sensor applications with wireless connectivity.

  15. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengjun, E-mail: wufengjun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cui, Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan, Hongbin [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huajian [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Bin [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohui [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply. - Highlights: • Applying SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply improves its grid-side performance. • New Topology and its control strategies make an accelerator power supply have bidirectional power flow ability. • Hardware and software of controller provide a good reference for design of this new type of power supply.

  16. Electrical Power Supply to Offshore Oil Installations by High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Joergen Chr.

    2001-07-01

    This study was initiated to investigate if it could be feasible to supply offshore oil installations in the North Sea with electrical power from land. A prestudy of alternative converter topologies indicated that the most promising solution would be to investigate a conventional system with reduced synchronous compensator rating. The study starts with a summary of the state of power supply to offshore installations today, and a short review of classical HVDC transmission. It goes on to analyse how a passive network without sources influences the inverter. The transmission, with its current controlled rectifier and large inductance, is simulated as a current source. Under these circumstances the analysis shows that the network frequency has to adapt in order to keep the active and reactive power balance until the controllers are able to react. The concept of firing angle for a thyristor is limited in a system with variable frequency, the actual control parameter is the firing delay time. Sensitivity analysis showed some astonishing consequences. The frequency rises both by an increase in the active and in the reactive load. The voltage falls by an increase in the active load, but rises by an increase in the inductive load. Two different control principles for the system of inverter, synchronous compensator and load are defined. The first takes the reference for the firing delay time from the fundamental voltage at the point of common coupling. The second takes the reference for the firing delay time from the simulated EMF of the synchronous compensator. Of these, the second is the more stable and should be chosen as the basis for a possible control system. Two simulation tools are applied. The first is a quasi-phasor model running on Matlab with Simulink. The other is a time domain model in KREAN. The time domain model is primarily used for the verification of the quasi-phasor model, and shows that quasi-phasors is still a valuable tool for making a quick analysis

  17. Simulation Study on the Open-Circuit Voltage of Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Solar Cells Using AMPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Omer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure simulation program was used to simulate Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Solar Cell. The simulated result of illuminated current density-voltage characteristics was in a good agreement with experimental values. The dependence of the open-circuit voltage on the characteristics of the a-Si:H intrinsic layer was investigated. The simulation result shows that the open-circuit voltage does not depend on the thickness of the intrinsic layer. The open-circuit voltage decreases when the front contact barrier height is small or the energy gap of the intrinsic layer is small. The open-circuit voltage increases when the distribution of the tail states is sharp or the capture cross sections of these states are small.

  18. Typical Circuit of Switching Power Supply and Common Fault Analysis%开关电源典型电路及常见故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金萍

    2014-01-01

    Switching power supply is known as high efficiency and energy conservation.It is of high efficency because of its less power consumption.Therefore,it has become the main product for voltage stabilization.In this paper,typical functional circuit of switching power supply,to-gether with its fault is expounded.%开关电源被誉为高效节能型电源,由于自身消耗功率小,因而效率高,目前成为稳压电源的主流产品。本文主要阐述开关电源中的典型功能电路及常见故障分析。

  19. Tesla’s high voltage and high frequency generators with oscillatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Jovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles that represent the basics of the work of the high voltage and high frequency generator with oscillating circuits will be discussed. Until 1891, Tesla made and used mechanical generators with a large number of extruded poles for the frequencies up to about 20 kHz. The first electric generators based on a new principle of a weakly coupled oscillatory circuits he used for the wireless signal transmission, for the study of the discharges in vacuum tubes, the wireless energy transmission, for the production of the cathode rays, that is x-rays and other experiments. Aiming to transfer the signals and the energy to any point of the surface of the Earth, in the late of 19th century, he had discovered and later patented a new type of high frequency generator called a magnifying transmitter. He used it to examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the Earth in experiments in Colorado Springs in the period 1899-1900. Tesla observed the formation of standing electromagnetic waves on the surface of the Earth by measuring radiated electric field from distant lightning thunderstorm. He got the idea to generate the similar radiation to produce the standing waves. On the one hand, signal transmission, i.e. communication at great distances would be possible and on the other hand, with more powerful and with at least three magnifying transmitters the wireless transmission of energy without conductors at any point of the Earth surface could also be achieved. The discovery of the standing waves on the surface of the Earth and the invention of the magnifying transmitter he claimed his greatest inventions. Less than two years later, at the end of 1901, he designed and started to build a much stronger magnifying transmitter on Long Island near New York City (the Wardenclyffe tower wishing to become a world telecommunication center. During the tower construction, he elaborated the plans for an even stronger transmitter based on

  20. Study program to improve the open-circuit voltage of low resistivity single crystal silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnucci, J. A.; Matthei, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 14 month program to improve the open circuit voltage of low resistivity silicon solar cells are described. The approach was based on ion implantation in 0.1- to 10.0-ohm-cm float-zone silicon. As a result of the contract effort, open circuit voltages as high as 645 mV (AMO 25 C) were attained by high dose phosphorus implantation followed by furnace annealing and simultaneous SiO2 growth. One key element was to investigate the effects of bandgap narrowing caused by high doping concentrations in the junction layer. Considerable effort was applied to optimization of implant parameters, selection of furnace annealing techniques, and utilization of pulsed electron beam annealing to minimize thermal process-induced defects in the completed solar cells.

  1. Modelling, stability and control of voltage behaviour in power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David J. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Hisken, Ian A. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of a line of work on mid to long term voltages stability analysis and control in power systems. The results are based on use of a novel approach to dynamic load modelling using aggregate nonlinear structures. In general, the model for the transmission network and supply end dynamics is of the hybrid differential - algebraic - discrete kind. Various stability questions are precisely formulated and analysed in terms of network and load characteristics (steady-state and transient). The results are shown to be a useful framework for deriving criteria of the where, when and how much kind for various control actions such as load Thedding and tap-blocking. (author) 47 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Reliability and Power Quality Evaluation of High-Voltage Supplied Customer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Jun; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yonaga, Shigeru

    Recently, a number of electric consumers have concerned about the reliability of electricity to be served. For example, some consumers need the electricity with a higher reliability by the automation of manufacturing processes. On the other hand, some consumers need the electricity of a cheaper price even if the reliability becomes a little worse. Under such circumstances, it is necessary that power suppliers evaluate the needs of every consumers precisely and propose the most desirable measures for meeting their requirements. This paper develops a tool to analyze the reliability for high-voltage supplied consumers quantitatively. Further, this paper presents a method for evaluating the outage cost of consumers to help them choose the most appropriate measures for maintaining the reliability. The proposed method applies the fuzzy reasoning approach. The validity of the proposed method is ascertained through some numerical simulations.

  3. Discharge ignition in the diaphragm configuration supplied by DC non-pulsing voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlochová, L.; Hlavatá, L.; Kozáková, Z.; Krčma, F.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the ignition of the discharge in the diaphragm configuration generated in water solutions containing supporting NaCl electrolyte. The reactor has volume of 110 ml and it is made of polycarbonate. HV electrodes made of stainless steel are placed in this reactor. Ceramic (Shapal-MTM) diaphragm is placed in the barrier separating the cathode and the anode space. An electric power source supplies the reactor by constant DC voltage up to 4 kV and electric current up to 300 mA. The discharge ignition is compared in the reactor with different sizes of diaphragms. Measurements are carried out in electrolyte solutions with the same conductivity. Images of plasma streamers and bubble formation are taken by an ICCD camera iStar 734. Electrical characteristics are measured by an oscilloscope LeCroy LT 374 L in order to determine breakdown moments at different experimental conditions.

  4. Requirements on medium-voltage switchgear for traction power supply; Anforderungen an Mittelspannungsschaltanlagen zur Bahnenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girbert, K.H.; Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Differing requirements to be met by medium-voltage switchgear in conjunction with historical developments, applicable standards and regulations and customers' conditions of operation were the factors responsible for the use of open-air switchgear in outdoor and air-insulated and gas-insulated equipment in indoor environments. The requirements made today on single-phase equipment and two-phase equipment for feeding autotransformer systems are described. Priority focus in the article is given to 25 kV 50 Hz applications though the information applies to 1 AC 15 kV 16.7 Hz equipment in principle as well. The equipment is compared with that used for d.c. railways and public power supply systems. (orig.)

  5. Design and Development of a control system for the Drift Tube Chamber High Voltage Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    Leon Vega, Luis Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper contains information related to the design and development of a control and data acquisition manager implemented in WinCC, a Siemens SCADA system. The goal was to manage a CAEN HV (High Voltage) system for powering a Drift Tube (DT) chamber of the CMS experiment. Basically, this manager consists of two sections: a friendly user interface and powerful scripts to manage the back-end. It is in charge of adjusting the power supply settings to the correct values needed for the DT Chamber operations (ON, OFF, Standby), depending of the requirements of the operator, managing automatically all the transition process. Also, the manager is in charge of configuring the archiving process for acquiring data and providing the history of the system. It also implements the monitoring of the status of each connected channel, alerting in case it is needed.

  6. The effect of diffusion induced lattice stress on the open-circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that diffusion induced stresses in low resistivity silicon solar cells can significantly reduce both the open-circuit voltage and collection efficiency. The degradation mechanism involves stress induced changes in both the minority carrier mobility and the diffusion length. Thermal recovery characteristics indicate that the stresses are relieved at higher temperatures by divacancy flow (silicon self diffusion). The level of residual stress in as-fabricated cells was found to be negligible in the cells tested.

  7. A new generation of medium-voltage switchboards and circuit-breakers; Eine neue Generation von Mittelspannungsschaltanlagen und -leistungsschaltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saemann, D.; Weichert, R.; Werner, S. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Energieuebertragung und -verteilung

    1998-04-06

    Todays market and the trend towards globalization of business both call for new products. The authors describe the new generation of medium-voltage switchgears and circuit-breakers, along with the benefit they bring for customers. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Der Markt und die Globalisierung des Geschaeftes fordern neue Produkte. Die Verfasser beschreiben die neue Generation von Mittelspannungsschaltanlagen und -schaltern sowie deren Nutzen fuer die Anwender. (orig./RHM)

  8. Limitations on the open-circuit voltage imposed by P/+/ and N/+/ regions in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibib, M. A.; Fossum, J. G.

    1981-02-01

    It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the emitter recombination current, which limits the open-circuit voltage of silicon solar cells, can be more easily suppressed in P(+)N cells than in N(+)P cells. This result is due to fundamental effects that occur in heavily doped silicon: degeneracy of the majority charge carriers, Auger recombination, and energy-band-gap narrowing. Cell designs to suppress the emitter current are discussed, and experimental data supporting our theoretical analysis are presented.

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility between secondary and high voltage circuits; Compatibilidade eletromagnetica entre circuitos secundarios e de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Mario Fabiano [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-11-01

    Electromagnetic fields generated by high voltage circuits may affect the performance of sensible loads in an electric power substation. In order to reduce such interferences, and guarantee the adequate performance of the equipment, this work proposes some measures which may be applied to the project during the installation phase, such as the equalization of high frequency power, and the utilization of protective equipment as well as the integration of grounding systems 9 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Understanding device-structure-induced variations in open-circuit voltage for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Uemura, Yu; Zhou, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Azumi, Reiko; Yoshida, Yuji; Chikamatsu, Masayuki

    2015-05-27

    We investigate the structural influences on the device performance, especially on open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) in squaraine (SQ)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cells. Simply changing the SQ thickness could lead to 40% variation in V(OC) from 0.62 to 0.86 V. The ionization potential (IP) of SQ films and recombination at the anode surface as well as donor/acceptor (D/A) interface sensitively vary with film thicknesses, which account for the shifts in V(OC). The anode recombination can be effectively suppressed by preventing direct contact between C60 and the anode with a buffer layer, delivering an elevated V(OC). Through polarized infrared-multiple-angle incidence resolution spectroscopy measurement, the molecular structure of SQ films is found to gradually evolve from lying-down on indium-tin oxide substrates with noncentrosymmetric orientation at low thicknesses to random structure at high thicknesses. The different molecular orientation may yield different strengths of electronic coupling, which affects the charge-carrier recombination and thus V(OC). Moreover, the oriented SQ films would spontaneously compose aligned dipole moments at the D/A interface because of the strong dipolar effects in SQ molecules identified by density functional theory calculations, whereas no aligned interfacial dipole moment exists in the random structure. The resulting interfacial dipole moments would form an electric field at the D/A interface, leading to variations in the IP and thus impacting V(OC). Our findings demonstrate that V(OC) in organic photovoltaic cells is critically associated with the molecular orientation that affects the charge-carrier recombination and interfacial dipole alignment, which should be seriously taken into consideration for the design of organic molecules and optimization of the cell efficiency.

  11. NBTI-Aware Transient Fault Rate Analysis Method for Logic Circuit Based on Probability Voltage Transfer Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI circuits has become increasingly susceptible to transient faults induced by environmental noise with the scaling of technology. Some commonly used fault tolerance strategies require statistical methods to accurately estimate the fault rate in different parts of the logic circuit, and Monte Carlo (MC simulation is often applied to complete this task. However, the MC method suffers from impractical computation costs due to the size of the circuits. Furthermore, circuit aging effects, such as negative bias temperature instability (NBTI, will change the characteristics of the circuit during its lifetime, leading to a change in the circuit’s noise margin. This change will increase the complexity of transient fault rate estimation tasks. In this paper, an NBTI-aware statistical analysis method based on probability voltage transfer characteristics is proposed for combinational logic circuit. This method can acquire accurate fault rates using a discrete probability density function approximation process, thus resolving the computation cost problem of the MC method. The proposed method can also consider aging effects and analyze statistical changes in the fault rates. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the MC simulation, our method can achieve computation times that are two orders of magnitude shorter while maintaining an error rate less than 9%.

  12. Approaches to Suppressing Shaft Voltage in Brushless DC Motor Driven by PWM Inverter Based on Ungrounded Common-Mode Equivalent Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akihiko; Iimori, Kenichi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes an ungrounded common-mode equivalent circuit for a motor driven by a voltage-source PWM inverter. When the capacitance of the rotor was is small, the reversal of the polarities of the common-mode voltage and shaft voltage is observed. In order to model this reversal, a bridge-type equivalent circuit is proposed. On the basis of calculations and experiment, it is found the values and polarity of the shaft voltage can be are accurately determined with the proposed equivalent circuit. Furthermore, the capacitance value of the insulated rotor required to make the shaft voltage equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of the bearing grease is obtained.

  13. Interface band gap narrowing behind open circuit voltage losses in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Palsgaard, Mattias Lau Nøhr; Gunst, Tue

    2017-01-01

    We present evidence that bandgap narrowing at the heterointerface may be a major cause of the large open circuit voltage deficit of Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells. Bandgap narrowing is caused by surface states that extend the Cu2ZnSnS4valence band into the forbidden gap. Those surface states are consi......We present evidence that bandgap narrowing at the heterointerface may be a major cause of the large open circuit voltage deficit of Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells. Bandgap narrowing is caused by surface states that extend the Cu2ZnSnS4valence band into the forbidden gap. Those surface states...... Zn to passivate those surface states. Focusing future research on Zn-based buffers is expected to significantly improve the open circuit voltage and efficiency of pure-sulfide Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells....

  14. Ultra-high open-circuit voltage of perovskite solar cells induced by nucleation thermodynamics on rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ding, Bin; Chu, Qian-Qian; Yang, Guan-Jun; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chang-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-01-01

    To obtain high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, it is highly important to realise a high open-circuit voltage. Calculation results based on a modified diode model have indicated that a low bare ratio ϕ of the perovskite film is the most important factor determining the open-circuit voltage, where ϕ is defined as the ratio of the projection of the uncovered area of the perovskite film to the apparent area of the total substrate surface. To realise a low ϕ, we investigate the nucleation behaviour of crystals on rough substrates. The analysis results predict that, when CH3NH3PbI3 is deposited on conventional transparent conductive oxide substrates such as fluorine-doped tin oxide, preferential heterogeneous nucleation will occur on the concave regions of the substrate; then, depending on the subsequent growth step, full coverage of the perovskite film at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales is realised. As a result, an ultra-high open-circuit voltage, i.e., 1.20 V, can be achieved in devices using the full coverage CH3NH3PbI3 film. The thermodynamics theory of precipitation nucleation should shed light on solution engineering of thin films. PMID:28401890

  15. Ultra-high open-circuit voltage of perovskite solar cells induced by nucleation thermodynamics on rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ding, Bin; Chu, Qian-Qian; Yang, Guan-Jun; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Chang-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-04-01

    To obtain high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, it is highly important to realise a high open-circuit voltage. Calculation results based on a modified diode model have indicated that a low bare ratio ϕ of the perovskite film is the most important factor determining the open-circuit voltage, where ϕ is defined as the ratio of the projection of the uncovered area of the perovskite film to the apparent area of the total substrate surface. To realise a low ϕ, we investigate the nucleation behaviour of crystals on rough substrates. The analysis results predict that, when CH3NH3PbI3 is deposited on conventional transparent conductive oxide substrates such as fluorine-doped tin oxide, preferential heterogeneous nucleation will occur on the concave regions of the substrate; then, depending on the subsequent growth step, full coverage of the perovskite film at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales is realised. As a result, an ultra-high open-circuit voltage, i.e., 1.20 V, can be achieved in devices using the full coverage CH3NH3PbI3 film. The thermodynamics theory of precipitation nucleation should shed light on solution engineering of thin films.

  16. Wireless Feedback Contact-Less Power Supply Circuit Design for Lights of Automobiles%基于车灯的无线反馈非接触供电电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成虎; 李娜; 瓮嘉民; 陈冰洋; 张昆

    2011-01-01

    为了能在汽车的引擎盖等活动部位装设车灯,给出了一种无线反馈稳压的非接触供电车灯电路.无线反馈稳压电路通过无线反馈控制电路的输出电压,达到稳定负载功率的目的,实验证明电路可行.%In order to install lights in car hoods in activities, this paper gives a wireless feedback circuit of contact-less power supply. Wireless voltage feedback circuit through wireless feedback controls output voltage, achieves the purpose of stable load power. Experiments show the circuit is feasible.

  17. Enhancement in open-circuit voltage of implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell by improving the anodic catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ando, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell that generates an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 880 mV. The developed fuel cell is solid-catalyst-based and manufactured from biocompatible materials; thus, it can be implanted to the human body. Additionally, since the cell can be manufactured using a semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process, it can also be manufactured together with CMOS circuits on a single silicon wafer. In the literature, an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell has been reported. However, its OCV is 192 mV, which is insufficient for CMOS circuit operation. In this work, we have enhanced the performance of the fuel cell by improving the electrocatalytic ability of the anode. The prototype with the newly proposed Pt/carbon nanotube (CNT) anode structure successfully achieved an OCV of 880 mV, which is the highest ever reported.

  18. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emirhan Nemutlu

    Full Text Available Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK, creatine kinase (CK, and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2, third (18O3, and fourth (18O4 positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic

  19. The correlation of open-circuit voltage with bandgap in amorphous silicon-based {ital pin} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We briefly review the correlation of open-circuit voltages {ital V}{sub OC} with the bandgap of the intrinsic layer in amorphous silicon based {ital pin} solar cells. We discuss two mechanisms which limit {ital V}{sub OC}: intrinsic layer recombination, and the built-in potential {ital V}{sub BI}. In particular we discuss Li{close_quote}s proposal that the open-circuit voltages in higher bandgap cells ({ital E}{sub G}{gt}1.9 eV) are {ital V}{sub BI}-limited. Based on computer simulations of {ital pin} solar cells we propose that {ital V}{sub BI} limitation occurs when the recombination limit to {ital V}{sub OC} exceeds the cell{close_quote}s field-reversal voltage {ital V}{sub R}. For {ital a}-Si:H based cells this field-reversal voltage occurs at about {ital V}{sub BI}-0.3 V. This proposal would account for the observation that {ital V}{sub BI} limitation occurs for {ital V}{sub OC} significantly smaller than {ital V}{sub BI}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells prepared by layered laser crystallization with 540 mV open circuit voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Experimental Physics I, Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Jia, Guobin; Falk, Fritz [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on a glass substrate are investigated. The solar cell layer structure was generated by a two-step process in which first a 100–600 nm thin seed layer is formed by diode laser crystallization of electron beam evaporated amorphous silicon. In a second step this layer is epitaxially thickened to 2–3.5 μm by layered laser crystallization. In this process further amorphous silicon is deposited and in situ repeatedly is irradiated by excimer laser pulses. The polycrystalline layer consists of grains several hundreds of microns long and several tens of microns wide and it contains a p{sup +}–p–n{sup +} doping profile. After deposition a rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen passivation steps follow. The back and front contacts are prepared after mesa structuring. The influence of the seed layer thickness on the solar cell performance was investigated. In addition, the absorber contamination due to the background pressure during absorber deposition and its influence on the short circuit current density was investigated. The best parameters reached for various solar cells are 540 mV open circuit voltage, 20.3 mA/cm{sup 2} short circuit current density (without light trapping), 75% fill factor, and 5.2% efficiency. - Highlights: • Layered laser crystallization leads to grain sizes of 10–300 μm on glass. • Open circuit voltage of 540 mV and efficiency of 5.2% are achieved. • Short circuit current is influenced by background pressure during deposition. • Short circuit current density of 20.3 mA/cm{sup 2} is reached without light trapping. • Progress requires pressures below 10{sup −7} hPa and deposition rates over 100 nm/min.

  1. Study on Factors for Accurate Open Circuit Voltage Characterizations in Mn-Type Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthawuth Somakettarin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Open circuit voltage (OCV of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO batteries under several experimental operating conditions, and discusses factors for accurate OCV determination. A test system is developed for OCV characterization based on the OCV pulse test method. Various factors for the OCV behavior, such as resting period, step-size of the pulse test, testing current amplitude, hysteresis phenomena, and terminal voltage relationship, are investigated and evaluated. To this end, a general OCV model based on state of charge (SOC tracking is developed and validated with satisfactory results.

  2. A High-Voltage Integrated Circuit Engine for a Dielectrophoresis-based Programmable Micro-Fluidic Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current, K. Wayne; Yuk, Kelvin; McConaghy, Charles; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Schwartz, Jon A.; Vykoukal, Jody V.; Andrews, Craig

    2010-01-01

    A high-voltage (HV) integrated circuit has been demonstrated to transport droplets on programmable paths across its coated surface. This chip is the engine for a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip system. This chip creates DEP forces that move and help inject droplets. Electrode excitation voltage and frequency are variable. With the electrodes driven with a 100V peak-to-peak periodic waveform, the maximum high-voltage electrode waveform frequency is about 200Hz. Data communication rate is variable up to 250kHz. This demonstration chip has a 32×32 array of nominally 100V electrode drivers. It is fabricated in a 130V SOI CMOS fabrication technology, dissipates a maximum of 1.87W, and is about 10.4 mm × 8.2 mm. PMID:23989241

  3. 65NM sub-threshold 11T-SRAM for ultra low voltage applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Aunet, Snorre;

    simulated results. The circuit was simulated for supply voltages from 0.2 V to 0.35 V verifying the robustness of the proposed circuit for different supply voltages. The simulations show a significant improvement in SNM and a 4X improvement in read speed still maintaining a satisfactory write noise margin...

  4. 65NM sub-threshold 11T-SRAM for ultra low voltage applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Aunet, Snorre

    simulated results. The circuit was simulated for supply voltages from 0.2 V to 0.35 V verifying the robustness of the proposed circuit for different supply voltages. The simulations show a significant improvement in SNM and a 4X improvement in read speed still maintaining a satisfactory write noise margin...

  5. Differential Amplifier with Current-Mirror Load: Influence of Current Gain, Early Voltage, and Supply Voltage on the DC Output Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, G. F.; Mayer, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    A differential amplifier composed of an emitter-coupled pair is useful as an example in lecture presentations and laboratory experiments in electronic circuit analysis courses. However, in an active circuit with zero input load V[subscript id], both laboratory measurements and PSPICE and LTspice simulation results for the output voltage…

  6. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant finite control set-model predictive control of a multiphase voltage-source inverter supplying BLDC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehifar, Mehdi; Moreno-Equilaz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Due to its fault tolerance, a multiphase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor can meet high reliability demand for application in electric vehicles. The voltage-source inverter (VSI) supplying the motor is subjected to open circuit faults. Therefore, it is necessary to design a fault-tolerant (FT) control algorithm with an embedded fault diagnosis (FD) block. In this paper, finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) is developed to implement the fault-tolerant control algorithm of a five-phase BLDC motor. The developed control method is fast, simple, and flexible. A FD method based on available information from the control block is proposed; this method is simple, robust to common transients in motor and able to localize multiple open circuit faults. The proposed FD and FT control algorithm are embedded in a five-phase BLDC motor drive. In order to validate the theory presented, simulation and experimental results are conducted on a five-phase two-level VSI supplying a five-phase BLDC motor.

  7. Analog Circuit Design Low Voltage Low Power; Short Range Wireless Front-Ends; Power Management and DC-DC

    CERN Document Server

    Roermund, Arthur; Baschirotto, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 20 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of Low-Voltage Low-Power Data Converters - Chaired by Prof. Anderea Baschirotto, University of Milan-Bicocca Short Range Wireless Front-Ends - Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology Power management and DC-DC - Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Katholieke University Leuven Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.

  8. Critical interfaces in organic solar cells and their influence on the open-circuit voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potscavage, William J; Sharma, Asha; Kippelen, Bernard

    2009-11-17

    Organic photovoltaics, which convert sunlight into electricity with thin films of organic semiconductors, have been the subject of active research over the past 20 years. The global energy challenge has greatly increased interest in this technology in recent years. Low-temperature processing of organic small molecules from the vapor phase or of polymers from solution can confer organic semiconductors with a critical advantage over inorganic photovoltaic materials since the high-temperature processing requirements of the latter limit the range of substrates on which they can be deposited. Unfortunately, despite significant advances, the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells remains low, with maximum values in the range of 6%. A better understanding of the physical processes that determine the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is crucial to enhancing their competitiveness with other thin-film technologies. Maximum values for the photocurrent can be estimated from the light-harvesting capability of the individual molecules or polymers in the device. However, a better understanding of the materials-level processes, particularly those in layer-to-layer interfaces, that determine the open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) in organic solar cells is critical and remains the subject of active research. The conventional wisdom is to use organic semiconductors with smaller band gaps to harvest a larger portion of the solar spectrum. This method is not always an effective prescription for increasing efficiency: it ignores the fact that the value of V(OC) is generally decreased in devices employing materials with smaller band gaps, as is the case with inorganic semiconductors. In this Account, we discuss the influence of the different interfaces formed in organic multilayer photovoltaic devices on the value of V(OC); we use pentacene-C(60) solar cells as a model. In particular, we use top and bottom electrodes with different work function values, finding that V(OC) is

  9. The principle of elaboration of the relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of high voltage electrical line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiorsak M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the elaboration of the principle of relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation, based on the six phase’s symmetrical components. It is shown that the unsymmetrical short circuits between the closely placed phases are characterized by appearance of zero and tertiary sequences of symmetrical components. This fact can be used to choose them for relay protection. The electrical basic circuits and formulas for calculation of the passive parameters of zero and tertiary filters of currents (voltages are done. It is presented the structural-functional basic circuit scheme for relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation.

  10. Design of the Switching Power Supply with Large Current and Low Voltage Based on SG3525%基于SG3525的大电流低电压开关电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟翔永; 张晓春; 林刚; 孙秀斌

    2013-01-01

    A design for the switching power supply with large current and low voltage is presented, which is based on the Pulse Width Modulator control circuit named SG3525. The DC/DC full-bridge converter is used for the main circuit of the switching power supply. The output signals of SG3525 drive IGBTs of the main circuit after photoelectric isolation and power amplifier. In order to achieve the stable output and the continuously adjustable current, the technologies of feedback and PWM are applied to the switching power supply. This paper introduces the specific design and the primary circuit parameters of the main circuit, the control circuit and the drive circuit. The experimental results show that the switching power supply can steadily operate and continuously regulate the output current from 45A to 90A.%  介绍了以脉宽调制控制电路SG3525为控制核心的大电流低电压开关电源的设计。该电源主电路采用DC/DC全桥变换器,SG3525输出信号经光电隔离、功率放大后驱动主电路开关管IGBT,应用反馈技术和PWM调制技术实现电源稳定输出和输出电流连续可调。文中给出了主电路和控制及驱动电路的具体设计及主要电路参数。试验结果表明,该电源工作稳定,实现了输出直流电流从45A到90A连续可调。

  11. Re-evaluating the role of sterics and electronic coupling in determining the open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth

    2013-07-30

    The effects of sterics and molecular orientation on the open-circuit voltage and absorbance properties of charge-transfer states are explored in model bilayer organic photovoltaics. It is shown that the open-circuit voltage correlates linearly with the charge-transfer state energy and is not significantly influenced by electronic coupling. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. THE SYSTEM OF CONTACT SYSTEM POWER SUPPLY OF DC NETWORK WITH A LONGITUDINAL LINE OF HIGH VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Honcharov

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The power supply system of a contact network using a longitudinal line with points of communication without transformer is considered. The approach allowing to facilitate power filters and the way of switching of in-series connected semiconductor switches with fixing a voltage on them are offered.

  13. On-line condition monitoring systems for high voltage circuit breakers : a collaborative research project 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A three year field project was initiated to review and evaluate the state of the art in on-line conditioning monitoring technology for a high voltage (240 kV SF6) circuit breaker located at Dorsey Converter Station. The ELF breaker is a three independent pole design which allows for three separate monitoring systems. This project involved the installation of a different type of monitoring system on each phase and incorporated many types of transducers. Each monitoring system measured the same basic parameters including contact travel, 'a' and 'b' auxiliary contacts, phase currents, coil currents, heater and pump current, plus SF6/CF4 pressure and temperature. Over the entire monitoring period the breaker was operated over 700 times at rated voltage and an additional 300 times during maintenance. Temperature conditions ranged from -35 to +30 degrees C. The use of on-line monitoring provided many valuable results and enhanced the knowledge base for the apparatus under the test. It was determined that on-line monitoring of HV circuit breakers has potential, but installation has to be considered carefully. Monitoring systems can offer improvement in the understanding of how circuit breakers work and provide input into RCM programs. However, monitoring systems themselves are subject to failure and require maintenance and attention. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Programmable Voltage Regulating Method for 15 kV High Voltage DC Power Supply%15 kV高压直流电源的程控调压方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖剑锋; 陈新; 米彦

    2008-01-01

    In order to solve the disadvantages caused by mechanical slide rheostat that has big errors and low precision, a novel voltage regulation method for high voltage DC power supply was introduced. The key of this method were digital potentiometer MAXIM 5455 and linear photoelectric coupling LOC110, and application programs were compiled using Visual Basic which was graphical compiling language, furthermore the communication between exterior and computer was carried out by ICP7044D module, in consequence the output value of high voltage DC power supply could be regulated with computer. The measured results showed that this method could accurately, conveniently and rapidly regulate the output value of high voltage DC power supply.

  15. Circuit-field coupled finite element analysis method for an electromagnetic acoustic transducer under pulsed voltage excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Kuan-Sheng; Huang Song-Ling; Zhao Wei; Wang Shen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) under voltage excitation and considers the non-uniform distribution of the biased magnetic field. A complete model of EMATs including the non-uniform biased magnetic field, a pulsed eddy current field and the acoustic field is built up. The pulsed voltage excitation is transformed to the frequency domain by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). In terms of the time harmonic field equations of the EMAT system, the impedances of the coils under different frequencies are calculated according to the circuit-field coupling method and Poynting's theorem. Then the currents under different frequencies are calculated according to Ohm's law and the pulsed current excitation is obtained by inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT).Lastly, the sequentially coupled finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate the Lorentz force in the EMATs under the current excitation. An actual EMAT with a two-layer two-bundle printed circuit board (PCB) coil, a rectangular permanent magnet and an aluminium specimen is analysed. The coil impedances and the pulsed current are calculated and compared with the experimental results. Their agreement verified the validity of the proposed method. Furthermore, the influences of lift-off distances and the non-uniform static nagnetic field on the Lorentz force under pulsed voltage excitation are studied.

  16. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  17. Proposed high voltage power supply for the ITER relevant lower hybrid current drive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K., E-mail: pramod@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Kazarian, F.; Garibaldi, P.; Gassman, T. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Artaud, J.F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bae, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Belo, J. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J.M.; Cara, Ph. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Garcia, J.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-10-15

    In the framework of the EFDA task HCD-08-03-01, the ITER lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system design has been reviewed. The system aims to generate 24 MW of RF power at 5 GHz, of which 20 MW would be coupled to the plasmas. The present state of the art does not allow envisaging a unitary output of the klystrons exceeding 500 kW, so the project is based on 48 klystron units, leaving some margin when the transmission lines losses are taken into account. A high voltage power supply (HVPS), required to operate the klystrons, is proposed. A single HVPS would be used to feed and operate four klystrons in parallel configuration. Based on the above considerations, it is proposed to design and develop twelve HVPS, based on pulse step modulator (PSM) technology, each rated for 90 kV/90 A. This paper describes in details, the typical electrical requirements and the conceptual design of the proposed HVPS for the ITER LHCD system.

  18. Low-voltage Power Supply Subsystem for a Sub-Orbital Particle Physic Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hugo Silva Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Experiment Module–Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO is a wide-field (+/-~30°of aperture 2.5m refractor telescope to be installed in the International Space Station (ISS. The instrument looks downward from its orbit, into Earth’s atmosphere, with the main objective of observing ultra-violet (UV fluorescence light generated by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR extensive air showers (EAS. It is a frontier particle-physics experiment, the first of its kind. The validation of the technical readiness level of such a complex and unique instrument requires prototypes at several levels of integration. At the highest level, the EUSO-Balloon instrument has been conceived, through French space agency (CNES. At a smaller scale and in suborbital flight, EUSO-Balloon integrates all the sub-systems of the full space JEM-EUSO telescope, allowing end-to-end testing of hardware and interfaces, and to probing the global detection chain and strategy, while improving at the same time our knowledge of atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. EUSO-Balloon will be flown by CNES for the first time from Timmins, Canada; on spring 2014.This article presents the low-voltage power supply (LVPS subsystem development for the EUSO-Balloon instrument. This LVPS is the fully operational prototype for the space instrument JEM-EUSO. Besides design and construction, all performance tests and integration results with the other involved subsystems are shown.

  19. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  20. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with an enhanced open-circuit voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-Bin; Wang Xiao-Liang; Xiao Hong-Ling; Yang Cui-Bai; Hou Qi-Feng; Yin Hai-Bo; Chen Hong; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells (MQWSCs) with an In content of 0.15 are fabricated and studied. The short-circuit density, fill factor and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the device are 0.7 mA/cm2, 0.40 and 2.22 V, respectively. The results exhibit a significant enhancement of Voc compared with those of InGaN-based hetero and homojunction cells. This enhancement indicates that the InGaN/GaN MQWSC offers an effective way for increasing Voc of an In-rich InxGa1-xN solar cell. The device exhibits an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 36% (7%) at 388 nm (430 nm). The photovoltaic performance of the device can be improved by optimizing the structure of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well.

  1. Charged grain boundaries reduce the open-circuit voltage of polycrystalline solar cells—An analytical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaury, Benoit; Haney, Paul M.

    2016-12-01

    Analytical expressions are presented for the dark current-voltage relation J(V) of a pn+ junction with positively charged columnar grain boundaries with high defect density. These expressions apply to non-depleted grains with sufficiently high bulk hole mobilities. The accuracy of the formulas is verified by direct comparison to numerical simulations. Numerical simulations further show that the dark J(V) can be used to determine the open-circuit potential Voc of an illuminated junction for a given short-circuit current density Jsc . A precise relation between the grain boundary properties and Voc is provided, advancing the understanding of the influence of grain boundaries on the efficiency of thin film polycrystalline photovoltaics like CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 .

  2. Low-Power Circuit Techniques for Low-Voltage Pipelined ADCs Based on Switched-Opamp Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hsin-Hung; Chang, Soon-Jyh; Liu, Bin-Da

    This paper proposes useful circuit structures for achieving a low-voltage/low-power pipelined ADC based on switched-opamp architecture. First, a novel unity-feedback-factor sample-and-hold which manipulates the features of switched-opamp technique is presented. Second, opamp-sharing is merged into switched-opamp structure with a proposed dual-output opamp configuration. A 0.8-V, 9-bit, 10-Msample/s pipelined ADC is designed to verify the proposed circuit. Simulation results using a 0.18-μm CMOS 1P6M process demonstrate the figure-of-merit of this pipelined ADC is only 0.71pJ/step.

  3. State Evaluation Method Based on Multiagent System for High Voltage Circuit Breaker's Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; LIN Xin; XU Jianyuan; QI Hongwei; ZHANG Bin

    2013-01-01

    To realize multi-signal joint diagnosis in circuit breaker's state evaluation methods,and to improve their evaluation accuracy,we proposed an intelligent evaluation model of circuit breaker mechanical properties based on multiagent system.Taking a circuit breaker which has mono-stable permanent magnetic operating mechanism as the example,its model involves four kinds of signals:auxiliary contact,operating mechanism current,travel of the contact,and mechanical vibration.Detailed analyses on the evaluation agent's architecture and the process of the system's multiagent evaluation and ratiocination were also proposed.Moreover,it is proved by three application cases that the proposed method could accurately evaluate circuit breaker status not only with normal signals,but also in certain signal failure situations; meanwhile the model has a strong self-learning ability.

  4. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  5. Correlation between LUMO offset of donor/acceptor molecules to an open circuit voltage in bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, Genene Tessema, E-mail: mola@ukzn.ac.za [School of. Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209 (South Africa); Abera, Newayemedhin [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O. BOX 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2014-07-15

    The correlation between the open circuit voltage and the LUMO offset of the donor and acceptor polymers in the bulkheterojunction solar cell was studied for three different thiophene derivatives. The HOMO levels of all the polymers in this investigation were chosen to be similar which results in close values of ΔE{sub DA}=E{sub HOMO}{sup D}−E{sub LUMO}{sup A}. However, the measured V{sub oc} was found to be increasing with decreasing value of the LUMO offset that exists between the donor polymer and fullerene.

  6. An Azulene-Containing Low Bandgap Small Molecule for Organic Photovoltaics with High Open-Circuit Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wu, Jianglin; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2016-10-01

    A simple azulene-containing squaraine dye (AzUSQ) showing bandgap of 1.38 eV and hole mobility up to 1.25×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was synthesized. With its low bandgap, an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device based on it has been made that exhibits an impressive open-circuit voltages (Voc ) of 0.80 V. Hence, azulene might be a promising structural unit to construct OPV materials with simultaneous low bandgap, high hole mobility and high Voc .

  7. Hysteresis observed in quasi open-circuit voltage measurements of lithium insertion in hydrogen-containing carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Tao; Dahn, J.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1997-10-01

    High capacities with large hysteresis were observed during lithium insertion in hydrogen-containing carbons heated at temperatures near 700 C. Quasi open-circuit voltage (OCV) measurements were used to study these materials. Using a simple model developed previously, we can qualitatively model the result of the OCV measurement. It is believed that the lithium atoms bind near aromatic hydrogen at edge of each graphene layer in the materials. This activated process involves a carbon-carbon bonding change from (sp){sup 2} to (sp){sup 3} leading to large hysteresis during lithium insertion. (orig.)

  8. Principle and Fault Analysis of Voltage Regulator Circuit%电压调节器电路原理及故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索明何

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, the paper explores the essential characteristics of voltage regulator through experiments, and then analyzes the circuit principle of the voltage regulator. The paper finally discusses the fault analysis method of voltage regulator circuit through the cases.%本文首先通过实验探究电压调节器的本质特性,然后分析电压调节器电路原理,最后通过案例探究电压调节器电路的故障分析方法.

  9. Circuits protection against interferences in high voltage substations; Protecao de circuitos contra interferencias em subestacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Massayuki [Consultas e Aplicacoes de Engenharia Eletrica Ltda. (CAEEL) (Brazil)

    1989-12-01

    This paper makes a brief analysis of the different phenomena which may cause electromagnetic interference in high voltage substations and suggests adequate solutions to the problem according to the different events that may occur. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Control strategy and hardware implementation for DC–DC boost power circuit based on proportional–integral compensator for high voltage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For high-voltage (HV applications, the designers mostly prefer the classical DC–DC boost converter. However, it lacks due to the limitation of the output voltage by the gain transfer ratio, decreased efficiency and its requirement of two sensors for feedback signals, which creates complex control scheme with increased overall cost. Furthermore, the output voltage and efficiency are reduced due to the self-parasitic behavior of power circuit components. To overcome these drawbacks, this manuscript provides, the theoretical development and hardware implementation of DC–DC step-up (boost power converter circuit for obtaining extra output-voltage high-performance. The proposed circuit substantially improves the high output-voltage by voltage-lift technology with a closed loop proportional–integral controller. This complete numerical model of the converter circuit including closed loop P-I controller is developed in simulation (Matlab/Simulink software and the hardware prototype model is implemented with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. A detailed performance analysis was carried out under both line and load regulation conditions. Numerical simulation and its verification results provided in this paper, prove the good agreement of the circuit with theoretical background.

  11. High performance dc-dc conversion with voltage multipliers. [using transformerless capacitor diode circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental 100W 1000V dc-dc converter using a capacitor diode voltage multipler (CDVM) with a nominal frequency of 100 kHz is studied. A component weight of about 1 kg/kW was obtained. Design equations for current, output -ripple and -power, efficiency and output voltage are derived. Agreement between experimental results and calculations is fairly good except for ripple.

  12. Development of Thin Film Amorphous Silicon Tandem Junction Based Photocathodes Providing High Open-Circuit Voltages for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Urbain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film tandem solar cells (a-Si:H/a-Si:H have been developed with focus on high open-circuit voltages for the direct application as photocathodes in photoelectrochemical water splitting devices. By temperature variation during deposition of the intrinsic a-Si:H absorber layers the band gap energy of a-Si:H absorber layers, correlating with the hydrogen content of the material, can be adjusted and combined in a way that a-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem solar cells provide open-circuit voltages up to 1.87 V. The applicability of the tandem solar cells as photocathodes was investigated in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC measurement set-up. With platinum as a catalyst, the a-Si:H/a-Si:H based photocathodes exhibit a high photocurrent onset potential of 1.76 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE and a photocurrent of 5.3 mA/cm2 at 0 V versus RHE (under halogen lamp illumination. Our results provide evidence that a direct application of thin film silicon based photocathodes fulfills the main thermodynamic requirements to generate hydrogen. Furthermore, the presented approach may provide an efficient and low-cost route to solar hydrogen production.

  13. Improving open-circuit voltage in DSSCs using Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} as a semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, J.; Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Aguilar, T.; Alcantara, R.; Martin-Calleja, J. [Physical Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, University of Cadiz, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    TiO{sub 2} doping has been widely used in photocatalysis and photovoltaic cells to improve the performance of this semiconductor. This paper studies the use of copper as a dopant in TiO{sub 2} in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), analysing the effect on the photovoltaic properties of the cells of different concentrations of copper incorporated into the semiconductor. The copper-doped TiO{sub 2} semiconductor was characterized with several instrumental techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy in order to know its structure, composition and band gap energies with different concentrations of the dopant. An analysis was also performed of the variations in open-circuit voltage depending on the concentration of copper. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs made with a standard configuration - using a ruthenium complex (N3) as a dye and the redox pair I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} as the electrolyte with 3-methoxypropionitrile as a solvent - leads to improvements of up to 10% in the open-circuit voltage of DSSCs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Design of Compact High-voltage Switching Mode-power Supply%小型高压开关电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马跃; 邓玉福; 于桂英

    2011-01-01

    High voltage power is extensively used in scientific and industrial applications. As one indispensable component,custom designed high voltage power supply can be found in instruments for spectroscopy, medicine, mass spectrometry,eleetrostatic spraying, lasers, spectrometers, X-ray diffraction, and many other analytical imaging and process applications.Traditional high-voltnge power supply mainly adopts of linear technology, which is low conversion efficiency, large volume,heavy, and inconvenient of operation and maintenance. With the development and advantage of power supply technology, the requirements of intelligent level, conversion efficiency and load capacity are becoming stronger. This paper describes a high voltage switching power supply that based on SCM and PMW technology. This kind of power supply adopts single ended type promote and controlled by STC89C51 SCM and TL494. By means of combining diodes and capacitors, the circuit converts AC electric power delivered by the transformer to higher DC voltage with the act of rectifying and smoothing. The power adopts digital regulation and closed loop real-time monitoring to cooperate with an analog drcuit. The advantages of the power supply are obvious, such as strong generality, wide output range, high stable voltage accuracy, excellent control property, etc.%高压直流电源在科学和工业生产中有着广泛的应用,是光学仪器,医疗设备,质谱分析,静电喷涂,激光器,X射线衍射仪以及其他一些分析成像射线类仪器中不可缺少的重要部件.传统的高压电源多采用线性技术,这种结构形式造成电源变换效率低,体积大,重量沉,操作维修不方便.随着电源技术的发展,人们对高压电源的智能化程度、转换效率和带负载能力提出了更高的要求.设计了一种以单片机和脉宽调制(PMW)技术为基础的智能化小型高压电源.该电源由STC89C51单片机和脉宽调制芯片TL494控制,采用单端式开关电

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A low-voltage sense amplifier for high-performance embedded flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liu; Xueqiang, Wang; Qin, Wang; Dong, Wu; Zhigang, Zhang; Liyang, Pan; Ming, Liu

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a sense amplifier scheme for low-voltage embedded flash (eFlash) memory applications. The topology of the sense amplifier is based on current mode comparison. Moreover, an offset-voltage elimination technique is employed to improve the sensing performance under a small memory cell current. The proposed sense amplifier is designed based on a GSMC 130 nm eFlash process, and the sense time is 0.43 ns at 1.5 V, corresponding to a 46% improvement over the conventional technologies.

  16. Analog circuit design techniques at 0.5V

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Shouri; Stanic, Nebojša

    2010-01-01

    This book tackles challenges for the design of analog integrated circuits that operate from ultra-low power supply voltages (down to 0.5V). Coverage demonstrates the signal processing circuit and circuit biasing approaches through the design of operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs). These amplifiers are then used to build analog system functions including continuous time filter and a sample and hold amplifier.

  17. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  18. Improving Transient Recovery voltage of circuit breaker using Fault Current Limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Heidary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates influence of Fault Current Limiter (FCL on short-circuits current level of substation bus bar splitter circuit breaker and its TRV. An approach for TRV evaluation is developed and applied for proposed power system as shown in this study. FCL circuit is connected to the power system in order to limit TRV. The limiter circuit consists of two equal windings which are turned around unique magnetic core. One of the windings is connected in series with the power system network and the other is connected to the network via series capacitor and power electronic switches. During normal operating condition, both tyristors are in on state and current of the primary and secondary windings are equal. This causes zero impedance of the limiter. During fault, faults current cause the power electronic switch to turn off which increases the limiter impedance. By increasing the limiter impedance, amplitude of TRV decreases substantially. The novel method presented in this study is a cheap and successful scheme.

  19. Urban exposure to ELF magnetic field due to high-, medium- and low-voltage electricity supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottura, V; Cappio Borlino, M; Carta, N; Cerise, L; Imperial, E

    2009-12-01

    The regional environment protection agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley region in north Italy performed a survey of magnetic field triggered by the power supply network in high, medium and low voltages on the entire area of Aosta town. The electrical distribution system for houses was not however taken into account. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the global population exposure and not simply the assessment of the legal exposure limit compliance.

  20. Approach for electrodynamic force for compensation in low voltage circuit breaker WP 630-1.2 type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Na; XU L.J.; Miedzi(n)ski B.

    2007-01-01

    Undesirable repulsive force between contact members due to both a current path shrink near a real contact area and/or so-called pinch effect is particularly onerous for power switch applications, and results in either contact floating or bouncing which are associated with an electric arc following contact welding. This problem is of great importance for any circuit breaker especially for compact low voltage vacuum circuit breakers. To avoid contact floating at closure and during any inrush current under short circuit conditions, the electrodynamic repulsive force can be employed successfully if we use a special compensation system flexibly combined with the contact itself. However to select and design the compensation system properly, its efficiency has to be known. This paper presents an approach to obtain the electrodynamic force value depending on different shaped (rectangular,square, circle and arch) copper plates used in the compensator by using ANSYS for current values 40 kA RMS. Curve-fitting was done according to the calculating results, the optimization designing of compensation unit is based on them.

  1. High Voltage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar

    2010-11-01

    For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.

  2. Effect of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation on the Voltage Magnitude in a Self-Contained Power Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Makarova, A. F.; Shvartsman, I. B.

    2016-04-01

    A promising way to increase the technical and economic characteristics of standalone power supply systems is to incorporate renewable energy installations in their structure. This saves fuel and extends the operational life of diesel power stations. The most common option is a hybrid system with photovoltaic power stations incorporated into the local network of the diesel power station. This paper deals with the dependence of the deflection voltage and power losses in the electric power transmission line on the graphs of electrical loads, the parameters of elements of the power supply system, connection points and the capacity of distributed photovoltaic power stations. Research has been carried out on the common low-voltage power supply systems of the radial type (0.4 kV) with an installed capacity of up to 100 kW. The studies have been conducted by simulating the operating modes of hybrid power systems of various configurations. As a result of these studies recommendations to reduce losses and voltage variations in the network by selecting the power and photovoltaic power connection points have been put forward.

  3. Complementary circuits based on solution processed low-voltage organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, James M.; Wöbkenberg, Paul H.; Kooistra, Floris B.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Leeuw, Dago M. de; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    The field of organic electronics is advancing quickly towards ultra low-cost, low-end applications and is expected to provide the necessary technology required for flexible/printed electronics. Here we address the need for solution processed low-voltage complementary logic in order to reduce power c

  4. Analysis of energy quality problems in low voltage circuits; Analise de problemas de qualidade da energia em circuitos de baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hermes R.P.M. de; Jesus, Nelson C. de; Figueiredo, Carlos E.C. [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Batista, Edson L. [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Inijui, RS (Brazil); Martinez, Manuel L.B. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2005-12-15

    This article presents an analysis and diagnosis related to a typical commercial consumer with problems of energy quality, supplied by low voltage net. In this direction, after the supplied voltage to have been monitored through specific analysers and careful investigations, it was concluded that the origin of disturbances was located in the consumer systems. The main steps used in the analysis and measurements results are described.

  5. Low Voltage CMOS op-amp with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP

    2004-01-01

    As the supply voltage to a standard CMOS op-amp is reduced, the input common mode range and the output swing get reduced drastically. Special biasing circuits have to be used to raise them up to rail-to-rail supply voltage. Three low voltage op-amps with new biasing circuits have been proposed in this paper and their performance evaluated. The op-amp design is focused on dynamic range and high drive capability.

  6. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern mul

  7. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  8. Robust Sequential Circuits Design Technique for Low Voltage and High Noise Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Leyva Lancelot

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an innovative input and output data redundancy principle for sequential block circuits, the responsible to keep the state of the system, showing its efficiency in front of other robust technique approaches. The methodology is totally different from the Von Neumann approaches, because element are not replicated N times, but instead, they check the coherence of redundant input data no allowing data propagation in case of discrepancy. This mechanism does not require voting devices.

  9. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  10. Transparent Pixel Circuit with Threshold Voltage Compensation Using ZnO Thin-Film Transistors for Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ik-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2009-03-01

    A transparent pixel circuit with a threshold voltage compensating scheme using ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) for active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is proposed. This circuit consists of five n-type ZnO TFTs and two capacitors and can compensate for the threshold voltage variation of ZnO TFTs in real time. From simulation results, the maximum deviation of the emission current of the pixel circuit with a threshold voltage variation of ±1 V is determined to be less than 10 nA. From measurement results, it is verified that the maximum deviation of measured emission currents with measurement position in a glass substrate is less than 15 nA in a higher current range, and the deviation of emission current with time is less than 3%.

  11. 基于Multisim10仿真软件的多输出直流稳压电源设计%Design of Multi-Output DC Stabilized Voltage Supply Based on Multisim10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 胡海燕; 李伟达; 李娟; 秦佳

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种多输出线性直流稳压电源的设计,以固定式集成稳压器为核心,可以提供多个固定的直流电压输出。使用EDA软件平台Multisim10对电源设计过程进行仿真分析,针对仿真过程中发现的问题提出解决方案,提高了实验效率。经对电源样机的实验测试,该电源性能良好、工作可靠,输出电压和输出电流、稳压系数和纹波电压均满足设计要求,可以满足实验设备对多种直流电的需要。%This paper raised design of a kind of linear multi-output direct current (DC) stabilized voltage supply, which was based on ifxed type stabilized voltage integrated circuits (ICs), providing multiple ifxed DC voltage outputs. EDA software platform, Multisim 10 was used to simulate and analyze the design process of power supply. In allusion to problems in simulation process, this paper raised settling plan to improve the efifciency of the experiment. The test for the prototype has proved that this type of power supply is good in performance, reliable in work, meeting the design requirements of output voltage, output current, stabilized voltage coefifcient and output ripple voltage, as well as multi-DC requirements for experimental equipment.

  12. Study of DC Circuit Breaker of H2-N2 Mixture Gas for High Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yuji; Morishita, Yukinaga; Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Mizoguchi, Hitoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    Global warming caused by CO2 etc. is a field where the concern is very high. Especially, automobile emissions are problem for it. Therefore, the hybrid car is widely development and used recently. Hybrid car used electric power and gasoline. So, the car reduces CO2. Hybrid car has engine and motor. To rotate the motor, hybrid car has battery. This battery is large capacity. Therefore, the relay should interrupt high DC current for the switch of the motor and the engine. So, hybrid car used hydrogen gas filling relay We studied interruption test for the research of a basic characteristic of hydrogen gas. DC current has not current zero point. So, it is necessary to make the current zero by high arc voltage and forcible current zero point. The loss coefficient and arc voltage of hydrogen is high. Therefore, we studied interruption test for used high arc voltage. We studied interruption test and dielectric breakdown test of air, pure Hydrogen, and Hydrogen- nitrogen mixture gas. As a result, we realized H2-N2(80%-20%) is the best gas.

  13. Evidence of Gate Voltage Oscillations during Short Circuit of Commercial 1.7 kV/ 1 kA IGBT Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wu, Rui; Iannuzzo, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evidence of critical gate voltage oscillations in 1.7 kV/1 kA Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules under short circuit conditions. A 6 kA/1.1 kV Non-Destructive Test (NDT) set up for repeatable short circuit tests has been built with a 40 nH stray inducta...

  14. Evidence of Gate Voltage Oscillations during Short Circuit of Commercial 1.7 kV/ 1 kA IGBT Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wu, Rui; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evidence of critical gate voltage oscillations in 1.7 kV/1 kA Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules under short circuit conditions. A 6 kA/1.1 kV Non-Destructive Test (NDT) set up for repeatable short circuit tests has been built with a 40 nH stray inducta...

  15. Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Visible Quantum Dot Photovoltaics by Engineering of Carrier-Collecting Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xihua

    2011-10-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) enable multijunction solar cells using a single material programmed using the quantum size effect. Here we report the systematic engineering of 1.6 eV PbS CQD solar cells, optimal as the front cell responsible for visible-wavelength harvesting in tandem photovoltaics. We rationally optimize each of the device\\'s collecting electrodes-the heterointerface with electron-accepting TiO2 and the deep-work-function hole-collecting MoO3 for ohmic contact-for maximum efficiency. We report an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, the highest observed in a colloidal quantum dot solar cell operating at room temperature. We report an AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiency of 3.5%, the highest observed in >1.5 eV bandgap CQD PV device. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Three-dimensional modelling of electric-arc development in a low-voltage circuit-breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras, L.; Henry, D.; Jeandel, D.; Scott, J. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, CNRS/Universite de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon/Universite Lyon 1/INSA de Lyon, ECL, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Wild, J. [Schneider Electric, 37 quai Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This article describes direct numerical simulation of the first three milliseconds following ignition of the arc in a low-voltage circuit-breaker using a computational-fluid-dynamics code adapted for electric-arc modelling. The mobile electrode is allowed for by a moving mesh. The results describe the evolution of the arc with time in terms of its detailed electrical, thermal and fluid dynamic properties. They allow the identification of several phases during the overall arc development process studied here: arc initialisation in the widening electrode gap, arc-thermal expansion, displacement of the arc towards the tip of the mobile electrode, and the beginning of commutation to the fixed electrode. (author)

  17. The Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} solar cell with high open circuit voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Min; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Zhishan; Liu, Sijia; Lu, Yilei; Wang, Shurong, E-mail: shrw88@aliyun.com

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, the effects of two different sulfurization processes on the CZTS films were investigated, and the results indicated that a rapid high-temperature crystallization process after sulfurization was beneficial for CZTS thin films to obtain a compact and flat surface with large grains. However, a common sulfurization without rapid high-temperature crystallization process would easily lead to undesirable properties of films, such as rough surface with pin holes, which degenerate the performance of devices. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) solar cell based on a rapid high-temperature process after sulfurization achieved a high open circuit voltage of 722 mV and the best efficiency 3.32% was obtained.

  18. Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma in a Simplified Low-voltage Circuit Breaker Chamber with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yi; Rong Mingzhe; Yang Qian; Hu Guangxia

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the simulation of the arc plasma in a simplified low-voltage circuit breaker chamber. Based on a group of coupled governing equations, a three-dimensional (3-D) arc plasma model is built and solved by a modified commercial code. Firstly, this paper presents a solution of the stationary state of the arc plasma and discusses the distribution of some parameters throughout the chamber. Secondly, with the ferromagnetic materials included,the balance of the stationary state is broken and a transient course is calculated. In light of the simulation results, the temperature distribution sequence, the arc motion and the plasma jet are then described and analyzed in detail.

  19. Characteristics of Overvoltage Protection with Cascade Application of Surge Protective Devices in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULOVIC, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surge Protective Devices (SPDs are widely used for protection of the equipment in low-voltage AC power circuits against wide variety of surges. Cascade application of SPDs starting at the service entrance of a building and downstream toward near sensitive equipment is intended to ensure optimal energy distribution among installed SPDs, as well as proper equipment protection against surges. Characteristics of overvoltage protection with two-stage application of SPDs have been analyzed in the paper through performed measurements, followed by simulations and numerical modeling using the ATP/EMTP and MATLAB Simulink. Parametric analysis of the protection's characteristics in wide range of influencing factors has been performed in order to define a set of applicable solutions for proper selection and performance of SPDs.

  20. A Novel Thiophene Derivative-based Conjugated Polymer for Polymer Solar Cells with High Open-circuit Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌烈; 沈星星; 陈义旺

    2012-01-01

    A novel D-A alternative conjugated polymer PBDTDMCT containing benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and dimethyl thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate (DMCT), was designed and synthesized by Stille cross-coupling reaction. The copolymer exhibited excellent solubility and good thermal stability. The optical band gap determined from the onset of absorption of the polymer film was 2.10 eV. By incorporation of the ester groups into the polymer side chain, the HOMO level of polymer PBDTDMT was tuned to be deep-lying (--5.65 eV). Open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells constructed based on PBDTDMT and [6,6]-phenyl-CTwbutyric acid methyl ester (PCTIBM) can be tuned to achieve values as high as ca. 1.0 V.

  1. Simulation of current-voltage curves for inverted planar structure perovskite solar cells using equivalent circuit model with inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Jayaweera, Piyankarage V. V.; Kaneko, Shoji; Toyoshima, Yasutake; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical modeling of hysteretic behavior in current-voltage (I-V) curves of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is necessary for further improving their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The reduction of hysteresis in inverted planar structure PSCs (p-PSCs) has been achieved by using a [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer. In the cases, the opposite trend of the I-V hysteresis has been observed where the forward scan shows slightly higher efficiency than the reverse scan. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model with inductance is proposed. This model consists of a Schottky diode involving a parasitic inductance focusing PCBM/Al(Ca) interface and accurately represents the opposite trend of the I-V hysteresis of the p-PSC with an inverted structure.

  2. 一种间接测量电压互感器二次回路电压降的方法%A Method for Indirectly Measuring Voltage Transformer Secondary Circuit Voltage Drop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李固; 李纯坚; 傅子明; 刘芬; 梁旭常; 严杰峰

    2014-01-01

    通过研究电压互感器(voltage transformer,VT)二次回路电压降的主要来源,分析 VT二次回路阻抗的构成和运行特性,发现接触电阻是导致 VT二次回路电压降变化的主要原因。当计量电压二次回路阻抗为确定值时,VT二次负荷和 VT二次回路压降存在着对应的关系,可以通过测量二次负荷值来了解二次回路阻抗值,进而推算 VT二次回路压降值。基于此,推导出了用 VT二次负荷计算出 VT二次回路电压降的公式,并提出了通过分析对比 VT二次回路负荷变化大小及趋势,来对 VT二次回路压降开展技术监督的工作方法。%By means of studying main source of voltage drop of voltage transformer secondary circuit,this paper analyzes constitution and running characteristic of VT secondary circuit and discovers the main reason is contact resistance. When im-pedance of metering voltage secondary circuit was a determined value,there was corresponding relationship between VT sec-ondary load and voltage drop and it was able to learn impedance value of the secondary circuit by measuring secondary load value and calculate voltage drop value of VT secondary circuit. A calculation formula for voltage drop value of VT secondary circuit was deduced by VT secondary load and a working method for developing technical supervision on voltage drop of VT secondary circuit was proposed by analyzing and comparing changes and trends of VT secondary load.

  3. Microstructural and Electronic Origins of Open-Circuit Voltage Tuning in Organic Solar Cells Based on Ternary Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Mollinger, Sonya A.

    2015-09-22

    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Organic ternary heterojunction photovoltaic blends are sometimes observed to undergo a gradual evolution in open-circuit voltage (Voc) with increasing amounts of a second donor or an acceptor. The Voc is strongly correlated with the energy of the charge transfer state in the blend, but this value depends on both local and mesoscopic orders. In this work, the behavior of Voc in the presence of a wide range of interfacial electronic states is investigated. The key charge transfer state interfaces responsible for Voc in several model systems with varying morphology are identified. Systems consisting of one donor with two fullerene molecules and of one acceptor with a donor polymer of varying regio-regularity are used. The effects from the changing energetic disorder in the material and from the variation due to a law of simple mixtures are quantified. It has been found that populating the higher-energy charge transfer states is not responsible for the observed change in Voc upon the addition of a third component. Aggregating polymers and miscible fullerenes are compared, and it has been concluded that in both cases charge delocalization, aggregation, and local polarization effects shift the lowest-energy charge transfer state distribution. The open-circuit voltage evolution and charge transfer state interfaces in ternary organic photovoltaic blends are investigated using several model systems. The changes in subgap spectra from energetic disorder and increased population of higher energy states are analyzed and the lowest charge transfer state distribution is observed to shift due to local aggregation and delocalization effects.

  4. Development of cast resin multisecondary 1600kVA transformer for Regulated High Voltage Power Supply- A prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, V; Singh, N P; Gupta, L N; Oza, Kapil; Patel, Paresh; Baruah, U K [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Regulated High Voltage Power Supplies (RHVPS) are commonly used in high-energy particle accelerators. RHVPS is a modular power supply in which kV level modules (40 or 80) are cascaded to generate desired level of voltage/power. One of the most challenging tasks involved is to provide input power to number of rectifier modules with required isolation (inter-winding and winding to ground). This is accomplished by deploying multi-secondary (large numbers, say 40 secondaries) transformers. This RHVPS concept was realized for the first time in the country with development of oil filled multi-secondary transformer. A pair of 3.3MVA, 11kV/ (940Vx40) has been successfully demonstrated, isolation of 6kVDC (inter-winding) and 160kVDC (all secondary to ground) tested. The next generation power supplies are unitized with indoor installations. This has created the demand for dry type multi-secondary transformers in compliance with safety regulations. This paper presents manufacturing issues and testing of the prototype resin cast coil. On the manufactured prototype, inter-winding isolation is tested up to 6kVDC and 125kVDC with respect to ground.

  5. Development of cast resin multisecondary 1600kVA transformer for Regulated High Voltage Power Supply- A prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, V.; Singh, N. P.; Gupta, L. N.; Oza, Kapil; Patel, Paresh; Baruah, U. K.

    2010-02-01

    Regulated High Voltage Power Supplies (RHVPS) are commonly used in high-energy particle accelerators. RHVPS is a modular power supply in which kV level modules (40 or 80#) are cascaded to generate desired level of voltage/power [1]. One of the most challenging tasks involved is to provide input power to number of rectifier modules with required isolation (inter-winding and winding to ground). This is accomplished by deploying multi-secondary (large numbers, say 40 secondaries) transformers. This RHVPS concept was realized for the first time in the country with development of oil filled multi-secondary transformer. A pair of 3.3MVA, 11kV/ (940Vx40) has been successfully demonstrated, isolation of 6kVDC (inter-winding) and 160kVDC (all secondary to ground) tested. The next generation power supplies are unitized with indoor installations. This has created the demand for dry type multi-secondary transformers in compliance with safety regulations. This paper presents manufacturing issues and testing of the prototype resin cast coil. On the manufactured prototype, inter-winding isolation is tested up to 6kVDC and 125kVDC with respect to ground.

  6. Simulation of the Arc Behavior in Puffer-type High Voltage Circuit Breaker Considering the Influence of Nozzle Ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xu; ZHONG Jianying; ZHANG Youpeng; ZHANG Gaochao; LI Xingwen; JIA Shenli

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of nozzle ablation to arc,a 2 D axisymmetric magneto-hydro-dynamics arc model is developed to simulate the arc behavior during the whole interruption process in a puffer type high voltage circuit breaker,considering the nozzle ablating and the mixing process of Polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) vapor with SF6.The results show that the arc radius firstly increases and then decreases as arc current varies according to its sinusoida waveform.At 3.5 ms after arc initiation the nozzle ablation starts,and 2.5 ms later the current nearly reaches its peak value and nozzle ablation develops intensely.Meanwhile the nozzle is blocked by arc at this time and consequently the vapor concentration in nozzle reaches the highest.Then while the current decreasing and open distance increaseing the vapor concentration gradually decreases.Before current zero the extinction peak of arc voltage occurs.It indicates that the PTFE vapor enhances pressure rise in arc quenching chamber and strengthens the arc blocking effect on nozzle; the arc radius is wider and arc temperature is lower when nozzle ablation is considered.

  7. Technical-economic evaluation of the utilization of closing resistor in CEMIG extra-high voltage circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Angelica C.O.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Teixeira, Jose Cleber; Fonseca, Rodrigo Assuncao; F. Junior, Sebastiao V. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic studies performed by CEMIG, Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, Brazil, concerning the use of closing resistor in its extra-high voltage (EHV) breakers. The analysis emphasizes the advantages which could be achieved with the elimination of the resistor as far as costs and reliability are concerned. This evaluation was motivated by two 500 kV breaker failures resulting from the breakdown of the closing resistor operation mechanism. These occurrences resulted in operative restriction for CEMIG EHV system. The analysis demanded a review of the capability criteria of silicon carbide (Si C) gap arresters, which are still greatly used in CEMIG EHV System, and of the procedures to be applied when carrying out the transient studies. The investigation resulted in the prompt removal of closing resistors from circuit breakers in CEMIG extra-high voltage system generating an economy of approximately U$ 840,00 and an improvement in safety and system reliability. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recombination in polymer:Fullerene solar cells with open-circuit voltages approaching and exceeding 1.0 V

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-09-14

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells are demonstrated with power conversion efficiencies over 7% with blends of PBDTTPD and PC 61 BM. These devices achieve open-circuit voltages ( V oc ) of 0.945 V and internal quantum efficiencies of 88%, making them an ideal candidate for the large bandgap junction in tandem solar cells. V oc \\'s above 1.0 V are obtained when the polymer is blended with multiadduct fullerenes; however, the photocurrent and fill factor are greatly reduced. In PBDTTPD blends with multiadduct fullerene ICBA, fullerene emission is observed in the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra, indicating that excitons are recombining on ICBA. Voltage-dependent, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicate that energy transfer occurs from PBDTTPD to ICBA and that back hole transfer from ICBA to PBDTTPD is inefficient. By analyzing the absorption and emission spectra from fullerene and charge transfer excitons, we estimate a driving free energy of -0.14 ± 0.06 eV is required for efficient hole transfer. These results suggest that the driving force for hole transfer may be too small for efficient current generation in polymer:fullerene solar cells with V oc values above 1.0 V and that non-fullerene acceptor materials with large optical gaps ( > 1.7 eV) may be required to achieve both near unity internal quantum efficiencies and values of V oc exceeding 1.0 V. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co.

  9. A Novel 800mV Reference Current Source Circuit for Low-Power Low-Voltage Mixed-Mode Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jun; Kwack, Kae Dal

    In this paper, a novel 800mV beta-multiplier reference current source circuit is presented. In order to cope with the narrow input common-mode range of the Opamp in the reference circuit, the resistive voltage divider was employed. High gain Opamp was designed to compensate for the intrinsic low output resistance of the MOS transistors. The proposed reference circuit was designed in a standard 0.18µm CMOS process with nominal Vth of 420mV and -450mV for n-MOS and p-MOS transistor, respectively. The total power consumption including Opamp is less than 50µW.

  10. New Breakdown Electric Field Calculation for SF6 High Voltage Circuit Breaker Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ph.ROBIN-JOUAN; M.YOUSFI

    2007-01-01

    The critical electric fields of hot SF6 are calculated including both electron and ion kinetics in wide ranges of temperature and pressure,namely from 300 K up to 4000 K and 2 atmospheres up to 32 atmospheres respectively.Based on solving a multi-term electron Boltzmann equation the calculations use improved electron-gas collision cross sections for twelve SF6 dissociation products with a particular emphasis on the electron-vibrating molecule interactions.The ion kinetics is also considered and its role on the critical field becomes non negligible as the temperature is above 2000 K.These critical fields are then used in hydrodynamics simulations which correctly predict the circuit breaker behaviours observed in the case of breaking tests.

  11. A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive and active imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2012-12-01

    HgCdTe electrons initiated avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) in linear multiplication mode can be used for high speed applications such as active imaging. A readout integrated circuit of e-APD FPA is designed for dual mode passive/active imaging system. Unit cell circuit architecture of ROIC includes a high voltage protection module, a Sample-Hold circuit module, a comparator, output driver stage and a integrator module which includes a amplifier and three capacitors. Generally, APD FPA works at reversed bias such as 5V-15V in active imaging mode, and pixels' dark currents increase exponentially as the reverse-bias voltage is increased. Some cells of ROIC may be short to high voltage because of avalanche breakdown of diodes. If there is no protection circuit, the whole ROIC would be burnt out. Thus a protection circuit module introduced in every ROIC cell circuit is necessary to make sure the rest units of ROIC can still work. Conventional 5V CMOS process is applied to implement the high voltage protection with the small area other than LDMOS in high voltage BCD process in the limited 100μm×100μm pitch area. In integrator module, three integration capacitors are included in the ROIC to provide switchable well capacity. One of them can be shared in two modes in order to save area. Constraints such as pixel area and power lead us design toward a simple one-stage cascade operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) as pre-amplifier which can avoid potential instability caused by inaccuracy of MOSFET Model at 77K.

  12. A Comparative Study of Analog Voltage-mode Control Methods for Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental comparison of the standard PWM/PID voltage-mode control method for single-phase buck converters with two highperformance self-oscillating (a.k.a. sliding mode) control methods. The application considered is ultra-fast tracking power supplies...... (UFTPSs) for RF power amplifiers, where the switching converter needs to track a varying reference voltage precisely and quickly while maintaining low output impedance. The small-signal analyses performed on the different controllers show that the hysteretic-type controller can achieve the highest loop......-oscillating control is shown to reduce the worst-case UFTPS output impedance by a factor of 10....

  13. International standard for future automotive 42 V supply voltages (PowerNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Wolfgang

    The development of innovative automotive systems is determined by the demand for cut in fuel consumption and increase in fuel efficiency, reduction of environmental pollution and comfort improvement. A basic condition for such developments is the introduction of a 42 V power supply in future vehicles. The characteristics of future power supplies and the resulting consequences for the system, the components and the whole vehicle power supply architecture need standardisation in different areas. The electrical stress for the vehicle components is addressed in the standard ISO 21848 and this paper gives details about the status of the standardisation work.

  14. Energy from CO2 using capacitive electrodes--theoretical outline and calculation of open circuit voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Garcia, J M; Schaetzle, O; Biesheuvel, P M; Hamelers, H V M

    2014-03-15

    Recently, a new technology has been proposed for the utilization of energy from CO2 emissions (Hamelers et al., 2014). The principle consists of controlling the dilution process of CO2-concentrated gas (e.g., exhaust gas) into CO2-dilute gas (e.g., air) thereby extracting a fraction of the released mixing energy. In this paper, we describe the theoretical fundamentals of this technology when using a pair of charge-selective capacitive electrodes. We focus on the behavior of the chemical system consisting of CO2 gas dissolved in water or monoethanolamine solution. The maximum voltage given for the capacitive cell is theoretically calculated, based on the membrane potential. The different aspects that affect this theoretical maximum value are discussed.

  15. Control of SiC Based Front-End Rectifier under Unbalanced Supply Voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ramkrishan; Trintis, Ionut; Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh

    2015-01-01

    A voltage source converter is used as a front end converter typically. In this paper, a converter which is realized using SiC MOSFET is considered. Due to SiC MOSFET, a switching frequency more than 50 kHz can be achieved. This can help increasing the current control loop bandwidth, which...

  16. Improvement and test of high power amplifier high voltage interlock circuit%高功放高压联锁电路改进与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华松; 邱冬冬; 刘斯亮

    2012-01-01

    Whether the device can work regularly was determined by the performance of high voltage interlock directly. Through the operating principle analysis of high voltage interlock circuit and AC time delayer of high power amplifier based on CPI mechanical cabinet, an improved high voltage interlock circuit solution and a test method applied in AC time delayer are studied. The improved interlock circuit overcomes the drawbacks of original high voltage interlock solution. The designed test circuit can carry out quantitative test of AC time delayer parameters.%高压联锁性能的好坏直接影响设备能否正常工作.通过分析CPI高功放(HPA)的延时加高压程序、高压联锁电路和交流延时器工作原理,研究出一种新改选的高压联锁电路方案和用于交流延时器的测试方法.分析阐述表明,该方案和测试方法克服了CPI高功放的高压联锁方案的弊端.另外,根据分析结果设计了延时测试电路,它可对交流延时器性能参数进行定量测试.

  17. Formation of a p-n heterojunction on GaP photocathodes for H-2 production providing an open-circuit voltage of 710 mV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro; Seger, Brian; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting for the sustainable production of hydrogen using a two-photon tandem device requires careful optimization of the semiconductors used as photon absorbers. In this work we show how the open-circuit voltage of photocathodes for the hydrogen evolution reaction based on ...

  18. Low-voltage gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors based logic circuits on thin plastic foil: Building blocks for radio frequency identification application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Smits, E.C.P.; Putten, J.B.P.H. van der; Neer, M. van; Myny, K.; Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Vicca, P.; O'Neill, K.; Veenendaal, E. van; Genoe, G.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work a technology to fabricate low-voltage amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) based integrated circuits on 25 µm foils is presented. High performance TFTs were fabricated at low processing temperatures (<150 °C) with field effect mobility around 17 cm2 /V s. The

  19. 低压断路器的选型与应用%Selection and Application of Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱金川; 贾文军

    2011-01-01

    介绍了低压断路器在配电线路、家用及类似场所负载、电动机负载的选型方法,并分析了在断路器保护功能以及不同负载特性情况下的选型策略。通过对低压断路器的合理选型,使低压断路器达到最佳的保护状态,并避免了因断路器选型不当及安装不合理而造成的安全隐患。%Introduction was made to a low-voltage circuit breaker type selection method in distribution line, household use, similar sites load and motor loads. Analysis was made to type selection strategy under circuit breaker protection function and different load characteristics conditions. Reasonable type selection of low-voltage circuit breakers enables low-voltage circuit breakers to reach optimal protection status, so as to avoid safety dangers caused by unsuitable circuit breaker type selection and unreasonable installation.

  20. Analysis and simulation of the three-phase AC voltage regulation circuit%三相交流调压电路的分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李衍孜

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the operation principle and mode of the single-phase AC voltage-regulation circuit, the voltage-regulating rule and effect of three-phase AC voltage-regulation was studied deeply in the paper. The theory of the three-phase star-style AC voltage-regulation circuit was tested in matlab/simulink, the simulation result proved the analysis of the theory of the three-phase AC voltage-regulation circuit was correct.%在分析单相交流调压电路运行原理和工作方式的基础上,深入研究了三相交流调压电路的调压规律和调压效果,并在Matlab/simulink仿真平台上对三相星形无中线交流调压电路的理论部分进行了验证,结果表明:三相交流调压电路的分析是正确的.

  1. Current Matching in Multifold DBP/C70 Organic Solar Cells With Open-Circuit Voltages of up to 6.44 V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadpour, Mehrad; Liu, Yiming; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method for achieving high open-circuit voltages (Voc) in organic solar cells based on tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthen (DBP) as donor and fullerene (C70) as acceptor molecules, by fabrication of multifold bilayer single cells stacked on top of each other....... As devices based on the material combination of DBP and C70 show relatively high open-circuit voltages of 0.87 V for single junction cells, and as both materials show broad absorption in the visible region pronounced peaks, they become ideal candidates as active layer materials in tandem stacked solar cells......, we demonstrate that the efficiency of these novel devices can be improved from 3.1% to 4.4% (best performing devices) in the case of a fivefold device structure, mainly due to the strong increase in the short-circuit current density, and thus lead to efficient small molecule-based solar cells high...

  2. High currents, low voltages. Low-cost, high efficiency power supply meets the requirements of Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning; Von dicken Stroemen und kleinen Spannungen. Preiswerte Stromversorgung mit hohem Wirkungsgrad erfuellt die Anforderungen des Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, V.W.; Guan, P.; Chen, D. [Linear Technology, CA (United States)

    2001-12-27

    The increasing demands on notebook computers have clock rates and currents and reduced voltages as CPUs are produced in increasingly smaller structural sizes. This makes high demands on power supply. [German] Die steigende Nachfrage nach Rechenleistung in Notebook-Computern hat zu einem betraechtlichen Anstieg der Taktfrequenzen und der Stromaufnahme der CPUs gefuehrt. Gleichzeitig sind die Versorgungsspannungen erheblich gesunken, da die CPUs in Prozessen mit immer kleineren Strukturgroessen hergestellt werden. Als die CPU-Taktfrequenzen 1 GHz ueberstiegen, hat die Stromaufnahme der CPU erstmals 20 A ueberschritten, und die minimale Versorgungsspannung ist auf unter 1 V gefallen. Dies stellt gewaltige Anforderungen an die Stromversorgungen. (orig.)

  3. Recombination dynamics as a key determinant of open circuit voltage in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: a comparison of four different donor polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurano, Andrea; Hamilton, Rick; Shuttle, Chris G.; O' Regan, Brian; Zhang, Weimin; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James R. [Departments of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Amy M.; Nelson, Jenny [Departments of Physics, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Azimi, Hamed [Konarka Austria, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Surface Optics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Morana, Mauro; Brabec, Christoph J. [Konarka Austria, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2010-11-24

    Transient photovoltage and charge extraction analyses are employed to analyzes charge carrier densities and bimolecular recombination dynamics in organic polymer: fullerene solar cells under open circuit operating conditions, employing four different donor polymers. An equation is derived which allows us to calculate the device V{sub OC} from these kinetic measurements. This equation allows us to calculate voltage output of devices within {+-} 25 meV of directly measured values. This analysis thus allows us to relate device open circuit voltage directly to the kinetics of bimolecular recombination, and thereby the influence of nanomorphology upon device voltage output. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. CH3 NH3 PbBr3 -CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells with Exceeding 2.2 V Open Circuit Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    Perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with open-circuit voltages of over 2.2 V are reported. These cost-effective, solution-processible perovskite hybrid tandem solar cells with high open-circuit voltages are fabricated by the simple lamination of a front planar MAPbBr3 perovskite cell and a back MAPbI3 planar perovskite solar cell.

  5. Prognostic health monitoring in switch-mode power supplies with voltage regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, James P (Inventor); Judkins, Justin B (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The system includes a current injection device in electrical communication with the switch mode power supply. The current injection device is positioned to alter the initial, non-zero load current when activated. A prognostic control is in communication with the current injection device, controlling activation of the current injection device. A frequency detector is positioned to receive an output signal from the switch mode power supply and is able to count cycles in a sinusoidal wave within the output signal. An output device is in communication with the frequency detector. The output device outputs a result of the counted cycles, which are indicative of damage to an a remaining useful life of the switch mode power supply.

  6. Neural network-based voltage regulator for an isolated asynchronous generator supplying three-phase four-wire loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhim; Kasal, Gaurav Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-06-15

    This paper deals with a neural network-based solid state voltage controller for an isolated asynchronous generator (IAG) driven by constant speed prime mover like diesel engine, bio-gas or gasoline engine and supplying three-phase four-wire loads. The proposed control scheme uses an indirect current control and a fast adaptive linear element (adaline) based neural network reference current extractor, which extracts the real positive sequence current component without any phase shift. The neutral current of the source is also compensated by using three single-phase bridge configuration of IGBT (insulated gate bipolar junction transistor) based voltage source converter (VSC) along-with single-phase transformer having self-supported dc bus. The proposed controller provides the functions as a voltage regulator, a harmonic eliminator, a neutral current compensator, and a load balancer. The proposed isolated electrical system with its controller is modeled and simulated in MATLAB along with Simulink and PSB (Power System Block set) toolboxes. The simulated results are presented to demonstrate the capability of an isolated asynchronous generating system driven by a constant speed prime mover for feeding three-phase four-wire loads. (author)

  7. High-voltage integrated active quenching circuit for single photon count rate up to 80 Mcounts/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Giulia; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been subject to a fast improvement in recent years. In particular, custom technologies specifically developed to fabricate SPAD devices give the designer the freedom to pursue the best detector performance required by applications. A significant breakthrough in this field is represented by the recent introduction of a red enhanced SPAD (RE-SPAD) technology, capable of attaining a good photon detection efficiency in the near infrared range (e.g. 40% at a wavelength of 800 nm) while maintaining a remarkable timing resolution of about 100ps full width at half maximum. Being planar, the RE-SPAD custom technology opened the way to the development of SPAD arrays particularly suited for demanding applications in the field of life sciences. However, to achieve such excellent performance custom SPAD detectors must be operated with an external active quenching circuit (AQC) designed on purpose. Next steps toward the development of compact and practical multichannel systems will require a new generation of monolithically integrated AQC arrays. In this paper we present a new, fully integrated AQC fabricated in a high-voltage 0.18 µm CMOS technology able to provide quenching pulses up to 50 Volts with fast leading and trailing edges. Although specifically designed for optimal operation of RE-SPAD devices, the new AQC is quite versatile: it can be used with any SPAD detector, regardless its fabrication technology, reaching remarkable count rates up to 80 Mcounts/s and generating a photon detection pulse with a timing jitter as low as 119 ps full width at half maximum. The compact design of our circuit has been specifically laid out to make this IC a suitable building block for monolithically integrated AQC arrays.

  8. Superficial Discussion Xuanhua Steel Supply System Voltage and Reactive Management Strategy%浅议宣钢供电系统电压无功管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海峰

    2015-01-01

    从宣钢供电系统电压无功调节的实际情况出发,分析了电压质量和无功补偿之间的动态关系,并由此阐述了电压调节和无功功率平衡的方法,在此基础之上,总结了电压无功调节的策略,有助于提高宣钢供电系统电压调节水平。%From the actual situation Xuanhua Steel supply system voltage and reactive power regulation, we analyze the dynamic relationship between voltage and reactive power compensation between mass and thus elaborated voltage regulation and reactive power balanced approach on this basis, summed up the voltage and reactive power regulation policies to help improve Xuanhua Steel supply system voltage regulation level.

  9. Realizing Small Energy Loss of 0.55 eV, High Open-Circuit Voltage >1 V and High Efficiency >10% in Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells via Energy Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Zhang, Mingyu; Lau, Tsz-Ki; Wu, Yao; Jia, Boyu; Wang, Jiayu; Yan, Cenqi; Qin, Meng; Lu, Xinhui; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2017-03-01

    A new, easy, and efficient approach is reported to enhance the driving force for charge transfer, break tradeoff between open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, and simultaneously achieve very small energy loss (0.55 eV), very high open-circuit voltage (>1 V), and very high efficiency (>10%) in fullerene-free organic solar cells via an energy driver.

  10. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  11. Optimization Design of an Inductive Energy Harvesting Device for Wireless Power Supply System Overhead High-Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overhead high voltage power line (HVPL online monitoring equipment is playing an increasingly important role in smart grids, but the power supply is an obstacle to such systems’ stable and safe operation, so in this work a hybrid wireless power supply system, integrated with inductive energy harvesting and wireless power transmitting, is proposed. The energy harvesting device extracts energy from the HVPL and transfers that from the power line to monitoring equipment on transmission towers by transmitting and receiving coils, which are in a magnetically coupled resonant configuration. In this paper, the optimization design of online energy harvesting devices is analyzed emphatically by taking both HVPL insulation distance and wireless power supply efficiency into account. It is found that essential parameters contributing to more extracted energy include large core inner radius, core radial thickness, core height and small core gap within the threshold constraints. In addition, there is an optimal secondary coil turn that can maximize extracted energy when other parameters remain fixed. A simple and flexible control strategy is then introduced to limit power fluctuations caused by current variations. The optimization methods are finally verified experimentally.

  12. Model parameter estimation approach based on incremental analysis for lithium-ion batteries without using open circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Yuan, Shifei; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Chengliang; Ma, Xuerui

    2015-08-01

    To improve the suitability of lithium-ion battery model under varying scenarios, such as fluctuating temperature and SoC variation, dynamic model with parameters updated realtime should be developed. In this paper, an incremental analysis-based auto regressive exogenous (I-ARX) modeling method is proposed to eliminate the modeling error caused by the OCV effect and improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Then, its numerical stability, modeling error, and parametric sensitivity are analyzed at different sampling rates (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 s). To identify the model parameters recursively, a bias-correction recursive least squares (CRLS) algorithm is applied. Finally, the pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) and urban dynamic driving sequences (UDDSs) profiles are performed to verify the realtime performance and robustness of the newly proposed model and algorithm. Different sampling rates (1 Hz and 10 Hz) and multiple temperature points (5, 25, and 45 °C) are covered in our experiments. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the proposed I-ARX model can present high accuracy and suitability for parameter identification without using open circuit voltage.

  13. Open-circuit voltage deficit, radiative sub-bandgap states, and prospects in quantum dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hao Marcus; Maurano, Andrea; Brandt, Riley E; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Jean, Joel; Buonassisi, Tonio; Bulović, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dot photovoltaics (QDPV) offer the potential for low-cost solar cells. To develop strategies for continued improvement in QDPVs, a better understanding of the factors that limit their performance is essential. Here, we study carrier recombination processes that limit the power conversion efficiency of PbS QDPVs. We demonstrate the presence of radiative sub-bandgap states and sub-bandgap state filling in operating devices by using photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy. These sub-bandgap states are most likely the origin of the high open-circuit-voltage (VOC) deficit and relatively limited carrier collection that have thus far been observed in QDPVs. Combining these results with our perspectives on recent progress in QDPV, we conclude that eliminating sub-bandgap states in PbS QD films has the potential to show a greater gain than may be attainable by optimization of interfaces between QDs and other materials. We suggest possible future directions that could guide the design of high-performance QDPVs.

  14. Unraveling the High Open Circuit Voltage and High Performance of Integrated Perovskite/Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shiqi; Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Yao, Enping; Sun, Pengyu; Meng, Lei; Lin, Yuze; Huang, Jinsong; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2017-08-09

    We have demonstrated high-performance integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells due to the low carrier recombination velocity, high open circuit voltage (VOC), and increased light absorption ability in near-infrared (NIR) region of integrated devices. In particular, we find that the VOC of the integrated devices is dominated by (or pinned to) the perovskite cells, not the organic photovoltaic cells. A Quasi-Fermi Level Pinning Model was proposed to understand the working mechanism and the origin of the VOC of the integrated perovskite/BHJ solar cell, which following that of the perovskite solar cell and is much higher than that of the low bandgap polymer based organic BHJ solar cell. Evidence for the model was enhanced by examining the charge carrier behavior and photovoltaic behavior of the integrated devices under illumination of monochromatic light-emitting diodes at different characteristic wavelength. This finding shall pave an interesting possibility for integrated photovoltaic devices to harvest low energy photons in NIR region and further improve the current density without sacrificing VOC, thus providing new opportunities and significant implications for future industry applications of this kind of integrated solar cells.

  15. Study of the Contributions of Donor and Acceptor Photoexcitations to Open Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Yeboah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs is the open circuit voltage . The processes of exciting the donor and acceptor materials individually in a BHJ OSC are investigated and are found to produce two different expressions for . Using the contributions of electron and hole quasi-Fermi levels and charge carrier concentrations, the two different expressions are derived as functions of the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials and the photo-generated charge carrier concentrations, and calculated for a set of donor-acceptor blends. The simultaneous excitation of both the donor and acceptor materials is also considered and the corresponding , which is different from the above two, is derived. The calculated from the photoexcitation of the donor is found to be somewhat comparable with that obtained from the photoexcitation of the acceptor in most combinations of the donor and acceptor materials considered here. It is also found that the calculated from the simultaneous excitations of donor and acceptor in BHJ OSCs is also comparable with the other two . All three thus derived produce similar results and agree reasonably well with the measured values. All three depend linearly on the concentration of the photoexcited charge carriers and hence incident light intensity, which agrees with experimental results. The outcomes of this study are expected to help in finding materials that may produce higher and hence enhanced PCE in BHJ OSCs.

  16. Printed Circuit Board Embedded Inductors for Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations for the impeda......The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations...

  17. Using of capacitors for improving the electric power quality in the low voltage circuits; Utilizacao de capacitores para melhoria da qualidade de energia eletrica nos circuitos de baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassheber Junior, Carlos Frederico [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina (CELESC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: cffassheber@celesc.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The paper discuss the application of a bank of low voltage capacitors which can provide reduction in the loading of the low voltage circuits and in the transformers, more regulation of the voltage, improvement in the power factor, besides the fact of they are natural harmonic filters.

  18. Voltage-Sharing Converter to Supply Single-Phase Asymmetrical Four-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter With High Power Factor Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boora, Arash A.; Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz

    2010-01-01

    The output voltage quality of some of the single-phase multilevel inverters can be improved when their dc-link voltages are regulated asymmetrically. Symmetrical and asymmetrical multilevel diode-clamped inverters have the problem of dc-link capacitor voltage balancing, especially when power factor...... of the load is close to unity. In this paper, a new single-inductor multi-output dc/dc converter is proposed that can control the dc-link voltages of a single-phase diode-clamped inverter asymmetrically to achieve voltage quality enhancement. The circuit of the presented converter is explained and the main...... equations are developed. A control strategy is proposed and explained in details. To validate the versatility of the proposed combination of the suggested dc–dc converter and the asymmetrical four-level diode-clamped inverter (ADCI), simulations and experiments have been directed. It is concluded...

  19. 大容量发电机出口断路器选择%Circuit Breakers Selection Method for Large-capacity AC High-voltage Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2011-01-01

    针对大容量发电机出口断路器的选择问题,依据GB/T 14824-2008、IEEE Std C37.013-1997和IEC 60909-0-2001中的计算方法,并结合发电机出口断路器型式试验报告的有关数据,以某百万千瓦级发电机组为例进行了比较计算,分析计算结果,提出了对发电机出口短路器短路电流开断能力不能采用百分比而应采用绝对值进行校验.%For selecting large-capacity AC high-voltage generator circuit breakers in a large generator system, comparative calculations are conducted for a million kilowatts rated generator following the standards of GB/T 14824-2008, IEEE Std C37.013-1997 and IEC 60909-0-2001. The calculation results and the test reports of generator circuit breakers are analyzed, and a suggestion is hence offered that absolute value of short-circuit current should be used for examining the short-circuit current breaking capacity of an AC high-voltage generator circuit breaker instead of percentage value.

  20. Analysis and design of a charge pump circuit for high output current applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwijk, van Gijs; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A charge pump circuit has been developed that can deliver high currents even for a system supply voltage of 3 V. The circuit consists of capacitances, connected by MOS switches. The influence of the on-resistance of the switches on the circuit's output resistance has been analysed. The switches are

  1. Improvement of energy storage motor control circuit of hydraulic actuator in high-voltage circuit breakers%高压断路器液压操动机构储能电机控制回路改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全民; 赵玉柱

    2011-01-01

    高压断路器液压操动机构的常见故障是储能电机频繁启动。通过合理地设计储能电机的控制回路,减少了液压机构频繁启动的现象。%The fault of the mechanism of High voltage circuit-breaker is motor of storaging power high frequency starup.That rationally design control circuit of hydraulic mechanism reduce the fault that motor of storaging power high frequency starup.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Mesh Tree Hybrid Power/Ground Networks with Multiple Voltage Supply in Time Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ci Cai; Jin Shi; Zu-Ying Luo; Xian-Long Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm, which can be used to model and analyze mesh tree hybrid power/ground distribution networks with multiple voltage supply in time domain. Not only this algorithm enhances common method's ability on analysis of power/ground network with irregular topology, but also very high accuracy it keeps. The accuracy and stability of this algorithm is proved using strict math method in this paper. Also, the usage of both precondition technique based on Incomplete Choleskey Decomposition and fast variable elimination technique has improved the algorithm's efficiency a lot. Experimental results show that it can finish the analysis of power/ground network with enormous size within very short time. Also, this algorithm can be applied to analyze the clock network, bus network, and signal network without buffer under high working frequency because of the independence of the topology.

  3. 7800系列三端固定集成稳压器应用电路的可靠性设计%Reliability Design of Application Circuit for 7800 Series Three Terminal Positive Voltage Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article introduced the working principle for 7800 series three terminal posi-tive voltage regulator. At the same time, based on the statistic fault data of three terminal positive voltage regulator, it can be classified for five kind fault characteristics. And com-bining the working principle of 7800 series and energy characteristics of the power supply, the five kind of the fault characteristics were analyzed. Finally, the article presented the methods for reliability design of application circuit for 7800 series three terminal positive voltage regulator. The methods are simple to use and have high reliability, and verified in application.%  简介:本文介绍了7800系列三端固定集成稳压器的工作原理。同时根据已统计的三端固定集成稳压器故障数据,归类于五种故障特征,并结合7800系列的工作原理和电源的能量特征对这五种故障进行了分析。最后给出7800系列三端固定集成稳压器应用电路的可靠性设计的方法。这些方法简单实效,且可靠性强,已得到了实际应用验证。

  4. Low-power low-voltage superior-order curvature corrected voltage reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cosmin

    2010-06-01

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) voltage reference with a logarithmic curvature-correction will be presented. The first-order compensation is realised using an original offset voltage follower (OVF) block as a proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) voltage generator, with the advantages of reducing the silicon area and of increasing accuracy by replacing matched resistors with matched transistors. The new logarithmic curvature-correction technique will be implemented using an asymmetric differential amplifier (ADA) block for compensating the logarithmic temperature dependent term from the first-order compensated voltage reference. In order to increase the circuit accuracy, an original temperature-dependent current generator will be designed for computing the exact type of the implemented curvature-correction. The relatively small complexity of the current squarer allows an important increasing of the circuit accuracy that could be achieved by increasing the current generator complexity. As a result of operating most of the MOS transistors in weak inversion, the original proposed voltage reference could be valuable for low-power applications. The circuit is implemented in 0.35 μm CMOS technology and consumes only 60μA for t = 25°C, being supplied at the minimal supply voltage V DD = 1.75V. The temperature coefficient of the reference voltage is 8.7 ppm/°C, while the line sensitivity is 0.75 mV/V for a supply voltage between 1.75 V and 7 V.

  5. Lattice-matched Cu2ZnSnS4/CeO2 solar cell with open circuit voltage boost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang; Iandolo, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    We report a reproducible enhancement of the open circuit voltage in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells by introduction of a very thin CeO2 interlayer between the Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber and the conventional CdS buffer. CeO2, a non-toxic earth-abundant compound, has a nearly optimal band alignment with Cu2ZnSnS4...... and the two materials are lattice-matched within 0.4%. This makes it possible to achieve an epitaxial interface when growing CeO2 by chemical bath deposition at temperatures as low as 50 °C. The open circuit voltage improvement is then attributed to a decrease in the interface recombination rate through...

  6. Lattice-matched Cu2ZnSnS4/CeO2 solar cell with open circuit voltage boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang; Iandolo, Beniamino; Zhou, Fangzhou; Stride, John; Schou, Jørgen; Hao, Xiaojing; Hansen, Ole

    2016-12-01

    We report a reproducible enhancement of the open circuit voltage in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells by introduction of a very thin CeO2 interlayer between the Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber and the conventional CdS buffer. CeO2, a non-toxic earth-abundant compound, has a nearly optimal band alignment with Cu2ZnSnS4 and the two materials are lattice-matched within 0.4%. This makes it possible to achieve an epitaxial interface when growing CeO2 by chemical bath deposition at temperatures as low as 50 °C. The open circuit voltage improvement is then attributed to a decrease in the interface recombination rate through formation of a high-quality heterointerface.

  7. Design of a Sample and Hold Circuit using Rail to Rail Low Voltage Compact Operational Amplifier and bootstrap Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Saini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power high performance and higher sampling speed sample and hold circuit. The proposed circuit is designed at 180 nm technology and has high linearity. The circuit can be used for the ADC frontend applications and supports double sampling architecture. The proposed sample and hold circuit has common mode range beyond rail to rail and uses two differential pairs transistor stages connected in parallel as its input stage.

  8. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Multi-Layer Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical fault diagnosis of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs based on vibration signal analysis is one of the most significant issues in improving the reliability and reducing the outage cost for power systems. The limitation of training samples and types of machine faults in HVCBs causes the existing mechanical fault diagnostic methods to recognize new types of machine faults easily without training samples as either a normal condition or a wrong fault type. A new mechanical fault diagnosis method for HVCBs based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and multi-layer classifier (MLC is proposed to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. First, HVCB vibration signals during operation are measured using an acceleration sensor. Second, a VMD algorithm is used to decompose the vibration signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. The IMF matrix is divided into submatrices to compute the local singular values (LSV. The maximum singular values of each submatrix are selected as the feature vectors for fault diagnosis. Finally, a MLC composed of two one-class support vector machines (OCSVMs and a support vector machine (SVM is constructed to identify the fault type. Two layers of independent OCSVM are adopted to distinguish normal or fault conditions with known or unknown fault types, respectively. On this basis, SVM recognizes the specific fault type. Real diagnostic experiments are conducted with a real SF6 HVCB with normal and fault states. Three different faults (i.e., jam fault of the iron core, looseness of the base screw, and poor lubrication of the connecting lever are simulated in a field experiment on a real HVCB to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the classification accuracy of the new method is superior to other traditional methods.

  9. Development of control system for multi-converter High voltage Power supply using programmable SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Rasesh; Dharangutti, Jagruti; Singh, N. P.; Thakar, Aruna; Dhola, Hitesh; Gajjar, Sandip; Parmar, Darshan; Zaveri, Tanish; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    Multi-converter based High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPSs) find application in multi-megawatt accelerators, RF systems. Control system for HVPS must be a combination of superior parallel processing, real time performance, fast computation and versatile connectivity. The hardware platform is expected to be robust, easily scalable for future developments with minimal overheads. This paper describes development of control system on Zynq All Programmable SoC (System on Chip) for HVPS. Typical HVPS control mechanism involves communication, generation of precise control signals/pulses for few hundred numbers of chopper and closed loop control in microsecond range for regulated output. Such kind of requirements can be met with Zynq All Programmable SoC, which is a combination of Dual core ARM Cortex A-9 Processing System (PS) and Xilinx 7 series FPGA based Programmable Logic (PL). Deterministic functions of power supply control system such as generation of control signals with precise inter-channel delay of nanosecond range and communication with individual chopper at 100kbps can be implemented on PL. PS should implement corrective tasks based on field feedback received from individual chopper, user interface and OS management that allows to take full advantage of system capabilities. PS and PL are connected with on-chip AXI-4 interface with low latency and higher bandwidth through 9 AXI ports. Typically PS boots first, this ensures secure booting and prevents external environment from tampering PL.

  10. Correlation Between the Raman Crystallinity of p-Type Micro-Crystalline Silicon Layer and Open Circuit Voltage of n-i-p Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Junhee; Kim, Sunbo; Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Pham, Duy Phong; Kim, Jiwoong; Chung, Sungyoun; Lee, Youngseok; Yi, Junsin

    2015-10-01

    This article mainly discusses the difference between p-i-n and n-i-p type solar cells. Their structural difference has an effect on cell performance, such as open circuit voltage and fill factor. Although the deposition conditions are the same for both p-i-n and n-i-p cases, the substrate layers for depositing p-type microcrystalline silicon layers differ. In n-i-p cells, the substrate layer is p-type amorphous silicon oxide layer; whereas, in p-i-n cells, the substrate layer is ZnO:Al. The interfacial change leads to a 12% difference in the crystallinity of the p-type microcrystalline silicon layers. When the p-type microcrystalline silicon layer's crystallinity was not sufficient to activate an internal electric field, the open circuit voltage and fill factor decreased 0.075 V and 7.36%, respectively. We analyzed this problem by comparing the Raman spectra, electrical conductivity, activation energy and solar cell performance. By adjusting the thickness of the p-type microcrystalline silicon layer, we increased the open circuit voltage of the n-i-p cell from 0.835 to 0.91 V.

  11. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    Organic hybrid solar cells with a large open-circuit voltage, up to above that of 1.5 V standard battery voltage, were demonstrated using blends of polypyrrole: Fe2O3·ZnO nanoparticles as active-layers. The cell active-layers were readily coated in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance of the cells depends largely on the synthesized blend phase, which is determined by the surfactants, oxidizers, as well as the reactant ratio. Only the solar cells fabricated from the stable dispersions can produce both a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and short-circuit current (up to 7.5 mA cm-2) due to the relatively uniform porous network nanomorphology and higher shunt to series resistance ratio of the active-layers. The cells also display a relatively high power-conversion efficiency of up to ∼3.8%. This journal is

  12. TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY FOR THE LOCALIZATION OF ELECTRICAL FAULTS IN THE INSTRUMENTATION OF THE LHC STRING MAGNETS A Study Case of Voltage Tap, Temperature, and Pressure Transducer Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Komorowski, P

    1999-01-01

    Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is one of the most powerful methods used to analyze the integrity of the signal propagating in a transmission line. The method is based on the principle that the wave propagating in the line is reflected at the locations where the impedance of the line changes. The fault points, joints, branches, junctions, abrupt cross-section changes, etc., cause such reflections. The reflectometry technique involves the excitation of the circuit under test with either a fast edge step function or a well-defined impulse confined in time and frequency domains, and thereafter detection of the amplitude and time of the reflections. Both variants of the method were successfully applied to localize open circuit faults in the voltage tap connections, pressure transducers, and temperature sensing carbon gages circuits of the LHC String Dipole Magnet MB2 and Short Straight Section Quadrupole.

  13. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  14. Voltage-Mode All-Pass Filters Using Universal Voltage Conveyor and MOSFET-Based Electronic Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Herencsar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two novel realizations of voltage-mode first-order all-pass filters. Both circuits use single universal voltage conveyor (UVC, single capacitor, and two grounded resistors. Using the two NMOS transistors-based realizations of the electronic resistor with two symmetrical power supplies, presented all-pass filter circuits can be easily made electronically tunable. Proposed filter structures provide both inverting and non-inverting outputs at the same configuration simultaneously and they have high-input and low-output impedances that are desired for easy cascading in voltage-mode operations. The nonidealities of the proposed circuits are also analyzed and compared. The theoretical results of both circuits are verified by SPICE simulations using TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process parameters. Based on the evaluation, the behavior of one of the circuits featuring better performance was also experimentally measured using the UVC-N1C 0520 integrated circuit.

  15. Study of DC capacitor parameter selection based on three-phase power supply voltage deviation%基于三相供电电压偏差选取直流电容参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳清; 冯占伟; 袁天驰

    2015-01-01

    In the voltage type PWM AC/DC/AC conversion , the DC side energy-storage filtering capacitor′s parame-ter selection is one of the key factors for stable operation of the converter .In view of the certain inaccuracy in the DC capacitor′s selection , this paper analyzed the principle of the DC side capacitor′s charge and discharge when the AC/DC/AC conversion circuit in steady state , and studied the voltage relationship between the DC side and the AC side of the converter .A mathematical model between capacitor ripple voltage and three-phase power supply voltage deviation is established .Thus, the capacitance parameter selection method based on the three-phase power supply voltage devi-ation is proposed .This paper respectively gives the appropriate analysis and calculations of filter capacitance when three phase and single phase uncontrolled rectifier circuit provides dc power .And through simulation and experimental verification of the DC filter capacitor energy storage method verifies the validity of arguments .%在电压型PWM AC/DC/AC变换中,直流侧储能滤波电容参数的选取是变换器稳定运行的关键因素之一。针对目前直流侧电容选取存在一定的不精确性,分析了AC/DC/AC变换电路稳态时直流电容充放电的原理,对变换器交直流侧电压的关系进行研究,建立了电容纹波电压与三相供电电压偏差之间的数学模型,提出了基于三相供电电压偏差选取直流侧电容参数的方法。分别对单相和三相不可控整流电路提供直流电源时直流侧电容C的合理选取给出了相应的分析和计算,并通过仿真和试验验证了直流储能滤波电容参数确定方法的有效性。

  16. Diode-clamped multilevel converters with integrable gate-driver power-supply circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Busquets Monge, Sergio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Crébier, Jean-Christophe; Peracaula Roura, Joan

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Recent contributions in pulse width modulations (PWM) for multilevel diode-clamped converters enable the use of these converters with passive front-ends, any number of levels, and small dc-link capacitors. Highly compact converters designs based on these topologies can be envisioned. However, the design of the gate-driver power-supply for the multiple controlled semiconductor devices remains an important issue to be addressed. This paper focuses on the design of such c...

  17. Improving the electromagnetic compatibility of track circuits with electric rolling stock of double power supply with induction traction motors and electrictraction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Visin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research results of many authors on the effect of current interference from the existing electric rolling stock with induction traction motors (ITM on the track circuits and the possibility of exceeding the train traffic safety standards are used. The new promising scheme of power circuit for electric locomotive of double power supply with an ITM applying the intermediary high-frequency transformer for reducing significantly the interference effects to SCB and communication devices is developed.

  18. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20-100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of -1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of −1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  20. Static DC to DC Power Conditioning-Active Ripple Filter, 1 MHZ DC to DC Conversion, and Nonlinear Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis; [voltage regulation and conversion circuitry for spacecraft power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W. A., III

    1973-01-01

    Dc to dc static power conditioning systems on unmanned spacecraft have as their inputs highly fluctuating dc voltages which they condition to regulated dc voltages. These input voltages may be less than or greater than the desired regulated voltages. The design of two circuits which address specific problems in the design of these power conditioning systems and a nonlinear analysis of one of the circuits are discussed. The first circuit design is for a nondissipative active ripple filter which uses an operational amplifier to amplify and cancel the sensed ripple voltage. A dc to dc converter operating at a switching frequency of 1 MHz is the second circuit discussed. A nonlinear analysis of the type of dc to dc converter utilized in designing the 1 MHz converter is included.

  1. A New Style Oil Supply Circuit of Accumulator%一种新型厨具金属压机蓄能器供油油路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟俊; 周玉海

    2013-01-01

    由于金属压机所需要的压力等级比较多,为克服传统蓄能器供油油路存在的问题,在不大幅度提高液压系统成本的前提下,设计一种新型蓄能器供油油路.%According to the problem existing in accumulator oil-supplying circuit and on the base of not wide-range increasing cost of hydraulic system,a new style accumulator oil-supplying circuit was designed to meet pressure rating need of mental press.

  2. An atmospheric pressure plasma source driven by a train of monopolar high voltage pulses superimposed to a dc voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Stoican, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An atmospheric pressure plasma source supplied by an electrical circuit consisting of two voltage sources in parallel connection is reported. One of them is a low-power self-oscillating flyback converter which produces negative voltage pulses with an amplitude of several kilovolts. The high voltage pulses are necessary to ignite an electrical discharge between the electrodes at atmospheric pressure. An additional dc source delivering several hundreds of volts at a few hund...

  3. A Survey of Non-conventional Techniques for Low-voltage Low-power Analog Circuit Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Khateb; S. Bay Abo Dabbous; S. Vlassis

    2013-01-01

    ...). Therefore, this paper presents the operation principle, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques, enabling circuit designers to choose the proper design technique based on application...

  4. Challenges of VDD scaling for analog circuits: an amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli-Stoffi, A.; Sauerbrey, J.; Wang, J.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2005-05-01

    With the shrinking of the device dimensions, the power supply voltage value is continuously decreasing. Since the threshold voltage value does not decrease as much as the power supply and the drain source saturation voltage becomes an important fraction of the power supply, many amplifier architectures are no more suitable for modern processes. A transconductance amplifier based on current mirrors is analyzed highlighting the main challenges of a low-voltage analog design. Among the many proposed amplifier architectures, a topology based on current mirrors has been chosen as the most promising to operate with low voltages. Simulations with 90nm CMOS prove the feasibility of circuit operation with satisfactory performance at an operating power supply voltage as low as 0.6V.

  5. Novel start-up circuit with enhanced power-up characteristic for bandgap references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    This paper presents a new start-up circuit for low-power bandgap reference (BGR) voltage generators. The BGR is designed for providing a stable 0.3 V power supply for application in low power wireless sensor nodes. The BGR has an enhanced power-up characteristic and demonstrates a reduction...... of the total stand-by current. Simulated results confirm that the proposed start-up circuit does not affect the performance of the BGR even though the supply voltage (VDD) is higher and has more stable power-up characteristic than the conventional start-up circuits. The new start-up circuit is designed with 65...

  6. Novel start-up circuit with enhanced power-up characteristic for bandgap references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre;

    This paper presents a new start-up circuit for low-power bandgap reference (BGR) voltage generators. The BGR is designed for providing a stable 0.3 V power supply for application in low power wireless sensor nodes. The BGR has an enhanced power-up characteristic and demonstrates a reduction...... of the total stand-by current. Simulated results confirm that the proposed start-up circuit does not affect the performance of the BGR even though the supply voltage (VDD) is higher and has more stable power-up characteristic than the conventional start-up circuits. The new start-up circuit is designed with 65...

  7. 高压输配电线路在线监测设备供电电源的研究%Research on power supply of online monitoring equipment for high-voltage transmission and distribution line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志远; 毕亭亭; 金慧莹; 李亚康

    2016-01-01

    A new design scheme of power supply is proposed to solve the problems existing in current power supply of online monitoring equipment for high voltage transmission and distribution lines .We adopt two cores of different mate-rials in parallel, and choose appropriate core to work according to the scope of current and combine the induction pow -er supply with the lithium battery power supply .By comparing properties of different core materials , the nanocrystal-line alloy and silicon steel are selected , and the power supply circuit is designed .Experimental results show that the power supply can provide sable power between zero to one thousand amperes and have no power dead -band.%针对目前高压输配电线路在线监测设备供电电源的缺点,提出了一种新型供电电源设计方案.采用两个不同材质的取能磁芯并行工作,根据电流范围选择合适的磁芯进行取能,同时将感应取能供电与锂电池供电相结合.通过对比不同磁芯材料的特性,选定了铁基纳米晶合金与硅钢片制作磁芯,并设计了电源电路.实验测试结果表明:该供电电源可在电流为0 A~1000 A范围内稳定供电,无电源死区.

  8. 内燃机车励磁恒压调节装置电路设计%Circuit design of excitation and constant voltage regulator for diesel locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志和

    2001-01-01

    介绍内燃机车励磁恒压调节装置的功能,详细叙述了该装置的过压、欠压和过流保护电路原理,阐述了利用脉宽调制来控制输出的电压值和电流值的方法。TPZ25型恒压励磁调节装置现已运用在160km/h“曙光号”内燃动车上,在国内内燃机车供电系统属首次研制。%Functions of the excitation and constant voltage regulator fordiesel locomotive are introduced, of which the circuit principle of over-voltage, under-voltage and over-current protection is depicted. Also expounded is the voltage and current control method via pulse width modulation (PWM). Currently TPZ25 excitation and constant voltage regulator has been installed on 160 km/h “Shu Guang Hao” DMU.

  9. A Manufacturing Cost and Supply Chain Analysis of SiC Power Electronics Applicable to Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Samantha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices are increasingly being considered for use in certain power electronics applications, where they can improve efficiency, performance, footprint, and, potentially, total system cost compared to systems using traditional silicon (Si) devices. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices in particular -- which are currently more mature than other WBG devices -- are poised for growth in the coming years. Today, the manufacturing of SiC wafers is concentrated in the United States, and chip production is split roughly equally between the United States, Japan, and Europe. Established contract manufacturers located throughout Asia typically carry out manufacturing of WBG power modules. We seek to understand how global manufacturing of SiC components may evolve over time by illustrating the regional cost drivers along the supply chain and providing an overview of other factors that influence where manufacturing is sited. We conduct this analysis for a particular case study where SiC devices are used in a medium-voltage motor drive.

  10. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified version of the standard drift-diffusion equations is employed in which minority carrier densities are neglected. This is justified by the large disparities in electron affinity and ionisation potential between the two materials. The resulting equations are solved (via both asymptotic and numerical techniques) in conjunction with (i) Ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts and (ii) an internal boundary condition, imposed on the interface between the two materials, that accounts for charge pair generation (resulting from the dissociation of excitons) and charge pair recombination. Current-voltage curves are calculated from the solution to this model as a function of the strength of the solar charge generation. In the physically relevant power generating regime, it is shown that these current-voltage curves are well-approximated by a Shockley equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, since our drift-diffusion model is predictive, it can be used to directly calculate equivalent circuit parameters from the material parameters of the device. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  11. Magnetron sputtering voltage switching power supply design based on single chip microcomputer%基于单片机的磁控溅射稳压开关电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志文; 马安仁

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum magnetron sputtering film coating technology has the advantages of environmental protection, reducing energy consumption, and emission reduction as compared with the traditional chemicalplating technology.Magnetron power supply is one of the most important components for this kind ofcoating devices.Magnetron regulated power supply with high power and high efficiency is studied and de -signed on the basis of high -frequency switching power supply technology .The principle of main circuitand control circuit design are introduced.A simulating model is composed with Matlab to study the parametersand the waveforms of the designed circuits.The hardware circuit and the software program aredesigned on the basis of simulation results.The adjustment and display of the output voltage and the out -put current of the power supply under different work modes are achieved with AT 89C51 single chip microcomputersystem.Practical applications confirm that the designed power supply has good constant currentcontrol effect, high reliability, work stability etc.%磁控溅射真空镀膜技术与传统的化学电镀技术相比,具有环保、降耗、减排等优点,磁控电源是这种镀膜装置的关键部件之一。该文研究和设计了以高频开关电源技术为基础的高效率、大功率磁控稳压电源。文中介绍了主电路、控制电路的原理设计,用Matlab仿真软件搭建了电路模型,并进行了仿真实验,在此基础上完成了硬件电路、软件程序设计。通过AT89 C51单片机实现了在不同工作方式下电源输出电压和电流的调节。实际应用证明该电源具有恒流控制效果好,可靠性高,工作稳定等优点。

  12. Transient Recovery Voltages at the Main 132kV Line Bay GIS Circuit Breaker in a Windfarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Okholm, J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    parameters in the network was evaluated during a fault in the onshore substation. The rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) and the maximum crest voltage (Uc) of the TRV across the GIS CB were compared against the standard values based on the type test results from the GIS. The investigations were...

  13. Assumption or Fact? Line-to-Neutral Voltage Expression in an Unbalanced 3-Phase Circuit during Inverter Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrur, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the situation in a 3-phase motor or any other 3-phase system operating under unbalanced operating conditions caused by an open fault in an inverter switch. A dc voltage source is assumed as the input to the inverter, and under faulty conditions of the inverter switch, the actual voltage applied between the line to neutral…

  14. Analysis of Current Setting of Fuse in Low-voltage Circuit in Collieries%浅析煤矿低压线路熔断器电流的整定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹毅

    2016-01-01

    熔断器作为煤矿井下低压过流保护装置之一,可以有效防止机电设备损坏,对于高瓦斯矿井可以有效防止矿井火灾、瓦斯煤尘爆炸等事故,所以对低压线路过流保护装置过流保护值的合理整定对矿井安全供电起着重要作用。%As one of low -voltage over current protection device underground coal mine ,fuse can effectively pre‐vent the damage to electrical and mechanical equipment ,accidents such as fire disaster and gas and coal dust ex‐plosion .So the reasonable setting of over current protection value of low -voltage circuit over current protection device plays an important role in safety power supply in coal mine .

  15. A Bi-threshold Power Supply Control Circuit Based on Hysteresis Comparator%基于迟滞比较器的双阈值稳压供电控制电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 李冰; 司昕璐

    2015-01-01

    For the lithium battery in trajectory correction fuze has the problem of power supply instability this problem ,a power supply control circuit was proposed based on hysteresis comparator.The enable pin of voltage regulator chip was controlled by the hysteresis comparator.In this way,the system had independent threshold voltage of power on and power off.Test results showed that the method could keep the electrical system stable in the process of power on.%针对锂储备电池电压滞后引起弹道修正引信开机掉电,电气系统反复启动的问题,提出了双阈值稳压的供电控制电路。通过应用迟滞比较器控制稳压芯片的使能端,使稳压电路具有独立的高开启阈值电压和低关断阈值电压,实现电池与引信电气系统间的匹配。实测结果表明,该电路可以兼容电气系统开机引起的电池电压波动,保证电气系统工作稳定性。

  16. Self-commutated high-voltage direct current transmission with DC circuit breakers. Backbone for the energy policy turnaround; Selbstgefuehrte Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung mit DC-Leistungsschalter. Rueckgrat fuer die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, Raphael [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb, Geschaeftsbereich Grid Systems

    2013-06-01

    The 'current war' between direct current and alternating current is extended by a new location. In the future, both technologies work together in order to provide a reliable power transmission in Germany and long-term in Europe. This is based on the self-guided high-voltage direct current transmission. In conjunction with direct current circuit breakers (DC circuit breaker) the power circuit breakers may help to make the transmission grids more flexible and to minimize losses.

  17. 探讨高压断路器机械故障及改进方法%Discussion on Mechanical Failure of High Voltage Circuit Breaker and Its Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志钧

    2016-01-01

    高压断路器是电力系统的重要执行元件,能够灵巧地实现系统运行方式的变化和倒闸操作的要求,是电力系统及设备能够安全稳定运行的重要保证。随着社会经济的快速发展,对供电的安全性、质量性、可靠性和经济性提出了更高的要求。本文从实际出发,系统的对高压断路器在运行时的常见的故障问题进行分析,提出合理的改进措施,并结合案例论述改进措施的有效性。希望本文对从事断路器维护及修理的工作人员有一定的指导作用。%High voltage circuit breaker is an important executive component of the power system. It can deftly achieve the change of system operation mode and the request of switching operation. It is an important guarantee for the safe and stable operation of power system and equipment. With the rapid development of social economy, it is put forward higher requirements for the security, quality, reliability and economy of power supply. This article from the reality, systematically analyzed the common faults in the operation of high voltage circuit breakers, put forward reasonable improvement measures, and combining with the case discussed the effectiveness of improvement measures.

  18. 一种微机电源的LDO设计与实现%Design and implementation of low dropout linear voltage regulator for the microcomputer power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玫; 王永喜; 刘保录

    2014-01-01

    针对微机电源稳压性能较差的缺点,设计一款输出电压为5 V,最大输出电流为1 A的低压差线性稳压器( LDO)。通过选择误差放大器、反馈电阻网络、大功率N沟道MOS管作为调整管;采用具有过温、限流保护功能的芯片和外围电路构成基准源电路,改善了稳压器的线性调整率。测试结果表明,室温下输入电压为5.5~25 V时,输出电压稳定在5 V,负载为5Ω时电压调整率为0.6%,显示出良好的稳压性能。%A low dropout linear regulator ( LDO) is designed with maximal output current of 1 A and 5 V output voltage for the microcomputer voltage regulation performance is poorer. The error amplifier, feedback resistance network, NMOS adjustment transistor are selected. Meanwhile the peripheral circuit and the chip which integrates the thermal and the current protect circuit make up the reference source to improve the performance of linear adjustment ratio. The test results show that when the input voltage of 5. 5 ~ 25 V at room temperature, the output voltage is 5 V. The voltage regulation rate was 0. 6% under 5 Ω load, which the voltage regulation performance is good.

  19. 基于TTL数字电路控制的高压脉冲源%High-voltage pulse source controlled by TTL digital circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玺钦; 丁明军; 吴红光; 冯莉; 刘云涛; 戴文峰; 黄雷

    2012-01-01

    给出了一种基于TTL数字电路作为高压脉冲源触发控制单元的设计原理和方法.介绍了高压脉冲源的工作原理,设计了一台脉冲输出幅度5 kV、脉冲宽度大于200 μs及脉冲前沿小于30 ns的高压脉冲源.将触发控制单元和前级开关金属氧化物半导体场效应管(MOSFET)组合成一体,控制后级气体高压开关管放电输出高压脉冲信号.实验结果验证了所采用的设计原理及方法的可行性,给出了单次触发情况下的实验结果.%The paper introduces a TTL digital circuit, which is designed as the trigger control system of high power pulse source, and presents the development of a high-voltage pulse source. In the source, the TTL circuit operated after the optical isolation circuit and power driver, and outputs pulse signals to drive MOSFET, which controls the pulse signal output from high-voltage switch. The source can outputs pulses with voltage of 5 kV, pulse-width larger than 200 Ωs and fall-time less than 30 ns. Besides long-distance control and local control mode, it also includes inner trigger and external trigger (one electric signal and one optical signal as the trigger). A series of experiments have been conducted to validate the design, and the one-shot trigger results are presented.

  20. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit Compensating for TFT Threshold Voltage Shift and IR-Drop on the Power Line for AMOLED Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new pixel design for the active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs. The proposed pixel is composed of four switching TFTs, one driving TFT (DTFT, and one capacitor. The simulation results are performed by AIM-SPICE software. The error rate of OLED output current with (threshold voltage variation (0.3 V and power line drop by 1 V are improved to about 1.67% and 15%, respectively. Thus, the proposed pixel circuit can successfully overcome drawbacks suffered from DTFT threshold voltage deviation and IR-drop on power line.

  2. Towards a high open-circuit voltage by co-additives in electrolyte for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Li, Yafeng; Mao, Haijuan; Dou, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2017-08-01

    The co-additives of benzimidazole and 2-ethylimidazole in electrolyte have an obvious effect on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells due to their good coordination ability of titanium dioxide, which could affect the energy levels and charge transfer process. Through a balance of the concentrations, the best efficiency of 7.93% with a high open-circuit voltage of 0.817 V is achieved for a cell fabricated with the electrolyte contains benzimidazole and 2-ehtylimidazole by a molar ratio of 9.5/0.5.

  3. Soft-Error Tolerance Analysis and Optimization of Nanometer Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Yuvraj Singh; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer circuits are becoming increasingly susceptible to soft-errors due to alpha-particle and atmospheric neutron strikes as device scaling reduces node capacitances and supply/threshold voltage scaling reduces noise margins. It is becoming crucial to add soft-error tolerance estimation and optimization to the design flow to handle the increasing susceptibility. The first part of this paper presents a tool for accurate soft-error tolerance analysis of nanometer circuits (ASERTA) that can be used to estimate the soft-error tolerance of nanometer circuits consisting of millions of gates. The tolerance estimates generated by the tool match SPICE generated estimates closely while taking orders of magnitude less computation time. The second part of the paper presents a tool for soft-error tolerance optimization of nanometer circuits (SERTOPT) using the tolerance estimates generated by ASERTA. The tool finds optimal sizes, channel lengths, supply voltages and threshold voltages to be assigned to gates in a comb...

  4. On device design for steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistor operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage with ferroelectric HfO2 thin film

    OpenAIRE

    Masaharu Kobayashi; Toshiro Hiramoto

    2016-01-01

    Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies require a new energy-efficient transistor which operates at ultralow voltage and ultralow power for sensor node devices employing energy-harvesting techniques as power supply. In this paper, a practical device design guideline for low voltage operation of steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistors (NCFETs) operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage is investigated regarding operation speed, material requirement and energy efficiency in the case o...

  5. FGMOS Based Voltage-Controlled Grounded Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pandey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor. In the proposed circuit FGMOS operating in the ohmic region is linearized by another conventional MOSFET operating in the saturation region. The major advantages of FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor (FGVCGR are simplicity, low total harmonic distortion (THD, and low power consumption. A simple application of this FGVCGR as a tunable high-pass filter is also suggested. The proposed circuits operate at the supply voltages of +/-0.75 V. The circuits are designed and simulated using SPICE in 0.25-µm CMOS technology. The simulation results of FGVCGR demonstrate a THD of 0.28% for the input signal 0.32 Vpp at 45 kHz, and a maximum power consumption of 254 µW.

  6. Alternatively Energy-Supplying and Charging Circuit Binary Batteries%两电池交替供、充电电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 那文鹏; 胡伟强

    2001-01-01

    选用电池作为单片机应用系统的电源,应用两个电池交替供电、充电,能彻底解决模拟部分电源地与数字部分电源地的隔离问题。本文研究了两个电池交替供电、充电电路的原理以及防过充电路的原理。%Taking batteries as the power supply of monolithic microcomputer application system, using double batteries alternatively to supply energy and charge can thoroughly solve the insulating problem of simulate part power earthing and digital part power earthing. The paper studies the theorem of double batteries alternative energy supply and charging circuit, and the principle on overcharging prevention circuit.

  7. Study of Voltage-sharing Circuit for Thyristor Series and Its Design%晶闸管串联均压电路设计与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏; 王宏华; 冯进通; 尹祥顺; 李军民

    2015-01-01

    晶闸管串联式高压异步电动机软启动器应用前景广阔,晶闸管串联均压是其关键技术之一。对晶闸管串联均压电路进行了研究与设计,仿真分析了均压电路参数选取对均压效果的影响。仿真表明:采用动、静态均压电路可有效抑制开通和关断过程中晶闸管串联分压不均,对均压电路参数优化设计具有重要作用。%The high-voltage asynchronous motor soft starter is widely used in thyristor series. One of its key techniques is the volt-age-sharing of thyristor series. This paper researches on and designs the voltage-sharing circuit for thyristor series, and analyzes and simulates the relationship between voltage-sharing circuit parameters and voltage-sharing effect. The simulation results show that thyristor series voltage-sharing inequality in the process of conducting and turning off is effectively suppressed in the dynamic and static voltage-sharing circuit. The optimization of voltage-sharing circuit parameters plays an important role.

  8. A current-excited triple-time-voltage oversampling method for bio-impedance model for cost-efficient circuit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Hong; Yong Wang; Wang Ling Goh; Yuan Gao; Lei Yao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a mathematic method and a cost-efficient circuit to measure the value of each component of the bio-impedance model at electrode-electrolyte interface. The proposed current excited triple-time-voltage oversampling (TTVO) method deduces the component values by solving triple simultaneous electric equation (TSEE) at different time nodes during a current excitation, which are the voltage functions of time. The proposed triple simultaneous electric equations (TSEEs) allows random selections of the time nodes, hence numerous solutions can be obtained during a single current excitation. Following that, the oversampling approach is engaged by averaging all solutions of multiple TSEEs acquired after a single current excitation, which increases the practical measurement accuracy through the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, a print circuit board (PCB) that consists a switched current exciter and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed for signal acquisition. This presents a great cost reduction when compared against other instrument-based measurement data reported [1]. Through testing, the measured values of this work is proven to be in superb agreements on the true component values of the electrode-electrolyte interface model. This work is most suited and also useful for biological and biomedical applications, to perform tasks such as stimulations, recordings, impedance characterizations, etc.

  9. Novel Low Voltage CMOS Current Controlled Floating Resistor Using Differential Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tekin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low voltage CMOS current controlled floating resistor which is convenient for integrated circuit implementation is designed by using differential pair. The proposed resistor has a simple circuit structure and low power dissipation. This circuit is required ± 0.75 V as a power supply. The basic advantages of this circuit are wide tuning range of the resistance value, satisfied frequency performance and worthwhile dynamic range. As well as the proposed circuit has floating structure, it is able to be used both positive and negative resistor. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with SPICE to justify the presented theory.

  10. Analog IC techniques for low-voltage low-power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdijn, W.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analog IC Techniques lor Low-Voltage Low Power Electronics addresses many very important, but recent, techniques which enable electronics to operate at a low supply voltage and consume a minimum amount of power. Apart from investigations at the device, circuit and system levels, the book provides a

  11. Analog IC techniques for low-voltage low-power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdijn, W.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analog IC Techniques lor Low-Voltage Low Power Electronics addresses many very important, but recent, techniques which enable electronics to operate at a low supply voltage and consume a minimum amount of power. Apart from investigations at the device, circuit and system levels, the book provides a

  12. Does the expansion of German high voltage power supply system imply health risks?; Geht vom Ausbau elektrischer Hochspannungsleitungen eine Gefahr fuer die menschliche Gesundheit aus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappos, Andreas D.

    2016-07-01

    The decision of the German parliament to gradually close down nuclear power plants mainly located in the south of Germany and to support wind farms in the North Sea mud flats as the dominant regenerative energy source requires the strengthening and enlargement of the power supply system with the installation of new long distance high voltage power lines. The legally fixed dimension and formality of the actual planning process are discussed as well as the legal regulations for the protection of human health. Guided by the assessment of IARC a ''possible'' carcinogenic effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on people living in the vicinity of high voltage power lines has to be considered. Therefore from a preventive viewpoint the minimal distance of 400 m between newly planned high voltage power lines and human settlements required by law seem justified.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A full on-chip CMOS low-dropout voltage regulator with VCCS compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisheng, Gao; Yumei, Zhou; Bin, Wu; Jianhua, Jiang

    2010-08-01

    A full on-chip CMOS low-dropout (LDO) voltage regulator with high PSR is presented. Instead of relying on the zero generated by the load capacitor and its equivalent series resistance, the proposed LDO generates a zero by voltage-controlled current sources for stability. The compensating capacitor for the proposed scheme is only 0.18 pF, which is much smaller than the capacitor of the conventional compensation scheme. The full on-chip LDO was fabricated in commercial 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The active chip area of the LDO (including the bandgap voltage reference) is 400 × 270 μm2. Experimental results show that the PSR of the LDO is -58.7 dB at a frequency of 10 Hz and -20 dB at a frequency of 1 MHz. The proposed LDO is capable of sourcing an output current up to 50 mA.

  14. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  15. Solenoid-Simulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical properties of solenoids imitated for tests of control circuits. Simulation circuit imitates voltage and current responses of two engine-controlling solenoids. Used in tests of programs of digital engine-control circuits, also provides electronic interface with circuits imitating electrical properties of pressure sensors and linear variable-differential transformers. Produces voltages, currents, delays, and discrete turnon and turnoff signals representing operation of solenoid in engine-control relay. Many such circuits used simulating overall engine circuitry.

  16. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Toudeshki; Norman Mariun; Hashim Hizam; Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  17. Determination of economically justified parameters of synchronous disconnection at low-voltage circuit switching via a synchronous vacuum contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Verkhola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of a single switching procedure cost upon the contact opening delay time and delay-time spread is derived for a low-voltage synchronous vacuum contactor. For different cost levels, boundaries of permissible values of delay-time and delay-time spread are specified.

  18. Control of a Two-Stage Direct Power Converter with a Single Voltage Sensor Mounted in the Intermediary Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a converter requires not only a powerful processors but also accurate voltage and current sensors and fast and precise analogue-digital converters, which increase the cost per kW of the assembly, especially in the low power range. A matrix converter requires less transducers than a ba...

  19. 压控电压源二阶低通有源滤波电路设计与仿真%Design and simulation of two-order voltage source low pass active filter circuit controlled by voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯卫周; 谷城

    2014-01-01

    利用M ultisim10.1软件对压控电压源二阶低通滤波器进行仿真分析,通过选择不同信号源观察输入、输出波形的相位关系和幅值关系,比较输出、输入波形幅值比是否等于通带电压放大倍数;调节负反馈电阻大小,观察品质因素变化对滤波器幅频特性和相频特性的影响,得到的仿真的结果与实际理论分析基本一致。仿真结果表明,将M ultisim10.1合理地引入到模拟电子线路实验教学中,能将一些高深、抽象的电子电路的理论教学变得具体和生动,有利于学生对电路的认知,提高电子线路理论课的教学效果和教学质量。%The two-order low pass active filter circuit of voltage controlled voltage source has been analyzed and simulated by Multisim10 .1 software ,observed the phase-frequency and amplitude-frequency of output and input waveform via choosing different signal sources ,the output and input waveform amplitude ratio compared is equal to the pass band voltage amplification or not ;when by adjusting negative feedback resistance ,the influence of phase-frequency and amplitude-frequency characteristics as quality factors changing can be observed .The simulation results are consistent with the practical theory .It shows that reasonably introducing Multisim10 .1 simulation technology could make some abstract and advanced theoretical teaching become concretely and lively ,thus it is suitable for cultivating students’ cognitive view of circuit ,further can improve teaching effect and teaching quality of the Electronic Circuit Theory couse .

  20. The Design of the Parallel Switching Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a parallel switching power supply system which is controlled by C8051F020 MCU. The system consists of DC/DC converter, voltage-controlled constant current source circuit, over-current protection circuit and auxiliary power supply. TPS54331 is used to constitute a highly efficient DC/DC converter, reducing the input DC voltage to supply the voltage-controlled constant current source circuit. The parallel current-sharing of the system is realized by the voltage-controlled constant current source circuit. The output current of the two parallel power supply can be adjusted by changing the control voltage. When the output current exceeds the set value, the system starts over-current protection circuit to cut off the power and delays to restore power automatically after a certain period of time. The test results show that the system is stable and reliable, easy to control and has a function of over-current protection and automatic recovery.

  1. Optically-powered Voltage-supply-device for Effective Utilization of Optical Energy in the Fiber-To-The-Home Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hideki; Shinagawa, Takeshi; Tsuruta, Kenji

    An optically powered device with using InGaAs-Photodiode has been developed. This study aims to harvest light energy (2.8∼500μW) from the FTTH (Fiber To The Home) network and to utilize it for operating remote sensors without external energy sources. First, we designed and evaluated the characteristics of the booster circuit and confirmed that it could boost an input voltage of 0.3 V to 3.0 V. Next, we also evaluated the characteristics of InGaAs photodiode and confirmed that it can output a voltage over 0.3 V at 10-μW input light. We demonstrate that a ready-made sensor can be operated with an input optical power as low as 10 μW.

  2. Low-power VLSI circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive coverage of different aspects of low power circuit synthesis at various levels of design hierarchy; starting from the layout level to the system level. For a seamless understanding of the subject, basics of MOS circuits has been introduced at transistor, gate and circuit level; followed by various low-power design methodologies, such as supply voltage scaling, switched capacitance minimization techniques and leakage power minimization approaches. The content of this book will prove useful to students, researchers, as well as practicing engineers.

  3. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern multi-band communication systems as these systems move toward software-defined radio. These trends in technology and system design call for a re-thinking of analog and RF circuit design in nanometer C...

  4. Analog circuit design for communication SOC

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Steve Hung-Lung

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides several state-of-the-art analog circuit design techniques. It presents both empirical and theoretical materials for system-on-a-chip (SOC) circuit design. Fundamental communication concepts are used to explain a variety of topics including data conversion (ADC, DAC, S-? oversampling data converters), clock data recovery, phase-locked loops for system timing synthesis, supply voltage regulation, power amplifier design, and mixer design. This is an excellent reference book for both circuit designers and researchers who are interested in the field of design of analog communic

  5. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  6. 基于PSM技术的70kV/90A高压脉冲电源的研制%Development of the 70kV/90A High-Voltage Pulse Power Supply Based on PSM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟东; 陈文光; 宣伟民; 姚列英; 王英翘

    2011-01-01

    The high microwave and neutral beam injection of the auxiliary heating systems are used to heat or drive the plasma in the controlled nuclear fusion devices. These equipment can be destroyed easily with low energy when arcing occurs. So the high-voltage power supply which supplies to the auxiliary heating systems should have many features, such as flexible control, high stability, fast response, high power factor, short protective time, very low energy discharged to these equipment when the loads are arcing. The power supply based on PSM technology is a method of controlling the total output voltage of many identical DC choppers connected in series by means of managing the work of them step by step and modulating their pulse widths in a certain sequence. This kind of power supply has some advantages which have been mentioned, especially the low energy stored in the whole system and short protective time. Such a high voltage power supply system has already been developed. Its circuit is simple and control mode is flexible. The results show that the output is about 72kV/90A and the parameters are superior to the high-voltage power supply based on thyristors.%在受控核聚变实验中,辅助加热系统采用高功率微波和高能粒子对等离子体进行加热或驱动。这些部件不仅要求为其供电的高压电源稳定度高,而且要求在它们发生打火现象时,保护时间短(〈10gs),高压电源对其释放的能量小,否则这些关键部件极易受到损坏。基于脉冲步进调制PSM技术的高压脉冲电源是许多相同的脉冲电源串联并经过特定的调制方式控制,从而实现高压大功率输出。该高压电源有控制方式灵活、输出功率高、功率因数高、稳定度高、响应速度快、保护时间短、故障时系统对负载的释能小等众多优点。尤其保护时该电源系统储能小,时间短,满足各种高功率微波管和加速器的要求。本文分析了基于

  7. Protection of transformers and low voltage secondary circuits; Protecao de transformadores e circuitos secundarios em baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Alexandre Francisco Maia; Bouissou, Jean Jacques [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work discusses two themes related to equipment and circuit protection, both of which are components of overhead electric power transmission networks. Two CEMIG`s, the electric power company of Minas Gerais State - Southeast Brazil, experiences are presented. The work also discusses the technical reliability of these two protection conceptions. The results obtained results are also presented and discussed 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Quantized amplitudes in a nonlinear resonant electrical circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Cretin, B

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple nonlinear resonant analog circuit which demonstrates quantization of resonating amplitudes, for a given excitation level. The system is a simple RLC resonator where C is an active capacitor whose value is related to the current in the circuit. This variation is energetically equivalent to a variation of the potential energy and the circuit acts as a pendulum in the gravitational field. The excitation voltage, synchronously switched at the current frequency, enables electrical supply and keeping the oscillation of the system. The excitation frequency has been set to high harmonic of the fundamental oscillation so that anisochronicity can keep constant the amplitude of the circuit voltage and current. The behavior of the circuit is unusual: different stable amplitudes have been measured depending on initial conditions and excitation frequency, for the same amplitude of the excitation. The excitation frequency is naturally divided by the circuit and the ratio is kept constant without external...

  9. On-chip High-Voltage Generator Design

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This book describes high-voltage generator design with switched-capacitor multiplier techniques.  The author provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.   ·         Shows readers how to design charge pump circuits with lower voltage operation, higher power efficiency, and smaller circuit area; ·         Describes comprehensive circuits and systems design of on-chip high-voltage generators; ·         Covers all the component circuit blocks, including charge pumps, pump regulators, level shifters, oscillators, and references.

  10. Integrated high voltage power supply utilizing burst mode control and its performance impact on dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    a burst mode control technique. Controlling and driving a DEAP actuator between 250V to 2.5kV is demonstrated, where discrete like voltage change and voltage ripple is observed, which is introduced by the burst mode control. Measurements of the actuator strain-force reveal that the voltage ripples...... translates to small strain-force ripples. Nevertheless the driver demonstrates good capabilities of following an input reference signal, as well as having the size to fit inside a 110 mm x 32 mm cylindrical InLastor Push actuator, forming a “low voltage” DEAP actuator....

  11. An AMOLED AC-Biased Pixel Design Compensating the Threshold Voltage and I-R Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel pixel design and an AC bias driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs. The proposed threshold voltage and I-R drop compensation circuit, which comprised three transistors and one capacitor, have been verified to supply uniform output current by simulation work using the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator. The simulated results demonstrate excellent properties such as low error rate of OLED anode voltage variation (<0.7% and low voltage drop of VDD power line. The proposed pixel circuit effectively enables threshold-voltage-deviation correction of driving TFT and compensates for the voltage drop of VDD power line using AC bias on OLED cathode.

  12. Low-voltage polymer/small-molecule blend organic thin-film transistors and circuits fabricated via spray deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, By Simon; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: t.anthopoulos@ic.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ward, Jeremy W.; Jurchescu, Oana D. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Organic thin-film electronics have long been considered an enticing candidate in achieving high-throughput manufacturing of low-power ubiquitous electronics. However, to achieve this goal, more work is required to reduce operating voltages and develop suitable mass-manufacture techniques. Here, we demonstrate low-voltage spray-cast organic thin-film transistors based on a semiconductor blend of 2,8-difluoro- 5,11-bis (triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene and poly(triarylamine). Both semiconductor and dielectric films are deposited via successive spray deposition in ambient conditions (air with 40%–60% relative humidity) without any special precautions. Despite the simplicity of the deposition method, p-channel transistors with hole mobilities of >1 cm{sup 2}/Vs are realized at −4 V operation, and unipolar inverters operating at −6 V are demonstrated.

  13. Operation of High-Voltage Transverse Shock Wave Ferromagnetic Generator in the Open Circuit and Charging Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    FMGs are based on the transverse (when the shock wave propagates across the magnetization vector M) shock demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B hard...generators based on the transverse (when the shock wave propagates across the magnetization vector M) shock wave demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B hard...and photo of a high-voltage transverse FMG are shown in Fig. 1. It contains a hollow hard ferromagnetic cylindrical Nd2Fe14B energy-carrying

  14. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  15. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Sohbatzadeh; M Bagheri; S Motallebi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed...

  16. Low-Voltage Ultra-Low-Power Current Conveyor Based on Quasi-Floating Gate Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khateb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of low-voltage low-power CMOS technology has grown rapidly in recent years; it is an essential prerequisite particularly for portable electronic equipment and implantable medical devices due to its influence on battery lifetime. Recently, significant improvements in implementing circuits working in the low-voltage low-power area have been achieved, but circuit designers face severe challenges when trying to improve or even maintain the circuit performance with reduced supply voltage. In this paper, a low-voltage ultra-low-power current conveyor second generation CCII based on quasi-floating gate transistors is presented. The proposed circuit operates at a very low supply voltage of only ±0.4 V with rail-to-rail voltage swing capability and a total quiescent power consumption of mere 9.5 µW. Further, the proposed circuit is not only able to process the AC signal as it's usual at quasi-floating gate transistors but also the DC which extends the applicability of the proposed circuit. In conclusion, an application example of the current-mode quadrature oscillator is presented. PSpice simulation results using the 0.18 µm TSMC CMOS technology are included to confirm the attractive properties of the proposed circuit.

  17. A Novel Chopper Circuit Having Divided Multi-load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Isamu; Matsui, Keiju; Mori, Hideki; Yao, Yugo

    A dc-dc converter is being widely used for various household appliances and for industry applications. The dc-dc converter is powered from single battery, and the voltage is varied according to the purpose. In the vehicle, various accessories whose electric power is different are being used. Thus, plural number of dc-dc converter should be provided, so these situations bring complicated circuits, and accordingly, higher cost. Moreover, this is not limited to the vehicle applications. For instance, for analog circuits and digital circuits, various power supplies with different voltages are used sometimes. Under such backgrounds, in this paper, we propose a novel dc-dc converter with simply circuit configuration which can supply to two or more different output loads. This converter can control output voltages by controlling duty ratio by using typically two switching devices, which is composed by single boost-switch and single buck-switch. The output voltage can be controlled widely. A few modified circuits developed from the fundamental circuit are represented including the general multi-load circuit. Theoretical equations are solved, where results are confirmed by simulations and experiments.

  18. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF THE FACTUAL CONTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION IN ASYMMETRY AND DEVIATION OF VOLTAGE AT THE COMMON COUPLING POINTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.L. Sayenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Perform numerical analysis of the distribution of the factual contributions of line sources of distortion in the voltage distortion at the point of common coupling, based on the principles of superposition and exclusions. Methodology. Numerical analysis was performed on the results of the simulation steady state operation of power supply system of seven electricity consumers. Results. Mathematical model for determining the factual contribution of line sources of distortion in the voltage distortion at the point of common coupling, based on the principles of superposition and exclusions, are equivalent. To assess the degree of participation of each source of distortion in the voltage distortion at the point of common coupling and distribution of financial compensation to the injured party by all sources of distortion developed a one-dimensional criteria based on the scalar product of vectors. Not accounting group sources of distortion, which belong to the subject of the energy market, to determine their total factual contribution as the residual of the factual contribution between all sources of distortion. Originality. Simulation mode power supply system was carried out in the phase components space, taking into account the distributed characteristics of distortion sources. Practical value. The results of research can be used to develop methods and tools for distributed measurement and analytical systems assessment of the power quality.

  19. 基于电力电子调压电路的直流不停电融冰技术%Study of DC Ice-melting Without Power Cut Technology Based on Power Electronic Voltage-regulating Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洁莹; 周飞; 拜润清; 蔡林海; 荆平

    2014-01-01

    Ice-coating of transmission lines every year in winter seriously affects reliable operation of power grids in China. Present electrical ice-melting methods all require power interruption, which brings negative effects to power grid. To address this issue, principles and feasibility of DC and AC ice-melting without power cut methods are analyzed, a new DC ice-melting without power cut method is proposed, and its circuit structure and capacity requirements are analyzed. At last, a model of the ice-melting device under PSCAD is built and its principles and functions are verified by simulation. The DC ice-melting without power cut device based on power electronic voltage-regulating circuits has high working efficiency and little influence upon regular power supplying.%我国冬季出现的输电线路覆冰的情况严重影响电力系统的可靠运行,现有的电力融冰均需停电进行,对系统影响较大。针对这个问题,分析交、直流不停电融冰的原理及可行性,提出一种新型的不停电直流融冰方法,对其电路结构和所需容量进行分析,并建立不停电融冰装置仿真模型,进行原理和功能验证。基于电力电子调压电路的不停电直流融冰装置具有融冰效率高且不影响线路供电的优点。

  20. Simulation of the Process of Arc Energy-Effect in High Voltage Auto-Expansion SF6 Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Mingzhe; Yang Qian; Fan Chunduo

    2005-01-01

    A new magnetic hydro-dynamics (MHD) model of arc in H.V. auto-expansion SF6circuit breaker that takes into consideration nozzle ablation due to both radiation and thermal conduction is presented in this paper. The effect of PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) vapor is considered in the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of the constructed model. Then,the gas flow fields with and without conduction considered are simulated. By comparing the aforementioned two results, it is indicated that the arc's maximal temperature with conduction considered is 90 percent of that without considering conduction.