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Sample records for voltage pulse facility

  1. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  2. High-voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1991-01-01

    This generator is composed of elementary impulsion generators connected in series. Each of them have -storage capacities, and switchs. The closure of switch causes an accumulator discharge. -control means of these switches are electrically independent and forecast to switch on by pulses in the same time -loading means of storage means have a very low enough electric dependence not to induce a loss of power at the exit of the generator. Applications to particle accelerators [fr

  3. Voltage-pulse generator for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    A voltage-pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive storage devices of an electron gun is described. The current interrupter is a hydrogen thyratron (TGI1-100/8, TGI1-500/16, or TGI1-1000/25) installed in a short magnetic lens. The current interruption time of the thyratrons is 100-300 nsec. When the capacitive storage device is charged to 1 kV, a voltage pulse with an amplitude of 25 kV is obtained at the load

  4. High-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapishnikov, N.K.; Muratov, V.M.; Shatanov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse shaper with an output of up to 250 kV, a base duration of ∼ 10 nsec, and a repetition frequency of 50 pulses/sec is described. The described high-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper is designed for one-orbit extraction of an electron beam from a betatron. A diagram of the pulse shaper, which employs a single-stage generator is shown. The shaping element is a low-inductance capacitor bank of series-parallel KVI-3 (2200 pF at 10 kV) or K15-10 (4700 pF at 31.5 kV) disk ceramic capacitors. Four capacitors are connected in parallel and up to 25 are connected in series

  5. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  6. SLAC pulsed X-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, N. E.; McCall, R. C.; Baker, E. D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the RF power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed X-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The X-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminum 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 ms. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the X-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility.

  7. SLAC pulsed x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipe, N.E.; McCall, R.C.; Baker, E.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the rf power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The x-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminium 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 μs. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the x-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. A high-voltage pulse generator for corona plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Gompel, van F.M.; Leuken, van H.E.M.; Matyas, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a high-voltage pulse generator for producing corona plasma. The generator consists of three resonant charging circuits, a transmission line transformer, and a triggered spark-gap switch. Voltage pulses in the order of 30-100 kV with a rise time of 10-20 ns, a pulse duration of

  9. A 350 KV nanosecond pulse voltage generator with adjustable pulsed-width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, M.; Chen, Y.Q.; Zeng, L.G.; Han, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a 350 kV nanosecond pulse voltage generator (NPVG). The voltage pulsed-width can be adjusted from 30 to 160 ns. The generator consists of: Marx generator, pulsed forming line (PFL), main switch and matched impedance. The output voltage of Marx generator is over than nU c (n- the stage number of Marx generator, U c -the charging voltage of capacitor). When the pulse forming line is terminated with an impedance that is over than the characteristic impedance of PFL, the higher voltage pulse was provided for the load

  10. The Toulouse pulsed magnet facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The 'Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses' (LNCMP) is an international user facility providing access to pulsed magnetic fields up to and beyond 60 T. The laboratory disposes of 10 magnet stations equipped with long-pulse magnets operating in the 35-60 T range and a short-pulse system reaching magnetic fields in excess of 70 T. The experimental infrastructure includes various high and low-temperature systems ranging from ordinary flow-type cryostats to dilution refrigerators reaching 50 mK, as well as different types of high-pressure cells. Experimental techniques include magnetization, transport, luminescence, IR-spectroscopy and polarimetry. The LNCMP pursues an extensive in-house research program focussing on all technological and scientific aspects of pulsed magnetic fields. Recent technical developments include the implementation of 60 T rapid-cooling coils, an 80 T prototype, a pulsed dipole magnet for optical investigations of dilute matter and a transportable horizontal access magnet for small angle x-ray scattering experiments. Scientific activities cover a variety of domains, including correlated electron systems, magnetism, semiconductors and nanoscience

  11. High-voltage pulse generator for electron gun power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive energy storages for electron gun power supply is described. Hydrogen thyratron set in a short magnetic lense is a current breaker. Times of current interruption in thyratrons are in the range from 100 to 300 ns. With 1 kV charging voltage of capacitive energy storage 25 kV voltage pulse is obtained in the load. The given high-voltage pulse generator was used for supply of an electron gun generating 10-30 keV low-energy electron beam

  12. Physicochemical assessment criteria for high-voltage pulse capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darian, L. A., E-mail: LDarian@rambler.ru; Lam, L. Kh. [National Research University, Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In the paper, the applicability of decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors is considered (aging is the reason for decomposition products of internal insulation). Decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors can be used to evaluate their quality when in operation and in service. There have been three generations of markers of aging of insulation as in the case with power transformers. The area of applicability of markers of aging of insulation for power transformers has been studied and the area can be extended to high-voltage pulse capacitors. The research reveals that there is a correlation between the components and quantities of markers of aging of the first generation (gaseous decomposition products of insulation) dissolved in insulating liquid and the remaining life of high-voltage pulse capacitors. The application of markers of aging to evaluate the remaining service life of high-voltage pulse capacitor is a promising direction of research, because the design of high-voltage pulse capacitors keeps stability of markers of aging of insulation in high-voltage pulse capacitors. It is necessary to continue gathering statistical data concerning development of markers of aging of the first generation. One should also carry out research aimed at estimation of the remaining life of capacitors using markers of the second and the third generation.

  13. Physicochemical assessment criteria for high-voltage pulse capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darian, L. A.; Lam, L. Kh.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the applicability of decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors is considered (aging is the reason for decomposition products of internal insulation). Decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors can be used to evaluate their quality when in operation and in service. There have been three generations of markers of aging of insulation as in the case with power transformers. The area of applicability of markers of aging of insulation for power transformers has been studied and the area can be extended to high-voltage pulse capacitors. The research reveals that there is a correlation between the components and quantities of markers of aging of the first generation (gaseous decomposition products of insulation) dissolved in insulating liquid and the remaining life of high-voltage pulse capacitors. The application of markers of aging to evaluate the remaining service life of high-voltage pulse capacitor is a promising direction of research, because the design of high-voltage pulse capacitors keeps stability of markers of aging of insulation in high-voltage pulse capacitors. It is necessary to continue gathering statistical data concerning development of markers of aging of the first generation. One should also carry out research aimed at estimation of the remaining life of capacitors using markers of the second and the third generation.

  14. Pulsed high voltage discharge induce hematologic changes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Sterilization appears to be the best way to ensure a very high level of safety in transfusion of blood and its ... those of individual proteins. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Schematic diagram of the apparatus for generation of the Pulsed ... different number of pulses (function of exposure time) of high E-.

  15. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces.

  16. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces

  17. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  18. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Vizir, V A; Kumpyak, V V; Zorin, V B; Kiselev, V N

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ∼50 ns, current amplitude of ∼6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ∼20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  19. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Vizir, V. A.; Kumpyak, V. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Kiselev, V. N.

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ˜50 ns, current amplitude of ˜6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ˜20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  20. Twenty-channel high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'in, P.S.; Kashirin, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 20-channel high-voltage pulse generator operating with a mismatched load is described. The generator contains shaping lines 20 m long made of coaxial cable, a trigatron-type discharged, and isolating plates. The channel characteristic impedance is 50 Ohm. The maximum pulse amplitude is up to 15 kV on a high-resistance load and 7.5 kV on a matched one. The pulse duration is 100 ns at a pulse rise time of 12 ns, the delay introduced by the generator is 200 +-2.5 ns. Provision is made in the control circuit for compensation of the shaped pulse and separation of a pulse reflected from the load. The reflected pulse shape and amplitude characterize load parameters. Generator tests proved its high operational reliability (after 10 5 operations no significant changes in generator performances have been observed). The generator is intended for filmless data output from spark chambers

  1. PLZT light transmittance memory driven with an asymmetric voltage pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    PLZT is a ferroelectric electro-optic material, which has been operated with a constant voltage supply to keep a certain optical property. In this study, we propose an optical transmittance memory effect by controlling the domain conditions. The keypoint is to use an asymmetric voltage pulse. In the positive direction, a sufficiently-large voltage is applied to align the polarization directions. After this operation, a relatively small light transmittance is memorized even after removing the electric field. On the other hand, in the negative direction, the amplitude of the voltage is adjusted to the coercive electric field. In this condition, the domain structure is almost the same as the depolarization state. With this voltage supply, the maximum light transmittance can be kept after removing the electric field. Using these voltage operations, the PLZT can obtain two light transmittance states depending on the domain structure. This memory effect should be useful for innovative optical scanners or shutters in the future.

  2. High-voltage pulse generator synchronous with LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Hiratsuka, Yoshio; Niimura, Nobuo

    1974-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator (H.V. Flip-Flop) No.2, an improved type of No.1, is described, which is used in the structural analysis of transient phenomena in materials through the neutron TOF with a Linac. The method of producing positive and negative high-voltage pulses synchronous with the Linac is identical with that in No.1. However, No.2 has outstanding features as follows: (1) The rise time of output pulses is reduced to 0.3 msec, due to the improvement of switching circuit and the winding of a step-up transformer; (2) The widths of positive and negative pulses are variable up to maximum 8 and 16 frames, respectively (One frame = 10 msec); (3) The distribution of TOF signals from a BF 3 counter to a time analyzer is possible even in the negative voltage duration. The panel is provided with the switches for choosing pulse width and the frame for analysis, as well as the dials for setting positive/negative pulse voltage values and the respective indicating meters. (Mori, K)

  3. Study on the construction and its operating characteristics of Marx high voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W.K.; Yook, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study is to investigate the operating characteristics of a Marx high voltage pulse generator, which is designed and fabricated for the purpose of constructing a linear theta-pinch plasma generating facility. The Marx generator consists of a 2 kJ capacitor bank of maximum output voltage of 200kV, a set of main spark switch, a triggring system, and high voltage charging power supply. The experimental results show that the operating characteristics of the generator can be controlled through varying nitrogen pressure as a filling gas. The output pulse of the generator is achieved close to the estimated voltage with the rise time of 3*m seconds. The stability of the generator is also very satisfactory within operating range of main spark switch. (Author)

  4. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  5. Loss characteristics of FLTD magnetic cores under fast pulsed voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguo; Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Jiang Xiaofeng; Liang Tianxue; Yin Jiahui; Liu Peng; Wei Hao; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The test platform has been developed to generate exciting pulsed voltages with the rise time less than 30 ns. The loss characteristics of cores of 25 μm 2605TCA Metglas and 50 μm DG6 electrical steel were then studied. A characteristic parameter, the gradient of the voltage pulse applied per unit core area, is proposed to describe the exciting condition applied on magnetic cores. The loss of the DG6 core is about 4 times that of the 2605TCA core. Most loss of the DG6 core, about 75%, is due to eddy current. For the 2605TCA core, the percentage is about 28%. (authors)

  6. High-voltage short-fall pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbilov, G.V.; Fateev, A.A.; Petrov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Powerful high-voltage pulses with short fall times and relatively low afterpulse amplitude are required for the deflection systems of accelerators. A generator is described that provides, into a 75-ohm load, a voltage pulse of up to 100 kV with a fall time of less than 1 nsec and a relative afterpulse amplitude of less than or equal to 15%. The generator employs a short-circuited ferrite-filled line in which shock waves are formed. A magnetic section is used to increase power. The switch is a TGI1-2500/50 thyratron. The main causes of afterpulses and methods for reducing their amplitude are examined

  7. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-01-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-μs pulse width driving a load of ∼100 Ω, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 Ω, up to a level of ∼650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of ∼100 Ω

  8. High-voltage pulsed life of multistressed polypropylene capacitor dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    High-voltage polypropylene capacitors were aged under singular as well as simultaneous multiple stresses (electrical, thermal, and radiation) at the University of Buffalo's 2 MW thermal nuclear reactor. These stresses were combined neutron-gamma radiation with a total dose of 1.6 x 10 6 rad, electrical stress at 40 V rms /μm, and thermal stress at 90 degrees C. After exposure, the polypropylene dielectric was tested for life (number of pulses to fail) under high-voltage high-repetition-rate (100 pps) pulses. Pulsed life data were also compared with ac life data. Results show that radiation stress causes the most degradation in life, either acting alone or in combination with other stresses. The largest reduction in life occurs when polypropylene is aged under simultaneous multiple stresses (electrical, thermal, and radiation). In this paper, it is shown that pulsed life can be equivalently compared with ac life

  9. Dose reduction in pulsed fluoroscopy by modifying the high-voltage pulse shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabau, M.N.; Phelps, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the dose reduction results in pulsed fluoroscopy by modifying the high-voltage pulse shape (HVPS). Since the HVPS in regular pulsed fluoroscopy has a long tail, the radiation pulse shape (RPS) is similar. Using specially designed circuitry in the high-voltage generator to produce a rectangular HVPS, and consequently a rectangular RPS, it was possible to obtain a reduction of up to 25% of patient exposure. This dose reduction obtained by cutting the long tail of RPS does not damage the image quality

  10. Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage Source Inverter Using Fixed-Band Hysteresis Current Controller Method. ... with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, and consequently, ...

  11. Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

  12. High-Voltage, Multiphasic, Nanosecond Pulses to Modulate Cellular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hollie A; Hirakawa, Shinji; Yang, Enbo; Zhou, Chunrong; Xiao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing. The generator consists of a series of the fundamental module, which includes a capacitor and a MOSFET switch. A positive or a negative phase pulse module can be produced based on how the switch is connected. Stacking the modules in series can increase the voltage up to 5 kV. Multiple stacks in parallel can create multiphase outputs. As each stack is independently controlled and charged, multiphasic pulses can be created to produce flexible and versatile pulse waveforms. The circuit topology can be used for high-frequency uniphasic or biphasic nanosecond burst pulse production, creating numerous opportunities for the generator in electroporation applications, tissue ablation, wound healing, and nonthermal plasma generation.

  13. High-voltage variable-duration pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, T.E.; Akkuratov, E.V.; Gromovenko, V.M.; Nikonov, Yu.P.; Malinin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A high-voltage generator is described that allows pulse duration tau to be varied within wide limits and has high efficiency (at least 50% for tau = 0.5 tau/sub max/) and an amplitude of up to 5 kV, a repetition frequency of up to 200 Hz,and a variable duration of 0-30 μsec. The generator is used in the controller of an electron accelerator

  14. A compact high-voltage pulse generator based on pulse transformer with closed magnetic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang; Cheng, Xinbing; Bai, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongbo; Feng, Jiahuai; Liang, Bo

    2010-03-01

    A compact high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator, based on a pulse transformer with a closed magnetic core, is presented in this paper. The pulse generator consists of a miniaturized pulse transformer, a curled parallel strip pulse forming line (PFL), a spark gap, and a matched load. The innovative design is characterized by the compact structure of the transformer and the curled strip PFL. A new structure of transformer windings was designed to keep good insulation and decrease distributed capacitance between turns of windings. A three-copper-strip structure was adopted to avoid asymmetric coupling of the curled strip PFL. When the 31 microF primary capacitor is charged to 2 kV, the pulse transformer can charge the PFL to 165 kV, and the 3.5 ohm matched load can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a duration of 9 ns, amplitude of 84 kV, and rise time of 5.1 ns. When the load is changed to 50 ohms, the output peak voltage of the generator can be 165 kV, the full width at half maximum is 68 ns, and the rise time is 6.5 ns.

  15. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 .s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (U.S.)

  16. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 . s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed

  17. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs.

  18. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L.

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs

  19. A HIGH CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE SOLID-STATE PULSE GENERATOR FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P A; Barbosa, F; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Akana, G L; Brooksby, C A

    2007-01-01

    A high current, high voltage, all solid-state pulse modulator has been developed for use in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem in the National Ignition Facility. The MOSFET-switched pulse generator, designed to be a more capable plug-in replacement for the thyratron-switched units currently deployed in NIF, offers unprecedented capabilities including burst-mode operation, pulse width agility and a steady-state pulse repetition frequency exceeding 1 Hz. Capable of delivering requisite fast risetime, 17 kV flattop pulses into a 6 (Omega) load, the pulser employs a modular architecture characteristic of the inductive adder technology, pioneered at LLNL for use in acceleration applications, which keeps primary voltages low (and well within the capabilities of existing FET technology), reduces fabrication costs and is amenable to rapid assembly and quick field repairs

  20. A nanosecond high voltage pulse device for accelerator time analytical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Binqiao; Ding Furong; Xue Zhihua; Wang Xuemei; Shen Dingyu

    2002-01-01

    A nanosecond high voltage pulse device has been designed. The pulse rise time is 10 ns. The pulse voltage reached 16000 V. This device has been used to accelerator time analytical system, its resolution time is less than 0.8%

  1. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically.

  2. A high-voltage equipment (high voltage supply, high voltage pulse generators, resonant charging inductance, synchro-instruments for gyrotron frequency measurements) for plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spassov, Velin

    1996-01-01

    This document reports my activities as visitor-professor at the Gyrotron Project - INPE Plasma Laboratory. The main objective of my activities was designing, construction and testing a suitable high-voltage pulse generator for plasma applications, and efforts were concentrated on the following points: Design of high-voltage resonant power supply with tunable output (0 - 50 kV) for line-type high voltage pulse generator; design of line-type pulse generator (4 microseconds pulse duration, 0 - 25 kV tunable voltage) for non linear loads such as a gyrotron and P III reactor; design of resonant charging inductance for resonant line-type pulse generator, and design of high resolution synchro instrument for gyrotron frequency measurement. (author)

  3. Pulse coil concepts for the LCP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Burn, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The pulse coils described in this paper are resistive copper magnets driven by time-varying currents. They are included in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) portion of the Large Coil Program (LCP) to simulate the pulsed field environment of the toroidal coils in a tokamak reactor. Since TNS (a 150 sec, 5MA, igniting tokamak) and the Oak Ridge EPR (Experimental Power Reactor) are representative of the first tokamaks to require the technology developed in LCP, the reference designs for these machines, especially TNS, are used to derive the magnetic criteria for the pulse coils. This criteria includes the magnitude, distribution, and rate of change of pulsed fields in the toroidal coil windings. Three pulse coil concepts are evaluated on the basis of magnetic criteria and factors such as versatility of design, ease of fabrication and cost of operation. The three concepts include (1) a pair of poloidal coils outside the LCTF torus, (2) a single poloidal coil threaded through the torus, and (3) a pair of vertical axis coil windings inside the bore of one or more of the toroidal test coils

  4. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  5. Alpha-contained laboratory scale pulse column facility for SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.; Cadieux, J.R.; Fauth, D.J.; Thompson, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    For studying solvent extraction processes, a laboratory-sized pulse column facility was constructed at the Savannah River Laboratory. This facility, in conjunction with existing miniature mixer-settler equipment and the centrifugal contactor facility currently under construction at SRL, provides capability for cross comparison of solvent extraction technology. This presentation describes the design and applications of the Pulse Column Facility at SRL

  6. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  7. Comparison of the quantitative analysis performance between pulsed voltage atom probe and pulsed laser atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J., E-mail: takahashi.3ct.jun@jp.nssmc.com [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Kawakami, K. [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Raabe, D. [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Department for Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative analysis in Fe-Cu alloy was investigated in voltage and laser atom probe. • In voltage-mode, apparent Cu concentration exceeded actual concentration at 20–40 K. • In laser-mode, the concentration never exceeded the actual concentration even at 20 K. • Detection loss was prevented due to the rise in tip surface temperature in laser-mode. • Preferential evaporation of solute Cu was reduced in laser-mode. - Abstract: The difference in quantitative analysis performance between the voltage-mode and laser-mode of a local electrode atom probe (LEAP3000X HR) was investigated using a Fe-Cu binary model alloy. Solute copper atoms in ferritic iron preferentially field evaporate because of their significantly lower evaporation field than the matrix iron, and thus, the apparent concentration of solute copper tends to be lower than the actual concentration. However, in voltage-mode, the apparent concentration was higher than the actual concentration at 40 K or less due to a detection loss of matrix iron, and the concentration decreased with increasing specimen temperature due to the preferential evaporation of solute copper. On the other hand, in laser-mode, the apparent concentration never exceeded the actual concentration, even at lower temperatures (20 K), and this mode showed better quantitative performance over a wide range of specimen temperatures. These results indicate that the pulsed laser atom probe prevents both detection loss and preferential evaporation under a wide range of measurement conditions.

  8. Design of auto-control high-voltage control system of pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Juntao

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to produce multiple anode controlling time sequences under different logging mode for the high-voltage control system of the conventional pulsed neutron generator. It is also difficult realize sequential control among anode high-voltage, filament power supply and target voltage to make neutron yield stable. To these problems, an auto-control high-voltage system of neutron pulsed generator was designed. It not only can achieve anode high-voltage double blast time sequences, which can measure multiple neutron blast time sequences such as Σ, activated spectrum, etc. under inelastic scattering mode, but also can realize neutron generator real-time measurement of multi-state parameters and auto-control such as target voltage pulse width modulation (PWM), filament current, anode current, etc., there by it can produce stable neutron yield and realize stable and accurate measurement of the pulsed neutron full spectral loging tool. (authors)

  9. Multiplex Outputs ns Grade High-voltage Fast Pulse Generator Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Chen Kenan

    2009-01-01

    Using a double-grid hydrogen thyratron, a fast pulse generator with four outputs, high-voltage, low jitter, was made to use at special occasion.In this paper, the basic structure of pulser, switching theory and double-grid driving of hydrogen thyratron was introduced, and also, the effects of grids driving pulses characteristics, the delay between too grids driving, the reservoir heater voltage and cathode heater voltage on the output are carefully examined in experiments. The pulse generator with four outputs was made to producing pulses with amplitude up to 4 kV, rise-time less than 15 ns and jitter less than 3 ns. (authors)

  10. Environmental and biotechnological applications of high-voltage pulsed discharges in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse has wide application in fields such as chemistry, physics and biology and their combinations. The high-voltage pulse forms two kinds of physical processes in water, namely (a) a pulsed electric field (PEF) in the parallel electrode configuration and (b) plasma generation by a pulsed discharge in the water phase with a concentrated electric field. The PEF can be used for inactivation of bacteria in liquid foods as a non-thermal process, and the underwater plasma is applicable not only for the decomposition of organic materials in water but also for biological treatment of wastewater. These discharge states are controlled mainly by the applied pulse voltage and the electrode shape. Some examples of environmental and biotechnological applications of a high-voltage pulse are reviewed.

  11. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  12. Modeling generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC using 48-pulse voltage source converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghorbani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC is one of the voltage-source controller (VSC-based flexible AC transmission system (FACTS controllers that can independently regulate the power-flow over each transmission line of a multiline system. This paper presents the modeling and performance analysis of GIPFC based on 48-pulsed voltage-source converters. This paper deals with a cascaded multilevel converter model, which is a 48-pulse (three levels voltage source converter. The voltage source converter described in this paper is a harmonic neutralized, 48-pulse GTO converter. The GIPFC controller is based on d-q orthogonal coordinates. The algorithm is verified using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Comparisons between unified power flow controller (UPFC and GIPFC are also included. Keywords: Generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC, Voltage source converter (VCS, 48-pulse GTO converter

  13. The pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage normal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution quantum precise alternating-voltage sources are presented, which make the generation of arbitrary wave forms with highest spectral purity with a high bandwidth from DC up to the MHz range possible. Heartpiece of these Josephson voltage normals is a serial circuit of many thousand Josephson contacts, which make by irradiation with high-frequency radiation (microwaves) the generation of highly precise voltage values possible. Thereby in the current-voltage characteristics stages of constant voltage, so called Shapiro stages, occur. Illustratively these stages can be described by the transfer of a certain number of flux quanta through the Josephson contacts.

  14. Thyristor current-pulse generator for betatron electromagnet with independent low-voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginskii, B.A.; Makarevich, V.N.; Shtein, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    A thyristor generator is described that produces unipolar current pulses in the winding of a betatron electromagnet. The voltage on the electro-magnet is increased and the shape of the current pulses is improved by use of an intermediate inductive storage device. The current pulses have a duration of 11 msec, an amplitude of 190 A, and a repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The maximum magnetic-field energy is 450 J, the voltage on the electromagnet winding is 1.5 kV, and the supply voltage is 27 V

  15. Review of the Dynamics of Coalescence and Demulsification by High-Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coalescence of droplets in oil can be implemented rapidly by high-voltage pulse electric field, which is an effective demulsification dehydration technological method. At present, it is widely believed that the main reason of pulse electric field promoting droplets coalescence is the dipole coalescence and oscillation coalescence in pulse electric field, and the optimal coalescence pulse electric field parameters exist. Around the above content, the dynamics of high-voltage pulse electric field promoting the coalescence of emulsified droplets is studied by researchers domestically and abroad. By review, the progress of high-voltage pulse electric field demulsification technology can get a better understanding, which has an effect of throwing a sprat to catch a whale on promoting the industrial application.

  16. Electrical Tree Initiation and Growth in Silicone Rubber under Combined DC-Pulse Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical tree is a serious threat to silicone rubber (SIR insulation and can even cause breakdown. Electrical trees under alternating current (AC and direct current (DC voltage have been widely researched. While there are pulses in high-voltage direct current (HVDC cables under operating conditions caused by lightning and operating overvoltage in the power system, little research has been reported about trees under combined DC-pulse voltage. Their inception and growth mechanism is still not clear. In this paper, electrical trees are studied under several types of combined DC-pulse voltage. The initiation and growth process was recorded by a digital microscope system. The experimental results indicate that the inception pulse voltage is different under each voltage type and is influenced by the combined DC. The initial tree has two structures, determined by the pulse polarity. With increased DC prestressing time, tree inception pulse voltage with the same polarity is clearly decreased. Moreover, a special initial bubble tree was observed after the prestressing DC.

  17. Low Voltage Electrolytic Capacitor Pulse Forming Inductive Network for Electric Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mays, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    .... Pulsed alternators potentially have the same maintenance issues as other motor-generator sets, so a solid-state system would be desirable, but high voltage capacitor systems are not robust enough for the field...

  18. High voltage pulse system for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksinenko, V.D.; Glagoleva, N.S.; Dement'ev, E.A.; Kaminskij, N.I.; Matyushin, A.T.; Matyushin, V.T.; Rozhnyatovskaya, S.A.; Ryakhovskij, V.N.; Nurgozhin, N.N.; Khusainov, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of development and testing of high voltage pulse system HVPS for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer are presented. HVPS consists of the following basic blocks: nanosecond pulse high voltage generator, high voltage charging supply, trigger generator, chamber parameter control devices, gas-oil vacuuming supply systems, auxiliary and fire-prevention devices. The system blocks are described. Experimental results of HVPC testing are presented. HVPC provides a reliable (10 5 operations) of streamer chamber supply with high voltage pulse parameters: amplitude - 500 kV, amplitude instability (0.5-1.5)%, pulse duration - 12 ns, delay time - 500 ns, delay instability (2.5-5)%, mean frequency of output a signals - 0.1 Hz

  19. Comparison of the quantitative analysis performance between pulsed voltage atom probe and pulsed laser atom probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, J; Kawakami, K; Raabe, D

    2017-04-01

    The difference in quantitative analysis performance between the voltage-mode and laser-mode of a local electrode atom probe (LEAP3000X HR) was investigated using a Fe-Cu binary model alloy. Solute copper atoms in ferritic iron preferentially field evaporate because of their significantly lower evaporation field than the matrix iron, and thus, the apparent concentration of solute copper tends to be lower than the actual concentration. However, in voltage-mode, the apparent concentration was higher than the actual concentration at 40K or less due to a detection loss of matrix iron, and the concentration decreased with increasing specimen temperature due to the preferential evaporation of solute copper. On the other hand, in laser-mode, the apparent concentration never exceeded the actual concentration, even at lower temperatures (20K), and this mode showed better quantitative performance over a wide range of specimen temperatures. These results indicate that the pulsed laser atom probe prevents both detection loss and preferential evaporation under a wide range of measurement conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-voltage nanosecond Marx generator with quasi-rectangular pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulan, V.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Gribov, A.N.; Luzhnov, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    The automated high-voltage nanosecond generator, forming single pulses of any polarity on the load of 17 Ohm with polarity voltage from 100 up to 300 kV at the semiheight of 80 ns and the front of 7 ns is described. The generator is assembled on the basis of low-inductive capacitors, which by discharge form the pulse, close by form to rectangular one [ru

  1. The development of long pulse high voltage power supply for MNI-1U neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detai Wang

    1989-01-01

    A high power long pulse high voltage power supply (HVPS) for MNI- 1 U neutral beam injector (NBI) is described. This HVPS is used as a switching regulator with a duty cycle of 1/100, the specifications of circuit are as follows, output pulse voltage 50kv, pulse current 30A, pulse width 50ms, rise-time and fall-time of the voltage are less than 25 μs, stability of the pulse flat is better than 0.5%, regulation response time of the pulse voltage less than 30 μs can be attained. It is also used as a stable DC HVPS, output voltage is 1 to 100kv, current is 1 to 5A. If regulation tube is shunted with high power resistor in parallel, the current can be extended to 10 A, stability of the output voltage or current is better than 0.1%. Now, the HVPS has been put into operation for MNI- 1 U NBI and PIG ion source made in French. 3 refs., 5 figs

  2. Mitigation of Flicker using STATCOM with Three-Level 12-pulse Voltage Source Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Z a'fari

    2011-01-01

    Voltage flicker is a disturbance in electrical power systems. The reason for this disturbance is mainly the large nonlinear loads such as electric arc furnaces. Synchronous static compensator (STATCOM) is considered as a proper technique to mitigate the voltage flicker. Application of more suitable and precise power electronic converter leads to a more precise performance of the compensator. In this paper a three-level 12-pulse voltage source inverter (VSI) with a 12-term...

  3. MOSFET-based high voltage short pulse generator for ultrasonic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Darmawan; Setianto, Syafei, Nendi Suhendi; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the generation of a high-voltage short pulse for the excitation of high frequency ultrasonic transducers. This is highly required in the purpose of various ultrasonic-based evaluations, particularly when high resolution measurement is necessary. A high voltage (+760 V) DC voltage source was pulsated by an ultrafast switching MOSFET which was driven by a pulse generator circuit consisting of an astable multivibrator, a one-shot multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input and a high current MOSFET driver. The generated pulses excited a 200-kHz and a 1-MHz ultrasonic transducers and tested in the transmission mode propagation to evaluate the performances of the generated pulse. The test results showed the generator were able to produce negative spike pulses up to -760 V voltage with the shortest time-width of 107.1 nanosecond. The transmission-received ultrasonic waves show frequency oscillation at 200 and 961 kHz and their amplitudes varied with the voltage of excitation pulse. These results conclude that the developed pulse generator is applicable to excite transducer for the generation of high frequency ultrasonic waves.

  4. Novel zero voltage transition pulse width modulation flyback converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Ehsan; Farzanehfard, Hosein

    2010-09-01

    In this article, a new zero voltage (ZV) transition flyback converter is introduced which uses a simple auxiliary circuit. In this converter, ZV switching condition is achieved for the converter switch while zero current switching condition is attained for the auxiliary switch. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main switch. Main diode, auxiliary circuit voltage and current ratings are low. The proposed converter is analysed and design procedure is discussed. The presented experimental results of a prototype converter justify the theoretical analysis.

  5. Development of voltage sensitive preamplifier using pulse ionization chamber emanometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang He; Peng Xincun; Fu Zhijian; Zhu Zhifu; Zhang Xiongjie

    2011-01-01

    The voltage preamplifier for the instrument that detecting the Rn and its radon daughter elements is designed. The related circuit are designed and tested. It shows that this preamplifier satisfies the requirement of nuclear measurement system. (authors)

  6. Initial position estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on improved pulse voltage injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...

  7. High voltage nanosecond generator with pulse repetition rate of 1,000 p.p.s.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubanov, V P; Korovin, S D; Stepchenko, A S [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A compact high voltage nanosecond generator is described with a pulse repetition rate up to 1000 p.p.s. The generator includes a 30-Ohm coaxial forming line charged by a built-in Tesla transformer with a high coupling coefficient, and a high voltage (N{sub 2}) gas gap switch with gas blowing between the electrodes. The maximum forming line charge voltage is 450 kV, the pulse duration is about 4 ns, and its amplitude for a matched load is up to 200 kV. (author). 3 figs., 9 refs.

  8. Design of a 28 MW pulse facility for testing superconducting coils to several hundred megajoules capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    Railway traction motors are available in unit sizes convenient for installation and series-parallel grouping. They are rugged. Industry builds and refurbishes them with good economy and in quantities replenishing the rolling stock. We find them well suited for reversing the current in a superconducting winding. We focus on a pulsed energy of 20 to 100 MJ, discussing our analysis and facility planning. Limitations are imposed by the following maximum numbers tolerated by the motor - pulsed current of 3.0 to 3.5 kA, current change of 40 kA/s, and pulsed voltage of 1.8 kV. Hence, the number of machines needed in parallel follows from the coil current and its rate of change. The number in series is determined by the voltage. The power transfer is limited by the torsional strength of the motor shaft to a value affected by the flywheel mass

  9. Additional ion bombardment in PVD processes generated by a superimposed pulse bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, W.; Kampschulte, G.

    1993-01-01

    The superimposed pulse bias voltage is a tool to apply an additional ion bombardment during deposition in physical vapour deposition (PVD) processes. It is generated by the combination of a d.c. ground voltage and a higher d.c. pulse voltage. Using a superimposed pulse bias voltage in ion-assisted PVD processes effects an additional all-around ion bombardment on the surface with ions of higher energy. Both metal and reactive or inert-gas ions are accelerated to the surface. The basic principles and important characteristics of this newly developed process such as ion fluxes or deposition rates are shown. Because of pulsing the high voltage, the deposition temperature does not increase much. The adhesion, structure, morphology and internal stresses are influenced by these additional ion impacts. The columnar growth of the deposited films could be suppressed by using the superimposed pulse bias voltage without increasing the deposition temperature. Different metallizations (Cr and Cu) produced by arc and sputter ion plating are investigated. Carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxy are coated with PVD copper films for further treatment in electrochemical processes. (orig.)

  10. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line generator of high voltage pulses modulated at 4 GHz frequency with 1000 Hz pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmasculov, M R; Sharypov, K A; Shunailov, S A; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Pedos, M S; Rukin, S N

    2017-01-01

    Results of testing of a generator based on a solid-state drive and the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with external bias are presented. Stable rf-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels in 1 s packets with 1000 Hz repetition frequencies. Pulse amplitude reaches -175 kV, at a modulation depth of rf-oscillations to 50 % and the effective frequency ∼4 GHz. (paper)

  11. Bias-Voltage Stabilizer for HVHF Amplifiers in VHF Pulse-Echo Measurement Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Park, Chulwoo; Kim, Jungsuk; Jung, Hayong

    2017-10-23

    The impact of high-voltage-high-frequency (HVHF) amplifiers on echo-signal quality is greater with very-high-frequency (VHF, ≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers than with low-frequency (LF, ≤15 MHz) ultrasound transducers. Hence, the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier must be stabilized to ensure stable echo-signal amplitudes. We propose a bias-voltage stabilizer circuit to maintain stable DC voltages over a wide input range, thus reducing the harmonic-distortion components of the echo signals in VHF pulse-echo measurement systems. To confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we measured and compared the deviations in the gain of the HVHF amplifier with and without a bias-voltage stabilizer. Between -13 and 26 dBm, the measured gain deviations of a HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer are less than that of an amplifier without a bias-voltage stabilizer. In order to confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we compared the pulse-echo responses of the amplifiers, which are typically used for the evaluation of transducers or electronic components used in pulse-echo measurement systems. From the responses, we observed that the amplitudes of the echo signals of a VHF transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer were higher than those of the transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier alone. The second, third, and fourth harmonic-distortion components of the HVHF amplifier with the bias-voltage stabilizer were also lower than those of the HVHF amplifier alone. Hence, the proposed scheme is a promising method for stabilizing the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier, and improving the echo-signal quality of VHF transducers.

  12. Application of Matteucci Voltage Pulses of Amorphous Wires in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For instance, if the zero amplitude Matteucci voltage was being obtained at a twist angle of 45° clockwise, it will now be obtained at an angle of the same magnitude, but for a counter-clockwise twist. The physics of this latter phenomenon too would be of interest to researchers of physics of magnetism. J. agric. Sci. technol.

  13. CO2-Tea pulse clipping using pulsed high voltage preionization for high spatial resolution I.R. Lidar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasmi Taieb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An extra-cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper for high spatial resolution atmospheric monitoring is presented. The clipper uses pulsed high voltageto facilitate the breakdown of the gas within the clipper cell. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that degrades the range resolution of LIDARS, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 Torr for nitrogen and argon gases whereas an attenuation coefficient of almost 102 is achieved for helium. Excellent energy stability and pulse width repeatability were achieved using high voltage pre-ionized gas technique.

  14. CO2-Tea pulse clipping using pulsed high voltage preionization for high spatial resolution I.R. Lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Taieb

    2018-04-01

    An extra-cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper for high spatial resolution atmospheric monitoring is presented. The clipper uses pulsed high voltageto facilitate the breakdown of the gas within the clipper cell. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that degrades the range resolution of LIDARS, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 Torr for nitrogen and argon gases whereas an attenuation coefficient of almost 102 is achieved for helium. Excellent energy stability and pulse width repeatability were achieved using high voltage pre-ionized gas technique.

  15. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  16. A high-voltage resonant converter for pulsed magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael, F.S.; Lira, A.C.; Apfelbaum, J.; Pomilio, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A 500-W, 25-kV, parallel-loaded resonant converter has been built in order to feed the LNLS ring kicker magnets. The use of high frequency permits reduction of the transformer and filter sizes. The tank components are the transformer leakage inductance and winding capacitance. The switching frequency is 20 kHz, limited by the tank circuit characteristic. The load is an LC Pulse-Forming Network, which is discharged on the load by a thyratron tube. The current pulse rise and fall times are about 100 ns and the flat top is 200 ns, at 800 A. (author) 3 refs.; 7 figs

  17. Effect of inductance between middle and outer cylinders on diode voltage of pulse forming line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinliang; Wang Xinxin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the experimental device of the water spiral pulse forming line(PFL) type electron beam accelerator, the effect of inductance between the middle and outer cylinders of PFL on diode voltage is theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. The formulae are introduced, with which the effect of inductance on diode voltage is calculated. In addition, the diode voltage waveform is simulated through the Pspice software. The theoretical and simulated results agree well with the experimental results, which show that large inductance between middle and outer cylinders can shorten the waveform flat part of diode voltage, increase waveform rise time and reduce the diode peak voltage. When the inductance is smaller than 200 nH, a nearly square voltage waveform can be obtained in field-emission diode. (authors)

  18. Conceptual design of pulsed high voltage and high precision power supply for a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zito, Pietro; Maffia, Giuseppe; Lampasi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM). • This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS). • The conceptual design answers to the performances requested for CARM HVPS. • The pulse transformer parameters were estimated according to IEEE standards. • PWM PID-based controller has been optimized to follow very fast rectangular pulses. - Abstract: Due to the high electron temperature during the plasma burning, both a higher power (>1 MW) and a higher frequency (up to 300 GHz) are required for plasma heating in future fusion experiments like DEMO. For this task, ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) able to produce an electron radiation in synchronism with the electromagnetic field and to transfer the electron beam kinetic energy to the plasma. This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS) with the following technical characteristics: variable output voltage up to 700 kV; variable pulse length in the range 5–50 μs; overshoot < 2%; rise time < 1 μs; voltage accuracy (including drop, ripple and stability) <0.1%. This paper describes the conceptual design and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the performance requested for the CARM HVPS.

  19. Conceptual design of pulsed high voltage and high precision power supply for a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.zito@enea.it; Maffia, Giuseppe; Lampasi, Alessandro

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM). • This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS). • The conceptual design answers to the performances requested for CARM HVPS. • The pulse transformer parameters were estimated according to IEEE standards. • PWM PID-based controller has been optimized to follow very fast rectangular pulses. - Abstract: Due to the high electron temperature during the plasma burning, both a higher power (>1 MW) and a higher frequency (up to 300 GHz) are required for plasma heating in future fusion experiments like DEMO. For this task, ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) able to produce an electron radiation in synchronism with the electromagnetic field and to transfer the electron beam kinetic energy to the plasma. This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS) with the following technical characteristics: variable output voltage up to 700 kV; variable pulse length in the range 5–50 μs; overshoot < 2%; rise time < 1 μs; voltage accuracy (including drop, ripple and stability) <0.1%. This paper describes the conceptual design and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the performance requested for the CARM HVPS.

  20. Influence Voltage Pulse Electrical Discharge In The Water at the Endurance Fatigue Of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Vakulenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pulses of electrical discharge in the water at the magnitude of the limited endurance under cyclic loading thermally hardened carbon steel was investigated. Observed increase stamina during cyclic loading a corresponding increase in the number of accumulated dislocations on the fracture surface. Using the equation of Cofino-Manson has revealed a decrease of strain loading cycle after treatment discharges. For field-cycle fatigue as a result of processing the voltage pulses carbon steel structure improvement, followed by growth of limited endurance decrease per cycle of deformation. With increasing amplitude of the voltage loop gain stamina effect on metal processing voltage pulses is reduced. The results can be used to extend the life of parts that are subject to cyclic loading.

  1. Solid-state fast voltage compensator for pulsed power applications requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Magallanes, Francisco Cabaleiro; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for pulsed power converters based on capacitor-discharge topologies, integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This solution has been retained as a possible candidate for the CLIC project under study at CERN, which requires more than a thousand synchronously-operated klystron modulators producing a total pulsed power of almost 40 GW. The proposed Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to treat the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage, meaning that its dimensioning power and cost are minimized. This topology can be used to improve the AC power quality of any pulsed converters based on capacitor-discharge concept. A prototype has been built and exploited to validate the operating principle and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed solution.

  2. Pulsed high voltage electric discharge disinfection of microbially contaminated liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anpilov, A M; Barkhudarov, E M; Christofi, N; Kop'ev, V A; Kossyi, I A; Taktakishvili, M I; Zadiraka, Y

    2002-01-01

    To examine the use of a novel multielectrode slipping surface discharge (SSD) treatment system, capable of pulsed plasma discharge directly in water, in killing micro-organisms. Potable water containing Escherichia coli and somatic coliphages was treated with pulsed electric discharges generated by the SSD. The SSD system was highly efficient in the microbial disinfection of water with a low energy utilization (eta approximately 10-4 kW h l-1). The SSD treatment was effective in the destruction of E. coli and its coliphages through the generation of u.v. radiation, ozone and free radicals. The non-thermal treatment method can be used for the eradication of micro-organisms in a range of contaminated liquids, including milk, negating the use of pasteurization. The method utilizes multipoint electric discharges capable of treating large volumes of liquid under static and flowing regimes.

  3. High-voltage transistor converter for pulsed x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasil'nikov, S.B.; Kristalinskii, A.L.; Lozovoi, L.N.; Markov, S.N.; Sindalovskii, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    A 24-V/12-kV converter for MIRA-2D and NORA pulsed x-ray sources is described. When the low-voltage supply varies within 20-26 V, the frequency stability of the x-ray pulses is higher by a factor of 3 ≅ 3 than when the PRIMA converter is used. For 14-24 V, the average output power of the converter is independent of the load impedance and increases linearly with an increase in supply voltage. The efficiency of the converter reaches 60%. The converter operates in the temperature range of -40 to +60 0 C

  4. Hybrid Design Optimization of High Voltage Pulse Transformers for Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Sylvain, Candolfi; Davide, Aguglia; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology for the design of high voltage pulse transformers used in klystron modulators. The optimization process is using simplified 2D FEA design models of the 3D transformer structure. Each intermediate optimal solution is evaluated by 3D FEA and correction coefficients of the 2D FEA models are derived. A new optimization process using 2D FEA models is then performed. The convergence of this hybrid optimal design methodology is obtained with a limited number of time consuming 3D FEA simulations. The method is applied to the optimal design of a monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the CLIC klystron modulator.

  5. Transient voltage response of a superconducting strip to a supercritical current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.Th.M. van; Wouters, M.C.H.M.; Wolter, J.; Horstman, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A superconductor subject to a supercritical current pulse displays a delay time between the onset of the current pulse and the onset of the corresponding voltage response. From the onset of the voltage response it takes a second (transient) time to reach the stationary state. It is shown that the transient time can be explained with inhomogeneities in the strip which give rise to a distribution of delay times. The transient time is thus not related to a characteristic time in the superconductor. For small supercritical currents also heating effects show up. (author)

  6. Forge: a short pulse x-ray diagnostic development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Hurry, T.R.; Denbow, E.R.; Selph, M.M.; Ameduri, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    A new short pulse x-ray calibration facility has been brought on line at Los Alamos. This facility is being used for the development, testing and calibration of fast x-ray diagnostic systems. The x-ray source consists of a moderate size, sub-nanosecond laser focused at high intensity on an appropriate target material to generate short pulses of x-ray emission from the resulting plasma. Dynamic performance parameters of fast x-ray diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray streak cameras, can be conveniently measured using this facility

  7. A New Resonant Capacitor Diode Voltage Multiplier Topology for Pulsed Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kebriaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, the pulsed power systems have been employed in many applications. To meet the requirement of user, the pulse generator should enjoy the advantages of compactness, high flexibility, high pulse repetition rate and cost efficiency. Among all of converters that can be used to generate high voltage pulses, capacitance diode voltage multiplier (CDVM is a good candidate to meet the mentioned requirements. In this paper a new converter that is combination of full-bridge inverter, CDVM and resonant circuit is proposed. The performance of developed converter is compared with the conventional circuits and is demonstrated via simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Experimental tests on a prototype setup have verified the capability of this topology.

  8. MOSFET-based high voltage double square-wave pulse generator with an inductive adder configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Qiaogen, E-mail: hvzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Long, Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lei, Yunfei; Liu, Jinyuan [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a fast MOSFET-based solid-state pulse generator for high voltage double square-wave pulses. The generator consists mainly of an inductive adder system stacked of 20 solid-state modules. Each of the modules has 18 power MOSFETs in parallel, which are triggered by individual drive circuits; these drive circuits themselves are synchronously triggered by a signal from avalanche transistors. Our experiments demonstrate that the output pulses with amplitude of 8.1 kV and peak current of about 405 A are available at a load impedance of 20 Ω. The pulse has a double square-wave form with a rise and fall time of 40 ns and 26 ns, respectively and bottom flatness better than 12%. The interval time of the double square-wave pulses can be adjustable by varying the interval time of the trigger pulses.

  9. Synthesis of ultrawideband radiation of combined antenna arrays excited by nanosecond bipolar voltage pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, V I; Plisko, V V; Sevostyanov, E A

    2017-01-01

    To broaden the spectrum of high-power ultrawideband radiation, it is suggested to synthesize an electromagnetic pulse summing the pulses of different length in free space. On the example of model pulses corresponding to radiation of combined antennas excited by bipolar voltage pulses of the length of 2 and 3 ns, the possibility of twofold broadening of the radiation spectrum was demonstrated. Radiation pulses with the spectrum width exceeding three octaves were obtained. Pattern formation by the arrays of different geometry excited by the pulses having different time shifts was considered. Optimum array structure with the pattern maximum in the main direction was demonstrated on the example of a 2×2 array. (paper)

  10. The energy spectrum of the 'runaway' electrons from a high voltage pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruset, C.

    1985-01-01

    Some experimental results are presented on the influence of the pressure upon the energy spectrum of the runaway electrons generated into a pulsed high voltage argon discharge. These electrons enter a state of continuous acceleration between two collisions with rapidly increasing free path. The applied discharge current varies from 10 to 300 A, the pulse time is about 800 ns. Relativistic effects are taken into consideration. Theoretical explanation is based on the pnenomenon of electron spreading on plasma oscillations. (D.Gy.)

  11. Influence Voltage Pulse Electrical Discharge In The Water at the Endurance Fatigue Of Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Vakulenko; A.G. Lisnyak

    2016-01-01

    Effect of pulses of electrical discharge in the water at the magnitude of the limited endurance under cyclic loading thermally hardened carbon steel was investigated. Observed increase stamina during cyclic loading a corresponding increase in the number of accumulated dislocations on the fracture surface. Using the equation of Cofino-Manson has revealed a decrease of strain loading cycle after treatment discharges. For field-cycle fatigue as a result of processing the voltage pulses carbon st...

  12. Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C G Jr; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  13. Optimized Controller Design for a 12-Pulse Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ruchi; Singh, Sanjeev

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes an optimized controller design scheme for power quality improvement in 12-pulse voltage source converter based high voltage direct current system. The proposed scheme is hybrid combination of golden section search and successive linear search method. The paper aims at reduction of current sensor and optimization of controller. The voltage and current controller parameters are selected for optimization due to its impact on power quality. The proposed algorithm for controller optimizes the objective function which is composed of current harmonic distortion, power factor, and DC voltage ripples. The detailed designs and modeling of the complete system are discussed and its simulation is carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment. The obtained results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme under different transient conditions such as load perturbation, non-linear load condition, voltage sag condition, and tapped load fault under one phase open condition at both points-of-common coupling.

  14. High-voltage many-pulses generator with inductive energy store and fuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.P.; Diyankov, V.S.; Kormilitsin, A.I.; Lavrent'ev, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    The high-voltage generator with inductive energy store and fuses as opening switch that generate series of powerful pulses is considered. This generator differs from the ordinary generator with inductive store by the cross-section of the series copper wires. The parameters of the wires are chosen based on empirical relations. The generation principle was tested on the two high-voltage generators with characteristic impedance 2.2 ohm, 4 ohm and with output voltages of 140 kV and 420 kV, respectively. Copper wires 0.1 to 0.23 mm in diameter were used. Series of 2 to 5 pulses of 100 to 300 ns duration, 400 to 1000 kV amplitude and 1 - 10 GW power were obtained. Pulses can be both the same and different. Two successive bremsstrahlung radiation pulses were obtain on the EMIR-M and IGUR-3 devices. Series power megavolt pulses can be generated with a power exceeding 10 11 W, pulse duration of 10 -3 to 10 -6 s, and time interval between them 10 -7 to 10 -5 s. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs

  15. High-voltage many-pulses generator with inductive energy store and fuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V P; Diyankov, V S; Kormilitsin, A I; Lavrent` ev, B N [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The high-voltage generator with inductive energy store and fuses as opening switch that generate series of powerful pulses is considered. This generator differs from the ordinary generator with inductive store by the cross-section of the series copper wires. The parameters of the wires are chosen based on empirical relations. The generation principle was tested on the two high-voltage generators with characteristic impedance 2.2 ohm, 4 ohm and with output voltages of 140 kV and 420 kV, respectively. Copper wires 0.1 to 0.23 mm in diameter were used. Series of 2 to 5 pulses of 100 to 300 ns duration, 400 to 1000 kV amplitude and 1 - 10 GW power were obtained. Pulses can be both the same and different. Two successive bremsstrahlung radiation pulses were obtain on the EMIR-M and IGUR-3 devices. Series power megavolt pulses can be generated with a power exceeding 10{sup 11} W, pulse duration of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} s, and time interval between them 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} s. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Experimental investigations of argon spark gap recovery times by developing a high voltage double pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C S; Patel, A S; Naresh, P; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K C

    2014-06-01

    The voltage recovery in a spark gap for repetitive switching has been a long research interest. A two-pulse technique is used to determine the voltage recovery times of gas spark gap switch with argon gas. First pulse is applied to the spark gap to over-volt the gap and initiate the breakdown and second pulse is used to determine the recovery voltage of the gap. A pulse transformer based double pulse generator capable of generating 40 kV peak pulses with rise time of 300 ns and 1.5 μs FWHM and with a delay of 10 μs-1 s was developed. A matrix transformer topology is used to get fast rise times by reducing L(l)C(d) product in the circuit. Recovery Experiments have been conducted for 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm gap length with 0-2 bars pressure for argon gas. Electrodes of a sparkgap chamber are of rogowsky profile type, made up of stainless steel material, and thickness of 15 mm are used in the recovery study. The variation in the distance and pressure effects the recovery rate of the spark gap. An intermediate plateu is observed in the spark gap recovery curves. Recovery time decreases with increase in pressure and shorter gaps in length are recovering faster than longer gaps.

  17. Experimental research for vacuum gap breakdown in high voltage multi-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; He Jialong; Chen Sifu; Deng Jianjun; Wang Liping

    2008-01-01

    Base on the breakdown theory of vacuum gaps, experiments have been done to find out the breakdown electric field intensities in high voltage single-and triple-pulse for 26 vacuum gaps with different shapes. The experimental results match up to the theory and confirm the effect of the pulse-number increase on the breakdown electric field intensity. The key point to decide the macroscopical breakdown electric field intensity of a vacuum gap has been pointed out with some advises about the design of a multi-pulse linear inductive accelerator's accelerate gap. (authors)

  18. New schemes for high-voltage pulsed generators based on stepped transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossamykin, V.S.; Gordeev, V.S.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    Wave processes were analyzed from the point of effective energy delivery in pulsed power systems based on transmission lines. A series of new schemes for the pulsed generators based on multistage stepped transmission lines both with the capacitive and inductive energy storage was found. These devices can provide voltage or current transformation up to 5-10 times due to wave processes if stage's characteristic impedances are in a certain correlation. The schemes suggested can be widely applied in the new powerful pulsed power accelerators. The theoretical conclusions are justified experimentally

  19. Development of a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Zhu Jie; Li Xianyou

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the attenuation of the system, a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator is required for the fast pulse signal measurement. The paper presents the development of the generator. More emphasis is paid on the discussion of the difficulties occurring in the circuit debugging and their resolutions. The output rise-time of the generator is 700 ps, the amplitude is adjustable in the range of 0 to 500 V, the pulse-width is adjustable in the range of 4ns to 1μs. (authors)

  20. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Bin Bin [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Industry, Shaanxi Institute of Technology, Xi’an 710300 (China); Wang, Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Xue Qing [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zeng, Jing Hui, E-mail: jhzeng@ustc.edu [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PbSe thin film is deposited on FTO glass by a pulse voltage electrodeposition method. • The thin film is used as counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. • Superior electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte is received. • The narrow band gap characteristics and p-type conductivity enhances the cell efficiency. • An efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  1. Alarm radiation dosimeter with improved integrating pulse ionization chamber and high voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Rochelle, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    An alarm dosimeter is described which features an improved integrating pulse ionization chamber of the type containing an hermetically sealed gas diode. Improved operation and miniaturization of the chamber are made possible by a ringing choke converter high voltage supply having a ripple-type output that insures discharge of the gas diode. (author)

  2. Development of the pulsed muon facility at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, G.H.; Scott, C.A.; Williams, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The ISIS pulsed surface muon facility at RAL is presently undergoing a major expansion to provide three experimental ports with simultaneous single muon pulses at 50 Hz. This upgrade, funded by the European Community (EC), is described together with recent development results which are relevant to its future scientific programme. These new beam lines are expected to be available for experiments in June 1993. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, James M.; Trump, Darryl D.; Bletzinger, Peter; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2006-10-01

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s-1. The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of ~3 × 1015 cm-3 at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was ~8.5 × 1015 cm-3 at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level.

  4. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, James M [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Trump, Darryl D [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Bletzinger, Peter [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

    2006-10-21

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s{sup -1}. The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of {approx}3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was {approx}8.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level.

  5. Observation of dark pulses in 10 nm thick YBCO nanostrips presenting hysteretic current voltage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Parlato, L.; Arpaia, R.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.; Cristiano, R.; Tafuri, F.; Pepe, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    We have fabricated several 10 nm thick and 65 nm wide YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) nanostrips. The nanostrips with the highest critical current densities are characterized by hysteretic current voltage characteristics (IVCs) with a direct bistable switch from the zero-voltage to the finite voltage state. The presence of hysteretic IVCs allowed the observation of dark pulses due to fluctuations phenomena. The key role of the bistable behavior is its ability to transform a small disturbance (e.g. an intrinsic fluctuation) into a measurable transient signal, i.e. a dark pulse. On the contrary, in devices characterized by lower critical current density values, the IVCs are non-hysteretic and dark pulses have not been observed. To investigate the physical origin of the dark pulses, we have measured the bias current dependence of the dark pulse rate: the observed exponential increase with the bias current is compatible with mechanisms based on thermal activation of magnetic vortices in the nanostrip. We believe that the successful amplification of small fluctuation events into measurable signals in nanostrips of ultrathin YBCO is a milestone for further investigation of YBCO nanostrips for superconducting nanostrip single photon detectors and other quantum detectors for operation at higher temperatures.

  6. Development of a compact generator for gigawatt, nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin, E-mail: zhoulin-2003@163.com; Jiang, Zhanxing; Liang, Chuan; Li, Mingjia; Wang, Wenchuan; Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-226, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A compact generator producing 2.2-ns 1.5 GW high-voltage pulses was developed. The generator employed a 27.6 Ω, 0.9 ns pulse-forming-line (PFL), which was charged by an iron core transformer with a turn ratio of 2:33.5 and a coefficient of 0.94. A 1.2 μF, 20 kV capacitor and a hydrogen thyratron were used in the primary circuit. When the thyratron closed at 14.5 kV, 3.4% of the energy stored in the capacitor was delivered to the PFL in 850 ns, producing a peak voltage of up to ∼500 kV. In addition, the principle of triple resonance transformation was employed by adding a 50 pF tuning capacitor and a 1.15 mH inductor between the transformer and the PFL, which led to a significant reduction of the duration and peak value of the transformer voltage without reducing that in the PFL. Meanwhile, an adjustable self-break oil switch was applied. By using transmission lines with impedance overmatched to that of the PFL, the generator delivered a 512 kV pulse across an electron beam diode, generating radiation with a dose of 20 mR/pulse at 20 cm ahead of the diode. The generator provides an excellent ultra-short radiation pulse source for the studies on radiation physics.

  7. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, James M; Trump, Darryl D; Bletzinger, Peter; Ganguly, Biswa N

    2006-01-01

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s -1 . The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of ∼3 x 10 15 cm -3 at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was ∼8.5 x 10 15 cm -3 at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level

  8. Subnanosecond breakdown development in high-voltage pulse discharge: Effect of secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. L.; Schweigert, I. V.; Zakrevskiy, Dm. E.; Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P.; Lavrukhin, M.

    2017-10-01

    A subnanosecond breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge may be a key tool for superfast commutation of high power devices. The breakdown in high-voltage open discharge at mid-high pressure in helium was studied in experiment and in kinetic simulations. The kinetic model of electron avalanche development was constructed, based on PIC-MCC simulations, including dynamics of electrons, ions and fast helium atoms, produced by ions scattering. Special attention was paid to electron emission processes from cathode, such as: photoemission by Doppler-shifted resonant photons, produced in excitation processes involving fast atoms; electron emission by ions and fast atoms bombardment of cathode; the secondary electron emission (SEE) by hot electrons from bulk plasma. The simulations show that the fast atoms accumulation is the main reason of emission growth at the early stage of breakdown, but at the final stage, when the voltage on plasma gap diminishes, namely the SEE is responsible for subnanosecond rate of current growth. It was shown that the characteristic time of the current growth can be controlled by the SEE yield. The influence of SEE yield for three types of cathode material (titanium, SiC, and CuAlMg-alloy) was tested. By changing the pulse voltage amplitude and gas pressure, the area of existence of subnanosecond breakdown is identified. It is shown that in discharge with SiC and CuAlMg-alloy cathodes (which have enhanced SEE) the current can increase with a subnanosecond characteristic time value as small as τs = 0.4 ns, for the pulse voltage amplitude of 5÷12 kV. An increase of gas pressure from 15 Torr to 30 Torr essentially decreases the time of of current front growth, whereas the pulse voltage variation weakly affects the results.

  9. ELABORATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE INSTALLATIONS AND PROVIDING THEIR OPERATION PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Hashimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents design engineering methods for the high-voltage pulse installations of technological purpose for disinfection of drinking water, sewage, and edible liquids by high field micro- and nanosecond pulsing exposure. Designing potentialities are considered of the principal elements of the high-voltage part and the discharge circuit of the installations towards assuring the best efficient on-load utilization of the source energy and safe operation of the high-voltage equipment. The study shows that for disinfection of drinking water and sewage it is expedient to apply microsecond pulse actions causing the electrohydraulic effect in aqueous media with associated complex of physical processes (ultraviolet emission, generation of ozone and atomic oxygen, mechanical compression waves, etc. having detrimental effect on life activity of the microorganisms. In case of disinfecting edible liquids it is recommended to use the nanosecond pulses capable of straight permeating the biological cell nucleus, inactivating it. Meanwhile, the nutritive and biological values of the foodstuffs are saved and their organoleptic properties are improved. It is noted that in elaboration process of high-frequency pulse installations special consideration should be given to issues of the operating personnel safety discipline and securing conditions for the entire installation uninterrupted performance. With this objective in view the necessary requirements should be fulfilled on shielding the high- and low-voltage installation parts against high-frequency electromagnetic emissions registered by special differential sensors. Simultaneously, the abatement measures should be applied on the high-voltage equipment operational noise level. The authors offer a technique for noise abatement to admissible levels (lower than 80 dB A by means of coating the inside surface with shielded enclosure of densely-packed abutting sheets of porous electro-acoustic insulating

  10. Design and development of high voltage MARX modulator technology for long pulse application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2013-01-01

    High power pulse modulators are used for powering the RF amplifier like klystrons. This paper describes the development of a 10 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator for technology demonstration. The modulator is developed using four no. of main modules each of 2.5 kV. To reduce the over sizing factor of capacitors, the allowed drop of main Marx cell is 9%. A droop compensation circuit has been developed to reduce the output pulse voltage droop from 9% to within ±1%. Droop compensation consists of 10 numbers of corrector modules each of 200 V. A microcontroller based trigger circuit was used for simultaneous triggering of main modules and for staggered triggering of corrector modules. A 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator is being developed. The advantages of this scheme are oil free design, low DC voltage, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time/fall time and modular design etc. (author)

  11. High-power high-voltage pulse generator for supplying electrostatic precipitators of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, A.; Martin, D.

    1992-01-01

    The study and development of an experimental high voltage generator specialized in the supply of electrostatic precipitators are presented. The main parameters of the pulse generator are: U = -30 kV, I = 8.8 A, τ = 120μs, f r = 150 Hz. The pulse generator was tested on a laboratory electrostatic precipitator with nominal capacitance C = 25 nF, biased at -40 kV by means of a separate high voltage rectifier. The experimental results will be used for the creation of a more powerful pulse generator, a prototype for the supply of a real industrial electrostatic precipitator: U = -50 kV, I = 313 A, τ = 100μs, f r = 300 Hz, C = 100 nF. (Author)

  12. Graphene-gold supercapacitor as a voltage controlled saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylam, Isinsu; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun; Sennaroglu, Alphan

    2016-03-01

    We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, use of a graphene-gold supercapacitor as a voltage controlled fast saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation. The unique design involving only one graphene electrode lowers the insertion loss of the device, in comparison with capacitor designs with two graphene electrodes. Furthermore, use of the high-dielectric electrolyte allows reversible, adjustable control of the absorption level up to the visible region with low bias voltages of only a few volts (0-2 V). The fast saturable absorber action of the graphene-gold supercapacitor was demonstrated inside a multipass-cavity Cr:forsterite laser to generate nearly transform-limited, sub-100 fs pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 4.51 MHz at 1.24 μm.

  13. Device and methods for writing and erasing analog information in small memory units via voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Talin, Albert Alec

    2018-04-17

    Devices and methods for non-volatile analog data storage are described herein. In an exemplary embodiment, an analog memory device comprises a potential-carrier source layer, a barrier layer deposited on the source layer, and at least two storage layers deposited on the barrier layer. The memory device can be prepared to write and read data via application of a biasing voltage between the source layer and the storage layers, wherein the biasing voltage causes potential-carriers to migrate into the storage layers. After initialization, data can be written to the memory device by application of a voltage pulse between two storage layers that causes potential-carriers to migrate from one storage layer to another. A difference in concentration of potential carriers caused by migration of potential-carriers between the storage layers results in a voltage that can be measured in order to read the written data.

  14. Lowering effect of radioactive irradiation on breakdown voltage and electron avalanche pulse characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahashi, Akira; Nakano, Toru; Hosokawa, Tatsuzo; Miyoshi, Yosinori.

    1976-01-01

    In the time resolving measurement of the growing process and breakdown of electron avalanche in a gap of uniform electric field, the phenomenon that DC breakdown voltage slightly lowered was observed when β ray was irradiated as the initial electron source, as compared with unirradiated condition. Beta source used is 90 Sr- 90 Y of 2 mCi in radiative equilibrium. The experimental results and the examination are described in detail. In brief, the remarkable superposition of succeeding avalanche pulse over the preceeding avalanche pulse waveform was observed under the gap condition in which the breakdown voltage decreased in β-ray irradiation. Thus this superposition of avalanche pulses is considered as one of the causes of the breakdown voltage reduction. When β source is used as the initial electron source, the number of supplied initial electrons is very large as compared with unity, and at the same time, a great number of initial electrons can be supplied within the diffusion radius r of avalanche. Then the effect of initial electron number n 0 was considered by employing a diagram for breakdown scheme. The transition from Townsend type breakdown to streamer type breakdown occurs owing to increasing n 0 , and in that condition, the breakdown voltage lowers slightly. (Wakatsuki, Y)

  15. Correction of high-voltage pulse front by means of exploding wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarkevich, E.I.; Zajtsev, N.I.; Kotov, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of correcting the poWer pulse fronts shaped during the discharge of the Akradiev-Marx generator on active load has been suggested with a view to shaping power high-voltage pulses on the diode of a high-current electron accelerator. Thish correction is carried oUt by means of the current breaker on the base of electrically exploding wires. The breaker consists of four copper wires of 0.12 mm diameter, and 940 mm length. A current pulse of 32 kA amplitude, duration of 2.7 μs with a front of 100 ns was obtained by the use of the current breaker when forming the pulse in the electron accelerator power supply at load of 12 Ohm. The correction resulted in a nearly 20-fold reduction of the front duration

  16. The Preceding Voltage Pulse and Separation Welding Mechanism of Electrical Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiao Cheng; Huang, Jiang; Li, Zhen Biao

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the welding mechanism in contact separation, electrical endurance tests were conducted with AgSnO2 and AgNi contacts on a simulation test device. Waveforms of contact displacement, contact voltage, and current were recorded with LabVIEW during the tests......, and changes in a contact gap and heights of pips with increases in operation cycles were observed through charge-coupled device cameras. The resultant test results show that welding in separation is accompanied with a preceding voltage pulse which represents arc rather than contact bounce arc....

  17. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10 8 n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A

  18. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target.

  19. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguo Yao

    Full Text Available Irreversible electroporation (IRE produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  20. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenguo; Lv, Yanpeng; Dong, Shoulong; Zhao, Yajun; Liu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs) to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs) to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP) or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs) treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  1. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly...... respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite...

  2. Repetitive plasma opening switch for powerful high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Zakatov, L.P.; Nitishinskii, M.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies of plasma opening switches that serve to sharpen the pulses of inductive microsecond high-voltage pulse generators. It is demonstrated that repetitive plasma opening switches can be used to create super-powerful generators operating in a quasi-continuous regime. An erosion switching mechanism and the problem of magnetic insulation in repetitive switches are considered. Achieving super-high peak power in plasma switches makes it possible to develop new types of high-power generators of electron beams and X radiation. Possible implementations and the efficiency of these generators are discussed

  3. PIEZOELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE SENSOR FOR MEASURING PULSE PRESSURE IN CLOSED LIQUID VOLUMES AT HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zhekul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigations of the characteristics of pressure waves presuppose the registration of the total profile of the pressure wave at a given point in space. For these purposes, various types of «pressure to the electrical signal» transmitters (sensors are used. Most of the common sensors are unsuitable for measuring the pulse pressure in a closed water volume at high hydrostatic pressures, in particular to study the effect of a powerful high-voltage pulse discharge on increasing the inflow of minerals and drinking water in wells. The purpose of the work was to develop antijamming piezoelectric waveguide sensor for measuring pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed volume of a liquid. Methodology. We have applied the calibration method as used as a secondary standard, the theory of electrical circuits. Results. We have selected the design and the circuit solution of the waveguide pressure sensor. We have developed a waveguide pulse-pressure sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop. This sensor makes it possible to study the spectral characteristics of pressure waves of high-voltage pulse discharge in closed volumes of liquid at a hydrostatic pressure of up to 20 MPa and a temperature of up to 80 °C. The sensor can be used to study pressure waves with a maximum amplitude value of up to 150 MPa and duration of up to 80 µs. According to the results of the calibration, the sensitivity of the developed sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop is 0.0346 V/MPa. Originality. We have further developed the theory of designing the waveguide piezoelectric pulse pressure sensors for measuring the pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed fluid volume by controlling the attenuation of the amplitude of the pressure signal. Practical value. We have developed, created, calibrated, used in scientific research waveguide pressure pulse sensors DTX-1. We propose sensors DTX-1 for sale

  4. Effect of applied voltage and inter-pulse delay in spark-assisted LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Martinez, A.; Sobral, H.; Garcia-Villarreal, A.

    2018-06-01

    We report the results obtained in an investigation on the effect of the time delay between the laser and electrical pulses in a spark-assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment. The electrical discharge is produced by the discharge of a charged coaxial cable. This arrangement produces a fast unipolar current pulse (500 ns) that applies high power ( 600 kW) to the laser ablation plasma. The delay between the laser pulse and the electric pulse can be controlled at will in order to find the optimal time in terms of enhancement of the emitted lines. It was found that the application of the high voltage pulse enhances the ionic lines emitted by up to two orders of magnitude. An additional enhancement by a factor of 2-4 can be obtained delaying the application of the electric pulse by a time of 0.6-20 μs. In the tests it was noticed that the ionic lines were found to be clearly responsive to increments in the applied electric energy while the neutral lines did so marginally. Our results show that the intensification of the lines is mainly due to reheating of the ablation plasma as the application of the electrical pulse increments the temperature of the ablation plasma by about 50%. It is demonstrated that the present technique is an efficient way of intensifying the lines emitted without incurring in additional damage to the sample.

  5. The Design of Nanosecond Fast-switch Pulsed High Voltage Power Supply Based on Solid-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenguang; Chen Wei; Rao Yihua

    2009-01-01

    The high voltage pulsed power supply is applied in the experiment of the nuclear science widely. It main consist of DC high-voltage power supply (HVPS) and pulse modulator. The high-frequency series-resonant inverter technology and IGBT series technology are used to design the HVPS and the modulator, respectively. The main circuit, control circuit, high voltage transformer and solid-state switch are illuminated in the paper. The apparatus can operate at a maximum output voltage of 6 kilovolt, which can be modulated single pulse and also be modulated by series pulse. A prototype is fabricated and tested, experimental results show that the pulsed power supply is well-designed and rising edge time to meet the nsclass; it can achieve the requirement of rapid modulation. (authors)

  6. The effect of high voltage pulsed electric field on water molecular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuejie; Bai, Yaxiang; Ren, Ziying

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the mechanism of high voltage pulsed electric field pre-treatment on the food drying technology. In this paper, water was treated with high pulse electric field (HPEF) in different frequency, and different voltage, then, the viscosity coefficient and the surface tension coefficient of the water were measured. The results showed that indicated that the viscosity coefficient and the surface tension coefficient of the treated water can be decreased, and while HPEF pre-treatment was applied for 22.5kV at a frequency of 50Hz and 70 Hz, the surface tension and the viscosity coefficient of the pre-treatment treatment were reduced 13.1% and 7.5%, respectively.

  7. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  8. Compact pulse topology for adjustable high-voltage pulse generation using an SOS diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.B.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a compact circuit topology is presented for pulsed power generation with a semiconductor opening switch (SOS). Such circuits require the generation of a fast forward current through the diode, followed by a reverse current that activates the recovery process. In general, magnetic

  9. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H− Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H− sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 μs of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H− source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  10. Voltage control on TEG-inverter system with pulse width modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, N.; Kinoshita, H.; Matsuura, K.

    1984-01-01

    An ocean thermoelectric generating system can be expected to supply cheap electric power in future. And it can be used as base power supply or isolated power source in developing areas. The authors propose to apply forced-commutation inverter to thermoelectric energy conversion system and construct an electric power station which can be operated without any other synchronous generator (S-G) and can control ac system as stable as S-G. This paper shows that inverters can control voltage constant, though within a range of 10% load change, by using pulse width modulation (PWM). It also describes the design of the voltage control system covering from 50% to 100% load with combination of PWM and output voltage tap changing of TEG

  11. Reliability of high-voltage pulse capacitors operating in large energy storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskij, G.S.; Fedorova, V.S.; Shilin, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the reliability of pulse capacitors operating in capacitive energy storages, processes, resulting in break-down of capacitor insulation were investigated. A statistic model of failures was constructed and reliability of real capacitors, functioning at operating electric intensity Usub(oper) equal 70 kV/mm and at elevated intensity 90 kV/mm was calculated. Results of testing the IK50-ZU4 capacitor are given. The form of the capacitor service life distribution function was specified. To provide and confirm the assigned capacitor reliability, it is necessary to speed up tests at a higher voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper). To improve the capacitor reliability, it is advisable to conduct acceptance tests, which include hold at increased constant voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper) during 1-3 min and the effect of pulses of increased voltage (1.2-1.3) Usub(oper) with the pulse shape corresponding to operating conditions

  12. Effects of high voltage pulse trimming on structural properties of thick-film resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Zdravko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, compact and reliable electronic devices including up-to-date ceramic micro-electro-mechanical systems require thick-film resistors with significantly reduced dimensions and stable and precise resistance values. For that reason, instead of standard laser trimming method, high voltage pulse trimming of thick-film resistors is being introduced. This method allows controlled and reliable resistance adjustment regardless of resistor position or dimensions and without the presence of cuts. However, it causes irreversible structural changes in the pseudorandom network formed during sintering causing the changes in conducting mechanisms. In this paper results of the experimental investigation of high voltage pulse trimming of thick-film resistors are presented. Obtained results are analyzed and correlations between resistance and low-frequency noise changes and changes in conducting mechanisms in resistors due to high voltage pulse trimming are observed. Sources of measured fluctuations are identified and it is shown that this type of trimming is a valid alternative trimming method to the dominant laser trimming. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44003 and III45007

  13. Stability of high current diode under 100-nanosecond-pulse voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Dingguo; Qiu Aici; Zhang Yongmin; Huang Jianjun; Ren Shuqing; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    Stability of high current diode under pulse voltage with 80 ns and 34 ns rise time was studied on the flash Ⅱ accelerator. Influence of rise time of diode voltage on startup time and cathode emission uniformity and repeatability of diode impedance was analyzed by comparing the experimental results with numerically simulated results, and the influence mechanism was discussed. The startup time of diode increases with the increasing of rise time of voltage, and the repeatability of diode impedance decreases. Discal plane cathode is prone to emit rays intensely in the center area, the time that plasma covers the surface of the cathode increases and the shielding effect has more impact on cathode emission according to the increase of rise time. Local intense emission on the cathode increases expansion speed of plasma and reduces the effective emission area. The stability of characteristic impedance of diode under a pulse voltage with slow rise time is decreased by the combined action of expansion speed of plasma and the effective emission area. (authors)

  14. New circuits high-voltage pulse generators with inductive-capacitive energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, V.S.; Myskov, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes new electric circuits of multi-cascade generators based on stepped lines. The distinction of the presented circuits consists in initial storage of energy in electric and magnetic fields simultaneously. The circuit of each generator,relations of impedances,values of initial current and charge voltages are selected in such a manner that the whole of initially stored energy is concentrated at the generator output as a result of transient wave processes. In ideal case the energy is transferred with 100% efficiency to the resistive load where a rectangular voltage pulse is formed, whose duration is equals to the double electrical length of the individual cascade. At the same time there is realized a several time increase of output voltage as compared to the charge voltage of the generator. The use of the circuits proposed makes it possible to ensure a several time increase (as compared to the selection of the number of cascades) of the generator energy storage, pulse current and output electric power

  15. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasetyaningrum, A., E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Ratnawati,; Jos, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50276 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  16. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasetyaningrum, A.; Ratnawati,; Jos, B.

    2015-01-01

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O 3 ) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV

  17. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyaningrum, A.; Ratnawati, Jos, B.

    2015-12-01

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O3) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  18. Featuring of transient tunneling current by voltage pulse and application to an electrochemical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun Yeon; Lee, Won Cheol; Choi, Seong Wook; Park, Young June

    2018-03-01

    We suggest a voltage pulse method for detecting the transient tunneling current component (faradaic current component) in a metal/redox-active monolayer/electrolyte system. After applying the pulse to the metal electrode, the capacitive current prevails; therefore, it is difficult to extract the tunneling current, which carries information on the biochemical reactions occurring between the biomarkers in the electrolyte and the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the probe peptide system. Instead of waiting until the capacitive current diminishes, and thereby, the tunneling current also decreases, we try to extract the tunneling current in an early stage of the pulse. The method is based on the observation that the capacitive current becomes symmetrized in the positive and negative pulses after introducing the SAM on the metal electrode. When the energy level of the redox molecule is higher than the Fermi level of the metal under zero-bias condition, the tunneling current in the negative pulse can be extracted by subtracting the capacitive current obtained from the positive pulse, where the tunneling current is neglected. The experiment conducted for detecting trypsin as a biomarker shows that the method enhances the sensitivity and the specific-to-nonspecific ratio of the sensor device in the case of the nonspecific protein-abundant electrolyte solution, as evinced by cyclic voltammetry measurements in comparison.

  19. Frequency-Domain Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer Model Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Martins, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an offline frequency-domain nonlinear and stochastic identification method for equivalent model parameter estimation of high-voltage pulse transformers. Such kinds of transformers are widely used in the pulsed-power domain, and the difficulty in deriving pulsed-power converter optimal control strategies is directly linked to the accuracy of the equivalent circuit parameters. These components require models which take into account electric fields energies represented by stray capacitance in the equivalent circuit. These capacitive elements must be accurately identified, since they greatly influence the general converter performances. A nonlinear frequency-based identification method, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, is presented, and a sensitivity analysis of the best experimental test to be considered is carried out. The procedure takes into account magnetic saturation and skin effects occurring in the windings during the frequency tests. The presented method is validated by experim...

  20. Ultra-long-pulse microwave negative high voltage power supply with fast protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihua; Wu Junshuan; Zheng Guanghua; Huang Qiaolin; Yang Chunsheng; Zhou Yuanwei; Chen Yonghao

    1998-01-01

    Two 1.4 MW high voltage power supply (HVPS) modules with 3-5 s pulse duration have been developed for LHCD experiment in the HT-7 tokamak. The power source consists of a pulsed generator and the electric circuit. Duration of the ultra-long-pulse is controlled by switching-on dc relay immediately and switching-off ac contactor after a given time, and the fast protection is executed by a crowbar. Due to the soft starting of the power source, the problem of overvoltage induced by dc relay switching-on has been solved. Each power supply module outputs a rated power (-35 kV, 40 A) on the dummy load. With the klystrons connected as the load of the power supply modules, LHCD experiments have been conducted successfully in the HT-7 tokamak

  1. Pulsed Plasma with Synchronous Boundary Voltage for Rapid Atomic Layer Etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2014-05-13

    Atomic Layer ETching (ALET) of a solid with monolayer precision is a critical requirement for advancing nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current plasma etching techniques do not have the level of control or damage-free nature that is needed for patterning delicate sub-20 nm structures. In addition, conventional ALET, based on pulsed gases with long reactant adsorption and purging steps, is very slow. In this work, novel pulsed plasma methods with synchronous substrate and/or “boundary electrode” bias were developed for highly selective, rapid ALET. Pulsed plasma and tailored bias voltage waveforms provided controlled ion energy and narrow energy spread, which are critical for highly selective and damage-free etching. The broad goal of the project was to investigate the plasma science and engineering that will lead to rapid ALET with monolayer precision. A combined experimental-simulation study was employed to achieve this goal.

  2. Fast switching thyristor applied in nanosecond-pulse high-voltage generator with closed transformer core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Bao, Chaobing; Feng, Xibo; Liu, Yunlong; Fochan, Lin

    2013-02-01

    For a compact and reliable nanosecond-pulse high-voltage generator (NPHVG), the specification parameter selection and potential usage of fast controllable state-solid switches have an important bearing on the optimal design. The NPHVG with closed transformer core and fast switching thyristor (FST) was studied in this paper. According to the analysis of T-type circuit, the expressions for the voltages and currents of the primary and secondary windings on the transformer core of NPHVG were deduced, and the theoretical maximum analysis was performed. For NPHVG, the rise-rate of turn-on current (di/dt) across a FST may exceed its transient rating. Both mean and maximum values of di/dt were determined by the leakage inductances of the transformer, and the difference is 1.57 times. The optimum winding ratio is helpful to getting higher voltage output with lower specification FST, especially when the primary and secondary capacitances have been established. The oscillation period analysis can be effectively used to estimate the equivalent leakage inductance. When the core saturation effect was considered, the maximum di/dt estimated from the oscillating period of the primary current is more accurate than one from the oscillating period of the secondary voltage. Although increasing the leakage inductance of NPHVG can decrease di/dt across FST, it may reduce the output peak voltage of the NPHVG.

  3. Mechanism of formation of subnanosecond current front in high-voltage pulse open discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Alexandrov, A. L.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.; Bokhan, P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The mechanism of subnanosecond current front rise observed previously in the experiment in high-voltage pulse open discharge in helium is studied in kinetic particle-in-cell simulations. The Boltzmann equations for electrons, ions, and fast atoms are solved self-consistently with the Poisson equations for the electrical potential. The partial contributions to the secondary electron emission from the ions, fast atoms, photons, and electrons, bombarding the electrode, are calculated. In simulations, as in the experiment, the discharge glows between two symmetrical cathodes and the anode grid in the midplane at P =6 Torr and the applied voltage of 20 kV. The electron avalanche development is considered for two experimental situations during the last stage of breakdown: (i) with constant voltage and (ii) with decreasing voltage. For case (i), the subnanosecond current front rise is set by photons from the collisional excitation transfer reactions. For the case (ii), the energetic electrons swamp the cathode during voltage drop and provide the secondary electron emission for the subnanosecond current rise, observed in the experiment.

  4. Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility (SPRF) calculator-assisted pulse analysis and display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, B.F.; Berry, D.T.

    1980-02-01

    Two solid-metal fast burst type reactors (SPR II and SPR III) are operated at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility. Since startup of the reactors, oscilloscope traces have been used to record (by camera) the pulse (power) shape while log N systems have measured initial reactor period. Virtually no other pulse information is available. A decision was made to build a system that could collect the basic input data available from the reactor - fission chambers, photodiodes, and thermocouples - condition the signals and output the various parameters such as power, energy, temperature, period and lifetime on hard copy that would provide a record for operations personnel as well as the experimenter. Because the reactors operate in short time frames - pulse operation - it is convenient to utilize the classical Nordheim-Fuchs approximation of the diffusion equation to describe reactor behavior. This report describes the work performed to date in developing the calculator system and analytical models for computing the desired parameters

  5. THE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE PULSED REACTOR FACILITY, MAY 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Robert L.; Boor, R. A.; Cole, W. M.; Elder, G. E.

    1963-05-15

    A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)

  6. Long-pulse magnetic field facility at Zaragoza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarabel, P A; Moral, A del; Martin, C; Serrate, D; Tokarz, W

    2006-01-01

    The long-pulse magnetic field facility of the Laboratorio de Magnetismo - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC) produces magnetic fields up to 31, with a pulse duration of 2.2s. Experimental set-ups for measurements of magnetization, magnetostriction and magnetoresistance are available. The temperature can be controlled between 1.4 and 335 K, being the inner bore of the He cryostat of 22.5 mm. Magnetization is measured using the mutual induction technique, the magnetostriction is determined with the strain-gage and the capacitive cantilever methods, and the magnetoresistance is measured by means of the aclock-in technique in the 4-probes geometry. An overview of the facility will be presented and the presently available experimental techniques will be discussed

  7. Long-pulse magnetic field facility at Zaragoza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, P. A.; del Moral, A.; Martín, C.; Serrate, D.; Tokarz, W.

    2006-11-01

    The long-pulse magnetic field facility of the Laboratorio de Magnetismo - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC) produces magnetic fields up to 31, with a pulse duration of 2.2s. Experimental set-ups for measurements of magnetization, magnetostriction and magnetoresistance are available. The temperature can be controlled between 1.4 and 335 K, being the inner bore of the He cryostat of 22.5 mm. Magnetization is measured using the mutual induction technique, the magnetostriction is determined with the strain-gage and the capacitive cantilever methods, and the magnetoresistance is measured by means of the aclock-in technique in the 4-probes geometry. An overview of the facility will be presented and the presently available experimental techniques will be discussed.

  8. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A V; Pedos, M S; Scherbinin, S V; Mamontov, Y I; Ponomarev, S V

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface. (paper)

  9. High-voltage Pulse-triggered SR Latch Level-Shifter Design Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dennis Øland; Llimos Muntal, Pere; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    translating a signal from 0- 3 : 3 V to 87 : 5 - 100 V. The operation of this level-shifter is verified with measurements on a fabricated chip. The shortcomings of the implemented level-shifter in terms of power dissipation, transition delay, area, and startup behavior are then considered and an improved......This paper compares pulse-triggered level shifters with a traditional level-triggered topology for high-voltage ap- plications with supply voltages in the 50 V to 100 V range. It is found that the pulse-triggered SR (Set/Reset) latch level- shifter has a superior power consumption of 1800 W = MHz...... circuit is suggested which has been designed in three variants being able to translate the low-voltage 0- 3 : 3 V signal to 45 - 50 V, 85 - 90 V, and 95 - 100 V respectively. The improved 95 - 100 V level shifter achieves a considerably lower power consumption of 438 W = MHz along with a significantly...

  10. Effect of secondary electron emission on subnanosecond breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Alexandrov, A. L.; Gugin, P.; Lavrukhin, M.; Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm E.

    2017-11-01

    The subnanosecond breakdown in open discharge may be applied for producing superfast high power switches. Such fast breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge in helium was explored both in experiment and in kinetic simulations. The kinetic model of electron avalanche development was developed using PIC-MCC technique. The model simulates motion of electrons, ions and fast helium atoms, appearing due to ions scattering. It was shown that the mechanism responsible for ultra-fast breakdown development is the electron emission from cathode. The photoemission and emission by ions or fast atoms impact is the main reason of current growth at the early stage of breakdown, but at the final stage, when the voltage on discharge gap drops, the secondary electron emission (SEE) is responsible for subnanosecond time scale of current growth. It was also found that the characteristic time of the current growth τS depends on the SEE yield of the cathode material. Three types of cathode material (titanium, SiC, and CuAlMg-alloy) were tested. It is shown that in discharge with SiC and CuAlMg-alloy cathodes (which have enhanced SEE) the current can increase with a subnanosecond characteristic time as small as τS = 0.4 ns, for the pulse voltage amplitude of 5- 12 kV..

  11. The reduction of leading- and trailing-edge of high-voltage steep pulse in plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zongtao; Gui Gang; Wang Zhijian; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Tian Xiubo

    2010-01-01

    During plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) processes, due to the capacitance effect of the coaxial cable and plasma load, the output voltage pulse of high-voltage modulator possesses a longer leading- and trailing-edge time. The leading- and trailing-edge of the high voltage (HV) pulse have a critical effect on the ion-energy uniformity, depth and dose distribution during PIII processes. In this work, a tetrode was used as a hard tube to switch the DC high voltage, and a HV pulse modulator with a maximum pulse voltage of 40 kV was built successfully. The effect of the trailing-edge time on the implantation uniformity was simulated by one-dimension PIC method. The potential on the control grids of the tetrode was optimized to obtain a HV pulse with a short rise time. In our system, 200 V potential on grid one is utilized and the leading-edge time of pulse can be as small as 1 μs. The IGBTs in series was utilized to release the remnant charges reserved in the equivalent capacitance of the plasma load and coaxial cable. Thus the trailing-edge time of the HV pulse could be reduced. The effect of the driver signals with different delay time and the absorption parameters of each IGBTs were simulated by PSPICE software to optimize the design the electric circuit. (authors)

  12. Simulation of subnanosecond streamers in atmospheric-pressure air: Effects of polarity of applied voltage pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Results of simulation of subnanosecond streamer propagation in corona gap configuration, obtained in the framework of 2D fluid model, are presented. Effects related with the polarity of a voltage pulse applied to the stressed electrode are discussed. It is argued that these effects (dependence of the discharge current and propagation velocity on the polarity of applied voltage) observed in experiments can be attributed to the difference in initial (preceding the streamer formation) distributions of charged species inside the gap. This difference can be caused by preionization (at negative polarity) of the gas inside the discharge gap by runaway electrons. Calculated streamers have large widths (up to 1 cm) and move with velocities in the range of 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10 }cm s{sup −1}, similar to experimental data.

  13. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  14. Characterization of a pulsed mode high voltage power supply for nuclear detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, A B; Ahmad, T S; Abdullah, N A

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of a pulsed mode high voltage power supply (HVPS) using LT1073 chip. The pulsed modulated signal generated from this chip is amplified using a step-up ferrite core transformer of 1:20 turn ratio and then further multiplied and converted into DC high voltage output using a diode-capacitor arrangement. The circuit is powered by a 9V alkaline battery but regulated at 5V supply. It was found that the output for this setup is 520V, 87 μA with 10% load regulation. This output is suitable to operate a pancake-type GM detector, typically model LND 7317 where the plateau is from 475V to 675V. It was also found that when a β-source with intensity of 120 cps is used, the power consumption of the circuit is 5 V, 10.1 mA only. When the battery was left 'on' for 40 hours continuously, the battery's voltage has dropped to 6.9V, meaning that the 5V supply as well as 520V output is still maintained. It is noted that the minimum output voltage of 475V has reached when the regulated supply has reduced to 4.6V and consequently the 9V battery dropped to 6.5V, and this had happened after approximately 3 days of continuous operation. The power efficiency for this circuitry was found to be 89.5%. This result has far better in performance since the commercial portable equipment of this type has normally specified that not less than 8 hours continuous operation only. On the circuit design for this power supply, it was found that the enveloped frequency is 133 Hz with approximately 50% duty cycle. The modulated frequency during 'on' state was found to be 256 KHz in which the majority of power consumption is required.

  15. Electron tunnelling through single azurin molecules can be on/off switched by voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, Chiara [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, CNR, I-05010 Porano (Italy); Kumar, Vivek; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore, E-mail: cannistr@unitus.it [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2015-05-04

    Redox metalloproteins are emerging as promising candidates for future bio-optoelectronic and nano-biomemory devices, and the control of their electron transfer properties through external signals is still a crucial task. Here, we show that a reversible on/off switching of the electron current tunnelling through a single protein can be achieved in azurin protein molecules adsorbed on gold surfaces, by applying appropriate voltage pulses through a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. The observed changes in the hybrid system tunnelling properties are discussed in terms of long-sustained charging of the protein milieu.

  16. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Waisman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM. Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010

  17. A high voltage pulse generator based on silicon-controlled rectifier for field-reversed configuration experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Munan; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Guanghui; Wang, Yanpeng; Shi, Peiyun; Sun, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    A high voltage pulse generator based on a silicon-controlled rectifier has been designed and implemented for a field reversed configuration experiment. A critical damping circuit is used in the generator to produce the desired pulse waveform. Depending on the load, the rise time of the output trigger signal can be less than 1 μs, and the peak amplitudes of trigger voltage and current are up to 8 kV and 85 A in a single output. The output voltage can be easily adjusted by changing the voltage on a capacitor of the generator. In addition, the generator integrates an electrically floating heater circuit so it is capable of triggering either pseudosparks (TDI-type hydrogen thyratron) or ignitrons. Details of the circuits and their implementation are described in the paper. The trigger generator has successfully controlled the discharging sequence of the pulsed power supply for a field reversed configuration experiment.

  18. Zero-voltage DC/DC converter with asymmetric pulse-width modulation for DC micro-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a zero-voltage switching DC/DC converter for DC micro-grid system applications. The proposed circuit includes three half-bridge circuit cells connected in primary-series and secondary-parallel in order to lessen the voltage rating of power switches and current rating of rectifier diodes. Thus, low voltage stress of power MOSFETs can be adopted for high-voltage input applications with high switching frequency operation. In order to achieve low switching losses and high circuit efficiency, asymmetric pulse-width modulation is used to turn on power switches at zero voltage. Flying capacitors are used between each circuit cell to automatically balance input split voltages. Therefore, the voltage stress of each power switch is limited at Vin/3. Finally, a prototype is constructed and experiments are provided to demonstrate the circuit performance.

  19. Electrostatic precipitators for coal thermal power plants energized by means of narrow pulse voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinelli, G.; Mattachini, F.; Bogani, V.; Baldacci, A.; Tarli, R. (ENEL-CRTN, Direzione Studi e Ricerche, Milan (Italy) ENEL, VDT Settore Tecnico, Direzione Produzione e Trasmissione, Rome (Italy))

    1990-09-01

    The efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, widely used in thermal power plants to clean flue gases from solid particulate, is strongly dependent both on the way particles are electrically charged and on the characteristics of the electric field within the interelectrodic space of the precipitator. Such operating may become inadequate under varying particle characteristics and operating conditions of the thermal plant, therefore bringing to a reduction in the precipitator collection efficiency. An innovative technique, by generating a pulsed corona in the precipitator, allows a substantial improvement of both the particle charging and the collection processes and an increase in the operation flexibility of the electrostatic precipitator. The narrow pulse voltage energization has been extensively tested at a coal thermal unit having the electrostatic precipitators equipped with both conventional and pulse power sets. The long duration tests confirmed the following results: 1) high reliability of the pulse power sets and a considerable improvement in the precipitator collection efficiency; 2) a decrease in the particulate emissions, with coals whose ashes are of difficult collection, ranging between 75% and 85% of those with conventional energization; 3) a reduction by a factor of about 5 in the consumption of electric power by the electrostatic precipitation process.

  20. Development of protection system for power supply facilities in JT-60U P-NBI for long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Katsumi; Okano, Fuminori; Honda, Atsushi; Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Usui, Katsutomi; Noto, Katsuya; Kawai, Mikito; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

    2007-06-01

    In the positive ion based NBI (P-NBI) system, we have developed a protection system to protect the power supply facilities from over load during long pulse operation. The protection system monitors the voltage (V) and current (I) in the power supply facilities, and calculates the parameters of V2t and I2t in real-time, where T is the pulse duration. It turns off the power supply facilities when V2t and I2t are beyond the critical values. After two development stages, we have completed the protection system using a package typed PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) which has a high expandability of multi-unit operation. Moreover, we have constructed a user-friendly system by using a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. (author)

  1. Enhancing Food Processing by Pulsed and High Voltage Electric Fields: Principles and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qijun; Li, Yifei; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2018-02-02

    Improvements in living standards result in a growing demand for food with high quality attributes including freshness, nutrition and safety. However, current industrial processing methods rely on traditional thermal and chemical methods, such as sterilization and solvent extraction, which could induce negative effects on food quality and safety. The electric fields (EFs) involving pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and high voltage electric fields (HVEFs) have been studied and developed for assisting and enhancing various food processes. In this review, the principles and applications of pulsed and high voltage electric fields are described in details for a range of food processes, including microbial inactivation, component extraction, and winemaking, thawing and drying, freezing and enzymatic inactivation. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of electric field related technologies are discussed to foresee future developments in the food industry. This review demonstrates that electric field technology has a great potential to enhance food processing by supplementing or replacing the conventional methods employed in different food manufacturing processes. Successful industrial applications of electric field treatments have been achieved in some areas such as microbial inactivation and extraction. However, investigations of HVEFs are still in an early stage and translating the technology into industrial applications need further research efforts.

  2. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  3. Design and measurements of a fast high-voltage pulse generator for the MedAustron Low Energy Transfer line fast deflector

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, T; Mueller, F; Kramer, T; Stadlbauer, T

    2012-01-01

    MedAustron, a centre for ion-therapy and research, will comprise an accelerator facility based on a synchrotron for the delivery of protons and light ions for cancer treatment. The Low Energy Beam Transfer line (LEBT) to the synchrotron contains an electrostatic fast deflector (EFE) which, when energized, deviates the continuous beam arriving from the ion source onto a Faraday Cup: the specified voltage is ±3.5 kV. De-energizing the EFE for variable pulse durations from 500 ns up to d.c. allows beam passage for multi-turn injection into the synchrotron. To maintain beam quality in the synchrotron, the EFE pulse generator requires rise and fall times of less than 300 ns between 90 % of peak voltage and a ±1 V level. To achieve this, a pulsed power supply (PKF), with high voltage MOSFET switches connected in a push-pull configuration, will be mounted in close proximity to the deflector itself. A fast, large dynamic range monitoring circuit will verify switching to the ±1 V level and subsequent flat bottom pu...

  4. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okishev, A.V.; Skeldon, M.D.; Keck, R.L.; Seka, W.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities

  5. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008 ...

  6. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  7. Synergistic effects of liquid and gas phase discharges using pulsed high voltage for dyes degradation in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhou, Minghua; Lei, Lecheng

    2005-07-01

    The technology of combined liquid and gas phase discharges (LGD) using pulsed high voltage for dyes degradation was developed in this study. Apparent synergistic effects for Acid orange II (AO) degradation in the presence of oxygen were observed. The enhancement of AO degradation rate was around 302%. Furthermore, higher energy efficiency was obtained comparing with individual liquid phase discharge (LD) or gas phase discharge process (GD). The AO degradation in the presence of oxygen by LGD proceeded through the direct ozone oxidation and the ozone decomposition induced by LD. Important operating parameters such as electrode distance, applied voltage, pulse repetition rate, and types of dyes were further investigated.

  8. [Degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous solution by high-voltage pulsed discharge-ozone technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuezhong; Jiang, Xuanzhen; Liu, Weiping

    2002-03-01

    The combination of high voltage pulse discharge and ozonation as an advanced oxidation technology was used to investigate the degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in water. The factors that affect the rate of degradation were discussed. The 1.95 x 10(-3) mol/L solutions of 4-CP were almost completely (96%) degraded after the discharge treatment of 30 min. The degradation of 4-CP was investigated as a function of the ozone concentration, radical scavenger and electrode distance. The rate of 4-CP degradation increases with an increase in ozone concentration and a decrease in the electrode distance from 20 mm to 10 mm. The presence of radical scavenger decreased the rate of 4-CP degradation.

  9. A timing detector with pulsed high-voltage power supply for mass measurements at CSRe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Tu, X.L.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.H.; Xu, H.S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Blaum, K.

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy of nuclear mass measurements in storage rings depends critically on the accuracy with which the revolution times of stored ions can be obtained. In such experiments, micro-channel plates (MCP) are used as timing detectors. Due to large phase space of injected secondary beams, a large number of ions cannot be stored in the ring and is lost within the first few revolutions. However, these ions interact with the detector and can saturate the MCP and thus deteriorate its performance. In order to eliminate such effects, a fast, pulsed high-voltage power supply (PHVPS) has been employed which keeps the detector switched-off during the first few revolutions. The new detector setup was taken into operation at the Experimental Cooler-Storage-Ring CSRe in Lanzhou and resulted in a significant improvement of the detector amplitude and efficiency characteristics

  10. Bipolar High-Voltage, Long-Duration Pulsed Radiofrequency Improves Pain Relief in Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cheng-Fu; Liu, Yan; Dong, Dao-Song; Zhao, Lin; Xi, Qi; Yu, Xue; Cui, Wen-Yao; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is often refractory to existing treatments. Treatment of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using monopolar pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), which is a non- or minimally neurodestructive technique, is not efficacious in all patients. This study aimed to determine the safety and clinical efficacy of bipolar high-voltage, long-duration PRF on the DRG in PHN patients. Self before-after controlled clinical trial. Department of Pain Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Ninety patients diagnosed with PHN for > 3months were included. Bipolar high-voltage, long-duration PRF at 42°C for 900 seconds was applied after the induction of paresthesias covered the regions of hyperalgesic skin. The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36) before treatment and one, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after PRF. The VAS scores at one, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after PRF treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P DRG is an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for PHN patients. This treatment could improve the quality of life of PHN patients. NO ChiCTR-OCS-14005461.

  11. Influence of duration and rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage on ozone concentration in the barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovski, A.V.; Knysh, A.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The barrier glow discharge between two planar electrodes, covered with dielectric, is studied under high-voltage pulsed power supply. Wide applications of such type of discharges, in particular, for ozone production, stimulated a number of investigations in this direction. In this work we investigated the dependence of ozone concentration on the duration and the rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage. The thyristor converter circuit with the shortening of input pulses on the base of the saturable throttle was used for the realization of this task. The output pulses with amplitude up to 15 kV, repetition frequency of 1 kHz, pulse duration of 0.3 μs (or 7 μs) and the rate of pulse rise of 0.1 μs were generated with this scheme. Measurements of the ozone concentration produced in the air mixture have shown that its value increased by factor two with variation of the rate of pulse rise from 0.5 μs to 0.1 μs (for pulse duration of 7 μs). The dependence of the ozone concentration on the variation of air mixture pressure in the discharge gap of reactor was investigated also. It was shown proportional increase of the output concentration of ozone with increasing the pressure value. Spectroscopic measurements carried out in the ultraviolet spectrum made it possible to analyze changing the concentration of ozone and nitric components. (author)

  12. Dual branch high voltage pulse generator for the beam extraction of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Ducimetière, L; Jansson, U; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2002-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction kicker system, MKD, is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn from the collider and to dispose them, after dilution, on an external absorber. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The original single branch generator consisted of a discharge capacitor in series with a solid state closing switch left bracket 1 right bracket operating at 30 kV. In combination with a parallel freewheel diode stack this generator produced a current pulse of 2.7 mus rise time, 18.5 kA amplitude and about 1.8 ms fall time, of which only about 90 mus are needed to dump the beam. The freewheel diode circuit is equipped with a flat top current droop compensation network, consisting of a low voltage, low stray inductance, high current discharge capacitor. Extensive reliability studies have meanwhile suggested to further increase the operational safety of this crucial system by equipping each generator with two parallel branches. This paper presents the re...

  13. Development of high power CW and pulsed RF test facility based on 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Upadhyay, Rinki; Rao, J.N.; Tiwari, Ashish; Jain, Akhilesh; Lad, M.R.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    A high power 1 MW, 352.2 MHz RF Test facility having CW and Pulse capability is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for performance evaluation of various RF components, accelerating structures and related subsystems. Thales make 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier (TH 2089) will be employed in this high power test facility, which is thoroughly tested for its performance parameters at rated operating conditions. Auxiliary power supplies like filament, electromagnet, ion pump and mod anode power supply as well as 200 W solid state driver amplifier necessary for this high power test facility have been developed. A high voltage floating platform is created for floating filament and mod anode power supplies. Interconnection of various power supplies and other subsystems of this test facility are being carried out. A high voltage 100 kV, 25 Amp DC crowbar less power supply and low conductivity water (LCW) plant required for this klystron amplifier are in advanced stage of development. NI make cRIO 9081 real time (RT) controller based control and interlock system has been developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test facility. This RF test facility will provide confidence for development of RF System of future accelerators like SNS and ADSS. (author)

  14. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA. The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  15. HVPTF-The high voltage laboratory for the ITER Neutral Beam test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzi, A., E-mail: antonio.delorenzi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pilan, N.; Lotto, L.; Fincato, M. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pesavento, G.; Gobbo, R. [DIE, Universita di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6A, I-35100 Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In the MITICA research program for the construction of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector prototype, a Laboratory for the investigation on high voltage holding in vacuum has been set up. This Laboratory - HVPTF: High Voltage Padova Test Facility - is presently capable of experiments up to 300 kV dc, and planned for the upgrade to 800 kV. The specific mission for this ancillary lab is the support to the electrostatic design and construction of the MITICA accelerator and the development and testing of HV components to be installed inside the MITICA accelerator during its operation. The paper describes the structure of the lab, characterized by a high degree of automation and reports the results of the commissioning at 300 kV and the first results of voltage holding between test electrodes.

  16. HVPTF-The high voltage laboratory for the ITER Neutral Beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzi, A.; Pilan, N.; Lotto, L.; Fincato, M.; Pesavento, G.; Gobbo, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the MITICA research program for the construction of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector prototype, a Laboratory for the investigation on high voltage holding in vacuum has been set up. This Laboratory - HVPTF: High Voltage Padova Test Facility - is presently capable of experiments up to 300 kV dc, and planned for the upgrade to 800 kV. The specific mission for this ancillary lab is the support to the electrostatic design and construction of the MITICA accelerator and the development and testing of HV components to be installed inside the MITICA accelerator during its operation. The paper describes the structure of the lab, characterized by a high degree of automation and reports the results of the commissioning at 300 kV and the first results of voltage holding between test electrodes.

  17. Improvements in detection system for pulse radiolysis facility

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, V N; Manimaran, P; Mishra, R K; Mohan, H; Mukherjee, T; Nadkarni, S A; Sapre, A V; Shinde, S J; Toley, M

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the improvements made in the detection system of the pulse radiolysis facility based on a 7 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator (LINAC) located in the Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The facility was created in 1986 for kinetic studies of transient species whose absorption lies between 200 and 700 nm. The newly developed detection circuits consist of a silicon (Si) photodiode (PD) detector for the wavelength range 450-1100 nm and a germanium (Ge) photodiode detector for the wavelength range 900-1600 nm. With these photodiode-based detection set-up, kinetic experiments are now routinely carried out in the wavelength range 450-1600 nm. The performance of these circuits has been tested using standard chemical systems. The rise time has been found to be 150 ns. The photo-multiplier tube (PMT) bleeder circuit has been modified. A new DC back-off circuit has been built and installed in order to avoid droop at longer time scales. A steady baselin...

  18. Note: Compact high voltage pulse transformer made using a capacitor bank assembled in the shape of primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rohit; Banerjee, Partha; Sharma, Surender K; Das, Rashmita; Deb, Pankaj; Prabaharan, T; Das, Basanta; Adhikary, Biswajit; Verma, Rishi; Shyam, Anurag

    2011-10-01

    The experimental results of an air-core pulse transformer are presented, which is very compact (capacitor bank that is fabricated in such a way that the capacitor bank with its switch takes the shape of single-turn rectangular shaped primary of the transformer. A high voltage capacitor assembly (pulse-forming-line capacitor, PFL) of 5.1 nF is connected with the secondary of transformer. The transformer output voltage is 160 kV in its second peak appearing in less than 2 μS from the beginning of the capacitor discharge. The primary capacitor bank can be charged up to a maximum of 18 kV, with the voltage delivery of 360 kV in similar capacitive loads.

  19. Survey of high-voltage pulse technology suitable for large-scale plasma source ion implantation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many new plasma processes ideas are finding their way from the research lab to the manufacturing plant floor. These require high voltage (HV) pulse power equipment, which must be optimized for application, system efficiency, and reliability. Although no single HV pulse technology is suitable for all plasma processes, various classes of high voltage pulsers may offer a greater versatility and economy to the manufacturer. Technology developed for existing radar and particle accelerator modulator power systems can be utilized to develop a modern large scale plasma source ion implantation (PSII) system. The HV pulse networks can be broadly defined by two classes of systems, those that generate the voltage directly, and those that use some type of pulse forming network and step-up transformer. This article will examine these HV pulse technologies and discuss their applicability to the specific PSII process. Typical systems that will be reviewed will include high power solid state, hard tube systems such as crossed-field ''hollow beam'' switch tubes and planar tetrodes, and ''soft'' tube systems with crossatrons and thyratrons. Results will be tabulated and suggestions provided for a particular PSII process

  20. Circuit-field coupled finite element analysis method for an electromagnetic acoustic transducer under pulsed voltage excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Kuan-Sheng; Huang Song-Ling; Zhao Wei; Wang Shen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) under voltage excitation and considers the non-uniform distribution of the biased magnetic field. A complete model of EMATs including the non-uniform biased magnetic field, a pulsed eddy current field and the acoustic field is built up. The pulsed voltage excitation is transformed to the frequency domain by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). In terms of the time harmonic field equations of the EMAT system, the impedances of the coils under different frequencies are calculated according to the circuit-field coupling method and Poynting's theorem. Then the currents under different frequencies are calculated according to Ohm's law and the pulsed current excitation is obtained by inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT). Lastly, the sequentially coupled finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate the Lorentz force in the EMATs under the current excitation. An actual EMAT with a two-layer two-bundle printed circuit board (PCB) coil, a rectangular permanent magnet and an aluminium specimen is analysed. The coil impedances and the pulsed current are calculated and compared with the experimental results. Their agreement verified the validity of the proposed method. Furthermore, the influences of lift-off distances and the non-uniform static magnetic field on the Lorentz force under pulsed voltage excitation are studied. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Decomposition of methane to hydrogen using nanosecond pulsed plasma reactor with different active volumes, voltages and frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifeh, Omid; Mosallanejad, Amin; Taghvaei, Hamed; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Shariati, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CH 4 conversion into H 2 is investigated in a nanosecond pulsed DBD reactor. • The absence of CO and CO 2 in the product gas is highly favorable. • Effects of external electrode length, applied voltage and frequency are examined. • The maximum efficiency of 7.23% is achieved at the electrode length of 15 cm. • The maximum CH 4 conversion of 87.2% is obtained at discharge power 268.92 W. - Abstract: In this paper, the methane conversion into hydrogen is investigated experimentally in a nanosecond pulsed DBD reactor. In order to achieve pure hydrogen production with minimum power consumption, effects of some operating parameters including external electrode length, applied voltage and pulse repetition frequency have been evaluated. Results show that although higher CH 4 conversion and H 2 concentration can be obtained at longer electrode lengths, higher applied voltages and pulse repetition frequencies, these parameters should be optimized for efficient hydrogen production. Actually, the maximum CH 4 conversion of 87.2% and maximum hydrogen percentage of 80% are obtained at the external electrode length, discharge power, voltage and frequency of 15 cm, 268.92 W, 12 kV and 10 kHz, respectively. However, the maximum efficiency of 7.23% is achieved at the external electrode length of 15 cm, applied voltage of 6 kV, pulse repetition frequency of 0.9 kHz and discharge power of 4 W. Furthermore, at this condition, due to low temperature of discharge zone very little amount of solid carbon was observed on the inner electrode surface of the reactor.

  2. 1.3 MV voltage pulse shaping for 13 Ohm load by means of the VMG-160 magnetocumulative generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.S.; Boriskin, A.S.; Vilkov, Yu.V.; Selemir, V.D.; Dimant, E.M.; Yuryzhev, A.S.; Zenkov, D.I.; Tkachuk, A.A.; Kirshanova, E.N.; Kozlov, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The device on the basis of a magnetocumulative generator with a transformer output making it possible to form powerful (≥ 100 GW) pulses with current rise time of approximately 1 μs on the load of about 10 Ohm is described. The results of testing the generator on the load in form of a liquid resistor are presented. The voltage pulse of 13 MV is obtained on the resistive load of 13 Ohm as a result of the superconductors electrical explosion. The results of the numerical modeling indicated the possibility of forming the voltage pulses ≥ 1MV with the current rise time of approximately 100 ns on the resistance of 13 Ohm [ru

  3. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Chaofeng; Sun Jizhong; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  4. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen

    2010-02-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  5. A new method for compensation of the effect of charging transformer's leakage inductance on PFN voltage regulation in Klystron pulse modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Akhil, E-mail: akhilpatel@rrcat.gov.in; Kale, Umesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2017-04-21

    The Line type modulators have been widely used to generate high voltage rectangular pulses to power the klystron for high power RF generation. In Line type modulator, the Pulse Forming Network (PFN) which is a cascade combination of lumped capacitors and inductors is used to store the electrical energy. The charged PFN is then discharged into a klystron by firing a high voltage Thyratron switch. This discharge generates a high voltage rectangular pulse across the klystron electrodes. The amplitude and phase of Klystron's RF output is governed by the high voltage pulse amplitude. The undesired RF amplitude and phase stability issues arises at the klystron's output due to inter-pulse and during the pulse amplitude variations. To reduce inter-pulse voltage variations, the PFN is required to be charged at the same voltage after every discharge cycle. At present, the combination of widely used resonant charging and deQing method is used to regulate the pulse to pulse PFN voltage variations but the charging transformer's leakage inductance puts an upper bound on the regulation achievable by this method. Here we have developed few insights of the deQing process and devised a new compensation method to compensate this undesired effect of charging transformer's leakage inductance on the pulse to pulse PFN voltage stability. This compensation is accomplished by the controlled partial discharging of the split PFN capacitor using a low voltage MOSFET switch. Theoretically, very high values of pulse to pulse voltage stability may be achieved using this method. This method may be used in deQing based existing modulators or in new modulators, to increase the pulse to pulse voltage stability, without having a very tight bound on charging transformer's leakage inductance. Given a stable charging power supply, this method may be used to further enhance the inter-pulse voltage stability of modulators which employ the direct charging, after replacing the

  6. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-micros risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001

  7. Efficiency of high- and low-voltage pulse combinations for gene electrotransfer in muscle, liver, tumor, and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, F M; Gehl, J; Sersa, G

    2008-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is gaining momentum as an efficient methodology for nonviral gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, data suggest that electric pulses play two roles: structurally permeabilizing the muscle fibers and electrophoretically supporting the migration of DNA toward or across the permeab......Gene electrotransfer is gaining momentum as an efficient methodology for nonviral gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, data suggest that electric pulses play two roles: structurally permeabilizing the muscle fibers and electrophoretically supporting the migration of DNA toward or across...... the permeabilized membrane. To investigate this further, combinations of permeabilizing short high-voltage pulses (HV; hundreds of V/cm) and mainly electrophoretic long low-voltage pulses (LV; tens of V/cm) were investigated in muscle, liver, tumor, and skin in rodent models. The following observations were made......, but not to liver; and (4) efficient gene electrotransfer was achieved with HV field strengths below the detectability thresholds for permeabilization; and (5) the lag time interval between the HV and LV pulses decreased sensitivity to the HV pulses, enabling a wider HV amplitude range. In conclusion, HV plus LV...

  8. A 10-TW Pulsed Facility "PIRIT" for Investigation of Short-Wave Radiation Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Pikar', A S; Kotel'nikov, D V; Melkozerov, A V

    1995-01-01

    The results of experiments with a plasma x-ray source in the PIRIT-2000 facility are presented in this paper. The facility is designed with module capacitive energy storage energizing vacuum inductive storage. The formation of a rapidly growing current pulse as well as its commutation on a load was carried out by a plasma opening switch. A vacuum diode as well as various types of plasma loads can be used for the generation of a high-power x-ray flux. The storage energy of a 54-module capacitive storage is up to 2 MJ, its inductance is 15 nH, and its output voltage is 500 kV. The peak current in the plasma load constituted 4 MA with a 150-ns rise time. The maximum integral energy output of x radiation measured by an open thermocouple calorimeter was as high as 100 kJ, while the primary storage energy was 1 MJ. The plasma load usage at a current of 4 MA ensured a 100-kJ generation in x-ray radiation and the density of the radiation flux at a distance of 1 m from the source was as much as 0.8 J/cm2, while near the source it was 10 J/cm2.

  9. Hard coatings on magnesium alloys by sputter deposition using a pulsed d.c. bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Griepentrog, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    An increasing use of magnesium-based light-metal alloys for various industrial applications was predicted in different technological studies. Companies in different branches have developed machine parts made of magnesium alloys (e.g. cars, car engines, sewing and knitting machines). Hence, this work was started to evaluate the ability of hard coatings obtained by physical vapour deposition (PVD) in combination with coatings obtained by electrochemical deposition to protect magnesium alloys against wear and corrosion. TiN hard coatings were deposited onto magnesium alloys by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. A bipolar pulsed d.c. bias voltage was used to limit substrate temperatures to 180 C during deposition without considerable loss of microhardness and adhesion. Adhesion, hardness and load-carrying capacity of TiN coatings deposited directly onto magnesium alloys are compared with the corresponding values of TiN coatings deposited onto substrates which had been coated electroless with an Ni-P alloy interlayer prior to the PVD. (orig.)

  10. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-12-01

    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  11. Novel design of high voltage pulse source for efficient dielectric barrier discharge generation by using silicon diodes for alternating current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoa Thi; Hayashi, Misaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on design, construction, and optimization of configuration of a novel high voltage pulse power source for large-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generation. The pulses were generated by using the high-speed switching characteristic of an inexpensive device called silicon diodes for alternating current and the self-terminated characteristic of DBD. The operation started to be powered by a primary DC low voltage power supply flexibly equipped with a commercial DC power supply, or a battery, or DC output of an independent photovoltaic system without transformer employment. This flexible connection to different types of primary power supply could provide a promising solution for the application of DBD, especially in the area without power grid connection. The simple modular structure, non-control requirement, transformer elimination, and a minimum number of levels in voltage conversion could lead to a reduction in size, weight, simple maintenance, low cost of installation, and high scalability of a DBD generator. The performance of this pulse source has been validated by a load of resistor. A good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally measured responses has been achieved. The pulse source has also been successfully applied for an efficient DBD plasma generation.

  12. Luminous flux improvement of xenon fluorescent lamps by applying synchronized high-voltage pulse to the auxiliary external electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motomura, Hideki; Oka, Kojiro; Sogabe, Toru; Jinno, Masafumi, E-mail: hmoto@mayu.ee.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ehime University 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-08

    As the environmental awareness of people becomes stronger, the demand for mercury-free light sources also becomes stronger. The authors have been developing cold cathode fluorescent lamps in which xenon gas is filled as an ultraviolet radiator instead of mercury. Previously the authors reported the luminous flux enhancement method using a grounded auxiliary external electrode (AEE). In this paper, in order to improve the luminous flux much more, a positive voltage pulse which was synchronized to the main driving negative voltage pulse was applied to the AEE. As a result, the maximum input power increased under which the positive column did not constrict and the luminous flux improved by 70% at the xenon filling pressure of 6.7 kPa. It is proved that the positive voltage pulse application to the AEE with the amplitude of more than 2 kV expands the positive column in the radial direction. It is attributed to the phenomenon that the residual ions and electrons, which are generated by dielectric barrier discharge between the AEE and the anode during the falling edge of the negative pulse to the cathode, spread the discharge path from the anode towards the AEE during the cold cathode discharge mode. By increasing the xenon filling pressure, luminous efficacy was improved to 25 lm W{sup -1}.

  13. Wide-range bipolar pulse conductance instrument employing current and voltage modes with sampled or integrated signal acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calhoun, R K; Holler, F J [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Geiger, jr, R F; Nieman, T A [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Caserta, K J [Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1991-11-05

    An instrument for measuring solution conductance using the bipolar pulse technique is described. The instrument is capable of measuring conductances in the range of 5x10{sup -9}-10{Omega}{sup -1} with 1% accuracy or better in as little as 32 {mu}s. Accuracy of 0.001-0.01% is achievable over the range 1x10{sup -6}-1{Omega}{sup -1}. Circuitry and software are described that allow the instrument to adjust automatically the pulse height, pulse duration, excitation mode (current or voltage pulse) and data acquisition mode (sampled or integrated) to acquire data of optimum accuracy and precision. The urease-catalyzed decomposition of urea is used to illustrate the versality of the instrument, and other applications are cited. (author). 60 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs.

  14. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Xie, Qin; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level.

  15. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level. (paper)

  16. HiRadMat: A high‐energy, pulsed beam, material irradiation facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    HiRadMat is a facility constructed in 2011, designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where different material samples or accelerator components can be tested. The facility, located at the CERN SPS accelerator complex, uses a 440 GeV proton beam with a pulse length up to 7.2 μs and a maximum intensity up to 1E13 protons / pulse. The facility, a unique place for performing state-of-the art beam-to-material experiments, operates under transnational access and welcomes and financially supports, under certain conditions, experimental teams to perform their experiments.

  17. The pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage normal; Das pulsgetriebene AC-Josephson-Spannungsnormal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieler, Oliver [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe 2.43 ' ' Josephson-Schaltungen' '

    2016-09-15

    In this contribution quantum precise alternating-voltage sources are presented, which make the generation of arbitrary wave forms with highest spectral purity with a high bandwidth from DC up to the MHz range possible. Heartpiece of these Josephson voltage normals is a serial circuit of many thousand Josephson contacts, which make by irradiation with high-frequency radiation (microwaves) the generation of highly precise voltage values possible. Thereby in the current-voltage characteristics stages of constant voltage, so called Shapiro stages, occur. Illustratively these stages can be described by the transfer of a certain number of flux quanta through the Josephson contacts.

  18. Development and application of network virtual instrument for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Network virtual instrument (VI) is a new development direction in current automated test. Based on LabVIEW, the software and hardware system of VI used for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current (DC) discharge is developed and applied to investigate pulsed high-voltage DC discharge of nitrogen. By doing so, various functions are realized including real time collection of emission spectrum of nitrogen, monitoring operation state of instruments and real time analysis and processing of data. By using shared variables and DataSocket technology in LabVIEW, the network VI system based on field VI is established. The system can acquire the emission spectrum of nitrogen in the test site, monitor operation states of field instruments, realize real time face-to-face interchange of two sites, and analyze data in the far-end from the network terminal. By employing the network VI system, the staff in the two sites acquired the same emission spectrum of nitrogen and conducted the real time communication. By comparing with the previous results, it can be seen that the experimental data obtained by using the system are highly precise. This implies that the system shows reliable network stability and safety and satisfies the requirements for studying the emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage discharge in high-precision fields or network terminals. The proposed architecture system is described and the target group gets the useful enlightenment in many fields including engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks.

  19. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  20. Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, H.; Comtois, D.; Vidal, F.; Chien, C.Y.; Desparois, A.; Johnston, T.W.; Kieffer, J.C.; La Fontaine, B.; Martin, F.; Rizk, F.A.M.; Potvin, C.; Couture, P.; Mercure, H.P.; Bondiou-Clergerie, A.; Lalande, P.; Gallimberti, I.

    2001-01-01

    The triggering and guiding of leader discharges using a plasma channel created by a sub-joule ultrashort laser pulse have been studied in a megavolt large-scale electrode configuration (3-7 m rod-plane air gap). By focusing the laser close to the positive rod electrode it has been possible, with a 400 mJ pulse, to trigger and guide leaders over distances of 3 m, to lower the leader inception voltage by 50%, and to increase the leader velocity by a factor of 10. The dynamics of the breakdown discharges with and without the laser pulse have been analyzed by means of a streak camera and of electric field and current probes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced many of the experimental results obtained with and without the presence of the laser plasma channel

  1. Test and application of thermal neutron radiography facility at Xi'an pulsed reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Jun; Zhao Xiang Feng; Wang Dao Hua

    2002-01-01

    A thermal neutron radiography facility at Xi'an Pulsed Reactor is described as well as its characteristics and application. The experiment results show the inherent unsharpness of BAS ND is 0.15 mm. The efficient thermal neutron n/gamma ratio is lower in not only steady state configuration but also pulsing state configuration and it is improved using Pb filter

  2. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value).

  3. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value)

  4. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastelev, E. G.; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz

  6. Numerical investigation of the effect of driving voltage pulse shapes on the characteristics of low-pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, E.; Barjasteh, A.; Morshedian, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we numerically compare the effect of a sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular pulsed voltage profile on the calculated particle production, electric current, and gas voltage in a dielectric barrier discharge. The total argon gas pressure of 400 Pa, the distance between dielectrics of 5 mm, the dielectric thickness of 0.7 mm, and the temperature of T = 300 K were considered as input parameters. The different driving voltage pulse shapes (triangular, rectangular, and sinusoidal) are considered as applied voltage with a frequency of 7 kHz and an amplitude of 700 V peak to peak. It is shown that applying a rectangular voltage, as compared with a sinusoidal or triangle voltage, increases the current peak, while the peak width is decreased. Higher current density is related to high production of charged particles, which leads to the generation of some highly active species, such as Ar* (4s level), and Ar** (4p level) in the gap

  7. The Sterilization Effect of Cooperative Treatment of High Voltage Electrostatic Field and Variable Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Heterotrophic Bacteria in Circulating Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuetong; Liu, Zhian; Zhao, Judong

    2018-01-01

    Compared to other treatment of industrial circulating cooling water in the field of industrial water treatment, high-voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field co-sterilization technology, an advanced technology, is widely used because of its special characteristics--low energy consumption, nonpoisonous and environmentally friendly. In order to get a better cooling water sterilization effect under the premise of not polluting the environment, some experiments about sterilization of heterotrophic bacteria in industrial circulating cooling water by cooperative treatment of high voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field were carried out. The comparison experiment on the sterilization effect of high-voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field co-sterilization on heterotrophic bacteria in industrial circulating cooling water was carried out by change electric field strength and pulse frequency. The results show that the bactericidal rate is selective to the frequency and output voltage, and the heterotrophic bacterium can only kill under the condition of sweep frequency range and output voltage. When the voltage of the high voltage power supply is 4000V, the pulse frequency is 1000Hz and the water temperature is 30°C, the sterilization rate is 48.7%, the sterilization rate is over 90%. Results of this study have important guiding significance for future application of magnetic field sterilization.

  8. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  9. Submicrosecond linear pulse transformer for 800 kV voltage with modular low-inductance primary power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Popov, G. V.; Sedin, A. A.; Feduschak, V. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A pulsed power source with voltage amplitude up to 800 kV for fast charging (350–400 ns) of the forming line of a high-current nanosecond accelerator is developed. The source includes capacitive energy storage and a linear pulse transformer. The linear transformer consists of a set of 20 inductors with circular ferromagnetic cores surrounded by primary windings inside of which a common stock adder of voltage with film-glycerol insulation is placed. The primary energy storage consists of ten modules, each of which is a low-inductance assembly of two capacitors with a capacitance of 0.35 μF and one gas switch mounted in the same frame. The total energy stored in capacitors is 5.5 kJ at the operating voltage of 40 kV. According to test results, the parameters of the equivalent circuit of the source are the following: shock capacitance = 17.5 nF, inductance = 2 μH, resistance = 3.2 Ω.

  10. Design and characterisation of a pulsed neutron interrogation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, A.; Pedersen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre recently obtained a license to operate a new experimental device intended for research in the field of nuclear safeguards. The research projects currently being planned for the new device includes mass determination of fissile materials in matrices and detection of contraband non-nuclear materials. The device incorporates a commercial pulsed neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. In this configuration, a relatively high thermal neutron flux with a long lifetime is achieved inside the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator, a sample may be interrogated by a pure thermal neutron flux during repeated time periods. The paper reports on the design of the new device and the pulsed fast and thermal neutron source. The thermal neutron flux caused by the neutron generator and the graphite structure has been characterised by foil activation, fission chamber and 3 He proportional counter measurements. (authors)

  11. Isolated PWM DC-AC SICAM with an active capacitive voltage clamp[Pulse Density Modulated; Pulse Width Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2004-03-15

    In this report an isolated PWM DC-AC SICAM with an active capacitive voltage clamp is presented. AC-DC power supply is implemented in its simplest form: diode rectifier followed by a medium-size charge-storage capacitors and possibly with an EMC filter on the mains entrance. Isolation from the AC mains is achieved using a high frequency (HF) transformer, whose voltages are not audio-modulated. The latter simplifies the design and is expected to have many advantages over the approach where the transformer voltages are modulated in regards to the audio signal reference. Input stage is built as a DC-AC inverter (push-pull, half-bridge or a full-bridge) and operated with 50% duty cycle, with all the challenges to avoid transformer saturation and obtain symmetrical operation. On the secondary side the output section is implemented as rectifier+inverter AC-AC stage, i.e. a true bidirectional bridge, which operation is aimed towards amplification of the audio signal. In order to solve the problem with the commutation of the load current, a dead time between the incoming and outgoing bidirectional switch is implemented, while a capacitive voltage clamp is used to keep the induced overvoltage to reasonable levels. The energy stored in the clamping capacitor is not wasted as in the dissipative clamps, but is rather transferred back to the primary side for further processing using an auxiliary isolated single-switch converter, i.e. an active clamping technique is used. (au)

  12. Design and study of photomultiplier pulse-shaping amplifier powered by the current flowing through a voltage divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Popov

    2003-01-01

    A new version of Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) pulse amplifier, entirely powered by the current flowing through the base voltage divider, was designed and tested. This amplifier was designed for application in the JLAB G0 Experiment E00-006 as a part of high voltage base for XP2262 Photonis PMT. According to JLAB G0 experiment requirement, these PMT's operate with plastic scintillators at high counting rate (about MHz). Tests in JLAB experimental Hall C indicate that low energy gamma background cause up to 0.1 mA of PMT average anode current (without amplifier). At this radiation condition, PMT gain decreases by 50% within about 1 month of operation. The amplifier needs to reduce PMT anode current and to shape PMT anode pulse prior to sending it through a long cable line (more then 400 ft of RG-213 and RG-58 coax cables). Shaping of the PMT output pulse helps to reduce attenuation effect of the long cable line without significant reduction of timing accuracy. The results of this study of designed amplifier and PMT plus amplifier system are presented

  13. Degradation diagnosing method for low voltage electric wire and cable in nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Seiji; Seki, Ikuo; Yagyu, Hideki; Onishi, Takao; Kusama, Yasuo.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable skill is required for a visual inspection method which has been used most widely for determining the degradation of low voltage electric wires and cables used mostly in facilities such as nuclear power plants. It is extremely difficult to determine the degradation accurately and appropriately even for skilled inspectors because of individual difference. Then, a small amount of organic insulation materials is taken as a sample from insulators or sheath materials actually disposed. The pyrolytic temperature of the sample is measured by thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the extent of the degradation of the electric wire and cable based on the relationship between the degradation and the elongation. Since there is a close relationship between the temperature at which the measured weight of the sample is reduced by 5% and the degradation behavior of the mechanical property, analysis can be conducted effectively by an extremely small amount of the sample. Since the insulation degradation of relatively low voltage electric wires and cables can be determined in a non-destructive manner at high accuracy, the lifetime can be forecasted. (N.H.)

  14. Voltage Stress on Y Capacitors from Indirect Lightning Pulses According to ED-14/DO-160

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, F.

    2012-05-01

    Transients due to lightning strikes on an aircraft's fuselage impose stress on the input filters of elec- tronic equipment. Permanent damage can occur when exceeding the voltage handling capacity of filter components causing a short circuit to ground. In ED-14/DO-160, section 22, a number of waveforms and levels are defined which are used to check the airworthiness of avionics equipment. Depending on pro- cedure and level, Y-capacitors are stressed by transient voltages which exceed their dielectric strength. The design engineer's task is a properly select the type and voltage rating of capacitors. With moderate simplifications, a LCR-series network is justified to calculate the peak voltage dependent on the capacitance.

  15. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  16. Generation of fast-rise time, repetitive, (sub) nanosecond, high-voltage pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we present our fast-rise time nanosecond pulse generator, capable of generating up to 50 kV (positive and negative) rectangular pulses at a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz and with a rise time of less than 200 picoseconds. We focus on the general concepts involved in the design

  17. Glow-to-arc transition events in H2-Ar direct current pulsed plasma: Automated measurement of current and voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Luciano A.; Rodrigues, Jhonatam C.; Mafra, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    The glow-to-arc transition phenomena (arcing) observed in plasma reactors used in materials processing was studied through the arcs characteristic current and voltage waveforms. In order to capture these arcs signals, a LABVIEW based automated instrumentation system (ARCVIEW) was developed, including the integration of an oscilloscope equipped with proper current and voltage probes. The system also allows capturing the process parameters at the arc occurrence moments, which were used to map the arcs events conditions. Experiments in H 2 -Ar DC pulsed plasma returned signals data from 215 arcs events, which were analyzed through software routines. According to the results, an anti-arcing system should react in the time order of few microseconds to prevent most of the damage caused by the undesired arcing phenomena.

  18. Effect of high-voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF pretreatment on biogas production rates of hybrid Pennisetum by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijuan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the raw materials of hybrid Pennisetum were pretreated in different conditions of high voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF to improve its material utilization ratios and biogas production rates of anaerobic fermentation. Then, anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted within 32 days at moderate temperature (35 °C with TS mass fraction (6%, inoculation rate (20% and initial pH (7.0. It is indicated that compared with the control group, 9 groups of hybrid Pennisetum pretreated by HPEF are obviously superior in gas production efficiency of anaerobic fermentation, and higher in cumulative gas production, peak daily gas production and maximum methane concentration; that the most remarkable stimulation occurs in the HPEF condition of 15 kV/120 Hz/60 min, in that situation, the cumulative gas production in the fermentation period of 32 days is up to 9587 mL, 26.95% higher than that of the control group, the peak daily gas production increases and the range of peak period extends. It is demonstrated that the optimal HPEF pretreatment time is 60 min and three HPEF parameters have a better effect on gas production in the order of voltage > time > frequency; and that the effect degree of treatment parameters on peak daily gas production is voltage, frequency and time in turn. It is concluded that HPEF can improve material utilization ratio and gas production rate of hybrid Pennisetum by anaerobic fermentation and shorten the gas production cycle. By virtue of this physical pretreatment method, the resource of Pennisetum is utilized sufficiently and the classes of energy plants are enlarged effectively. Keywords: Hybrid Pennisetum, Anaerobic fermentation, High voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF, Biogas, Material utilization ratio, Gas generation rate, Model, Stimulation

  19. The theory and implementation of a high quality pulse width modulated waveform synthesiser applicable to voltage FED inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Kim Nigel

    1985-03-01

    Modulation processes associated with the digital implementation of pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies were examined. A software package based on a portable turnkey structure is presented. Waveform synthesizer implementation techniques are reviewed. A three phase PWM waveform synthesizer for voltage fed inverters was realized. It is based on a constant carrier frequency of 18 kHz and a regular sample, single edge, asynchronous PWM switching scheme. With high carrier frequencies, it is possible to utilize simple switching strategies and as a consequence, many advantages are highlighted, emphasizing the importance to industrial and office markets.

  20. DC-pulsed voltage electrochemical method based on duty cycle self-control for producing TERS gold tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, V E; Kharintsev, S S; Salakhov, M Kh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified dc-pulsed low voltage electrochemical method in which a duty cycle is self tuned while etching. A higher yield of gold tips suitable for performing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements is demonstrated. The improvement is caused by the self-control of the etching rate along the full surface of the tip. A capability of the gold tips to enhance a Raman signal is exemplified by TERS spectroscopy of single walled carbon nanotubes bundle, sulfur and vanadium oxide

  1. A pulse radiolysis based singlet oxygen luminescence facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, A.A.; Hamblett, I.; Land, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors report the first successful time-resolved detection of singlet oxygen, O 2 ( 1 Δ g ), luminescence using the pulse radiolysis technique. The use of this technique (a) to produce high concentrations of solute (S) triplet states in aerated benzene (B) via a combination of channels 1-4 and (b) to subsequently form O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) via channel 5 has already been described. The method complements direct pulsed laser excitation of S in that formation of 3 S*, and therefore of O 2 ( 1 Δ g ), is still efficient in those instances where intersystem crossing (channel 4) is unimportant. In the latter situation a laser-based experiment would require an additional light-absorbing sensitizer which could subsequently transfer triplet energy to high concentrations of S. Such experiments, certainly of a quantitative nature, are usually doomed to failure because of competitive light absorption problems. No such problems exist with pulse radiolysis, and the high available triplet energy of 3 B* (84 kcal mol -1 ) ensures that virtually any solute of interest, in the O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) context, will be efficiently promoted to its triplet state

  2. Spatio-temporal imaging of voltage pulses with an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    Measurements on an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope with simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution are presented. We show images of picosecond pulses propagating on a coplanar waveguide and resolve their mode structures. The influence of transmission line discontinuities on the mode...

  3. Reactive Power Compensation of a 24 MW Wind Farm using a 12-Pulse Voltage Source Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1998-01-01

    Integration of large wind farms in distribution and transmission systems may have severe influence on the power quality at the connection point and may also influence the voltage controlling capability of the electrical system. The purpose of the described project has been to develop and investig......Integration of large wind farms in distribution and transmission systems may have severe influence on the power quality at the connection point and may also influence the voltage controlling capability of the electrical system. The purpose of the described project has been to develop...... and investigate the use of a STATCOM by modelling and field testing an 8 MVar unit in a 24 MW wind farm....

  4. Pulsed neutron source and instruments at neutron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Aizawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Morii, Yukio; Watanabe, Noboru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    We report the results of design studies on the optimal target shape, target - moderator coupling, optimal layout of moderators, and neutron instruments for a next generation pulsed spallation source in JAERI. The source utilizes a projected high-intensity proton accelerator (linac: 1.5 GeV, {approx}8 MW in total beam power, compressor ring: {approx}5 MW). We discuss the target neutronics, moderators and their layout. The sources is designed to have at least 30 beam lines equipped with more than 40 instruments, which are selected tentatively to the present knowledge. (author)

  5. Syrinx - a research program for the pulsed power radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etlicher, B.; Chuvatin, A.S.; Choi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Syrinx is a targeted research program with the objective to study, through practical examples, the fundamentals necessary to define the details of all parts which will be required for a new powerful plasma radiation source. The current level of activities of Syrinx is in the design and construction of a multi-megajoule class IES based pulsed power driver which will use long conduction Plasma Opening Switch technology. The present paper reviews mainly the basic experimental research of the POS a nd Z-pinch accomplished in the framework of Syrinx project. This work has a unique international level of participation, from conceptual designs to particular investigations. (author). 9 figs., 17 refs

  6. Characterization of Wet Air Plasma Jet Powered by Sinusoidal High Voltage and Nanosecond Pulses for Plasma Agricultural Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Shimada, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Not only for the plasma sterilization but also for many of plasma life-science applications, atmospheric pressure plasma devices that allowed us to control its state and reactive species production are deserved to resolve the roles of the chemical species. Influence of the hydroxyl radical and ozone on germination of conidia of a strawberry pathogen is presented. Water addition to air plasma jet significantly improves germination suppression performance, while measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reduced. Although the results show a negative correlation between ROS and the germination suppression, this infers the importance of chemical composition generated by plasma. For further control of the plasma product, a plasma jet powered by sinusoidal high voltage and nanosecond pulses is developed and characterized with the voltage-charge Lissajous. Control of breakdown phase and discharge power by pulse-imposed phase is presented. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grant Number 15K17480 and Exploratory Research Grant Number 23644199.

  7. Reactive Power Compensation of a 24 MW Wind Farm using a 12-Pulse Voltage Source Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbrink, K.H.; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1998-01-01

    Integration of large wind farms in distribution and transmission systems may have severe influence on the power quality at the connection point and may also influence the voltage controlling capability of the electrical system. The purpose of the described project has been to develop and investig...

  8. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  9. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of −1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation

  10. Recent progress in R&D for long pulse and ultra-high voltage components for the ITER HNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Mieko, E-mail: kashiwagi.mieko@jaea.go.jp; Umeda, Naotaka; Kojima, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masafumi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Maejima, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Yasuo; Shibata, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hanada, Masaya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Long-pulse acceleration of MeV-class ion beams is demonstrated in JAEA. • The pulse length is extended from 0.4 s to 60 s, successfully. • R&D of 1 MV power supply is in progressed as scheduled. • Feasibility of 1 MV insulating transformer is confirmed in the mockup. - Abstract: Toward ITER, the long-pulse acceleration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been successfully demonstrated and R&Ds and the procurement of high-voltage components of 1 MV power supply system have been progressed. In the accelerator development after the production of 1 MeV beams, an extraction grid, where a water cooling is reinforced and the beam is steered by aperture offset to suppress grid heat loads, has been newly developed to extend the pulse duration of the MeV-class beams. As the result, a total grid heat load has been reduced from 20% to 10% of the total beam power. The beam pulse was successfully increased from 0.4 s to 60 s at 0.68 MeV, 100 A/m{sup 2} and 12 s at 0.89 MeV, 156 A/m{sup 2} beams. As for the procurement of the 1 MV power supply system, 1 MV insulating transformer as the critical component has been developed. In the mock-up, a dc 1.2 MV for 1 h with the margin of 20% was stably sustained. Through the R&Ds of the critical components, design of five power supplies procured by JAEA has been finalized, and out of which a testing power supply has been completed in June 2014.

  11. [Degradation of p-nitrophenol by high voltage pulsed discharge and ozone processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-li; Yan, Guo-qi; Zheng, Fei-yan; Liang, Guo-wei; Fu, Jian-jun

    2005-11-01

    The vigorous oxidation by ozone and the high energy by pulsed discharge are utilized to degrade the big hazardous molecules. And these big hazardous molecules become small and less hazardous by this process in order to improve the biodegradability. When pH value is 8-9, the concentration of p-nitrophenol solution can be degraded by 96.8% and the degradation efficiency of TOC is 38.6% by ozone and pulsed discharge treatment for 30 mins. The comparison results show that the combination treatment efficiency is higher than the separate, so the combination of ozone and pulsed discharge has high synergism. It is approved that the phenyl degradation efficiency is high and the degradation efficiency of linear molecules is relative low.

  12. Long-pulse beamlines for the mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.R.; Goldner, A.I.; Poulsen, P.

    1984-01-01

    We have recently obtained test results indicating that a beam of pure full-energy deuterium particles can be delivered to the plasma targets in MFTF-B. We used a close-coupled separator magnet with the ion source to separate the impurities from the full-energy deuterium particles. Our completed studies show that the usual iron-core sweep magnet and shielding used in neutral beamlines can be eliminated and the gas flow out of the beamline decreased. This design also reduces beam losses. We will use smooth-bore OFHC tube arrays brazed to manifolds for the active heat transfer surfaces. Tests indicate that both burnout and life requirements are met by this design. In this paper, we present test results and discuss the MFTF-B long-pulse beamline configuration

  13. A pulsed neutron facility for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbis, L.C.W.; Rees, G.H.; Stirling, G.C.

    1977-06-01

    The scientific and technical basis of the project is presented, as follows: broad synopsis of the proposal for a spallation neutron facility; description of neutron scattering and current work in the UK; scientific applications of the Spallation Neutron Source; discussion of various types of neutron sources; outline description of the SNS and its neutron performance parameters; appendix dealing in more detail with utilization (solid state physics, fluids and amorphous solids, structure determination, molecular and biological sciences); appendix dealing in more detail with the project design (800 MeV synchrotron, target station, shielding, radioactivity and radiation damage, utilization, overall programme). (U.K.)

  14. Singularities of current-voltage characteristics of GaAs films fabricated by pulsed ions ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabyshev, A.V.; Konusov, F.V.; Lozhnikov, S.N.; Remnev, G.E.; Saltymakov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A singularities and advantages of the optical, photoelectric and electrical properties of GaAs in comparison with other available materials for electronics, for example, silicon allow to manufacture on it base the devices having an advanced characteristics. The GaAs for electronics, obtained from the dense ablation plasma, possess some preferences as compared to material manufactured by traditional methods of vacuum deposition. The electrical characteristics of GaAs produced by chemical deposition were extensively studied. Purpose of this work is investigation the current-voltage characteristics of thin films of GaAs, deposited on polycrystalline corundum (polycor) from plasma forming the power ions bunch and determination of the thermal vacuum annealing effect on photoelectric and electrical properties of films. Peculiarities of optical, photoelectric and current-voltage characteristics of films obtained by ions ablation are determined by deposition conditions and resistance of initial target GaAs. The transitions between the states with low- and high conduction were revealed directly after deposition in films having the optical properties similar to amorphous materials and/or after annealing in films with properties similar to initial target GaAs. Behavior of current-voltage characteristics at vacuum annealing correlates with Schottky barrier height and photosensitivity and is accompanies of the transport mechanism change. The stable properties of films are formed at its dark conduction 10 -10 -10 -8 s and after annealing at T an =600-700 K. (authors)

  15. Design of the coolant system for the Large Coil Test Facility pulse coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgman, C.; Ryan, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse coils will be a part of the Large Coil Test Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which is designed to test six large tokamak-type superconducting coils. The pulse coil set consists of two resistive coaxial solenoid coils, mounted so that their magnetic axis is perpendicular to the toroidal field lines of the test coil. The pulse coils provide transient vertical fields at test coil locations to simulate the pulsed vertical fields present in tokamak devices. The pulse coils are designed to be pulsed for 30 s every 150 s, which results in a Joule heating of 116 kW per coil. In order to provide this capability, the pulse coil coolant system is required to deliver 6.3 L/s (100 gpm) of subcooled liquid nitrogen at 10-atm absolute pressure. The coolant system can also cool down each pulse coil from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. This paper provides details of the pumping and heat exchange equipment designed for the coolant system and of the associated instrumentation and controls

  16. Power MOSFET Linearizer of a High-Voltage Power Amplifier for High-Frequency Pulse-Echo Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Woo, Park Chul; Yeom, Jung-Yeol; Yoon, Changhan

    2017-04-04

    A power MOSFET linearizer is proposed for a high-voltage power amplifier (HVPA) used in high-frequency pulse-echo instrumentation. The power MOSFET linearizer is composed of a DC bias-controlled series power MOSFET shunt with parallel inductors and capacitors. The proposed scheme is designed to improve the gain deviation characteristics of the HVPA at higher input powers. By controlling the MOSFET bias voltage in the linearizer, the gain reduction into the HVPA was compensated, thereby reducing the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers. In order to verify the performance improvement of the HVPA implementing the power MOSFET linearizer, we measured and found that the gain deviation of the power MOSFET linearizer integrated with HVPA under 10 V DC bias voltage was reduced (-1.8 and -0.96 dB, respectively) compared to that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-2.95 and -3.0 dB, respectively) when 70 and 80 MHz, three-cycle, and 26 dB m input pulse waveforms are applied, respectively. The input 1-dB compression point (an index of linearity) of the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (24.17 and 26.19 dB m at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively) at 10 V DC bias voltage was increased compared to that of HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (22.03 and 22.13 dB m at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively). To further verify the reduction of the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers, the pulse-echo responses in the pulse-echo instrumentation were compared when using HVPA with and without the power MOSFET linearizer. When three-cycle 26 dB m input power was applied, the second, third, fourth, and fifth harmonic distortion components of a 75 MHz transducer driven by the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (-48.34, -44.21, -48.34, and -46.56 dB, respectively) were lower than that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-45.61, -41.57, -45.01, and -45.51 dB, respectively). When five-cycle 20 dB m input

  17. Ozone and dinitrogen monoxide production in atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge plasma effluent generated by nanosecond pulse superimposed alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    The effects of nanosecond pulse superposition to alternating current voltage (NS + AC) on the generation of an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and reactive species are experimentally studied, along with measurements of ozone (O3) and dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) in the exhausted gas through the air DBD plasma (air plasma effluent). The charge-voltage cycle measurement indicates that the role of nanosecond pulse superposition is to induce electrical charge transport and excess charge accumulation on the dielectric surface following the nanosecond pulses. The densities of O3 and N2O in NS + AC DBD are found to be significantly increased in the plasma effluent, compared to the sum of those densities generated in NS DBD and AC DBD operated individually. The production of O3 and N2O is modulated significantly by the phase in which the nanosecond pulse is superimposed. The density increase and modulation effects by the nanosecond pulse are found to correspond with the electrical charge transport and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse. It is suggested that the electrical charge transport by the nanosecond pulse might result in the enhancement of the nanosecond pulse current, which may lead to more efficient molecular dissociation, and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse increases the discharge coupling power which would enhance molecular dissociation.

  18. 7-MeV electron LINAC based pulse radiolysis facility at RPCD, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, C.B.; Nadkarni, S.A.; Toley, M.A.; Shinde, S.J.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    7-MeV electron LINAC based pulse radiolysis facility is operational in Chemistry Group of BARC since 1986. The Accelerator is housed in B-132 room in basement of Modular Labs. BARC Accelerator was procured from Radiation Dynamics Inc. UK and its detection system was indigenously developed

  19. Influence of the parameters of supplying pulses and polarization voltage on the signal and shape of current characteristics of the electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.; Sliwka, I.; Drozdowicz, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper contains results of measurements of current characteristics and of the signal for the constant concentration of freon F-11 of the ECD supplied with pulse voltage of changeable time of pulse duration t p , amplitude U 1 and the time of pulse repetition t r . In the course of measurements the detector worked at temperature 573 K with the additional constant polarization voltage. The polarization voltage has been observed to cause the effect of hypercoulometry. The presented mathematical analysis helps to determine the values of the coefficient of efficiency of electron capture p, the coefficient of electron loss k D , the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the anode k' 3 and the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the detector cathode k u . The coefficients are determined on the basis of experimental measurements. An attempt of physical interpretation of calculated values of these coefficients and their dependence on the parameters of the pulses supplying the detector has been presented. This interpretation requires the assumption that in some pulse periods t r the concentration of positive ions in the detector considerably exceeds concentration n 0 + = √a xα e /V, where a is an efficiency of the carrier gas ionization, α e is the coefficient of the electron-ion recombination and V is the detector volume. This statement helping to describe the effects observed in the electron capture polarized by voltage U a contradicts the recognized concept that the concentration of positive ions in the detector does not exceed the concentration n 0 + . The paper shows that the detector of the cylindrical construction, supplied with a pulse voltage can be used for coulometric measurements and the voltage polarizing the cathode can cause an effect of hypercoulometry. 33 figs., 9 refs. (author)

  20. Application in low level counting of corona counters operating in voltage or current pulse recording modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravec, J.; Usacev, S.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Sitar, B.; Benovic, D.; Holy, K.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages of current or voltage modes of recording are discussed. It appears that the current mode is more advantageous in measurements of rare events caused by highly ionizing particles on a high background of weakly ionizing particles. A 2.3 litre multiwire corona counter was used for the determination of 226 Ra content in drinking water. The 226 Ra content was estimated by measuring 222 Rn activity. The minimum measurable activity of the system was 0.07 pCi/l of water. (author)

  1. Alternative Solder Bond Packaging Approach for High-Voltage (HV) Pulsed Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    triggered into the ON-state with a fiber - optic transmitter once the capacitor has been charged up to the desired voltage of choice with a power supply...substrate, which results in a much higher conductivity compared to highly doped p-type substrates in SiC (Fig. 1). The anode layer was etched using...reactive ion etch and then the mesa of the device was etched for total isolation. The gate contact implant was followed using nitrogen in a box

  2. Investigation of Peculiarities of a High-Voltage Pulsing Corona Discharge in Carbonic Gas and an Feature Using of Such Discharge for CO2 Dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, G.P.; Mirny, V.I.; Omelaenko, O.L.; Us, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    On laboratory stand of plasmochemical reactor the feature of CO 2 dissociation with the purpose of CO production in high-voltage pulsing corona discharge is investigated at a voltage up to 120 kV, a pulse length of a current 0,5 μs a repetition rate up to 100 Hz. Peculiarities of volt-ampere characteristics of such discharge are studied at different pressures of air and carbonic gas in the discharge chamber and construction of an interior electrode. It is established that in conditions of the carried out experiments a maximum efficiency of CO accretion does not exceed 3,5%

  3. A two-level voltage source inverter with differentially sinusoidal pulse width modulation used in the interconnection system of a wind turbine generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros C. Charalampidis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses an interconnection system based on differentially sinusoidal pulse width modulation, used for the interconnection to the grid of a variable speed wind turbine. The modulation technique used provides specific advantages in comparison with the commonly used sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM technique, such as lower DC bus voltage requirements, smaller switching losses for the same switching frequency as well as less higher harmonic content in the voltage waveforms produced. The respective control system is also described in detail. Thus this study provides a guide enabling the design of any interconnection system based on this modulation technique.

  4. The LNCMP: a pulsed-field user-facility in Toulouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since summer 2002 the 'Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses' is operated as an international user facility providing access to pulsed magnetic fields up to 76 T. The laboratory disposes of 10 magnet stations equipped with long-pulse magnets operating in the 35-60 T range. A short-pulse system reaching 76 T was recently installed in the framework of the European ARMS-project. The experimental infrastructure includes various low-temperature systems ranging from ordinary flow-type cryostats to dilution refrigerators reaching 50 mK. A system permitting transport measurements under hydrostatic pressure and at low temperatures has recently been successfully tested. Experimental techniques include magnetization, transport, luminescence, IR-spectroscopy and the magneto-optical Kerr-effect. The LNCMP pursues an extensive in-house research program focusing on technological (reinforced wire, coil design, coil aging) as well as scientific aspects (magnetism, strongly correlated fermions, disordered systems and others)

  5. The formation of diffuse discharge by short-front nanosecond voltage pulses and the modification of dielectrics in this discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of diffuse discharge formation under the action of nanosecond voltage pulses with short fronts (below 1 ns) in the absence of a source of additional preionization and the influence of a dielectric film on this process have been studied. It is established that the diffuse discharge is induced by the avalanche multiplication of charge initiated by high-energy electrons and then maintained due to secondary breakdowns propagating via ionized gas channels. If a dielectric film (polyethylene, Lavsan, etc.) is placed on the anode, then multiply repeated discharge will lead to surface and bulk modification of the film material. Discharge-treated polyethylene film exhibits a change in the optical absorption spectrum in the near-IR range.

  6. Effect of supply voltage and body-biasing on single-event transient pulse quenching in bulk fin field-effect-transistor process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun-Ting; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Huang Peng-Cheng; Song Rui-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Charge sharing is becoming an important topic as the feature size scales down in fin field-effect-transistor (FinFET) technology. However, the studies of charge sharing induced single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching with bulk FinFET are reported seldomly. Using three-dimensional technology computer aided design (3DTCAD) mixed-mode simulations, the effects of supply voltage and body-biasing on SET pulse quenching are investigated for the first time in bulk FinFET process. Research results indicate that due to an enhanced charge sharing effect, the propagating SET pulse width decreases with reducing supply voltage. Moreover, compared with reverse body-biasing (RBB), the circuit with forward body-biasing (FBB) is vulnerable to charge sharing and can effectively mitigate the propagating SET pulse width up to 53% at least. This can provide guidance for radiation-hardened bulk FinFET technology especially in low power and high performance applications. (paper)

  7. Computer aided method of low voltage power distribution networks protection system against lightning and electromagnetic pulse generated by high altitude nuclear burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroubine, J.

    1989-01-01

    The lightning creates an electromagnetic field which produces a slow duration and high energy pulse of current on low voltage power distribution networks. On the other hand an high altitude nuclear burst generates an electromagnetic pulse which causes fast and intense interferences. We describe here the specifications of a passive filter that can reject these interferences. We used a computer aided method of simulation to create a prototype. Experimental results confirm the validity of the model used for simulation [fr

  8. Tuning of the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of a-C:H films by bias voltage of high frequency unipolar pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Cao, Zhongyue; Pan, Fuping; Wang, Fuguo; Liang, Aimin; Zhang, Junyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • a-C:H films deposited by high frequency unipolar pulse PECVD. • The film structures can be adjusted by bias voltage. • More graphitic structures form at high bias voltage. • The mechanical and tribological properties are improved by these structures. - Abstract: Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by high frequency unipolar pulse plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in CH 4 , Ar, and H 2 atmosphere with the bias voltage in the range of −800 –−1600 V. The microstructures and mechanical properties of a-C:H films were investigated via high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Nanoindenter. The results reveal that the curved and straight graphitic microstructures appear in amorphous carbon matrix, and their contents increase obviously with the bias voltage. At the same time, the corresponding hardness decreases and elastic recovery increases, however even in such a case films still possess excellent mechanical properties. According to the tribological property characterization, we believe that the bias voltage also influences their tribological performances significantly, the higher the bias voltage finally gets, the lower the friction coefficient and wear rate occur. These results indicate that the microstructures of a-C:H films can be tuned efficiently by bias voltage and the films with good mechanical and tribological properties can be obtained at a higher range.

  9. Tuning of the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of a-C:H films by bias voltage of high frequency unipolar pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Cao, Zhongyue; Pan, Fuping [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Fuguo, E-mail: fgwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liang, Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Junyan, E-mail: zhangjunyan@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • a-C:H films deposited by high frequency unipolar pulse PECVD. • The film structures can be adjusted by bias voltage. • More graphitic structures form at high bias voltage. • The mechanical and tribological properties are improved by these structures. - Abstract: Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by high frequency unipolar pulse plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in CH{sub 4}, Ar, and H{sub 2} atmosphere with the bias voltage in the range of −800 –−1600 V. The microstructures and mechanical properties of a-C:H films were investigated via high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Nanoindenter. The results reveal that the curved and straight graphitic microstructures appear in amorphous carbon matrix, and their contents increase obviously with the bias voltage. At the same time, the corresponding hardness decreases and elastic recovery increases, however even in such a case films still possess excellent mechanical properties. According to the tribological property characterization, we believe that the bias voltage also influences their tribological performances significantly, the higher the bias voltage finally gets, the lower the friction coefficient and wear rate occur. These results indicate that the microstructures of a-C:H films can be tuned efficiently by bias voltage and the films with good mechanical and tribological properties can be obtained at a higher range.

  10. The anti-biofouling behavior of high voltage pulse electric field (HPEF) mediated by carbon fiber composite coating in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tiantian; Wu, Jinyi; Chai, Ke; Yang, Pengpeng

    2018-04-25

    One of the most important research areas in the marine industry is to investigate new and effective anti-biofouling technologies. In this study, high voltage pulse electric field (HPEF) mediated by carbon fiber (CF) composite coating was utilized to prevent the fouling of bacteria, microalgae and barnacle larvae in seawater. The plate count, 2, 3, 5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction assay and neutral red (NR) staining and larval motility detection showed that the inactivation rates were at the highest levels, which reached 99.1%, 99.9%, 99.7%, 98.7% and 85% respectively for Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio sp., iron bacteria, Navicula sp. and the second stage nauplii of Balanus reticulatus, under the HPEF with 19 kV pulse amplitude, 23.15 kHz frequency and 0.5 duty cycle. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of Navicula sp. revealed that the HPEF brought about the cell lysis and the cell organic matter release on the coating, which could be the mechanism of the inactivation by the HPEF. Additionally, the FE-SEM and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the HPEF hardly damaged the coating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new digital pulse power supply in heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongkun; Chen, Youxin; Huang, Yuzhen; Gao, Daqing; Zhou, Zhongzu; Yan, Huaihai; Zhao, Jiang; Shi, Chunfeng; Wu, Fengjun; Yan, Hongbin; Xia, Jiawen; Yuan, Youjin

    2013-11-01

    To meet the increasing requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), a new digital pulse power supply, which employs multi-level converter, was designed. This power supply was applied with a multi H-bridge converters series-parallel connection topology. A new control model named digital power supply regulator system (DPSRS) was proposed, and a pulse power supply prototype based on DPSRS has been built and tested. The experimental results indicate that tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of this design. The achievement of prototype provides a perfect model for HIRFL-CSR power supply system.

  12. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Yang Li; Yang Gang; Zhang Yanzong; Zhang Xiaohong; Deng Shihuai

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N 2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged. (plasma technology)

  13. Transcranial low voltage pulsed electromagnetic fields in patients with treatment-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with depression are resistant to antidepressant drugs. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found effective in combination with antidepressants in this patient group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant effect...... of a new principle using low-intensity transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF) in combination with antidepressants in patients with treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: This was a sham-controlled double-blind study comparing 5 weeks of active or sham T-PEMF in patients...... with treatment-resistant major depression. The antidepressant treatment, to which patients had been resistant, was unchanged 4 weeks before and during the study period. Weekly assessments were performed using both clinician-rated and patient-rated scales. The T-PEMF equipment was designed as a helmet containing...

  14. Characterization of electron beams generated in a high-voltage pulse-line-driven pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, K.; Destler, W.W.; Segalov, Z.; Rodgers, J.

    1994-01-01

    Emittance and energy measurements have been performed on a high-brightness electron beam (>10 10 A/m 2 rad 2 ) with diameter in the range 1--3 mm and energy in the range 150--170 keV. This electron beam is generated by the mating of a hollow-cathode discharge device operating in the pseudospark regime to the output of a high-power pulse line accelerator. The measured effective emittance lies in the range between 30 and 90 mm mrad and increases with axial distance. Electron energy measurements indicate that the high-energy electrons are generated during the first 20--30 ns of the discharge. Both the emittance and energy experiments were performed at two different ambient argon gas pressures (92 and 152 mtorr). Beam expansion as a function of axial position has also been studied and a lower bound on the beam brightness has been obtained

  15. Influence of a pulse duration of high-voltage supply on the efficiency of ozone synthesis in the 'needle-plane' electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Karas, V.I.; Kotjukov, O.V.; Poliakov, O.V.; Pugach, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of studies of the electrodynamic characteristics of a barrier less discharge with electrodes of the 'needle-plane' type and a high-voltage pulse of positive polarity, being applied to the edge electrode. The efficiency of ozone synthesis is determined as a function of the pulse duration and repetition rate. It is shown that the electrodynamic characteristics of the discharge and the effectiveness of ozone synthesis in oxygen-containing gas mixtures essentially depend on the parameters of the pulse supply

  16. Soft X-ray generation in gases by means of a pulsed electron beam produced in a high-voltage barier discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarov, A.V.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    A large area pulsed electron beam is produced by a high-voltage barrier discharge. We compare the properties of the x-rays generated by stopping this beam of electrons in a thin metal foil with those generated by stopping the electrons directly in various gases. The generation of x-rays was

  17. Avalanche mode of high-voltage overloaded p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} diode switching to the conductive state by pulsed illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyuregyan, A. S., E-mail: ask@vei.ru [Lenin All-Russia Electrical Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    A simple analytical theory of the picosecond switching of high-voltage overloaded p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} photodiodes to the conductive state by pulsed illumination is presented. The relations between the parameters of structure, light pulse, external circuit, and main process characteristics, i.e., the amplitude of the active load current pulse, delay time, and switching duration, are derived and confirmed by numerical simulation. It is shown that the picosecond light pulse energy required for efficient switching can be decreased by 6–7 orders of magnitude due to the intense avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes. This offers the possibility of using pulsed semiconductor lasers as a control element of optron pairs.

  18. Avalanche mode of high-voltage overloaded p+–i–n+ diode switching to the conductive state by pulsed illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple analytical theory of the picosecond switching of high-voltage overloaded p + –i–n + photodiodes to the conductive state by pulsed illumination is presented. The relations between the parameters of structure, light pulse, external circuit, and main process characteristics, i.e., the amplitude of the active load current pulse, delay time, and switching duration, are derived and confirmed by numerical simulation. It is shown that the picosecond light pulse energy required for efficient switching can be decreased by 6–7 orders of magnitude due to the intense avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes. This offers the possibility of using pulsed semiconductor lasers as a control element of optron pairs

  19. A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for precision spectroscopy at the HITRAP facility at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, D.; Stiebing, K. E.; Winters, D. F. A.; Quint, W.; Varentsov, V.; Warczak, A.; Malarz, A.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2014-11-01

    A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for experiments at the HITRAP facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt has been designed and built as a multi-purpose installation for key experiments on fundamental atomic physics in strong fields. This setup is currently installed at the Institut für Kernphysik of Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (IKF), in order to explore its operation prior to its installation at the HITRAP facility. Design and performance of the target are described. The measured target densities of 5.9×1012 atoms/cm3 for helium and 8.1×1012 atoms/cm³ for argon at the stagnation pressure of 30 bar match the required values. The target-beam diameter of 0.9 mm and the pulsed operation mode (jet built-up-time ≤15 ms) are well suited for the use at HITRAP.

  20. OH density measured by PLIF in a nanosecond atmospheric pressure diffuse discharge in humid air under steep high voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaras, K.; Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Tardiveau, P.; Jeanney, P.; Bournonville, B.

    2018-04-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of the OH radical density are measured using planar laser induced fluorescence in the afterglow of a nanosecond diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure in humid air. The diffuse discharge is generated between a pin and a grounded plate electrodes within a gap of 18 mm. The high voltage pulse applied to the pin ranges from 65 to 85 kV with a rise time of 2 ns. The specific electrical energy transferred to the gas ranges from 5 to 40 J l‑1. The influence of H2O concentration is studied from 0.5% to 1.5%. An absolute calibration of OH density is performed using a six-level transient rate equation model to simulate the dynamics of OH excitation by the laser, taking into account collisional processes during the optical pumping and the fluorescence. Rayleigh scattering measurements are used to achieve the geometrical part of the calibration. A local maximum of OH density is found in the pin area whatever the operating conditions. For 85 kV and 1% of H2O, this peak reaches a value of 2.0 × 1016 cm‑3 corresponding to 8% of H2O dissociation. The temporal decay of the spatially averaged OH density is found to be similar as in the afterglow of a homogeneous photo-triggered discharge for which a self-consistent modeling is done. These tools are then used to bring discussion elements on OH kinetics.

  1. Progress of the ELISE test facility: towards one hour pulses in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Kraus, W.; Riedl, R.; Wimmer, C.; the NNBI Team

    2016-10-01

    In order to fulfil the ITER requirements, the negative hydrogen ion source used for NBI has to deliver a high source performance, i.e. a high extracted negative ion current and simultaneously a low co-extracted electron current over a pulse length up to 1 h. Negative ions will be generated by the surface process in a low-temperature low-pressure hydrogen or deuterium plasma. Therefore, a certain amount of caesium has to be deposited on the plasma grid in order to obtain a low surface work function and consequently a high negative ion production yield. This caesium is re-distributed by the influence of the plasma, resulting in temporal instabilities of the extracted negative ion current and the co-extracted electrons over long pulses. This paper describes experiments performed in hydrogen operation at the half-ITER-size NNBI test facility ELISE in order to develop a caesium conditioning technique for more stable long pulses at an ITER relevant filling pressure of 0.3 Pa. A significant improvement of the long pulse stability is achieved. Together with different plasma diagnostics it is demonstrated that this improvement is correlated to the interplay of very small variations of parameters like the electrostatic potential and the particle densities close to the extraction system.

  2. Investigation on a Novel Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Algorithm for Single-phase Voltage Source Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Hao; Yang, Xijun; Guo, Yougui

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase voltage source converter (VSC) is an important power electronic converter (PEC), including single-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), single-phase voltage source rectifier (VSR), single-phase active power filter (APF) and single-phase grid-connection inverter (GCI). Single-phase VSC...

  3. Electron energy device for LINAC based Pulse Radiolysis Facility of RPCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toley, M.A.; Shinde, S.J.; Chaudhari, B.B.; Sarkar, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    The pulse radiolysis facility is the experimental centerpiece of the radiation chemistry activities of the Radiation and Photochemistry Division (RPCD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This facility was created in 1986 which is based on a 7 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator (LINAC) procured from M/s Radiation Dynamics Ltd., UK. The electron energy is one of the principal parameters that influence the dose distribution within the sample irradiated with a beam of energetic electrons. An easy-to-use and robust device has been developed that can reliably detect day-today small variations in the beam energy. It consists of two identical aluminum plates except for their thickness, which are electrically insulated from each other. The thickness of each plate is carefully selected depending on the electron beam energy. The charge (or current) collected by each plate, under irradiation is measured. The ratio of the charge (or current) signal from the front plate to the sum of the signals from the front and rear plates is very sensitive to the beam energy. The high sensitivity and robustness make this device quite suitable for Electron energy measurement for Pulse radiolysis Facility at RPCD. (author)

  4. A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribble, R.

    1993-06-01

    A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described

  5. Effect of the change in the load resistance on the high voltage pulse transformer of the intense electron-beam accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin-bing; Liu, Jin-liang; Qian, Bao-liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong-bo

    2009-11-01

    A high voltage pulse transformer (HVPT) is usually used as a charging device for the pulse forming line (PFL) of intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBAs). Insulation of the HVPT is one of the important factors that restrict the development of the HVPT. Until now, considerable effort has been focused on minimizing high field regions to avoid insulation breakdown between windings. Characteristics of the HVPT have been widely discussed to achieve these goals, but the effects of the PFL and load resistance on HVPT are usually neglected. In this paper, a HVPT is used as a charging device for the PFL of an IEBA and the effect of the change in the load resistance on the HVPT of the IEBA is presented. When the load resistance does not match the wave impedance of the PFL, a high-frequency bipolar oscillating voltage will occur, and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage will increase with the decrease in the load resistance. The load resistance approximates to zero and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage is much higher. This makes it easier for surface flashover along the insulation materials to form and decrease the lifetime of the HVPT.

  6. Combined resonant tank capacitance and pulse frequency modulation control for ZCS-SR inverter-fed high voltage DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S S; Iqbal, S; Kamarol, M

    2011-01-01

    Conventional pulse frequency modulated (PFM) zero current switching (ZCS) series resonant (SR) inverter fed high voltage dc power supplies have nearly zero switching loss. However, they have limitations of poor controllability at light loads and large output voltage ripple at low switching frequencies. To address these problems, this paper proposes a combined resonant tank capacitance and pulse frequency modulation based control approach. For the realization of the proposed control approach, the tank circuit of the resonant inverter is made up of several resonant capacitors that are switched into or out of the tank circuit by electromechanical switches. The output voltage of the converter is regulated by digitally modulating the resonant tank capacitance and narrowly varying the switching frequency. The proposed control scheme has several features, namely a wide range of controllability even at light loads, less output voltage ripple, and less current stress on the inverter's power switches at light loads. Therefore, the proposed control approach alleviates most of the problems associated with conventional PFM. Experimental results obtained from a scaled down laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  7. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields depolarize transmembrane potential via voltage-gated K+, Ca2+ and TRPM8 channels in U87 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Bardet, Sylvia M; Carr, Lynn; Romanenko, Sergii; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Leveque, Philippe; O'Connor, Rodney P

    2017-10-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have a variety of applications in the biomedical and biotechnology industries. Cancer treatment has been at the forefront of investigations thus far as nsPEFs permeabilize cellular and intracellular membranes leading to apoptosis and necrosis. nsPEFs may also influence ion channel gating and have the potential to modulate cell physiology without poration of the membrane. This phenomenon was explored using live cell imaging and a sensitive fluorescent probe of transmembrane voltage in the human glioblastoma cell line, U87 MG, known to express a number of voltage-gated ion channels. The specific ion channels involved in the nsPEF response were screened using a membrane potential imaging approach and a combination of pharmacological antagonists and ion substitutions. It was found that a single 10ns pulsed electric field of 34kV/cm depolarizes the transmembrane potential of cells by acting on specific voltage-sensitive ion channels; namely the voltage and Ca2 + gated BK potassium channel, L- and T-type calcium channels, and the TRPM8 transient receptor potential channel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The measurement of vacuum at high voltage terminal of the FOTIA facility at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansara, M.J.; Sapna, P.; Subrahmanyam, N.B.V.; Bhatt, J.P.; Gupta, S.K.; Singh, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In FOTIA, the ion beams accelerated by the low energy tube are injected into the high-energy accelerating tube using the 180 deg folding magnet. In order to have maximum transmission through the magnet chamber the vacuum in this section should be in the range of 10 -8 Torr. The chamber is very narrow (14 mm x 24 mm) and offers low conductance to the vacuum system. For maintaining the required UHV inside this chamber and associated beam lines inside the high voltage terminal at 6 MV, a sputter ion pump (120 litres/sec) is used. However, the control of the ion pump and measurement of the vacuum in the chamber has to be done from the control consol located at ground potential. This has been accomplished through a fibre optic data telemetry system, which offers electrical isolation of 6 MV. This fibre optic system is integrated to the main control system of the FOTIA. For controlling and monitoring the ion pump DOUT and ADC modules of the CAMAC system are used to provide interfacing signals to the fibre optic system. For the measurement of the vacuum, the gauge output provided by the ion pump is converted to a suitable light signal (1 kHz to 10 kHz) and is transmitted to the fibre optic link box (located at ground). At ground level this light signal is converted back to a voltage signal and transmitted to ADC module of the CAMAC system. This voltage signal is calibrated against the vacuum measured in the terminal, which is available in the control room via computer connected to the CAMAC system. In this paper, details of the above system will be presented

  9. Fissile material detection and control facility with pulsed neutron sources and digital data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romodanov, V.L.; Chernikova, D.N.; Afanasiev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In connection with possible nuclear terrorism, there is long-felt need of devices for effective control of radioactive and fissile materials in the key points of crossing the state borders (airports, seaports, etc.), as well as various customs check-points. In International Science and Technology Center Projects No. 596 and No. 2978, a new physical method and digital technology have been developed for the detection of fissile and radioactive materials in models of customs facilities with a graphite moderator, pulsed neutron source and digital processing of responses from scintillation PSD detectors. Detectability of fissile materials, even those shielded with various radiation-absorbing screens, has been shown. The use of digital processing of scintillation signals in this facility is a necessary element, as neutrons and photons are discriminated in the time dependence of fissile materials responses at such loads on the electronic channels that standard types of spectrometers are inapplicable. Digital processing of neutron and photon responses practically resolves the problem of dead time and allows implementing devices, in which various energy groups of neutrons exist for some time after a pulse of source neutrons. Thus, it is possible to detect fissile materials deliberately concealed with shields having a large cross-section of absorption of photons and thermal neutrons. Two models of detection and the control of fissile materials were advanced: 1. the model based on graphite neutrons moderator and PSD scintillators with digital technology of neutrons and photons responses separation; 2. the model based on plastic scintillators and detecting of time coincidences of fission particles by digital technology. Facilities that count time coincidences of neutrons and photons occurring in the fission of fissile materials can use an Am Li source of neutrons, e.g. that is the case with the AWCC system. The disadvantages of the facility are related to the issues

  10. Compact generator with semiconductor current interrupter, voltage to 300 kV and pulse repetition rate to 2 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubutin, S.K.; Rukin, S.N.; Slovikovskij, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    Compact generator with a semiconductor current interrupter (SOS-diode), forming on the resistive load pulses with the amplitude up to 300 kV, duration from 30 up to 50 ns and the pulse sequence frequency 300 Hz by long operation and up to 2 kHz in the 30-second packet, is described. The generator contains a thyristor charge unit, magnetic compressor and inductive storage with a semiconductor current interrupter on the SOS-diode basis. The generator mean output capacity by the pulse maximum sequence frequency and 250 kV voltage equals 16 kw. The generator dimensions are 0.85 x 0.65 x 0.42 m, its mass equals approximately 115 kg [ru

  11. Instrument intercomparison in the pulsed neutron fieldsat the CERN HiRadMat facility

    CERN Document Server

    Aza, E; Cassell, C; Charitonidis, N; Harrouch, E; Manessi, G P; Pangallo, M; Perrin, D; Samara, E; Silari, M

    2014-01-01

    An intercomparison of the performances of active neutron detectors was carried out in pulsed neutron fi elds in the new HiRadMat facility at CERN. Five detectors were employed: four of them (two ionization chambers and two rem counters) are routinely employed in the CERN radiation monitoring system, while the fi fth is a novel instrument, called LUPIN, speci fi cally conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fi elds. The measurements were performed in the stray fi eld generated by a proton beam of very short duration with momentum of 440 GeV/c impinging on a dump. The beam intensity was steadily increased during the experiment by more than three orders of magnitude, with an H*(10) due to neutrons at the detector reference positions varying between a few nSv per burst and a few m Sv per burst, whereas the gamma contribution to the total H*(10) was negligible. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the linearity of the detector response in extreme pulsed conditions as a function of the neutron burst in- t...

  12. Radiation-driven hydrodynamics of long pulse hohlraums on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, D L; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Schein, J; Holder, J.; Campbell, K.; Glenzer, S H.; McDonald, J W.; Niemann, C.; Mackinnon, A J.; Schneider, M S.; Haynam, C.; Hinkel, D.; Hammel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    The first hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the first four laser beams have activated the indirect drive experimental capabilities and tested radiation temperature limits imposed by hohlraum plasma filling. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1 ns to 9 ns long square pulses and energies of up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. Furthermore, for a variety of hohlraum sizes and pulse lengths, the measured x-ray flux shows signatures of plasma filling that coincide with hard x-ray emission from plasma streaming out of the hohlraum. These observations agree with hydrodynamic simulations and with analytical modeling that includes hydrodynamic and coronal radiative losses. The modeling predicts radiation temperature limits on full NIF (1.8 MJ) that are significantly greater than required for ignition hohlraums

  13. High-temperature performance of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors: Direct current and pulse current-voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Balandin, A. A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Phonon Optimized Engineered Materials (POEM) Center, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rumyantsev, S. L. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We report on fabrication of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors (TFTs) and experimental investigations of their high-temperature current-voltage characteristics. The measurements show that MoS{sub 2} devices remain functional to temperatures of at least as high as 500 K. The temperature increase results in decreased threshold voltage and mobility. The comparison of the direct current (DC) and pulse measurements shows that the direct current sub-linear and super-linear output characteristics of MoS{sub 2} thin-films devices result from the Joule heating and the interplay of the threshold voltage and mobility temperature dependences. At temperatures above 450 K, a kink in the drain current occurs at zero gate voltage irrespective of the threshold voltage value. This intriguing phenomenon, referred to as a “memory step,” was attributed to the slow relaxation processes in thin films similar to those in graphene and electron glasses. The fabricated MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors demonstrated stable operation after two months of aging. The obtained results suggest new applications for MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors in extreme-temperature electronics and sensors.

  14. Development of nuclear counting system for plateau high voltage scintillation detector test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarizah Mohamed Nor; Siti Hawa Md Zain; Muhd Izham Ahmad; Izuhan Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear counter system is a system monitoring and analysis of radioactivity used in scientific and technical research and development in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. It consists of three basic parts, namely sensors, signal conditioning and monitoring. Nuclear counter system set up for use in the testing of nuclear detectors using radioactive sources such as 60 Co and 137 Cs and other radioactive sources. It can determine the types of scintillation detectors and the equivalent function properly, always operate in the range plateau high voltage and meet the specifications. Hence, it should be implemented on all systems in the Nuclear Nuclear counter Malaysia and documented as Standard Working Procedure (SWP) is a reference to the technicians, trainees IPTA / IPTS and related workers. (author)

  15. HiRadMat at CERN/SPS - A dedicated facility providing high intensity beam pulses to material samples

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, N; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2014-01-01

    HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials), constructed in 2011, is a facility at CERN designed to provide high‐intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, high power beam targets, collimators…) can be tested. The facility uses a 440 GeV proton beam extracted from the CERN SPS with a pulse length of up to 7.2 us, and with a maximum pulse energy of 3.4 MJ (3xE13 proton/pulse). In addition to protons, ion beams with energy of 440 GeV/charge and total pulse energy of 21 kJ can be provided. The beam parameters can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. HiRadMat is not an irradiation facility where large doses on equipment can be accumulated. It is rather a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high‐intensity pulsed beams on materials or accelerator component assemblies in a controlled environment. The fa‐ cility is designed for a maximum of 1E16 protons per year, dist...

  16. Safety evaluation of the NSRR facility relevant to the modification for improved pulse operation and preirradiated fuel experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inabe, Teruo; Terakado, Yoshibumi; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1988-11-01

    The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) is a pulse reactor for the inpile experiments to study the fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions. The present operation modes of the NSRR consist of the steady state operation up to 300 kW and the natural pulse operation in which a sharp pulsed power is generated from substantially zero power level. In addition to these, two new modes of shaped pulse operation and combined pulse operation will be conducted in the near future as the improved pulse operations. A transient power up to 10 MW will be generated in the shaped pulse operation, and a combination of a transient power up to 10 MW and a sharp pulsed power will be generated in the combined pulse operation. Furthermore, preirradiated fuel rods will be employed in the future experiments whereas the present experiments are confined to the test specimens of unirradiated fuel rods. To provide for these programs, the fundamental design works relevant to the modification of the reactor facility including the reactor instrumentation and control systems and experimental provision were developed. The reactor safety evaluation is prerequisite for confirming the propriety of the fundamental design of the reactor facility from the safety point of view. The safety evaluation was therefore conducted postulating such events that would bring about abnormal conditions in the reactor facility. As a result of the safety evaluation, it has been confirmed as to the NSRR facility after modification that the anticipated transients, the postulated accidents, the major accident and the hypothetical accident do not result respectively in any serious safety problem and that the fundamental design principles and the reactor siting are adequate and acceptable. (author)

  17. Energy Efficiency of Induction Motors Running Off Frequency Converters with Pulse-Width Voltage Modulation{sup 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvetsov, N. K., E-mail: elmash@em.ispu.ru [V. I. Lenin Ivanovo State Power University (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The results of calculations of the increase in losses in an induction motor with frequency control and different forms of the supply voltage are presented. The calculations were performed by an analytic method based on harmonic analysis of the supply voltage as well as numerical calculation of the electromagnetic processes by the finite-element method.

  18. Impact of pulsed-electric field and high-voltage electrical discharges on red wine microbial stabilization and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsart, C; Grimi, N; Boussetta, N; Miot Sertier, C; Ghidossi, R; Vorobiev, E; Mietton Peuchot, M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pulsed-electric fields (PEF) and high-voltage electrical discharges (HVED) are proposed as new techniques for the microbial stabilization of red wines before bottling. The efficiency of the treatment was then evaluated. PEF and HVED-treatments have been applied to wine for the inactivation of Oenococcus oeni CRBO 9304, O. oeni CRBO 0608, Pediococcus parvulus CRBO 2.6 and Brettanomyces bruxellensis CB28. Different treatment times (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ms) were used at 20 kV cm(-1) for the PEF treatments and at 40 kV for the HVED treatments, which correspond to applied energies from 80 to 800 kJ l(-1) . The effects of the treatments on the microbial inactivation rate and on various characteristics of red wines (phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics and physico-chemical parameters) were measured. The application of PEF or HVED treatments on red wine allowed the inactivation of alteration yeasts (B. bruxellensis CB28) and bacteria (O. oeni CRBO 9304, O. oeni CRBO 0608 and P. parvulus CRBO 2.6). The electric discharges at 40 kV were less effective than the PEF even after 10 ms of treatments. Indeed, 4 ms of PEF treatment at 20 kV cm(-1) were sufficient to inactivate all micro-organisms present in the wines. Also, the use of PEF had no negative impact on the composition of wines compared to the HVED treatments. Contrary to PEF, the phenolics compounds were degraded after the HVED treatment and the physico-chemical composition of wine were modified with HVED. PEF technology seems to be an interesting alternative to stabilize microbiologically wines before bottling and without modifying their composition. This process offers many advantages for winemakers: no chemical inputs, low energy consumption (320 kJ l(-1) ), fast (treatment time of 4 ms) and athermal (ΔT ≈ 10°C). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography of low conductivity and insulator materials by application of ultrathin metallic coating on nanoscale specimen geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adineh, Vahid R; Marceau, Ross K W; Chen, Yu; Si, Kae J; Velkov, Tony; Cheng, Wenlong; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel approach for analysis of low-conductivity and insulating materials with conventional pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography (APT), by incorporating an ultrathin metallic coating on focused ion beam prepared needle-shaped specimens. Finite element electrostatic simulations of coated atom probe specimens were performed, which suggest remarkable improvement in uniform voltage distribution and subsequent field evaporation of the insulated samples with a metallic coating of approximately 10nm thickness. Using design of experiment technique, an experimental investigation was performed to study physical vapor deposition coating of needle specimens with end tip radii less than 100nm. The final geometries of the coated APT specimens were characterized with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and an empirical model was proposed to determine the optimal coating thickness for a given specimen size. The optimal coating strategy was applied to APT specimens of resin embedded Au nanospheres. Results demonstrate that the optimal coating strategy allows unique pulsed-voltage atom probe analysis and 3D imaging of biological and insulated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of the shape of single, sub-ms voltage pulses on the rates of surface immobilization and hybridization of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabeca, R; Rodrigues, M; Chu, V; Conde, J P; Prazeres, D M F

    2009-01-01

    Electric fields generated by single square and sinusoidal voltage pulses with amplitudes below 2 V were used to assist the covalent immobilization of single-stranded, thiolated DNA probes, onto a chemically functionalized SiO 2 surface and to assist the specific hybridization of single-stranded DNA targets with immobilized complementary probes. The single-stranded immobilized DNA probes were either covalently immobilized (chemisorption) or electrostatically adsorbed (physisorption) to a chemically functionalized surface. Comparing the speed of electric field assisted immobilization and hybridization with the corresponding control reactions (without electric field), an increase of several orders of magnitude is observed, with the reaction timescaled down from 1 to 2 h to a range between 100 ns and 1 ms. The influence of the shape of the voltage pulse (square versus sinusoidal) and its duration were studied for both immobilization and hybridization reactions. The results show that pulsed electric fields are a useful tool to achieve temporal and spatial control of surface immobilization and hybridization reactions of DNA.

  1. Research and design of pulsed switching power supply for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions accelerator in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunfeng; Zhao Jiang; Yan Hongbin; Wu Fengjun; Gao Daqing

    2012-01-01

    The pulsed switching power supply was developed for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions in cooler-storage-ring of the heavy ions research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The control principle of the dual closed-loop scheme was described and the open-loop Bode diagrams were given. The results of simulation and prototype experiment show that the current error gets much smaller than that of the single closed-loop pulsed switching power supply. Moreover, the simulation and test results were analyzed, and the circuit configuration and dual closed-loop strategy selected are practicable. (authors)

  2. A novel MR-compatible sensor to assess active medical device safety: stimulation monitoring, rectified radio frequency pulses, and gradient-induced voltage measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Thérèse; Aissani, Sarra; Weber, Nicolas; Pasquier, Cédric; Felblinger, Jacques

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate the function of an active implantable medical device (AIMD) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The induced voltages caused by the switching of magnetic field gradients and rectified radio frequency (RF) pulse were measured, along with the AIMD stimulations. An MRI-compatible voltage probe with a bandwidth of 0-40 kHz was designed. Measurements were carried out both on the bench with an overvoltage protection circuit commonly used for AIMD and with a pacemaker during MRI scans on a 1.5 T (64 MHz) MR scanner. The sensor exhibits a measurement range of ± 15 V with an amplitude resolution of 7 mV and a temporal resolution of 10 µs. Rectification was measured on the bench with the overvoltage protection circuit. Linear proportionality was confirmed between the induced voltage and the magnetic field gradient slew rate. The pacemaker pacing was recorded successfully during MRI scans. The characteristics of this low-frequency voltage probe allow its use with extreme RF transmission power and magnetic field gradient positioning for MR safety test of AIMD during MRI scans.

  3. The recombination correction and the dependence of the response of plane parallel chambers on the polarizing voltage in pulsed electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.; Derikum, K.

    2000-01-01

    Based on an experimental investigation of the recombination effect in plane parallel chambers, a relation is deduced that allows the correction to be calculated from the electrode spacing and from the dose per pulse. It is shown that the uncertainties caused by the application of the Boag formula for volume recombination (recommended in the International Code of Practice TRS-381) amount to not more than about 0.1% for conventional beams. Calculated recombinations are compared with experimental results concerning the dependence of the response of various commercial plane parallel chambers on the polarizing voltage. Since it cannot be excluded that particular chambers collect a non-negligible amount of charge from regions outside the designated collecting volume or that the effective polarizing voltage is reduced by poor contacts, it seems advisable to experimentally check the chambers before use and before application of the analytical relations. (author)

  4. Low operating voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on Al2O3 high-k dielectrics fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, G. Z.; Liu, G. X.; Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K.; Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-driven amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an Al 2 O 3 dielectric were fabricated on a Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition. Both Al 2 O 3 and IGZO thin films are amorphous, and the thin films have very smooth surfaces. The Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric exhibits a very low leakage current density of 1.3 x 10 -8 A/cm 2 at 5 V and a high capacitance density of 60.9 nF/cm 2 . The IGZO TFT with a structure of Ni/IGZO/Al 2 O 3 /Si exhibits high performance with a low threshold voltage of 1.18 V, a high field effect mobility of 20.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , an ultra small subthreshold swing of 87 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 3 x 10 7 .

  5. Note: Self-biased voltage to suppress secondary electrons by a ZnO varistor in a compact pulsed neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, J.; Long, J. D.; Lan, C. H.; Wang, T.; Dong, P.; He, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    A large amount of back streaming electrons will bring about a part of current drain on power supply, cause sparking or high-voltage breakdowns, and affect the neutron yield and waveform for a compact sealed-tube pulsed neutron generator. A novel idea which uses a ZnO varistor to provide a constant self-biased voltage to suppress the secondary electrons is introduced. The I-V curve for the ZnO varistor was measured in the experiment. The effects of suppressing the secondary electrons were investigated using a ZnO varistor, linear resistors, and an independent power supply, respectively. The results show that the secondary electrons are suppressed effectively by the compact ZnO varistor, while not increasing the size and the component of the device. It is a promising design for compact sealed-tube neutron generators.

  6. The WNR facility - a pulsed spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Lisowski, P.W.; King, N.S.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is the first operating example of a new class of pulsed neutron sources using the X(p,n)Y spallation reaction. At present, up to 10 microamperes of 800-MeV protons from the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) linear accelerator bombard a Ta target to produce an intense white-neutron spectrum from about 800 MeV to 100 keV. The Ta target can be coupled with CH 2 and H 2 O moderators to produce neutrons of lower energy. The time structure of the WNR proton beam may be varied to optimize neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements covering the energy range from several hundred MeV to a few meV. The neutronics of the WNR target and target/moderator configurations have been calculated from 800 MeV to 0.5 eV. About 11 neutrons per proton are predicted for the existing Ta target. Some initial neutron TOF data are presented and compared with calculations

  7. Final configuration with assembly assessment of the 100 kV high voltage bushing for the Indian test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Dheeraj Kumar; Shah, Sejal; Venkata Nagaraju, M.; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Chakraborty, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Test Facility (INTF) of Neutral Beam (NB) system is an Indian voluntary effort for the full characterization of the diagnostic neutral beam which is the part of ITER's neutral beam system. The design activities of INTF NB system are completed. The INTF High Voltage Bushing (HVB), which is one of the component of NB system, is designed to connect all the required feedlines, e.g. electrical busbars, RF co-axial lines, diagnostic lines and hydraulic and gas feed lines, carried by the transmission line from the HV deck to the Beam Source of NB system. It forms the primary vacuum boundary and provides 100 kV isolation for INTF beam operation. The entire feedlines pass through a metallic plate of HVB called Dished Head (DH) where all the feedlines converge. The overall diameter of DH is 847 mm which is governed by the diameter of the Porcelain insulator which is meant for 100 kV isolation. The effective diameter where all the feedlines converge at the dished head is ∼ 600 mm which is quite a challenge to accommodate 26 feedlines each of average diameter 60 mm. Electrical feedlines require Vacuum-Electrical feedthroughs for voltage isolation whereas water and gas lines are considered to be directly welded with the DH except one water line which requires 12 kV voltage isolation with respect to DH. For RF lines, different scheme is considered which includes separate Electrical Feedthrough and Vacuum Barrier. To provide connection to electrical cables of heaters and thermocouples, 4 numbers of multipin vacuum compatible electrical feedthroughs are provided which can accommodate ∼250 cables. Due to space constraints, Vacuum-Electrical Feedthroughs are considered to be welded with the DH and therefore they shall be of metal-ceramic-metal configuration to allow welding. To avoid undue loading on the ceramic part, the feedlines are supported additionally at DH using vacuum compatible and electrically insulating material. One more important aspect of the INTF

  8. Megajoule-class single-pulse KrF laser test facility as a logical step toward inertial fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The cost and efficiency of megajoule-class KrF laser single pulse test facilities have been examined. A baseline design is described which illuminates targets with 5 MJ with shaped 10-ns pulses. The system uses 24 main amplifiers and operates with an optics operating fluence of 4.0 J/cm 2 . This system has 9.0% efficiency and costs $200/joule. Tradeoff studies indicate that large amplifier modules and high fluences lead to the lowest laser system costs, but that only a 20% cost savings can be realized by going to amplifier modules larger than 200 kJ and/or fluences greater than 4 J/cm 2 . The role of the megajoule-class single-pulse test facility towards inertial fusion commercialization will also be discussed

  9. Basic features of electromagnetic pulse generated in a laser-target chamber at 3-TW laser facility PALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M; Pfeifer, M; Krousky, E; Krasa, J; Cikhardt, J; Klir, D; Nassisi, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe the radiofrequency emission taking place when 300 ps laser pulses irradiate various solid targets with an intensity of 10 16 W/cm 2 . The emission of intense electromagnetic pulses was observed outside the laser target chamber by two loop antennas up to 1 GHz. Electromagnetic pulses can be 800 MHz transients, which decay from a peak electromagnetic field of E 0 ≊ 7 kV/m and H 0 ≊ 15 A/m. The occurrence of these electromagnetic pulses is associated with generation of hard x-rays with photon energies extending beyond 1 MeV. This contribution reports the first observation of this effect at the PALS facility.

  10. The effect of pulse voltage and capacitance on biosorption of uranium by biomass derived from whiskey distillery spent wash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, M.; Rollan, A.; McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Biosorption of uranium by residual biomass from The Old Bushmill`s Distillery Co. Ltd., Bushmills, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, following exposure to short and intense electric pulses has been examined. The biomass was prepared from the distillery spent wash and consisted of non-viable yeast and bacterial cells. As shown previously, untreated biomass had a maximum biosorption capacity of 170 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass. When biosorption reactions were placed between two electrodes and exposed to electric pulses with field strengths ranging from 1.25-3.25 kV/cm at a capacitance of 25 {mu}F, biosorption increased from 170 mg of uranium to 275 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass. The data were obtained from biosorption isotherm analyses and taken as the degree of biosorption at residual uranium concentrations of 3 mM. In addition, when the capacitance of the electric pulses increased from 0.25 {mu}F to 25 {mu}F at a fixed pulse field strength the degree of biosorption increased from 210 mg uranium to 240 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass. The results suggest that application of short and intense electric pulses to biosorption reactions may play an important role in enhancing microbial biosorption of toxic metals/radionuclides from waste water streams. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  11. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  12. Differential B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, Roy Willlam; Gilliland, Terrance Leo; Lee, James R.; Speas, Christopher Shane; Kim, Alexandre A.; Struve, Kenneth William; York, Mathew William; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Sharpe, Arthur William; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Wagoner, Tim C.; Reynolds, Paul Gerard; Slopek, Jeffrey Scott; Moore, William B.S.; Dinwoodie, Thomas Albert; Woodring, R.M.; Broyles, Robin Scott; Mills, Jerry Alan; Melville, J.A.; Dudley, M.E.; Androlewicz, K.E.; Mourning, R.W.; Moore, J.K.; Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Ives, H.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Peyton, B.P.; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Savage, Mark Edward; Donovan, Guy Louis; Spielman, R.B.; Seamen, Johann F.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-(Omega) balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two signals from a pair are

  13. Laser stand for irradiation of targets by laser pulses from the Iskra-5 facility at a repetition rate of 100 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annenkov, V I; Garanin, Sergey G; Eroshenko, V A; Zhidkov, N V; Zubkov, A V; Kalipanov, S V; Kalmykov, N A; Kovalenko, V P; Krotov, V A; Lapin, S G; Martynenko, S P; Pankratov, V I; Faizullin, V S; Khrustalev, V A; Khudikov, N M; Chebotar, V S

    2009-01-01

    A train of a few tens of high-power subnanosecond laser pulses with a repetition period of 10 ns is generated in the Iskra-5 facility. The laser pulse train has an energy of up to 300 J and contains up to 40 pulses (by the 0.15 intensity level), the single pulse duration in the train being ∼0.5 ns. The results of experiments on conversion of a train of laser pulses to a train of X-ray pulses are presented. Upon irradiation of a tungsten target, a train of X-ray pulses is generated with the shape of an envelope in the spectral band from 0.18 to 0.28 keV similar to that of the envelope of the laser pulse train. The duration of a single X-ray pulse in the train is equal to that of a single laser pulse. (lasers)

  14. Thickness dependence of the switching voltage in all-oxide ferroelectric thin-film capacitors prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, J.F.M.; Prins, M.W.J.; Wolf, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thin-film ferroelectric capacitors consisting of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 sandwiched between La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 electrodes have been deposited using pulsed laser deposition. The combination of oxidic perovskite-type materials results in capacitors with a coercive field (Ec) which is comparable with values for

  15. The Atlas pulsed power facility for high energy density physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, R B; Barr, G W; Bowman, D W; Cochrane, J C; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Griego, J R; Hicks, R D; Hinckley, W B; Hosack, K W; Nielsen, K E; Parker, J V; Parsons, M O; Rickets, R L; Salazar, H R; Sánchez, P G; Scudder, D W; Shapiro, C; Thompson, M C; Trainor, R J; Valdez, G A; Vigil, B N; Watt, R G; Wysocki, F J; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. Here, the authors describe how the primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently- removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the Marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-ys risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line compo...

  16. Symmetry tuning with megajoule laser pulses at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline J.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted at the National Ignition Facility using shaped laser pulses with more than 1 MJ of energy have demonstrated the ability to control the implosion symmetry under ignition conditions. To achieve thermonuclear ignition, the low mode asymmetries must be small to minimize the size of the hotspot. The symmetry tuning experiments use symmetry capsules, “symcaps”, which replace the DT fuel with an equivalent mass of CH to emulate the hydrodynamic behavior of an ignition capsule. The x-ray self-emission signature from gas inside the capsule during the peak compression correlates with the surrounding hotspot shape. By tuning the shape of the self-emission, the capsule implosion symmetry can be made to be “round.” In the experimental results presented here, we utilized crossbeam energy transfer [S. H. Glenzer, et al., Science 327, 1228 (2010] to change the ratio of the inner to outer cone power inside the hohlraum targets on the NIF. Variations in the ratio of the inner cone to outer cone power affect the radiation pattern incident on the capsule modifying the implosion symmetry.

  17. Oxidation of S(IV) in Seawater by Pulsed High Voltage Discharge Plasma with TiO2/Ti Electrode as Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianying; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Lecheng

    2013-12-01

    Oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) in the effluent of a flue gas desulfurization(FGD) system is very critical for industrial applications of seawater FGD. This paper reports a pulsed corona discharge oxidation process combined with a TiO2 photocatalyst to convert S(IV) to S(VI) in artificial seawater. Experimental results show that the oxidation of S(IV) in artificial seawater is enhanced in the pulsed discharge plasma process through the application of TiO2 coating electrodes. The oxidation rate of S(IV) using Ti metal as a ground electrode is about 2.0×10-4 mol · L-1 · min-1, the oxidation rate using TiO2/Ti electrode prepared by annealing at 500°C in air is 4.5×10-4 mol · L-1 · min-1, an increase with a factor 2.25. The annealing temperature for preparing TiO2/Ti electrode has a strong effect on the oxidation of S(IV) in artificial seawater. The results of in-situ emission spectroscopic analysis show that chemically active species (i.e. hydroxyl radicals and oxygen radicals) are produced in the pulsed discharge plasma process. Compared with the traditional air oxidation process and the sole plasma-induced oxidation process, the combined application of TiO2 photocatalysts and a pulsed high-voltage electrical discharge process is useful in enhancing the energy and conversion efficiency of S(IV) for the seawater FGD system.

  18. Experiments investigating the effects of the accelerating gap voltage pulse on the ion focused (IFR) high current electron recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for an open-ended, spiral recirculating electron linear accelerator. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gap. In the case of a racetrack configuration, it is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. It was established that pulsing the accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However, for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition, cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gap prevent it from perturbing the IFR channel. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Experiments investigating the effects of the accelerating gap voltage pulse on the ion focused (IFR) high current electron recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R. Turnman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for an open-ended, spiral recirculating electron linear accelerator. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gap. In the case of a racetrack configuration, its is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. It was established that pulsing the accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However, for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition, cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gap prevent it from perturbing the IFR channel

  20. Mo-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon deposited by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc with selective pulsed bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Intarasiri, Saweat; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Anders, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Metal-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were produced by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma sources operated in sequentially pulsed mode. Negatively pulsed bias was applied to the substrate when carbon plasma was generated, whereas it was absent when the molybdenum plasma was presented. Film thickness was measured after deposition by profilometry. Glass slides with silver pads were used as substrates for the measurement of the sheet resistance. The microstructure and composition of the films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, respectively. It was found that the electrical resistivity decreases with an increase of the Mo content, which can be ascribed to an increase of the sp 2 content and an increase of the sp 2 cluster size

  1. Operation and experience of a 2 km coated conductor REEL – to – REEL copper pulse plating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Wippich, D; Rothfeld, R; Schirrmeister, P; Koenig, R; Werfel, F N; Usoskin, A; Rutt, A

    2014-01-01

    Bruker HTS manufactures YBCO based superconducting wires of the second generation on low- cost Stainless Steel substrate (100 μm thick). With 250 – 500 A/cm@77 K, SF, 650 MPa tensile strength and 6 mm bending radius excellent electrical and mechanical properties are achieved. As complementation of the 2G fabrication technology an automated 2 km copper pulse plating facility has been installed in 2012. We report here the operation requirements and the experiences of the copper plating technique.

  2. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm{sup 2}/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  3. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards

  4. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  5. Rapid formation of electric field profiles in repetitively pulsed high-voltage high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Rapid formation of electric field profiles has been observed directly for the first time in nanosecond narrow-gap parallel-plate discharges at near-atmospheric pressure. The plasmas examined here are of hydrogen, and the field measurement is based on coherent Raman scattering (CRS) by hydrogen molecules. Combined with the observation of spatio-temporal light emission profiles by a high speed camera, it has been found that the rapid formation of a high-voltage thin cathode sheath is accompanied by fast propagation of an ionization front from a region near the anode. Unlike well-known parallel-plate discharges at low pressure, the discharge formation process at high pressure is almost entirely driven by electron dynamics as ions and neutral species are nearly immobile during the rapid process. (fast track communication)

  6. Pulse mitigation and heat transfer enhancement techniques. Volume 3: Liquid sodium heat transfer facility and transient response of sodium heat pipe to pulse forward and reverse heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L. C.; Hahn, O. J.; Nguyen, H. X.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the description of a liquid sodium heat transfer facility (sodium loop) constructed to support the study of transient response of heat pipes. The facility, consisting of the loop itself, a safety system, and a data acquisition system, can be safely operated over a wide range of temperature and sodium flow rate. The transient response of a heat pipe to pulse heat load at the condenser section was experimentally investigated. A 0.457 m screen wick, sodium heat pipe with an outer diameter of 0.127 m was tested under different heat loading conditions. A major finding was that the heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time of reversal was approximately 15 to 25 seconds. The startup of the heat pipe from frozen state was also studied. It was found that during the startup process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all of the working fluid in the heat pipe was molten.

  7. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  8. A Long-Pulse Spallation Source at Los Alamos: Facility description and preliminary neutronic performance for cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Weinacht, D.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1998-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has discussed installing a new 1-MW spallation neutron target station in an existing building at the end of its 800-MeV proton linear accelerator. Because the accelerator provides pulses of protons each about 1 msec in duration, the new source would be a Long Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS). The facility would employ vertical extraction of moderators and reflectors, and horizontal extraction of the spallation target. An LPSS uses coupled moderators rather than decoupled ones. There are potential gains of about a factor of 6 to 7 in the time-averaged neutron brightness for cold-neutron production from a coupled liquid H 2 moderator compared to a decoupled one. However, these gains come at the expense of putting ''tails'' on the neutron pulses. The particulars of the neutron pulses from a moderator (e.g., energy-dependent rise times, peak intensities, pulse widths, and decay constant(s) of the tails) are crucial parameters for designing instruments and estimating their performance at an LPSS. Tungsten is the reference target material. Inconel 718 is the reference target canister and proton beam window material, with Al-6061 being the choice for the liquid H 2 moderator canister and vacuum container. A 1-MW LPSS would have world-class neutronic performance. The authors describe the proposed Los Alamos LPSS facility, and show that, for cold neutrons, the calculated time-averaged neutronic performance of a liquid H 2 moderator at the 1-MW LPSS is equivalent to about 1/4th the calculated neutronic performance of the best liquid D 2 moderator at the Institute Laue-Langevin reactor. They show that the time-averaged moderator neutronic brightness increases as the size of the moderator gets smaller

  9. The shaped pulses control and operation on the SG-III prototype facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li; Wei, Wang; Sai, Jin; Wanqing, Huang; Wenyi, Wang; Jingqin, Su; Runchang, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    The laser driven inertial confined fusion experiments require careful temporal shape control of the laser pulse. Two approaches are introduced to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the close loop feedback system for long term operation in TIL; the first one is a statistical model to analyze the variation of the parameters obtained from previous shots, the other is a matrix algorithm proposed to relate the electrical signal and the impulse amplitudes. With the model and algorithm applied in the pulse shaping in TIL, a variety of shaped pulses were produced with a 10% precision in half an hour for almost three years under different circumstance.

  10. Short Pulsed Laser Methods for Velocimetry and Thermometry in High Enthalpy Facilities, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A suite of pulsed laser diagnostics is proposed for studying aspects of planetary entry and Earth atmospheric reentry in arc jets. For example, dissociation of...

  11. Processing and analyses of the pulsed-neutron experimental data of the YALINA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.; Talamo, A.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Sadovich, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The YALINA subcritical assembly of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR)-Sosny, Belarus has been utilized to study the physics parameters of accelerator driven systems (ADS) with high intensity Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Deuterium pulsed neutron sources. In particular, with the fast and thermal neutron zones of the YALINA-Booster subcritical assembly, the pulsed neutron experiments have been utilized to evaluate the pulsed neutron methods for determining the reactivity of the subcritical system. In this paper, the pulsed-neutron experiments performed in the YALINA-Booster 1141 configuration with 90% U 235 fuel and 1185 configuration with 36% and 21% U fuel are examined and analized. The Sjo:strand area-ratio method is utilized to determine the reactivities of the subcritical assembly configurations. The linear regression method is applied to obtain the prompt neutron decay constants from the pulsed-neutron experimental data. The reactivity values obtained from experimental data are shown to be dependent on the detector locations and also on the detector types. The large discrepancies between the reactivity values given by the detectors in the fast neutron zone was reduced by spatial correction methods, and the estimated reactivity after the spatial corrections are almost spatially independent.

  12. Experimental investigation of powerful pulse current generators based on capacitive storage and explosive magnetic generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E.; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.; Povareshkin, M. N.; Kozlov, A. A.; Shurupova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental models of microsecond duration powerful generators of current pulses on the basis of explosive magnetic generators and voltage impulse generator have been developed for the electromagnetic pulse effects on energy facilities to verify their stability. Exacerbation of voltage pulse carried out through the use of electro explosive current interrupter made of copper wires with diameters of 80 and 120 μm. Experimental results of these models investigation are represented. Voltage fronts about 100 ns and the electric field strength of 800 kV/m are registered.

  13. An experiment to test advanced materials impacted by intense proton pulses at CERN HiRadMat facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Boccone, V; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Charitonidis, N; Charrondiere, C; Dallocchio, A; Fernandez Carmona, P; Francon, P; Gentini, L; Guinchard, M; Mariani, N; Masi, A; Marques dos Santos, S D; Moyret, P; Peroni, L; Redaelli, S; Scapin, M

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the consequences of highly energetic particle beams impacting protection devices as collimators or high power target stations is a fundamental issue in the design of state-of-the-art facilities for high-energy particle physics. These complex dynamic phenomena can be successfully simulated resorting to highly non-linear numerical tools (Hydrocodes). In order to produce accurate results, however, these codes require reliable material constitutive models that, at the extreme conditions induced by a destructive beam impact, are scarce and often inaccurate. In order to derive or validate such models a comprehensive, first-of-its-kind experiment has been recently carried out at CERN HiRadMat facility: performed tests entailed the controlled impact of intense and energetic proton pulses on a number of specimens made of six different materials. Experimental data were acquired relying on embedded instrumentation (strain gauges, temperature probes and vacuum sensors) and on remote-acquisition devices (laser ...

  14. Neutron calibration facility with an Am-Be source for pulse shape discrimination measurement of CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Bhang, H.; Choi, J.H.; Choi, S.; Joo, H.W.; Kim, G.B.; Kim, K.W.; Kim, S.C.; Kim, S.K.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, J.K.; Myung, S.S.; Hahn, I.S.; Jeon, E.J.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, Y.D.; Kim, Y.H.; Li, J.; Kim, H.J.; Leonard, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a neutron calibration facility based on a 300-mCi Am-Be source in conjunction with a search for weakly interacting massive particle candidates for dark matter. The facility is used to study the response of CsI(Tl) crystals to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from the Am-Be source and comparing them with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton scattering of 662-keV γ-rays from a 137 Cs source. The measured results on pulse shape discrimination (PSD) between nuclear- and electron-recoil events are quantified in terms of quality factors. A comparison with our previous result from a neutron generator demonstrate the feasibility of performing calibrations of PSD measurements using neutrons from a Am-Be source

  15. Electroperturbation of human stratum corneum fine structure by high voltage pulses: a freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoul, A; Tanojo, H; Préat, V; Bouwstra, J A; Spies, F; Boddé, H E

    1998-08-01

    Application of high voltage pulses (HVP) to the skin has been shown to promote the transdermal drug delivery by a mechanism involving skin electroporation. The aim of this study was to detect potential changes in lipid phase and ultrastructure induced in human stratum corneum by various HVP protocols, using differential thermal analysis and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Due to the time involved between the moment the electric field is switched off and the analysis, only "secondary" phenomena rather than primary events could be observed. A decrease in enthalpies for the phase transitions observed at 70 degrees C and 85 degrees C was detected by differential thermal analysis after HVP treatment. No changes in transition temperature could be seen. The freeze-fracture electron microscopy study revealed a dramatic perturbation of the lamellar ordering of the intercellular lipid after application of HVP. Most of the planes displayed rough surfaces. The lipid lamellae exhibited rounded off steps or a vanished stepwise order. There was no evidence for perturbation of the corneocytes content. In conclusion, the freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis studies suggest that HVP application induces a general perturbation of the stratum corneum lipid ultrastructure.

  16. Degradation mechanisms of 4-chlorophenol in a novel gas-liquid hybrid discharge reactor by pulsed high voltage system with oxygen or nitrogen bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Minghua; Hao, Xiaolong; Lei, Lecheng

    2007-03-01

    The effect of gas bubbling on the removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in aqueous solution has been investigated using a novel pulsed high voltage gas-liquid hybrid discharge reactor, which generates gas-phase discharge above the water surface simultaneously with the spark discharge directly in the liquid. The time for 100% of 4-CP degradation in the case of oxygen bubbling (7 min) was much shorter than that in the case of nitrogen bubbling (25 min) as plenty of hydrogen peroxide and ozone formed in oxygen atmosphere enhanced the removal efficiency of 4-CP. Except for the main similar intermediates (4-chlorocatechol, hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) produced in the both cases of oxygen and nitrogen bubbling, special intermediates (5-chloro-3-nitropyrocatechol, 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol, nitrate and nitrite ions) were produced in nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction pathway of 4-CP in the case of oxygen bubbling was oxygen/ozone attack on the radical hydroxylated derivatives of 4-CP. However, in the case of nitrogen bubbling, hydroxylation was the main reaction pathway with effect of N atom on degradation of 4-CP.

  17. Facilely solving cathode/electrolyte interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by constructing an effective solid electrolyte interface film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Xia, Qingbo; Chen, Fangyuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Cheng, Xueyuan; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The cathode/electrolyte interface stability is the key factor for the cyclic performance and the safety performance of lithium ion batteries. Suppression of consuming key elements in the electrode materials is essential in this concern. In this purpose, we investigate a facile strategy to solve interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by adding an oxidable fluorinated phosphate, Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) Phosphite (BTFEP), as a sacrificial additive in electrolyte. We demonstrate that BTFEP additive could be oxidized at slightly above 4.28 V which is a relatively lower voltage than that of solvents, and the oxidative products facilitate in-situ forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the cathode surface. The results manifest the SEI film validly restrains the generation of HF and the interfacial side reaction between high-voltage charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) and electrolyte, hence, the dissolution of Mn and Ni is effectively suppressed. Finally, the cyclic performance of LNMO after 200 cycles was remarkably improved from 68.4% in blank electrolyte to 95% in 1 wt% BTFEP-adding electrolyte.

  18. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  19. Proposal for the design of a small-angle neutron scattering facility at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kley, W.

    1980-01-01

    The intensity-resolution-background considerations of an optimized small angle neutron scattering facility are reviewed for the special case of a pulsed neutron source. In the present proposal we conclude that for 'true elastic scattering experiments' filters can be used instead of expensive neutron guide tubes since low background conditions can be achieved by a combined action of filters as well as a proper time gating of the twodimensional detector. The impinging neutron beam is monochromatized by phasing a disk chopper to the neutron source pulses and in the scattered beam a second disk chopper is used to eliminate the inelastically scattered neutrons. Therefore, no time of fligh analysis is necessary for the scattered neutron intensity and true-elastic conditions are obtained by simply gating the two-dimensional detector. Considering a 4 m thick shield for the pulsed neutron source and choosing for optimum conditions a detector area element of (2.5 cm) 2 and a sample area of (1.25 cm) 2 , than for a minimum sample-detector-distance of 1.5 m, a maximum neutron source diameter of 6.67 cm is required in order to maintain always the optimum intensity- and resolution requirements

  20. Neutron-irradiation facilities at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source-I for fusion magnet materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The decommissioning of reactor-based neutron sources in the USA has led to the development of a new generation of neutron sources that employ high-energy accelerators. Among the accelerator-based neutron sources presently in operation, the highest-flux source is the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), a user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Neutrons in this source are produced by the interaction of 400 to 500 MeV protons with either of two 238 U target systems. In the Radiation Effects Facility (REF), the 238 U target is surrounded by Pb for neutron generatjion and reflection. The REF has three separate irradiation thimbles. Two thimbles provide irradiation temperatures between that of liquid He and several hundred degrees centigrade. The third thimble operates at ambient temperature. The large irradiation volume, the neutron spectrum and flux, the ability to transfer samples without warm up, and the dedication of the facilities during the irradiation make this ideally suited for radiation damage studies on components for superconducting fusion magnets. Possible experiments for fusion magnet materials are discussed on cyclic irradiation and annealing of stabilizers in a high magnetic field, mechanical tests on organic insulation irradiated at 4 K, and superconductors measured in high fields after irradiation

  1. An experiment to test advanced materials impacted by intense proton pulses at CERN HiRadMat facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertarelli, A., E-mail: alessandro.bertarelli@cern.ch [CERN, Engineering Department, Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group (EN-MME), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berthome, E. [CERN, Engineering Department, Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group (EN-MME), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Boccone, V. [CERN, Engineering Department, Sources, Targets and Interactions Group (EN-STI), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carra, F. [CERN, Engineering Department, Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group (EN-MME), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cerutti, F. [CERN, Engineering Department, Sources, Targets and Interactions Group (EN-STI), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Charitonidis, N. [CERN, Engineering Department, Machines and Experimental Facilities Group (EN-MEF), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Charrondiere, C. [CERN, Engineering Department, Industrial Controls and Engineering Group (EN-ICE), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dallocchio, A.; Fernandez Carmona, P.; Francon, P.; Gentini, L.; Guinchard, M.; Mariani, N. [CERN, Engineering Department, Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group (EN-MME), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Masi, A. [CERN, Engineering Department, Sources, Targets and Interactions Group (EN-STI), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marques dos Santos, S.D.; Moyret, P. [CERN, Engineering Department, Mechanical and Materials Engineering Group (EN-MME), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Peroni, L. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (DIMEAS), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Redaelli, S. [CERN, Beams Department, Accelerators and Beams Physics Group (BE-ABP), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Scapin, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (DIMEAS), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the consequences of highly energetic particle beams impacting protection devices as collimators or high power target stations is a fundamental issue in the design of state-of-the-art facilities for high-energy particle physics. These complex dynamic phenomena can be successfully simulated resorting to highly non-linear numerical tools (Hydrocodes). In order to produce accurate results, however, these codes require reliable material constitutive models that, at the extreme conditions induced by a destructive beam impact, are scarce and often inaccurate. In order to derive or validate such models a comprehensive, first-of-its-kind experiment has been recently carried out at CERN HiRadMat facility: performed tests entailed the controlled impact of intense and energetic proton pulses on a number of specimens made of six different materials. Experimental data were acquired relying on embedded instrumentation (strain gauges, temperature probes and vacuum sensors) and on remote-acquisition devices (laser Doppler vibrometer and high-speed camera). The method presented in this paper, combining experimental measurements with numerical simulations, may find applications to assess materials under very high strain rates and temperatures in domains well beyond particle physics (severe accidents in fusion and fission nuclear facilities, space debris impacts, fast and intense loadings on materials and structures etc.)

  2. Rationale for a spallation neutron source target system test facility at the 1-MW Long-Pulse Spallation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.

    1995-12-01

    The conceptual design study for a 1-MW Long-Pulse Spallation Source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center has shown the feasibility of including a spallation neutron test facility at a relatively low cost. This document presents a rationale for developing such a test bed. Currently, neutron scattering facilities operate at a maximum power of 0.2 MW. Proposed new designs call for power levels as high as 10 MW, and future transmutation activities may require as much as 200 MW. A test bed will allow assessment of target neutronics; thermal hydraulics; remote handling; mechanical structure; corrosion in aqueous, non-aqueous, liquid metal, and molten salt systems; thermal shock on systems and system components; and materials for target systems. Reliable data in these areas are crucial to the safe and reliable operation of new high-power facilities. These tests will provide data useful not only to spallation neutron sources proposed or under development, but also to other projects in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies such as the production of tritium

  3. Pulsed laser facilities operating from UV to IR at the Gas Laser Lab of the Lebedev Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrei; Kholin, Igor; Vasil'Ev, Boris; Zvorykin, Vladimir

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed laser facilities developed at the Gas Lasers Lab of the Lebedev Physics Institute and their applications for different laser-matter interactions are discussed. The lasers operating from UV to mid-IR spectral region are as follows: e-beam pumped KrF laser (λ= 0.248 μm) with output energy 100 J; e-beam sustained discharge CO2(10.6 μm) and fundamental band CO (5-6 μm) lasers with output energy up to ~1 kJ; overtone CO laser (2.5-4.2 μm) with output energy ~ 50 J and N2O laser (10.9 μm) with output energy of 100 J; optically pumped NH3 laser (11-14 μm). Special attention is paid to an e-beam sustained discharge Ar-Xe laser (1.73 μm ~ 100 J) as a potential candidate for a laser-propulsion facility. The high energy laser facilities are used for interaction of laser radiation with polymer materials, metals, graphite, rocks, etc.

  4. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  5. A UV pre-ionized dual-wavelength short-pulse high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for laser particle acceleration research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahim, N A; Mouris, J F; Davis, R W

    1994-12-01

    In this report we describe the Chalk River dual-wavelength, short-pulse, single-mode, high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for research in laser particle acceleration and CANDU materials modifications. The facility is designed and built around UV-preionized transversely-excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) Lumonics CO{sub 2} laser discharge modules. Peak focussed power densities of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in 500 ps pulses have been obtained. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Relationship between symmetry and laser pulse shape in low-fill hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Steve; Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, A.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kot, L. B.; Loomis, E. N.; Perry, T. S.; Shah, R. C.; Masse, L. P.; Ralph, J. E.; Khan, S. F.

    2017-10-01

    Typically in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums cryogenic helium gas fill is used to impede the motion of the hohlraum wall plasma as it is driven by the laser pulse. A fill of 1 mg/cc He has been used to significantly suppress wall motion in ICF hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); however, this level of fill also causes laser-plasma instabilities (LPI) which result in hot electrons, time-dependent symmetry swings and reduction in drive due to increased backscatter. There are currently no adequate models for these phenomena in codes used to simulate integrated ICF experiments. A better compromise is a fill in the range of 0.3 0.6 mg/cc, which has been shown to provide some reduction in wall motion without incurring significant LPI effects. The wall motion in these low-fill hohlraums and the resulting effect on symmetry due to absorption of the inner cone beams by the outer cone plasma can be simulated with some degree of accuracy with the hydrodynamics and inverse Bremsstrahlung models in ICF codes. We describe a series of beryllium capsule implosions in 0.3 mg/cc He fill hohlraums that illustrate the effect of pulse shape on implosion symmetry in the ``low-fill'' regime. In particular, we find the shape of the beginning or ``foot'' of the pulse has significant leverage over the final symmetry of the stagnated implosion. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Improvement in high-voltage and high rate cycling performance of nickel-rich layered cathode materials via facile chemical vapor deposition with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyuk Son, In; Park, Kwangjin; Hwan Park, Jong

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-rich layered-oxide materials are considered promising candidates for application as cathode material in high-energy lithium ion batteries. However, their cycling performance at high voltages and rate conditions require further improvement for the purpose of commercialization. Here, we report on the facile surface modification of nickel-rich layered oxide by chemical vapor deposition with methane which yields a conductive and protective artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer consisting of amorphous carbon, alkyl lithium carbonate, and lithium carbonate. We examine the mechanism of the protective layer formation and structural deformation of the nickel-rich layered oxide during chemical vapor deposition with methane. Via optimizing the reaction conditions, we improve the electrical conductivity as well as the interfacial stability of the nickel-rich layered oxide without inducing structural deformation. The surface-modified nickel-rich layered oxide exhibits an improved performance due to the resulting enhanced rate capability, high initial efficiency, and long cycle life at high voltage (>4.5 V).

  8. Excitation of voltage oscillations in an induction voltage adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The induction voltage adder is an accelerator architecture used in recent designs of pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS, the Atomic Weapons Establishment’s planned Hydrus Facility, and the Naval Research Laboratory’s Mercury. Each of these designs relies on magnetic insulation to prevent electron loss across the anode-cathode gap in the vicinity of the adder as well as in the coaxial transmission line. Particle-in-cell simulations of the RITS adder and transmission line show that, as magnetic insulation is being established during a pulse, some electron loss occurs across the gap. Sufficient delay in the cavity pulse timings provides an opportunity for high-momentum electrons to deeply penetrate the cavities of the adder cells where they can excite radio-frequency resonances. These oscillations may be amplified in subsequent gaps, resulting in oscillations in the output power. The specific modes supported by the RITS-6 accelerator and details of the mechanism by which they are excited are presented in this paper.

  9. Wakefield issue and its impact on X-ray photon pulse in the SXFEL test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Minghao; Li, Kai [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Haixiao, E-mail: denghaixiao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Besides the designed beam acceleration, the energy of electrons is changed by the longitudinal wakefields in a real free-electron laser (FEL) facility, which may degrade FEL performances from the theoretical expectation. In this paper, with the help of simulation codes, the wakefields induced beam energy loss in the sophisticated undulator section is calculated for Shanghai soft X-ray FEL, which is a two-stage seeded FEL test facility. While the 1st stage 44 nm FEL output is almost not affected by the wakefields, it is found that a beam energy loss about 0.8 MeV degrades the peak brightness of the 2nd stage 8.8 nm FEL by a factor of 1.6, which however can be compensated by a magnetic field fine tuning of each undulator segment. And the longitudinal coherence of the 8.8 nm FEL output illustrates a slight degradation, because of the beam energy curvatures induced by the wakefields.

  10. Silver-Collagen Dressing and High-voltage, Pulsed-current Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Full-thickness Wounds: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Krug, Kenneth; Stachura, John; Niewczyk, Paulette; Ross, Michael; Tutuska, Justine; Ford, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    Research suggests high-voltage, pulsed-current electric therapy (HVPC) is safe and effective for treating chronic wounds, and some data suggest silver- and collagen-based dressings may facilitate healing. A combination therapy utilizing both HVPC and silver-collagen dressing may present clinical advantages. To explore the effect of the combined therapy for chronic full-thickness wounds, a prospective, consecutive case series study was conducted. All participants were adults with wounds of at least 6 weeks' duration. After obtaining informed consent, patient and wound characteristics were obtained, wounds were assessed and measured, and patients received 2 to 3 HVPC treatments per week followed by application of the silver- and collagen-based dressing for a period of 2 weeks. Data were analyzed descriptively, and changes in wound size and volume from baseline were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The dressings were saturated with normal saline, used simultaneously during the 45-minute HVPC treatment, and left on top of the wound after treatment. The HVPC electro pads (stainless steel electrodes with a sponge interface) also were moistened with normal saline and the cathode placed on top of the wound. If the patient had more than 1 wound on the same leg, the anode was placed on the additional wound (otherwise over the intact skin nearby). Secondary dressings (eg, foam and/ or gauze) were used as clinically appropriate, and a 4-layer compression wrap was used, if indicated, for patients with venous ulcers. Ten (10) patients (3 women, 7 men, 57.30 ± 9.70 years old with 14 wounds of 273.10 ± 292.03 days' duration before study) completed the study and were included in the final analyses. Average wound surface area decreased from 13.78 ± 21.35 cm(2) to 9.07 ± 16.81 cm(2) (42.52% ± 34.16% decrease, P = 0.002) and wound volume decreased from 3.39 ± 4.31 cm(3) to 1.28 ± 2.25 cm(3) (66.84% ± 25.07% decrease, P = 0.001). One (1) patient was discharged with

  11. Fast and accurate methods for the performance testing of highly-efficient c-Si photovoltaic modules using a 10 ms single-pulse solar simulator and customized voltage profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtuani, A; Rigamonti, G; Friesen, G; Chianese, D; Beljean, P

    2012-01-01

    Performance testing of highly efficient, highly capacitive c-Si modules with pulsed solar simulators requires particular care. These devices in fact usually require a steady-state solar simulator or pulse durations longer than 100–200 ms in order to avoid measurement artifacts. The aim of this work was to validate an alternative method for the testing of highly capacitive c-Si modules using a 10 ms single pulse solar simulator. Our approach attempts to reconstruct a quasi-steady-state I–V (current–voltage) curve of a highly capacitive device during one single 10 ms flash by applying customized voltage profiles–-in place of a conventional V ramp—to the terminals of the device under test. The most promising results were obtained by using V profiles which we name ‘dragon-back’ (DB) profiles. When compared to the reference I–V measurement (obtained by using a multi-flash approach with approximately 20 flashes), the DB V profile method provides excellent results with differences in the estimation of P max (as well as of I sc , V oc and FF) below ±0.5%. For the testing of highly capacitive devices the method is accurate, fast (two flashes—possibly one—required), cost-effective and has proven its validity with several technologies making it particularly interesting for in-line testing. (paper)

  12. Feasibility Study of SSTO Base Heating Simulation in Pulsed-Type Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Sik; Sharma, Surendra; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory simulation of the base heating environment of the proposed reusable Single-Stage-To-Orbit vehicle during its ascent flight was proposed. The rocket engine produces CO2 and H2, which are the main combustible components of the exhaust effluent. The burning of these species, known as afterburning, enhances the base region gas temperature as well as the base heating. To determine the heat flux on the SSTO vehicle, current simulation focuses on the thermochemistry of the afterburning, thermophysical properties of the base region gas, and ensuing radiation from the gas. By extrapolating from the Saturn flight data, the Damkohler number for the afterburning of SSTO vehicle is estimated to be of the order of 10. The limitations on the material strengths limit the laboratory simulation of the flight Damkohler number as well as other flow parameters. A plan is presented in impulse facilities using miniature rocket engines which generate the simulated rocket plume by electric ally-heating a H2/CO2 mixture.

  13. Development of a 100 KV 10 a pulse generator on the basis of electron tubes for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Barve, D.N.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a high-voltage pulsing system on the basis of hard tube of hard tube for a plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) facility is presented. A list of requirements, which have to be fulfilled by a high-voltage pulse generator to get best results and an optimum operation of the PIII system, is given. The requirement for the pulse generator can be fulfilled well using a pulse generator design, which employs a hard tube switch. The pulse generator design presented is optimized for PIII systems. The hard tube control can produce nearly rectangular pulses of any duration and repetition frequencies and is especially optimized for obtaining voltage rise times as short as possible. (author)

  14. CALCULATION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TAKE-OFF SYSTEM FOR THE PHOTOVOLTAIC FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Zaitsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure maximum production of electric power by photovoltaic vacilities, in addition to using highly efficient photovoltaic modules equipped with solar radiation concentrators must use a highly effective power take-off system. This paper is inscribed to solving the problem of a highly efficient and economic power take-off system development. Methodology. To solving the problem, we implemented three stages. On the first stage examines the dependence of electrical power from the intensity of the incident solar radiation. Based on this, the second stage is calculated the DC-DC converter resonant circuit and its working parameters, and developed circuit diagram of DC-DC converter. On the third stage, we carry out an analysis of power take-off system with step up DC-DC converter working. Results. In this paper, we carry out the analysis of working efficiency for photovoltaic facility power take-off system with step-up boost converter. The result of such analysis show that the efficiency of such system in a wide range of photovoltaic energy module illumination power is at 0.92, whereas the efficiency of classic power take-off systems does not exceed 0.70. Achieved results allow designing a circuit scheme of a controlled bridge resonant step-up converter with digital control. Proposed scheme will ensure reliable operation, fast and accurate location point of maximum power and conversion efficiency up to 0.96. Originality. Novelty of proposed power take-off system solution constitute in implementation of circuit with DC-DC converters, which as it shown by results of carrying out modeling is the most effective. Practical value. Practical implementation of proposed power take-off system design will allow reducing losses in connective wires and increasing the efficiency of such a system up to 92.5% in wide range of photovoltaic energy modules illumination.

  15. Enhanced analogue front-end for the measurement of the high state of wide-band voltage pulses with 87 dB common-mode rejection ratio and ±0.65 ppm 1-day offset stability

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    An improved analogue front-end for measuring the high state of trapezoidal voltage pulses with transition duration of 3 μs is presented. A new measurement system, composed by a front-end and the state-of-the-art acquisition board NI PXI-5922, has been realized with improved Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of more than 87 dB at DC and 3-sigma stability of }0.65 ppm over 1 day. After highlighting the main design enhancements with respect to state-of-the-art solutions, the CMRR measurement is reported. The output drift due to temperature and humidity is assessed to be negligible. Finally, the worst-case repeatability is measured both with shorted-to-ground inputs and with an applied common-mode voltage of 10 V, which represents the nominal working condition.

  16. Generation of plasmas in water: utilization of a high-frequency, low-voltage bipolar pulse power supply with impedance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroch, P; Potocky, S; Saito, N

    2011-01-01

    Presented work focuses on the investigation and characterization of plasma discharges generated in water by newly developed bipolar pulse power supply. The main aim of our work was to solve and overcome problems with intensive arc discharge transition when the discharge is ignited and maintained by a low output impedance pulse power supply. For this purpose a novel type of bipolar pulse power supply was developed and tested. It was found that two distinguished stable modes of discharges generated in the water can be realized. Effects of water conductivity, pulse frequency and initial water temperature on the discharge properties were investigated. Optical emission spectroscopy was employed to study plasma parameters of the discharge and the correlation between the data obtained from the optical emission spectroscopy and the chemical species measured in the water was carried out.

  17. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  18. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  19. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method

  20. Elimination of DC-Link Current Ripple for Modular Multilevel Converters With Capacitor Voltage-Balancing Pulse-Shifted Carrier PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- and high-power applications because of its high modularity, availability, and power quality. In this paper, the current ripple on the dc link of the three-phase MMC derived from the phase-shifted carrier-based pulse-width modulation...

  1. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Schoenlein, R.; Zholents, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted from a synchrotron radiation source with respect to a pump laser exciting processes in the sample under study is critical for the investigation of structural dynamics in the femtosecond regime. We describe a scheme for synchronizing femtosecond x-ray pulses relative to a pump laser. X-ray pulses of <100 fs duration are generated from a proposed source based on a recirculating superconducting linac [1,2,3]. Short x-ray pulses are obtained by a process of electron pulse compression, followed by transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and ultimately x-ray pulse compression. Timing of the arrival of the x-ray pulse with respect to the pump laser is found to be dominated by the operation of the deflecting cavities which provide the transverse temporal correlation of the electrons. The deflecting cavities are driven from a highly stable RF signal derived from a modelocked laser oscillator which is also the origin of the pump l aser pulses

  2. Examination of the spatial-response uniformity of a microchannel-plate detector using a pulsed high-voltage electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumot, D; Kroupp, E; Fisher, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe an alternative method to examine the spatial-response uniformity of a microchannel-plate (MCP) detector to a ∼ 1 ns pulse of soft x-rays. The examination was performed by illuminating the MCP surface with energetic electrons rather than with x-rays. It is shown that the MCP features similar, yet not identical, response to pulses of soft x-ray photons or energetic electrons, making such examinations much simpler and less expensive. The building of the electron-gun system is relatively easy and inexpensive, and in addition to verifying the spatial uniformity of the response of the MCP to incoming particles and radiation, it can be used to detect damaged areas on the detector. A comparison between the results obtained using the electron-gun with those obtained using a laser-produced-plasma x-ray source, demonstrating the reliability of the method, is presented

  3. Techniques for synchronization of X-Ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast X-Ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Doolittle, L.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted from a synchrotron radiation source with respect to the signal initiating a process in the sample under study is critical for the investigation of structural dynamics in the femtosecond regime. We describe schemes for achieving accurate timing of femtosecond x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses relative to a pump laser, where x-rays pulses of <100 fs duration are generated from the proposed LUX source based on a recirculating superconducting linac. We present a description of the timing signal generation and distribution systems to minimize timing jitter of the x-rays relative to the experimental lasers

  4. Low operating voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-k dielectrics fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, G. Z.; Liu, G. X.; Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K. [Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); DongEui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C. [DongEui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, C. R. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Low-voltage-driven amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric were fabricated on a Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition. Both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and IGZO thin films are amorphous, and the thin films have very smooth surfaces. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric exhibits a very low leakage current density of 1.3 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 V and a high capacitance density of 60.9 nF/cm{sup 2}. The IGZO TFT with a structure of Ni/IGZO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si exhibits high performance with a low threshold voltage of 1.18 V, a high field effect mobility of 20.25 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}, an ultra small subthreshold swing of 87 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 3 x 10{sup 7}.

  5. Pulse power modulators - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse power modulators are electronic devices to provide, high voltage, high current, power bursts. Ideally, a modulator, with the means to shape and control the pulses, acts as a switch between a high voltage power supply and its load. This article gives an overview of the pulse power modulators: starting with the basics of pulse and modulation, it covers modulation topologies, different types of modulators, major subsystems and pulse measurement techniques. The various applications of pulse power modulators and the recent trends have been included at the end. (author)

  6. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  7. Testing of Air Pulse Agitators to Support Design of Savannah River Site Highly Radioactive Processing at the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, R.M.; Stephens, A.B.; Wilkinson, R.H.; Dev, H.; Suggs, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is intended to concentrate the highly radioactive constituents from waste salt solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Air Pulse Agitators (APAs) were selected for process mixing in high-radiation locations at the SWPF. This technology has the advantage of no moving parts within the hot cell, eliminating potential failure modes and the need for maintenance within the high-radiation environment. This paper describes the results of APA tests performed to gain operational and performance data for the SWPF design. (authors)

  8. Behaviour of total surface charge in SiO2-Si system under short-pulsed ultraviolet irradiation cycles characterised by surface photo voltage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ban-Hong; Lee, Wah-Pheng; Yow, Ho-Kwang; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Effects of time-accumulated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and surface treatment on thermally oxidized p-type silicon wafers were investigated by using the surface photo voltage (SPV) technique via the direct measurement of the total surface charge, Q SC . The rise and fall times of Q sc curves, as a function of accumulated UV irradiation, depended on the thermal oxide thickness. A simple model was proposed to explain the time-varying characteristics of Q sc based on the UV-induced bond breaking of SiOH and SiH, and photoemission of bulk electrons to wafer surface where O 2 - charges were formed. While these mechanisms resulted in charge variations and hence in Q sc , these could be removed by rinsing the silicon wafers in de-ionized water followed by spin-dry or blow-dry by an ionizer fan. Empirical parameters were used in the model simulations and curve-fitting of Q SC . The simulated results suggested that initial changes in the characteristic behaviour of Q sc were mainly due to the net changes in the positive and negative charges, but subsequently were dominated by the accumulation of O 2 - during the UV irradiation.

  9. Inductive voltage adder advanced hydrodynamic radiographic technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen; Rovang, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the design, results, and analysis of a high-brightness electron beam technology demonstration experiment completed at Sandia National Laboratories, performed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The anticipated electron beam parameters were: 12 MeV, 35-40 kA, 0.5-mm rms radius, and 40-ns full width half maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. This beam, on an optimum thickness tantalum converter, should produce a very intense x-ray source of ∼ 1.5-mm spot size and 1 kR dose at sign 1 m. The accelerator utilized was SABRE, a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source was a magnetically immersed foilless electron diode. For these experiments, SABRE was modified to high-impedance negative-polarity operation. A new 100-ohm magnetically insulated transmission line cathode electrode was designed and constructed; the cavities were rotated 180 degrees poloidally to invert the central electrode polarity to negative; and only one of the two pulse forming lines per cavity was energized. A twenty- to thirty-Tesla solenoidal magnet insulated the diode and contained the beam at its extremely small size. These experiments were designed to demonstrate high electron currents in submillimeter radius beams resulting in a high-brightness high-intensity flash x-ray source for high-resolution thick-object hydrodynamic radiography. The SABRE facility high-impedance performance was less than what was hoped. The modifications resulted in a lower amplitude (9 MV), narrower-than-anticipated triangular voltage pulse, which limited the dose to ∼ 20% of the expected value. In addition, halo and ion-hose instabilities increased the electron beam spot size to > 1.5 mm. Subsequent, more detailed calculations explain these reduced output parameters. An accelerator designed (versus retrofit) for this purpose would provide the desired voltage and pulse shape

  10. High reliability low jitter pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mark E.; Stoltzfus, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    A method and concomitant apparatus for generating pulses comprising providing a laser light source, disposing a voltage electrode between ground electrodes, generating laser sparks using the laser light source via laser spark gaps between the voltage electrode and the ground electrodes, and outputting pulses via one or more insulated ground connectors connected to the voltage electrode.

  11. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, Annex 1: Experimental facility for testing and development of pulsed columns and auxiliary devices; Prerada isluzenog nuklearnog goriva, Prilog 1: Opitno postrojenje za ispitivanje i razvoj pulsnih kolona i pomocnih uredjaja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za hemiju visoke aktivnosti, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    After completing the design project for building the experimental facility for testing and development of pulsed columns for spent fuel reprocessing, the construction started by the end of 1963 and was completed in August 1964. The facility was built in Kjeller, Norway within cooperation project between out country and Norway. This report covers a brief description of the facility and the action plan of its implementation.

  12. A prospective study analyzing the application of radiofrequency energy and high-voltage, ultrashort pulse duration electrical fields on the quantitative reduction of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Diane Irvine; Kim, Theresa H M; Temaat, Robbin

    2016-10-01

    Noninvasive fat reduction is claimed by many device manufacturers, but proof of efficacy has been difficult to establish. This prospective study was designed to measure the reduction of fat thickness and actual volume reduction in 20 female patients treated with an external radiofrequency (RF) device. This device combines RF heat, suction coupled vacuum, and oscillating electrical pulses that induce adipocyte death over time. Patients underwent pre- and post-treatment and intercurrent measurements of weight, body mass index, ultrasonic transcutaneous fat thickness, and 2D and 3D Vectra photography with independent calculation of circumferential and volumetric change. Mean transcutaneous ultrasound thickness at reproducible points was 2.78 cm; at 1-month post-treatment, the mean fat thickness was 1.71 cm. At 3-month post-treatment, the mean fat thickness reduction was 39.6%. Vectra circumference measurements were taken at 10-mm intervals, with postural and breathing cycle control. Independent analysis of serial measurements from + 60 to - 70 mm showed mean abdominal circumference measurement of 2.3 cm. Mean abdominal volume loss was 202.4 and 428.5 cc at 1- and 3-month post-treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that permanent cell destruction was caused by irreversible electroporation. Pyroptosis appears to be the mechanism of action.

  13. PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL SUBSYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, F; Arnold, P; Hinz, A; Zacharias, R; Ollis, C; Fulkerson, E; Mchale, B; Runtal, A; Bishop, C

    2007-01-01

    The Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem is a key component of the National Ignition Facility, enabling the laser to employ an efficient four-pass main amplifier architecture. PEPC relies on a pulsed power technology to initiate and maintain plasma within the cells and to provide the necessary high voltage bias to the cells nonlinear crystals. Ultimately, nearly 300 high-voltage, high-current pulse generators will be deployed in the NIF in support of PEPC. Production of solid-state plasma pulse generators and thyratron-switched pulse generators is now complete, with the majority of the hardware deployed in the facility. An entire cluster (one-fourth of a complete NIF) has been commissioned and is operating on a routine basis, supporting laser shot operations. Another cluster has been deployed, awaiting final commissioning. Activation and commissioning of new hardware continues to progress in parallel, driving toward a goal of completing the PEPC subsystem in late 2007

  14. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  15. Multi probes measurements at the PALS Facility Research Centre during high intense laser pulse interactions with various target materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the interaction of high intense laser pulse with solid target, a large amount of hot electrons is produced and a giant Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP is generated due to the current flowing into the system target–target holder, as well as due to the escaping charged particles in vacuum. EMP production for different target materials is investigated inside and outside the target chamber, using monopole antenna, super wide-band microstrip antenna and Moebius antenna. The EMP consists in a fast transient magnetic field lasting hundreds of nanosecond with frequencies ranging from MHz to tens of GHz. Measurements of magnetic field and return target current in the range of kA were carried out by an inductive target probe (Cikhardt J. et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014 103507.

  16. A new small-footprint external-beam PIXE facility for cultural heritage applications using pulsed proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, M.; Bazzano, G.; Borgognoni, F.; Chiari, M.; Mazzinghi, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2017-09-01

    In the framework of the COBRA project, elemental analyses of cultural heritage objects based on the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are planned in a collaboration between the APAM laboratory of ENEA-Frascati and the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence. With this aim a 3-7 MeV pulsed proton beam, driven by the injector of the protontherapy accelerator under construction for the TOP-IMPLART project, will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique with a small-footprint pulsed accelerator to Italian small and medium enterprises interested in the composition analysis of ancient artifacts. The experimental set-up for PIXE analysis on the TOP-IMPLART machine consists of a modified assembly of the vertical beam line usually dedicated to radiobiology experiments: the beam produced by the injector (RFQ + DTL, a PL7 ACCSYSHITACHI model) is bent to 90° by a magnet, is collimated by a 300 μm aperture inserted in the end nozzle and extracted into ambient pressure by an exit window consisting of a Upilex foil 7.5 μm thick. The beam is pulsed with a variable pulse duration of 20-100 μs and a repetition rate variable from 10 to 100 Hz. The X-ray detection system is based on a Ketek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with 7 mm2 active area and 450 μm thickness, with a thin Beryllium entrance window (8 μm). The results of the calibration of this new PIXE set-up using thick target standards and of the analysis of the preliminary measurements on pigments are presented.

  17. Controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse and a series of single Trichel pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Berendt, Artur; Akishev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a simple method for the controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses of a regulated repetition frequency in air is proposed. The concept of triggering a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses is based on the precise controlling the voltage inception of the negative corona, which can be accomplished through the use of a ramp voltage pulse or a series of such pulses with properly chosen ramp voltage pulse parameters (rise and fall times, and ramp voltage pulse repetition frequency). The proposal has been tested in experiments using a needle-to-plate electrode arrangement in air, and reproducible Trichel pulses (single or in a series) were obtained by triggering them with an appropriately designed voltage waveform. The proposed method and results obtained have been qualitatively analysed. The analysis provides guidance for designing the voltage ramp pulse in respect of the generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses would be a helpful research tool for the refined studies of the fundamental processes in a negative corona discharge in a single- (air is an example) and multi-phase gaseous fluids. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of Trichel pulses can also be attractive for those corona treatments which need manipulation of the electric charge and heat portions delivered by the Trichel pulses to the object.

  18. Spectrum analysis of a voltage source converter due to semiconductor voltage drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Eltouki, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    It is known that power electronic voltage source converters are non-ideal. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the effect of semiconductor voltage drop on the output voltage spectrum, using single-phase H-bridge two-level converter topology with natural sampled pulse width modulation....... The paper describes the analysis of output voltage spectrum, when the semiconductor voltage drop is added. The results of the analysis of the spectral contribution including and excluding semiconductor voltage drop reveal a good agreement between the theoretical results, simulations and laboratory...

  19. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  20. The LMF triaxial MITL voltage adder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.; Lockner, T.R.; Olson, R.E.; Poukey, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The light-ion microfusion driver design consists of multiple accelerating modules fired in coincidence and sequentially in order to provide the desired ion energy, power pulse shape and energy deposition uniformity on an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. The basic energy source is a number of Marx generators which, through the appropriate pulse power conditioning, provide the necessary voltage pulse wave form to the accelerating gaps or feeds of each module. The cavity gaps are inductively isolated, and the voltage addition occurs in the center conductor of the voltage adder which is the positive electrode while the electrons of the sheath flow closer to the outer cylinder which is the magnetically insulated cathode electrode. Each module powers a separate two-stage extraction diode which provides a low divergence ion beam. In order to provide the two separate voltage pulses required by the diode, a triaxial adder system is designed for each module. The voltage addition occurs in two separate MITLs. The center hollow cylinder (anode) of the second MITL also serves as the outer cathode electrode for the extension of the first voltage adder MITL. The voltage of the second stage is about twice that of the first stage. The cavities are connected in series to form the outer cylinder of each module. The accelerating modules are positioned radially in a symmetrical way around the fusion chamber. A preliminary conceptual design of the LMF modules with emphasis on the voltage adders and extension MITLs will be presented and discussed

  1. Preconceptual design of a Long-Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS) at the LANSCE Facility: Target system, facility, and material handling considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a summary of a preconceptual design study for the proposed Long-Pulse Spallation. Source (LPSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The LPSS will use a 0.8-MW proton beam to produce neutrons from a tungsten target. This study focuses on the design of the target station and changes to the existing building that would be made to accommodate the LPSS. The LPSS will provide fifteen flight paths to neutron scattering instruments. In addition, options for generating ultracold neutrons, pions, and muons will be available. Flight-energy, forward-scattered neutrons on the downstream side of the target will also be available for autoradiography studies. A Target Test Bed (TTB) is also proposed for full-beam tests of component materials and advanced spallation neutron sources. The design allows for separation of the experiment hall from the beam line, target, and flight paths. The target and moderator systems and the systems/components to be tested in the TTB will be emplaced and removed separately by remotely operated, shielded equipment. Irradiated materials will be transported to a hot cell adjacent to the target chamber for testing by remotely operated instruments. These tests will provide information about how materials properties are affected by proton and neutron beams

  2. Pulsed power safety and technical training at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Zawadzkas, G.A.; Donovan, G.L.; Mikkelson, K.A.; Sharpe, A.W.; Johnston, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The expansion of pulsed power applications research at Sandia National Labs requires increasing technician-level support from individuals trained in high voltage, short pulse technology. Large superpower generators need a broad-based training curriculum in all aspects of accelerator operation to satisfy recent Department of Energy (DOE) desires for formal certification of accelerator operators. This paper discusses the status of Sandia's safety and technical training program in pulsed power technology directed mainly towards high school graduate and technical school level students. Present safety training methodology requires that hazards for experimental facilities are identified first, a specific curriculum is then tailored to individuals' background experiences and hazards involved with their current assignments. In the technical training program, certification requirements are being established and a coursework program has been initiated in which subjects are organized into two sections. The first covers electrical principles and physical properties of pulsed power components. The second presents various support-type subsystems for accelerators

  3. Pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, Pankaj; Shyam, Anurag, E-mail: surender80@gmail.com [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam (India); Sharma, Archana [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Longer duration high voltage pulse (∼ 100 kV, 260 ns) is generated and reported using helical pulse forming line in compact geometry. The transmission line characteristics of the helical pulse forming line are also used to develop fast repetition double pulse system with very short inter pulse interval. It overcomes the limitations caused due to circuit parameters, power supplies and load characteristics for fast repetitive high voltage pulse generation. The high voltage double pulse of 100 kV, 100 ns with an inter pulse repetition interval of 30 ns is applied across the vacuum field emission diode for pulsed electron beam generation. The electron beam is generated from cathode material by application of negative high voltage (> 100 kV) across the diode by explosive electron emission process. The vacuum field emission diode is made of 40 mm diameter graphite cathode and SS mesh anode. The anode cathode gap was 6 mm and the drift tube diameter was 10 cm. The initial experimental results of pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system are reported and discussed. (author)

  4. Switch evaluation test system for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, M.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Reynolds, F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Flashlamp pumped lasers use pulsed power switches to commute energy stored in capacitor banks to the flashlamps. The particular application in which the authors are interested is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), being designed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). To lower the total cost of these switches, SNL has a research program to evaluate large closing switches. The target value of the energy switched by a single device is 1.6 MJ, from a 6 mF, 24kV capacitor bank. The peak current is 500 kA. The lifetime of the NIF facility is 24,000 shots. There is no switch today proven at these parameters. Several short-lived switches (100's of shots) exist that can handle the voltage and current, but would require maintenance during the facility life. Other type devices, notably ignitrons, have published lifetimes in excess of 20,000 shots, but at lower currents and shorter pulse widths. The goal of the experiments at SNL is to test switches with the full NIF wave shape, and at the correct voltage. The SNL facility can provide over 500 kA at 24 kV charge voltage. the facility has 6.4 mF total capacitance, arranged in 25 sub-modules. the modular design makes the facility more flexible (for possible testing at lower current) and safer. For pulse shaping (the NIF wave shape is critically damped) there is an inductor and resistor for each of the 25 modules. Rather than one large inductor and resistor, this lowers the current in the pulse shaping components, and raises their value to those more easily attained with lumped inductors and resistors. The authors show the design of the facility, and show results from testing conducted thus far. They also show details of the testing plan for high current switches

  5. A facile approach for reducing the working voltage of Au/TiO2/Au nanostructured memristors by enhancing the local electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Bafrani, Hamidreza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Bagheri Shouraki, Saeed; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2018-01-01

    Memristor devices have attracted tremendous interest due to different applications ranging from nonvolatile data storage to neuromorphic computing units. Exploring the role of surface roughness of the bottom electrode (BE)/active layer interface provides useful guidelines for the optimization of the memristor switching performance. This study focuses on the effect of surface roughness of the BE electrode on the switching characteristics of Au/TiO2/Au three-layer memristor devices. An optimized wet-etching treatment condition was found to modify the surface roughness of the Au BE where the measurement results indicate that the roughness of the Au BE is affected by both duration time and solution concentrations of the wet-etching process. Then we fabricated arrays of TiO2-based nanostructured memristors sandwiched between two sets of cross-bar Au electrode lines (junction area 900 μm2). The results revealed a reduction in the working voltages in current-voltage characteristic of the device performance when increasing the surface roughness at the Au(BE)/TiO2 active layer interface. The set voltage of the device (Vset) significantly decreased from 2.26-1.93 V when we increased the interface roughness from 4.2-13.1 nm. The present work provides information for better understanding the switching mechanism of titanium-dioxide-based devices, and it can be inferred that enhancing the roughness of the Au BE/TiO2 active layer interface leads to a localized non-uniform electric field distribution that plays a vital role in reducing the energy consumption of the device.

  6. Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small

  7. Transport of a solute pulse through the bentonite barrier of deep geological high-level waste storage facilities in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Alonso Diaz-Teran, J.; Gonzalez- Herranz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Spain like Sweden, Finland, Canada and other countries has opted for an open nuclear fuel cycle, and to store the unreprocessed spent fuel in a stable geological formation. Sweden, Finland and Canada have chosen granite rock for their high-level waste storage facilities. Their Performance Assessment of disposal systems have all obtained to the same result. The greatest annual doses are caused by I 129 in the gap between the fuel rods and the cladding. The reference concept for the Spanish high-level waste storage facility in granite provides for final storage in a granite mass at a depth of 500 m in carbon steel capsules in horizontal tunnels surrounded by a bentonite buffer. It the capsule fails due to generalised corrosion, an not giving credit for the cladding, the I 129 and other radionuclides in the gap would pass immediately into the surrounding water. This paper describes the modelling of the transport of the solute through the bentonite around the capsule to determine the fraction that crosses the bentonite each year. It also analyses the sensitivity of the results to the boundary condition adopted and changes in the values of the relevant parameters. (Author)

  8. Neutron induced current pulses in fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Buck, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of neutron induced current pulse generation in fission chambers is discussed. By application of the calculated detector transfer function to proposed detector current pulse shapes, and by comparison with actually observed detector output voltage pulses, a credible, semi-empirical, trapezoidal pulse shape of chamber current is obtained

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of femtosecond technology. R and D of high intensity X-ray pulse use power generation facility monitoring system; 2000 nendo femto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokido X sen pulse riyo hatsuden shisetsu monitoring system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project aims at creating new industrial basement technology which supports the highly information-oriented society in the 21st century, conducts the R and D of technology to control the state of light and electron in the femtosecond time domain (10{sup -15} - 10{sup -12} sec), and establishes the basement technology which exceeds the speed limit of the conventional electronics technology and also includes new functionality. Especially, in the R and D of the high intensity X-ray pulse use power generation facility monitoring system, the establishment is aimed at of the basement technology toward the realization of non-stop inspection of high speed moving objects of power generation facilities, etc. using femtosecond high intensity X-ray pulse generated in the interaction between femtosecond optical pulse and high density electron beam pulse. In this fiscal year, femtosecond X-ray was successfully generated. The pulse width of X-ray: 400fs, the wavelength: 6 angstroms, the X-ray dose generated in one collision: 10{sup 4} photons/pulse or more, and the energy of electron beam colliding with laser optical pulse: 12 MeV. Moreover, developed were the laser amplifying system and the stabilized high power femtosecond laser system. (NEDO)

  10. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  11. Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Prediction of Neutron Yield of IR-IECF Facility in High Voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adineh-Vand, A.; Torabi, M.; Roshani, G. H.; Taghipour, M.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rezaei, M.; Sadati, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a soft computing based artificial intelligent technique, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the neutron production rate (NPR) of IR-IECF device in wide discharge current and voltage ranges. A hybrid learning algorithm consists of back-propagation and least-squares estimation is used for training the ANFIS model. The performance of the proposed ANFIS model is tested using the experimental data using four performance measures: correlation coefficient, mean absolute error, mean relative error percentage (MRE%) and root mean square error. The obtained results show that the proposed ANFIS model has achieved good agreement with the experimental results. In comparison to the experimental data the proposed ANFIS model has MRE% training and testing data respectively. Therefore, this model can be used as an efficient tool to predict the NPR in the IR-IECF device.

  12. Optical sensors for the measurement of electric current and voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutgers, W R; Hulshof, H J.M.; Laurensse, I J; van der Wey, A H

    1987-01-01

    Optical sensors for the measurement of electrical current and voltage were developed for application in electric power systems. The current sensor, based on the Faraday effect in a monomode glass fiber, and the voltage sensor, based on the transverse Pockels effect in a crystal, are demonstrated in wide-band (10 MHz) interference-free measurements of pulsed currents and impulse voltages.

  13. High voltage designing of 300.000 Volt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1978-01-01

    Some methods of designing a.c and d.c high voltage supplies are discussed. A high voltage supply for the Gama Research Centre accelerator is designed using transistor pulse generators. High voltage transformers being made using radio transistor ferrits as a core are also discussed. (author)

  14. Impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection on surface contamination in a hospital facility's expressed human milk feed preparation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippenaar, Ricky; Smith, Johan

    2018-02-23

    Expressed human milk (EHM) feed preparation areas represent a potential source of unintentional nosocomial infection. Daily disinfection of environmental surfaces remains an essential intervention to mitigate nosocomial infections. The inefficiency of conventional cleaning and disinfection contributes to an increased risk for the acquisition of multi-drug resistant pathogens. "Non touch" technologies such as the pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UVD) light device have documented sustained reduction in surface bacterial colonization and reduced cross contamination. The impact of a PX-UVD on surface colony forming units per square centimeter (cfu/cm 2 ) in feed preparation areas was evaluated following its implementation as standard care. A quasi-experimental study was performed documenting bacterial colonization from 6 high risk feed preparation areas in a community care hospital in South Africa. Pre and post conventional cleaning neutralizing rinse swabs were collected fortnightly over a 16 week control period prior to the introduction of the PX-UVD and compared to a matching set of samples for the PX-UVD period. A 90% reduction in total surface bioburden was noted from the control period (544 cfu/cm 2 ) compared to the corresponding PX-UVD period (50 cfu/cm 2 ). Sub -analysis of both the Pre-clean Control: Pre-clean PX-UVD counts as well as the Post-clean Control: Post-clean PX-UVD counts noted significant improvements (p cleaning total surface bioburden following exposure to the PX-UVD (p = 0.0004). The introduction of the PX-UVD was associated with a sustained reduction in the pre clean bioburden counts with a risk trend (per week) 0.19, (95% CI [0.056, 0.67], p = 0.01). The use of a PX-UVD as adjunct to standard cleaning protocols was associated with a significant decrease in surface bioburden. The study demonstrated the inefficiency of conventional cleaning. Persistence of potentially pathological species in both periods highlights current health

  15. Pulsed neutron sources at KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, I.M.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Craddock, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed KAON Factory facility at TRIUMF consists of a number of synchrotrons and storage rings which offer proton beams of energies between 0.45 and 30 GeV with varying pulse amplitudes, widths and repetition rates. Various possibilities for feeding these beams to a pulsed neutron facility and their potential for future development are examined. The incremental cost of such a pulsed neutron facility is estimated approximately. (author)

  16. Versatile high current metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ion implantation facility has been developed with which high current beams of practically all the solid metals of the periodic table can be produced. A multicathode, broad-beam, metal vapor vacuum arc ion source is used to produce repetitively pulsed metal ion beams at an extraction voltage of up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred kiloelectronvolts because of the ion charge state multiplicity, and with a beam current of up to several amps peak pulsed and several tens of milliamps time averaged delivered onto a downstream target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line of sight from ion source to target. Here we summarize some of the features of the ion source and the implantation facility that has been built up around it. (orig)

  17. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  18. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  19. Updating the induction module from single-pulse to double-pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; Wang Huacen; Deng Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    A double-pulse Linear Induced Accelerator (LIA) module is reconstructed based on a usual simple-pulse LIA module. By changing the length of one of the cables between the inductive cell and the Blumlein pulse forming line, two induction pulses with 90 ns FWHM and 150 kV pulse voltage are generated by the ferrite cores inductive cell. The interval time of the pulses is adjustable by changing the lengths of the cable

  20. Pulsed-coil magnet systems for applying uniform 10-30 T fields to centimeter-scale targets on Sandia's Z facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovang, D C; Lamppa, D C; Cuneo, M E; Owen, A C; McKenney, J; Johnson, D W; Radovich, S; Kaye, R J; McBride, R D; Alexander, C S; Awe, T J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Haill, T A; Jones, P A; Argo, J W; Dalton, D G; Robertson, G K; Waisman, E M; Sinars, D B; Meissner, J; Milhous, M; Nguyen, D N; Mielke, C H

    2014-12-01

    Sandia has successfully integrated the capability to apply uniform, high magnetic fields (10-30 T) to high energy density experiments on the Z facility. This system uses an 8-mF, 15-kV capacitor bank to drive large-bore (5 cm diameter), high-inductance (1-3 mH) multi-turn, multi-layer electromagnets that slowly magnetize the conductive targets used on Z over several milliseconds (time to peak field of 2-7 ms). This system was commissioned in February 2013 and has been used successfully to magnetize more than 30 experiments up to 10 T that have produced exciting and surprising physics results. These experiments used split-magnet topologies to maintain diagnostic lines of sight to the target. We describe the design, integration, and operation of the pulsed coil system into the challenging and harsh environment of the Z Machine. We also describe our plans and designs for achieving fields up to 20 T with a reduced-gap split-magnet configuration, and up to 30 T with a solid magnet configuration in pursuit of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept.

  1. Above scaling short-pulse ion acceleration from flat foil and ``Pizza-top Cone'' targets at the Trident laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kirk; Hegelich, B. Manuel; Cort Gautier, D.; Johnson, J. Randy; Kline, John L.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Fernández, Juan C.; Gaillard, Sandrine; Rassuchine, Jennifer; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Malekos, Steve; Korgan, Grant

    2006-10-01

    Ion-driven Fast Ignition (IFI) has certain advantages over electron-driven FI due to a possible large reduction in the amount of energy required. Recent experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident facility have yielded ion energies and efficiencies many times in excess of recent published scaling laws, leading to even more potential advantages of IFI. Proton energies in excess of 35 MeV have been observed from targets produced by the University of Nevada, Reno - dubbed ``Pizza-top Cone'' targets - at intensities of only 1x10^19 W/cm^2 with 20 joules in 600 fs. Energies in excess of 24 MeV were observed from simple flat foil targets as well. The observed energies, above any published scaling laws, are attributed to target production, preparation, and shot to shot monitoring of many laser parameters, especially the laser ASE prepulse level and laser pulse duration. The laser parameters are monitored in real-time to keep the laser in optimal condition throughout the run providing high quality, reproducible shots.

  2. Current pulse shaping of the load current on PTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghe Xia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The typical rise time of PTS machine is ∼110 ns with about 10 MA peak current under short pulse mode when all 24 modules discharge simultaneously. By distributing the trigger times of 12 laser beams logically and adjusting the statues of the pulse output switches, longer rise-time pulse can be obtained on the PTS facility. Based on the required pulse shape, whole circuit simulations will be used to calculate the trigger times of each laser triggering gas switch and the status of the pulse output switches. The rise time of the current is determined by the time difference between the first and last trigged laser triggering gas switches. In order to trigger the laser triggering gas switch, sufficient laser power is needed to be sent into the gap of the gas switches. The gas pressure and voltage difference on the two electrodes of the gas switches also affect the triggering of the gas switches, and the voltage added on the gas switch is determined by its transition time. Traditionally the trigger time difference should be less than the transition time of the two neighboring modules. A new simulation model of PTS shows one can break this transition time limits. Series of current pulse shaping experiments have been investigated on the PTS (Primary Test Stand. As results, more than 5 MA peak current were successfully achieved on the load with a rise time of 600 ns. This study and experiments of the pulse shaping on PTS demonstrate the adaptable ability of the PTS for offering different waveform of mega ampere current pulse for different research purpose.

  3. Voltage Stabilizer Based on SPWM technique Using Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. Tarchanidis; J. N. Lygouras; P. Botsaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the well known SPWM technique on a voltage stabilizer, using a microcontroller. The stabilizer is AC/DC/AC type. So, the system rectifies the input AC voltage to a suitable DC level and the intelligent control of an embedded microcontroller regulates the pulse width of the output voltage in order to produce through a filter a perfect sinusoidal AC voltage. The control program on the microcontroller has the ability to change the FET transistor ...

  4. Modeling study on the effects of pulse rise rate in atmospheric pulsed discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modeling study on the discharge characteristics driven by short pulsed voltages, focusing on the effects of pulse rise rate based on the fluid description of atmospheric plasmas. The numerical results show that the breakdown voltage of short pulsed discharge is almost linearly dependent on the pulse rise rate, which is also confirmed by the derived equations from the fluid model. In other words, if the pulse rise rate is fixed as a constant, the simulation results clearly suggest that the breakdown voltage is almost unchanged, although the amplitude of pulsed voltage increases significantly. The spatial distribution of the electric field and electron density are given to reveal the underpinning physics. Additionally, the computational data and the analytical expression also indicate that an increased repetition frequency can effectively decrease the breakdown voltage and current density, which is consistent with the experimental observation.

  5. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  6. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  7. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-02-15

    The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was motivated by the desire for an inexpensive way to accelerate intense short pulse heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. A pulse power driver applied at one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines the heavy ion beam pulse. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The concept might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the PFN is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  8. Analysis of NSTX TF Joint Voltage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley R

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings of analyses of recorded current and voltage data associated with 72 electrical joints operating at high current and high mechanical stress. The analysis goal was to characterize the mechanical behavior of each joint and thus evaluate its mechanical supports. The joints are part of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) pulsed plasma device operating at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Since there is not sufficient space near the joints for much traditional mechanical instrumentation, small voltage probes were installed on each joint and their voltage monitoring waveforms have been recorded on sampling digitizers during each NSTX ''shot''

  9. A pulse amplitude discriminator with very low-power consuming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Changming; Liu Zhengshan; Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang

    2000-01-01

    A low-power pulse amplitude discriminator is described. The discriminator circuit is mainly composed of an integrated voltage comparator, MAX921, and owns the characters of very low-power and low operating voltage

  10. Effect of high-voltage pulsed current plus conventional treatment on acute ankle sprain Efeito da adição da estimulação de alta voltagem ao tratamento convencional do entorse de tornozelo numa etapa aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sandoval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC treatments in humans as a means of controlling edema and post-traumatic pain has not yet been established. Objective: To analyze the effects of HVPC plus conventional treatment on lateral ankle sprains. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial with three intervention groups: CG (control group with conventional treatment; HVPC(- group (conventional treatment plus negative polarity HVPC; HVPC(+ group (conventional treatment plus positive polarity HVPC. Twenty-eight participants with lateral ankle sprain (2 to 96h post-trauma were evaluated. Conventional treatment consisted of cryotherapy (20min plus therapeutic exercises. Additionally, the HVPC(- and HVPC(+ groups received 30min of electrical stimulation (submotor level; 120 pps. Pain, edema, range of motion (ROM and gait were assessed before the first treatment session and after the last treatment session. RESULTS: At the final evaluation, there were no significant differences between groups. Nevertheless, the HVPC(- group had greater values in all assessed parameters. The data analysis showed that the HVPC(- group had greater reductions in volume and girth, and greater recovery of ROM and gait velocity. This group also reached the end of the treatment (1.7 weeks; range 1.2-2.2 faster than the HVPC(+ group and the CG (2.2 weeks; range 1.8-2.6. CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences between the study groups, but the results suggest that HVPC(- can accelerate the initial phase of recovery from ankle sprain.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A eficácia da estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem (EEAV em humanos, como uma forma de tratamento para controlar o edema e a dor pós-traumáticos, ainda não foi estabelecida. OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da adição da EEAV ao tratamento convencional do pós-entorse de tornozelo em humanos. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico controlado e aleatorizado, duplo cego com três grupos de

  11. The SWARF high energy flash X-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.F.; Dove, E.W.D.

    1976-06-01

    A description is presented of the SWARF flash radiography facility at AWRE Foulness, which is stated to be the most powerful flash x-ray system available, in the U.K. The machine consists essentially of a Marx generator, a coaxial Blumlein system and an x-ray tube. The voltage output from the Marx generator (about 2.5 MV from an 80 kV input) is applied to a large re-entrant Blumlein pulse-forming line. Near maximum voltage, an adjustable oil switch short-circuits one end of the Blumlein generator and so applies a square voltage pulse of 65 ns duration to the x-ray tube. The x-rays are produced from a tantalum target which forms the anode of a vacuum field emission diode. The facility consists of two field machines positioned so that radiographs can be obtained from different angles. The description is given under the following heads: modus operandi; constructional details; oil installation; electrical details; commissioning, calibration and electrical data; flash radiography in explosives research; operational control of facility, film packs; radiographic results; further developments; overall performance. (U.K.)

  12. Low power arcjet thruster pulse ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the pulse ignition characteristics of a 1 kW class arcjet using an inductive energy storage pulse generator with a pulse width modulated power converter identified several thruster and pulse generator parameters that influence breakdown voltage including pulse generator rate of voltage rise. This work was conducted with an arcjet tested on hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine. Over all ranges of thruster and pulser parameters investigated, the mean breakdown voltages varied from 1.4 to 2.7 kV. Ignition tests at elevated thruster temperatures under certain conditions revealed occasional breakdowns to thruster voltages higher than the power converter output voltage. These post breakdown discharges sometimes failed to transition to the lower voltage arc discharge mode and the thruster would not ignite. Under the same conditions, a transition to the arc mode would occur for a subsequent pulse and the thruster would ignite. An automated 11 600 cycle starting and transition to steady state test demonstrated ignition on the first pulse and required application of a second pulse only two times to initiate breakdown.

  13. Experimental Observation of RF Radiation Generated by an Explosively Driven Voltage Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rader, Mark S; Sullivan, Carol; Andreadis, Tim D

    2005-01-01

    .... located in Rolla, Missouri. A pulse-forming network and transmitting antenna were constructed and attached to the voltage-pulse generator, and a matched receiving antenna was located approximately 3 m from the transmitting antenna...

  14. The System of Nanosecond 280-KeV He+ Pulsed Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junphong, P.; Ano, V.; Lekprasert, B.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Thongnopparat, N.; Vilaithong, T.; Chiang Mai U.; Wiedemann, H.; SLAC/SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-01

    At Fast Neutron Research Facility, the 150 kV-pulses neutron generator is being upgraded to a 280-kV-pulsed-He beam for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It involves replacing the existing beam line elements by a multicusp ion source, a 400-kV accelerating tube, 45-double focusing dipole magnet and quadrupole lens. The multicusp ion source is a compact filament-driven of 2.6 cm in diameter and 8 cm in length. The current extracted is 20.4 μ A with 13 kV of extraction voltage and 8.8 kV of Einzel lens voltage. The beam emittance has found to vary between 6-12 mm mrad. The beam transport system has to be redesigned based on the new elements. The important part of a good pulsed beam depends on the pulsing system. The two main parts are the chopper and buncher. An optimized geometry for the 280 keV pulsed helium ion beam will be presented and discussed. The PARMELA code has been used to optimize the space charge effect, resulting in pulse width of less than 2 ns at a target. The calculated distance from a buncher to the target is 4.6 m. Effects of energy spread and phase angle between chopper and buncher have been included in the optimization of the bunch length

  15. Foundations of pulsed power technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehr, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed power technologies could be an answer to many cutting-edge applications. The challenge is in how to develop this high-power/high-energy technology to fit current market demands of low-energy consuming applications. This book provides a comprehensive look at pulsed power technology and shows how it can be improved upon for the world of today and tomorrow. Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology focuses on the design and construction of the building blocks as well as their optimum assembly for synergetic high performance of the overall pulsed power system. Filled with numerous design examples throughout, the book offers chapter coverage on various subjects such as: Marx generators and Marx-like circuits; pulse transformers; pulse-forming lines; closing switches; opening switches; multi-gigawatt to multi-terawatt systems; energy storage in capacitor banks; electrical breakdown in gases; electrical breakdown in solids, liquids and vacuum; pulsed voltage and current measurements; electromagnetic interferen...

  16. High voltage power supplies for ITER RF heating and current drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, T.; Arambhadiya, B.; Beaumont, B.; Baruah, U.K.; Bonicelli, T.; Darbos, C.; Purohit, D.; Decamps, H.; Albajar, F.; Gandini, F.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Omori, T.; Parmar, D.; Patel, A.; Rathi, D.; Singh, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems to be installed for the ITER fusion machine are the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC) and, although not in the first phase of the project, lower hybrid (LH). These systems require high voltage, high current power supplies (HVPS) in CW operation. These HVPS should deliver around 50 MW electrical power to each of the RF H and CD systems with stringent requirements in terms of accuracy, voltage ripple, response time, turn off time and fault energy. The PSM (Pulse Step Modulation) technology has demonstrated over the past 20 years its ability to fulfill these requirements in many industrial facilities and other fusion reactors and has therefore been chosen as reference design for the IC and EC HVPS systems. This paper describes the technical specifications, including interfaces, the resulting constraints on the design, the conceptual design proposed for ITER EC and IC HVPS systems and the current status.

  17. High Bandwidth Zero Voltage Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xie; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2014-01-01

    High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses to be inj......High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses...... in a fast current regulation performance. Injection of zero voltage also minimizes the inverter voltage error effects caused by the dead-time....

  18. Study of electron beam energy conversion at gyrocon-linear accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karliner, M.M.; Makarov, I.G.; Ostreiko, G.N.

    2004-01-01

    A gyrocon together with the high-voltage 1.5 MeV accelerator ELIT-3A represents a power generator at 430 MHz serving for linear electron accelerator pulse driving. The facility description and results of calorimetric measurements of ELIT-3A electron beam power and accelerated beam at the end of accelerator are presented in the paper. The achieved energy conversion efficiency is about 55%

  19. Deposition of diamond-like carbon films by plasma source ion implantation with superposed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon wafer substrate by plasma source ion implantation with superposed negative pulse. Methane and acetylene gases were used as working gases for plasma. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from 0 to -18 kV. The surface of DLC films was very smooth. The deposition rate of DLC films increased with increasing in superposed DC bias voltage. Carbon ion implantation was confirmed for the DLC film deposited from methane plasma with high pulse voltage. I D /I G ratios of Raman spectroscopy were around 1.5 independent on pulse voltage. The maximum hardness of 20.3 GPa was observed for the film prepared with high DC and high pulse voltage

  20. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  1. Shaping the spectra of the line-to-line voltage using signal injection in the common mode voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Pedersen, John Kim

    2009-01-01

    A drawback of Pulse Width Modulation in electrical drives is the high harmonic content of the line to line voltages, which gives rise to Electro-Magnetic Interference and acoustic noise. By injection of a signal into the common mode voltage, the fundamental is not affected, but new frequency...

  2. Prediction of power losses in silicon iron sheets under PWM voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amar, M.; Kaczmarek, R.; Protat, F.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of iron losses in silicon iron steels submitted to a PWM voltage is studied. The influence of modulation parameters (the depth of modulation and the number of eliminated harmonics) is clarified. In particular, the idea of an equivalent alternating pulse voltage that gives the same iron losses as the PWM voltage is established. An estimation formula for iron losses under the PWM voltage is developed based on the loss separation model and the voltage form factor. ((orig.))

  3. The harmonic composition of the output voltage of a rectifier unit with a PWM voltage booster converter.

    OpenAIRE

    ПАНЧЕНКО, В В

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates a rectifier unit constructed on the basis of cascade connection of the main non-controlled m-pulse rectifier and PWM voltage booster converter. The research presents the analysis of the harmonic composition of the output voltage of a rectifier unit with a PWM voltage booster converter on completely controlled keys. The dependence of the relative harmonic amplitude on the commutation corner is defined. The estimation of a rectifier unit electromagnetic compatibility wit...

  4. RIIM two-pulse injector experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Jones, E.E.; Hasti, D.E.; Jojola, J.M.; Lehmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    The RADLAC-II foilless diode injector was operated under double pulse conditions utilizing the RIIM accelerator as the test bed. The original RIIM accelerator pulse-power network was modified to provide for the generation, transmission, and delivery to the foilless diode of two distinct voltage pulses with variable interpulse separation from 0 to 2 ms. Two pulse-power assemblies were investigated and will be presented in connection with the diode performance. In both cases, the generated plasma and an excessive neutral gas release, following the first pulse, prevented the diode from producing a second beam pulse for interpulse separations larger than ∼1 μs. 4 refs

  5. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  6. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  7. Development of the pulse transformer for NLC klystron pulse modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemoto, M.; Gold, S.; Koontz, R.; Krasnykh, A.

    1997-05-01

    We have studied a conventional pulse transformer for the NLC klystron pulse modulator. The transformer has been analyzed using a simplified lumped circuit model. It is found that a fast rise time requires low leakage inductance and low distributed capacitance and can be realized by reducing the number of secondary turns, but it produces larger pulse droop and core size. After making a tradeoff among these parameters carefully, a conventional pulse transformer with a rise time of 250ns and pulse droop of 3.6% has been designed and built. The transmission characteristics and pulse time-response were measured. The data were compared with the model. The agreement with the model was good when the measured values were used in the model simulation. The results of the high voltage tests are also presented

  8. Pulse transformer R and D for NLC klystron pulse modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemoto, M.; Gold, S.; Krasnykh, A.; Koontz, R.

    1997-07-01

    The authors have studied a conventional pulse transformer for the NLC klystron pulse modulator. The transformer has been analyzed using a simplified lumped circuit model. It is found that a fast rise time requires low leakage inductance and low distributed capacitance and can be realized by reducing the number of secondary turns, but it produces larger pulse droop and requires a larger core size. After making a tradeoff among these parameters carefully, a conventional pulse transformer with a rise time of 250ns and a pulse droop of 3.6% has been designed and built. The transmission characteristics and pulse time-response were measured. The data were compared with the model. The agreement with the model was good when the measured values were used in the model simulation. The results of the high voltage tests using a klystron load are also presented

  9. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  10. Design of pulse transformers for PFL charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Air core pulse transformers powered by low voltage capacitor banks can be simple efficient systems for charging high-voltage (0.5 to 3 MV), pulse forming transmission lines (PFL) such as those used in electron and ion beam accelerators. In these applications pulse transformers must have the combined capability of high voltage endurance and high energy transfer efficiency, particularly in repetitive pulse systems where these features are of primary importance. The design of shielded, high-voltage, spiral, strip transformers which fulfill these requirements is described in this paper. Transformers of this type have been tested in three systems which operate with greater than 90% transfer efficiency and have not failed in over 10 7 shots

  11. An estimator-based distributed voltage-predictive control strategy for ac islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiongfei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimator-based voltage predictive control strategy for AC islanded microgrids, which is able to perform voltage control without any communication facilities. The proposed control strategy is composed of a network voltage estimator and a voltage predictive controller for each...... and has a good capability to reject uncertain perturbations of islanded microgrids....

  12. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  13. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  14. Neutral-point voltage dynamic model of three-level NPC inverter for reactive load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A three-level neutral-point-clamped inverter needs a controller for the neutral-point voltage. Typically, the controller design is based on a dynamic model. The dynamic model of the neutral-point voltage depends on the pulse width modulation technique used for the inverter. A pulse width modulati...

  15. Voltage sags: Their impact on the utility and industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.; Beam, G.E.; Melhorn, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of voltage sags on the utility and industrial customers. Several utility measures are presented to minimize the customer's exposure to voltage sags. However, these measures cannot completely eliminate the impact of voltage sags on sensitive equipment. A case study is presented in this paper that includes measurement results that were used to characterize the voltage sags experienced on the utility system and in the industrial facility, simulation results that were used to develop area of vulnerability curves for the industrial facility, mitigation equipment that was employed to improve the sensitive equipment's ride through capability, and the lessons learned from the systems approach analysis

  16. Statistical characteristics of transient enclosure voltage in ultra-high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanji; Guan, Yonggang; Liu, Weidong

    2017-06-01

    Transient enclosure voltage (TEV), which is a phenomenon induced by the inner dielectric breakdown of SF6 during disconnector operations in a gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), may cause issues relating to shock hazard and electromagnetic interference to secondary equipment. This is a critical factor regarding the electromagnetic compatibility of ultra-high-voltage (UHV) substations. In this paper, the statistical characteristics of TEV at UHV level are collected from field experiments, and are analyzed and compared to those from a repeated strike process. The TEV waveforms during disconnector operations are recorded by a self-developed measurement system first. Then, statistical characteristics, such as the pulse number, duration of pulses, frequency components, magnitude and single pulse duration, are extracted. The transmission line theory is introduced to analyze the TEV and is validated by the experimental results. Finally, the relationship between the TEV and the repeated strike process is analyzed. This proves that the pulse voltage of the TEV is proportional to the corresponding breakdown voltage. The results contribute to the definition of the standard testing waveform of the TEV, and can aid the protection of electronic devices in substations by minimizing the threat of this phenomenon.

  17. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  18. A compact nanosecond pulse generator for DBD tube characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S. K.; Dhakar, A. K.; Pal, U. N.

    2018-03-01

    High voltage pulses of very short duration and fast rise time are required for generating uniform and diffuse plasma under various operating conditions. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) has been generated by high voltage pulses of short duration and fast rise time to produce diffuse plasma in the discharge gap. The high voltage pulse power generators have been chosen according to the requirement for the DBD applications. In this paper, a compact solid-state unipolar pulse generator has been constructed for characterization of DBD plasma. This pulsar is designed to provide repetitive pulses of 315 ns pulse width, pulse amplitude up to 5 kV, and frequency variation up to 10 kHz. The amplitude of the output pulse depends on the dc input voltage. The output frequency has been varied by changing the trigger pulse frequency. The pulsar is capable of generating pulses of positive or negative polarity by changing the polarity of pulse transformer's secondary. Uniform and stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been produced successfully in a xenon DBD tube at 400-mbar pressure using the developed high voltage pulse generator.

  19. Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV.

  20. Synchronised Voltage Space Vector Modulation for Three-level Inverters with Common-mode Voltage Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulse-width modulation (PWM) is disseminated to three-level voltage source inverters with control algorithms with elimination of the common-mode voltages in three-phase drive systems with PWM. It provides smooth pulses-ratio changing and a quarter-wave symmetry...... of the voltage waveforms during the whole control range including overmodulation. Continuous, discontinuous and "direct-direct" schemes of synchronous PWM with both algebraic and trigonometric control functions have been analysed and compared. Simulations give the behaviour of the proposed methods and show some...... advantages of synchronous PWM in comparison with asynchronous at low ratios between the switching frequency and fundamental frequency....

  1. The System of Nanosecond 280-keV-He+ Pulsed Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Junphong, Pimporn; Lekprasert, Banyat; Suwannakachorn, Dusadee; Thongnopparat, N; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    At Fast Neutron Research Facility,the 150 kV-pulseds neutron generator is being upgraded to produce a 280-keV-pulsed-He beam for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It involves replacing the existing beam line elements by a multicusp ion source, a 400-kV accelerating tube, 45o-double focusing dipole magnet and quadrupole lens. The Multicusp ion source is a compact filament-driven of 2.6 cm in diameter and 8 cm in length. The current extracted is 20.4 μA with 13 kV of extraction voltage and 8.8 kV of Einzel lens voltage. The beam emittance has been found to vary between 6-12 mm mrad. The beam transport system has to be redesigned based on the new elements. The important part of a good pulsed beam depends on the pulsing system. The two main parts are the chopper and buncher. An optimized geometry for the 280 keV pulsed helium ion beam will be presented and discussed. The PARMELA code has been used to optimize the space charge effect, resulting in pulse width of less than 2 ns at a t...

  2. The Vulcan pulse generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, C.N.; Edwards, C.B.; Wyatt, R.W.W.

    1985-01-01

    During the past two years several changes have been made to the front end system on the VULCAN pulse generating system. These changes give greater flexibility and a wider choice of operating conditions. This note gives an updated description of the system capabilities, and gives users of the facility an idea of the various pulse combinations that are available. (author)

  3. Synchronization of 67 MJ, 50 kV pulsed power capacitor banks operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besuglov, V G; Galakhov, I V; Gasheev, A S; Grusin, I A; Gudov, S N; Kirillov, G A; Murugov, V M; Osin, V A; Petrakov, V N [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A sync system for the 67 MJ, 50 kV pulse power capacitor bank of the ISKRA-5 facility`s iodine laser is described. This system is to provide synchronism (a jitter within 0.3 {mu}s) in firing of 665 spark gaps, 476 electric discharge pumping sources and 513 flash lamps. The sync system is designed as series-voltage pulse generators to be fired at specifically predetermined times. Also, the system ensures switching of spark gaps in a sequence as required by the experiment and reliable operation of the pumping sources. Procedures to maintain high interference immunity for the system are also addressed. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs., 2 refs.

  4. Electra Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Electra Laser Facility is used to develop the science and technology needed to develop a reliable, efficient, high-energy, repetitively pulsed krypton...

  5. High current transistor pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs

  6. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  7. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  8. Controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulator with enhanced circuit topology and pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V.; DʼOstilio, Kevin; Rothwell, John C.; Murphy, David L.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. This work aims at flexible and practical pulse parameter control in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is currently very limited in commercial devices. Approach. We present a third generation controllable pulse parameter device (cTMS3) that uses a novel circuit topology with two energy-storage capacitors. It incorporates several implementation and functionality advantages over conventional TMS devices and other devices with advanced pulse shape control. cTMS3 generates lower internal voltage differences and is implemented with transistors with a lower voltage rating than prior cTMS devices. Main results. cTMS3 provides more flexible pulse shaping since the circuit topology allows four coil-voltage levels during a pulse, including approximately zero voltage. The near-zero coil voltage enables snubbing of the ringing at the end of the pulse without the need for a separate active snubber circuit. cTMS3 can generate powerful rapid pulse sequences (\\lt 10 ms inter pulse interval) by increasing the width of each subsequent pulse and utilizing the large capacitor energy storage, allowing the implementation of paradigms such as paired-pulse and quadripulse TMS with a single pulse generation circuit. cTMS3 can also generate theta (50 Hz) burst stimulation with predominantly unidirectional electric field pulses. The cTMS3 device functionality and output strength are illustrated with electrical output measurements as well as a study of the effect of pulse width and polarity on the active motor threshold in ten healthy volunteers. Significance. The cTMS3 features could extend the utility of TMS as a research, diagnostic, and therapeutic tool.

  9. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  10. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  11. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  12. Design and simulation for the pulse high-voltage DC power supply (HVPS) of 1.2 MW/2.45 GHz HT-7U lower hybrid current drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yiyun; Kuang Guangli; Xu Weihua; Liu Baohua; Lin Jianan; Wu Junshuan; Zheng Guanghua; Yang Chunshen

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting tokamak HT-7U has been designed by the Institute of Plasma Physics since 1998 and will be set up before 2003. The 1.2 MW/2.45 GHz HT-7U LHCD (Lower hybrid current drive) system which being the most efficient non-induction device can heat the plasma and drive the plasma current has been efficiently in operation now, and a particular design of the 2.8 MW/-35 kV high-voltage DC power supply has been already completed and will apply to the klystron of LHCD on HT-7 and the future HT-7U, and the project of the power supply has been examined and approved professionally by an authorized group of high-level specialist in the Institute of Plasma Physics. The detailed design of the power supply and the simulation results are referred

  13. On the Transmission Line Pulse Measurement Technique

    OpenAIRE

    X. Rodriguez; M. Eduardo; M. Harington

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Line Pulse is a short pulse (25ns to 150ns) measurement of the current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of the ESD protection built into an integrated circuit. The short TLP pulses are used to simulate the short ESD pulse threats and integrated circuit must tolerate without being damaged. In this work the fundamental principles of how the TLP pulse is generated and used to create I-V characteristic plots will be explored. The measurement will be then used to characterize the I-V cha...

  14. Proposed inductive voltage adder based accelerator concepts for the second axis of DARHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Johnson, D.L.; Boyes, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    As participants in the Technology Options Study for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratories, the authors have considered several accelerator concepts based on the Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) technology that is being used successfully at Sandia on the SABRE and HERMES-III facilities. The challenging accelerator design requirements for the IVA approach include: ≥12-MeV beam energy; ∼60-ns electrical pulse width; ≤40-kA electron beam current; ∼1-mm diameter e-beam; four pulses on the same axis or as close as possible to that axis; and an architecture that fits within the existing building envelope. To satisfy these requirements the IVA concepts take a modular approach. The basic idea is built upon a conservative design for eight ferromagnetically isolated 2-MV cavities that are driven by two 3 to 4-Ω water dielectric pulse forming lines (PFLs) synchronized with laser triggered gas switches. The 100-Ω vacuum magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) would taper to a needle cathode that produces the electron beam(s). After considering many concepts the authors narrowed their study to the following options: (A) Four independent single pulse drivers powering four single pulse diodes; (B) Four series adders with interleaved cavities feeding a common MITL and diode; (C) Four stages of series PFLs, isolated from each other by triggered spark gap switches, with single-point feeds to a common adder, MITL, and diode; and (D) Isolated PFLs with multiple-feeds to a common adder using spark gap switches in combination with saturable magnetic cores to isolate the non-energized lines. The authors will discuss these options in greater detail identifying the challenges and risks associated with each

  15. Adhesion characteristics of VO2 ink film sintered by intense pulsed light for smart window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ji Won; Lee, Seok-Jae; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Dae Up

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the development of energy-efficient coatings on glass has led to the research of smart windows that can modulate solar energy in response to an external stimulus like light, heat, or electricity. Thermochromic smart windows have attracted great interest because they provide highly visible transparency and intelligently controllable solar heat. VO2 has been widely used as coating material for thermochromism owing to its reversible metal-to-insulator transition near room temperature. However, unstable crystalline phases and expensive fabrication processes of VO2 films limit their facile application in smart windows. To overcome these restrictions, we manufactured nanoinks based on VO2 nanoparticles and fabricated films using spin coating and intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering on a quartz substrate. We examined adhesion between the VO2 nanoink films and the quartz substrate by varying the applied voltages and the number of pulses. The average adhesion of thin films increased to 83 and 108 N/m as the applied voltage during IPL sintering increased from 1400 to 2000 V. By increasing the number of pulses from 5 to 20, the adhesive strength increased from 83 to 94 N/m at 1400 V, and decreased from 108 to 96 N/m at 2000 V voltage.

  16. Modelling voltage sag mitigation using dynamic voltage restorer and analyzing power quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Laili; Hidzir, Hizrin Dayana Mohd; Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Ibrahim, Pungut; Ali, Che Ku Muhammad Sabri Che Ku

    2018-02-01

    Power quality problem which are arise due to a fault or a pulsed load can have caused an interruption of critical load. The modern power systems are becoming more sensitive to the quality of the power supplied by the utility company. Voltage sags and swells, flicker, interruptions, harmonic distortion and other distortion to the sinusoidal waveform are the examples of the power quality problems. The most affected due to these problems is industrial customers who use a lot of sensitive equipment. There has suffered a huge loss to these problems. Resulting of broken or damage equipment if voltage sag exceeds the sensitive threshold of the equipment. Thus, device such as Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has been created to solve this problem among users. DVR is a custom power device that most effective and efficient. This paper intended to report the DVR operations during voltage sag compensation.

  17. Inductive energy storage using high voltage vacuum circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.B.; Woodson, H.H.; Mukutmoni, T.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments currently being planned require large amounts of pulsed energy. Inductive energy storage systems (IES) appear to be attractive for at least two applications in the fusion research program: high beta devices and those employing turbulent heating. The well-known roadblock to successful implementation of IES is the development of a reliable and cost-effective off-switch capable of handling high currents and withstanding high recovery voltages. The University of Texas at Austin has a program to explore the application of conventional vacuum circuit breakers designed for use in AC systems, in conjunction with appropriate counter pulse circuits, as off-switches in inductive energy storage systems. The present paper describes the IES employing vacuum circuit breakers as off-switches. Since the deionization property of these circuit breakers is of great importance to the design and the cost of the counter-pulse circuit, a synthetic test installation to test these breakers has been conceived, designed and is being installed in the Fusion Research Center, University of Texas at Austin. Some design aspects of the facility will be discussed here. Finally, the results of the study on a mathematical model developed and optimized to determine the least cost system which meets both the requirements of an off-switch for IES Systems and the ratings of circuit breakers used in power systems has been discussed. This analysis indicates that the most important factor with respect to the system cost is the derating of the circuit breakers to obtain satisfactory lifetimes

  18. A 7.2 keV spherical x-ray crystal backlighter for two-frame, two-color backlighting at Sandia's Z Pulsed Power Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeier, M. S.; Knapp, P. F.; Ampleford, D. J.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Lamppa, D. C.; Loisel, G. P.; Martin, M. R.; Robertson, G. K.; Shores, J. E.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Weis, M. R.; Porter, J. L.; McBride, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    Many experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Pulsed Power Facility—a 30 MA, 100 ns rise-time, pulsed-power driver—use a monochromatic quartz crystal backlighter system at 1.865 keV (Si He α ) or 6.151 keV (Mn He α ) x-ray energy to radiograph an imploding liner (cylindrical tube) or wire array z-pinch. The x-ray source is generated by the Z-Beamlet laser, which provides two 527-nm, 1 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses. Radiographs of imploding, thick-walled beryllium liners at convergence ratios CR above 15 [ C R = r i ( 0 ) / r i ( t ) ] using the 6.151-keV backlighter system were too opaque to identify the inner radius r i of the liner with high confidence, demonstrating the need for a higher-energy x-ray radiography system. Here, we present a 7.242 keV backlighter system using a Ge(335) spherical crystal with the Co He α resonance line. This system operates at a similar Bragg angle as the existing 1.865 keV and 6.151 keV backlighters, enhancing our capabilities for two-color, two-frame radiography without modifying the system integration at Z. The first data taken at Z include 6.2-keV and 7.2-keV two-color radiographs as well as radiographs of low-convergence (CR about 4-5), high-areal-density liner implosions.

  19. Comparison between SRAM SEE cross-sections from ion beam testing with those obtained using a new picosecond pulsed laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Chugg, A.M.; Jones, C.M.S.; Duncan, P.H.; Dyer, C.S.; Sanderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    A laser system has been designed to be capable of delivering large numbers of pulses across a micro-chip die under computer control, so as rapidly to generate upset and latch-up cross-section curves, in order to provide an efficient screening tool for SEE (single event effect) susceptibility. The system has been automated to make screening of parts for use in an SEE environment fast, efficient and inexpensive. A comparison between ion beam test results and laser test results has been used to develop initial calibrations between laser energy and LET (linear energy transfer)

  20. 130 kV 130 A high voltage switching mode power supply for neutral beam injectors-Control issues and algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganuza, D.; Garcia, F.; Zulaika, M.; Perez, A.; Jones, T.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    The company JEMA has delivered to the Joint European Torus (JET facility in Culham) two high voltage switching mode power supplies (HVSMPS) each rated 130 kVdc and 130 A. One HVSMPS feeds the grids of two PINI loads. This paper describes the main control issues and the algorithms developed for the project. The most demanding requirements from the control point of view is an absolute accuracy of ±1300 V and the possibility of performing up to 255 re-applications of the high voltage during a 20 s pulse. Keeping the output voltage ripple to the specified tolerance has been a major achievement of the control system. Since the output stage is formed of several modules (120) connected in series, their stray capacitance to ground significantly influences the individual contribution of each single module to the global output voltage. Two complementary techniques have been used to balance the effects of the stray capacities. The fast re-applications requirement has a significant impact on the intermediate dc link. This section is composed of a capacity of 0.83 F, which feeds the 120 invertor modules. The dc link is fed by a 12 pulse SCR rectifier, whose matching transformers are connected to the 36 kV grid. Every re-application and every voltage shutdown supposes a quasi-instantaneous power step of 17 MW. Fast open loop algorithms have been implemented in order to keep the dc link voltage within acceptable margins. Moreover, the HVSMPS output characteristics have to be maintained during the rapid and important voltage fluctuations of the 36 kV mains (28-37 kV). The general control system is based on a Simatic S7 PLC, and a SCADA user interface. Up to 1000 signals are acquired. The control system has shown to be also a useful tool to allow for a rapid and accurate identification of faults and their origin

  1. Experimental installation for excitation of semiconductors and dielectrics by picosecond pulsed electron beam and electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A.S.; Berezhnoj, K.V.; Shapkin, P.V.; Reutova, A.G.; Shunajlov, S.A.; Yalandin, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental facility for shaping high-voltage pulses with amplitudes of 30-250 kV and durations of 100-500 ps and electron beams with a current density of up to 1000 A/cm -2 is described. The facility was built using the principle of energy compression of a pulse from a nanosecond high-voltage generator accompanied by the subsequent pulse sharpening and cutting. The setup is equipped with two test coaxial chambers for radiation excitation in semiconductor crystals by an electron beam or an electric field in air at atmospheric pressure and T = 300 K. Generation of laser radiation in the visible range under field and electron pumping was attained in ZnSSe, ZnSe, ZnCdS, and CdS (462, 480, 515, and 525 nm, respectively). Under the exposure to an electric field (up to 10 6 V x cm -1 ), the laser generation region is as large as 300-500 μm. The radiation divergence was within 5 Deg C. The maximum integral radiation power (6 kW at λ = 480 nm) was obtained under field pumping of a zinc selenide sample with a single dielectric mirror [ru

  2. Pulsed corona generation using a diode-based pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemen, A. J. M.; Grekhov, I. V.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; Nair, S. A.; Korotkov, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    Pulsed plasma techniques serve a wide range of unconventional processes, such as gas and water processing, hydrogen production, and nanotechnology. Extending research on promising applications, such as pulsed corona processing, depends to a great extent on the availability of reliable, efficient and repetitive high-voltage pulsed power technology. Heavy-duty opening switches are the most critical components in high-voltage pulsed power systems with inductive energy storage. At the Ioffe Institute, an unconventional switching mechanism has been found, based on the fast recovery process in a diode. This article discusses the application of such a "drift-step-recovery-diode" for pulsed corona plasma generation. The principle of the diode-based nanosecond high-voltage generator will be discussed. The generator will be coupled to a corona reactor via a transmission-line transformer. The advantages of this concept, such as easy voltage transformation, load matching, switch protection and easy coupling with a dc bias voltage, will be discussed. The developed circuit is tested at both a resistive load and various corona reactors. Methods to optimize the energy transfer to a corona reactor have been evaluated. The impedance matching between the pulse generator and corona reactor can be significantly improved by using a dc bias voltage. At good matching, the corona energy increases and less energy reflects back to the generator. Matching can also be slightly improved by increasing the temperature in the corona reactor. More effective is to reduce the reactor pressure.

  3. Mitigating voltage lead errors of an AC Josephson voltage standard by impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; van den Brom, Helko E.; Houtzager, Ernest

    2017-09-01

    A pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage standard (ACJVS) generates calculable AC voltage signals at low temperatures, whereas measurements are performed with a device under test (DUT) at room temperature. The voltage leads cause the output voltage to show deviations that scale with the frequency squared. Error correction mechanisms investigated so far allow the ACJVS to be operational for frequencies up to 100 kHz. In this paper, calculations are presented to deal with these errors in terms of reflected waves. Impedance matching at the source side of the system, which is loaded with a high-impedance DUT, is proposed as an accurate method to mitigate these errors for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Simulations show that the influence of non-ideal component characteristics, such as the tolerance of the matching resistor, the capacitance of the load input impedance, losses in the voltage leads, non-homogeneity in the voltage leads, a non-ideal on-chip connection and inductors between the Josephson junction array and the voltage leads, can be corrected for using the proposed procedures. The results show that an expanded uncertainty of 12 parts in 106 (k  =  2) at 1 MHz and 0.5 part in 106 (k  =  2) at 100 kHz is within reach.

  4. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Zhen; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of

  5. Highly Supersonic Ion Pulses in a Collisionless Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Schrittwieser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The initial transient response of a collisionless plasma to a high positive voltage step is investigated. Four different pulses are observed. An electron plasma wave pulse is followed by an ion burst. The latter is overtaken and absorbed by a highly supersonic ion pulse. Thereafter, an ion...

  6. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  7. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  8. A Comparison Study of Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Türksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods used to control voltage source inverters which have been intensively investigated in recent years are compared. Although the most efficient result is obtained with the least number of switching elements in the inverter topologies, the method used in the switching is at least as effective as the topology. Besides, the selected switching method to control the inverter will play an effective role in suppressing harmonic components while producing the ideal output voltage. There are many derivatives of pulse width modulation techniques that are commonly used to control voltage source inverters. Some of widespread methods are sinusoidal pulse width modulation and space vector pulse width modulation techniques. These modulation techniques used for generating variable frequency and amplitude output voltage in voltage source inverters, have been simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. And, the total harmonic distortions of the output voltages are compared. As a result of simulation studies, sinusoidal pulse width modulation has been found to have more total harmonic distortion in output voltages of voltage source inverters in the simulation. Space vector pulse width modulation has been shown to produce a more efficient output voltage with less total harmonic distortion.

  9. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  10. Facile Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film by One-Step Pulsed Hybrid Electrophoretic and Electroplating Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Wei; Thomas, Stuart R.; Hsu, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yu-Ze; Wang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Zhiming M.; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The use of costly and rare metals such as indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based solar cells has motivated research into the use of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) as a suitable replacement due to its non-toxicity, abundance of compositional elements and excellent optical properties (1.5 eV direct band gap and absorption coefficient of ~104 cm−1). In this study, we demonstrate a one-step pulsed hybrid electrodeposition method (PHED), which combines electrophoretic and electroplating deposition to deposit uniform CZTS thin-films. Through careful analysis and optimization, we are able to demonstrate CZTS solar cells with the VOC, JSC, FF and η of 350 mV, 3.90 mA/cm2, 0.43 and 0.59%, respectively. PMID:26902556

  11. Modeling of Pulsed Direct-Current Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mu; Zheng Yaru; Fan Yujia; Zhang Nan; Liu Chengsen; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent model was adopted to study the time evolution of low-voltage pulsed DC glow discharge. The distributions of electric field, ion density and electron density in nitrogen were investigated in our simulation, and the temporal shape of the discharge current was also obtained. Our results show that the dynamic behaviors of the discharge depends strongly on the applied pulse voltage, and the use of higher pulse voltages results in a significantly increase of discharge current and a decrease of discharge delay time. The current-voltage characteristic calculated by adjusting secondary electron emission coefficient for different applied pulse voltage under the gas pressure of 1 Torr is found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF VOLTAGES OF UNIFORM PWM IN TIME REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Stryzhniou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a process of synthesis and qualitative assessment of the harmonic composition of voltages of multiple and single PWM pulses in time regulation, being, along with amplitude, frequency and phase method, one of control methods of an asynchronous motor. The main point of time regulation is that a pause after any two single PWM pulses with different polarity or after any two groups of multiple PWM pulses with different polarity changes during a process of regulation. Feature of time regulation is that a motor has fast response in the range of small-signal of control and good linearity of speed-torque characteristics in the whole control range. Analytical expressions of parameters of PWM pulses ai and ti are obtained which allow to simplify considerably a process of formation and implementation of time regulation using tabular or indexed-tabular methods. These expressions allow not only to define voltage amplitude of  harmonic but also to perform qualitative assessment of harmonic composition of output voltages at time regulation. It is specified that harmonic frequencies wi = w0/q change in inverse proportion to magnitude of parameter q during a process of regulation and there is a replacement of a fundamental frequency by frequencies of higher harmonics.The offered approach allows to synthesize voltage of uniform single and multiple PWM pulses and to perform their comparative and qualitative analysis and the obtained expressions can be used at modeling of AC motor work. Voltage of multiple PWM pulses which is formed using stepped reference voltage with even quantity of steps in a half period and a pause on a zero level has the best parameters by criterion of a minimum of harmonic components and a maximum of a factor of anharmonicity Kнс at time regulation.

  13. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winands, G. J. J.; Liu, Z.; Pemen, A. J. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh)-1. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh)-1, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  14. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winands, G J J [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Liu, Z [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pemen, A J M [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heesch, E J M van [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yan, K [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, E M van [EPG Group, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-21

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh){sup -1}. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh){sup -1}, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  15. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winands, G J J; Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Heesch, E J M van; Yan, K; Veldhuizen, E M van

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh) -1 . For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh) -1 , still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second

  16. Method for controlling an accelerator-type neutron source, and a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The patent deals with an accelerator-type neutron source which employs a target, an ionization section and a replenisher for supplying accelerator gas. A positive voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section to produce a burst of neutrons. A negative voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section upon the termination of the positive voltage pulse to effect a sharp cut-off to the burst of neutrons. 4 figs

  17. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  18. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott

    2009-01-01

    Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts) into impedances less than 10 (Omega), from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K.W. Struve, W.A. Stygar, L.K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007), p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6 (Omega), 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10 -4 . The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the design goals related to high reliability and low jitter. While

  19. Fast pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.

    1984-01-01

    This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr

  20. Overview of The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Nelson, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) concept and its development is presented. In the PLIA concept a pulse power driver applied to one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines a heavy ion beam pulse The motivation for its development at the IFE-VNL is the acceleration of intense, short pulse, heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The main attraction of the concept is the very low cost it promises. It might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the pulse-forming network is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication

  1. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  2. Current-Voltage Characteristic of Nanosecond - Duration Relativistic Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Andrey

    2005-10-01

    The pulsed electron-beam accelerator SINUS-6 was used to measure current-voltage characteristic of nanosecond-duration thin annular relativistic electron beam accelerated in vacuum along axis of a smooth uniform metal tube immersed into strong axial magnetic field. Results of these measurements as well as results of computer simulations performed using 3D MAGIC code show that the electron-beam current dependence on the accelerating voltage at the front of the nanosecond-duration pulse is different from the analogical dependence at the flat part of the pulse. In the steady-state (flat) part of the pulse), the measured electron-beam current is close to Fedosov current [1], which is governed by the conservation law of an electron moment flow for any constant voltage. In the non steady-state part (front) of the pulse, the electron-beam current is higher that the appropriate, for a giving voltage, steady-state (Fedosov) current. [1] A. I. Fedosov, E. A. Litvinov, S. Ya. Belomytsev, and S. P. Bugaev, ``Characteristics of electron beam formed in diodes with magnetic insulation,'' Soviet Physics Journal (A translation of Izvestiya VUZ. Fizika), vol. 20, no. 10, October 1977 (April 20, 1978), pp.1367-1368.

  3. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  4. High voltage high brightness electron accelerator with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poulkey, J.W.; Rovang, D.

    1995-01-01

    The design and analysis of a high brightness electron beam experiment under construction at Sandia National Laboratory is presented. The beam energy is 12 MeV, the current 35-40 kA, the rms radius 0.5 mm, and the pulse duration FWHM 40 ns. The accelerator is SABRE a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless diode. This experiment has as its goal to stretch the technology to the edge and produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam

  5. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  6. Comparison of Pulsed-Gel Electrophoresis and a Commercial Repetitive-Element PCR Method for Assessment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clustering in Different Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Megan; Warrack, Simone; Maki, Dennis; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a common method used to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nosocomial investigations and epidemiological studies but is time-consuming and methodologically challenging. We compared typing results obtained using a commercial repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) system with PFGE in a sample of 86 unique MRSA isolates recovered from subjects in an academic referral hospital and two nursing homes in the same geographic region. Both methods reliably assigned isolates to the same Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pulsotype. PFGE was significantly more discriminatory (Simpson's index of diversity, 0.92 at the 95% strain similarity threshold) than the commercial rep-PCR system (Simpson's index of diversity, 0.58). The global (adjusted Rand coefficient, 0.10) and directional congruence (adjusted Wallace coefficientrepPCR→PFGE = 0.06; adjusted Wallace coefficientPFGE→repPCR = 0.52) between the two methods was low. MRSA strains recovered from study nursing homes that were clonal when typed by the commercial rep-PCR method were frequently noted to be genetically distinct when typed using PFGE. These data suggest that the commercial rep-PCR has less utility than PFGE in small-scale epidemiological assessments of MRSA in health care settings. PMID:24671801

  7. Pulsed Corona for Sustainable Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Pemen, A.J.M.; Yan, K.; Blom, P.P.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Der Laan, P.C.T. van

    2000-01-01

    Highly active coronas with a peak power of up to 25 MW p/m corona wire and kJ/liter energy densities in the streamer channels can be produced by pulsed power. Since the voltage pulses are short, full breakdown does not occur even though the discharge currents are hundreds of Amperes. A matched pulsed power source can deposit up to 80% of its electrical energy into such a controlled discharge. Reliable and efficient sources characterized by 100 kV,150 ns wide pulses at 1000 Hz have passed 400 hours of operation. The area of applications is growing: VOC control, hot gas cleanup, water and air purification and sterilization. (author)

  8. High current high accuracy IGBT pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.V.; Donaldson, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current triangular or trapezoidal pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in a capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The circuit can then recover the remaining energy and transfer it back to the capacitor bank without reversing the capacitor voltage. A third IGBT device is employed to control the initial charge to the capacitor bank, a command charging technique, and to compensate for pulse to pulse power losses. The rack mounted pulse generator contains a 525 μF capacitor bank. It can deliver 500 A at 900V into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled to 0.02% accuracy by a precision controller through the SLAC central computer system. This pulse generator drives a series pair of extraction dipoles

  9. Argonne's new Wakefield Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The first phase of a high current, short bunch length electron beam research facility, the AWA, is near completion at Argonne. At the heart of the facility is a photocathode based electron gun and accelerating sections designed to deliver 20 MeV pulses with up to 100 nC per pulse and with pulse lengths of approximately 15 ps (fw). Using a technique similar to that originated at Argonne's AATF facility, a separate weak probe pulse can be generated and used to diagnose wake effects produced by the intense pulses. Initial planned experiments include studies of plasma wakefields and dielectric wakefield devices, and expect to demonstrate large, useful accelerating gradients (> 100 MeV/m). Later phases of the facility will increase the drive bunch energy to more than 100 MeV to enable acceleration experiments up to the GeV range. Specifications, design details, and commissioning progress are presented

  10. Component-Minimized Buck-Boost Voltage Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, F.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of buck-boost B4 inverters that can be derived from either Ćuk- or SEPIC-derived buck-boost B6 inverters. Unlike traditional inverters, the integration of front-end voltage boost circuitry and inverter circuitry allows it to perform buck-boost voltage inversion...... between capacitors. Modulation wise, the proposed buck-boost B4 inverters can be controlled using a carefully designed carrier-based pulse-width modulation (PWM) scheme that will always ensure balanced threephase outputs as desired, while simultaneously achieving minimal voltage stress across...

  11. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  12. Exploring the limits of case-to-capsule ratio, pulse length, and picket energy for symmetric hohlraum drive on the National Ignition Facility Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Baker, K. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Chapman, T.; Czajka, C. E.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacLaren, S. A.; Masse, L. P.; Meezan, N. B.; Pak, A. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Woods, D. T.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Mariscal, D. A.; Nagel, S. R.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Loomis, E. N.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Batha, S. H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a data-based model for low mode asymmetry in low gas-fill hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility {NIF [Moses et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 69, 1 (2016)]} laser. This model is based on the hypothesis that the asymmetry in these low fill hohlraums is dominated by the hydrodynamics of the expanding, low density, high-Z (gold or uranium) "bubble," which occurs where the intense outer cone laser beams hit the high-Z hohlraum wall. We developed a simple model which states that the implosion symmetry becomes more oblate as the high-Z bubble size becomes large compared to the hohlraum radius or the capsule size becomes large compared to the hohlraum radius. This simple model captures the trends that we see in data that span much of the parameter space of interest for NIF ignition experiments. We are now using this model as a constraint on new designs for experiments on the NIF.

  13. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  14. Linear induction accelerators made from pulse-line cavities with external pulse injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of linear induction accelerator have been reported previously. In one, unidirectional voltage pulses are generated outside the accelerator and injected into the accelerator cavity modules, which contain ferromagnetic material to reduce energy losses in the form of currents induced, in parallel with the beam, in the cavity structure. In the other type, the accelerator cavity modules are themselves pulse-forming lines with energy storage and switches; parallel current losses are made zero by the use of circuits that generate bidirectional acceleration waveforms with a zero voltage-time integral. In a third type of design described here, the cavities are externally driven, and 100% efficient coupling of energy to the beam is obtained by designing the external pulse generators to produce bidirectional voltage waveforms with zero voltage-time integral. A design for such a pulse generator is described that is itself one hundred percent efficient and which is well suited to existing pulse power techniques. Two accelerator cavity designs are described that can couple the pulse from such a generator to the beam; one of these designs provides voltage doubling. Comparison is made between the accelerating gradients that can be obtained with this and the preceding types of induction accelerator

  15. Compulsator, a high power compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Bird, W.L.; Driga, M.D.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Woodson, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes a pulsed power supply utilizing inertial energy storage as a possible replacement for large capacitor banks. The compulsator overcomes many of the limitations of the pulsed homopolar generators previously developed by the Center for Electromechanics and elsewhere in that it offers high voltage (10's of kV) and consequently higher pulse rise times, is self commutating, and offers the possibility of generating repetitive pulses. The compulsator converts rotational inertial energy directly into electrical energy utilizing the principles of both magnetic induction and flux compression. The theory of operation, a prototype compulsator design, and advanced compulsator designs are discussed

  16. Control and Testing of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) at Medium Voltage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Godsk; Newman, Michael; Nielsen, Hans Ove

    2004-01-01

    power sensitive loads from voltage sags. This paper reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a Distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR was designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 0.5-p.u. maximum voltage sag. The reported DVR verifies......The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags. Implementations of the DVR have been proposed at both a low voltage (LV) level, as well as a medium voltage (MV) level; and give an opportunity to protect high...... the use of a feed-forward and feed-back technique of the controller and it obtains both good transient and steady state responses. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and non-faulted system states, for a variety of linear and non-linear loads. Variable...

  17. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  18. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  19. Study of novel plasma devices generated by high power lasers coupled with a micro-pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, A; Chen, Z L; Jin, Z; Kondo, K; Nakagawa, M; Kodama, R; Arima, H; Yoneda, H

    2008-01-01

    The authors have proposed introducing a micro pulse power technology in high power laser plasma experiments to boost up the return current, resulting in efficiently guiding of energetic electrons. High current pulse power generators with a pulse laser trigger system generate high-density plasma that is well conductor. To efficiently guiding by using a micro pulse power, we estimated parameter of a micro pulse power system that is voltage of rise time, current, charging voltage and capacitance

  20. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ilyas, A.M. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Baig, Umair [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Scientific Research Collaboration with MIT, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SiC–TiO{sub 2} semiconducting nanocomposites synthesized by nanosecond PLAL technique. • Synthesized nanocomposites were morphologically and optically characterized. • Nanocomposites were applied for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic dye. • Photovoltaic performance was investigated in dye sensitized solar cell. - Abstract: Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet–visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  1. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  2. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  3. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III

    1979-01-01

    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  4. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  5. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  6. Synchronization circuit for shaping picosecond accelerated-electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Y.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a high-speed circuit for synchronization of trigger pulses of the deflector modulator of an accelerator with a given phase of rf voltage of 200 MHz. The measured time instability between the output trigger pulses of the circuit and the input rf voltage is ≤ + or - 0.05 nsec. The circuit is implemented by ECL integrated circuits of series K100 and K500, and operates in both the pulse (pulse duration 3 μsec and repetition frequency 400 Hz) and continuous modes

  7. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  8. Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Dykaar, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Carrier and field dynamics in photoconductive switches are investigated by electrooptic sampling and voltage-dependent reflectivity measurements. We show that the nonuniform field distribution due to the two-dimensional nature of coplanar photoconductive switches, in combination with the large di...... difference in the mobilities of holes and electrons, determine the pronounced polarity dependence. Our measurements indicate that the pulse generation mechanism is a rapid voltage breakdown across the photoconductive switch and not a local field breakdown...

  9. Pulse Circuits of Radar Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-06

    be less than in a symmetrical flip-flop since voltage webs additionally is reduced, given presence of cathode coupling (triode L2 cathode potential...and t, f(t). 636 7o%:i. iI where C’ - d-c component equal, in accordance with (1.5) -- L. ( * -. wiX " -- angular pulse repetition frequency tPRF]; T. K

  10. Rapid testing of pulse transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Quality-control testing of pulse transformers is speeded up by method for determining rise time and droop. Instead of using oscilloscope and square-wave generator to measure these characteristics directly, method uses voltmeter and sine-wave generator to measure them indirectly in about one-tenth time. Droop and rise time are determined by measuring input/output voltage ratio at just four frequencies.

  11. Nonlinear behaviors in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui, E-mail: wangyh@dlut.edu.cn; Wang Dezhen

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the temporal nonlinear behaviors of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium are studied numerically by a one-dimensional fluid model. The results show that the common single-period pulsed discharge with two current pulses per single voltage pulse can take place over a broad parameter range. The rising and falling times of the voltage pulse can affect the discharge characteristics greatly. When the discharge is ignited by a pulse voltage with long rising and falling times, a single-period pulsed discharge with multiple current peaks can be observed. Under appropriate rising and falling times of the voltage pulse, a stable period-two discharge can occur over wide frequency and voltage ranges. Also this period-two discharge can exhibit different current and voltage characteristics with changing the duty cycle. With other parameters fixed, the pulsed DBD could be driven to chaos through period-doubling route by increasing either the falling time or the frequency of voltage pulse.

  12. Precise generator of stability amplitude pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, N.A.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.; Kuts, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    A generator of stability amplitude pulses, designed for stabilization of a low-noise semiconducting spectrometer, used in investigations of 76 Ge2β-decay, is described. The generator contains a permanent-voltage source, a storage element and a switch based on a Hg relay. A thermostatic source provides a relative voltage instability less than ±5x10 -6 per 80h (standard deviation). The Hg relay is placed into a separate thermostat. The relative instability of output generator pulse amplitude does not exceed ±1.5x10 -5 per 24h

  13. High voltage fast switches for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Lafore, D.

    1999-01-01

    SILVA process consists in a selective ionization of the 235 uranium isotope, using laser beams generated by dye lasers pumped by copper vapour laser (C.V.L.). SILVA involves power electronic for 3 power supplies: - copper vapour laser power supply, - extraction power supply to generate the electric field in the vapour, and - electron beam power supply for vapour generation. This article reviews the main switches that are proposed on the market or are on development and that could be used in SILVA power supplies. The SILVA technical requirements are: high power, high voltage and very short pulses (200 ns width). (A.C.)

  14. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  15. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  16. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  17. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  18. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes with voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V, frequencies up to 5 MHz and different driving slew rates. Measurements are performed on the circuit in order to assess its functionality and power consumption...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  19. A system for long pulse REB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Kubo, Shin; Kobata, Tadasuke; Mohri, Akihiro.

    1987-02-01

    A high voltage pulse generator system producing intense relativistic electron beams (REB) (1.5 μs pulse width, 30 kA peak current, 1 MeV energy) was developed to the use of REB ring formation. The system consists of a Marx generator, a transmission line with plastics-water hybrid insulators and a magnetically insulated transmission line connected with a cathode. The system has been well operated more than twenty thousands shots without troubles. (author)

  20. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...