WorldWideScience

Sample records for voltage environmental applications

  1. Environmental and biotechnological applications of high-voltage pulsed discharges in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse has wide application in fields such as chemistry, physics and biology and their combinations. The high-voltage pulse forms two kinds of physical processes in water, namely (a) a pulsed electric field (PEF) in the parallel electrode configuration and (b) plasma generation by a pulsed discharge in the water phase with a concentrated electric field. The PEF can be used for inactivation of bacteria in liquid foods as a non-thermal process, and the underwater plasma is applicable not only for the decomposition of organic materials in water but also for biological treatment of wastewater. These discharge states are controlled mainly by the applied pulse voltage and the electrode shape. Some examples of environmental and biotechnological applications of a high-voltage pulse are reviewed.

  2. Development and application of a window-type environmental cell in high voltage electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Takenobu; Isobe, Shigehito; Umeda, Ayaka; Wang, Yongming; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A window-type environmental cell for a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) is developed. ► In situ HVEM image of Pd under an H2 gas pressure is obtained. ► The effect of the window materials on the resolution and contamination of the HVEM image is tested. -- Abstract: A close type of an environmental cell was developed for a high voltage electron microscope. Using this cell allowed an in situ observation of hydrogenation in Pd particles under H 2 gas of 0.05 MPa at RT. Two types of window films, Tri-Acetyl-Cellulose (TAC) and Silicon Nitride (SiN), were used for testing the contamination on the sample, as well as the strength for pressure. We confirmed the hydrogenation in diffraction patterns and images, and additionally the image resolution of 0.19 nm was obtained by using a SiN film with a thickness of 17 nm

  3. HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report evaluates a high-voltage electron beam (E-beam) technology's ability to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other contaminants present in liquid wastes. Specifically, this report discusses performance and economic data from a Superfund Innovative Technology...

  4. Environmental impact of high voltage substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Popadiuc, S.; Drobota, C.; Marza, F.

    2004-01-01

    The first Romanian methodology for simultaneous environmental and human risk evaluation in case of HV installations within substations pertaining to nuclear power stations, based on EU regulation is now applicable in Cernavoda substation. High voltage substations are zones where the environmental impact is focused on electromagnetic field that's causes particular effects in living tissues (human being included). That is the reason why is necessary to identify the potential risk sources, the asses including the way to correct them and to dissimulate the results to the staff and the operational personal.(author)

  5. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  6. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  7. High voltage fast switches for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Lafore, D.

    1999-01-01

    SILVA process consists in a selective ionization of the 235 uranium isotope, using laser beams generated by dye lasers pumped by copper vapour laser (C.V.L.). SILVA involves power electronic for 3 power supplies: - copper vapour laser power supply, - extraction power supply to generate the electric field in the vapour, and - electron beam power supply for vapour generation. This article reviews the main switches that are proposed on the market or are on development and that could be used in SILVA power supplies. The SILVA technical requirements are: high power, high voltage and very short pulses (200 ns width). (A.C.)

  8. High voltage superconducting switch for power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.; Ferendeci, A.; Gattozzi, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a novel interrupter which meets the requirements of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) power switch and at the same time doubles as a current limiter. The basic concept of the interrupter makes use of a fast superconducting, high capacity (SHIC) switch that carries the full load current while in the superconducting state and reverts to the normal resistive state when triggered. Typical design parameters are examined for the case of a HVDC transmission line handling 2.5KA at 150KVDC. The result is a power switch with superior performance and smaller size than the ones reported to date

  9. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  10. Enhanced current and voltage regulators for stand-alone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback decoupling permits to achieve a better dynamic response for Voltage Source in stand-alone applications. The design of current and voltage regulators is performed in the discrete-time domain since it provides better accuracy and allows direct pole placement. As the attainable...... bandwidth of the current loop is mainly limited by computational and PWM delays, a lead compensator structure is proposed to overcome this limitation. The design of the voltage regulator is based on the Nyquist criterion, verifying to guarantee a high sensitivity peak. Discrete-time domain implementation...

  11. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review, with 19 references, is given on challenges and possible opportunities for the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring applications. The high cost and slow turnaround times typically associated with the measurement of regulated pollutants clearly indicates...

  12. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  13. The Application of Voltage Transformer Simulator in Electrical Test Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Jingpeng; Yang, Baowei

    2018-02-01

    The voltage transformer test is an important means to monitor its operating state. The accuracy and reliability of the test data is directly related to the test skill level of the operator. However, the risk of test instruments damage, equipment being tested damage and electric shock in operator is caused by improper operation when training the transformer test. In this paper, a simulation device of voltage transformer is set up, and a simulation model is built for the most common 500kV capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), the simulation model can realize several test items of CVT by combing with teaching guidance platform, simulation instrument, complete set of system software and auxiliary equipment in Changchun. Many successful applications show that the simulation device has good practical value and wide application prospect.

  14. Application of SMES in wind farm to improve voltage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y.J.; Ren, L.; Li, J.D.; Chen, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably

  15. Review of mixer design for low voltage - low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, D.; Musa, F. A. S.; Isa, M. Mohamad; Ahmad, N.; Kasjoo, S. R.

    2017-09-01

    A mixer is used in almost all radio frequency (RF) or microwave systems for frequency translation. Nowadays, the increase market demand encouraged the industry to deliver circuit designs to create proficient and convenient equipment with very low power (LP) consumption and low voltage (LV) supply in both digital and analogue circuits. This paper focused on different Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) design topologies for LV and LP mixer design. Floating Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor (FGMOS) is an alternative technology to replace CMOS due to their high ability for LV and LP applications. FGMOS only required a few transistors per gate and can have a shift in threshold voltage (VTH) to increase the LP and LV performances as compared to CMOS, which makes an attractive option to replace CMOS.

  16. Environmental Audits of High Voltage Objects from the View Point of Investors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek Szuba, M.

    2007-01-01

    The localization of high voltage objects, e.g., overhead transmission lines, under the spatial planning and environmental protection regulations is discussed. The most important elements of the localization procedure concerning high voltage overhead lines are presented. One of the elements of this procedure is the assessment of the investment environmental impact. The environmental audit is an essential document, in which this impact is described. It seems that its scope specified in the Environmental Protection Act is not adjusted to the specificity of line investments. This gives rise to some problems in preparing environmental audits for overhead lines, e.g., possible influence of high voltage lines on the Natura 2000 area zones. Several other related problems are also highlighted in this paper. (author)

  17. Environmental impact of high voltage aerial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P.; Mouallen, M.C.; Quintella, S.E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The identification of environmental impacts caused by the aerial transmission lines and the measures for reducing these impacts are discussed, considering the impact over the soil in different areas, biological effects caused by delayed exposure and visual impacts due to the line structures. A methodology for the impact evaluation and the aspects of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Report are also studied. (C.G.C.). 2 refs, 1 fig

  18. Ozone Sensor for Application in Medium Voltage Switchboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia De Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of a new spectroscopic type fiber sensor for ozone detection in electrical components of Medium Voltage (MV network is evaluated. The sensor layout is based on the use of an optical retroreflector, to improve the detection sensitivity, and it was especially designed for detecting in situ rapid changes of ozone concentration. Preliminary tests were performed in a typical MV switchboard. Artificial defects simulated predischarge phenomena arising during real operating conditions. Results are discussed by a comparison with data simultaneously acquired with a standard partial discharge system.

  19. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Catherine N. [Department Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard W., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants.

  20. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, Catherine N.

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants

  1. Properties of Polymer Composites Used in High-Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Pleşa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review article represents a comprehensive study on polymer micro/nanocomposites that are used in high-voltage applications. Particular focus is on the structure-property relationship of composite materials used in power engineering, by exploiting fundamental theory as well as numerical/analytical models and the influence of material design on electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In addition to describing the scientific development of micro/nanocomposites electrical features desired in power engineering, the study is mainly focused on the electrical properties of insulating materials, particularly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE and epoxy resins, unfilled and filled with different types of filler. Polymer micro/nanocomposites based on XLPE and epoxy resins are usually used as insulating systems for high-voltage applications, such as: cables, generators, motors, cast resin dry-type transformers, etc. Furthermore, this paper includes ample discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages resulting in the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties by the addition of micro- and nanofillers into the base polymer. The study goals are to determine the impact of filler size, type and distribution of the particles into the polymer matrix on the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer micro/nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer and traditionally materials used as insulation systems in high-voltage engineering. Properties such as electrical conductivity, relative permittivity, dielectric losses, partial discharges, erosion resistance, space charge behavior, electric breakdown, tracking and electrical tree resistance, thermal conductivity, tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break of micro- and nanocomposites based on epoxy resin and XLPE are analyzed. Finally, it was concluded that the use of polymer micro/nanocomposites in electrical engineering is very promising and further research work

  2. A high-voltage equipment (high voltage supply, high voltage pulse generators, resonant charging inductance, synchro-instruments for gyrotron frequency measurements) for plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spassov, Velin

    1996-01-01

    This document reports my activities as visitor-professor at the Gyrotron Project - INPE Plasma Laboratory. The main objective of my activities was designing, construction and testing a suitable high-voltage pulse generator for plasma applications, and efforts were concentrated on the following points: Design of high-voltage resonant power supply with tunable output (0 - 50 kV) for line-type high voltage pulse generator; design of line-type pulse generator (4 microseconds pulse duration, 0 - 25 kV tunable voltage) for non linear loads such as a gyrotron and P III reactor; design of resonant charging inductance for resonant line-type pulse generator, and design of high resolution synchro instrument for gyrotron frequency measurement. (author)

  3. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  4. A low-ripple chargepump circuit for high voltage applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; van Steenwijk, G.; van Steenwijk, Gijs; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a fully integrated chargepump circuit with a very low output voltage ripple. At a supply voltage of 30V the chargepump can source 1mA at an output voltage of 40V. Two simple modifications to the classical chargepump circuit give a substantial reduction of the output

  5. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  6. Medical, energetic, environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project at ENEA is mainly based on the TAPIRO experimental nuclear reactor and (more recently) also on the TRIGA reactor, both located at ENEA Casaccia. TAPIRO has two facilities: an epithermal column (EPIMED) constructed for research on deep tumours, such as glioblastoma, and a thermal column (HYTHOR) mainly used in collaboration with the Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and with the University of Padua for in vivo radiobiological studies and neutron microdosimetry. The feasibility of using the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor to treat explanted livers with BNCT is being studied. The collaboration with INFN Pavia and the University of Pavia on applying BNCT to lung tumours continued. In 2007 the final agreement from the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT) was obtained and the reactor operating conditions with the EPIMED facility were established. As described in the 2006 Progress Report, the epithermal neutron beam (neutron energy between 1 eV and 10 keV) entering the reactor hall has been shielded by a bunker of limited volume, appropriate for beam characterisation with the reactor operating at a maximum 10% of nominal power (5 kW). The use of nuclear power in space is technically feasible but, due to the remote risk of an accident at launch or in the event of an uncontrolled re-entry, it still remains politically unacceptable. Nevertheless, small and safe nuclear reactors could generate 30-60 kW of electrical power for a period of 10-15 years even in the case of a deep space mission, where conventional energy conversion devices are useless or inefficient. Furthermore, the standard space systems for electrical power generation (photoelectric conversion and radioactive thermal generator) are unable to sustain similar performances even in orbital conditions. A carefully designed nuclear reactor for space application could also be

  7. [High voltage objects and radiocommunication investments in view of requirements of the environmental protection act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the most important elements of the localization procedure of high voltage overhead lines and substations and radiocommunication objects which are the source of electromagnetic fields. These fields are perceived as a major threat to human health. The point of departure to make a choice of investments is the special classification of technical installations described in one of the executive directive issued by virtue of the Environmental Protection Act. This special executive directive enumerates a lot of technical objects (installation), classified in the group of investments which have significant impact on the environment and some objects which could be classified in this group. For all this technical installations (e.g., overhead high voltage power lines) the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act impose an obligation to take particular steps to assure transparency of the environmental protection procedures, transborder procedures and the protection of areas included in the Natura 2000 network.

  8. Characteristics and Breakdown Behaviors of Polysilicon Resistors for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the power integrated circuit technology, polysilicon resistors have been widely used not only in traditional CMOS circuits, but also in the high voltage applications. However, there have been few detailed reports about the polysilicon resistors’ characteristics, like voltage and temperature coefficients and breakdown behaviors which are critical parameters of high voltage applications. In this study, we experimentally find that the resistance of the polysilicon resistor with a relatively low doping concentration shows negative voltage and temperature coefficients, while that of the polysilicon resistor with a high doping concentration has positive voltage and temperature coefficients. Moreover, from the experimental results of breakdown voltages of the polysilicon resistors, it could be deduced that the breakdown of polysilicon resistors is thermally rather than electrically induced. We also proposed to add an N-type well underneath the oxide to increase the breakdown voltage in the vertical direction when the substrate is P-type doped.

  9. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program for HV [high voltage] transmission line projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braekevelt, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    Responsible monitoring and control of environmental impacts is key to obtaining future needed approvals for new high voltage (HV) transmission line projects. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program was developed as a highly structured, self-imposed monitoring system to relieve government agencies of the responsibility of developing a similar external program. The goal was to be self-policing. The historical development, program structure, standards, priority ratings, documentation, communication and computerization of the program is described. The most effective way to minimize environmental impacts is to avoid sensitive features at the route selection stage, well before any construction takes place. The environmental monitoring program is based on the following blueprint: each crew member is responsible for environmental protection; environmental problems are to be resolved at the lowest level possible; potential concerns should be resolved before they become problems; known problems should be dealt with quickly to minimize impacts; team members should work cooperatively; and formal and regular communication is emphasized

  10. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for high-voltage overhead lines; Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung (UVP) fuer Hochspannungsfreileitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, S. [Landesentwicklungsgesellschaft Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Umwelt

    1996-11-04

    In some of the federal states of Germany the licensing of new or the laying or existing high-voltage overhead lines requires an environmental impact assessment. For many utility companies, however, environmental impact assessments for high-voltage lines are virgin territory. Experience shows that preparing the documentation is not a major problem. Questions usually arise over details such as the calculation of possible incidents or the comparison of different layouts. The authors describes general approaches and strategies and looks at specific problems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Genehmigung neuer oder der Verlegung vorhandener Hochspannungsfreileitungen ist in einigen Bundeslaendern eine Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung durchzufuehren. Fuer viele Energieversorgungsunternehmen ist die Erarbeitung von Umweltvertraeglichkeitsstudien fuer Hochspannungsleitungen aber noch Neuland. Praxiserfahrungen zeigen, dass die Erarbeitung der erforderlichen Unterlagen ohne groessere Schwierigkeiten moeglich ist. Fragen ergeben sich dabei aber bei speziellen Details, z.B. bei der Betrachtung von moeglichen Stoerfaellen oder beim Vergleich von Trassenvarianten. Der Verfasser skizziert das allgemeine Vorgehen und erlaeutert ausfuehrlich die Detailprobleme. (orig.)

  11. Parallel operation of voltage-source converters: issues and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, F.C.B.; Silva, D.S. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: felipe.brum@engenharia.ufjf.br, salomaoime@yahoo.com.br; Ribeiro, P.F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], E-mail: pfribeiro@ieee.org

    2009-07-01

    Technological advancements in power electronics have prompted the development of advanced AC/DC conversion systems with high efficiency and flexible performance. Among these devices, the Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) has become an essential building block. This paper considers the parallel operation of VSCs under different system conditions and how they can assist the operation of highly complex power networks. A multi-terminal VSC-based High Voltage Direct Current (M-VSC-HVDC) system is chosen to be modeled, simulated and then analyzed as an example of VSCs operating in parallel. (author)

  12. Computer applications: Automatic control system for high-voltage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhanov, A.N.; Komissarov, P.Yu.; Lapin, V.V.; Latushkin, S.T.. Fomenko, D.E.; Yudin, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    An automatic control system for a high-voltage electrostatic accelerator with an accelerating potential of up to 500 kV is described. The electronic apparatus on the high-voltage platform is controlled and monitored by means of a fiber-optic data-exchange system. The system is based on CAMAC modules that are controlled by a microprocessor crate controller. Data on accelerator operation are represented and control instructions are issued by means of an alphanumeric terminal. 8 refs., 6 figs

  13. Improved model predictive control for high voltage quality in microgrid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, T.; Al hasheem, Mohamed; Lu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an improvement of the finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy for enhancing the voltage regulation performance of a voltage source converter (VSC) used for standalone microgrid and uninterrupted power supply (UPS) applications. The modification is based...

  14. Application of Matteucci Voltage Pulses of Amorphous Wires in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For instance, if the zero amplitude Matteucci voltage was being obtained at a twist angle of 45° clockwise, it will now be obtained at an angle of the same magnitude, but for a counter-clockwise twist. The physics of this latter phenomenon too would be of interest to researchers of physics of magnetism. J. agric. Sci. technol.

  15. A Four-Phase High Voltage Conversion Ratio Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a four-phase interleaved high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converter circuit based on coupled inductors and switched capacitors, which can eliminate the defects of conventional high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converters in terms of high-voltage/current stress, less efficiency and low-power limitation. Parallel channels are used to reduce current stress at the low-voltage side and series connected switched capacitors are used to enlarge voltage conversion ratio, reduce voltage stress and achieve auto current sharing. This paper proposes the operation principle, feature analysis and optimization design considerations. On this basis the objectives of high voltage conversion ratio, low voltage/current stress, high power density, high efficiency and high-power applications can be achieved. Some experimental results based on a 500 W prototype converter (24 V to 48 V at low-voltage side, 400 V at high-voltage side are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  16. Micro controller application as x-ray machine's high voltage controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiranto Budi Santoso; Beny Syawaludin

    2010-01-01

    The micro controller application as x-ray machine's high voltage controller has been carried out. The purpose of this micro controller application is to give an accurate high voltage supply to the x-ray tube so that the x ray machine could produce the result as expected. The micro controller based X-ray machine's high voltage controller receives an input voltage from the keypad. This input value is displayed in the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen. Then micro controller uses this input data to drive the stepper motor. The stepper motor adjusts the high voltage auto transformer's output according to the input value. The micro controller is programmed using BASCOM-B051 compiler. The test results show that the stepper motor could rotate according to an input value. (author)

  17. A microcontroller application as X-ray machine's high voltage controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiranto Budi Santoso; Beny Syawaludin

    2010-01-01

    A micro controller application as x-ray machine's high voltage controller has been carried out. The purpose of this micro controller application is to give an accurate high voltage supply to the x-ray tube so that the x-ray machine could produce the result as expected. The micro controller based X-ray machine's high voltage controller receives an input voltage from the keypad. This input value is displayed in the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen. Then micro controller uses this input data to drive a stepper motor. The stepper motor adjusts the high voltage auto transformer's output according to the input value. The micro controller is programmed using BASCOM-8051 compiler. The test results show that the stepper motor could rotate according to an input value (author)

  18. Intelligent distributed voltage control system for smart grid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Ariatabar, Mitra [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Increasing penetration of the renewable energy source (RES) units in distribution networks particularly due to nonlinear and unpredictable nature of renewable units brings up new challenges in different aspects of electricity network, which leads to more complex power systems. Multi-agent system is consisting of agents which are capable to perceive environment that they are located in and to reacts with each other by communication infrastructure in order to achieve overall goals. In this paper an approach to control the voltage based on in the power distribution system is proposed and discussed. Therefore, a multi-agent system has been integrated with artificial intelligence to come up with fuzzy multi-agent based system. The proposed control scheme is deployed to a smart distribution system consisting distribution generation units, modelled in MATLAB/Simulink, to evaluate its effectiveness. The simulation results show how proposed system can regulate voltage in smart distribution feeders. (orig.)

  19. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  20. Composable Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling and Power Management for Dataflow Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; She, Dongrui; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, Anca; Lopez, S.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we de﬿ne composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  1. Composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling and power management for dataflow applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, K.G.W.; She, D.; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we define composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  2. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  3. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  4. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  5. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  6. Modified High Voltage Conversion Inverting Cuk DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    controlled device DC-DC topology. The voltage conversion ratio of proposed converter has increased by ten times of the conventional Cuk converterat a duty ratio of 90%. The detailed analysis of the voltage conversion ratio and losses occur due to internal resistance of components is done in the paper......The proposed exertion represents the modified high voltage conversion Cuk converter for renewable energy application. The proposed Cuk converter is a combination of the conventional boost converter and Cuk converter. The arrangement of the proposed converter make, such as, it becomes the single...

  7. Low Voltage, High-Q SOI MEMS Varactors for RF Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jensen, Søren; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A micro electromechanical tunable capacitor with a low control voltage, a wide tuning range and high electrical quality factor is presented with detailed characterizations. A 50μm thick single-crystalline silicon layer was etched using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) for obtaining high-aspect ra...... is a suitable passive component to be used in band-pass filtering, voltage controlled oscillator or impedance matching applications on the very high frequency(VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF) bands....

  8. Isolated data acquisition system for high voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waitz, A.; Donaldson, A.

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a microcomputer controlled system for acquisition of both analog and binary data within the high voltage stages of a linac modulator. The system is comprised of a microprocessor Controller which communicates with the remote data Acquisition circuits via an optical bus. The bus, which uses a 1 MHz Manchester II format, is configured as a loop, starting at the Controller, daisy-chaining the remote cards and terminating back at the Controller. Upon receiving a linac timing pulse, the Controller sends addressed commands to the individual remote cards and receives data back. It then passes this data to the linac control system through a Multibus connection. Each remote circuit can return 16 binary sense and 7 (12 bit) analog parameters within 270 us. This speed is possible because of a pipelined design where one word is transmitted while another is being converted. A data conversion cycle is initiated when a remote data acquisition card receives the proper command and address from the controller

  9. Development of an environmental high-voltage electron microscope for reaction science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuo; Usukura, Jiro; Kusunoki, Michiko; Saito, Yahachi; Sasaki, Katuhiro; Tanji, Takayoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Arai, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy and ultra-high resolution electron microscopic observation using aberration correctors have recently emerged as topics of great interest. The former method is an extension of the so-called in situ electron microscopy that has been performed since the 1970s. Current research in this area has been focusing on dynamic observation with atomic resolution under gaseous atmospheres and in liquids. Since 2007, Nagoya University has been developing a new 1-MV high voltage (scanning) transmission electron microscope that can be used to observe nanomaterials under conditions that include the presence of gases, liquids and illuminating lights, and it can be also used to perform mechanical operations to nanometre-sized areas as well as electron tomography and elemental analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The new instrument has been used to image and analyse various types of samples including biological ones.

  10. Low-voltage analog front-end processor design for ISFET-based sensor and H+ sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Yaw; Yang, Chung-Huang; Peng, Kang-Chu; Yeh, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a modular-based low-voltage analog-front-end processor design in a 0.5mm double-poly double-metal CMOS technology for Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET)-based sensor and H+ sensing applications. To meet the potentiometric response of the ISFET that is proportional to various H+ concentrations, the constant-voltage and constant current (CVCS) testing configuration has been used. Low-voltage design skills such as bulk-driven input pair, folded-cascode amplifier, bootstrap switch control circuits have been designed and integrated for 1.5V supply and nearly rail-to-rail analog to digital signal processing. Core modules consist of an 8-bit two-step analog-digital converter and bulk-driven pre-amplifiers have been developed in this research. The experimental results show that the proposed circuitry has an acceptable linearity to 0.1 pH-H+ sensing conversions with the buffer solution in the range of pH2 to pH12. The processor has a potential usage in battery-operated and portable healthcare devices and environmental monitoring applications.

  11. A Smart Voltage and Current Monitoring System for Three Phase Inverters Using an Android Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnati, Mohannad Jabbar; Van den Bossche, Alex; Chisab, Raad Farhood

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a new smart voltage and current monitoring system (SVCMS) technique is proposed. It monitors a three phase electrical system using an Arduino platform as a microcontroller to read the voltage and current from sensors and then wirelessly send the measured data to monitor the results using a new Android application. The integrated SVCMS design uses an Arduino Nano V3.0 as the microcontroller to measure the results from three voltage and three current sensors and then send this data, after calculation, to the Android smartphone device of an end user using Bluetooth HC-05. The Arduino Nano V3.0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. The new Android smartphone application that monitors the voltage and current measurements uses the open source MIT App Inventor 2 software. It allows for monitoring some elementary fundamental voltage power quality properties. An effort has been made to investigate what is possible using available off-the-shelf components and open source software.

  12. Grid-interfacing converter systems with enhanced voltage quality for microgrid application : concept and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grid-interfacing converter systems with enhanced voltage quality are proposed for microgrid application in this paper. By adapting the conventional series-parallel structure, a group of grid-interfacing system topologies are proposed for the purpose of interfacing local generation/microgrid to the

  13. Design of interleaved multilayer rosen type piezoelectric transformer for high voltage dc/dc applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Thomas; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2012-01-01

    Research and development within piezoelectric transformer (PT) based converters are rapidly increasing as the technology is maturing and starts to prove its capabilities. Especially for high voltage and high step-up applications, PT based converters have demonstrated good performance and DC...

  14. Design and Implementation of a High-Voltage Generator with Output Voltage Control for Vehicle ER Shock-Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-oscillating high-voltage generator is proposed to supply voltage for a suspension system in order to control the damping force of an electrorheological (ER fluid shock absorber. By controlling the output voltage level of the generator, the damping force in the ER fluid shock absorber can be adjusted immediately. The shock absorber is part of the suspension system. The high-voltage generator drives a power transistor based on self-excited oscillation, which converts dc to ac. A high-frequency transformer with high turns ratio is used to increase the voltage. In addition, the system uses the car battery as dc power supply. By regulating the duty cycle of the main switch in the buck converter, the output voltage of the buck converter can be linearly adjusted so as to obtain a specific high voltage for ER. The driving system is self-excited; that is, no additional external driving circuit is required. Thus, it reduces cost and simplifies system structure. A prototype version of the actual product is studied to measure and evaluate the key waveforms. The feasibility of the proposed system is verified based on experimental results.

  15. Variation of the Plasma Density in a Glow Discharge Upon the Application of A High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, S.

    2004-01-01

    It is emphasized and demonstrated that, during the formation of an ion-matrix sheath in a glow discharge upon the application of a high voltage pulse, the existing neutral plasma density should change as well. An explicit and practical expression for the neutral plasma density in terms of the gas pressure, secondary electron emission coefficient and the applied voltage is derived, so that the consequent sheath behavior can be formulated correctly. The theoretical result is compared with the data of an experiment, particularly designed and performed to test its validity, and found to be in good agreement with the latter

  16. Discrete-Time Domain Modelling of Voltage Source Inverters in Standalone Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2017-01-01

    modelling of the LC plant with consideration of delay and sample-and-hold effects on the state feedback cross-coupling decoupling is derived. From this plant formulation, current controllers with wide bandwidth and good relative stability properties are developed. Two controllers based on lead compensation......The decoupling of the capacitor voltage and inductor current has been shown to improve significantly the dynamic performance of voltage source inverters in standalone applications. However, the computation and PWM delays still limit the achievable bandwidth. In this paper a discrete-time domain...

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high energy electron beam irradiation technology is a low temperature method for destroying complex mixtures of hazardous organic chemicals in solutions containing solids. The system consists of a computer-automated, portable electron beam accelerator and a delivery system. T...

  18. Technical Training Seminar: Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS): Technology and Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 26 October TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR from 14:00 to 16:30, Auditorium 40-SS-C01 Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS): Technology and Applications Herbert Eisenring, Kai Peters / NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR (Europe) National Semiconductor pioneered the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) technology, and is a recognized leader in high speed differential products and design tools. National Semiconductor offers a wide range of innovative, affordable interconnect solutions including serializer-deserializers (SerDes), drivers-receivers-transceivers, crosspoint switches and clock drivers. LVDS is a new technology addressing the needs of todays high performance data transmission applications, and the LVDS standard is becoming the most popular differential data transmission standard in the industry. This Technical Training Seminar will present National Semiconductor existing and future products, and some applications relevant to the activities carried out at CERN. 14:00 - 14:15 Presentation of Nati...

  19. Technical Training Seminar: Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS): Technology and Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 26 October TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR from 14:00 to 16:30, Auditorium 40-SS-C01 Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS): Technology and Applications Herbert Eisenring, Kai Peters / NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR (Europe) National Semiconductor pioneered the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) technology, and is a recognized leader in high speed differential products and design tools. National Semiconductor offers a wide range of innovative, affordable interconnect solutions including serializer-deserializers (SerDes), drivers-receivers-transceivers, crosspoint switches and clock drivers. LVDS is a new technology addressing the needs of todays high performance data transmission applications, and the LVDS standard is becoming the most popular differential data transmission standard in the industry. This Technical Training Seminar will present National Semiconductor existing and future products, and some applications relevant to the activities carried out at CERN. 14:00 - 14:15 Presentation of Nat...

  20. Recommendation on the Environmental Effect Report for the high-voltage transmission line between Netherlands and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The recommendation on the title subject was addressed to the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and concerns the environmental impact of the new high-voltage transmission line (NorNed cable) from Norway to the Eemshaven in Groningen, Netherlands. In planning this power cable the environmental impact on the Wadden Sea has to be taken into account. Therefore an environmental effect report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch) has been drafted by the Dutch cooperative of electric power generating companies, Sep, and commented by the WaddenAdviesRaad

  1. Study on temperature dependence of output voltage of electrochemical detector for environmental neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Md Abdul; Ishibashi, Kenji; Arima, Hidehiko; Terao, Norichika

    2006-01-01

    An electrochemical detector with biological material has been applied for the detection of neutrinos on the basis of a new hypothesis. The detector consisted of two electrodes with raw silk and purified water, and gave an appreciable output voltage. The reproducibility of the experimental results was as good as 99.4% at temperature of 300 K. The temperature dependence of the voltage of the detector was studied at 280, 290, 300 and 310 K. Among them, the detector at 310 K produced the highest output voltage and reached 104 mV in 16 days, whereas that at 280 K generated the lowest voltage and it was as low as 1.2 mV in 16 days. The detectors working at 290 and 300 K produced the voltages 18 and 57 mV in 16 days, respectively. The output voltages of the detector increased with temperature and were in good agreement in spite of the history of temperature. The internal resistance and electromotive force (internal voltage) of the experimental detector were obtained at each temperature by individual analysis and least square fitting method. It was found that the electromotive force was almost constant for these temperatures while the internal resistance showed a large dependence on temperature. The reduction of the output voltage with temperature is dominated by this behavior of internal resistance. (author)

  2. Environmental auditing: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dixon; Wilson, Melvin J.

    1994-07-01

    The environmental audit has become a regular part of corporate environmental management in Canada and is also gaining recognition in the public sector. A 1991 survey of 75 private sector companies across Canada revealed that 76% (57/75) had established environmental auditing programs. A similar survey of 19 federal, provincial, and municipal government departments revealed that 11% (2/19) had established such programs. The information gained from environmental audits can be used to facilitate and enhance environmental management from the single facility level to the national and international levels. This paper is divided into two sections: section one examines environmental audits at the facility/company level and discusses environmental audit characteristics, trends, and driving forces not commonly found in the available literature. Important conclusions are: that wherever possible, an action plan to correct the identified problems should be an integral part of an audit, and therefore there should be a close working relationship between auditors, managers, and employees, and that the first audits will generally be more difficult, time consuming, and expensive than subsequent audits. Section two looks at environmental audits in the broader context and discusses the relationship between environmental audits and three other environmental information gathering/analysis tools: environmental impact assessments, state of the environment reports, and new systems of national accounts. The argument is made that the information collected by environmental audits and environmental impact assessments at the facility/company level can be used as the bases for regional and national state of the environment reports and new systems of national accounts.

  3. Digital-circuit analysis of short-gate tunnel FETs for low-voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuge, Jing; Huang, Ru; Wang, Yangyuan; Verhulst, Anne S; Vandenberghe, William G; Dehaene, Wim; Groeseneken, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), with emphasis on short-gate TFETs, by simulation for low-power digital applications having a supply voltage lower than 0.5 V. A transient study shows that the tunneling current has a negligible contribution in charging and discharging the gate capacitance of TFETs. In spite of a higher resistance region in the short-gate TFET, the gate (dis)charging speed still meets low-voltage application requirements. A circuit analysis is performed on short-gate TFETs with different materials, such as Si, Ge and heterostructures in terms of voltage overshoot, delay, static power, energy consumption and energy delay product (EDP). These results are compared to MOSFET and full-gate TFET performance. It is concluded that short-gate heterostructure TFETs (Ge–source for nTFET, In 0.6 Ga 0.4 As–source for pTFET) are promising candidates to extend the supply voltage to lower than 0.5 V because they combine the advantage of a low Miller capacitance, due to the short-gate structures, and strong drive current in TFETs, due to the narrow bandgap material in the source. At a supply voltage of 0.4 V and for an EOT and channel length of 0.6 nm and 40 nm, respectively, a three-stage inverter chain based on short-gate heterostructure TFETs saves 40% energy consumption per cycle at the same delay and shows 60%–75% improvement of EDP at the same static power, compared to its full-gate counterpart. When compared to the MOSFET, better EDP can be achieved in the heterostructure TFET especially at low static power consumption

  4. Results of a literature review on the environmental qualification of low-voltage electric cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Lee, B.; Villaran, M.; Gleason, J.; Aggarwal, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the design of nuclear power plants in the US, safety-related electric equipment must be qualified to provide reasonable assurance it can withstand the effects of a design basis event (DBE) and still be able to perform its prescribed safety function, even if the accident were to occur at the end of its service life. The requirement for environmental qualification (EQ) originates from the General Design Criteria in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50 (10 CFR 50). The acceptable method of performing the qualification of this equipment has evolved over the years, starting with the NRC Division of Operating Reactors (DOR) Guidelines, which were issued in Bulletin 79--01B, and NUREG-0588 requirements and ending with the current EQ Rule, 10 CFR 50.49. While the EQ methods described in these documents have the same overall objective, there are some notable differences for which a clear technical basis has not been established. One difference is the preaging requirement for equipment prior to LOCA testing. In addition, specific issues related to current EQ practices have been raised by the US NRC which need to be addressed. These issues, which are discussed in detail later in this paper, are related to the sources of conservatism and uncertainty in IEEE Standard 323--1974, which is the qualification standard currently endorsed by the NRC. To address these issues, the NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) implemented a Task Action Plan (TAP), and the Office of Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) initiated a complementary research program. The current focus of this program is on the qualification of low-voltage instrumentation and control cables. These cables were selected since they are not typically replaced on a routine basis, and their degradation could impact plant safety

  5. A CMOS integrated voltage and power efficient AC/DC converter for energy harvesting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Christian; Ortmanns, Maurits; Manoli, Yiannos; Spreemann, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a fully CMOS integrated active AC/DC converter for energy harvesting applications is presented. The rectifier is realized in a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process without special process options. It works as a full wave rectifier and can be separated into two stages—one passive and one active. The active part is powered from the storage capacitor and consumes about 600 nA at 2 V supply. The input voltage amplitude range is between 1.25 and 3.75 V, and the operating frequency range is from 1 Hz to as much as several 100 kHz. The series voltage drop over the rectifier is less than 20 mV. Measurements in combination with an electromagnetic harvester show a significant increase in the achievable output voltage and power compared to a common, discrete Schottky diode rectifier. The measured efficiency of the rectifier is over 95%. Measurements show a negligible temperature influence on the output voltage between −40 °C and +125 °C

  6. Application of Newton's optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S. (Electric Power Board of Serbia, Belgrade (YU)); Calovic, M.S. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (YU)); Ristanovic, P. (Institute Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (YU))

    1990-11-01

    This paper considers an application of Newton's optimal power flow to the solution of the secondary voltage/reactive power control in transmission networks. An efficient computer program based on the latest achievements in the sparse matrix/vector techniques has been developed for this purpose. It is characterized by good robustness, accuracy and speed. A combined objective function appropriate for various system load levels with suitable constraints, for treatment of the power system security and economy is also proposed. For the real-time voltage/reactive power control, a suboptimal power flow procedure has been derived by using the reduced set of control variables. This procedure is based on the sensitivity theory applied to the determination of zones for the secondary voltage/reactive power control and corresponding reduced set of regulating sources, whose reactive outputs represent control variables in the optimal power flow program. As a result, the optimal power flow program output becomes a schedule to be used by operators in the process of the real-time voltage/reactive power control in both normal and emergency operating states.

  7. Selected environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    2001-01-01

    NAA is very useful for the determination of trace and minor elements in many environmental applications. While instrumental NAA (INAA) has a number of valid applications in this field, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) prior to, or post irradiation provides some significant advantages. One of the major focus points for environmental applications of NAA is to assess the magnitude of various pollutants. This paper discusses doing this via two methods, namely air monitoring and biological monitoring. (author)

  8. Electrospinning for advanced energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications delivers a state-of-the-art overview of the use of electrospun fibers in energy conversion and storage, as well as in environmental sensing and remediation. Featuring contributions from leading experts in electrospinning and its specific applications, this book: Introduces the electrospinning technique and its origins, outlining achievable one-dimensional (1D) nanoscaled materials and their various applications Discusses the use of electrospun materials in energy devices, including low- and high-temperature fuel cells, hydrogen storage, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors Explores environmental applications of electrospun fibers, such as the use of electrospinning-issued materials in membranes for water and air purification, as well as in sensors and biosensors for pollution control Beneficial to both academic and industrial audiences, Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications present...

  9. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  10. Model Based Optimization of Integrated Low Voltage DC-DC Converter for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, H. M. P. C.; Muhtaroğlu, Ali

    2016-11-01

    A novel model based methodology is presented to determine optimal device parameters for the fully integrated ultra low voltage DC-DC converter for energy harvesting applications. The proposed model feasibly contributes to determine the maximum efficient number of charge pump stages to fulfill the voltage requirement of the energy harvester application. The proposed DC-DC converter based power consumption model enables the analytical derivation of the charge pump efficiency when utilized simultaneously with the known LC tank oscillator behavior under resonant conditions, and voltage step up characteristics of the cross-coupled charge pump topology. The verification of the model has been done using a circuit simulator. The optimized system through the established model achieves more than 40% maximum efficiency yielding 0.45 V output with single stage, 0.75 V output with two stages, and 0.9 V with three stages for 2.5 kΩ, 3.5 kΩ and 5 kΩ loads respectively using 0.2 V input.

  11. A New Resonant Capacitor Diode Voltage Multiplier Topology for Pulsed Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kebriaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, the pulsed power systems have been employed in many applications. To meet the requirement of user, the pulse generator should enjoy the advantages of compactness, high flexibility, high pulse repetition rate and cost efficiency. Among all of converters that can be used to generate high voltage pulses, capacitance diode voltage multiplier (CDVM is a good candidate to meet the mentioned requirements. In this paper a new converter that is combination of full-bridge inverter, CDVM and resonant circuit is proposed. The performance of developed converter is compared with the conventional circuits and is demonstrated via simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Experimental tests on a prototype setup have verified the capability of this topology.

  12. Rad-Hard, Miniaturized, Scalable, High-Voltage Switching Module for Power Applications Rad-Hard, Miniaturized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Philippe C.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Vo, Tuan A.

    2011-01-01

    A paper discusses the successful development of a miniaturized radiation hardened high-voltage switching module operating at 2.5 kV suitable for space application. The high-voltage architecture was designed, fabricated, and tested using a commercial process that uses a unique combination of 0.25 micrometer CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistors and high-voltage lateral DMOS (diffusion metal oxide semiconductor) device with high breakdown voltage (greater than 650 V). The high-voltage requirements are achieved by stacking a number of DMOS devices within one module, while two modules can be placed in series to achieve higher voltages. Besides the high-voltage requirements, a second generation prototype is currently being developed to provide improved switching capabilities (rise time and fall time for full range of target voltages and currents), the ability to scale the output voltage to a desired value with good accuracy (few percent) up to 10 kV, to cover a wide range of high-voltage applications. In addition, to ensure miniaturization, long life, and high reliability, the assemblies will require intensive high-voltage electrostatic modeling (optimized E-field distribution throughout the module) to complete the proposed packaging approach and test the applicability of using advanced materials in a space-like environment (temperature and pressure) to help prevent potential arcing and corona due to high field regions. Finally, a single-event effect evaluation would have to be performed and single-event mitigation methods implemented at the design and system level or developed to ensure complete radiation hardness of the module.

  13. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be ...

  14. Engineering proteins for environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Schanstra, Joost P.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, significant new insight has been obtained into the structure and catalytic mechanism of enzymes that convert environmental pollutants. Recent advances in protein engineering make it possible to use this information for improving the catalytic performance of such enzymes to achieve

  15. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  16. Application in agriculture, forestry and environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Holmes, J.W.; Williams, B. G.; Winkworth, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This consideration of the applications of the neutron method in forestry, agriculture and environmental science, focusses on the analyses of the data which can be obtained with the neutron method and draws attention to problem situations associated with its use

  17. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  18. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  19. Application of radiotracers in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present recently emerging trends in the applicability of radiotracers in environmental studies. Since the topic is of general interest and still in the infancy, basic aspects of sampling, instrumentation and methodology are also covered

  20. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  1. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently the authors used a MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r b < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. The authors' success with the MITL technology led them to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. They have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30-50-ns FWHM output pulse

  2. Threshold-voltage modulated phase change heterojunction for application of high density memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Baihan; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory is one of the most important candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory technology. However, the ability to reduce its memory size is compromised by the fundamental limitations inherent in the CMOS technology. While 0T1R configuration without any additional access transistor shows great advantages in improving the storage density, the leakage current and small operation window limit its application in large-scale arrays. In this work, phase change heterojunction based on GeTe and n-Si is fabricated to address those problems. The relationship between threshold voltage and doping concentration is investigated, and energy band diagrams and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are provided to explain the results. The threshold voltage is modulated to provide a large operational window based on this relationship. The switching performance of the heterojunction is also tested, showing a good reverse characteristic, which could effectively decrease the leakage current. Furthermore, a reliable read-write-erase function is achieved during the tests. Phase change heterojunction is proposed for high-density memory, showing some notable advantages, such as modulated threshold voltage, large operational window, and low leakage current

  3. Threshold-voltage modulated phase change heterojunction for application of high density memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baihan; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-09-01

    Phase change random access memory is one of the most important candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory technology. However, the ability to reduce its memory size is compromised by the fundamental limitations inherent in the CMOS technology. While 0T1R configuration without any additional access transistor shows great advantages in improving the storage density, the leakage current and small operation window limit its application in large-scale arrays. In this work, phase change heterojunction based on GeTe and n-Si is fabricated to address those problems. The relationship between threshold voltage and doping concentration is investigated, and energy band diagrams and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are provided to explain the results. The threshold voltage is modulated to provide a large operational window based on this relationship. The switching performance of the heterojunction is also tested, showing a good reverse characteristic, which could effectively decrease the leakage current. Furthermore, a reliable read-write-erase function is achieved during the tests. Phase change heterojunction is proposed for high-density memory, showing some notable advantages, such as modulated threshold voltage, large operational window, and low leakage current.

  4. Application of Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r ρ < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30--50 ns FWHM output pulse. 10 refs

  5. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, S. L.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Frost, C. A.; Poukey, J. W.; Turman, B. N.

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders were used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r(sub rho) less than 2 cm), 11 - 15 MeV, 50 - 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v(perpendicular)/c = beta(perpendicular) less than or equal to 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30 - 50 ns FWHM output pulse.

  6. Performance and scalability of isolated DC-DC converter topologies in low voltage, high current applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaisanen, V.

    2012-07-01

    Fuel cells are a promising alternative for clean and efficient energy production. A fuel cell is probably the most demanding of all distributed generation power sources. It resembles a solar cell in many ways, but sets strict limits to current ripple, common mode voltages and load variations. The typically low output voltage from the fuel cell stack needs to be boosted to a higher voltage level for grid interfacing. Due to the high electrical efficiency of the fuel cell, there is a need for high efficiency power converters, and in the case of low voltage, high current and galvanic isolation, the implementation of such converters is not a trivial task. This thesis presents galvanically isolated DC-DC converter topologies that have favorable characteristics for fuel cell usage and reviews the topologies from the viewpoint of electrical efficiency and cost efficiency. The focus is on evaluating the design issues when considering a single converter module having large current stresses. The dominating loss mechanism in low voltage, high current applications is conduction losses. In the case of MOSFETs, the conduction losses can be efficiently reduced by paralleling, but in the case of diodes, the effectiveness of paralleling depends strongly on the semiconductor material, diode parameters and output configuration. The transformer winding losses can be a major source of losses if the windings are not optimized according to the topology and the operating conditions. Transformer prototyping can be expensive and time consuming, and thus it is preferable to utilize various calculation methods during the design process in order to evaluate the performance of the transformer. This thesis reviews calculation methods for solid wire, litz wire and copper foil winding losses, and in order to evaluate the applicability of the methods, the calculations are compared against measurements and FEM simulations. By selecting a proper calculation method for each winding type, the winding

  7. Mason’s equation application for prediction of voltage of oil shale treeing breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemyanov, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    The application of the formula, which is used to calculate the maximum field at the tip of the pin-plane electrode system was proposed to describe the process of electrical treeing and treeing breakdown in an oil shale. An analytical expression for the calculation of the treeing breakdown voltage in the oil shale, as a function of the inter-electrode distance, was taken. A high accuracy of the correspondence of the model to the experimental data in the range of inter-electrode distances from 0.03 to 0.5 m was taken.

  8. Some applications of the high voltage electron microscope in physical metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.; Thomas de Montpreville, C.

    1976-01-01

    The high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) is a microscope with a much higher penetration than the usual ones, as well as being a remarkable irradiation machine. The possible applications of the HVEM related to its advantages over the conventional microscopes are first discussed. The simultaneous use of the HVEM as an irradiation machine and an observation tool is then discussed, experiments carried in the laboratory being referred to. The last use of the HVEM makes it an irreplaceable tool for continuously following the clustering of irradiation defects [fr

  9. Estimation of Transformer Parameters and Loss Analysis for High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    In a bi-directional DC-DC converter for capacitive charging application, the losses associated with the transformer makes it a critical component. In order to calculate the transformer losses, its parameters such as AC resistance, leakage inductance and self capacitance of the high voltage (HV......) winding has to be estimated accurately. This paper analyzes the following losses of bi-directional flyback converter namely switching loss, conduction loss, gate drive loss, transformer core loss, and snubber loss, etc. Iterative analysis of transformer parameters viz., AC resistance, leakage inductance...

  10. Enhancing Food Processing by Pulsed and High Voltage Electric Fields: Principles and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qijun; Li, Yifei; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2018-02-02

    Improvements in living standards result in a growing demand for food with high quality attributes including freshness, nutrition and safety. However, current industrial processing methods rely on traditional thermal and chemical methods, such as sterilization and solvent extraction, which could induce negative effects on food quality and safety. The electric fields (EFs) involving pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and high voltage electric fields (HVEFs) have been studied and developed for assisting and enhancing various food processes. In this review, the principles and applications of pulsed and high voltage electric fields are described in details for a range of food processes, including microbial inactivation, component extraction, and winemaking, thawing and drying, freezing and enzymatic inactivation. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of electric field related technologies are discussed to foresee future developments in the food industry. This review demonstrates that electric field technology has a great potential to enhance food processing by supplementing or replacing the conventional methods employed in different food manufacturing processes. Successful industrial applications of electric field treatments have been achieved in some areas such as microbial inactivation and extraction. However, investigations of HVEFs are still in an early stage and translating the technology into industrial applications need further research efforts.

  11. Nano silver diffusion behaviour on conductive polymer during doping process for high voltage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A.; Mahmood, A.; Chin, K. T.; Danquah, M. K.; van Stratan, S.

    2017-06-01

    Conductive polymer had opened a new era of engineering for microelectronics and semiconductor applications. However, it is still a challenge for high voltage applications due to lower electrical conductivity compare to metals. This results tremendous energy losses during transmission and restricts its usage. In order to address such problem a novel method was investigated using nano silver particle doped iodothiophene since silver is the highest electrical conductive material. The experiments were carried out to study the organometallic diffusion behaviour of nanosilver doped iodothiophene with different concentration of iodothiophene. Five different mixing ratio between nanosilver and the solution of iodothiophene dissolved in diethyl ether were used which are 1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:2.5, 1:3 and l:5. It was revealed that there is an effective threshold concentration of which the nano silver evenly distributed and there was no coagulation observed. These parameters laid the foundation of better doping process between the nano silver and the polymer significantly which would contribute developing conductive polymer towards high voltage application for industries that are vulnerable to corrosive environment.

  12. Introduction [Radiation processing: Environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the world. Population growth, higher standards of living, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities all contribute to environmental degradation. For example, fossil fuels - including coal. natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen - are the main primary sources of heat and electrical energy production, and are responsible for a large number and amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry. power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. All of these fuels are composed of major constituents such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and other components including sulphur and nitrogen compounds and metals. During the combustion process, different pollutants are emitted, such as fly ash (containing diverse trace elements (heavy metals)), SO x (including SO 2 and SO 3 ). NO x (including NO 2 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollution caused by particulate matter and other pollutants not only directly impacts the atmospheric environment but also contaminates water and soil, leading to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of the environment. These phenomena have a negative impact on human health and on vegetation

  13. Effect of Anode Floating Voltage and its Applications in Characterizing Silicon Drift Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-Guo, Wu; Hong-Ri, Li; Kun, Liang; Ru, Yang; De-Jun, Han; Xue-Lei, Cao; Huan-Yu, Wang; Jun-Ming, An; Xiong-Wei, Hu

    2009-01-01

    Anode Boating voltage is predicted and investigated for silicon drift detectors (SDDs) with an active area of 5 mm 2 fabricated by a double-side parallel technology. It is demonstrated that the anode Boating voltage increases with the increasing inner ring voltage, and is almost unchanged with the external ring voltage. The anode Boating voltage will not be affected by the back electrode biased voltage until it reaches the full-depleted voltage (−50 V) of the SDD. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the anode Boating voltage is equal to the sum of the inner ring voltage and the built-in potential between the p + inner ring and the n + anode. A fast checking method before detector encapsulation is proposed by employing the anode Boating voltage along with checking the leakage current, potential distribution and drift properties

  14. Environmental Projects for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    successful, the end product would be laboratory qualification of a total hexavalent chrome free coating systems for use on magnesium transmission...qualification testing of a completely hexavalent chrome free coating system by utilizing a hexavalent chrome free topcoat, primer, and pretreatment...Evaluate the use of hexavalent chrome free conversion coatings for depot and field applications.  Alodine 5700 and Alodine T 5900 immersion for

  15. Power angle control of grid-connected voltage source converter in a wind energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In this thesis, the connection of a voltage source converter to the grid in a wind energy application is examined. The possibility of using a cheap control system without grid current measurements, is investigated. The control method is based on controlling the voltage angle of the inverter, which governs the active power flow. The highest frequency of the power variation, coming from wind turbine, is approx. 5 Hz. Since the proposed control method easily can handle such power variations it is very well suited for wind turbine applications. The characteristics of the system depend on the DC-link capacitor, the grid filter inductance and resistance. Large values of the resistance damp the system well but increase the energy losses. A high inductance leads to a reduced harmonic level on the grid but makes the system slower. By using feed-forward of the generator/rectifier current signal, the performance is increased compared to an ordinary PI-control. Combining the Linear Quadratic (LQ) control method with Kalman filtered input signals, a robust control method with a good performance is obtained. The LQ controller controls both the phase displacement angle and the modulation index, resulting in higher bandwidth, and the typical power angle resonance at the grid frequency disappears. 22 refs, 109 figs, 14 tabs

  16. Study of abdominal CT angiography in low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianxin; Wang Yiming; Zhang Yu; Tao Wei; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Aijun; Liu Li; Wang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of decreasing radiation dose and contrast media dose of abdominal CTA using low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, and there were 40 patients in each group. 120 kV tube voltage was used in group A, and 100 kV tube voltage was used in group B and C. Personalized injection flow rate of contrast media which determined according to patient's body mass (injection flow rate =λ × body mass) was used for all groups, and the λ values for group A, B and C were 0.07, 0.07 and 0.06 ml · kg -1 · s -1 respectively. CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) effective dose (ED) and contrast media dose were evaluated,and these parameters were all analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. Image quality of abdominal aorta and branch arteries was rated using a three-point ordinal for all 3 groups, and image quality score was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: CTDIvol were (8.2±0.8), (6.0 ±1.0) and (6.1 ±1.1)mGy for group A, B and C, ED were (5.2 ±0.8), (3.5 ± 0.7) and (3.6 ± 0.6) mSv, and contrast media dose were (72.3 ± 10.3),(73.5 ± 11.3) and (61.6 ±9.4) ml, respectively. There were significant differences in CTDIvol, ED and contrast media dose among 3 groups (F=66.094, 77.812,15.919; P=0.000). Compare with group A, the ED of group B was decreased 32.7%, and the ED and contrast media dose of group C were decreased 30.8% and 14.8%, respectively. Image quality was rated as excellent, good, and general for 20, 19 and 1 patients in group A, 25, 15 and 0 patients in group B, and 23, 17 and 0 patients in group C, respectively. There was no significant difference in image quality score among 3 groups (χ 2 =1.492, P=0.474). Conclusions: The radiation dose and contrast media dose can be decreased in abdominal CTA using low tube voltage and personalized contrast media application while image quality can be preserved

  17. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters.

  18. Boost Half-Bridge DC-DC Converter with Reconfigurable Rectifier for Ultra-Wide Input Voltage Range Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinnikov, Dmitri; Chub, Andrii; Liivik, Elizaveta

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel galvanically isolated boost half-bridge dc-dc converter intended for modern power electronic applications where ultra-wide input voltage regulation range is needed. A reconfigurable output rectifier stage performs a transition between the voltage doubler and the full......-bridge diode rectifiers and, by this means, extends the regulation range significantly. The converter features a low number of components and resonant soft switching of semiconductors, which result in high power conversion efficiency over a wide input voltage and load range. The paper presents the operating...

  19. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  20. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples of the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.

  1. Radiation tests on selected electrical insulating materials for high-power and high voltage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptak, G.; Schuler, R.; Haberthuer, B.; Mueller, H.; Zeier, W.; Maier, P.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of test results on the irradiation of insulating materials and systems used for the windings of rotating machines, dry-type transformers, and magnet coils. The materials were: Novolac, bisphenol-A, and cycloaliphatic types of epoxy; saturated and unsaturated polyesterimide; silicone, phenolic, and acrylic resins. The reinforcement consisted of glass mat, glass roving, glass cloth, mica paper, polyester mat, polyester roving, polyester cloth, aromatic polyamide paper, or combinations thereof. The materials were irradiated in an 8 MW pool reactor up to integrated doses of 10 8 Gy. On most samples, flexural properties were examined as recommended by IEC Standard 544. For tapes and varnishes, the breakdown voltage was measured. The adhesion of copper bars glued together with an epoxy resin was examined by means of a lap-shear test. A cupping test by means of the Erichsen apparatus was used to measure the flexibility of varnishes. The results are presented in tables and graphs for each of the materials tested. Those from mechanical tests show that the radiation resistance of composite resin-rich insulations depends not only on the base resin combination and the reinforcement material but, to a large degree, also on the adhesion between the two. It appears that better adhesion, and consequently higher radiation resistance, is obtained by special surface treatments of glass fibres. For laminates, higher radiation resistance is obtained with glass mat and resin combinations than with glass cloth as reinforcing materials. The breakdown voltage tests show that the application of mechanical stress to most irradiated samples causes the insulation layer to crack, resulting in lower dielectric strength. For a number of materials, the critical properties of flexural strength and breakdown voltage are above 50% of the initial value at doses between 10 7 and 10 8 Gy, i.e. a radiation index of 7 to 8 at 10 5 Gy/h. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of clay-modified thermoset polymers under various environmental conditions for the use in high-voltage power pylons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Mathias; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Wang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The effect of nanoclay on various material properties like damping and strength of typical thermoset polymers, such as epoxy and vinyl ester, was investigated. Different environmental conditions typical for high-voltage transmission pylons made of composite materials were taken into account. Resin...... samples were prepared with various clay weight fractions ranging from 0% to 3%. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and rheological analysis were used to study the morphology and the structure of the nanocomposites. For all nanoclay-modified thermoset polymers......, the morphology was found to be of exfoliated structure mainly. Static, uniaxial tensile tests showed that the addition of nanoclay to thermoset polymers led to a beneficial effect on the stiffness, whereas the tensile strength and ductility significantly decreased. When exposed to different environmental...

  3. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  4. OPC Server and BridgeView Application for High Voltage Power Supply Lecroy 1458

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project was to develop an OPC server to communicate over an RS232 serial line. This communication media is commonly used with commercial instruments. The development was made for a High Voltage power supply in the context of the Alice [1] experiment. In addition, the structured modular concept will allow changing the transmission media or power supply type with little effort. The high voltage power supply should be accessible remotely through a network. OPC[2] is an acronym for OLE[3] for Process Control. OPC is based on the DCOM [3] communication protocol, which allows communication with any computer running a Windows based OS. This standard is widely used in industry to access device data through Windows applications. The concept is based on the client-server architecture. The hardware and the software architecture are described. Subsequently details of the implemented programs are given with emphasis on the possibility to replace parts of the software in order to use differ...

  5. Application of Load Compensation in Voltage Controllers of Large Generators in the Polish Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Voltage Regulator normally controls the generator stator terminal voltage. Load compensation is used to control the voltage which is representative of the voltage at a point either within or external to the generator. In the Polish Power Grid (PPG compensation is ready to use in every AVR of a large generator, but it is utilized only in the case of generators operating at the same medium voltage buses. It is similar as in most European Power Grids. The compensator regulating the voltage at a point beyond the machine terminals has significant advantages in comparison to the slower secondary Voltage and Reactive Power Control System (ARNE1. The compensation stiffens the EHV grid, which leads to improved voltage quality in the distribution grid. This effect may be particularly important in the context of the dynamic development of wind and solar energy.

  6. Electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong (eds.) [Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials; Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). Nanomaterials Research Center

    2014-10-01

    This book offers a comprehensive review of the latest advances in developing functional electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications, which include fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, supercapacitors, energy storage materials, sensors, filtration materials, protective clothing, catalysis, structurally-colored fibers, oil spill cleanup, self-cleaning materials, adsorbents, and electromagnetic shielding.

  7. Environmental statement for Applications Technology Satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The experiments, environmental impact, and applications of data collected by ATS are discussed. Data cover communications, navigation, meteorology, data collection (including data from small unattended remote stations such as buoys, seismology and hydrology monitors, etc.), geodesy, and scientific experiments to define the environment at synchronous orbit, and to monitor emissions from the sun.

  8. Low-Power, Low-Voltage Resistance-to-Digital Converter for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. YURISH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IC (ASIP of Universal Sensors and Transducers Interface (USTI-MOB with low power consumption, working in the resistive measurement mode (one of 26 possible measuring modes is described in the article. The proposed IC has 20 W to 4.5 M W range of measurement, relative error< ±0.04 %, 0.85 mA supply current and 1.2 V supply voltage. The worst-case error of about< ±1.54 % is observed. IC has three popular serial interfaces: I2C, SPI and RS232/USB. Due to high metrological performance and technical characteristics the USTI- MOB is well suitable for such application as: sensor systems for IoT, wearable and mobile devices, and digital multimeters. The ICs can also work with any quasi-digital resistive converters, in which the resistance is converted to frequency, period, duty-cycle or pulse width.

  9. Large time-dependent coercivity and resistivity modification under sustained voltage application in a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.; van der Heijden, M.A.J.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Koopmans, B.

    2015-01-01

    The coercivity and resistivity of a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction are measured under sustained voltage application. High bias voltages of either polarity are determined to cause a strongly enhanced, reversible coercivity modification compared to low voltages. Time-resolved measurements show a logarithmic

  10. Total dose behavior of partially depleted SOI dynamic threshold voltage MOS (DTMOS) for very low supply voltage applications (0.6 - 1 V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.; Faynot, O.; Raynaud, C.; Pelloie, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we presented two DTMOS architectures processed with a partially depleted SOI technology. The first architecture, DTMOS without limiting transistor, is dedicated to ultra-low voltage applications, at 0.6 V. For 1V applications, the second architecture, DTMOS with limiting transistor, needs an additional transistor to limit the body-source diode current. The total dose irradiation of both DTMOS architectures induces no change of the drain current, but an increase of the body-source diode current. Total dose induced trapped charge in the buried oxide increases the body potential of the DTMOS transistor. It induces an increase of the current flow at the back interface of the silicon film. Irradiation of complex circuits using DTMOS transistors would lead to a degradation of the stand-by consumption. (authors)

  11. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  12. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-07

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  13. High voltage electrophoretic deposition for electrochemical energy storage and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Sunand

    High voltage electrophoretic deposition (HVEPD) has been developed as a novel technique to obtain vertically aligned forests of one-dimensional nanomaterials for efficient energy storage. The ability to control and manipulate nanomaterials is critical for their effective usage in a variety of applications. Oriented structures of one-dimensional nanomaterials provide a unique opportunity to take full advantage of their excellent mechanical and electrochemical properties. However, it is still a significant challenge to obtain such oriented structures with great process flexibility, ease of processing under mild conditions and the capability to scale up, especially in context of efficient device fabrication and system packaging. This work presents HVEPD as a simple, versatile and generic technique to obtain vertically aligned forests of different one-dimensional nanomaterials on flexible, transparent and scalable substrates. Improvements on material chemistry and reduction of contact resistance have enabled the fabrication of high power supercapacitor electrodes using the HVEPD method. The investigations have also paved the way for further enhancements of performance by employing hybrid material systems and AC/DC pulsed deposition. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the starting material to demonstrate the HVEPD technique. A comprehensive study of the key parameters was conducted to better understand the working mechanism of the HVEPD process. It has been confirmed that HVEPD was enabled by three key factors: high deposition voltage for alignment, low dispersion concentration to avoid aggregation and simultaneous formation of holding layer by electrodeposition for reinforcement of nanoforests. A set of suitable parameters were found to obtain vertically aligned forests of MWCNTs. Compared with their randomly oriented counterparts, the aligned MWCNT forests showed better electrochemical performance, lower electrical resistance and a capability to

  14. Fuzzy Controller for a Voltage-Regulated Solar-Powered MPPT System for Hybrid Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fuzzy-logic-based voltage-regulated solar power maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for applications involving hybrid power systems. The system contains a solar power system and battery as the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. The solar system alone supplies power to the electric motor and maintains the output voltage at a predetermined level when it has sufficient power. When the solar power is insufficient, the solar system is operated at its maximum power point (MPP and the battery is engaged to compensate for the insufficiency. First, a variant of the incremental conductance MPP condition was established. Under the MPP condition, the voltage-regulated MPPT system was formulated as a feedback control system, where the MPP condition and voltage regulation requirements were used as the system inputs. Next, a fuzzy controller was developed to perform the voltage-regulated MPPT function for the hybrid power system. A simulation model based on Matrix laboratory (MATLAB/SIMULINK (a block diagram environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design and a piecewise linear electric circuit simulation (PLECS tool for controlling the dc motor velocity was developed to verify the voltage-regulated solar power MPPT system.

  15. Application of high voltage electric field (HVEF) drying technology in potato chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yaxiang; Shi, Hua; Yang, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the drying efficiency and qualities of vegetable by high voltage electric field (HVEF), potato chips as a representative of vegetable was dried using a high voltage electric drying systems at 20°C. The shrinkage rate, water absorption and rehydration ratio of dried potato chips were measured. The results indicated that the drying rate of potato chips was significantly improved in the high voltage electric drying systems. The shrinkage rate of potato chips dried by high voltage electric field was 1.1% lower than that by oven drying method. And the rehydration rate of high voltage electric field was 24.6% higher than that by oven drying method. High voltage electric field drying is very advantageous and can be used as a substitute for traditional drying method.

  16. Environmental Development Plan (EDP): space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies and examines the environmental, safety, health, and socioeconomic (ES and H) issues associated with the ongoing DOE Space Applications Program and the associated research, development, and demonstration programs. The EDP presents an ES and H research and development (R/D) program and strategy for timely resolutions of the issues and satisfaction of the associated requirements necessary for precluding impediments to the space nuclear systems technology. The EDP has been limited to the consideration of: (1) space nuclear power system nuclear fuel fabrication; (2) space nuclear power system heat source fabrication; (3) testing of subsystems and assembled systems; (4) R and D in support of space nuclear system development; (5) nuclear system responses to launch and reentry accidents; and (6) nuclear system environmental behavior and recovery

  17. The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in food processing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen; Hamdami, Nasser; Le-Bail, Alain; Xanthakis, Epameinondas

    2016-11-01

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remote sensing applications in environmental research

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Prashant K; Gupta, Manika; Islam, Tanvir

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research is the basis for advanced Earth Observation (EO) datasets used in environmental monitoring and research. Now that there are a number of satellites in orbit, EO has become imperative in today's sciences, weather and natural disaster prediction. This highly interdisciplinary reference work brings together diverse studies on remote sensing and GIS, from a theoretical background to its applications, represented through various case studies and the findings of new models. The book offers a comprehensive range of contributions by well-known scientists from around the world and opens a new window for students in presenting interdisciplinary and methodological resources on the latest research. It explores various key aspects and offers state-of-the-art research in a simplified form, describing remote sensing and GIS studies for those who are new to the field, as well as for established researchers.

  19. New decontamination technologies for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; McCoy, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technologies discussed represent a versatile collection of tools and approaches for environmental decontamination applications. The fixatives provide a means for gaining and maintaining control of large contaminated areas, for decontaminating large surface areas, and for protecting equipment and supplies used in decontamination operations. The other decontamination techniques together provide a method for removing loose surface contamination from almost all classes of materials and surfaces. These techniques should have wide application both as direct decontamination processes and for the cleaning of tools and equipment used in the decontamination operations

  20. Environmental applications of biosurfactants: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-18

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  1. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  2. New environmental applications of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of recent data on environmental applications of radiation technology obtained with participation of the author. It includes the results of the study on combined electron-beam and ozone treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow and electron-beam purification of water from heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium) by two methods (in the presence of formate as an OH radical scavenger or sorbents of inorganic and plant origins)

  3. Remote Sensing: Physics And Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Raey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Basic principles of remote sensing of environment are outlined emphasizing inherent physical and target properties leading to proper identification and classification. Basic processing techniques are discussed. Applications of remote sensing techniques in various aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment is surveyed with emphasis on aspects of main concern to developing communities such as planning, sea level impacts, mine detection and earthquake prediction are all outlined and discussed

  4. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  5. On-chip active gate bias circuit for MMIC amplifier applications with 100% threshold voltage variation compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, A.P. de; Busking, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the design and performance of an on-chip active gate bias circuit for application in MMIC amplifiers, which gives 100% compensation for threshold variation and at the same time is insensitive to supply voltage variations, is discussed. Design equations have been given. In addition, the

  6. Design and application of the high-voltage DC power-supply control system based on PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yiyun; Zheng Guanghua; Wu Junshuan; Yang Chunsheng; Hu Huaichuan

    2002-03-01

    The design and application of A kind of high-voltage DC power-supply control system based on PLC is referred, in addition, KingView is used to monitor the system in real time and manage the man-machine conversation ideally

  7. New 2LC-Y DC-DC converter topologies for high-voltage/low-current renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2017-01-01

    (2LC-LVD, 2LC-2LVD, 2LC-2LCVD and 2LC-2LCmVD) converters are presented in this treatise which offer an effective solution for renewable applications requiring a very high voltage conversion ratio such as a Photovoltaic Multilevel Inverter (PV-MLI) system, hybrid electrical drives and automotive...

  8. An improved partially interleaved transformer structure for high-voltage high-frequency multiple-output applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    . The proposed structure features lower leakage inductance, smaller AC capacitance and lower rate of AC-DC resistance, which is suitable for high-frequency high-efficiency applications. A planar transformer with the proposed structure was built and tested in an LCLC resonant converter, where the input voltage...

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR TRAVELING WAVE KICKER MAGNET APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; SANDBERG, J.; TUOZZOLO, J.; CASSEL, R.; DUCIMETIERE, L.; JENSEN, C.; BARNES, M.; WAIT, G.; WANG, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined

  10. Application of active electrode compensation to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with sharp microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, J F; Destexhe, A; Bal, T

    2014-10-01

    Electrophysiological recordings of single neurons in brain tissues are very common in neuroscience. Glass microelectrodes filled with an electrolyte are used to impale the cell membrane in order to record the membrane potential or to inject current. Their high resistance induces a high voltage drop when passing current and it is essential to correct the voltage measurements. In particular, for voltage clamping, the traditional alternatives are two-electrode voltage-clamp technique or discontinuous single electrode voltage-clamp (dSEVC). Nevertheless, it is generally difficult to impale two electrodes in a same neuron and the switching frequency is limited to low frequencies in the case of dSEVC. We present a novel fully computer-implemented alternative to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with a single sharp-electrode. To reach such voltage-clamp recordings, we combine an active electrode compensation algorithm (AEC) with a digital controller (AECVC). We applied two types of control-systems: a linear controller (proportional plus integrative controller) and a model-based controller (optimal control). We compared the performance of the two methods to dSEVC using a dynamic model cell and experiments in brain slices. The AECVC method provides an entirely digital method to perform continuous recording and smooth switching between voltage-clamp, current clamp or dynamic-clamp configurations without introducing artifacts.

  11. Highly efficient integrated rectifier and voltage boosting circuits for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maurath

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel circuit concepts for integrated rectifiers and voltage converting interfaces for energy harvesting micro-generators. In the context of energy harvesting, usually only small voltages are supplied by vibration-driven generators. Therefore, rectification with minimum voltage losses and low reverse currents is an important issue. This is realized by novel integrated rectifiers which were fabricated and are presented in this article. Additionally, there is a crucial need for dynamic load adaptation as well as voltage up-conversion. A circuit concept is presented, which is able to obtain both requirements. This generator interface adapts its input impedance for an optimal energy transfer efficiency. Furthermore, this generator interface provides implicit voltage up-conversion, whereas the generator output energy is stored on a buffer, which is connected to the output of the voltage converting interface. As simulations express, this fully integrated converter is able to boost ac-voltages greater than |0.35 V| to an output dc-voltage of 2.0 V–2.5 V. Thereby, high harvesting efficiencies above 80% are possible within the entire operational range.

  12. Application of Multipoint DC Voltage Control in VSC-MTDC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-source-converter- (VSC- based multiterminal VSC-HVDC power transmission system (VSC-MTDC is an ideal approach to connect wind farm with power grid. Analyzing the characteristics of doubly fed induction generators as well as the basic principle and the control strategy of VSC-MTDC, a multiterminal DC voltage control strategy suitable for wind farm connected with VSC-MTDC is proposed. By use of PSCAD/EMTDC, the proposed control strategy is simulated, and simulation results show that using the proposed control strategy the conversion between constant power control mode and constant DC voltage control mode can be automatically implemented; thus the DC voltage stability control and reliable power output of wind farm can be ensured after the fault-caused outage of converter station controlled by constant DC voltage and under other faults. The simulation result shows that the model can fulfill multiterminal power transmission and fast response control.

  13. Five-Phase Five-Level Open-Winding/Star-Winding Inverter Drive for Low-Voltage/High-Current Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper work proposed a five-phase five-level open-/star-winding multilevel AC converter suitable for low-voltage/high-current applications. Modular converter consists of classical two-level five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) with slight reconfiguration to serve as a multilevel converter...... for open-/star-winding loads. Elaborately, per phase of the VSI is built with one additional bi-directional switch (MOSFET/IGBT) and all five legs links to the neutral through two capacitors. The structure allows multilevel generation to five-level output with greater potential for fault tolerability under...

  14. Emerging applications of nanoparticles: Biomedical and environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shivani; Sachdeva, M.; Bhasin, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology finds a wide range of applications from energy production to industrial fabrication processes to biomedical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be engineered to possess unique compositions and functionalities to empower novel tools and techniques that have not existed previously in biomedical research. The unique size and shape dependent physicochemical properties along with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a wide variety of potential applications in the field of diagnostics and medicines. In the plethora of scientific and technological fields, environmental safety is also a big concern. For this purpose, nanomaterials have been functionalized to cope up the existing pollution, improving manufacturing methods to reduce the generation of new pollution, and making alternative and more cost effective energy sources.

  15. Photocatalytic semiconductors synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials.

  16. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  17. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  18. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Jin Yu [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yuan, Zhi Guo, E-mail: ncityzg@163.com [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  19. Self-discharge analysis and characterization of supercapacitors for environmentally powered wireless sensor network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hengzhao; Zhang, Ying

    2011-10-01

    A new approach is presented to characterize the variable leakage resistance, a parameter in the variable leakage resistance model we developed to model supercapacitors used in environmentally powered wireless sensor network applications. Based on an analysis of the supercapacitor terminal behavior during the self-discharge, the variable leakage resistance is modeled as a function of the supercapacitor terminal voltage instead of the self-discharge time, which is more practical for an environmentally powered wireless sensor node. The new characterization approach is implemented and validated using MATLAB Simulink with a 10 F supercapacitor as an example. In addition, effects of initial voltages and temperatures on the supercapacitor self-discharge rate and the variable leakage resistance value are explored.

  20. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail

  1. Applications of voltammetry in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, D.H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The wide-ranging applications of voltammetry to the analysis of trace metals and other ions of interest to environmental scientists are reviewed. It is concluded that the availability of modern microprocessor controlled instrumentation, capable of performing both anodic stripping and square wave voltammetry, provides a flexible and powerful technique to aid in solving analytical problems and carrying out routine analyses. The recent identification of many sensitizing agents which reduce detection limits to part per thousand million level, or below, is a further exciting development in this field.

  2. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF NANOMETALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Malina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest in metallic nanoparticles has been observed, both because of their unlimited application possibilities, and also because of the unusual biological, chemical and physical features. It is expected that developments in nanotechnology will become the main promoter of scientific and technological innovations in the coming decades. Searching for a new and safe alternative to chemical pesticides, high hopes are associated with nanotechnology development. Particularly useful may be preparations containing nanoscale metal particles with strong antimicrobial properties. Importantly, safe and non-toxic for the plant components of biological origin may be used in nanoparticles synthesis. This article is a description of the potential applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection, which may become the basis for developing of new protection plant products with antimicrobial properties relative to plant pathogens and non-toxic to higher organisms.

  3. High power accelerator for environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  4. High power accelerator for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, S. M. [EB-TECH Co., Ltd., Yuseong-gu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  5. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  6. The HTR, applications, economics and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Schad, M.; Candeli, H.

    1990-01-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR), as the only nuclear system producing high temperature heat up to 1000 deg. C, offers a wide variety of applications. Besides electricity production, via steam turbines and in future via gas turbines, there is: District heat with high efficiency, long distance energy for urban energy supply, high pressure injection steam production for enhanced oil recovery, medium range temperature heat direct application in chemical and related industry and last not least, high temperature application for the refinement of fossil energy carriers. Recent results of studies and programmes will be presented: Near term applications are identified, e.g. refineries and alumina industry with smaller HTR units. Another large market is the production of hydrogen, methanol and ammonia on the basis of natural gas, the relevant technology has been developed up to the pilot scale. The refinement of fossil energy carriers, in particular of coal, is subject of the R+D programme in the cooperation between German industrial companies and the Nuclear Research Center. The results are very promising and will be explained in detail. This programme will be continued. Objectives are: improvement of the technology and of the economics as well as environmental aspects, e.g. the reduction of emissions of carbon-dioxid. The topics of the programme deal with the different apparatus, e.g. steam methane reformer, steam coal gasifier, intermediate heat exchanger and last not least, the process heat HTR. (author)

  7. Successful application of Low Voltage Electron Microscopy to practical materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, David C.; Mankin, Max; Day, Robert W.; Erdman, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage High-Resolution Electron Microscopy (LVHREM) has several advantages, including increased cross-sections for inelastic and elastic scattering, increased contrast per electron, decreased delocalization effects and reduced knock-on damage. Imaging at differing voltages has shown advantages for imaging materials that are knock-on damage sensitive. We show experimentally that different materials systems benefit from low voltage high-resolution microscopy. There are advantages for imaging single layer materials such as graphene at below the knock-on threshold; we present an example of imaging a graphene sheet at 40 kV. We have also examined mesoporous silica decorated with Pd nanoparticles and carbon black functionalized with Pd/Pt nanoparticles. In these cases we show that the lower voltage imaging maintains the structure of the surrounding matrix during imaging, whereas aberration correction provides the higher resolution for imaging the nanoparticle lattice. Perhaps surprisingly we show that zeolites damage preferentially by ionization effects (radiolysis). The current literature suggests that below incident energies of 40 kV the damage is mainly radiolitic, whereas at incident energies above 200 kV the knock-on damage and material sputtering will be the dominant effect. Our experimental observations support this conclusion and the effects we have observed at 40 kV are not indicative of knock-on damage. Other nanoscale materials such as thin silicon nanowires also benefit from lower voltage imaging. LVHREM imaging provides an excellent option to avoid beam damage to nanowires; our results suggest that LVHREM is suitable for nanowire-biological composites. Our experimental observations serve as a clear demonstration that even at 40 keV accelerating voltage, LVHREM can be used without inducing beam damage to locate dislocations and other crystalline defects, which may have adverse effects on nanowire device performance. Low voltage operation will likely

  8. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  9. Application of pentacene thin-film transistors with controlled threshold voltages to enhancement/depletion inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hajime; Hanafusa, Yuki; Kimura, Yoshinari; Kitamura, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment has been carried out to control the threshold voltage in organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) having a SiO2 gate dielectric prepared by rf sputtering. The threshold voltage linearly changed in the range of -3.7 to 3.1 V with the increase in plasma treatment time. Although the amount of change is smaller than that for organic TFTs having thermally grown SiO2, the tendency of the change was similar to that for thermally grown SiO2. To realize different plasma treatment times on the same substrate, a certain region on the SiO2 surface was selected using a shadow mask, and was treated with oxygen plasma. Using the process, organic TFTs with negative threshold voltages and those with positive threshold voltages were fabricated on the same substrate. As a result, enhancement/depletion inverters consisting of the organic TFTs operated at supply voltages of 5 to 15 V.

  10. A High Resolution Switched Capacitor 1bit Sigma-Delta Modulator for Low-Voltage/Low-Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    1996-01-01

    A high resolution 1bit Sigma-Delta modulator for low power/low voltage applications is presented. The modulator operates at a supply of 1-1.5V, the current drain is 0.1mA. The maximum resolution is 87dB equivalent to 14 bits of resolution. This is achieved with a signal-band of 5kHz, over-samplin...

  11. Application of Low Voltage High Resistance Grounding in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Koo Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most nuclear power plants now utilize solid grounded low voltage systems. For safety and reliability reasons, the low voltage (LV high resistance grounding (HRG system is also increasingly used in the pulp and paper, petroleum and chemical, and semiconductor industries. Fault detection is easiest and fastest with a solidly grounded system. However, a solidly grounded system has many limitations such as severe fault damage, poor reliability on essential circuits, and electrical noise caused by the high magnitude of ground fault currents. This paper will briefly address the strengths and weaknesses of LV grounding systems. An example of a low voltage HRG system in the LV system of a nuclear power plant will be presented. The HRG system is highly recommended for LV systems of nuclear power plants if sufficient considerations are provided to prevent nuisance tripping of ground fault relays and to avoid the deterioration of system reliability.

  12. Solid-state fast voltage compensator for pulsed power applications requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Magallanes, Francisco Cabaleiro; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for pulsed power converters based on capacitor-discharge topologies, integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This solution has been retained as a possible candidate for the CLIC project under study at CERN, which requires more than a thousand synchronously-operated klystron modulators producing a total pulsed power of almost 40 GW. The proposed Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to treat the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage, meaning that its dimensioning power and cost are minimized. This topology can be used to improve the AC power quality of any pulsed converters based on capacitor-discharge concept. A prototype has been built and exploited to validate the operating principle and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed solution.

  13. Shunt PWM advanced var compensators based on voltage source inverters for Facts applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Pedro G; Misaka, Isamu; Watanabe, Edson H [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    Increased attention has been given to improving power system operation. This paper presents modeling, analysis and design of reactive shunt power compensators based on PWM-Voltage Source Inverters (Pulse Width Modulation -Voltage Source Inverters). (Pulse Width Modulation - Voltage Source Inverters). The control algorithm is based on new concepts of instantaneous active and reactive power theory. The objective is to show that with a small capacitor in the side of a 3-phase PWM-VSI it is possible to synthesize a variable reactive (capacitive or inductive) device. Design procedures and experimental results are presented. The feasibility of this method was verified by digital simulations and measurements on a small scale model. (author) 9 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Application to the system of insulated of diagnosis in high-voltage motors by partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect electric insulators degradation of high-voltage electric motors at an early stage, measurements of partial discharge of operating high-voltage electric motors (about 150 units) in the nuclear power plants were conducted from 2001 to 2004 by the use of on-line monitoring systems that could measure partial discharge of electric insulators. Influencing factors for measured values were identified from measured data and evaluation criteria of electric insulators integrity were established based on variations of partial discharge values. (T. Tanaka)

  15. A new way of estimating compute-boundedness and its application to dynamic voltage scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatachalam, Vasanth; Franz, Michael; Probst, Christian W.

    2007-01-01

    Many dynamic voltage scaling algorithms rely on measuring hardware events (such as cache misses) for predicting how much a workload can be slowed down with acceptable performance loss. The events measured, however, are at best indirectly related to execution time and clock frequency. By relating...... these two indicators logically, we propose a new way of predicting a workload's compute-boundedness that is based on direct observation, and only requires measuring the total execution cycles for the two highest clock frequencies. Our predictor can be used to develop dynamic voltage scaling algorithms...

  16. 65NM sub-threshold 11T-SRAM for ultra low voltage applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Aunet, Snorre

    In this paper a new ultra low power SRAM cell is proposed. In the proposed SRAM topology, additional circuitry has been added to a standard 6T-SRAM cell to improve the static noise margin (SNM) and the performance. Foundry models for a 65 nm standard CMOS process were used for obtaining reliable...... simulated results. The circuit was simulated for supply voltages from 0.2 V to 0.35 V verifying the robustness of the proposed circuit for different supply voltages. The simulations show a significant improvement in SNM and a 4X improvement in read speed still maintaining a satisfactory write noise margin...

  17. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  18. Isotope applications in the environmental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Established uses of enriched isotopes in the environmental field were surveyed to determine future trends in isotope needs. Based on established isotope uses, on the projected increase in the pollution problem, and on the apparent social and economic pressure for pollution abatement, a significant demand for enriched isotopes appears to be developing for the assessment and control of air, water, and soil pollutants. Isotopic techniques will be used in combination with conventional methods of detection and measurement, such as gas chromatography, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption. Recent advances in economical isotope separation methods, instrumentation, and methodology promise to place isotopic technology within the reach of most research and industrial institutions. Increased application of isotope techniques appears most likely to occur in areas where data are needed to characterize the movement, behavior, and fate of pollutants in the environment

  19. Portable cosmic muon telescope for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnafoeldi, Gergely Gabor [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hamar, Gergo [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Melegh, Hunor Gergely [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Olah, Laszlo [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Suranyi, Gergely [Geological, Geophysical and Space Science Research Group of the HAS, Eoetvoes University, 1/C Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, Dezso, E-mail: dezso.varga@cern.ch [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-10-11

    A portable, low power consumption cosmic muon tracking system based on Close Cathode MWPC technology is presented, which is designed for operation in highly humid environmental conditions such as underground caves, tunnels, or cellars. The system measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a tomographic mapping of the soil density above the detector unit. The size of the detector, 0.1 m{sup 2} of total sensitive surface, was designed to fulfill the requirement of transport through humanly passable natural cave tunnels. First results from the Ariadne Cave System in Pilis Mountains, Hungary are shown, which constrains the necessary data taking time for meaningful tomographic mapping. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cosmic muon tracking system for underground applications presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operation in highly humid environment of natural caves demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic mapping at 60 m depth was performed during 50 days in Pilis Mountains, Hungary.

  20. Calculated sputtering and atomic displacement cross-sections for applications to medium voltage analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, C.R.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1987-08-01

    The development of medium voltage electron microscopes having high brightness electron sources and ultra-high vacuum environments has been anticipated by the microscopy community now for several years. The advantages of such a configuration have been discussed to great lengths, while the potential disadvantages have for the most part been neglected. The most detrimental of these relative to microcharacterization are the effects of electron sputtering and atomic displacement to the local specimen composition. These effects have in the past been considered mainly in the high voltage electron microscope regime and generally were ignored in lower voltage instruments. Recent experimental measurements have shown that the effects of electron sputtering as well as radiation induced segregation can be observed in conventional transmission electron microscopes. It is, therefore, important to determine at what point the effects will begin to manifest themselves in the new generation of medium voltage analytical electron microscopes. In this manuscript we present new calculations which allow the individual experimentalist to determine the potential threshold levels for a particular elemental system and thus avoid the dangers of introducing artifacts during microanalysis. 12 refs., 3 figs

  1. Charge-sharing SAR ADCs for low-voltage low-power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabuske, Taimur

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the potential of charge-sharing (CS) successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), while providing extensive analysis of the factors that limit the performance of the CS topology. The authors present guidelines and useful techniques for mitigating the limitations of the architecture, while focusing on the implementation under restricted power budgets and voltage supplies.

  2. Low-Cost Voltage Zero-Crossing Detector for AC-Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyov Maxim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are becoming more popular. Some of them like small hydropower turbines, wind turbines and diesel generators produce AC voltage with different frequency and voltage than the main grid. For them power electronics converters are necessary. Power electronics converters presented in industry use two or three level energy conversion, although direct AC to AC converters exist, but one of the main problems is the switch commutation when current or voltage is crossing the zero point. Zero crossing sensors are used to solve this problem. They consist of current or voltage measurement unit and zero crossing detector. Different approaches are used for zero crossing: hardware or software. Hardware approach is simple but it has low precision. Software approach has high precision but it is complicated and expensive. In this paper a simple low cost high precision approach is presented. It takes all advantages from both approaches. While tested with two types of microcontrollers the precision of experimental measurement is 25 μs - 40 μs.

  3. Bidirectional Flyback Converter with Multiple Series Connected Outputs for High Voltage Capacitive Charge and Discharge Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    is limited by the parasitics of the high voltage active components, which also prevent full utilization of valley switching during discharge process. A second implementation is therefore proposed, where the secondary of flyback transformer winding is split into multiple windings which are connected in series...

  4. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  5. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    in the design process is key to environmentally conscious design;- the environmental profile of a product is affected the most in the very early stages of the design process, particularly in the pre-specification stage, where tools for environmentally conscious design decision-making are lacking...... when companies have integrated environmental considerations into the design process.In the context of advanced practitioners of environmentally conscious design in the Western European and North American electrical/electronics industry sector, it is shown that:- the timing of environmental decisions...... into their product development processes. This starts with motivation, leading to widening communication and information flows and finally to whole-life thinking....

  6. Design and development of high voltage MARX modulator technology for long pulse application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2013-01-01

    High power pulse modulators are used for powering the RF amplifier like klystrons. This paper describes the development of a 10 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator for technology demonstration. The modulator is developed using four no. of main modules each of 2.5 kV. To reduce the over sizing factor of capacitors, the allowed drop of main Marx cell is 9%. A droop compensation circuit has been developed to reduce the output pulse voltage droop from 9% to within ±1%. Droop compensation consists of 10 numbers of corrector modules each of 200 V. A microcontroller based trigger circuit was used for simultaneous triggering of main modules and for staggered triggering of corrector modules. A 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator is being developed. The advantages of this scheme are oil free design, low DC voltage, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time/fall time and modular design etc. (author)

  7. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  8. Application of transducers to the control of temperatures and of alternating and direct voltages (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoult, N.

    1960-11-01

    The temperature regulator and the voltage regulators described have been studied with a view to conferring a high degree of safety to the apparatuses in which they are used. They make use almost exclusively of Transducers which are passive elements acting mainly in these apparatuses as amplifiers and which are entirely satisfactory, ensuring that the regulators studied keep their essential qualities i.e accuracy, reliability, stability and sensitivity. (author) [fr

  9. Analysis of Back-to-Back MMC for Medium Voltage Applications under Faulted Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anurag; Martins, Joäo Pedro Rodrigues; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 10MW medium voltage Back-to-Back (BTB) Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) without a DC-Link capacitor with halfbridge submodules. It focusses on the system behavior under single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault when there is no capacitor on the DC-Link.The fault current is compute...... to prevent DC overvoltages in the sub-modules during faults....

  10. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  11. Activate distributed energy resources' services: Hierarchical voltage controller as an application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain the flex......The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain...... the flexible capacity of large scale. In this paper, a hierarchical controller is presented to activate the aggregation, and tries to obtain a global optimum of the grid operation. A distribution grid with large penetration of highly varying generation or load is under the risk that the voltage quality...... delivered to the end users is very poor. Hence, a coordinated voltage control function is investigated given such control hierarchy utilizing the flexibilities from the DER units to obtain an optimal voltage profile along the distribution feeder. The results are two folded: the controller enables...

  12. Universal Voltage Conveyor and its Novel Dual-Output Fully-Cascadable VM APF Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Herencsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a novel realization of a voltage-mode (VM first-order all-pass filter (APF with attractive features. The proposed circuit employs a single readily available six-terminal active device called as universal voltage conveyor (UVC and only grounded passive components, which predict its easy monolithic integration with desired circuit simplicity. The auxiliary voltage input (W and output (ZP, ZN terminals of the device fully ensure easy cascadability of VM APF, since the input and output terminal impedances are theoretically infinitely high and zero, respectively. Moreover, thanks to mutually inverse outputs of the UVC, the proposed filter simultaneously provides both inverting and non-inverting outputs from the same configuration. All of these features make the UVC a unique active device currently available in the literature. The behavior of the filter was experimentally measured using the readily available UVC-N1C 0520 chip, which was produced in cooperation with ON Semiconductor Czech Republic, Ltd.

  13. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  14. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  15. Environmental applications of electron-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The main directions of modern environmental applications of electron-beam technology are the following: 1) treatment of polluted natural and drinking water, municipal and industrial wastewater, other liquid wastes; 2) purification of gases; 3) treatment of sewage sludges; 4) treatment of solid wastes (medical wastes, contaminated soil and so on). In some cases, the results of respective researches and developments found a large-scale application. For example, recently several industrial plants for electron-beam purification of flue gases of thermal power plants from SO2 and NOx were created in China, Poland and Japan. In the report, a brief summary of the most important results obtained in the mentioned directions will be presented. A special attention will be paid to the data in the first direction. In particular, the recent results on radiation treatment of some liquid systems obtained in the laboratory under author's leadership will be considered. One of them is water polluted with petroleum products (motor oil, diesel fuel, residual fuel oil). The pollutants were present in water in dissolved form and as a separate phase. It was found that irradiation (dose 25-40 kGy) decomposes and removes the pollutants as a precipitate. The second system is natural oil gas consisting of gaseous and low-boiling hydrocarbons, water and so on. Laboratory- and pilot-scale (with electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV and 30 kW) studies have shown that electron-beam treatment (in a recycling regime with continuous sampling the liquid phase) of this gas leads to the formation of a mixture of liquid branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers and so on, i.e., there is a radiation-induced liquefaction of the natural oil gas. The mechanism of radiolytic conversions occurring in the mentioned systems will be discussed

  16. Environmental implications and applications of engineered ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review focus on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that take advantages of their superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition, hydrothermal process, emulsion, and microbial process. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for making excellent anode electrode materials in lithium-ion battery, for constructing biosensors, and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are made as antimicrobial agent for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dye, oil, arsenic, Cr(VI), heavy metals, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization. Submit to Journal of Hazardous Materials.

  17. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  18. Application of radiation to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Machi, Sueo

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made to investigate the current applications of radiations to environmental protection. Electron irradiation is used for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas. Flue gas generated from combusted fossil fuel such as coal and oil is irradiated with electrons to oxidize sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are then removed to clean the flue gas. Ammonia or lime may be added before irradiation to convert sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides into ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate or convert sulfur dioxide into calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Radiations are helpful for treatment of waste water. When water is irradiated with radiations, most of the energy is absorbed by water to cause decomposition of water molecules, resulting in the production of highly reactive species such as OH radical and H atom. Contaminants then react with these species and are oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Other methods are also available for applying radiations to water treatment. Sludge contains a large amount of organic substances that serve as fertilizer components. Thus, radiations can be used to sterilize and compost sludge. (Nogami, K.)

  19. PV Power-Generation System with a Phase-Shift PWM Technique for High Step-Up Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A PV power-generation system with a phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PWM technique for high step-up voltage applications is proposed. The proposed power-generation system consists of two stages. In the input stage, all power switches of the full-bridge converter with phase-shift technique can be operated with zero-current switching (ZCS at turn-on or turn-off transition. Hence, the switching losses of the power switches can be reduced. Then, in the DC output stage, a voltage-doubler circuit is used to boost a high dc-link bus voltage. To supply a utility power, a dc/ac inverter is connected to induce a sinusoidal source. In order to draw a maximum power from PV arrays source, a microcontroller is incorporated with the perturbation and observation method to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In this study, a full load power of 300 W prototype has been built. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power-generation system.

  20. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  1. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  2. Environmental applications of manometric respirometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roppola, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this work a manometric respirometric measuring system was applied to practical environmental cases related to wastewater management and biodegradation studies of oil-contaminated soils and materials used in landfill structures. Pollution of groundwater, surface water and soils is a worldwide problem. Therefore, tests simulating the biodegradation behaviour of organic compounds in water media and soils have become increasingly important. Respirometric methods provide direct measurement of the oxygen consumed by micro-organisms in biodegradation processes from an air or oxygen-enriched environment in a closed vessel. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a crucial environmental parameter used to measure the quality of water and treatment results in wastewater. Generally, BOD is measured with standardised methods, which are usually time-consuming as well as laborious. In this work the manometric respirometric test was compared with conventional BOD tests by determining the BOD of pulp and paper mills as well as domestic wastewater samples. The effect of different factors such as type, amount and pre-treatment of inoculum and the effect of dilution of a sample on the BOD values were also tested. A right dilution was noticed to be the most significant factor affecting the BOD values of the industrial wastewater samples. The mathematic estimation of the BOD7 values from the respirometric data was proved to work reliably after a 2-3 day incubation period. Characterisation of organic fractions of the pulp and paper mill wastewater was carried out with methods including filtration, long term BOD measurements and COD analyses. The most significant observation in characterisation analyses was that a remarkable part of the detected oxygen demand was consumed for the biotransformation of biodegradable fractions into new inert decomposition products, not only for mineralisation of the biodegradable COD fraction. Biodegradation behaviour of the peat samples with different

  3. Application in low level counting of corona counters operating in voltage or current pulse recording modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravec, J.; Usacev, S.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Sitar, B.; Benovic, D.; Holy, K.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages of current or voltage modes of recording are discussed. It appears that the current mode is more advantageous in measurements of rare events caused by highly ionizing particles on a high background of weakly ionizing particles. A 2.3 litre multiwire corona counter was used for the determination of 226 Ra content in drinking water. The 226 Ra content was estimated by measuring 222 Rn activity. The minimum measurable activity of the system was 0.07 pCi/l of water. (author)

  4. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  5. Long Lifetime DC-Link Voltage Stabilization Module for Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Chung, Henry; Liu, Wenchao

    2012-01-01

    Power converters enable efficient and flexible control and conversion of electric energy among different smart grid players (i.e. producers, energy storage systems, and loads). One of the expected features of smart grid is that it will be more reliable compared to conventional grid. However, power...... converters are one kind of the lifetime limiting components applied in smart grid. One of the major causes is the malfunction of electrolytic capacitors (E-Caps) which are widely used for stabilizing the dc-link voltage in various types of power converters applied in smart grid. A dc-link module is therefore...

  6. Application of remote sensing to environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, J F

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of remote sensing to environmental management procedures at the sub-regional scale is examined in relation to the County Structure environmental management plan for Merseyside County, England. The various seasons, scales and emulsions used for aerial photography in the county are indicated, and results of aerial surveys of the distribution of derelict and despoiled land and of natural environments are presented and compared with ground surveys. The use of color infrared and panchromatic aerial photographs indicating areas of environmental stress and land use in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of environmental management activities is then discussed.

  7. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY BY SCHMITT TRIGGER TOPOLOGY FOR LOW VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUKKUMANI V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive scaling of transistor dimensions with each technology generation has resulted an increased integration density and improved device performance at the expense of increased leakage current. The Supply voltage scaling is an effective way of reducing dynamic as well as leakage power consumption. However the sensitivity of the circuit parameters increases with reduction of the supply voltage. SRAM bit- cells utilizing minimum sized transistors are susceptible to various random process variations. The Schmitt Trigger based operation gives better readconstancy as well as superior write-ability compared to the standard bitcell configurations. The proposed Schmitt Trigger based bitcells integrate a built-in feedback mechanism make the process with high tolerance. In this paper an obsolete design of a differential sensing Static Random Access Memory (SRAM bit cells for ultralow-power and ultralow-area Schmitt trigger operation is introduced. The ST bit cells incorporate a built-in feedback mechanism, provided by separate control signal if the feedback is given by the internal nodes, achieving process variation tolerance that must be used for future nano-scaled technology nodes. In this we proposed 32nm technology for designing 10T SRAM cell using Microwind.Total power about 30% is reduced due to 32 nm technology as compared to 65 nm technlology.

  8. Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Tahir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy.

  9. Radiation Application in the Environmental. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaliah Sharif; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ming, T.T.; Nor Hasimah Mohamed; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman

    2017-01-01

    Radiation has always been a natural part of environment. It is valuable working resources for civil, chemical and environmental engineers and scientist involved with pollution control, water treatment and industrial waste treatment. Electron beam technology for environmental conservation can be achieved if we took into account the economic factors which enable it to compete with existed technology.

  10. An Ultra-Low Voltage Analog Front End for Strain Gauge Sensory System Application in 0.18µm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Alexander; Chan, Pak Kwong

    This paper presents analysis and design of a new ultra-low voltage analog front end (AFE) dedicated to strain sensor applications. The AFE, designed in 0.18µm CMOS process, features a chopper-stabilized instrumentation amplifier (IA), a balanced active MOSFET-C 2nd order low pass filter (LPF), a clock generator and a voltage booster which operate at supply voltage (Vdd) of 0.6V. The designed IA achieves 30dB of closed-loop gain, 101dB of common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) at 50Hz, 80dB of power-supply rejection ratio (PSRR) at 50Hz, thermal noise floor of 53.4 nV/√Hz, current consumption of 14µA, and noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 9.7. The high CMRR and rail-to-rail output swing capability is attributed to a new low voltage realization of the active-bootstrapped technique using a pseudo-differential gain-boosting operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) and proposed current-driven bulk (CDB) biasing technique. An output capacitor-less low-dropout regulator (LDO), with a new fast start-up LPF technique, is used to regulate this 0.6V supply from a 0.8-1.0V energy harvesting power source. It achieves power supply rejection (PSR) of 42dB at frequency of 1MHz. A cascode compensated pseudo differential amplifier is used as the filter's building block for low power design. The filter's single-ended-to-balanced converter is implemented using a new low voltage amplifier with two-stage common-mode cancellation. The overall AFE was simulated to have 65.6dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), total harmonic distortion (THD) of less than 0.9% for a 100Hz sinusoidal maximum input signal, bandwidth of 2kHz, and power consumption of 51.2µW. Spectre RF simulations were performed to validate the design using BSIM3V3 transistor models provided by GLOBALFOUNDRIES 0.18µm CMOS process.

  11. Electric power quality analysis methods. Application to voltage dips and harmonic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanya, Ignatova

    2006-10-01

    The power quality concerns all the actors in the energy domains, that they are network administrators, suppliers, producers, or consumers of electricity. The research work presented in this PhD thesis is situated in the field of the power quality monitoring. Its objective is to introduce new techniques for analysis of power quality problems. There are different methods designed for the analysis of the power quality disturbances. This method reaches very good performances in the voltage dips analysis, as it allows segmenting, classifying and characterising these power quality disturbances. The periodic systems method allows the theoretical study of the generation and the propagation of harmonic disturbances in the network. Finally, the statistical matrix method has the objective to represent statistically electrical signals without loss of important information. (author)

  12. Characteristics of Partial Discharge and Ozone Generation for Twisted-pair of Enameled Wires under High-repetitive Impulse Voltage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Enokizono, Masato; Shibakita, Toshihide; Umehara, Eiji; Toshimitsu, Jun; Ninomiya, Shinji; Taniguchi, Hideki; Abe, Yukari

    In recent years, inverter drive machines such as a hybrid vehicle and an electric vehicle are operated under high voltage pulse with high repetition rate. In this case, inverter surge is generated and affected the machine operation. Especially, the enameled wire of a motor is deteriorated due to the partial discharge (PD) and finally breakdown of the wire will occur. In order to investigate a PD on a resistant enameled wire, characteristics of PD in the twisted pair sample under bipolar repetitive impulse voltages are investigated experimentally. The relationship between the applied voltage and discharge current was measured at PD inception and extinction, and we estimated the repetitive PD inception and extinction voltages experimentally. The corresponding optical emission of the discharge was also observed by using an ICCD camera. Furthermore, ozone concentration due to the discharge was measured during the life-time test of the resistant enameled wires from a working environmental point of view.

  13. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Ali, Rashid Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  14. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad

    2013-09-03

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  15. Characterization of Wet Air Plasma Jet Powered by Sinusoidal High Voltage and Nanosecond Pulses for Plasma Agricultural Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Shimada, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Not only for the plasma sterilization but also for many of plasma life-science applications, atmospheric pressure plasma devices that allowed us to control its state and reactive species production are deserved to resolve the roles of the chemical species. Influence of the hydroxyl radical and ozone on germination of conidia of a strawberry pathogen is presented. Water addition to air plasma jet significantly improves germination suppression performance, while measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reduced. Although the results show a negative correlation between ROS and the germination suppression, this infers the importance of chemical composition generated by plasma. For further control of the plasma product, a plasma jet powered by sinusoidal high voltage and nanosecond pulses is developed and characterized with the voltage-charge Lissajous. Control of breakdown phase and discharge power by pulse-imposed phase is presented. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grant Number 15K17480 and Exploratory Research Grant Number 23644199.

  16. Fabrication of Ultra-Thin Printed Organic TFT CMOS Logic Circuits Optimized for Low-Voltage Wearable Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Hayasaka, Kazuma; Shiwaku, Rei; Yokosawa, Koji; Shiba, Takeo; Mamada, Masashi; Kumaki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-05-09

    Ultrathin electronic circuits that can be manufactured by using conventional printing technologies are key elements necessary to realize wearable health sensors and next-generation flexible electronic devices. Due to their low level of power consumption, complementary (CMOS) circuits using both types of semiconductors can be easily employed in wireless devices. Here, we describe ultrathin CMOS logic circuits, for which not only the source/drain electrodes but also the semiconductor layers were printed. Both p-type and n-type organic thin film transistor devices were employed in a D-flip flop circuit in the newly developed stacked structure and exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, including good carrier mobilities of 0.34 and 0.21 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-1), and threshold voltages of nearly 0 V with low operating voltages. These printed organic CMOS D-flip flop circuits exhibit operating frequencies of 75 Hz and demonstrate great potential for flexible and printed electronics technology, particularly for wearable sensor applications with wireless connectivity.

  17. Application of radiophotoluminescence dosemeters for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, A.; Tamura, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Numakunai, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Ohi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Feasibility study has been made on the radiofluorescence glass (RPL) dosemeters for environmental radiation monitoring. Main items in the laboratory tests are batch uniformities of pre-dose and sensitivity, build-up characteristics of RPL intensity, energy and angular responses, stabilities for RPL reading, anneal cycling and climatic conditional changes. We have determined self-irradiation dose and cosmic ray contribution. Radiation monitoring field test for the RPL dosemeters has been conducted in comparison with the present TLD systems. A procedure manual for the environmental monitoring by the use of RPL dosemeters is in preparation

  18. Application of optical diagnosis to aged low-voltage cable insulation in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Junichi; Takezawa, Yoshitaka; Shouji, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a novel non-destructive optical diagnosis technique for low-voltage cable insulations used in nuclear power plants. The key features of this diagnosis are the use of two wavelengths to measure the change in reflective absorbance (ΔA R ), the use of polarized light to measure crystallinity and the use of element volatilizing to measure fluorescence. Chemical kinetics is used to predict the lifetimes of the cable insulations. When cable insulations darken and harden by time degradation, the ΔA R and depolarization parameters increase. This means that the cross-linking density in the cable insulations increases due to deterioration reactions. When the cross-linking density of insulation increases, its elasticity, corresponding to the material's life, increases. Similarly, as the crystallinity increases due to the change in the high-order structure of the insulating resin caused by irradiation, its elongation property decreases. The elongation property of insulation is one of the most important parameters that can be used to evaluate material lifetimes, because it relates to elasticity. The ΔA R correlated with the elongation property, and the correlation coefficient of an accelerated experiment using model pieces was over 0.9. Thus, we concluded that this optical diagnosis should be applied to evaluate the degradation of cable insulations used in nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Featuring of transient tunneling current by voltage pulse and application to an electrochemical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun Yeon; Lee, Won Cheol; Choi, Seong Wook; Park, Young June

    2018-03-01

    We suggest a voltage pulse method for detecting the transient tunneling current component (faradaic current component) in a metal/redox-active monolayer/electrolyte system. After applying the pulse to the metal electrode, the capacitive current prevails; therefore, it is difficult to extract the tunneling current, which carries information on the biochemical reactions occurring between the biomarkers in the electrolyte and the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the probe peptide system. Instead of waiting until the capacitive current diminishes, and thereby, the tunneling current also decreases, we try to extract the tunneling current in an early stage of the pulse. The method is based on the observation that the capacitive current becomes symmetrized in the positive and negative pulses after introducing the SAM on the metal electrode. When the energy level of the redox molecule is higher than the Fermi level of the metal under zero-bias condition, the tunneling current in the negative pulse can be extracted by subtracting the capacitive current obtained from the positive pulse, where the tunneling current is neglected. The experiment conducted for detecting trypsin as a biomarker shows that the method enhances the sensitivity and the specific-to-nonspecific ratio of the sensor device in the case of the nonspecific protein-abundant electrolyte solution, as evinced by cyclic voltammetry measurements in comparison.

  20. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  1. Applications of nuclear technique in environmental and medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Shen Hao; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Yao Huiying; Zhou Shijun; Mi Yong

    2001-01-01

    The serious environmental pollution problem and application of the nuclear technique in environmental and medical sciences were discussed. The analysed results of the elemental distribution of particles in automobile exhaust, the aerosol particle of different size and the effect of Rare Earth on cells were reported. The authors can obtain some information related to element concentration. It offers a convenient method in inspecting the environmental pollution

  2. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  3. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication

  4. Environmental Monitoring Curriculum System and Application-Oriented Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Through building the environmental monitoring curriculum system for application-oriented talents, the comprehensive design and practice were constructed from the syllabus, textbooks, web-based courses, top-quality courses, test paper bank, open laboratory and scientific research etc. The aims are to promote environmental science professional,…

  5. High Voltage Smart Power Module For Fault-Tolerant Launcher Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Debrouwere

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a low cost and highly integrated smart power module (SPM intended to be used into launchers applications, embedding technologies and components from automotive world and being mainly producible by large-scale industry.

  6. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  7. Environmental impact of high voltage aerial transmission lines; Impacto ambiental de linhas de transmissao aereas de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R P [CAEEB, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Mouallen, M C [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quintella, S E.A.

    1990-12-31

    The identification of environmental impacts caused by the aerial transmission lines and the measures for reducing these impacts are discussed, considering the impact over the soil in different areas, biological effects caused by delayed exposure and visual impacts due to the line structures. A methodology for the impact evaluation and the aspects of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Report are also studied. (C.G.C.). 2 refs, 1 fig.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion models for environmental pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutants are introduced into the air by many of man's activities. The potentially harmful effects these can cause are, broadly speaking, of two kinds: long-term, possibly large-scale and wide-spread chronic effects, including long-term effects on the earth's climate; and acute, short-term effects such as those associated with urban air pollution. This section is concerned with mathematical cloud or plume models describing the role of the atmosphere, primarily in relation to the second of these, the acute effects of air pollution, i.e., those arising from comparatively high concentration levels. The need for such air pollution modeling studies has increased spectacularly as a result of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1968 and, especially, two key court decisions; the Calvert Cliffs decision, and the Sierra Club ruling on environmental non-degradation

  9. Electronics drivers for high voltage dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper, electronics divers for heating valves, loud speakers, incremental motors, and energy harvesting are reviewed, studied and developed in accordance with their corresponding specifications. Due to the simplicity and low power capacity (below 10W), the reversible Fly - back converters with both......, because of its high control linearity, is implemented for the loud speaker application s . A synthesis among those converter topologies and control techniques is given; therefore, for those DEAP based applications, their diversity and similarity of electronics drivers, as well as the key technologies...

  10. Development of a Voltage Compensation Type Active SFCL and Its Application for Transient Performance Enhancement of a PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rapid development of high temperature superconducting (HTS materials, superconducting power applications have attracted more and more attention in the power industry, particularly for electrical systems including renewable energy. This paper conducts experimental tests on a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL prototype and explores the SFCL’s application in a permanent-magnet synchronous generator- (PMSG- based wind turbine system. The SFCL prototype is composed of a three-phase air-core superconducting transformer and a voltage source converter (VSC integrated with supercapacitor energy storage. According to the commissioning test and the current-limiting test, the SFCL prototype can automatically suppress the fault current and offer a highly controlled compensation voltage in series with the 132 V electrical test system. To expand the application of the active SFCL in a 10 kW class PMSG-based wind turbine system, digital simulations under different fault cases are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. From the demonstrated simulation results, using the active SFCL can help to maintain the power balance, mitigate the voltage-current fluctuation, and improve the wind energy efficiency. The active SFCL can be regarded as a feasible solution to assist the PMSG-based wind turbine system to achieve low-voltage ride-through (LVRT operation.

  11. Environmental effects of ash application in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette

    of ashes being produced and the export of nutrients from the forests. This PhD project aims at investigating how ash application in forest ecosystems affects soil and soil solution properties and whether ash application can be used in a Danish context without environmental harm but with positive effects...

  12. Microalgae for biofuels production and environmental applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review presents the current classification of biofuels, with special focus on microalgae and their applicability for the production of biodiesel. The paper considered issues related with the processing and culturing of microalgae, for not only those that are involved in biofuel production, but as well as the possibility of their ...

  13. DEAP actuator and its high voltage driver for heating valve application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Nørmølle, L. F.; Sarban, R.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advantages of DEAP (Dielectric Electro Active Polymer) material, such as light weight, noise free operation, high energy and power density and fast response speed, it can be applied in a variety of applications to replace the conventional transducers or actuators. This paper introduces...... DEAP actuator to the heating valve system and conducts a case study to discuss the feasible solution in designing DEAP actuator and its driver for heating valve application. First of all, the heating valves under study are briefly introduced. Then the design and the development for DEAP actuator...... is illustrated in detail, and followed by the detailed investigation of the HV driver for DEAP actuator. In order to verify the implementation, the experimental measurements are carried out for DEAP actuator, its HV driver as well as the entire heating valve system....

  14. The application of high voltage digital and analogue unit protections to utility telecommunications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, H. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Verzosa, Q.R.; Care, J.M. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The use of fibre optic and digital microwave systems, both within and without utility communications networks was discussed. Their availability has led to the development of phase comparison and differential current relaying systems which provide enhanced protective features for transmission circuits. The application of fibre optic cable or microwave radio data links overcomes problems caused by ground potential rise and transferred potential damage in metallic pilot wire schemes. Some problems were encountered when installing digital differential current and analogue phase comparison relaying systems to a 220 kV power transmission system where a mix of analog microwave, digital microwave radio and multiplexed fibre optic channels were available. However, the relays were successfully installed with the application of digital pilot differential relays to the power system which enabled fast fault clearance to be achieved. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  15. Report on health and environmental effects of electromagnetic fields produced by high and very high voltage lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this report presents some characteristics and properties of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, indicates which are the artificial sources of exposure to very low frequency electromagnetic fields, and gives an overview of some investigations and researches on the exposure to magnetic fields. The second part contains a description of the French high and very high voltage network, its role and development. It also discusses the possibility of burying these lines, and outlines the importance of citizen participation. The third part deals with the potential impacts on health; it comments the results of international studies, discusses the problem of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and the relationship between electric and magnetic fields and infantile leukaemia. The fourth part deals with the potential impacts on the environment, animals, agriculture

  16. Geomaterials: their application to environmental remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Yamada, Kenji Tamura, Yujiro Watanabe, Nobuo Iyi and Kazuya Morimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomaterials are materials inspired by geological systems originating from the billion years long history of the Earth. This article reviews three important classes of geomaterials. The first one is smectites—layered silicates with a cation-exchange capacity. Smectites are useful for removing pollutants and as intercalation compounds, catalysts and polymer nanocomposites. The second class is layered double hydroxides (LDHs. They have an anion-exchange capacity and are used as catalysts, catalyst precursors, sorbents and scavengers for halogens. The third class of geomaterials is zeolites—microporous materials with a cation-exchange capacity which are used for removing harmful cations. Zeolite composites with LDHs can absorb ammonium and phosphate ions in rivers and lakes, whereas zeolite/apatite composites can immobilize the radioactive iodine. These geomaterials are essential for environmental remediation.

  17. Geomaterials: their application to environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirohisa; Tamura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yujiro; Iyi, Nobuo; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    Geomaterials are materials inspired by geological systems originating from the billion years long history of the Earth. This article reviews three important classes of geomaterials. The first one is smectites—layered silicates with a cation-exchange capacity. Smectites are useful for removing pollutants and as intercalation compounds, catalysts and polymer nanocomposites. The second class is layered double hydroxides (LDHs). They have an anion-exchange capacity and are used as catalysts, catalyst precursors, sorbents and scavengers for halogens. The third class of geomaterials is zeolites—microporous materials with a cation-exchange capacity which are used for removing harmful cations. Zeolite composites with LDHs can absorb ammonium and phosphate ions in rivers and lakes, whereas zeolite/apatite composites can immobilize the radioactive iodine. These geomaterials are essential for environmental remediation. PMID:27877455

  18. Control strategy and hardware implementation for DC–DC boost power circuit based on proportional–integral compensator for high voltage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For high-voltage (HV applications, the designers mostly prefer the classical DC–DC boost converter. However, it lacks due to the limitation of the output voltage by the gain transfer ratio, decreased efficiency and its requirement of two sensors for feedback signals, which creates complex control scheme with increased overall cost. Furthermore, the output voltage and efficiency are reduced due to the self-parasitic behavior of power circuit components. To overcome these drawbacks, this manuscript provides, the theoretical development and hardware implementation of DC–DC step-up (boost power converter circuit for obtaining extra output-voltage high-performance. The proposed circuit substantially improves the high output-voltage by voltage-lift technology with a closed loop proportional–integral controller. This complete numerical model of the converter circuit including closed loop P-I controller is developed in simulation (Matlab/Simulink software and the hardware prototype model is implemented with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. A detailed performance analysis was carried out under both line and load regulation conditions. Numerical simulation and its verification results provided in this paper, prove the good agreement of the circuit with theoretical background.

  19. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  20. Environmental applications of the LANL nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Herrin, J.M.; Abell, R.; George, M.; Gauerke, E.R.; Denniston, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The LANL nuclear microprobe has been used to study the distributions of trace elements (TE) of environmental interest including: (1) metals in coal and fly ash, (2) Pb in the Bandelier Tuff (BT), (3) Ba in tree rings, (4) Mn, Fe, Sr and Y in Yucca Mountain calcites. Micro-PIXE (MP) analyses with 5-10 micrometer spatial resolution provide constraints on processes that redistribute contaminants in the environment, and hence may help answer environmental problems where fine-scale chemical records are important. MP analyses of particulates in coal and ash show that pyrite contains As, Se, Hg and Pb; macerals contain Cr, halogens and S; cenospheres contain As, Se and Ni; and hematite ash contains Ni and As. Understanding these elemental modes of occurrence allows prediction of metal behavior in boilers and may enhance compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments. Fine-grained high-Pb minerals were identified using SEM and MP analyses of BT minerals. These minerals were from samples associated with deep-groundwater wells containing Pb at levels greater than regulatory limits. Pb is concentrated in Pb minerals (e.g. cerussite), smectite, and hematite formed during low-T alteration of tuff. Understanding mineralogic speciation of metals may provide insights into sources of groundwater pollution. Tree rings from ponderosa pines that grew in a Ba-contaminated drainage were analyzed using MP. Ba concentrations are typically higher in rings that formed after operations discharging Ba to the environment began. Such tree-ring analyses may ultimately provide information on rates of contaminant migration in the environment. TE in zoned calcites from Yucca Mountain were analyzed by MP. Calcites from the saturated zone (SZ) have distinct chemical signatures (high Fe, Mn and low Y). No calcites in the unsaturated zone with SZ chemical signatures were found using MP

  1. A low-voltage silicon condenser microphone for hearing instrument applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombach, Pirmin; Müllenborn, Matthias; Klein, Udo

    1999-01-01

    the input-related noise of the following preamplifier stage becomes dominant and results in a high equivalent input-related noise. Here a silicon condenser microphone with the potential for hearing instrument applications will be presented. To get the best properties for the different mechanical parts, e...... related A-weighted noise is 23 dB SPL, including the preamplifier. Due to a conservative layout, the parasitic capacitance is about 50%. An increase of 2–3 mV/Pa sensitivity and hence 3 dB SPL less noise can therefore be achieved by design optimization....

  2. Low-voltage current-mode CMOS building blocks for field programmable analog arrays and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madian, A.H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The role of analog integrated circuits in modem electronic systems remains important, even though digital circuits dominate the market for VLSI solutions. Analog systems have always played an essential role in interfacing digital electronics to the real world in applications such as analog signal processing and signal conditioning .Industrial process and motion control and biomedical measurements . In addition, analog solutions are becoming increasingly competitive with digital circuits for dense, low-power, high-speed applications in low-precision signal-processing. Because of the wide variety of analog functions required in electronic systems and the complexity of the signals (frequency, time, signal levels, parasitic), analog system design is very specialized and supported by a diverse set of CAD tools that are more difficult to integrate than those required for digital design. The drive towards shorter design cycles for analog integrated circuits has demanded the development of high performance analog circuits that are re configurable and suitable for CAD methodologies. the researcher here try to contribute in this filed

  3. Thermal re-ignition processes of switching arcs with various gas-blast using voltage application highly controlled by powersemiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Murai, K.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.; Tomita, K.; Suzuki, K.; Shinkai, T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on a fundamental experimental approach to thermal arc re-ignition processes in a variety of gas flows in a nozzle. Using power semiconductor switches in the experimental system, the arc current and the voltage applied to the arc were controlled with precise timing. With this system, residual arcs were created in decaying phase under free recovery conditions; arc re-ignition was then intentionally instigated by application of artificial voltage—i.e. quasi-transient recovery voltage—to study the arc behaviour in both decaying and re-ignition phases. In this study, SF6, CO2, N2, O2, air and Ar arcs were intentionally re-ignited by quasi-TRV application at 20 μs delay time from initiation of free recovery condition. Through these experiments, the electron density at the nozzle throat was measured using a laser Thomson scattering method together with high speed video camera observation during the re-ignition process. Temporal variations in the electron density from the arc decaying to re-ignition phases were successfully obtained for each gas-blast arc at the nozzle throat. In addition, initial dielectric recovery properties of SF6, CO2, air and Ar arcs were measured under the same conditions. These data will be useful in the fundamental elucidation of thermal arc re-ignition processes.

  4. Radon detectors for continuous environmental monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisoutham, O.; Werczynski, S.; Chambers, S.; Zahorowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    The two-filter method is presently the best technique available for real-time low-level counting of atmospheric 222 Rn. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has developed and deployed a range of dual flow loop, two-filter radon detectors around the world for various applications. The detectors have a response time of 45 minutes, and can be custom built for specific purposes. The largest detectors have a lower limit of detection of ∼10 mBq m -3

  5. Environmental aspects of nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, S.S.; Howe, J.P.; Icerman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper estimates the future dangers from the nuclear industry. Historically, the occurrence of nuclear reactor accidents has not been a hazard to the U.S. population, because of relatively limited reactor deployment and because of relatively safe operation. Some factual inputs were taken from the Rasmussen Report, ''An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' It is noted that data on nuclear power plant accidents follow a curve about four orders of magnitude below that for persons on the ground killed by air crashes. Data show that coal mining produced about ten times as many disabilities as uranium mining and milling per 10 6 MW(e)h of energy recovered, while the number of injuries per 10 6 man-hours of work was roughly comparable for these two types of occupations. Information on the following subjects is then presented: radiation protection standards, radiation exposures; radiation emitted from nuclear reactors under normal operating conditions; accidents involving nuclear fission reactors; fuel reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; estimates of environmental and safety aspects of fusion power; licensing of nuclear reactors; nuclear safeguards: diversion of nuclear materials, sabotage, and subversion; and nuclear energy and trade deficits in which data are presented estimating a timetable expressing the economic power of OPEC, or the time required for OPEC wealth to purchase the world's major assets

  6. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  7. Automated quantitative micro-mineralogical characterization for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hoal, K.O.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Stammer, J.G.; Pietersen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ore and waste-rock material using automated quantitative micro-mineralogical techniques (e.g., QEMSCAN® and MLA) has the potential to complement traditional acid-base accounting and humidity cell techniques when predicting acid generation and metal release. These characterization techniques, which most commonly are used for metallurgical, mineral-processing, and geometallurgical applications, can be broadly applied throughout the mine-life cycle to include numerous environmental applications. Critical insights into mineral liberation, mineral associations, particle size, particle texture, and mineralogical residence phase(s) of environmentally important elements can be used to anticipate potential environmental challenges. Resources spent on initial characterization result in lower uncertainties of potential environmental impacts and possible cost savings associated with remediation and closure. Examples illustrate mineralogical and textural characterization of fluvial tailings material from the upper Arkansas River in Colorado.

  8. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  9. Uranium Fuel Plant. Applicants environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The Uranium Fuel Plant, located at the Cimarron Facility, was constructed in 1964 with operations commencing in 1965 in accordance with License No. SNM-928, Docket No. 70-925. The plant has been in continuous operation since the issuance of the initial license and currently possesses contracts extending through 1978, for the production of nuclear fuels. The Uranium Plant is operated in conjunction with the Plutonium Facility, each sharing common utilities and sanitary wastes disposal systems. The operation has had little or no detrimental ecological impact on the area. For the operation of the Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant, initial equipment provided for the production of UO 2 , UF 4 , uranium metal and recovery of scrap materials. In 1968, the plant was expanded by increasing the UO 2 and pellet facilities by the installation of another complete production line for the production of fuel pellets. In 1969, fabrication facilities were added for the production of fuel elements. Equipment initially installed for the recovery of fully enriched scrap has not been used since the last work was done in 1970. Economically, the plant has benefited the Logan County area, with approximately 104 new jobs with an annual payroll of approximately $1.3 million. In addition, $142,000 is annually paid in taxes to state, local and federal governments, and local purchases amount to approximately $1.3 million. This was all in land that was previously used for pasture land, with a maximum value of approximately 37,000 dollars. Environmental effects of plant operation have been minimal. A monitoring and measurement program is maintained in order to ensure that the ecology of the immediate area is not affected by plant operations

  10. Application of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yingnan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent application and development of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry in the following aspects: gas isotopes (He, C) tracing of warm springs; H, O isotope tracing on the origin and cause of geothermal water, environmental isotope dating of geothermal water, and the advantage of excess parameter of deuterium (d) in geothermal research. The author also suggests that isotope method should combine with other geological methods to expand its advantage. (authors)

  11. Application of radiation technology for industry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueo Machi

    1996-01-01

    The world population today is 5.7 billion and increasing by 94 million per year. In order to meet the increasing consumption of food and energy due to the tremendous population growth, unproved technologies which are environmentally friendly, are indispensable. In this context. a number of advanced technologies have been brought about by the LISC of radiation and isotopes. This paper highlights radiation technology, applications in industry, environmental conservation, and agriculture

  12. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  13. Environmental application of modified natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikashina, V.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The following techniques were used for the chemical modification of the natural zeolites: (1) treatment of natural zeolites with organic substances. Examples of applications of these sorbents to the decontamination and disinfection of solutions of different composition and surface waters are presented. (2) Treatment of the natural zeolites with a inorganic substances. (2.1) The clinoptilolite-rich tuffs were treated with a hot suspensions of freshly precipitated magnetite. This leads to the preparation of sorbents possessing magnetic properties. The radionuclides and heavy metals recovery from soils and silts was investigated using different soil and ferromagnetic zeolite weights ratios and contact times. Different soils and sorbent of varying capacities were used for these investigations. As example, the recovery 137 Cs and 85 Sr from soils of different nature is presented. (2.2) Treatment of natural zeolites with Fe-containing solutions of Fe-containing natural waters. The filtration of these solutions through clinoptilolite-rich tuffs makes leads to preparation of materials possessing high selectivity to PO 4 3- ions. The properties of these sorbents can be utilized for the PO 4 3+ decontamination of waters (e.g. waste waters) and for the subsequent use of these materials in agriculture as fertilizers.(author)

  14. Applications of passive remote surface acoustic wave sensors in high-voltage systems; Einsatz von passiven funkabfragbaren Oberflaechenwellensensoren in der elektrischen Energietechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teminova, R

    2007-06-29

    Passive remote Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors have been applied e.g. as temperature, pressure or torque sensors. Their important advantages over standard methods are their passive operating principle, which allows operation without any power supply, as well as the wireless high-frequency signal transmission over distances up to about 10..15 m even through (non metallic) housings. These properties of SAW sensors particularly qualify them for applications in high voltage operational equipment. First experience was gained in a long time field test of surge arrester monitoring based on SAW temperature sensors in a German high-voltage substation. Now, this system has been further developed at Darmstadt University of Technology for other applications, the first of them being an overhead line (OHL) conductor temperature measurement, the second one a temperature monitoring system for of high-voltage disconnectors. After designing and building the sensors, extensive laboratory tests were carried out applying high-voltage, high-current and thermal stress in order to approve the suitability for the intended application. All these tests confirmed the assumption that SAW sensors, due to their passive working principle, are not affected at all by any kind of electrical, magnetic or thermal stress that may occur during service. The complete temperature sensor consists of three parts: a sensor chip, an antenna which receives and transmits the signal from and to the radar unit and a body for installation and for protection against environmental impact. One must find a good compromise between optimizing of thermal, dielectric and high-frequency characteristics and at the same time taking into consideration a simple installation. These requirements on the SAW sensors turned out to be difficult to coordinate. To achieve a high measuring precision is especially difficult. First, a new sensor for OHL application was developed. The OHL conductor temperature sensor had been optimized

  15. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  16. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, O.; Bernard, J.; Vermeersch, F.

    2007-01-01

    For a few years, the evolution of measuring equipment and of interpretation software have permitted to develop a new electrical resistivity technique called resistivity imaging where the equipment, which includes a large number of electrodes located along a line at the same time, carries out an automatic switching of these electrodes for acquiring profiling data. The apparent resistivity pseudo sections measured with such a technique are processed by an inversion software which gives interpreted resistivity and depth values for the anomalies detected along the profile. The multi-electrode resistivity technique consists in using a multi-core cable with as many conductors (24, 48, 72, 96) as electrodes plugged into the ground at a fixed spacing, every 5m for instance. In the resistivitymeter itself are located the relays which ensure the switching of those electrodes according to a sequence of readings predefined and stored in the internal memory of the equipment. The various combinations of transmitting (A,B) and receiving (M,N) pairs of electrodes construct the mixed sounding / profiling section, with a maximum investigation depth which mainly depends on the total length of the cable. The 2D resistivity images obtained with such a multi-electrode technique are used for studying the shallow stuctures of the underground located a few tens of metres down to about one hundred metres depth; these images supply an information which complements the one obtained with the more traditionnal Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique, which mainly aims at determining the depths of horizontal 1D structures from the surface down to several hundreds metres depths. Several examples are presented for various types of applications: groundwater (intrusion of salt water in fresh water), geotechnics (detection of a fault in a granitic area), environment (delineation of a waste disposal area) and archaeology (discovery of an ancient tomb)

  17. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution.

  18. Novel method for hit-position reconstruction using voltage signals in plastic scintillators and its application to Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Molenda, M.; Moskal, I.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2014-11-01

    Currently inorganic scintillator detectors are used in all commercial Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomograph (TOF-PET) devices. The J-PET collaboration investigates a possibility of construction of a PET scanner from plastic scintillators which would allow for single bed imaging of the whole human body. This paper describes a novel method of hit-position reconstruction based on sampled signals and an example of an application of the method for a single module with a 30 cm long plastic strip, read out on both ends by Hamamatsu R4998 photomultipliers. The sampling scheme to generate a vector with samples of a PET event waveform with respect to four user-defined amplitudes is introduced. The experimental setup provides irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with an annihilation gamma quanta of energy 511 keV. The statistical test for a multivariate normal (MVN) distribution of measured vectors at a given position is developed, and it is shown that signals sampled at four thresholds in a voltage domain are approximately normally distributed variables. With the presented method of a vector analysis made out of waveform samples acquired with four thresholds, we obtain a spatial resolution of about 1 cm and a timing resolution of about 80 ps (σ).

  19. Novel method for hit-position reconstruction using voltage signals in plastic scintillators and its application to Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Molenda, M.; Moskal, I.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Currently inorganic scintillator detectors are used in all commercial Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomograph (TOF-PET) devices. The J-PET collaboration investigates a possibility of construction of a PET scanner from plastic scintillators which would allow for single bed imaging of the whole human body. This paper describes a novel method of hit-position reconstruction based on sampled signals and an example of an application of the method for a single module with a 30 cm long plastic strip, read out on both ends by Hamamatsu R4998 photomultipliers. The sampling scheme to generate a vector with samples of a PET event waveform with respect to four user-defined amplitudes is introduced. The experimental setup provides irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with an annihilation gamma quanta of energy 511 keV. The statistical test for a multivariate normal (MVN) distribution of measured vectors at a given position is developed, and it is shown that signals sampled at four thresholds in a voltage domain are approximately normally distributed variables. With the presented method of a vector analysis made out of waveform samples acquired with four thresholds, we obtain a spatial resolution of about 1 cm and a timing resolution of about 80 ps (σ)

  20. Novel method for hit-position reconstruction using voltage signals in plastic scintillators and its application to Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczyński, L., E-mail: lech.raczynski@ncbj.gov.pl [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Moskal, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W. [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kapłon, Ł. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Kochanowski, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Molenda, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Moskal, I.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2014-11-11

    Currently inorganic scintillator detectors are used in all commercial Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomograph (TOF-PET) devices. The J-PET collaboration investigates a possibility of construction of a PET scanner from plastic scintillators which would allow for single bed imaging of the whole human body. This paper describes a novel method of hit-position reconstruction based on sampled signals and an example of an application of the method for a single module with a 30 cm long plastic strip, read out on both ends by Hamamatsu R4998 photomultipliers. The sampling scheme to generate a vector with samples of a PET event waveform with respect to four user-defined amplitudes is introduced. The experimental setup provides irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with an annihilation gamma quanta of energy 511 keV. The statistical test for a multivariate normal (MVN) distribution of measured vectors at a given position is developed, and it is shown that signals sampled at four thresholds in a voltage domain are approximately normally distributed variables. With the presented method of a vector analysis made out of waveform samples acquired with four thresholds, we obtain a spatial resolution of about 1 cm and a timing resolution of about 80 ps (σ)

  1. A Manufacturing Cost and Supply Chain Analysis of SiC Power Electronics Applicable to Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Samantha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices are increasingly being considered for use in certain power electronics applications, where they can improve efficiency, performance, footprint, and, potentially, total system cost compared to systems using traditional silicon (Si) devices. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices in particular -- which are currently more mature than other WBG devices -- are poised for growth in the coming years. Today, the manufacturing of SiC wafers is concentrated in the United States, and chip production is split roughly equally between the United States, Japan, and Europe. Established contract manufacturers located throughout Asia typically carry out manufacturing of WBG power modules. We seek to understand how global manufacturing of SiC components may evolve over time by illustrating the regional cost drivers along the supply chain and providing an overview of other factors that influence where manufacturing is sited. We conduct this analysis for a particular case study where SiC devices are used in a medium-voltage motor drive.

  2. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  3. Low voltage operation of electro-absorption modulator promising for high-definition 3D imaging application using a three step asymmetric coupled quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Byung Hoon; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Yong Chul; Lee, Yong Tak; Choi, Hee Ju; Jeon, Jin Myeong; Lee, Soo Kyung; Park, Yong Hwa; Park, Chang Young

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a transmission type electro-absorption modulator (EAM) operating at 850 nm having low operating voltage and high absorption change with low insertion loss using a novel three step asymmetric coupled quantum well (3 ACQW) structure which can be used as an optical image shutter for high-definition (HD) three dimensional (3D) imaging. Theoretical calculations show that the exciton red shift of 3 ACQW structure is more than two times larger than that of rectangular quantum well (RQW) structure while maintaining high absorption change. The EAM having coupled cavities with 3 ACQW structure shows a wide spectral bandwidth and high amplitude modulation at a bias voltage of only -8V, which is 41% lower in operating voltage than that of RQW, making the proposed EAM highly attractive as an optical image shutter for HD 3D imaging applications

  4. Voltage-Dependent Charge Storage in Cladded Zn0.56Cd0.44Se Quantum Dot MOS Capacitors for Multibit Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J.; Lingalugari, M.; Al-Amoody, F.; Jain, F.

    2013-11-01

    As conventional memories approach scaling limitations, new storage methods must be utilized to increase Si yield and produce higher on-chip memory density. Use of II-VI Zn0.56Cd0.44Se quantum dots (QDs) is compatible with epitaxial gate insulators such as ZnS-ZnMgS. Voltage-dependent charging effects in cladded Zn0.56Cd0.44Se QDs are presented in a conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structure. Charge storage capabilities in Si and ZnMgS QDs have been reported by various researchers; this work is focused on II-VI material Zn0.56Cd0.44Se QDs nucleated using photoassisted microwave plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Using capacitance-voltage hysteresis characterization, the multistep charging and discharging capabilities of the QDs at room temperature are presented. Three charging states are presented within a 10 V charging voltage range. These characteristics exemplify discrete charge states in the QD layer, perfect for multibit, QD-functionalized high-density memory applications. Multiple charge states with low operating voltage provide device characteristics that can be used for multibit storage by allowing varying charges to be stored in a QD layer based on the applied "write" voltage.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE RESISTIVITY AND RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY OF SILICONE RUBBER FOR HIGH VOLTAGE APPLICATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Ali

    2017-06-01

    said that the materials formulation and processing parameters had significantly influenced the performance of SiR blends and thus, having the optimized material composition and processing parameters is required in producing an insulator with great function ability for high voltage application.

  6. Supercritical fluid technology for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources - including renewable materials - using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine...

  7. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  8. Application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a review of current status of the application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology. Different aspects of radiation treatment of natural and polluted drinking water, radiation purification of industrial and municipal wastes, radiation treatment of sewage sludge and radiation purification of exhaust gases are considered. The special attention is paid to the respective pilot and industrial facilities. (author) 70 refs

  9. Design and Tuning of Wind Power Plant Voltage Controller with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs). First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and STATCOM are derived by using the state-space approach....... A complete phasor model of the entire wind power plant is constructed, being appropriate for voltage control assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage...... controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative outcomes regarding the parametrisation of each individual control loop and how to adjust the voltage controller depending on different grid stiffnesses of the wind power plant connection...

  10. Artificial Neural Network Application for Power Transfer Capability and Voltage Calculations in Multi-Area Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palukuru NAGENDRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of artificial neural network (ANN based model, multi-layer perceptron (MLP network, to compute the transfer capabilities in a multi-area power system was explored. The input for the ANN is load status and the outputs are the transfer capability among the system areas, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles at concerned buses of the areas under consideration. The repeated power flow (RPF method is used in this paper for calculating the power transfer capability, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles necessary for the generation of input-output patterns for training the proposed MLP neural network. Preliminary investigations on a three area 30-bus system reveal that the proposed model is computationally faster than the conventional method.

  11. Enhanced Dynamic Voltage Stability Support by VSC-HVDC for Offshore Wind Applications using Trajectory Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The integration of large-scale wind power plants changes the structure, configuration and operation of conventional power systems and brings challenges to the security and stability of power systems. Dynamic voltage stability of power systems with high wind penetration is one of the critical issues....... In this paper, VSC-HVDC transmission system is used to integrate a large-scale wind power plant into the onshore power grid. For different voltage support strategies of VSC-HVDC, a trajectory sensitivity analysisbased approach is proposed to find the minimum onshore VSC capacity with which the VSC-HVDC can...... provide enough support for the improvement of system voltage stability after a disturbance. Sensitivities of reactive power output of VSC to its capacity increase are calculated instead of the sensitivities of bus voltage magnitude towards the reactive power injection variation of VSC. Simulation results...

  12. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:22573992

  13. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  14. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry and its applications in environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kexin; Li Kun; Ma Hongji; Guo Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    Some important work worldwide in environmental science, like urban air pollution, discharges of radioactive wastes from nuclear plants, and global climate change were introduced. Based on the improvements of facility and studies on 14 C dating method, a precision better than 0.5% has been reached for the PKUAMS. A large number of samples have been measured for the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology project. 14 C data of PKUAMS have made important contributions to creation of more reliable chronological table of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. The improvements of PKUAMS are of benefit to the applications in environmental science in the future

  16. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  17. A rugged 650 V SOI-based high-voltage half-bridge IGBT gate driver IC for motor drive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qing; Li, Zehong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Weizhong; Huang, Xiangjun; Feng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a rugged high-voltage N-channel insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) gate driver integrated circuit. The device integrates a high-side and a low-side output stages on a single chip, which is designed specifically for motor drive applications. High-voltage level shift technology enables the high-side stage of this device to operate up to 650 V. The logic inputs are complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/transistor transistor logic compatible down to 3.3 V. Undervoltage protection functionality with hysteresis characteristic has also been integrated to enhance the device reliability. The device is fabricated in a 1.0 μm, 650 V high-voltage bipolar CMOS double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (BCD) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. Deep trench dielectric isolation technology is employed to provide complete electrical isolation with advantages such as reduced parasitic effects, excellent noise immunity and low leakage current. Experimental results show that the isolation voltage of this device can be up to approximately 779 V at 25°C, and the leakage current is only 5 nA at 650 V, which is 15% higher and 67% lower than the conventional ones. In addition, it delivers an excellent thermal stability and needs very low quiescent current and offers a high gate driver capability which is needed to adequately drive IGBTs that have large input capacitances.

  18. Utilizing steel slag in environmental application - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Chew, L. H.; Choong, T. S. Y.; Tezara, C.; Yazdi, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Steel slags are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel making industries.The potential environmental issues which are related with the slag dump or reprocessing for metal recovery are generally being focused in the research. However the chemistry and mineralogy of slag depends on metallurgical process which is able to determine whether the steel slag can be the reusable products or not. Nowadays, steel slag are well characterized by using several methods, such as X-ray Diffraction, ICP-OES, leaching test and many more. About the industrial application, it is mainly reused as aggregate for road construction, as armour stones for hydraulic engineering constructions and as fertilizers for agricultural purposes. To ensure the quality of steel slag for the end usage, several test methods are developed for evaluating the technical properties of steel slag, especially volume stability and environmental behaviour. In order to determine its environmental behaviour, leaching tests have been developed. The focus of this paper however is on those applications that directly affect environmental issues including remediation, and mitigation of activities that negatively impact the environment.

  19. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc.

  20. Development and environmental applications of activated carbon cloths

    OpenAIRE

    Cukierman, Ana Lea

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon cloths have received growing attention because they offer comparative advantages over the traditional powdered or granular forms of this well-known adsorbent, providing further potential uses for technological innovations in several fields. The present article provides an overview of research studies and advances concerned with the development of activated carbon cloths and their use as adsorbent in environmental applications, mostly reported in the last years. The influence ...

  1. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  2. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects

  3. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc

  4. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects.

  5. Loading Analysis of Modular Multi-level Converter for Offshore High-voltage DC Application under Various Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    challenges but may also result in overstressed components for the modular multi-level converter. However, the thermal loading of the modular multi-level converter under various grid faults has not yet been clarified. In this article, the power loss and thermal performance of the modular multi-level converter...... low-voltage ride-through strongly depend on the types and severity values of grid voltage dips. The thermal distribution among the three phases of the modular multi-level converter may be quite uneven, and some devices are much more stressed than the normal operating condition, which may...

  6. Applications of neural networks in environmental and energy sciences and engineering. Proceedings of the 1995 workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    These proceedings contain edited versions of the technical presentations of the Workshop on Environmental and Energy Applications of Neural Networks, held on March 30--31, 1995, in Richland, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for discussing environmental, energy, and biomedical applications of neural networks. Panels were held to discuss various research and development issues relating to real-world applications in each of the three areas. The applications covered in the workshop were: Environmental applications -- modeling and predicting soil, air and water pollution, environmental sensing, spectroscopy, hazardous waste handling and cleanup; Energy applications -- process monitoring and optimization of power systems, modeling and control of power plants, environmental monitoring for power systems, power load forecasting, fault location and diagnosis of power systems; and Biomedical applications -- medical image and signal analysis, medical diagnosis, analysis of environmental health effects, and modeling biological systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. High-Efficiency Isolated Boost DCDC Converter for High-Power Low-Voltage Fuel-Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    high winding losses. The analysis of transformer leakage inductance reveals that extremely low leakage inductance can be achieved, allowing stored energy to be dissipated. Power MOSFETs fully rated for repetitive avalanches allow primary-side voltage clamp circuits to be eliminated. The oversizing...

  8. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  9. Environmentally applications of invasive bivalves for water and wastewater decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Matos, Ana; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Martins, Rui C

    2018-07-15

    The environmental and economic impact of invasive bivalve species implies the development of suitable pest management strategies. Chemical control is the most usual approach. However, the production of toxic intermediates as well as the unavoidable impact over non target biota is of special concern. Another approach consists on the physical removal of the animals from the invaded sites. The high biofiltration and bioaccumulation capacity of such animals make them interesting for the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater. In this context, environmental applications can be given for these pests encompassing nutrients removal for the recovery of eutrophic sites, water disinfection, organic and metal contaminants abatement. These approaches may be integrated with pest management where the physical removed animals from the invaded spots could be used for assembling biofilter for water and wastewater decontamination. However, some drawbacks must be addressed before proposing such alternative. In fact, the further spreading of the bivalves into non-invaded sites must be avoided. Moreover, some operational questions must be addressed such as the fate of contaminated animals after biofiltration. Bearing in mind the interesting results already available in this subject, this paper aims to critically overview literature regarding the environmental applications of invasive bivalves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  11. Environmental applications based on GIS and GRID technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, R.; Lorrai, E.; Marrone, V. A.; Muscas, L.; Spanu, V.; Vacca, A.; Valera, P.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decades, the collection and use of environmental data has enormously increased in a wide range of applications. Simultaneously, the explosive development of information technology and its ever wider data accessibility have made it possible to store and manipulate huge quantities of data. In this context, the GRID approach is emerging worldwide as a tool allowing to provision a computational task with administratively-distant resources. The aim of this paper is to present three environmental applications (Land Suitability, Desertification Risk Assessment, Georesources and Environmental Geochemistry) foreseen within the AGISGRID (Access and query of a distributed GIS/Database within the GRID infrastructure, http://grida3.crs4.it/enginframe/agisgrid/index.xml) activities of the GRIDA3 (Administrator of sharing resources for data analysis and environmental applications, http://grida3.crs4.it) project. This project, co-funded by the Italian Ministry of research, is based on the use of shared environmental data through GRID technologies and accessible by a WEB interface, aimed at public and private users in the field of environmental management and land use planning. The technologies used for AGISGRID include: - the client-server-middleware iRODS™ (Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System) (https://irods.org); - the EnginFrame system (http://www.nice-italy.com/main/index.php?id=32), the grid portal that supplies a frame to make available, via Intranet/Internet, the developed GRID applications; - the software GIS GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) (http://grass.itc.it); - the relational database PostgreSQL (http://www.posgresql.org) and the spatial database extension PostGis; - the open source multiplatform Mapserver (http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu), used to represent the geospatial data through typical WEB GIS functionalities. Three GRID nodes are directly involved in the applications: the application workflow is implemented at the CRS4 (Pula

  12. Application of operating experience in environmental qualification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Wise, R.

    2000-01-01

    widely used by nuclear utilities in the past two decades. On the other hand, the use of operating experience has had limited application. In order to better position the use of operating experiences in nuclear power plants (NPP); this paper takes a rigorous review of the process involved in the EQ program and to formulate a set of equations to describe the EQ process. These equations identify the role of the methods used in achieving the EQ status. Consequently, these equations establish a baseline for the use of operating experiences in supplementing the qualification established by testing and analysis. This paper also formally defines the scope of using operating experience in EQ, and proposes a guide to compile, process and interpret data gathered such that they will be readily available to support the environmental qualification program. (author)

  13. Nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given on nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples. Measurement of the inherent radioactivity of elements or radionuclides allows determination of natural radioelements (e.g. Ra), man-made radioelements (e.g. Pu) and radionuclides in the environment. Activation analysis, in particular instrumental neutron activation analysis, is a very reliable and sensitive method for determination of a great number of trace elements in environmental samples, because the most abundant main constituents are not activated. Tracer techniques are very useful for studies of the behaviour and of chemical reactions of trace elements and compounds in the environment. Radioactive sources are mainly applied for excitation of characteristic X-rays (X-ray fluorescence analysis). (author)

  14. NIF: IFE applications, waste management and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Miley, G.H.; Petra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Although many energy sources have been suggested for the future, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been demonstrated as scientifically feasible and deserves support for continued development. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), proposed by US DOE, is a next step in that direction. NIF would use ICF technology to achieve ignition and energy gain that would allow the development and continued support of national security and other civilian applications including inertial fusion energy power plants. NIF would also guarantee US leadership in dense plasma research. Four sites are being considered for NIF: LLNL, Los Alamos, Sandia, and two NTS sites. An environmental evaluation was performed which considered all impacts. This paper provides the results of the waste management analyses conducted on the proposed NIF sites. Overall, the proposed construction and operation of NIF should qualify it as a low-hazard, non-nuclear radiological facility with minor onsite and negligible offsite environmental impacts

  15. 4th European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Jesus; Gómez-Hernández, José

    2004-01-01

    The fourth edition of the European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications (geoENV IV) took place in Barcelona, November 27-29, 2002. As a proof that there is an increasing interest in environmental issues in the geostatistical community, the conference attracted over 100 participants, mostly Europeans (up to 10 European countries were represented), but also from other countries in the world. Only 46 contributions, selected out of around 100 submitted papers, were invited to be presented orally during the conference. Additionally 30 authors were invited to present their work in poster format during a special session. All oral and poster contributors were invited to submit their work to be considered for publication in this Kluwer series. All papers underwent a reviewing process, which consisted on two reviewers for oral presentations and one reviewer for posters. The book opens with one keynote paper by Philippe Naveau. It is followed by 40 papers that correspond to those presented orally d...

  16. Applications of ordered weighted averaging (OWA operators in environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a prioritized weighted aggregation operator based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA to deal with stakeholders' constructive participation in water resources projects. They have different degree of acceptance or preference regarding the measures and policies to be carried out, which lead to different environmental and socio-economic outcomes, and hence, to different levels of stakeholders’ satisfaction. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology has been successfully applied to a Public Participation Project (PPP in watershed management, thus obtaining efficient environmental measures in conflict resolution problems under actors’ preference uncertainties.

  17. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  18. 10 CFR 63.24 - Updating of application and environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updating of application and environmental impact statement... Updating of application and environmental impact statement. (a) The application must be as complete as... the time a construction authorization was issued. (c) DOE shall supplement its environmental impact...

  19. Characterization and environmental evaluation of Atikokan coal fly ash for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeheyis, M.B.; Shang, J.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Coal fly ash from thermal power generating stations has become a valuable byproduct in various commercial and environmental applications due to its cementitious, alkaline, and pozzolanic properties. It is used as a raw material in cement production, and also as a replacement for cement in concrete production. This study provided physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations of fresh and landfilled coal fly ash from a thermal generation station in Ontario. Fly ash behaviour under various environmental conditions was examined. Tests were conducted to characterize fly ash acid neutralization capacity and heavy metal sorption capacity. The study showed that fresh and landfilled fly ash samples showed significant variations in morphology, mineralogy, and chemical composition. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that weathering of the fly ash caused the formation of secondary minerals. The study also showed that the heavy metals from both fresh and landfilled fly ash samples were below leachate criteria set by the provincial government. It was concluded that both fresh and landfilled fly ash are suitable for various environmental and engineering applications. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. Development and application of network virtual instrument for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Network virtual instrument (VI) is a new development direction in current automated test. Based on LabVIEW, the software and hardware system of VI used for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current (DC) discharge is developed and applied to investigate pulsed high-voltage DC discharge of nitrogen. By doing so, various functions are realized including real time collection of emission spectrum of nitrogen, monitoring operation state of instruments and real time analysis and processing of data. By using shared variables and DataSocket technology in LabVIEW, the network VI system based on field VI is established. The system can acquire the emission spectrum of nitrogen in the test site, monitor operation states of field instruments, realize real time face-to-face interchange of two sites, and analyze data in the far-end from the network terminal. By employing the network VI system, the staff in the two sites acquired the same emission spectrum of nitrogen and conducted the real time communication. By comparing with the previous results, it can be seen that the experimental data obtained by using the system are highly precise. This implies that the system shows reliable network stability and safety and satisfies the requirements for studying the emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage discharge in high-precision fields or network terminals. The proposed architecture system is described and the target group gets the useful enlightenment in many fields including engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks.

  1. Systematic analysis and experiment of inductive coupling and induced voltage for inductively coupled wireless implantable neurostimulator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Ning; Cho, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Sung-Pil; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2012-01-01

    The main strategy for wireless power transfer to implantable devices is to use inductive coupling technology. The induced voltage of implanted devices highly depends on factors such as mutual inductance between the external transmitter coil and the receiver coil, quality factor of the receiver circuit and operation frequency. In this paper, the mutual inductance under a variety of geometries of external coil and under the condition of different vertical distances, lateral displacements and angular misalignments between two coils were theoretically calculated and simulated. To ascertain the condition of maximum power transmission for certain coils’ position requirements, an LC tank (2.7 mm × 2 mm) consisting of a microfabricated gold inductor coil and a small surface mounted capacitor was designed and fabricated as the telemetric part of a neurostimulator. The induced voltage of the LC tank was measured in both air and artificial tissue media under different sizes of power coil and operation frequencies. As a result, the optimum size of a transmitter coil is selected to be of 4 mm inner radius with six turns of coil, while the whole coupling system operates at 94 MHz resonant frequency within 5–11 mm vertical distance, 0–4 mm lateral and 0°–50° angular misalignment between two coils. With the change of the above coils’ positions, the measured induced voltage drops within 30%, satisfying the surgical requirement for neurostimulator implantation. (paper)

  2. Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the flow a groundwater quality. This understanding is achieved by measurement of the appropriate chemical and physical subsurface parameters. The ideal measurement would accurately assess a parameter without affecting the parameter or its environment. Fiber optic spectroscopy offers some of the most promising techniques for accurate, non-invasive measurements of environmental parameters. Fiber optic sensors for subsurface applications are currently being developed by several Department of Energy laboratories. Some of these sensors have been successfully deployed in the field and are attaining the goals of accurate, noninvasive, real time measurements in the subsurface

  3. Minerals ontology: application in the environmental field to silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Saulnier, A.; Garcia Gimenez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of an ontology, or up-to-date computerized tool, developed in the field of artificial intelligence and in particular of knowledge engineering, to inert elements, in this case the silicate class, which are minerals of scientific, technical and economic interest. The importance of applying ontology to minerals lies in the fact that these substances are capable of causing negative environmental impacts upon other variables in the natural environment, such as the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and possible subsequent effects on human health. (Author) 37 refs.

  4. Comparative Study of Modulation-Based Individual Inverter Techniques for Direct and Inverse by using Star-Connection Induction Motor in Extra Low Voltage Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardhia Wishnuprakasa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the IEEE 519 Standard as a basis benchmarking for voltage (THDV and current (THDI in draft performance. Comparative Study based onthree-techniques of 2-Level Converter (2LC by using a Star-Connection Induction Motor (Y-CIM in ExtraLow Voltage (ELV Configuration.For the detail explanation, a primary inverter as Direct-Inverterby PWMdirect (PWM degreesand asecondary inverter as Inverse-Inverterby PWMinverse(PWM + PI degrees. It tends a modified algorithm,for eachof SPWM in six rules, and FHIPWM in 5th harmonics Injectedin standard modulation as the purpose for the Open-Ends of Pre-Dual Inverter in Decoupled SPWM for twelve rules, and Decoupled FHIPWM in combination of 5th harmonics Injectedin combination of two-standard-modulation. Those techniques are the purpose of two-inverter combination, which namelythe Equal Direct-Inverse (EDI algorithmproduct of prototyping in similarities. The observation is restricted in voltage scope between Simulation by using Power Simulator (PSIMand Application by using Microcontroller ARM STM32F4 Discovery.

  5. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    conditions are assumed between the aqueous species and the solid matrix for a set of feasible chemical equilibrium reactions defined for each specific application. A module for re-establishing the chemical equilibrium has been developed and included in the system for this purpose. Changes in the porosity......A mathematical model for the electrokinetic phenomena is described. Numerical simulations of different applications of electrokinetic techniques to the fields of civil and environmental engineering are included, showing the versatility and consistency of the model. The electrokinetics phenomena......-Nernst-Planck system of equations, accounting for ionic migration, chemical diffusion and advection is used for modeling the transport process. The advection term contributor is studied by including in the system the water transport through the porous media, mainly due to electroosmosis. The pore solution filling...

  6. Environmental and industrial applications of pulsed power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neau, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, free electron lasers (FEL's), and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications and in supporting new types of industrial manufacturing processes. Some of these processes will require very high average beam power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. In this paper we briefly discuss new technology capabilities and then concentrate on specific application areas that may benefit from the high specific energies and high average powers attainable with short-pulse machines

  7. Studies on time series applications in environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bărbulescu, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis and modelling represent a large study field, implying the approach from the perspective of the time and frequency, with applications in different domains. Modelling hydro-meteorological time series is difficult due to the characteristics of these series, as long range dependence, spatial dependence, the correlation with other series. Continuous spatial data plays an important role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in environmental management. In this context, in this book we present various statistical tests and modelling techniques used for time series analysis, as well as applications to hydro-meteorological series from Dobrogea, a region situated in the south-eastern part of Romania, less studied till now. Part of the results are accompanied by their R code. .

  8. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  9. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  10. Searching for reciclability of modified clays for an environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen; Solange Lozano García, Marina; Sánchez Escribano, Vicente; Antequera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Thanks to the development of the science and the technology of the nourishment in the last 50 years, there have revealed itself several new substances that can fulfill beneficial functions in the food, and these substances, named food additives, are today within reach of all. The food additives recover a very important role in the complex nourishing supply. The additives fulfill several useful functions in the food, which often we give for sat. Nevertheless the widespread use of food additives in the food production also influences the public health. The food industries, which are very important for the economy, spill residues proved from its activity that they have to be controlled to evaluate the environmental impact and to offer the necessary information about the quantitative evaluation of the chemical risk of the use of food additives for the public health. The clay materials have led to numerous applications in the field of public health (del Hoyo, 2007; Volzone, 2007) having been demonstrated its effectiveness as adsorbents of all contaminants. Some biodegradable materials are used for for adsorption of chemical contaminants: lignins (Valderrabano et al., 2008) and also clays and clay minerals, whose colloidal properties, ease of generating structural changes, abundance in nature, and low cost make them very suitable for this kind of applications. Among the strategies used at present to preserve the quality of the water and this way to diminish the environmental risk that supposes the chemical pollution, stands out the use of adsorbents of under cost, already they are natural or modified, to immobilize these compounds and to avoid the pollution of the water with the consequent reduction of environmental and economic costs. We have studied the adsorption of several contaminants related to the food industry by natural or modified clays, searching their interaction mechanisms and the possible recycling of these materials for environmental purposes and

  11. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication and environmental applications of different nanomaterials. Bacteria in EABs generate electrons upon consuming electron donor and have the ability to transport these electrons to solid or insoluble substrates through extracellular electron transport (EET) mechanism. The extracellularly transported electrons, once utilized, can lead to nanoparticle synthesis. In this dissertation, noble metal (i.e., Au, Pd, and Pt) ultra-small nanoparticles (USNPs) were first synthesized with the assistance by the EABs. The assynthesized USNPs had a size range between 2 and 7 nm and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in dye decomposition. Also in this research, a two-dimensional (2D) cobalt nanosheet was successfully synthesized in the presence of EABs. A simple biogenic route led to the transformation of cobalt acetate to produce a green, toxic free homogeneous 2D cobalt nanosheet structure. Further, TiO2 nanotubes were successfully combined with the noble metal USNPs to enhance their photocatalytic activity. In this work, for the first time, the noble metal USNPs were directly reduced and decorated on the internal surfaces of the TiO2 nanotubes structure assisted by the EABs. The USNPs modified TiO2 nanotubes generated significantly improved photoelectrocatatlyic performances. This dissertation shines lights on the use of EABs in ultra-small nanoparticle synthesis.

  12. Plasma cleaning techniques and future applications in environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1995-07-01

    Plasmas have frequently been used in industry as a last step surface preparation technique in an otherwise predominantly wet-etch process. The limiting factor in the usefulness of plasma cleaning techniques has been the rate at which organic materials are removed. Recent research in the field of plasma chemistry has provided some understanding of plasma processes. By controlling plasma conditions and gas mixtures, ultra-fast plasma cleaning and etching is possible. With enhanced organic removal rates, plasma processes become more desirable as an environmentally sound alternative to traditional solvent or acid dominated process, not only as a cleaning tool, but also as a patterning and machining tool. In this paper, innovations in plasma processes are discussed including enhanced plasma etch rates via plasma environment control and aggressive gas mixtures. Applications that have not been possible with the limited usefulness of past plasma processes are now approaching the realm of possibility. Some of these possible applications will be discussed along with their impact to environmentally conscious manufacturing.

  13. The theory and implementation of a high quality pulse width modulated waveform synthesiser applicable to voltage FED inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Kim Nigel

    1985-03-01

    Modulation processes associated with the digital implementation of pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies were examined. A software package based on a portable turnkey structure is presented. Waveform synthesizer implementation techniques are reviewed. A three phase PWM waveform synthesizer for voltage fed inverters was realized. It is based on a constant carrier frequency of 18 kHz and a regular sample, single edge, asynchronous PWM switching scheme. With high carrier frequencies, it is possible to utilize simple switching strategies and as a consequence, many advantages are highlighted, emphasizing the importance to industrial and office markets.

  14. Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Biochar Application Through Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, I.; Archontoulis, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to study the environmental (emissions, soil quality) and production (yield) impacts of biochar application at regional scales we coupled the APSIM-Biochar model with the pSIMS parallel platform. So far the majority of biochar research has been concentrated on lab to field studies to advance scientific knowledge. Regional scale assessments are highly needed to assist decision making. The overall objective of this simulation study was to identify areas in the USA that have the most gain environmentally from biochar's application, as well as areas which our model predicts a notable yield increase due to the addition of biochar. We present the modifications in both APSIM biochar and pSIMS components that were necessary to facilitate these large scale model runs across several regions in the United States at a resolution of 5 arcminutes. This study uses the AgMERRA global climate data set (1980-2010) and the Global Soil Dataset for Earth Systems modeling as a basis for creating its simulations, as well as local management operations for maize and soybean cropping systems and different biochar application rates. The regional scale simulation analysis is in progress. Preliminary results showed that the model predicts that high quality soils (particularly those common to Iowa cropping systems) do not receive much, if any, production benefit from biochar. However, soils with low soil organic matter ( 0.5%) do get a noteworthy yield increase of around 5-10% in the best cases. We also found N2O emissions to be spatial and temporal specific; increase in some areas and decrease in some other areas due to biochar application. In contrast, we found increases in soil organic carbon and plant available water in all soils (top 30 cm) due to biochar application. The magnitude of these increases (% change from the control) were larger in soil with low organic matter (below 1.5%) and smaller in soils with high organic matter (above 3%) and also dependent on biochar

  15. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work; Anforderungen an den Um- und Ausbau des Hoechstspannungsstromnetzes. Aus der Sicht von Naturschutz und Kulturlandschaftspflege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  16. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting... following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public... 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e. Name of Project: Flannagan...

  17. A Semantic Sensor Web for Environmental Decision Support Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alasdair J. G.; Sadler, Jason; Kit, Oles; Kyzirakos, Kostis; Karpathiotakis, Manos; Calbimonte, Jean-Paul; Page, Kevin; García-Castro, Raúl; Frazer, Alex; Galpin, Ixent; Fernandes, Alvaro A. A.; Paton, Norman W.; Corcho, Oscar; Koubarakis, Manolis; De Roure, David; Martinez, Kirk; Gómez-Pérez, Asunción

    2011-01-01

    Sensing devices are increasingly being deployed to monitor the physical world around us. One class of application for which sensor data is pertinent is environmental decision support systems, e.g., flood emergency response. For these applications, the sensor readings need to be put in context by integrating them with other sources of data about the surrounding environment. Traditional systems for predicting and detecting floods rely on methods that need significant human resources. In this paper we describe a semantic sensor web architecture for integrating multiple heterogeneous datasets, including live and historic sensor data, databases, and map layers. The architecture provides mechanisms for discovering datasets, defining integrated views over them, continuously receiving data in real-time, and visualising on screen and interacting with the data. Our approach makes extensive use of web service standards for querying and accessing data, and semantic technologies to discover and integrate datasets. We demonstrate the use of our semantic sensor web architecture in the context of a flood response planning web application that uses data from sensor networks monitoring the sea-state around the coast of England. PMID:22164110

  18. ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY APPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SEX REVERSAL OF FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnair, Alistair; Lokman, P Mark; Closs, Gerard P; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-03-01

    Environmental sex reversal (ESR), which results in a mismatch between genotypic and phenotypic sex, is well documented in numerous fish species and may be induced by chemical exposure. Historically, research involving piscine ESR has been carried out with a view to improving profitability in aquaculture or to elucidate the processes governing sex determination and sexual differentiation. However, recent studies in evolution and ecology suggest research on ESR now has much wider applications and ramifications. We begin with an overview of ESR in fish and a brief review of the traditional applications thereof. We then discuss ESR and its potential demographic consequences in wild populations. Theory even suggests sex-reversed fish may be purposefully released to manipulate population dynamics. We suggest new research directions that may prove fruitful in understanding how ESR at the individual level translates to population-level processes. In the latter portion of the review we focus on evolutionary applications of ESR. Sex-reversal studies from the aquaculture literature provide insight in to the evolvability of determinants of sexual phenotype. Additionally, induced sex reversal can provide information about the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-linked traits. Recently, naturally occurring ESR has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to the evolution of sex chromosomes.

  19. Radiocarbon application in environmental science and archaeology in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcar Bronic, I., E-mail: krajcar@irb.h [Radiocarbon Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Obelic, B.; Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A. [Radiocarbon Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Minichreiter, K. [Institute of Archaeology, Ulica grada Vukovara 68, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Radiocarbon is a cosmogenic radioisotope equally distributed throughout the troposphere and biosphere. This fact enables its most common application-radiocarbon dating. Natural equilibrium of radiocarbon has been disturbed by diverse anthropogenic activities during the last {approx}150 years, enabling also the use of {sup 14}C in various environmental applications. Here we present three types of studies by using {sup 14}C that were performed in the Zagreb Radiocarbon Laboratory. {sup 14}C in atmospheric CO{sub 2} has been monitored at several sites with various anthropogenic influences and the difference between the clean-air sites, the industrial city and the vicinity of a nuclear power plant has been established. {sup 14}C has been applied in geochronology of karst areas, especially in dating of tufa, speleothems and lake sediments, as well as in studies of geochemical carbon cycle. {sup 14}C has been used in various archaeological studies, among which the dating of the early Neolithic settlements in Croatia is presented. In these studies {sup 14}C was measured by radiometric techniques, i.e., by gas proportional counting and more recently by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Two sample preparation techniques for LSC measurement were used: benzene synthesis for archaeological dating and other applications that require better precision, and direct absorption of CO{sub 2} for monitoring purposes. The presented results show that various studies by using {sup 14}C can be successfully performed by the LSC technique, providing a large enough sample (>1 g of carbon).

  20. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  1. 10 CFR 60.24 - Updating of application and environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updating of application and environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. (a) The application shall be as complete as possible in the light of information... was issued. (c) The DOE shall supplement its environmental impact statement in a timely manner so as...

  2. Bacterial membrane vesicles, an overlooked environmental colloid: Biology, environmental perspectives and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Masanori; Tashiro, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipid vesicles play important roles in biological systems. Bacteria are one of the most abundant organisms on Earth, and bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) were first observed 50 years ago. Many bacteria release MVs to the environment that mainly consist of the cell membrane and typically range from 20 to 400 nm in size. Bacterial MVs are involved in several biological functions, such as delivery of cargo, virulence and gene transfer. MVs can be isolated from laboratory culture and directly from the environment, indicating their high abundance in and impact on ecosystems. Many colloidal particles in the environment ranging in size from 1 nm to 1 μm have been reported but not characterized at the molecular level, and MVs remain to be explored. Hence, MVs can be considered terra incognita in environmental colloid research. Although MV biogenesis and biological roles are yet to be fully understood, the accumulation of knowledge has opened new avenues for their applications. Via genetic engineering, the MV yield can be greatly increased, and the components of MVs can be tailored. Recent studies have demonstrated that MVs have promising potential for applications such as drug delivery systems and nanobiocatalysts. For instance, MV vaccines have been extensively studied and have already been approved in Europe. Recent MV studies have evoked great interest in the fields of biology and biotechnology, but fundamental questions, such as their transport in the environment or physicochemical features of MVs, remain to be addressed. In this review, we present the current understanding of bacterial MVs and environmental perspectives and further introduce their applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. High resolution applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for environmental and forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Labbe, Nicole; Andre, Nicolas; Harris, Ronny; Ebinger, Michael; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Vass, Arpad A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used in the elemental analysis for a variety of environmental samples and as a proof of concept for a host of forensic applications. In the first application, LIBS was used for the rapid detection of carbon from a number of different soil types. In this application, a major breakthrough was achieved by using a multivariate analytical approach that has brought us closer towards a 'universal calibration curve'. In a second application, it has been demonstrated that LIBS in combination with multivariate analysis can be employed to analyze the chemical composition of annual tree growth rings and correlate them to external parameters such as changes in climate, forest fires, and disturbances involving human activity. The objectives of using this technology in fire scar determinations are: 1) To determine the characteristic spectra of wood exposed to forest fires and 2) To examine the viability of this technique for detecting fire occurrences in stems that did not develop fire scars. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications. LIBS was also applied to a variety of proof of concept forensic applications such as the analysis of cremains (human cremation remains) and elemental composition analysis of prosthetic implants

  4. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  5. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  6. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  7. Influence of fossil energy applications on environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M.; Ayar, G.; Oguzhan, C.; Uluduz, H.; Faiz, U. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate influence of fossil energy applications on the environmental pollution. Turkey's high rate of economic growth experienced during much of the 1990s, besides resulting in booming industrial production, also led to higher levels of energy consumption, imports, air and water pollution, and greater risks to the country's environment. Air pollution is a major problem in Turkey, with key pollutants including sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. In Turkey, carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels totaled about 50.07 million tons in 2001. However, fuel share of carbon emissions in 2001 was oil 44.2%, coal 38.8%, and natural gas 16.9%. Total carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are expected to be 104 million tons in 2025.

  8. Application of Proteomics and Lipid Studies in Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2008-08-12

    The overview of changes in protein levels or states in response to a growth condition, stress, mutation or metabolic engineering is invaluable in understanding the physiology of a microbial system. The lipid profile of the cell is similarly a valuable diagnostic of the cellular response and health, especially in context of survival in a fluctuating environment. To obtain comprehensive cellular models, post-transcriptional cell wide surveys at the levels of proteins and lipids are required. Both these fields have been greatly bolstered by the development of high throughput methods using mass spectrometry. Multiple strategies now exist for the identification of proteins, and numerous workflows to quantify protein abundance have also been developed. Cellular profiling such as these allows us to assess the potential of a microbial system for environmental applications such as bioremediation and bio-energy.

  9. Strategic environmental assessment methodologies--applications within the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Nilsson, Maans; Johansson, Jessica; Persson, Aasa; Moberg, Aasa; Carlsson, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical tools can be used in the assessment. Several analytical tools are presented and their relation to SEA is discussed including methods for future studies, Life Cycle Assessment, Risk Assessment, Economic Valuation and Multi-Attribute Approaches. A framework for the integration of some analytical tools in the SEA process is suggested. It is noted that the available analytical tools primarily cover some types of environmental impacts related to emissions of pollutants. Tools covering impacts on ecosystems and landscapes are more limited. The relation between application and choice of analytical tools is discussed. It is suggested that SEAs used to support a choice between different alternatives require more quantitative methods, whereas SEAs used to identify critical aspects and suggest mitigation strategies can suffice with more qualitative methods. The possible and desired degree of site-specificity in the assessment can also influence the choice of methods. It is also suggested that values and world views can be of importance for judging whether different types of tools and results are meaningful and useful. Since values and world views differ between different stakeholders, consultation and understanding are important to ensure credibility and relevance

  10. Recent applications of stable isotopes in environmental medicine in germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.; Herbarth, O.

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years, a new quality in the application of stable isotopes became manifest. It is the establishment of stable isotopes as a tool in medical routine diagnosis - a novel field of nuclear medicine - and in environmental-medical epidemiological surveys. Owing to missing suitable radioactive isotopes of the bio elements carbon and nitrogen and because of ethical problems in the human use of some radionuclides, the stable isotopes 13 C and 1% N play a key role in this new field. A review is given about four new stable isotope-aided methods for in vivo organ function test. Three of them were developed in Leipzig, germany, and one in houston/Texas. We have validated the tests and then introduced into medical and environmental routine diagnostic use: ( 15 N Methacetin and ( 13 C) methacetin liver function tests to characterize the detoxification capacity of the human liver; ( 15 N) Urea and ( 13 C) urea tests to detect the colonization of the human stomach by the bacterium helicobacter pylori. This bacterium is, as known, responsible for gastritis and ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract. The transmission ways of H. Pylori are under investigation world-wide

  11. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Snipas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.

  12. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranevicius, Henrikas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC) of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ) channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs), which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times. PMID:25705700

  13. Super high voltage Schottky diode with low leakage current for x- and γ-ray detector application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyachenko, L. A.; Sklyarchuk, V. M.; Sklyarchuk, O. F.; Maslyanchuk, O. L.; Gnatyuk, V. A.; Aoki, T.

    2009-01-01

    A significant improvement in x-/γ-ray detector performance has been achieved by forming both rectifying and near-Ohmic contacts by the deposition of Ni on opposite surfaces of semi-insulating CdTe crystals pretreated by special chemical etching and Ar-ion bombardment with different parameters. The reduced injection of the minority carriers from the near-Ohmic contact in the neutral part of the diode provides low leakage current even at high bias ( 2 at 2000 V and 293 K). The electrical properties of the detectors are well described quantitatively by the generation-recombination Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory excepting the high reverse voltage range where some injection of minority carriers takes place

  14. Environmental standard review plans for the environmental review of construction permit applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Information is presented concerning environmental descriptions; plant description; environmental impacts of construction; environmental impacts of station operation; environmental measurements and monitoring programs; environmental impacts of postulated accidents involving radioactive materials; the need for the plant; alternatives to the project; and evaluation of the proposed action

  15. Radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongshi

    2004-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science is introduced, including the assessment criteria, the assessment methods and the environmental impact assessment of three wastes emission. (authors)

  16. State of radiotracer application at the Division of Environmental Engineering, CDTN, NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aun, P.E.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de; Moreira, R.M.; Bandeira, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The history and working phylosophy of the NUCLEBRAS division of environmental engineering are reported. Some aspects of tracer applications and of the tasks performed by the division of environmental engineering are described. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Geographic information system(GIS) applications to optimize route selection, environmental analysis and power transmission line designs; Aplicaciones en sistemas de informacion geograficos (SIG) para optimizar seleccion de ruta, analisis ambiental y diseno de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadena Suarez, Luis Fernando; Posada Delgado, Fabio Humberto; Alvarez Davila, Esteban; Gomez Colorado, Oscar Alberto [Interconexion Electrica S.A. (ISA), Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: fecadena@isa.com.co

    2001-07-01

    Interconexion Eletrica s.a. (ISA) is a company of the Colombian government for electric energy transportation through the national energy transportation network, it makes part of the companies group with growing environmental conscience. The better route identifications for high voltage transmission lines do not involve just the engineering analyses, but mainly the environmental one.These integrated analysis have been largely powered through the technology applications like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies were applied for a total of 300 kilometers between 1992 and 2000 in the largest power transmission lines whose configurations cross different geographic conditions. This current technical contribution describes the application of GIS and RS technologies for the best routes, environmental sensibility analysis and environmental impact evaluations. The applications have resulted in the integration between engineering and environmental processes, optimization of environmental evaluation, formulations of procedures handling and environmental control, as well as transmission line profile characteristics. After the project construction, GIS can be used as a useful tool for environmental monitoring in connection with power transmission lines, maintenance of servitude areas, availability conditions and quality of the high voltage transmission service.

  18. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  19. Toward Environmentally Robust Organic Electronics: Approaches and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kwang; Lee, Moo Yeol; Park, Cheol Hee; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak

    2017-11-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics has led to a paradigm shift in consumer electronics, and the emergent development of stretchable and wearable electronics is opening a new spectrum of ubiquitous applications for electronics. Organic electronic materials, such as π-conjugated small molecules and polymers, are highly suitable for use in low-cost wearable electronic devices, and their charge-carrier mobilities have now exceeded that of amorphous silicon. However, their commercialization is minimal, mainly because of weaknesses in terms of operational stability, long-term stability under ambient conditions, and chemical stability related to fabrication processes. Recently, however, many attempts have been made to overcome such instabilities of organic electronic materials. Here, an overview is provided of the strategies developed for environmentally robust organic electronics to overcome the detrimental effects of various critical factors such as oxygen, water, chemicals, heat, and light. Additionally, molecular design approaches to π-conjugated small molecules and polymers that are highly stable under ambient and harsh conditions are explored; such materials will circumvent the need for encapsulation and provide a greater degree of freedom using simple solution-based device-fabrication techniques. Applications that are made possible through these strategies are highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Environmental applications of PIXE at the Institute of Physics, UNAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Mireles, A.; Andrade, E.; Zolezzi R, H.

    2007-01-01

    The particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), developed by Johansson and colleagues in Lund, Sweden, in the 70's has been used since then in a high number of studies requiring detection and quantification of trace elements at high sensitivity (better than I mg/kg). PIXE is grouped among the nuclear analytical techniques because the samples are bombarded with particles (protons generally) accelerated in an accelerator. When protons interact with matter an X-Ray spectrum is produced by the deexcitation of atoms in the sample. From this spectrum the elements contained in the sample as well as their concentrations can be determined. In this work we describe the PIXE technique and several applications in the environmental field developed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (IFUNAM). These practical applications include field studies for analyses of suspended particles in air using tree leaves, irrigation water quality based on heavy metal analyses, and analyses of trace elements in plants cultivated in waste water irrigated soil. (Author)

  1. Structure-property relationships in an Al matrix Ca nanofilamentary composite conductor with potential application in high-voltage power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang

    This study investigated the processing-structure-properties relationships in an Al/Ca composites using both experiments and modeling/simulation. A particular focus of the project was understanding how the strength and electrical conductivity of the composite are related to its microstructure in the hope that a conducting material with light weight, high strength, and high electrical conductivity can be developed to produce overhead high-voltage power transmission cables. The current power transmission cables (e.g., Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR)) have acceptable performance for high-voltage AC transmission, but are less well suited for high-voltage DC transmission due to the poorly conducting core materials that support the cable weight. This Al/Ca composite was produced by powder metallurgy and severe plastic deformation by extrusion and swaging. The fine Ca metal powders have been produced by centrifugal atomization with rotating liquid oil quench bath, and a detailed study about the atomization process and powder characteristics has been conducted. The microstructure of Al/Ca composite was characterized by electron microscopy. Microstructure changes at elevated temperature were characterized by thermal analysis and indirect resistivity tests. The strength and electrical conductivity were measured by tensile tests and four-point probe resistivity tests. Predicting the strength and electrical conductivity of the composite was done by micro-mechanics-based analytical modeling. Microstructure evolution was studied by mesoscale-thermodynamics-based phase field modeling and a preliminary atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. The application prospects of this composite was studied by an economic analysis. This study suggests that the Al/Ca (20 vol. %) composite shows promise for use as overhead power transmission cables. Further studies are needed to measure the corrosion resistance, fatigue properties and energized field performance of this composite.

  2. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  3. Regulatory standards applicable or relevant to the independent Hanford environmental surveillance and oversight program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Siegel, M.R.; Woodruff, M.G.; Belfiglio, J.; Elliott, R.W.

    1990-03-01

    The authors reviewed federal and state statutes and regulations, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other guidance material, for potential applicability to the environmental surveillance program conducted for the Hanford site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). There are no federal or state statutes or regulations which are directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program. However, other regulatory schemes, while not directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program, are important insofar as they are indicative of regulatory concern and direction. Because of the evolving nature of environmental regulations, this area needs to be closely monitored for future impact on environmental surveillance activities. 9 refs.,

  4. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  5. Comparative Study on  Paralleled vs. Scaled Dc-dc Converters  in High Voltage Gain Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2008-01-01

    Today power converters are present in many commercial, medical and industrial applications. A lot of them are high power and high current applications. In order to increase power handling capability several transistors or diodes are paralleled often. However such paralleling may lead to converter...

  6. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to -100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = -100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0-50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO2 films deposited at -100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties. Comparison between the corrosion resistance of the uncoated and coated samples showed a reduction in corrosion current density for coated samples compared to the uncoated one. The best corrosion current density of the film deposited at -75 V was 5.9 nA/cm2, which is about 11 times less than that of the uncoated steel 68.3 nA/cm2). The

  7. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  8. Anthropocentric and Ecocentric: An Application of Environmental Philosophy to Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Samuel; Simpson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes environmental philosophers write only for other environmental philosophers, and their insights on the nature-human relationship do not reach environmental educators and adventure programmers. This article investigates one aspect of environmental philosophy and the differences between anthropocentric and ecocentric thinking, and applies…

  9. Application of the voltage biased digital relay for the optimal protection of high inertia drive induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes typical protection schemes for large-size high inertia drive motor that are generally rotor thermal limited. Difficult and variable starting conditions of the large-size high inertia drive motor and compromises in the selection and setting of the protective devices are frequently encountered. The motors that typically encounter severe starting duty and present difficulties in achieving full motor protection are reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), blowers and compressors. For difficult starting conditions that are encountered by the large-size high inertia drive motors, state-of-the-art computer based calculations are capable of providing realistic predictions of the band of margin available for applying the protective relay. Based on the analysis of starting characteristics of large-size high inertia drive motors, this paper recommends that the optimal protection scheme for high inertia drive motors for nuclear power plants can be achieved by using the voltage biased digital relay instead of a speed switch and conventional overcurrent relays. (author)

  10. A look-up-table digital predistortion technique for high-voltage power amplifiers in ultrasonic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; Gui, Ping

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present a digital predistortion technique to improve the linearity and power efficiency of a high-voltage class-AB power amplifier (PA) for ultrasound transmitters. The system is composed of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) in which the digital predistortion (DPD) algorithm is implemented. The DPD algorithm updates the error, which is the difference between the ideal signal and the attenuated distorted output signal, in the look-up table (LUT) memory during each cycle of a sinusoidal signal using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. On the next signal cycle, the error data are used to equalize the signal with negative harmonic components to cancel the amplifier's nonlinear response. The algorithm also includes a linear interpolation method applied to the windowed sinusoidal signals for the B-mode and Doppler modes. The measurement test bench uses an arbitrary function generator as the DAC to generate the input signal, an oscilloscope as the ADC to capture the output waveform, and software to implement the DPD algorithm. The measurement results show that the proposed system is able to reduce the second-order harmonic distortion (HD2) by 20 dB and the third-order harmonic distortion (HD3) by 14.5 dB, while at the same time improving the power efficiency by 18%.

  11. To minimized power outage by the application of 'RTV' (room temperature vulcanizing) silicon on high voltage porcelain insulators in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz Tehzeeb ul Hassan

    2003-01-01

    In Pakistan power network comprises of 500KV, 220KV, 132KV, 66KV and 33KV transmission lines and 11KV power distribution systems. Number of insulators are used in connected units in the shape of strings with transmission line as per insulation requirements with proper design according to the various kinds of pollution stresses. The transmission lines are passing from or near polluted areas and very dusty plains of Punjab and Sindh provinces. Practices are being used in these transmission lines for removal of accumulated contamination of insulators by periodic cleaning twice a year or de-energized transmission lines. Even then discontinuation of supply takes place in the polluted areas in foggy weather. Special technique of using water repellent (Room Temperature Vulcanizing) silicone coating/paint has been introduced on high voltage disc Insulators to minimize the outage in power net work in Pakistan. Especially in high pollution areas near chemical factories and near brick kilns etc comparison study of coated and uncoated disc Insulators have been carried out by ESDD (Equal Salt Deposit Density) measurement in salt fog chamber. (author)

  12. Diphenylphenoxy-Thiophene-PDI Dimers as Acceptors for OPV Applications with Open Circuit Voltage Approaching 1 Volt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Stenta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new perylenediimides (PDIs have been developed for use as electron acceptors in solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells. The compounds were designed to exhibit maximal solubility in organic solvents, and reduced aggregation in the solid state. In order to achieve this, diphenylphenoxy groups were used to functionalize a monomeric PDI core, and two PDI dimers were bridged with either one or two thiophene units. In photovoltaic devices prepared using PDI dimers and a monomer in conjunction with PTB7, it was found that the formation of crystalline domains in either the acceptor or donor was completely suppressed. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, charge carrier mobility measurements and recombination kinetics studies all suggest that the lack of crystallinity in the active layer induces a significant drop in electron mobility. Significant surface recombination losses associated with a lack of segregation in the material were also identified as a significant loss mechanism. Finally, the monomeric PDI was found to have sub-optimum LUMO energy matching the cathode contact, thus limiting charge carrier extraction. Despite these setbacks, all PDIs produced high open circuit voltages, reaching almost 1 V in one particular case.

  13. MIR hollow waveguide (HWG) isotope ratio analyzer for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyou; Zhuang, Yan; Deev, Andrei; Wu, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    An advanced commercial Mid-InfraRed Isotope Ratio (IR2) analyzer was developed in Arrow Grand Technologies based on hollow waveguide (HWG) as the sample tube. The stable carbon isotope ratio, i.e. δ13C, was obtained by measuring the selected CO2 absorption peaks in the MIR. Combined with a GC and a combustor, it has been successfully employed to measure compound specific δ13C isotope ratios in the field. By using both the 1- pass HWG and 5-path HWG, we are able to measure δ13C isotope ratio at a broad CO2 concentration of 300 ppm-37,500 ppm. Here, we demonstrate its applications in environmental studies. The δ13C isotope ratio and concentration of CO2 exhaled by soil samples was measured in real time with the isotope analyzer. The concentration was found to change with the time. We also convert the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) into CO2, and then measure the δ13C isotope ratio with an accuracy of better than 0.3 ‰ (1 σ) with a 6 min test time and 1 ml sample usage. Tap water, NaHCO3 solvent, coca, and even beer were tested. Lastly, the 13C isotope ratio of CO2 exhaled by human beings was obtained <10 seconds after simply blowing the exhaled CO2 into a tube with an accuracy of 0.5‰ (1 σ) without sample preconditioning. In summary, a commercial HWG isotope analyzer was demonstrated to be able to perform environmental and health studies with a high accuracy ( 0.3 ‰/Hz1/2 1 σ), fast sampling rate (up to 10 Hz), low sample consumption ( 1 ml), and broad CO2 concentration range (300 ppm-37,500 ppm).

  14. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies

  15. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies.

  16. Advanced Carbon Materials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2014-01-01

    Carbon based materials, including porous carbons and carbon layer composites, are finding increased usage in latest environmental and energy related research. Among porous carbon materials, hierarchical porous carbons with multi-modal porosity are proving out to be an effective solution for applications where the traditional activated carbons fail. Thus, there has been a lot of recent interest in developing low-cost, facile, easy to scale-up, synthesis techniques for producing such multi-modal porous carbons. This dissertation offers two novel synthesis techniques: (i) ice templating integrated with hard templating, and (ii) salt templating coupled with hard templating, for producing such hierarchically porous carbons. The techniques offer tight control and tunability of porosity (macro- meso- and microscale) in terms of both size and extent. The synthesized multi-modal porous carbons are shown to be an effective solution for three important environment related applications – (i) Carbon dioxide capture using amine supported hierarchical porous carbons, (ii) Reduction in irreversible fouling of membranes used for wastewater reuse through a deposition of a layer of hierarchical porous carbons on the membrane surface, (iii) Electrode materials for electrosorptive applications. Finally, because of their tunability, the synthesized multi-modal porous carbons serve as excellent model systems for understanding the effect of different types of porosity on the performance of porous carbons for these applications. Also, recently, there has been a lot of interest in developing protective layer coatings for preventing photo-corrosion of semiconductor structures (in particular Cu2O) used for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Most of the developed protective strategies to date involve the use of metals or co-catalyst in the protective layer. Thus there is a big need for developing low-cost, facile and easy to scale protective coating strategies. Based on the expertise

  17. Advanced Carbon Materials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2014-05-01

    Carbon based materials, including porous carbons and carbon layer composites, are finding increased usage in latest environmental and energy related research. Among porous carbon materials, hierarchical porous carbons with multi-modal porosity are proving out to be an effective solution for applications where the traditional activated carbons fail. Thus, there has been a lot of recent interest in developing low-cost, facile, easy to scale-up, synthesis techniques for producing such multi-modal porous carbons. This dissertation offers two novel synthesis techniques: (i) ice templating integrated with hard templating, and (ii) salt templating coupled with hard templating, for producing such hierarchically porous carbons. The techniques offer tight control and tunability of porosity (macro- meso- and microscale) in terms of both size and extent. The synthesized multi-modal porous carbons are shown to be an effective solution for three important environment related applications – (i) Carbon dioxide capture using amine supported hierarchical porous carbons, (ii) Reduction in irreversible fouling of membranes used for wastewater reuse through a deposition of a layer of hierarchical porous carbons on the membrane surface, (iii) Electrode materials for electrosorptive applications. Finally, because of their tunability, the synthesized multi-modal porous carbons serve as excellent model systems for understanding the effect of different types of porosity on the performance of porous carbons for these applications. Also, recently, there has been a lot of interest in developing protective layer coatings for preventing photo-corrosion of semiconductor structures (in particular Cu2O) used for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Most of the developed protective strategies to date involve the use of metals or co-catalyst in the protective layer. Thus there is a big need for developing low-cost, facile and easy to scale protective coating strategies. Based on the expertise

  18. Discharge Characteristics of DC Arc Water Plasma for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianming; Sooseok, Choi; Takayuki, Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    A water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a hafnium embedded rod-type cathode and a nozzle-type anode. The discharge characteristics were examined by changing the operation parameter of the arc current. The dynamic behavior of the arc discharge led to significant fluctuations in the arc voltage and its frequency. Analyses of the high speed image and the arc voltage waveform showed that the arc discharge was in the restrike mode and its frequency varied within several tens of kilohertz according to the operating conditions. The larger thermal plasma volume was generated by the higher flow from the forming steam with a higher restrike frequency in the higher arc current conditions. In addition, the characteristics of the water plasma jet were investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy to identify the abundant radicals required in an efficient waste treatment process.

  19. Discharge Characteristics of DC Arc Water Plasma for Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooseok; Watanabe, Takayuki; Li Tianming

    2012-01-01

    A water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a hafnium embedded rod-type cathode and a nozzle-type anode. The discharge characteristics were examined by changing the operation parameter of the arc current. The dynamic behavior of the arc discharge led to significant fluctuations in the arc voltage and its frequency. Analyses of the high speed image and the arc voltage waveform showed that the arc discharge was in the restrike mode and its frequency varied within several tens of kilohertz according to the operating conditions. The larger thermal plasma volume was generated by the higher flow from the forming steam with a higher restrike frequency in the higher arc current conditions. In addition, the characteristics of the water plasma jet were investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy to identify the abundant radicals required in an efficient waste treatment process. (plasma technology)

  20. Hybrid Magnetic Core-Shell Nanophotocatalysts for Environmental Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulden, Patrick [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-07-29

    This research study describes a facile sol-gel method to creating hybrid iron (III) oxide/silica/titania nanomaterials decorated with gold nanoparticles for use in environmental applications. The multi-functional composition of the nanomaterials allows for photocatalyzed reactions to occur in both the visible and the UV range. The morphologies, elemental composition, and surface charge of the nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Phase Analysis Light Scattering (PALS), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid nanoparticles for breaking down a model analyte, methyl orange (MO), was then evaluated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The efficiency of the photocatalyst under UV light irradiation was measured and compared to other well-studied nanophotocatalysts, namely titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles. The concentration dependence of both the photocatalyst and the analyte was also investigated. By utilizing the known UV-active properties of TiO2, the magnetic properties of Fe2O3, the optical properties of gold in the visible range of the spectrum, and the high stability of silica, a novel, highly efficient photocatalyst that is active on a broad range of the spectrum (UV-Vis) can be created to destroy organic pollutants in wastewater streams.

  1. The application of DEA model in enterprise environmental performance auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zhang, J. D.; Liu, C. Y.; Qu, Z. G.; Xiao, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    As a part of society, enterprises have an inescapable responsibility for environmental protection and governance. This article discusses the feasibility and necessity of enterprises environmental performance auditing and uses DEA model calculate the environmental performance of Haier for example. The most of reference data are selected and sorted from Haier’s environmental reportspublished in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2015, and some of the data from some published articles and fieldwork. All the calculation results are calculated by DEAP software andhave a high credibility. The analysis results of this article can give corporate managements an idea about using environmental performance auditing to adjust their corporate environmental investments capital quota and change their company’s environmental strategies.

  2. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  3. 78 FR 27196 - Modification of Permit Application and Intent for Additional Public Scoping for an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Application and Intent for Additional Public Scoping for an Environmental Impact Statement for the Port of... Mississippi State Port Authority (MSPA) for which an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared... Low-Income Populations; Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks...

  4. Elemental line scanning of an increment core using EDXRF: from fundamental research to environmental forensics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensics seeks to determine the responsible parties for contamination from leaks or spills of petroleum or other toxic products. Dendrochemistry contributes to environmental forensics at the intersection of analytical chemistry, tree biology, and environmental responsibility. To be useful, dendrochemistry requires the rigorous application of analytical...

  5. Shirley Basin Uranium Mill. Environmental report to accompany source material license application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    This document summarizes all of the environmental monitoring conducted by Utah. This Environmental Report consequently supplements and updates the information presented in the Source Material License application of August 18, 1970 and the Final Environmental Statement (FES) of December 1974. Water and air quality, liquid waste management, soil/vegetation monitoring, and reclamation are covered

  6. 18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effects of those hazards on the facility, and methods proposed to reduce the effects or risks. Resource... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental reports... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.12 Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications...

  7. Analysis of the Mechanisms Determining the Thermal and Electrical Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites for High Voltage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsekmes, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    The addition of microsized fillers to polymers, in order to tailor their properties, has been extensively used in many industrial applications since the 1960s. The same approach applies to the field of electrical insulation. Epoxy resin is a widely used polymer in the electrical power sector, but it

  8. 4Nx Non-Isolated and Non-Inverting Hybrid Interleaved Multilevel Boost Converter Based on VLCIm Cell and Cockroft Walton Voltage Multiplier for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this treatise, 4Nx hybrid Non Inverting & Non Isolated (NI-NI) DC-DC interleaved multi-level boost converter (4Nx IMBC) for renewable energy applications is proposed. The proposed 4Nx IMBC is derived by coalescing the feature of 2Nx DC-DC Interleaved Multi-level Boost Converter (2Nx IMBC), vol...... or transformers. Simulations results of proposed circuitry are presented which verify the analysis, function, working modes & feasibility of proposed circuitry converter.......In this treatise, 4Nx hybrid Non Inverting & Non Isolated (NI-NI) DC-DC interleaved multi-level boost converter (4Nx IMBC) for renewable energy applications is proposed. The proposed 4Nx IMBC is derived by coalescing the feature of 2Nx DC-DC Interleaved Multi-level Boost Converter (2Nx IMBC...... applicable at user end its DC voltage magnitude needs to be incremented with high conversion. Existing and recently proposed DC-DC converter are not sufficiently expert to employ practically, because of stability issues, high duty cycle and high ripple in the output. To overcome the conversion ratio problem...

  9. Environmental tax shifting in Canada : theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Hornung, R.; Cairns, S.

    2003-03-01

    Canada's leading energy and resource companies along with the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development have collaborated in the Triple E Tax Shift Research Collaborative which examines the use of environmental tax shifting in Canada. The objective is to design, evaluate and advance federal and provincial environmental tax shifts that will influence individual behaviour and decisions to improve ecological integrity through measurable reductions in materials and energy throughput, and to maintain or increase economic competitiveness through the creation of a tax framework that would encourage businesses to improve energy efficiency. Another objective is to increase employment and social benefits through more employment opportunities and improved quality of life. Environmental tax shifting means shifting a portion of a government's tax base onto goods, services and activities associated with harmful environmental impacts that add to societal costs. Tax shifting can be implemented by offering rebates to consumers of environmental significant goods, or by adjustments to existing taxes so that environmentally sensitive goods are taxed at a lower rate than environmentally harmful goods and services. Environmental tax shifting can also be implemented by reducing existing environmental taxes and introducing a carbon dioxide emissions tax. This report is the first product of the collaboration and is intended to promote public dialogue on the subject and identify ways to implement environmental tax shifting. tabs., figs

  10. Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: ten years of applications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy B; Keisler, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2011-09-01

    Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) emerged as a formal methodology to face available technical information and stakeholder values to support decisions in many fields and can be especially valuable in environmental decision making. This study reviews environmental applications of MCDA. Over 300 papers published between 2000 and 2009 reporting MCDA applications in the environmental field were identified through a series of queries in the Web of Science database. The papers were classified by their environmental application area, decision or intervention type. In addition, the papers were also classified by the MCDA methods used in the analysis (analytic hierarchy process, multi-attribute utility theory, and outranking). The results suggest that there is a significant growth in environmental applications of MCDA over the last decade across all environmental application areas. Multiple MCDA tools have been successfully used for environmental applications. Even though the use of the specific methods and tools varies in different application areas and geographic regions, our review of a few papers where several methods were used in parallel with the same problem indicates that recommended course of action does not vary significantly with the method applied. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Defining criteria for good environmental journalism and testing their applicability: An environmental news review as a first step to more evidence based environmental science reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rögener, Wiebke; Wormer, Holger

    2017-05-01

    While the quality of environmental science journalism has been the subject of much debate, a widely accepted benchmark to assess the quality of coverage of environmental topics is missing so far. Therefore, we have developed a set of defined criteria of environmental reporting. This instrument and its applicability are tested in a newly established monitoring project for the assessment of pieces on environmental issues, which refer to scientific sources and therefore can be regarded as a special field of science journalism. The quality is assessed in a kind of journalistic peer review. We describe the systematic development of criteria, which might also be a model procedure for other fields of science reporting. Furthermore, we present results from the monitoring of 50 environmental reports in German media. According to these preliminary data, the lack of context and the deficient elucidation of the evidence pose major problems in environmental reporting.

  12. 76 FR 52656 - Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14211-000] Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On June 10, 2011, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management...

  13. Present condition and countermeasures for nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xia; Huang Xin

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of nuclear and radiation safety supervision, great advances have been made in nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province. But some problems and deficiencies still exist in management. This paper describes the present management situation of nuclear application environmental impact assessment, analysis and discusses the existing problems as well as their countermeasures. (authors)

  14. ICP-MS applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendl, J.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with applications of inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples. There are instrumentation, calibration, alternatives of sample introduction, interferences, trace elements analysis, rare earth elements and uranium and thorium, precious metals, isotopic analysis and environmental analysis discussed

  15. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  16. Voltage-controlled low-energy switching of nanomagnets through Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions for magnetoelectric device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Bahniman, E-mail: bghosh@utexas.edu; Dey, Rik; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg. 160, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    In this article, we consider through simulation low-energy switching of nanomagnets via electrostatically gated inter-magnet Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators, for possible memory and nonvolatile logic applications. We model the possibility and dynamics of RKKY-based switching of one nanomagnet by coupling to one or more nanomagnets of set orientation. Potential applications to both memory and nonvolatile logic are illustrated. Sub-attojoule switching energies, far below conventional spin transfer torque (STT)-based memories and even below CMOS logic appear possible. Switching times on the order of a few nanoseconds, comparable to times for STT switching, are estimated for ferromagnetic nanomagnets, but the approach also appears compatible with the use of antiferromagnets which may allow for faster switching.

  17. Voltage-controlled low-energy switching of nanomagnets through Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions for magnetoelectric device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Dey, Rik; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider through simulation low-energy switching of nanomagnets via electrostatically gated inter-magnet Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators, for possible memory and nonvolatile logic applications. We model the possibility and dynamics of RKKY-based switching of one nanomagnet by coupling to one or more nanomagnets of set orientation. Potential applications to both memory and nonvolatile logic are illustrated. Sub-attojoule switching energies, far below conventional spin transfer torque (STT)-based memories and even below CMOS logic appear possible. Switching times on the order of a few nanoseconds, comparable to times for STT switching, are estimated for ferromagnetic nanomagnets, but the approach also appears compatible with the use of antiferromagnets which may allow for faster switching.

  18. [Applications of eco-environmental big data: Progress and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao Miao; Zhao, Shi Cheng; Zhang, Li Yun; Zhao, Fen; Shao, Rui; Liu, Li Xiang; Zhao, Hai Feng; Xu, Ming

    2017-05-18

    With the advance of internet and wireless communication technology, the fields of ecology and environment have entered a new digital era with the amount of data growing explosively and big data technologies attracting more and more attention. The eco-environmental big data is based airborne and space-/land-based observations of ecological and environmental factors and its ultimate goal is to integrate multi-source and multi-scale data for information mining by taking advantages of cloud computation, artificial intelligence, and modeling technologies. In comparison with other fields, the eco-environmental big data has its own characteristics, such as diverse data formats and sources, data collected with various protocols and standards, and serving different clients and organizations with special requirements. Big data technology has been applied worldwide in ecological and environmental fields including global climate prediction, ecological network observation and modeling, and regional air pollution control. The development of eco-environmental big data in China is facing many problems, such as data sharing issues, outdated monitoring facilities and techno-logies, and insufficient data mining capacity. Despite all this, big data technology is critical to solving eco-environmental problems, improving prediction and warning accuracy on eco-environmental catastrophes, and boosting scientific research in the field in China. We expected that the eco-environmental big data would contribute significantly to policy making and environmental services and management, and thus the sustainable development and eco-civilization construction in China in the coming decades.

  19. Graphitic Carbon-Based Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Long Donald

    This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of graphitic carbonbased photocatalytic nanostructures for energy and environmental applications. The preparation of carbon- and oxygen-rich graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution property was investigated. Composite materials based on graphene quantum dots were also prepared. These composites were used for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and photoelectrocatalytic disinfection. The first part of this thesis describes a facile method for the preparation of carbon- and oxygen-rich graphitic carbon nitride by thermal condensation. Incorporation of carbon and oxygen enhanced the photoresponse of carbon nitride in the visible-light region. After exfoliation, the product was c.a. 45 times more active than bulk graphitic carbon nitride in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation. In the second part, a simple approach to enhance the photocatalytic activity of red phosphorus was developed. Mechanical ball milling was applied to reduce the size of red phosphorus and to deposit graphene quantum dots (GQDs) onto red phosphorus. The product exhibited high visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. The incorporation of GQDs in titanium dioxide could also extend the absorption spectrum of TiO2 into the visible-light range. The third part of this thesis reports on the fabrication of a visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) and GQDs. Carboxyl-containing GQDs were covalently coupled to amine-modified TNAs. The product exhibited enhanced photocurrent and high photoelectrocatalytic performance in the inactivation of E. coli under visible-light irradiation. The role of various reactive species in the photoelectrocatalytic process was investigated.

  20. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and The Application to The Copper Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan ERTUĞRUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents firstly Environmental Management and Environmental Management Systems (EMS. The certification process of ISO 14001 EMS is described in the Copper Industry that begin the environmental activities by completely considering environment. Evaluating the environmental impacts of business, it is presented the process including EMS so as to dispose of waste, the creation of process, the application difficulties and the benefits of EMS.

  1. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

  2. A high-efficiency low-voltage class-E PA for IoT applications in sub-1 GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenyi; Lu, Zhenghao; Gu, Jiangmin; Yu, Xiaopeng

    2017-10-01

    We present and propose a complete and iterative integrated-circuit and electro-magnetic (EM) co-design methodology and procedure for a low-voltage sub-1 GHz class-E PA. The presented class-E PA consists of the on-chip power transistor, the on-chip gate driving circuits, the off-chip tunable LC load network and the off-chip LC ladder low pass filter. The design methodology includes an explicit design equation based circuit components values' analysis and numerical derivation, output power targeted transistor size and low pass filter design, and power efficiency oriented design optimization. The proposed design procedure includes the power efficiency oriented LC network tuning, the detailed circuit/EM co-simulation plan on integrated circuit level, package level and PCB level to ensure an accurate simulation to measurement match and first pass design success. The proposed PA is targeted to achieve more than 15 dBm output power delivery and 40% power efficiency at 433 MHz frequency band with 1.5 V low voltage supply. The LC load network is designed to be off-chip for the purpose of easy tuning and optimization. The same circuit can be extended to all sub-1 GHz applications with the same tuning and optimization on the load network at different frequencies. The amplifier is implemented in 0.13 μm CMOS technology with a core area occupation of 400 μm by 300 μm. Measurement results showed that it provided power delivery of 16.42 dBm at antenna with efficiency of 40.6%. A harmonics suppression of 44 dBc is achieved, making it suitable for massive deployment of IoT devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61574125) and the Industry Innovation Project of Suzhou City of China (No. SYG201641).

  3. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  4. Applications of air ion measurement in environmental diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper is dealing with the methods employing the measuring of naturally created air ions. The amount and mobility distribution of these ions offer hidden information about air pollution. On the other hand, the natural air ions are active in some environmental processes and they should be considered as an immediate environmental factor

  5. Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practical Application | Kelbessa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental ethics is a critical study of the normative issues and principles relevant to the relationship between humans and the natural world. It covers various fields, ranging from the welfare of animals versus ecosystems to theories of the intrinsic value of nature. There are various approaches to environmental ethics.

  6. Voltage-dependent gating in a "voltage sensor-less" ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley T Kurata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated cation channels is primarily attributed to conformational changes of a four transmembrane segment voltage-sensing domain, conserved across many levels of biological complexity. We have identified a remarkable point mutation that confers significant voltage dependence to Kir6.2, a ligand-gated channel that lacks any canonical voltage-sensing domain. Similar to voltage-dependent Kv channels, the Kir6.2[L157E] mutant exhibits time-dependent activation upon membrane depolarization, resulting in an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relationship. This voltage dependence is convergent with the intrinsic ligand-dependent gating mechanisms of Kir6.2, since increasing the membrane PIP2 content saturates Po and eliminates voltage dependence, whereas voltage activation is more dramatic when channel Po is reduced by application of ATP or poly-lysine. These experiments thus demonstrate an inherent voltage dependence of gating in a "ligand-gated" K+ channel, and thereby provide a new view of voltage-dependent gating mechanisms in ion channels. Most interestingly, the voltage- and ligand-dependent gating of Kir6.2[L157E] is highly sensitive to intracellular [K+], indicating an interaction between ion permeation and gating. While these two key features of channel function are classically dealt with separately, the results provide a framework for understanding their interaction, which is likely to be a general, if latent, feature of the superfamily of cation channels.

  7. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    thermoshrinkable tubes and types possessing '' memory effect ''. Through radiation, grafting metal adsorbents and ion exchange membranes can be developed. Radiation is early applied tool in the area of nanomaterials engineering; arrangement of atoms and ions has been performed using ion or electron beams for many years. New trends concern surface curing and development of ion track membranes and controlled release drug-delivery systems. Finally, radiation processing concerns gem stones colorization, development of high temperature resistant fibers (SiC) and semiconductor modification. Over the past few years, radiation processing technologies aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment have been developed. It has been demonstrated that radiation processing based technologies for flue gas treatment (SO X and NO X removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Electron beam technology is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. This is a dry-scrubbing process of simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal, where no waste except the fertilizer by-product are generated.The other possibility is application of the process for VOC removal. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO 2 and NO x removal. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%. The chlorocarbons including dioxins may be removed with high efficiency as well [57, 58]. During the radiolysis of water reactive radicals of strong oxidizing or reducing properties are formed that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. A large number of substances such as hard surfactants, lignin, pesticides cannot be degraded by conventional biochemical methods and thus escape from decomposition in biological treatment. Research and

  8. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  9. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Pei Liu

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  10. Application of nuclear techniques on environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1998-01-01

    Radioanalysis and tracer techniques that can be used on environmental pollution problems. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are the two methods that are used frequently on such problems. These methods are used for metal analysis. Tracer technique with radioactive labeled compounds are used to study the fate of the pollution substances in environmental systems. It is very important to validate every new developed analysis method, due to the environmental pollution problem closely related to the low enforcement. (author)

  11. Application of Environmental Management in Danish Companies: The Statistical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    in business presents a challenge to management, however, since it implies a fundamental change in some of the ways of operating a company. This paper will describe how information on the actual extent of environmental management in Danish companies and the way it is applied has been collected based...... contributed to an increasing awareness of the effect of business activities on the physical environment. To assist companies reduce, evaluate, monitor and control their environmental impact the concept of corporate environmental and resource management has been developed. Implementation of this concept...

  12. Applications of information technology in the environmental area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Page, B.

    1987-03-01

    The state of events in the environment are described by physical, chemical, meteorological and biological data. The spatially distributed information cannot be managed without technical help from automatic measuring devices, data telecommunication and process data processing. The computer-aided creation of models and simulation represent an aid involving environmental problems. One considerable extension of the possibilities will be provided by the introduction of the methods of artificial intelligence, especially expert systems. The use of information technology therefore forms an important precondition for environmental protection. The contributions illustrate the state of development of communication between scientists in the field of environmental protection. (DG) [de

  13. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO{sub 2} deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bait, L. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Azzouz, L. [Université de Amar Telidji, Laghouat (Algeria); Madaoui, N. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N., E-mail: nsaoula@cdta.dz [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO{sub 2} coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO{sub 2} films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO{sub 2} thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO{sub 2} films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O{sub 2} gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO{sub 2} films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the

  14. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO 2 coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO 2 films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO 2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO 2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO 2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO 2 films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties

  15. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  16. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  17. Research on Application of Internet of Things in the Disposal of Environmental Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things is an important part of a new generation of information technology and also an important stage of Information Age. Application of Internet of things in the disposal of environmental emergency is an inevitable trend of application of Internet of things in the field of environmental protection. This paper summarizes the principle, process and application field of Internet of things, and focuses on the general frame-work of environmental emergency disposal system based on Internet of things and further analyses the factors of restricting application of Internet of things in the disposal of environmental emergency. At last, the suggestions and countermeasures to optimize environmental emergency disposal system are proposed.

  18. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  19. Application of a predictive Bayesian model to environmental accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anex, R P; Englehardt, J D

    2001-03-30

    Environmental accounting techniques are intended to capture important environmental costs and benefits that are often overlooked in standard accounting practices. Environmental accounting methods themselves often ignore or inadequately represent large but highly uncertain environmental costs and costs conditioned by specific prior events. Use of a predictive Bayesian model is demonstrated for the assessment of such highly uncertain environmental and contingent costs. The predictive Bayesian approach presented generates probability distributions for the quantity of interest (rather than parameters thereof). A spreadsheet implementation of a previously proposed predictive Bayesian model, extended to represent contingent costs, is described and used to evaluate whether a firm should undertake an accelerated phase-out of its PCB containing transformers. Variability and uncertainty (due to lack of information) in transformer accident frequency and severity are assessed simultaneously using a combination of historical accident data, engineering model-based cost estimates, and subjective judgement. Model results are compared using several different risk measures. Use of the model for incorporation of environmental risk management into a company's overall risk management strategy is discussed.

  20. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: araya@sup.ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kamishiro, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakuta, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: itozaki@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-10-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise.

  1. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Kamishiro, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise

  2. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act

  3. Environmental concepts in rural Honduras: A case study of their range and application within environmental education design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert Sanders

    1998-12-01

    The rate of environmental degradation in the Third World continues to present residents of countries like Honduras with conditions that threaten the quality of life and ecological systems. How people conceptualize their environment could be a point of entry into a greater understanding of environmental problems. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, this study comprises a qualitative examination of the environmental concepts of a sample of 75 rural Hondurans. Analysis of their concepts was used to construct a tentative interpretation of the rural Honduran worldview characteristics of Self, Other, Relationship, Classification, Causality, Time, and Space. The findings of this investigation indicated that rural Hondurans conceptualize their environment through the worldview lenses of survival and poverty, leading to a sense of fatalism when confronting the complex and multifaceted problems associated with quality of life and environmental quality. Analysis of concepts and worldview also indicated that rural Hondurans generally do not believe their environmental problems are solvable, nor do they appear to understand that these problems are also cultural problems whose solutions will most likely require some revision of their current worldview. An educational approach that fosters the integration of compatible environmental concepts into the rural Honduran worldview is recommended through the application of design strategies for a prospective environmental education process.

  4. Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact

  5. 75 FR 63450 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of.... Applicant: Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company. e. Name of Project: W. Kerr Scott Hydropower Project. f...

  6. 75 FR 4058 - CRD Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of.... Applicant: CRD Hydroelectric, LLC. e. Name of Project: Red Rock Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  7. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance to... renewal of a nuclear power plant operating license. Applicants should use this regulatory guide when...

  8. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  9. Bidirectional energy management of loads and decentralized generators in the low voltage grid. Field tests and applications; Bidirektionales Energiemanagement fuer Lasten und dezentrale Erzeuger im Niederspannungsnetz. Feldtest und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, C.; Dallinger, D.; Nestle, D.; Ringelstein, J. [ISET e.V., Kassel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of growing installation of decentralized and fluctuating generation in the low voltage grid, energy management in this grid level becomes more and more important. In the research project DINAR, an approach therefor was developed and implemented. This approach combines automatic management of loads and decentralized generators by decentral decision, customer information and interaction, meter reading and low voltage grid measurement. This paper covers the developed concept and results from the field test in project DINAR as well as currently ongoing research activity on possible applications. (orig.)

  10. A Novel Index for Online Voltage Stability Assessment Based on Correlation Characteristic of Voltage Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aghamohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Voltage instability is a major threat for security of power systems. Preserving voltage security margin at a certain limit is a vital requirement for today’s power systems. Assessment of voltage security margin is a challenging task demanding sophisticated indices. In this paper, for the purpose of on line voltage security assessment a new index based on the correlation characteristic of network voltage profile is proposed. Voltage profile comprising all bus voltages contains the effect of network structure, load-generation patterns and reactive power compensation on the system behaviour and voltage security margin. Therefore, the proposed index is capable to clearly reveal the effect of system characteristics and events on the voltage security margin. The most attractive feature for this index is its fast and easy calculation from synchronously measured voltage profile without any need to system modelling and simulation and without any dependency on network size. At any instant of system operation by merely measuring network voltage profile and no further simulation calculation this index could be evaluated with respect to a specific reference profile. The results show that the behaviour of this index with respect to the change in system security is independent of the selected reference profile. The simplicity and easy calculation make this index very suitable for on line application. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on IEEE 39 bus test system with promising results showing its effectiveness and applicability.

  11. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  12. An Original Transformer and Switched-Capacitor (T & SC-Based Extension for DC-DC Boost Converter for High-Voltage/Low-Current Renewable Energy Applications: Hardware Implementation of a New T & SC Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a new Transformer and Switched Capacitor-based Boost Converter (T & SC-BC is proposed for high-voltage/low-current renewable energy applications. The proposed T & SC-BC is an original extension for DC-DC boost converter which is designed by utilizing a transformer and switched capacitor (T & SC. Photovoltaic (PV energy is a fast emergent segment among the renewable energy systems. The proposed T & SC-BC combines the features of the conventional boost converter and T & SC to achieve a high voltage conversion ratio. A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller is compulsory and necessary in a PV system to extract maximum power. Thus, a photovoltaic MPPT control mechanism also articulated for the proposed T & SC-BC. The voltage conversion ratio (Vo/Vin of proposed converter is (1 + k/(1 − D where, k is the turns ratio of the transformer and D is the duty cycle (thus, the converter provides 9.26, 13.88, 50/3 voltage conversion ratios at 78.4 duty cycle with k = 1, 2, 2.6, respectively. The conspicuous features of proposed T & SC-BC are: (i a high voltage conversion ratio (Vo/Vin; (ii continuous input current (Iin; (iii single switch topology; (iv single input source; (v low drain to source voltage (VDS rating of control switch; (vi a single inductor and a single untapped transformer are used. Moreover, the proposed T & SC-BC topology was compared with recently addressed DC-DC converters in terms of number of components, cost, voltage conversion ratio, ripples, efficiency and power range. Simulation and experimental results are provided which validate the functionality, design and concept of the proposed approach.

  13. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company's regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses

  14. Application of environmental isotopes to groundwater investigations in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.; Payne, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been used to study the dynamic behaviour of the groundwater systems in Qatar. The aim was to identify the mixing processes between the shallow phreatic aquifer, the deep confined aquifers and seawater. Environmental tritium was used to estimate the average recharge of the shallow freshwater aquifer. The results of the environmental isotope study, supplemented by hydrochemical data, have clearly indicated that in the south western part of the peninsula the shallow aquifer is in direct hydraulic connection with the deeper artesian aquifers. Furthermore, the poor quality of water in that area is mainly due to substantial upward leakage of water from the deeper aquifers. In some parts of the peninsula seawater was identified as an additional source of salinity. A model was developed for estimating the turnover rate and average recharge of the phreatic aquifer from the tritium data. The results of this model provide an independent estimate of the average annual recharge. (orig.) [de

  15. Application of environmental isotopes to groundwater investigations in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.; Payne, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been used to study the dynamic behaviour of the groundwater systems in Qatar. The aim was to identify the mixing processes between the shallow phreatic aquifer, the deep confined aquifers and sea-water. Environmental tritium was used to estimate the average recharge of the shallow fresh-water aquifer. The results of the environmental isotope study, supplemented by hydrochemical data, have clearly indicated that in the southwestern part of the peninsula the shallow aquifer is in direct hydraulic connection with the deeper artesian aquifers. Furthermore, the poor quality of water in that area is mainly due to substantial upward leakage of water from the deeper aquifers. In some parts of the peninsula sea-water was identified as an additional source of salinity. A model was developed for estimating the turnover rate and average recharge of the phreatic aquifer from the tritium data. The results of this model provide an independent estimate of the average annual recharge. (author)

  16. Intelligence systems in environmental management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sari, İrem

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive reference guide to intelligence systems in environmental management. It provides readers with all the necessary tools for solving complex environmental problems, where classical techniques cannot be applied. The respective chapters, written by prominent researchers, explain a wealth of both basic and advanced concepts including ant colony, genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy multi-criteria decision making tools, particle swarm optimization, agent-based modelling, artificial neural networks, simulated annealing, Tabu search, fuzzy multi-objective optimization, fuzzy rules, support vector machines, fuzzy cognitive maps, cumulative belief degrees, and many others. To foster a better understanding, all the chapters include relevant numerical examples or case studies. Taken together, they form an excellent reference guide for researchers, lecturers and postgraduate students pursuing research on complex environmental problems. Moreover, by extending all the main aspec...

  17. Room temperature direct bonding of LiNbO3 crystal layers and its application to high-voltage optical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulli, D; Janner, D; Pruneri, V

    2011-01-01

    LiNbO 3 is a crystal widely used in photonics and acoustics, for example in electro-optic modulation, nonlinear optical frequency conversion, electric field sensing and surface acoustic wave filtering. It often needs to be combined with other materials and used in thin layers to achieve the adequate device performance. In this paper, we investigate direct bonding of LiNbO 3 crystals with other dielectric materials, such as Si and fused silica (SiO 2 ), and we show that specific surface chemical cleaning, together with Ar or O 2 plasma activation, can be used to increase the surface free energy and achieve effective bonding at room temperature. The resulting hybrid material bonding is very strong, making the dicing and grinding of LiNbO 3 layers as thin as 15 µm possible. To demonstrate the application potentials of the proposed bonding technique, we have fabricated and characterized a high-voltage field sensor with high sensitivity in a domain inverted and bonded LiNbO 3 waveguide substrate

  18. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs.

  19. Application of the neutron activation analysis to environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Bozhi.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a nuclear analysis technology. It has been developed in recent times. By this means, the paper analyzes the element contents of leaves, soil and atmospheric dust-fall from the eastern and the western suburbs of Chengdu, then makes a comparison between the two areas and approaches some problems on environmental pollution

  20. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The

  1. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  2. Biomedical and environmental applications of laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... In this paper, we report the preliminary observations we obtained using LIBS for clinical and environmental samples. Elemental analysis has been done qualitatively in human teeth samples which show encouraging results. It has also been demonstrated in this paper that LIBS can be very well utilized in ...

  3. Dendroecological applications in air pollution and environmental chemistry: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel B. McLaughlin; Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, dendrochronology has evolved in new dimensions that have helped address both the extent and causes of impacts of regional scale environmental pollution on the productivity and function of forest ecosystems. Initial focus on the magnitude and timing of alterations of baseline growth levels of individual forest trees has now broadened to...

  4. Application of radiochemical separation procedures to environmental and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-06-15

    The measurement of low levels of radionuclides in environmental and biological materials often depends on separation of the nuclide of interest from a bulky matrix containing interfering radioelements. In such case, however sophisticated and elegant the counting technique, the quality of the final data will

  5. Building and application of environmental radioactivity data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumicak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The main characteristics and the way of functioning of the complex system of acquisition, storage and processing of data on environmental radioactivity of a data bank type are described. Its advantages and disadvantages and possible ways of its utilization in different fields are shown. (author)

  6. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S

    2006-01-01

    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  7. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  8. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Prosen

    2014-01-01

    Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several...

  9. Discussion of environmental impact assessment for the nuclear technology application in hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaoting; Xu Zhongyang

    2010-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiation has become the greatest artificial radiation in the world. Based on the characteristics of the nuclear technology application in hospital the content of the environmental impact assessment has been stated, including identification of the environmental impact factor, the standard, the environmental impact, control of the pollution as well. The dose of the medical staff which engaged in interventional operation and the accompanies of the patients which received nuclear medicine treatment should be focused on. (authors)

  10. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica

  11. Laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas; Dreier, Thomas; Chen, Weidong; Kearny, Sean; Kulatilaka, Waruna

    2017-04-10

    This Applied Optics feature issue on laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at the LACSEA 2016 Fifteenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America.

  12. Off-line supercritical fluid extraction-capillary GC applications in environmental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, F.; Verschuere, M.; Sandra, P.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The successful application of supercrit. fluid extn. for environmental samples requires that the extn. for environmental samples requires that the extn. conditions detd. for spiked samples must be optimized in order to overcome the solute-matrix interactions that are responsible for lower recoveries

  13. 75 FR 65620 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The project would be... ready for environmental analysis at this time. l. The proposed 2.0-megawatt Inglis Hydropower Project...

  14. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  15. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  16. Neutron applications in earth, energy and environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Liyuan; Schober, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This text is a comprehensive overview of neutron scattering techniques that enhance the study of materials at the micro and nanoscale. The well structured volume provides introductions to various neutron applications from leading experts in the field.

  17. Potential Nano-Enabled Environmental Applications for Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about nanotechnology materials and processes that may be applicable when cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites or materials, and presents a snapshot of lessons learned in nano-science and engineering.

  18. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities

  19. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bionindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  2. Application of gamma-ray spectroscopy in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.B.; Kanipe, L.G.; Clayton, W.R.; Belvin, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is used as the primary analytical method in the Tennessee Valley Authority's environmental radiation monitoring program. Routine sample screening is done by means of least-squares analysis of spectra from NaI(Tl) detectors. Nonroutine or suspicious samples are analyzed by means of Ge(Li) spectral analysis. A laboratory quality control program provides internal and external checks on the reliability of analyses

  3. SPERA 98: radioactivity and the environment, environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Presentations were grouped around the themes of soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways and foodchains, sediment studies and atmospheric radon. This volume contains extended abstracts. A list of participants is also included

  4. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  5. Sorption models and their application in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Nariman H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were found in some environmental soils not high enough to pose problems for human health. The health may be affected by increasing of NORM at some environmental soils. Four soil samples obtained from certain coastal regions in Egypt. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of the uranium ( 238 U) series, thorium ( 232 Th) series and the radioactive isotope of potassium ( 40 K) were measured. The soil samples were selected from the situations where the radionuclide concentrations are significantly higher than the average level of other sites. It were chemically analyzed for the uranium, silicon aluminum and iron. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined, it was found lower in the presence of Fe-silicates suggested that Fe-hydroxide had precipitin at the exchangeable edge sites of the clay minerals. The pH of the solid particles at which the net total surface charge is zero was known as the point of zero charge (PZC). The PZC is very important in determining the affinity of the soil samples for different cations and anions. The aim of this work is to determine the natural radiological hazardous of radionuclide at four environmental coastal soil samples in Egypt. The point of zero surface charge was determined using titration tests. Sorption model was developed for this purpose. (author)

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies of a high temperature cesium-barium tacitron, with application to low voltage-high current inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.S.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-02-01

    A low voltage/high current switch refer-red as ''Cs-Ba tacitron'' is studied for use as a dc to ac inverter in high temperature and/or ionizing radiation environments. The operational characteristics of the Cs-Ba tacitron as a switch were investigated experimentally in three modes: (a) breakdown mode, (b) I-V mode, and (c) current modulation mode. Operation parameters measured include switching frequencies up to 20 kHz, hold-off voltages up to 200 V, current densities in excess of 15 A/CM 2 , switch power density of 1 kW/cm 2 , and a switching efficiency in excess of 90 % at collector voltages greater than 30 V. Also, if the discharge current is circuit limited to a value below the maximum thermal emission current density, the voltage drop is constant and below 3 V

  7. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  8. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  9. Characterization of RPC operation with new environmental friendly mixtures for LHC application and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.; Capeans, M.; Mandelli, B.

    2016-01-01

    The large muon trigger systems based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the LHC experiments are currently operated with R134a based mixture. Unfortunately R134a is considered a greenhouse gas with high impact on the enviroment and therefore will be subject to regulations aiming in strongly reducing the available quantity on the market. The immediat effects might be instability on the price and incertitude in the product availability. Alternative gases (HFO-1234yf and HFO-1234ze) have been already identified by industry for specific applications as replacement of R134a. Moreover, HFCs similar to the R134a but with lower global warming potential (GWP) are already available (HFC-245fa, HFC-32, HFC-152a). The present contribution describes the results obtained with RPCs operated with new enviromemtal friendly gases. A particular attention has been addressed to the possibility of maintening the current operation conditions (i.e. currently used applied voltage and front-end electronics) in order to be able to use a new mixture for RPC systems even where the common infrastructure (i.e. high voltage and detector components) cannot be replaced for operation at higher applied voltages.

  10. Overview: Applicability of U.S. environmental control technologies for Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S.W. [DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the applicability of US environmental control technologies for Korea is presented in outline form. The following topics are discussed: PETC coal research activities, environmental costs, environmental challenges, Clean Air Act requirements, additional regulations for air toxics, clean coal technologies (CCT) approach, CCT help meet environmental challenges, utility options, research goals for advanced power systems, PETC Programs, the NO{sub x} SO process, flue gas cleanup program, air toxics emissions, and retrofit NO{sub x} control for coal-burning boilers.

  11. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  12. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  14. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  15. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  16. Application of X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliment, V.; Kliman, J.; Turzo, I.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the X-ray fluorescence analysis principles and of its possibilities in the study of environmental pollution impact. Experiments with X-ray fluorescence analysis using 241-Am and a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector are discussed. The reproducibility of determinations in dependence on the sample preparation and the evaluation of peak surfaces of characteristic radiation is shown. The dependence of the peak surface on the elemental contents in the sample was linear. Detection limits of the investigated elements ranged in tenths of μg for 300 s measurement. (author)

  17. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tepić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the protection of the planet from global warming, as well as the preservation of life and survival.

  18. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  19. Environmental aspects of the district cooling system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitrakovski, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The use of air-conditioning equipment based on CFC and HCFC fluids has a direct influence on the occurrence of the greenhouse effect and damage of the ozone layer. Besides the obligatory shift og HCF cooling fluids, the reduction of such negative influences may also be achieved by the application of the district cooling system to the air-conditioning plants in the area. The paper includes example of the application of the district system, with positive effect regarding the ozone layer protection and greenhouse effect prevention. (Author)

  20. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials

  1. 18 CFR 157.9 - Notice of application and notice of schedule for environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of application and notice of schedule for environmental review. 157.9 Section 157.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC...

  2. 77 FR 21551 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing And Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public...

  3. 77 FR 16023 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available...

  4. Some applications of fractal mathematics in the evaluation of environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H. F.; Poon, D. C.; McCormack, M.

    1997-11-01

    Application of fractal mathematics to commonly occurring environmental problems in the petroleum industry is discussed. Examples are provided to illustrate application of the technique. The specific examples cited involve the interpretation of mercury contamination data at a gas plant and the determination of the optimal volume of soil excavation at a contaminated site. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  5. 75 FR 352 - Enloe Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of... Utility District No. 1 of Okanogan County. e. Name of Project: Enloe Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...

  6. Using a Hydrological Model to Determine Environmentally Safer Windows for Herbicide Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; D.G. Neary; W.P. Fowler; D.J. Turton

    1996-01-01

    A modification of the GLEAMS model was used to determine application windows which would optimise efficacy and environmental safety for herbicide application to a forest site. Herbicide/soil partition coefficients were determined using soil samples collected from the study site for two herbicides (imazapyr, Koc=46, triclopyr ester, K

  7. 2nd European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Amílcar; Froidevaux, Roland

    1999-01-01

    The Second European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Ap­ plications took place in Valencia, November 18-20, 1998. Two years have past from the first meeting in Lisbon and the geostatistical community has kept active in the environmental field. In these days of congress inflation, we feel that continuity can only be achieved by ensuring quality in the papers. For this reason, all papers in the book have been reviewed by, at least, two referees, and care has been taken to ensure that the reviewer comments have been incorporated in the final version of the manuscript. We are thankful to the members of the scientific committee for their timely review of the scripts. All in all, there are three keynote papers from experts in soil science, climatology and ecology and 43 contributed papers providing a good indication of the status of geostatistics as applied in the environ­ mental field all over the world. We feel now confident that the geoENV conference series, seeded around a coffee table almost six...

  8. Application for review, Section 61, Environmental Bill of Rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspun, D.; Forman, G.; Hutton, A.; Muter, M.; Stewart, K.; Wilkins, H.

    2006-01-01

    Health and environmental groups have filed a request with the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Energy to review its government policies on transboundary smog, mercury emissions and climate change in light of the abandonment of plans to close all of the province's highly polluting coal-fired power plants by 2009. The groups have requested that the Ministries identify the measures that will be taken to eliminate the health, social and environmental impacts caused by this decision. The representatives of Ontario's registered nurses, physicians, community groups and environment groups want to know how the decision will affect Ontario's compliance with the terms of the Ozone Annex to the 1991 United States-Canada Air Quality Agreement, Ontario's compliance with the proposed Canada Wide Standard on Mercury, and efforts to combat climate change. Concerns that the government has weakened its position in dealing with the United States over transboundary smog were expressed. Smog, climate change and mercury pollution pose significant risks to the health of Ontarians. The original plan to replace coal-fired generation was the single largest greenhouse gas reduction initiative in Canada. It was argued that the abandonment of that plan represents a major challenge in meeting Kyoto targets. refs

  9. Hackathons as A Capacity Building Tool for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; Mildorf, T.; Charvat, K.; Berre, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Today's society requires easy, reliable and quick access to environmental information published by various organizations and initiatives. The environment questions require many activities that produce various sorts of data; by authorities through operation of instruments such as satellites, and through informal local and community activities producing videos, photos or oral stories. The collected information can contribute to up-to-date data. Volunteered geographic information (VGI) is the harnessing of tools to create, assemble, and disseminate geographic data provided voluntarily by individuals. Under the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe) umbrella, a number of EU projects co-organize hackathons - the INSPIRE Hack. The INSPIRE Hack focuses on methods where citizens are able to contribute to different environmental and societal issues through smart phones and other sensors. The INSPIRE Hack supports creativity, innovation, technical capabilities and knowledge sharing by combining open data, VGI, and data from citizens observatories or other citizen science activities. This presentation offer a capacity building perspective on the INSPIRE hackathons, the co-design aspects and the argility with respect to the accelerating technological and social innovations, and effective up-take in societal use. Starting in Europe, the concept can be broadened to encompass all continents.

  10. The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.A.; Landis, W.G.; Matthews, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the community conditions hypothesis, ecological communities retain information bout events in their history. This hypothesis, which was derived from the concept of nonequilibrium community ecology, was developed as a framework for understanding the persistence of dose-related responses in multispecies toxicity tests. The authors present data from three standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) toxicity tests using the water-soluble fractions from turbine fuels (Jet-A, JP-4, and JP-8). In all three tests, the toxicants depressed the Daphnia populations for several weeks, which resulted in algal blooms in the dosed microcosms due to lower predation rates. These effects were short-lived, and by the second and third months of the experiments, the Daphnia populations appeared to have recovered. However, multivariate analysis of the data released dose/response differences that reappeared during the later part of the tests, often due to differences in other consumers (rotifers, ostracods, ciliates), or algae that are not normally consumed (filamentous green algae and bluegreen algae). The findings are consistent with ecological theories that describe communities as the unique production of their etiologies. The implications of this to environmental toxicology are that almost all environmental events leave lasting effects, whether or not they have observed them

  11. Resilience and sustainability: Similarities and differences in environmental management applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Dayton; Reynolds, Erin; Bates, Matthew E; Morgan, Heather; Clark, Susan Spierre; Linkov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    In recent years there have been many disparate uses of the terms sustainability and resilience, with some framing sustainability and resilience as the same concept, and others claiming them to be entirely different and unrelated. To investigate similarities, differences, and current management frameworks for increasing sustainability and resilience, a literature review was undertaken that focused on integrated use of sustainability and resilience in an environmental management context. Sustainability was defined through the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic system considerations. Resilience was viewed as the ability of a system to prepare for threats, absorb impacts, recover and adapt following persistent stress or a disruptive event. Three generalized management frameworks for organizing sustainability and resilience were found to dominate the literature: (1) resilience as a component of sustainability, (2) sustainability as a component of resilience, and (3) resilience and sustainability as separate objectives. Implementations of these frameworks were found to have common goals of providing benefits to people and the environment under normal and extreme operating conditions, with the best examples building on similarities and minimizing conflicts between resilience and sustainability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Optical sensors for the measurement of electric current and voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutgers, W R; Hulshof, H J.M.; Laurensse, I J; van der Wey, A H

    1987-01-01

    Optical sensors for the measurement of electrical current and voltage were developed for application in electric power systems. The current sensor, based on the Faraday effect in a monomode glass fiber, and the voltage sensor, based on the transverse Pockels effect in a crystal, are demonstrated in wide-band (10 MHz) interference-free measurements of pulsed currents and impulse voltages.

  13. Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.

  14. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  15. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  16. Fundamental studies on the switching in liquid nitrogen environment using vacuum switches for application in future high-temperature superconducting medium-voltage power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golde, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    By means of superconducting equipment it is possible to reduce the transmission losses in distribution networks while increasing the transmission capacity. As a result even saving a superimposed voltage level would be possible, which can put higher investment costs compared to conventional equipment into perspective. For operation of superconducting systems it is necessary to integrate all equipment in the cooling circuit. This also includes switchgears. Due to cooling with liquid nitrogen, however, only vacuum switching technology comes into question. Thus, the suitability of vacuum switches is investigated in this work. For this purpose the mechanics of the interrupters is considered first. Material investigations and switching experiments at ambient temperature and in liquid nitrogen supply information on potential issues. For this purpose, a special pneumatic construction is designed, which allows tens of thousands of switching cycles. Furthermore, the electrical resistance of the interrupters is considered. Since the contact system consists almost exclusively of copper, a remaining residual resistance and appropriate thermal losses must be considered. Since they have to be cooled back, an appropriate evaluation is given taking environmental parameters into account. The dielectric strength of vacuum interrupters is considered both at ambient temperature as well as directly in liquid nitrogen. For this purpose different contact distances are set at different interrupter types. A distinction is made between internal and external dielectric strength. Conditioning and deconditioning effects are minimized by an appropriate choice of the test circuit. The current chopping and resulting overvoltages are considered to be one of the few drawbacks of vacuum switching technology. Using a practical test circuit the height of chopping current is determined and compared for different temperatures. Due to strong scattering the evaluation is done using statistical methods. At

  17. CT pulmonary angiography using 64-row multi-slice spiral CT: a comparative study in low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast agent application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuhui; Peng Zhenpeng; Zheng Lili; Li Shurong; Yang Zhiyun; Meng Quanfei; Chen Xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of the low tube voltage setting and personalized contrast agent application in 64-row multi-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiography. Methods: Ninety patients with high risk of pulmonary artery embolism were sequentially enrolled in the study and divided into 3 groups employing completely randomized design: (l)Regular group included 30 patients using 120 kV and fixed dose of 70 ml contrast agent, (2)Another 30 patients were in 120 kV group, using 120 kV and the contrast amount was determined according to the patient weight (1.0 ml/kg), (3) The remaining 30 patients were included in 100 kV group, using 100 kV and the contrast amount was also determined according to the patient weight(1.0 ml/kg). Administration of contrast agent was completed within 20 seconds for all the patients, followed by 20 ml of saline. The objective and subjective indexes for assessing CT image quality, CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) and effective received dose (ERD) were compared between 120 kV group and 100 kV group; then the contrast media volume, injection rate, objective CT image indexes and subjective indexes for image quality was compared between the 100 kV group and regular group. The variance analysis and post hoc test were employed for the statistical analysis. Results: Compared with 120 kV group (3.4±0.7), the image quality of 100 kV group (5.2±1.8) had higher noise (52.9%), but subjective index for the image quality demonstrated no differences (q=0.272, P=0.063) in mediastinum window while CTDIvol and ERD decreased for 34.9% [(9.5±0.0) vs (14.6±0.0) mGy] and 36.8% [(3.8±0.6) vs (2.4±0.4) mSv]. The mean CT values on pulmonary artery of 100 kV group[ (269.2±54.7) HU] were 13.4% (31.8/237.4) higher than the 120 kV group [(237.4±62.9)HU], but there was no statistical differences compared to normal group (q=0.172,P=0.260). Conclusion: Using low kV setting (100 kV) to reduce radiation dose is proved to be effective and feasible in 64-MSCT

  18. An automated digital imaging system for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Velasco, Miguel; Vogel, John

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the affordability and availability of high-resolution digital cameras, data loggers, embedded computers, and radio/cellular modems have advanced the development of sophisticated automated systems for remote imaging. Researchers have successfully placed and operated automated digital cameras in remote locations and in extremes of temperature and humidity, ranging from the islands of the South Pacific to the Mojave Desert and the Grand Canyon. With the integration of environmental sensors, these automated systems are able to respond to local conditions and modify their imaging regimes as needed. In this report we describe in detail the design of one type of automated imaging system developed by our group. It is easily replicated, low-cost, highly robust, and is a stand-alone automated camera designed to be placed in remote locations, without wireless connectivity.

  19. The application of disperse systems in environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povrenović Dragan S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of spouted and spout-fluid bed investigations and their application in waste treatment in the food industry and the fluid-mechanical investigations of a co-current spouted bed with the aim of its application in water treatment, with immobilized microorganism systems. The Investigated systems were applied in animal blood and plasma drying, as a possible ecological solution in the meat-processing industry and brewery yeast drying. These waste materials are very dangerous pollutants for natural recipients. The concept of a co-current spouted bed as a basis for microbiological water treatment in the nitrification process of ammonium nitrogen is presented in the second part of this paper.

  20. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  1. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year

  2. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  3. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).

  4. Battery voltage-balancing applications of disk-type radial mode Pb(Zr • Ti)O3 ceramic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenathayalan, Daniel; Lee, Chun-gu; Park, Joung-hu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel technique to build a charge-balancing circuit for series-connected battery strings using various kinds of disk-type ceramic Pb(Zr • Ti)O3 piezoelectric resonators (PRs). The use of PRs replaces the whole external battery voltage-balancer circuit, which consists mainly of a bulky magnetic element. The proposed technique is validated using different ceramic PRs and the results are analyzed in terms of their physical properties. A series-connected battery string with a voltage rating of 61.5 V is set as a hardware prototype under test, then the power transfer efficiency of the system is measured at different imbalance voltages. The performance of the proposed battery voltage-balancer circuit employed with a PR is also validated through hardware implementation. Furthermore, the temperature distribution image of the PR is obtained to compare power transfer efficiency and thermal stress under different operating conditions. The test results show that the battery voltage-balancer circuit can be successfully implemented using PRs with the maximum power conversion efficiency of over 96% for energy storage systems.

  5. Voltage Stabilizer Based on SPWM technique Using Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. Tarchanidis; J. N. Lygouras; P. Botsaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the well known SPWM technique on a voltage stabilizer, using a microcontroller. The stabilizer is AC/DC/AC type. So, the system rectifies the input AC voltage to a suitable DC level and the intelligent control of an embedded microcontroller regulates the pulse width of the output voltage in order to produce through a filter a perfect sinusoidal AC voltage. The control program on the microcontroller has the ability to change the FET transistor ...

  6. Indispensable role of biochar-inherent mineral constituents in its environmental applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yinghao; Sima, Jingke; Zhao, Ling; Mašek, Ondřej; Cao, Xinde

    2017-10-01

    Biochar typically consists of both carbon and mineral fractions, and the carbon fraction has been generally considered to determine its properties and applications. Recently, an increasing body of research has demonstrated that mineral components inherent in biochar, such as alkali or alkaline earth metals in the form of carbonates, phosphates, or oxides, could also influence the properties and thus the applications. The review articles published thus far have mainly focused on multiple environmental and agronomic applications of biochar, including carbon sequestration, soil improvement, environmental remediation, etc. This review aims to highlight the indispensable role of the mineral fraction of biochar in these different applications, especially in environmental applications. Specifically, it provides a critical review of current research findings related to the mineral composition of biochar and the effect of the mineral fraction on the physicochemical properties, contaminant sorption, carbon retention and stability, and nutrient bioavailability of biochar. Furthermore, the role of minerals in the emerging applications of biochar, as a precursor for fuel cells, supercapacitors, and photoactive components, is also summarized. Overall, inherent minerals should be fully considered while determining the most appropriate application for any given biochar. A thorough understanding of the role of biochar-bound minerals in different applications will also allow the design or selection of the most suitable biochar for specific applications based on the consideration of feedstock composition, production parameters, and post-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of environmental Decision Support Systems (Ed's) for the assessment of health effects due to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Decision Support System containing a Geographical Information System (GIS) combined with (radio)ecological data and models were developed within different research activities in radioecology and geography for environmental management, especially after accidental release of pollutants into the environment. It may be possible to achieve the full potentials of EDSS, through its application in a variety of ways. These include: 1. Identification of radio-ecological sensitive areas, 2. extending its use in the identification of non-radioactive pollution (e.g., heavy metals) by using the necessary transfer models and parameters and 3. its effective use in defining the role of environmental pollution on health effects. In order to achieve the latter (e.g., defining the role of environmental pollution on health effects), a database containing spatial and temporal information on radioactive and conventional pollution can be combined with ethnic composition, living habits, education, income, age/sex structure, general sanitary situation, production, import and export overlaid with health data (e.g., congenital malformations, cancer, mental retardation, immunological situation, birth and death certificates etc.). Since a spatial as well as temporal resolution of data can be achieved, time trends and spatial trends of a potential impact to human health can be demonstrated. (author)

  8. Accurate surface potential determination in Schottky diodes by the use of a correlated current and capacitance voltage measurements. Application to n-InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahaitouf, Ali; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Salvestrini, Jean Paul; Srour, Hussein

    2011-01-01

    Based on current voltage (I—V g ) and capacitance voltage (C—V g ) measurements, a reliable procedure is proposed to determine the effective surface potential V d (V g ) in Schottky diodes. In the framework of thermionic emission, our analysis includes both the effect of the series resistance and the ideality factor, even voltage dependent. This technique is applied to n-type indium phosphide (n-InP) Schottky diodes with and without an interfacial layer and allows us to provide an interpretation of the observed peak on the C—V g measurements. The study clearly shows that the depletion width and the flat band barrier height deduced from C—V g , which are important parameters directly related to the surface potential in the semiconductor, should be estimated within our approach to obtain more reliable information. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Spectroscopic studies of uranium species for environmental decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Charlotte

    After the Cold War, Department of Energy began to concentrate its efforts on cleanup of former nuclear material processing facilities, especially uranium-contaminated groundwater and soil. This research aims to study uranium association to both organic and inorganic compounds found in the contaminated environment in the hopes that the information gathered can be applied to the development and optimization of cost-effective remediation techniques. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods will be employed to examine the behavior of uranium in given conditions to further our understanding of its impact on the environment. Uranium found in groundwater and soil bind with various ligands, especially organic ligands present in the environment due to natural sources (e.g. metabolic by-products or degradation of plants and animals) or man-made sources (e.g. chelating agents used in operating or cleanup of uranium processing facilities). We selected reasonable analogs of naturally occurring matter and studied their structure, chemical and electrochemical behavior and found that the structure of uranyl complexes depends heavily on the nature of the ligand and environmental factors such as pH. Association of uranium-organic complexes with anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium sp. was studied to establish if the bacteria can effectively bioreduce uranium while going through normal bacterial activity. It was found that the nature of the organic ligand affected the bioavailability and toxicity of the uranium on the bacteria. In addition, we have found that the type of iron corrosion products and uranyl species present on the surface of corroded steel depended on various environmental factors, which subsequently affected the removal rate of uranium by a citric acid/hydrogen peroxide/deionized water cleaning process. The method was found to remove uranium from only the topmost corrosion layers and residual uranium could be found (a) deeper in the corrosion layers where it is occluded by

  10. Tuning CNT Properties for Metal-Free Environmental Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P. Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs as metal-free catalysts is a novel approach for heterogeneous liquid phase catalytic systems. Textural and chemical modifications by liquid/gas phase or mechanical treatments, as well as solid state reactions, were successfully applied to obtain carbon nanotubes with different surface functionalities. Oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur are the most common heteroatoms introduced on the carbon surface. This short-review highlights different routes used to develop metal-free carbon nanotube catalysts with enhanced properties for Advanced Oxidation Processes.

  11. Application of SIMS to the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    As an example of surface analysis of environmental samples, SIMS was applied to airborne particulates, fish otoliths (a calcareous ear-stone) and biotites (a rock-forming aluminosilicate mineral). Airborne particulates deposited on leaf surface were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment (FAB)-SIMS using an O 2 primary neutral beam. Some metal elements, such as Pb, of aerosol origin could be detected. Local areas of a thin section of an otolith were analyzed by FAB-SIMS. Line scans and images of secondary ions revealed seasonal periodicity in Sr, Na and K concentrations in the otolith that corresponded to the annual band structure. Surface alteration of acid-treated and naturally weathered biotites was studied by SIMS depth profiling using an O - primary ion. The depth profile of the acid-treated biotite showed the formation of an altered surface layer rich in Si. In contrast a thick altered surface layer was not observed and Al was held on the surface under natural weathering

  12. Application of safeguards technology in DOE's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Baker, M.P.; Hansen, W.R.; Lucas, M.C.; Markin, J.T.; Phillips, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last two decades, the Department of Energy's Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) has supported the research and development of safeguards systems analysis methodologies and nondestructive assay (NDS) technology for characterizing, monitoring, and accounting nuclear materials. This paper discusses methodologies and NDA instrumentation developed by the DOE/OSS program that could be applied in the Environmental Restoration Program. NDA instrumentation could be used for field measurements during site characterization and to monitor nuclear materials, heavy metals, and other hazardous materials during site remediation. Systems methodologies can minimize the expenditure of resources and help specify appropriate combinations of NDA instrumentation and chemical analyses to characterize a variety of materials quickly and reduce personnel exposure in hazardous environments. A training program is available to teach fundamental and advanced principles and approaches to characterize and quantify nuclear materials properly and to organize and analyze measurement information for decision making. The ability to characterize the overall volume and distribution of materials at a waste site is difficult because of the inhomogeneous distribution of materials, the requirement for extreme sensitivity, and the lack of resources to collect and chemically analyze a sufficient number of samples. Using a systems study approach based on statistical sampling, the resources necessary to characterize a site can be enhanced by appropriately combining in situ and field NDA measurements with laboratory analyses. 35 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  14. The environmental health officer's role in the determination of wind turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spode, D.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given from the Local Authority Environmental Health view point about the application for Deli Wind Farm, Delabole, Cornwall, UK, which was the first such application we received and was approved and is now operational. Subsequently we have approved the application for Cold Northcott, have refused two other applications and a further two are being processed. The account will indicate the practical problems faced by Environment Health Officers in assessing applications and advising the decision makers. An indication of the information which the author considers it is essential to have included in the noise section of an environmental assessment is given and suggestions are made on the type of conditions which should be attached to any planning consent with a view to protecting occupiers of the closest dwelling, this being particularly important where the relevant separation distances give little room for error in getting the decision right. (author)

  15. Application of probabilistic risk based optimization approaches in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general approach to site-specific risk assessments and optimization procedures. In order to account for uncertainties in the assessment of the current situation and future developments, optimization parameters are treated as probabilistic distributions. The assessments are performed within the framework of a cost-benefit analysis. Radiation hazards and conventional risks are treated within an integrated approach. Special consideration is given to consequences of low probability events such as, earthquakes or major floods. Risks and financial costs are combined to an overall figure of detriment allowing one to distinguish between benefits of available reclamation options. The probabilistic analysis uses a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The paper demonstrates the applicability of this approach in aiding the reclamation planning using an example from the German reclamation program for uranium mining and milling sites

  16. Novel, convenient, and nonpersistent radiotracer for environmental and energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A newly-available radioisotope system, 172 Hf- 172 Lu, has excellent potential for tracer applications in which nuclear data acquisition must be accomplished in real time. The 6.7-day half-life of 172 Lu is sufficient for a large fraction of tracer experiments, and should allow the direct incorporation of 172 Lu into tests that have traditionally utilized much longer-lived radionuclides. Since 172 Lu is the daughter component of a radioisotope generator, however, its effective shelf-life is determined by the half-life of its 1.9-year 172 Hf parent. Consequently, the frequency of isotope procurement need not be any more extensive than investigators would normally be accustomed to. Discussion relevant to isotope production, generator operation, and nuclide acquisition is presented

  17. Application of petroleum markers to geochemical and environmental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Elgheit, M.A.; El-Gayar, M.S.; Hegazi, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Application of trace-metal and biological markers to geochemical studies has shown that crude oils could be correlated or differentiated according to their geologic age. The V/Ni, V/Σ Ni, Mg, Fe, and pristine to phytane (Pr/Ph) markers were almost uniform in Gulf of Suez crude oils, revealing their same origin, yet showing marked differences in Western Desert crude oils, reflecting varying degrees of their maturity and migrational history. The significance of petroleum markers was extended to monitoring of oil spill sources. Weathering of spills usually renders their source identification questionable by infrared or gas chromatography profiles. Since evaporative loss light petroleum fractions does not appreciably affect the high-Molecular Weight components with which trace metals, isoprenoids, hopanes, and steranes are associated, V/Ni, Pr/Ph, m/z 191, and m/z 217 mass chromatogram fragments were found reliable in fingerprinting oil spill sources in Mediterranean waters

  18. Application of environmental isotopes to characterize landfill gases and leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Baker, J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopes have been used to help characterize landfill gases and leachate for the purpose of identifying leachate and/or gas contamination in surrounding monitoring wells. Carbon isotopes (C-13/C-12 and C-14), hydrogen isotopes (H-3 and H-2/H-1) and oxygen isotopes (O-18/O-16) were used to characterize methane, carbon dioxide and leachate produced from two municipal landfills in northeastern Illinois. The isotopic results from the landfill-derived gases and leachate are compared to isotopic compositions of groundwater and gases from nearby monitoring wells. C-14 activity of landfill CH 4 is high compared to CH 4 normally found in subsurface sediments. For this study C-14 activities of the landfill methane range from 129--140 PMC. The C-14 of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the leachate samples also have relatively high activities, ranging from 126--141 PMC. The δC-13 and δD values for CH 4 from the landfills fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced by acetate-fermentation. The δC-13 of the CO 2 and the DIC are very positive, ranging from 8--14 per-thousand for CO 2 and 13--22 per-thousand for DIC. The δO-18 values of the leachates are similar to current meteoric water values, however, two of the leachate samples are significantly enriched in deuterium by approximately 65 per-thousand. Tritium values of the leachate water are generally higher than expected. For one landfill the tritium activity ranges from 227--338 TU, for the second landfill the tritium activity is approximately 1,300 TU. Compared to tritium levels in normal groundwater, these higher tritium values in the leachates indicate that this isotope has the potential to be an effective tracer for detecting leachate migration

  19. Application of WSP method in analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacho, M.; Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.; Sojak, S.; Krnac, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of activity in natural samples is specific especially because of its low level and high background interferences. Reduction of background interferences could be reached using low background chamber. Measurement geometry in shape of Marinelli beaker is commonly used according to low level of activity in natural samples. The Peak Net Area (PNA) method is the world-wide accepted technique for analysis of gamma-ray spectra. It is based on the net area calculation of the full energy peak, therefore, it takes into account only a fraction of measured gamma-ray spectrum. On the other hand, the Whole Spectrum Processing (WSP) approach to the gamma analysis makes possible to use entire information being in the spectrum. This significantly raises efficiency and improves energy resolution of the analysis. A principal step for the WSP application is building up the suitable response operator. Problems are put in an appearance when suitable standard calibration sources are unavailable. It may be occurred in the case of large volume samples and/or in the analysis of high energy range. Combined experimental and mathematical calibration may be a suitable solution. Many different detectors have been used to register the gamma ray and its energy. HPGe detectors produce the highest resolution commonly available today. Therefore they are they the most often used detectors in natural samples activity analysis. Scintillation detectors analysed using PNA method could be also used in simple cases, but for complicated spectra are practically inapplicable. WSP approach improves resolution of scintillation detectors and expands their applicability. WSP method allowed significant improvement of the energetic resolution and separation of "1"3"7Cs 661 keV peak from "2"1"4Bi 609 keV peak. At the other hand the statistical fluctuations in the lower part of the spectrum highlighted by background subtraction causes that this part is still not reliably analyzable. (authors)

  20. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission.

  1. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission

  2. Investigation of voltage swell mitigation using STATCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N A Abdul; Jaafar, S; Hussain, I S

    2013-01-01

    STATCOM is one of the best applications of a self commutated FACTS device to control power quality problems in the distribution system. This project proposed a STATCOM model with voltage control mechanism. DQ transformation was implemented in the controller system to achieve better estimation. Then, the model was used to investigate and analyse voltage swell problem in distribution system. The simulation results show that voltage swell could contaminate distribution network with unwanted harmonic frequencies. Negative sequence frequencies give harmful effects to the network. System connected with proposed STATCOM model illustrates that it could mitigate this problems efficiently.

  3. Consideration of the environmental effects on fatigue behavior of austenitic components. Calculation methods and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichter, Johannes; Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    During the last years environmental effects on the fatigue behavior of nuclear power plant components has worldwide been discussed controversial with respect to the transferability of laboratory data on real components. A publication from Argonne National Laboratory on experimental results concerning environmental effects (air and LWR coolant) on fatigue of austenitic steels included a proposal on calculation methods concerning the lifetime reduction due to environmental effects. This calculation method, i.e. multiplication of the usage factor by a F(en), has been included into the ASME Code, Section III, Division I, as Code Case N-792 (fatigue evaluations including environmental effects). The presented contribution evaluates the practical application of this calculation procedure and demonstrates the determination of the usage factor of an austenitic component under environmental exposure.

  4. Bases for an environmental liability management system: application to a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tostes, Marcelo Mallat

    1999-03-01

    This thesis aims the establishment of conceptual bases for the development of Environmental Liability Management System - instruments designed to provide financial and managerial coverage to financial liabilities arising from activities that impact the environment. The document analyses the theories that link the evolution of economic thought and environment, as a means of establish the necessary framework for the development of up-to-date environmental policy instruments. From these concepts and from the analysis of environmental liability system being implemented in several countries, the bases for environmental liability systems development are drawn. Finally, a study is carried out on the application of these bases for the development of an environmental liability management system for a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  5. The application of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction to the characterization of environmental assessment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censullo, A.C.; Briden, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the results of tests on environmental assessment samples are reported on. The utility of the J.W. Criss fundamental parameters computer program is evaluated for samples in which only one standard per element was used and where the standard matrix did not strictly resemble the unknown matrix. The environmental significance of a sample is dependent not only on its elemental composition, but also on the species or phases which the elements comprise. X-ray powder diffraction may be used to advantage for speciation. Multi-phase environmental assessment samples are amenable to XRD interpretation. Some results of the application of the Joint Committee on Power Diffraction Standards computer interpretatin of typical environmental samples are discussed. They were shown to contribute to the specification of the complex samples that are encountered in environmental assessments

  6. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  8. Speciation analysis of 129I and its applications in environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    129I, a long-lived radionuclide, is important in view of geological repository of nuclear waste, and environmental tracing applications related to diverse natural processes of iodine. The environmental behaviors and bioavailability of 129I are highly related to its species. A number of methods have...... been reported for speciation analysis of 129I in a variety of environmental samples. These methods have been applied in many researches, including conversion processes of iodine species in marine and terrestrial systems, migration and retention of iodine in soil and sediment, geochemical cycling...

  9. Geo-environmental applications for permeable sand-shredded tyre mixtures; Applications geoenvironnementales de melanges sable-pneu permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbaa, A.A. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering; Cogswell, C.A. [Formely Cambridge University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, A.M.B. [Kings College London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents details and results of recent work conducted on the geo-environmental applications of permeable sand-tyre mixtures. This work is part of an extensive research programme initiated by the first author on the use of waste tyre in various geotechnical and geo-environmental applications. The paper considers sand-tyre in mixed and layered sample configurations as part of active containment or landfill leachate collection system. The paper first investigates the level of leached copper and zinc from the tyre and its capacity to absorb paraffin. It then looks at the in-situ mixing of tyre with soil using a laboratory-scale auger. The work produced encouraging results and showed that tyre is a suitable waste material for use in the above applications. (authors)

  10. THE APPLICATION OF THE METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AT RISK (EVaR IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  11. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  12. Solution-derived photocatalytic films for environmental cleaning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štangar, U Lavrencic; Kete, M; Šuligoj, A; Tasbihi, M

    2012-01-01

    When photocatalytic water treatment is concerned, suspended catalyst in the aqueous phase is usually more efficient than immobilized on an inert support, but in the former case an undesirable separation/recycling step is needed. We have therefore concentrated on the preparation of immobilized catalysts in the form of films on glass and aluminium supports. The low-temperature sol-gel processing route to obtain transparent thin TiO 2 /SiO 2 films for self-cleaning purposes and thicker TiO 2 /SiO 2 coatings for efficient removal of pollutants in water and air are presented. The synthesis is based on a production of a nanocrystalline titania sol with a silica binder that after deposition does not require thermal treatment at high temperatures. Depending on the target application, some specific synthesis parameters and photocatalytic activity testing conditions are illustrated. For water-cleaning coatings fast kinetics is required, which was achieved by addition of a highly active titania powder into the sol. The same preparation procedure was used to prepare efficient air-cleaning coatings. On the other hand, self-cleaning films were thinner and transparent to keep the original appearance of the substrate and they solidified at ambient conditions. Advanced methodologies to evaluate photocatalytic activity of the films were applied.

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF MICROALGAE IN POWER INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmutdin M. Abdulagatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of the study is to show the possibility and efficiency of large-scale industrial production of microalgae in the Republic of Dagestan for the development of agriculture (feed for animals and poultry and other technological applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries for the production of algalin flour (eco bread, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6 physiologically necessary for humans, biologically active substances (astaxanthin, phycocyanin, new-generation antibiotics, biofuels and other high added value biotechnological products. The problems of using microalgae for bioremediation of the environment, in particular, purification of geothermal waters from phenols before discharging into the sewage system are considered. Methods. Microalgae are grown in closed and open type plants. Valuable algae components can be extracted using supercritical fluid technology of continuous action. Results. We give a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of using microalgae as a biological raw material in comparison with traditionally used oilseeds. Conclusion. For Dagestan, located on the shore of the Caspian Sea, with its warm climate and an abundance of solar and geothermal energy, the development of this technology is a task of great economic importance. The advantages of microalgae technologies are the basis for the creation of large-scale production of microalgae in southern Russia. Biotechnology in Dagestan can become not only profitable, but also a high-tech and innovative industry.

  14. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Marques, A.P.; Reis, M.A.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Barros, L.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors - natives and transplants - are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal - the Setubal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon - where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10x15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5x2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50x50 km, using a 10x10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively

  15. Contributions for the application of a phoswich detector on the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalaqua Junior, L.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of a phoswich detector and the parameters of the pulse shape descrimination system are evaluated aiming the application on environmental analysis by direct low level gamma ray spectrometry. The calibration curves and adjustments for the pulse discrimination, detector resolution and homogeneity measurements are presented. Background reduction and the 210 Pb detection eficiency on evaporated sources are evaluated. The results obtained demonstrates the application potentiality on the analysis of environmental samples due to a high detection eficiency and good geometry conditions to the measurements. (author) [pt

  16. Microbial Electrochemistry and its Application to Energy and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jason Thomas

    Microbial electrochemistry forms the basis of a wide range of topics from microbial fuel cells to fermentation of carbon food sources. The ability to harness microbial electron transfer processes can lead to a greener and cleaner future. This study focuses on microbial electron transfer for liquid fuel production, novel electrode materials, subsurface environments and removal of unwanted byproducts. In the first chapter, exocellular electron transfer through direct contact utilizing passive electrodes for the enhancement of bio-fuel production was tested. Through the application of microbial growth in a 2-cell apparatus on an electrode surface ethanol production was enhanced by 22.7% over traditional fermentation. Ethanol production efficiencies of close to 95% were achieved in a fraction of the time required by traditional fermentation. Also, in this chapter, the effect of exogenous electron shuttles, electrode material selection and resistance was investigated. Power generation was observed using the 2-cell passive electrode system. An encapsulation method, which would also utilize exocellular transfer of electrons through direct contact, was hypothesized for the suspension of viable cells in a conductive polymer substrate. This conductive polymer substrate could have applications in bio-fuel production. Carbon black was added to a polymer solution to test electrospun polymer conductivity and cell viability. Polymer morphology and cell viability were imaged using electron and optical microscopy. Through proper encapsulation, higher fuel production efficiencies would be achievable. Electron transfer through endogenous exocellular protein shuttles was observed in this study. Secretion of a soluble redox active exocellular protein by Clostridium sp. have been shown utilizing a 2-cell apparatus. Cyclic voltammetry and gel electrophoresis were used to show the presence of the protein. The exocellular protein is capable of reducing ferrous iron in a membrane separated

  17. Development of mobile electron beam plant for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kang, Wongu; Choi, Jang Seung; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Due to the necessity of pilot scale test facility for continuous treatment of wastewater and gases on site, a mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. This mobile electron beam irradiation system is designed for the individual field application with self-shielded structure of steel plate and lead block which will satisfy the required safety figures of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Shielding of a mobile electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA has been designed and examined by Monte Carlo technique. Based on a 3-D model of electron accelerator shielding which is designed with steel and lead shield, radiation leakage was examined using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) Code. Simulations with two different versions (version 4c2 and version 5) of MCNP code showed agreements within statistical uncertainties, and the highest leakage expected is 5.5061×10 −01 (1±0.0454) μSv/h, which is far below the tolerable radiation dose limit for occupational workers. This unit could treat up to 500 m 3 of liquid waste per day at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 of gases per hour at 15 kGy. - Highlights: • A mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. • It is designed for treatment of wastewater and flue gas on site. • Shielding of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA accelerator has done by a Monte Carlo technique. • It can treat up to 500 m 3 /d of liquid waste at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 /h of gas at 15 kGy.

  18. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  19. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  20. Synthesis of Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juan; Wang, Ruiyu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites (FGC) are successfully synthesized by forming a complex Fe 3+ -GO and further reducing it with NaBH4 as one step at ambient condition. The morphology and structure studies of FGC indicate that Fe nanoparticles with size of about 5 nm are finely dispersed on graphene sheets. Decolorization experiments show that the FGC hybrids display better removal capacities to decolorize methyl blue (MB), a model dye in the dyeing and printing industry, compared with bare Fe particles. On the other hand, FGC hybrids exhibit superparamagnetic properties and can be separated from MB solution leaving a colorless solution by using a magnet. All of these suggest FGC an excellent candidate for dye removal. Highlights: ► Graphene oxide (GO) and Fe 3+ are used as precursors. ► By adding NaBH 4 , Fe 3+ and GO are in situ reduced to Fe and graphene, respectively, thus forming FGC hybrids. ► Fe nanoparticles with size of about 5 nm are finely dispersed on graphene sheets. ► FGC hybrids have better decolorization capacities than bare Fe nanoparticles. - Abstract: Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites (FGC) are successfully synthesized by using graphene oxide (GO) as a supporting matrix. GO is first treated with Fe 3+ to form Fe 3+ -GO complexes. Then, by adding NaBH 4 solution, Fe 3+ and GO are simultaneously reduced in situ to Fe and graphene respectively, forming FGC hybrid composites. The structures, properties and applications of the hybrids thus obtained are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetization measurements. The hybrids are also evaluated for decolorization of methyl blue solution, a model dye in wastewater of dyeing industry. Compared with bare Fe particles, the high removal capacities of FGC are due to the