WorldWideScience

Sample records for voltage electroluminescent devices

  1. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  2. Fabrication of Green Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德青; 黄春辉; 奎热西; 刘凤琴

    2002-01-01

    A gadolinium ternary complex, tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone) (2, 2′-dipyridyl) gadolinium Gd(PMIP)3(Bipy) was synthesized and used as a light emitting material in the organic electroluminescent devices. The devices exhibited the green electroluminescent (EL) emission peaking at 513 nm, originating from the Gd(PMIP)3(Bipy). By improving the configuration, the device with a structure of ITO/poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) (40 nm)/Gd(PMIP)3(Bipy) (40 nm)/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (ALQ) (40 nm)/Mg∶Ag(200 nm)/Ag(100 nm) showed higher performance and a maximum luminance of 340 cd*m-2 at 18 V.

  3. A New Kind of Blue Hybrid Electroluminescent Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Li, Zhuan; Liu, Chunmei

    2016-04-01

    Bright blue Electroluminescence come from a ITO/BBOT doped silica (6 x 10(-3) M) made by a sol-gel method/Al driven by AC with 500 Hz at different voltages and Gaussian analysis under 55 V showed that blue emission coincidenced with typical triple emission from BBOT. This kind of device take advantage of organics (BBOT) and inorganics (silica). Electroluminescence from a single-layered sandwiched device consisting of blue fluorescent dye 2,5-bis (5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBOT) doped silica made by sol-gel method was investigated. A number of concentrations of hybrid devices were prepared and the maxium concentration was 6 x 10(-3) M. Blue electroluminescent (EL) always occurred above a threshold field 8.57 x 10(5) V/cm (30 V) at alternating voltage at 500 HZ. The luminance of the devices increased with the concentration of doped BBOT, but electroluminescence characteristics were different from a single molecule's photoluminescence properties of triple peaks. When analyzing in detail direct-current electroluminescence devices of pure BBOT, a single peak centered at 2.82 eV appeared with the driven voltage increase, which is similar to the hybrid devices. Comparing Gaussian decomposition date between two kinds of devices, the triple peak characteristic of BBOT was consistent. It is inferred that BBOT contributed EL of the hybrid devices mainly and silica may account for a very small part. Meanwhile the thermal stability of matrix silica was measured by Thermal Gravity-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). There is 12 percent weight loss from room temperature to 1000 °C and silica has about 95% transmittance. So the matric silica played an important role in thermal stability and optical stability for BBOT. In addition, this kind of blue electroluminescence device can take advantages of organic materials BBOT and inorganic materials silica. This is a promising way to enrich EL devices, especially enriching inorganic EL color at a low cost.

  4. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  5. Preparation of CdSe nanocrystals in organic system and electroluminescence characteristics of the devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ai-wei; TENG Feng; GAO Yin-hao; LI Dan; LIANG Chun-jun; WANG Yong-sheng

    2006-01-01

    CdSe nanocrystals were prepared by a colloidal chemical approach using CdO and Se powder as precursors in an organic system of TOPO/TOP,and a multilayered electroluminescence device was fabricated with CdSe as emitting layer.The results show that the photoluminescence spectra of the CdSe nanocrystals almost cover the whole visible region and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is appropriately 200 nm.The electroluminescence spectrum of the multilayered device at different voltages was investigated.The electroluminescence intensity is enhanced with increasing operating voltage,and the CIE coordinates of the device change from (0.34,0.37) at 6 V to (0.44,0.46)at 20 V as the operating voltage increases,which indicates that the colors of the device could be tuned by the operating voltage.

  6. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewidy, Dina; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained. - Highlights: • Manufacturing of MEH-PPV and ZnO electroluminescent device has been reported. • Spin coating and chemical bath deposition have been used for preparation of ZnO. • SEM images and X-ray diffraction of ZnO have been presented. • Current-voltage curves and electroluminescent measurements have been reported.

  7. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-03-01

    Stretchable electroluminescent (EL) devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are reviewed. Finally, we

  8. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiangxin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electroluminescent (EL devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are

  9. Synthesis and characterization of thin film electroluminescent devices all-prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, E.B. [Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Calle Prolongación San Isidro Núm. 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Iztapalapa 09790, D. F., México (Mexico); Bizarro, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, Coyoacán 04510, Distrito Federal, México (Mexico); Alonso, J.C., E-mail: alonso@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, Coyoacán 04510, Distrito Federal, México (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    Alternating current thin film electroluminescent devices have been fabricated using aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) as transparent conducting layer, aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as insulating layers, and manganese-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Mn) as electroluminescent layer. All these films were deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at the same temperature (450°) on glass substrates, forming a standard MISIM (metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal) configuration. The electroluminescence of MISIM devices with a total thickness of ∼ 1330 nm was investigated by applying a sinusoidal voltage with a frequency of 10 kHz. The devices showed orange-emission spectra centered at approximately 570 nm, characteristic of {sup 4}T{sub 1} → {sup 6}A{sub 1} radiative transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ions in the ZnS host, with a sharp intensity increase upon increasing the root mean square voltage above a threshold of 25 V and a rapid saturation for voltages higher than 38 V. The electroluminescent emission of these MISIM structures can be observed with the naked eye under ambient illumination. - Highlights: • Thin film electroluminescent devices were fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 450 °C. • The electroluminescent devices were fabricated on glass substrates. • ZnO:Al was used as transparent conductive layer. • ZnS:Mn and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used as phosphor and insulating layers, respectively. • The electroluminescent devices have a low threshold operation voltage.

  10. A New Conducting Polymer Electrode for Organic Electroluminescence Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Shu; PENG Jing-Cui

    2008-01-01

    @@ Conducting polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is studied for the high performance electrode of organic electroluminescence devices. A method to prepare the electrode consisting of a SiC thin film and PDMS is investigated. By using ultra thin SiC films with different thicknesses, the organic electroluminescenee devices are obtained in an ultra vacuum system with the model device PDMS/SiC/PPV/Alq3, where PPV is poly para-phenylene vinylene and Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium. The capacitance-voltage (C-V), capacitance-frequency (C-F), current-voltage (I- V), radiation intensity-voltage (R- V) and luminance efficiency-voltage (E-V) measurements are systematically studied to investigate the conductivity, Fermi align-ment and devices properties in organic semiconductors. Scanning Kelvin probe measurement shows that the work function of PDMS/SiC anode with a 2.5-nm SiC over layer can be increased by as much as 0.28eV, compared to the conventional ITO anode. The result is attributed to the charge transfer effect and ohmic contacts at the interface.

  11. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  12. Lowering the Operational Voltage of Single-Layer Polymer Electroluminescent Devices by Using CuOx Modifying Indium-Tin Oxide Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin-ran; ZHAO Xin-wen; HU Wen-ping

    2007-01-01

    In this study it is demonstrated that oxygen-plasma-generated CuOx can enhance the holes injection from ITO anode into polymer layer in single-layer polymer EL devices. The possible reason for this enhancement is because the ITO anode modified with CuOx possesses much higher work function than pure ITO anode, which reduces the barrier for hole-injection and further lowers the operational voltage of the polymer EL devices. The work function shift is probable due to the oxygen-plasma-generated CuOx can store more releasable oxygen, and the releasable oxygen in turn changes the oxygen concentration just near ITO surface, which will shift the work function of ITO anode.

  13. Electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Henisch, H K

    1962-01-01

    Electroluminescence deals with the multiplicity of forms related to electroluminescence phenomena. The book reviews some basic observations of electroluminescence, the Gudden-Pohl and Dechene effects, the electroluminescence phenomena in zinc sulfide phosphors, in silicon carbide, and in compounds composed of elements in groups III and V of the Periodic Table (such as gallium phosphide). The text also explains polarization of free charge carriers, the outline of junction breakdown theory, carrier recombination, and phosphor suspensions. The book describes the growth of zinc sulfide crystals (f

  14. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewidy, Dina.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-01

    Hybird organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained.

  15. High Contrast Electroluminescent Numeric Readout Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    approach was available only in separate chips one having npn and the other pnp devices. The first phase of the DMOS transistor development should be...proposed by the vendor. Further samples also failed to meet requirements and, therefore, a discrete transistor driver array was used in prototype...completed by September, high-voltage transistor arrays will be available by December, 1979. 3.2.1 Test Chip Layout Figure 5 shows the layout of the test

  16. A multilayer organic electroluminescent device using an organic dye salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueyuan; Gu, Yongdi; Zhang, Jiayu; Cui, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    Organic electroluminescent devices have received considerable attention due to their application in flat-panel displays. To achieve full-color displays, it is necessary to obtain organic layers emitting red, green, and blue light, but it is still a challenge to obtain efficient and stable organic layer emitting red light so far. Recently, we found that an organic salt, trans-4-[p-[N-ethyl-N-(hydroxyethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT), exhibits efficient red-light emission. In this paper, we report a multilayer electrolumicescent device incorporating a hole-transport layer, an ASPT layer, and an electron-transport layer. The dependence of the carrier transport and the luminescence on the device structure is investigated in detail. Compared to the monolayer device, the balance between hole and electron injections is significantly improved for the multilayer device, and thus the electroluminescent efficiency and intensity are enhanced.

  17. Topographic analysis of silicon nanoparticles-based electroluminescent devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Sanchez, A., E-mail: amorales@inaoep.mx [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Barreto, J.; Dominguez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Aceves, M.; Leyva, K.M. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Luna-Lopez, J.A.; Carrillo, J. [CIDS-BUAP, Apdo. 1651, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Pedraza, J. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Electroluminescent properties of silicon nanoparticles embedded in MOS devices have been studied. Silicon rich oxide (SRO) films with 4 at.% of silicon excess were used as active layers. Intense and stable light emission is observed with the naked eye as shining spots at the surface of devices. AFM measurements on these devices exhibit a remarkably granular surface where the EL spots are observed. The EL measurements show a broad visible spectrum with various peaks between 420 and 870 nm. These EL spots are related with charge injection through conductive paths created by adjacent Si-nps within the SRO.

  18. Electroluminescent device having improved light output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyan; Yuan-Sheng (Webster, NY); Preuss, Donald R. (Rochester, NY); Farruggia, Giuseppe (Webster, NY); Kesel, Raymond A. (Avon, NY); Cushman, Thomas R. (Rochester, NY)

    2011-03-22

    An OLED device including a transparent substrate having a first surface and a second surface, a transparent electrode layer disposed over the first surface of the substrate, a short reduction layer disposed over the transparent electrode layer, an organic light-emitting element disposed over the short reduction layer and including at least one light-emitting layer and a charge injection layer disposed over the light emitting layer, a reflective electrode layer disposed over the charge injection layer and a light extraction enhancement structure disposed over the first or second surface of the substrate; wherein the short reduction layer is a transparent film having a through-thickness resistivity of 10.sup.-9 to 10.sup.2 ohm-cm.sup.2; wherein the reflective electrode layer includes Ag or Ag alloy containing more than 80% of Ag; and the total device size is larger than 10 times the substrate thickness.

  19. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  20. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.

  1. Visible and near-infrared electroluminescence from TiO2/p+-Si heterostructured device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on visible and near-infrared (NIR electroluminescence (EL from the device based on the TiO2/p+-Si heterostructure, in which the TiO2 film is composed of anatase and rutile phases. As the device is applied with sufficiently high forward bias with the positive voltage connecting to p+-Si, the visible EL peaking at ∼600 nm along with the NIR EL centered at ∼810 nm occur simultaneously. It is proposed that the oxygen vacancies in the anatase TiO2 and Ti3+ defect states in the rutile TiO2 are the responsible centers for the visible and NIR EL, respectively.

  2. Emission of white light from 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole in polymer electroluminescent devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.M. [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: f10914@ntut.edu.tw; Tzeng, Y.J. [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, S.Y. [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, K.Y. [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, K.L. [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2005-04-22

    Single-layer polymer devices that emit bright light from dye dispersed in the polymer matrix are fabricated. The active layer consists only of one polymer layer sandwiched between two electrodes-indium tin oxide and Mg:Ag. 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT), a UV absorbent, is synthesized and exhibits bright blue-green fluorescence. Bright white emission is observed when the concentration of the dye in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) polymer matrix is adjusted appropriately. The single-layered polymer blended electroluminescent (EL) device (ITO/polymer/Mg/Ag) has a relatively low driving voltage of 8 V. The EL spectrum includes three emission peaks at 420, 530 and 600 nm, representing deep blue, green and red light, respectively. The chromaticity coordinates, as specified by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage are (0.34, 0.36)

  3. Properties of ZnS:Cu,Cl Thick Film Electroluminescent Devices by Screen Printing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. S.; Yoo, S. H.; Chang, H. J. [Dankook University, Chonan (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    The ZnS:Cu,Cl thick film electroluminescent devices with the stacking type(separated with phosphors and insulator layers) and the composite type (mixed with phosphor and insulator materials) emission layers were fabricated on ITO/glass substrates by the screen printing methods. The optical and electrical properties were investigated as functions of applied voltages and frequencies. In the stacking type, the luminance was about 58 cd/m{sup 2} at the applied voltage of 400Hz, 200V and increased to 420 cd/m{sup 2} with increasing the frequency to 30Hz. For the composite type devices, the threshold voltage was 45V and the maximum luminance was 670 cd/m{sup 2} at the driving condition of 200V, 30Hz. The value of luminance of the composite type device showed 1.5 times higher than that of stacking type device. The main emission peak was 512 nm of bluish-green color at 1 Hz frequency below and shifted to 452 nm in the driving frequency over 5Hz showing the blue emission color. There were no distinct differences of the main emission peaks and color coordinate for both samples. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Blue electroluminescence of ZnSe thin film in an organic-inorganic heterostructures device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Wenge [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China) and Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS, Changchun 130021 (China) and Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110034 (China)]. E-mail: yu_wenge@hotmail.com; Xu Zheng [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Teng, Feng [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang Shengyi [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Hou Yanbing [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qian Lei [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu Chong [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Quan Sanyu [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu Xurong [Institute of Optoelectronics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2005-05-02

    Blue light emission of ZnSe thin film from the ZnSe/poly-(N-vinyl-carbazole) (PVK) heterostructures was obtained. The threshold voltage is about 10 V and the brightness of 12 cd/m{sup 2} was obtained at 17 V. From the electroluminescence (EL), the photoluminescence (PL), the transient electroluminescence and the dependence of EL intensity on the applied voltage and current, we attribute the EL of ZnSe to carrier injection and recombination. This new phenomenon not only opens a new mechanism of II-IV compounds in low voltage injection EL but also provides a new way of obtaining blue emission.

  5. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  6. Effect of Electric Field and Polarity on Light Emission in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwaki, Jun-ichi; Kozawaguchi, Haruki; Tsujiyama, Bunjiro

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the emission intensities and spectra with applied electric fields in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structure thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices have been investigated using devices with stacked emitting layer structures, such as ITO/ZnS: Mn/ZnS: Tb/Sm2O3/Al. In MIS-TFEL devices, the emission distribution in the direction of the ZnS film thickness is nonhomogeneous. In particular, the emission intensity in the region near the ZnS-insulator interface increases with increasing applied voltage more than in the other region in the ZnS layer, when electrons exciting emission centers are accelerated from the insulator side. On the other hand, the emission is homogeneous at the opposite polarity. It is found that the emission color for stacked emitting layer MIS-TFEL devices can be modulated by changing the applied voltage.

  7. Energy and Charge Transfer from Guest to Host in Doped Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏建; 彭景翠; 许雪梅; 瞿述; 罗小华; 赵楚军

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence properties of doped organic electroluminescent devices are explained by means off Hamiltonian model. The results show that there is a corresponding relation between the amount of transferred charge and the change of the energy originating from charge transfer, and the relation can be influenced by dopant concentration.As the amount of transferred charge increases, the total energy decreases and the luminescence intensity increases.Therefore, we deduce that the energy transfer from guest to host may be derived from the charge transfer. For a given organic electroluminescent device, the maximum value of the conductivity can be observed in a specific dopant concentration. The calculated results show that the greater the transferred charges, the higher the conductivities in doped organic electroluminescent devices. The results agree basically with experimental results.

  8. Porous Silicon and Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Junctions: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application to Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Severiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the obtaining of electroluminescent devices (ELD from porous silicon (PS and indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In junctions. PS presented photoluminescence (PL in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ZnO:In thin film was obtained by dip coating technique. SEM images and IR measurements showed the incorporation of the ZnO:In in the PS structure. Once obtained, the device was optically and electrically characterized. The ELD showed emission in the visible (450–850 nm and infrared region (900–1200 nm where it was electrically polarized. The visible emission was detected as luminescent spots on the surface. Electrical characterization was carried out by current-voltage (I-V curves. The I-V curves showed rectifying behavior. It was related to the quenching of the EL with the process that takes place in the PS when it was immersed in the precursor solution of the ZnO:In.

  9. The dependences of electroluminescent characteristics of ZnS:Mn thin films upon their device parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shosaku; Mita, Juro; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    1981-11-01

    The dependences of brightness, emission efficiency η, average electric field EA, conduction current JA, and emission lifetime τ upon the device parameters such as film thickness, substrate temperature during evaporation, and Mn concentration have been systematically investigated in ZnS:Mn thin-film electroluminescent devices. The value of η increases rapidly with film thicknesses below 3000 Å but EA decreases slowly. These results can be explained by the increase of the crystallinity of the ZnS:Mn films. The value of η increases with the Mn concentration and reaches its maximum at about 0.45 wt %. At above this Mn concentration, η and τ decrease rapidly, EA increases, and JA decreases slowly. These results may be attributed to a decrease of hot electron energy and/or an increase of the nonradiative transition probability of the excited Mn centers. The brightness-voltage (B-V) hysteresis characteristic is observed in this Mn concentration region. This memory effect is also discussed.

  10. Photovoltaic and Electroluminescence Bifunctional Devices with Starburst Amine and Rare-Earth-Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fu-Shan; LI Wen-Lian; WEI Han-Zhi; LIU Yun-Qi; KIM Jin-Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    We fabricate the organic photovoltaic (P V) devices, in which 4,4',4"-tris-(2-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) and rare earth (RE) (dibenzoylmethanato)3(bathohenanthroline) (RE(DBM)3bath) (RE = Nd or Pr) are used as electron donor and acceptor, and investigate their PV properties. The PV diode fabricated in the ptimum processing conditions shows the open-circuit voltage of 1.91 V, short-circuit current of 0.1mA/cm2, fill factor of 0.38, and the overall power conversion efficiency of 1.9% when it is irradiated under UV light (4mW/cm2). The photocurrent density exhibits an increase of 20% at least when a very thin LiF layer is inserted between the RE-complexes and the Al cathode. A strong electroluminescence from the interface is also observed and the maximum luminance of a yellow emission resulted from the exciplex is 580 cd/m2 at 17V bias.

  11. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  12. A Novel Buffer Layer of Alq3 in Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Feng; DENG Zhen-Bo; LIANG Chun-Jun; LIN Peng; ZHANG Meng-Xin; XU Deng-Hui

    2004-01-01

    @@ Inserting the Alq3 layer in the ITO/NPB interface as the buffer layer can improve the organic electroluminescent devices. The current density efficiency and power efficiency of the device with the Alq3 buffer layer rises to 6.5 cd/A and 1.21 m/W at the current density of 120 mA/cm2, respectively. The improvement is mostly attributed to the balance of the hole and the electron injections.

  13. Thickness effects of SiO xN y interlayer inserted between BaTiO 3 insulating layer and ZnS:Mn phosphor layer in thin film electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Hahn, T. S.; Oh, M. H.; Yoon, K. H.

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the effects of a SiO xN y interlayer on a thin film electroluminescent device, inserted between an amorphous BaTiO 3 thin film and a ZnS:Mn phosphor layer. The effects on the thin film electroluminescent device was studied as a function of the thickness of the interlayer. We found that the introduction of the interlayer affected the growth behavior of the phosphor layer. With increasing thickness of the interlayer, the average grain size and the crystallinity of the phosphor layer was improved. The turn-on voltage of the electroluminescent device increased, and the saturation brightness slightly decreased with increasing interlayer thickness. In the case of the TFELD without the interlayer, Poole-Frenkel conduction was observed in the low dc field region, the devices with the interlayer exhibited effective electron tunneling from interface traps. The efficiency of the devices increased with increasing interlayer thickness.

  14. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Li Juan Zo

    2003-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm sup 2 , the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm sup 2 , and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be approx 10 sup - sup 5 cm sup 2 /Vs and approx 10 sup - sup 4 cm sup 2 /Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects...

  15. Hybrid silicon nanocrystal-organic light-emitting devices for infrared electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Anthony, Rebecca; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Holmes, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    We demonstrate hybrid inorganic-organic light-emitting devices with peak electroluminescence (EL) at a wavelength of 868 nm using silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs). An external quantum efficiency of 0.6% is realized in the forward-emitted direction, with emission originating primarily from the SiNCs. Microscopic characterization indicates that complete coverage of the SiNCs on the conjugated polymer hole-transporting layer is required to observe efficient EL.

  16. Ultraviolet electroluminescence properties from devices based on n-ZnO/i-NiO/p-Si light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Chao; Wu, Guoguang; Ma, Yan; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2017-07-01

    We fabricated the Ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED) based on n-ZnO/i-NiO/p-Si heterostructure by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The device exhibited diode-like rectifying characteristics with a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V. The NiO film with high resistance state and [200] preferred orientation acted as an electron blocking layer, which produced a larger ZnO/NiO conduction band offset of 2.93 eV than that of ZnO/Si (0.30 eV). Under forward bias, prominent ultraviolet emissions peaked around 375 nm accompanying with rather weak blue-white emissions peaked around 480 nm were observed at room temperature. Furthermore, the mechanism of the electroluminescence was tentatively discussed in terms of the band diagram of the diode.

  17. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, J.; Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Picollo, F.; Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Olivero, P.

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He+ micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV0, λZPL = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400-500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λZPL = 536.3 nm, λZPL = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  18. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: jacopo.forneris@unito.it [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Roma “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Olivero, P. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He{sup +} micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV{sup 0}, λ{sub ZPL} = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400–500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λ{sub ZPL} = 536.3 nm, λ{sub ZPL} = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  19. Performance enhancement of ZnS:Mn thin film electroluminescent devices by combination of laser and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsogeorgis, Demosthenes C., E-mail: demosthenes.koutsogeorgis@ntu.ac.u [School of Science and Technology, Displays Research Group, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Cranton, Wayne M.; Ranson, Robert M.; Thomas, Clive B. [School of Science and Technology, Displays Research Group, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-26

    The combination of laser and thermal annealing was investigated as a post-deposition process for enhancing the luminescent properties of RF-magnetron sputtered ZnS:Mn thin film electroluminescent devices (TFEL). Laser annealing of the uncoated phosphor layer was performed using KrF excimer 248 nm laser pulses of 20 ns under an argon overpressure of 10 bar to limit laser ablation. Single, double and triple irradiation was applied at 1.4 J/cm{sup 2}. Thermal annealing was performed in vacuum at 500 deg. C and 550 deg. C for 1 h. In this paper we are reporting the brightness-voltage characteristics of devices that have been subjected to all combinations of the two annealing techniques (i.e. laser, thermal, laser + thermal, thermal + laser and finally non-annealed devices). Also, a simple lifetime comparison is made between the best performing device (laser + thermal) and the industrial standard (thermal). The lifetime (time to half brightness) and brightness of the best performing device is found to be more than double compared to the industrial standard.

  20. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysman-Colman, Eli; Ghosh, Sanjay S; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Chowdhury, Mithun; Sharma, Nidhi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-04-13

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λ(EL) = 698-709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics.

  1. Novel Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices with an Asymmetric Structure Based on a Polymer Heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海曙; 姚建铨; 王昕; 王鹏; 谢洪泉

    2002-01-01

    Novel alternating current electroluminescent devices with an asymmetric structure are successfully fabricated by using a hole-type polymer, poly(2,5-bis (dodecyloxy)-phenylenevinylene) (PDDOPV), and an electron-type polymer, poly(phenyl quinoxaline) (PPQ). The performance of the polymer devices with heteto junctions under ac operation is insensitive to the thickness of the two polymer layers, compared to that under dc operation. This new advantage means easy and cheap production facility on a large scale in the near future. Different emission spectra are obtained when our ac devices are operated in an ac mode, forward or reverse bias. The emission spectrum at reverse bias includes two parts: one from PDDOPV and the other from PPQ.

  2. Light emitting devices based on Si nanoclusters: the integration with a photonic crystal and electroluminescence properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present the properties and potentialities of light emitting devices based on amorphous Si nanoclusters. Amorphous nanostructures may constitute an interesting alternative to Si nanocrystals for the monolithic integration of optical and electrical functions in Si technology. In fact, they exhibit an intense room temperature electroluminescence (EL). The EL properties of these devices have been studied as a function of current and of temperature. Moreover, to improve the extraction efficiency of the light, we have integrated the emitting system with a 2D photonic crystal structure opportunely fabricated by using conventional optical lithography to reduce the total internal reflection of the emitted light. The extraction efficiency in such devices increases by a factor of 4 at a resonance wavelength.

  3. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  4. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  5. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Zhang; Kang-Kang Meng; Mei-Yin Yang; Edmonds, K. W.; Hao Zhang; Kai-Ming Cai; Yu Sheng; Nan Zhang; Yang Ji; Jian-Hua Zhao; Hou-Zhi Zheng; Kai-You Wang

    2015-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the pie...

  6. High-performance alternating current field-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescent devices employing a down-conversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yingdong; Chen, Yonghua; Smith, Gregory M. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Sun, Hengda; Yang, Dezhi [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Nie, Wanyi; Li, Yuan; Huang, Wenxiao [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a high-performance alternating current (AC) filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated by combining a fluorophor Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO)-based blue device with a yellow down-conversion layer (YAG:Ce). A maximum luminance of this down-conversion FIPEL device achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, which is 1.41 times higher than the device without the down-conversion layer. A maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the down-conversion WFIPEL device reach 19.7 cd A{sup −1} at 3050 cd m{sup −2} and 5.37 lm W{sup −1} at 2310 cd m{sup −2} respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. Moreover, Commison Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.28, 0.30) is obtained by adjusting the thickness of the down-conversion layer to 30 μm and it is kept stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range. We believe that this AC-driven, down-conversion, WFIPEL device may offer an easy way towards future flat and flexible lighting sources. - Highlights: • A high-performance AC filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated. • A maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, 19.7 cd A{sup −1}, and 5.37 lm W{sup −1}, respectively. • The power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. • The EL spectrum kept very stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range.

  7. Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Studies on Tb-Doped Silicon Rich Oxide Materials and Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of Tb-doped silicon rich oxide (SRO) films prepared by DC-sputtering and post-annealing processes were studied. The silicon richness of the SRO film could be controlled by varying the sputtering power and oxygen concentration in the sputtering chamber. PL emission from the as-deposited sample was found to be composed of Tb3+ intra 4f transition-related emission and the silicon nano particle-related broad bandwidth emission. Thermal annealing could significantly improve the material properties as well as the PL signals. PL properties depended strongly upon the annealing scheme and silicon richness. Annealing at high temperatures (900~1050 ℃) enhanced Tb-related emission and suppressed the silicon nano particle-related emission. For samples with different silicon richness, annealing at 950 ℃ was found to produce higher PL signals than at other temperatures. It was attributed more to lifetime quenching than to concentration quenching. Electroluminescent (EL) devices with a capacitor structure were fabricated, the optimized process condition for the EL device was found to be different from that of PL emission. Among the annealing schemes that were used, wet oxidation was found to improve device performance the most, whereas, dry oxidation was found to improve material property the most. Wet oxidation allowed the breakdown electrical field to increase significantly and to reach above 10 mV·cm-1. The EL spectra showed a typical Tb3+ emission, agreeing well with the PL spectra. The I-V measurements indicated that for 100 nm thick film, the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling started at an electrical field of around 6 mV·cm-1 and the light emission became detectable at a current density of around 10-4 A·cm-2 and higher. Strong electroluminescence light emission was detected when the electrical field was close to 10 mV·cm-1.

  8. Microstructure and electroluminescent performance of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide doped with manganese films for integration in thin film electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Anna Wanda

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) doped with manganese (Mn), ZnS:Mn, is widely recognized as the brightest and most effective electroluminescent (EL) phosphor used in current thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices. ZnS acts as a host lattice for the luminescent activator, Mn, leading to a highly efficient yellow-orange EL emission, and resulting in a wide array of applications in monochrome, multi-color and full color displays. Although this wide band dap (3.7 eV) material can be prepared by several deposition techniques, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most promising for TFEL applications in terms of viable deposition rates, high thickness and composition uniformity, and excellent yield over large area panels. This study describes the development and optimization of a CVD ZnS:Mn process using diethylzinc [(C2H5)2Zn, DEZ], di-pi-cyclopentadienylmanganese [(C5H5)2Mn, CPMn], and hydrogen sulfide [H2S] as the chemical sources for, respectively, Zn, Mn, and S. The effects of key deposition parameters on resulting Film microstructure and performance are discussed, primarily in the context of identifying an optimized process window for best electroluminescence behavior. In particular, substrate temperature was observed to play a key role in the formation of high quality crystalline ZnS:Mn films leading to improved brightness and EL efficiency. Further investigations of the influence of temperature treatment on the structural characteristics and EL performance of the CVD ZnS:Mn film were carried out. In this study, the influence of post-deposition annealing both in-situ and ex-situ annealing processes, on chemical, structural, and electroluminescent characteristics of the phosphor layer are described. The material properties of the employed dielectric are among the key factors determining the performance, stability and reliability of the TFEL display and therefore, the choice of dielectric material for use in ACTFEL displays is crucial. In addition, the luminous

  9. Voltage controlled spintronics device for logic applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; You, C.-Y.

    1999-09-03

    We consider logic device concepts based on our previously proposed spintronics device element whose magnetization orientation is controlled by application of a bias voltage instead of a magnetic field. The basic building block is the voltage-controlled rotation (VCR) element that consists of a four-layer structure--two ferromagnetic layers separated by both nanometer-thick insulator and metallic spacer layers. The interlayer exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers oscillates as a function of applied voltage. We illustrate transistor-like concepts and re-programmable logic gates based on VCR elements.

  10. Spray deposition of organic electroluminescent coatings for application in flexible light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic electroluminescent (EL films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinatoaluminum (Alq3 mixed with polystyrene (PS binder were produced by spray deposition. The influence of the substrate temperature on the layer’s morphology and uniformity was investigated. The deposition conditions were optimized and simple flexible light-emitting devices consisting of indium-tin oxide/Alq3:PS/aluminum were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET foil to demonstrate the advantages of the sprayed organic coatings. Same structure was produced by thermal evaporation of Alq3 film as a reference. The influence of the deposition method on the film roughness and contact resistance at the electrode interfaces for both types of structures was estimated. The results were related to the devices’ efficiency. It was found that the samples with sprayed films turn on at 4 V, which is 2 V lower in comparison to the device with thermal evaporated Alq3. The current through the sprayed device is six times higher as well (17 mA vs. 2.8 mA at 6.5 V, which can be ascribed to the lower contact resistance at the EL film/electrode interfaces. This is due to the lower surface roughness of the pulverized layers.

  11. Electroluminescence from ZnO/Si heterojunctions fabricated by PLD with bias voltage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seno, Yuuki; Konno, Daisuke; Komiyama, Takao; Chonan, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Takashi [Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural Univ. Yuri-honjo, Akita 015-0055 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Electroluminescence (EL) for ZnO films has been investigated by fabricating n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions and changing the VI/II (O/Zn) ratio of the films. In the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, both the near band edge (NBE) emission and the defect-related emission were observed, while in the EL spectra only defect-related emission was observed. The EL spectra were divided into three components: green (550 nm), yellow (618 nm) and red (700 nm) bands; and their intensities were compared. As the VI/II (O/Zn) ratio was increased, the red band emission intensity decreased and the green band emission intensity increased. This implies that the oxygen and the zinc vacancies are related to the red and the green band emissions, respectively. Electron transitions from the conduction band minimum (Ec) to the deep energy levels of these vacancies are suggested to cause the red and the green luminescences while the energy levels of the Zn interstitials are close to the Ec in the band gap and no NBE emission is observed.

  12. Organic electroluminescent materials and devices emitting in UV and NIR regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, A. P.; Bochkarev, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Literature data on organic materials capable of generating electroluminescence in the UV (200–400 nm) and near-IR (700–2000 nm) spectral ranges are summarized and systematized. Organic, organometallic and coordination compounds are considered. Comparative analysis of materials is performed, and the composition and operating characteristics of light-emitting diodes based on them and possible mechanisms of electroluminescence generation are discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  13. Series resistance mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells by voltage dependent electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daume, Felix; Puttnins, Stefan [Solarion AG, Ostende 5, 04288 Leipzig (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Scheit, Christian; Rahm, Andreas [Solarion AG, Ostende 5, 04288 Leipzig (Germany); Grundmann, Marius [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film solar cells deposited on flexible polyimide foil promising innovative applications and a fabrication in continuous roll-to-roll processes currently reach efficiencies up to 17.6 %. The optimization of the solar cell efficiency requires the reduction of inherent losses in the cell. In order to achieve this goal preferably spatially resolved access to parameters characterizing ohmic losses like series and shunt resistances are indispensable. We apply an interpretation method for electroluminescence (EL) images taken at different voltages which is known for solar cells made of crystalline silicon from literature to solar cells made of polycrystalline CIGSe. The theory of this method to obtain a mapping of the series resistance and the EL imaging process as well as the data interpretation ils reviewed and demonstrated on an example. Furthermore, the benefit of this method for the characterization of solar cells under accelerated aging conditions (damp heat) which is important for the estimation of the long-term stability is shown.

  14. Electroluminescent Characteristics of DBPPV–ZnO Nanocomposite Polymer Light Emitting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhava Rao MV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have demonstrated that fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite polymer light emitting devices with metal Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles and 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-poly(phenylenevinylene (DBPPV. The current and luminance characteristics of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of device with pure DBPPV. Optimized maximum luminance efficiencies of DBPPV–ZnO (3:1 wt% before annealing (1.78 cd/A and after annealing (2.45 cd/A having a brightness 643 and 776 cd/m2at a current density of 36.16 and 31.67 mA/cm2are observed, respectively. Current density–voltage and brightness–voltage characteristics indicate that addition of ZnO nanoparticles can facilitate electrical injection and charge transport. The thermal annealing is thought to result in the formation of an interfacial layer between emissive polymer film and cathode.

  15. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  16. Electronic Voltage and Current Transformers Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz. The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  17. Analysis of power supply circuits for electroluminescent panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The electroluminescent panel is a light emitting device that requires for normal operations alternative voltages with peak to peak amplitudes in 100V… 300V range and frequencies in 100Hz … 2 kHz range. Its advantages, when compared with standard light sources like incandescent lamps, gas-discharge lamps or light emitting diodes (LEDs), are lower power consumption, flexible substrate and uniform light without observable luminous points. One disadvantage of electroluminescent panels is the complex power supply required to drive them, but the continuous improvement in passive and active integrated devices for switched mode power supplies will eventually solve this issue. The present paper studies different topologies for these power supplies and the effect of the electric parameters like the amplitude, frequency, waveform of the supplying voltage on the light emission and on power consumption for electroluminescent panels with different size and colors.

  18. Organic Electroluminescent Device Based on TPP%基于TPP的有机电致发光器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A kind of pyrazoline derivative 1,3-bis(phenyl)-5-(2-phenanthrene)-2-pyrazoline(TPp) was synthesized in order to obtain stable film and applied to organic electroluminecsent diode as hole transporting material. Two devices with structures as indium-tin-oxide(ITO) TPP (50 nm)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(Alq3) (50 nm)/Al (150 nm) and ITO /TPP (50 nm)/lithium tera-(8-hydroxy-uinolinato)boron(LiBq4 (50 nm)/Alq3 (5 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated, they showed good electroluminescent(EL) performance and TPP was proved to be a good hole transporting material.

  19. Organic Electroluminescent Device Based on TPP%基于TPP的有机电致发光器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A kind of pyrazoline derivative 1,3-bis(phenyl)-5-(2-phenanthrene)-2-pyrazoline(TPp) was synthesized in order to obtain stable film and applied to organic electroluminecsent diode as hole transporting material. Two devices with structures as indium-tin-oxide(ITO) TPP (50 nm)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(Alq3) (50 nm)/Al (150 nm) and ITO /TPP (50 nm)/lithium tera-(8-hydroxy-uinolinato)boron(LiBq4 (50 nm)/Alq3 (5 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated, they showed good electroluminescent(EL) performance and TPP was proved to be a good hole transporting material.

  20. Thermo-optical properties of 1H[3,4-b] quinoline films used in electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Kępińska, Mirosława; Sanetra, Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Electroluminescence cells with H[3,4-b] quinoline layers are promising devices for a blue light emitting EL diode. This work measured the optical reflectance as a function of temperature in copolymers PAQ layers deposited on Si crystalline substrate. Using the extended Cauchy dispersion model of the film refractive index we determined the thermo-optical coefficients for quinoline layers in the temperature range of 76-333 K from combined ellipsometric and spectrofotometric studies. The obtained values of thermo-optical coefficients of thin PAQ film, were negative and ranged in 5-10 × 10-4 [1/K].

  1. Ultraviolet-Visible Electroluminescence of a p-ZnO:As/n-Si Device Formed by the GaAs Interlayer Doping Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiao-Chuan; DU Guo-Tong; WANG Hui; ZHAO Yang; WANG Jin; ZHAO Jian-Ze; SHI Zhi-Feng; LI Xiang-Ping; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZHANG Bao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic doped p-type ZnO films were grown on n-type silicon substrates using the GaAs interlayer doping method.Under our growth conditions the main doping element is arsenic,which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectroscopy.X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the p-ZnO:As film was still in the (002) preferred orientation.The Hall test showed that the hole concentration of the p-ZnO:As film was 2.6 × 1017 cm-3.The acceptor level was located at 135 meV above the valance band maximum,according to the low-temperature photoluminescence results.We then fabricated a p-ZnO:As/n-Si hetero junction light-emitting device.Its current-voltage curve showed the typical rectifying behavior of a p-n diode.At forward current injections,the electroluminescence peaks,which cover the ultraviolet-to-visible region,could be clearly detected.ZnO is a Ⅱ-Ⅵ compound semiconductor with a wide direct gap (3.37eV) and a high exciton binding energy (60meV).It has been studied as the candidate material for ultraviolet (UV) light emitting devices (LEDs).Many methods have been used to prepare ZnO films.[1,2] Among them,the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method has its own excellent advantages in industrial applications.Today,the preparation of p-ZnO is still a challenge.%Arsenic doped p-type ZnO films were grown on n-type silicon substrates using the GaAs interlayer doping method. Under our growth conditions the main doping element is arsenic, which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectroscopy. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the p-ZnO:As Him was still in the (002) preferred orientation. The Hall test showed that the hole concentration of the p-ZnO:As film was 2.6 × 1017 cm-3. The acceptor level was located at 135 meV above the valance band maximum, according to the low-temperature photoluminescence results. We then fabricated a p-ZnO:As/n-Si heterojunction light-emitting device. Its current-voltage curve showed the typical rectifying behavior of a p-n diode

  2. A New Distyrylarylene Derivative Used as Blue Light Emitter in Organic Electroluminescent Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 朱文清; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new blue electroluminescent material,distyrylarylene(DSA)derivative,4,4'-bis[2,2-(1-naphthyl,phenyl)vinyl]-1,1-biphenyl(NPVBi)is designed and synthesized.The DSA derivative shows better thermal stability because of its high glass transition temperature.A blue organic light emitting diode(OLED0with the structure ITO/TPD/NPVBi/Alq/LiF/Al is studied.The electroluminescent(EL0spectrum of the OLED exhibits that light emission originates from NPVBi with a peak at 460nm,its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage(CIE)color coordinates are x=0.16,y=0.15,and showing independence of CIE color coordinates on current density.The new DSA derivative is expectable as a new candidate for blue light emitter in OLEDs.

  3. Non-Doped Deep Blue and Doped White Electroluminescence Devices Based on Phenanthroimidazole Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Wu, Yukun; Hu, Shoucheng; Zhao, Yi; Fang, Daining

    2017-03-01

    A novel deep-blue emitter PhImPOTD based on phenathroimidazole was synthesized, which is incorporated by an electron-donating dibenzothiophene unit and electron-withdrawing phenanthroimidazole and diphenylphosphine oxide moieties. Furthermore, the weak π-π stacking and intermolecular aggregation render the photoluminescence quantum yield is as high as 0.34 in the solid state. Non-doped organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on PhImPOTD emitter exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 3.6 V, a favorable efficiency of 1.13 cd A(-1) and a deep blue emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.08). The CIE is very close to the NTSC (National Television Standards Committe) blue standard (CIE: 0.14, 0.08). PhImPOTD is also utilized as blue emitter and the host for a yellow emitter (PO-01) to fabricate white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs). This gives a forward-viewing maximum CE of 4.83 cd A(-1) and CIE coordinates of (0.32, 0.32) at the luminance of 1000 cd m(-2). Moreover, the single-carrier devices unambiguously demonstrate that typical bipolar-dominant characteristics of PhImPOTD. This work demonstrates not only that the phenanthroimidazole unit is an excellent building block to construct deep blue emission materials, but also the introduction of a diphenylphosphine oxide deprotonation substituent is an efficient tactic for harvesting deep-blue emitting devices.

  4. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of Sm (III) and Eu (III) chelates for organic electroluminescent device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.J.; Wong, T.K.S.; Yan, Y.K.; Hu, X

    2003-08-25

    Samarium(III) and europium(III) complexes of the {beta}-diketone ligand (2-thienyl)trifluoroacetylacetone (HTTA) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) were prepared. The complexes, Sm(TTA){sub 2}(TPPO){sub 2}NO{sub 3} (1), Eu(TTA){sub 2}(TPPO){sub 2}NO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O (2), and Eu(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2} (3) were characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction molecular structures of complexes 1 and 3 are presented and some of the crystal parameters for complex 1 are: space group, P1; a=11.019(4) A, b=11.791(6) A, c=12.535(5) A; {alpha}=102.68(3) deg., {beta}=102.06(3) deg., {gamma}=117.75(3) deg. ; for complex 3: space group, P-1, a=11.1946(9) A, b=12.117(2) A, c=23.535(2) A, {alpha}=80.047(13) deg., {beta}=76.498(7) deg., {gamma}=70.450(9) deg. . Electroluminescent devices were fabricated by vacuum evaporation. Apart from single layer devices, double and triple layer devices with the following structures: ITO/TPD/Complex 2/Al; ITO/TPD/Complex 3/Al; ITO/TPD/Complex 2/Alq/Al were studied, where N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (TPD) was used as a hole transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminum (Alq) as an electron transporting layer. The results indicate that single layer devices show very low quantum efficiency, while the double layer devices with a hole transporting layer exhibit enhanced efficiency and a well defined EL spectrum. No significant improvement was observed in the triple layer devices with an additional electron transporting layer.

  5. Single-layer electroluminescent devices based on fluorene-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline co-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokladko-Kowar, Monika; Danel, Andrzej; Chacaga, Łukasz

    2013-11-01

    A fluorene based copolymer was synthesized for electroluminescent application. To the main chain of polymer the nitrogen heterocyclic, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline, unit was introduced. The incorporation of this derivative tuned the emission from the blue to yellow-green one. A simple, single layered device was fabricated with the configuration ITO/PEDOT/co-poly-FLU-PQX/Ca/Mg.

  6. Tunable electroluminescence from low-threshold voltage LED structure based on electrodeposited Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O-nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauporte, T. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie (LECIME), UMR 7575 CNRS, Chimie ParisTech, Paris (France); Lupan, O. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie (LECIME), UMR 7575 CNRS, Chimie ParisTech, Paris (France); Department of Microelectronics and Semiconductor Devices, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova); Viana, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, UMR 7574-CNRS-Chimie ParisTech-UPMC, Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    Violet light-emitting diode (LED) structures based on Cd-alloyed zinc oxide (Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O) nanorods (NRs)/p-GaN heterojunction have been fabricated by epitaxial electrodeposition at low temperatures in an aqueous soft bath followed by a mild thermal annealing. The ultraviolet (UV) room-temperature emission peak at around 397 nm with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm observed from pure ZnO-NRs/p-GaN at room temperature was shifted to 417 nm with FWHM of 14 nm by employing a Zn{sub 0.92}Cd{sub 0.08}O-NRs/p-GaN heterojunction. The emission threshold voltage was low at about 5.0 V and the electroluminescence (EL) intensity rapidly increased with the applied forward-bias voltage. The emission wavelength increased with the Cd content in the alloy. The EL physics mechanism in LED structures of the heterojunctions is discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Electroluminescent Characteristics of DBPPV–ZnO Nanocomposite Polymer Light Emitting Devices

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We have demonstrated that fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite polymer light emitting devices with metal Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-poly(phenylenevinylene) (DBPPV). The current and luminance characteristics of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of device with pure DBPPV. Optimized maximum luminance efficiencies of DBPPV–ZnO (3:1 wt%) before annealing (1.78 cd/A) and after annealing (2.45 cd/A) having a brightness 643 ...

  8. Synthesis,characterization and applications of vinylsilafluorene copolymers:New host materials for electroluminescent devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vinylsilafluorene(VSiF) was successfully synthesized and copolymerized with vinylcarbazole and methyl methacrylate via free radical copolymerization for the first time.The synthesis,photophysical properties,computational modeling studies,and organic light-emitting devices of the VSiF copolymers were presented.The good coordinated photoluminescent(PL) spectra with the absorption of blue light-emitting materials and the high energy band-gap of the VSiF copolymers were observed.Higher triplet band gap(3Eg) to host the blue phosphorescent emitters and better HOMO and LUMO than PVK for electron and hole injection and transportation of the VSiF model compounds were revealed by density functional theory(DFT) calculations.The preliminary device results in applications of these copolymers as host materials for green phosphorescent emitters demonstrate the copolymers of VSiF and vinylcarbazole have comparable device performance of polyvinylcarazole(PVK),suggesting a bright future of VSiF as building blocks for host materials.

  9. Synthesis and application of the novel azomethine metal complexes for the organic electroluminescent devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Jin Soon; Shin, Dong Myung; Kim, Young Kwan; Ha, Yun Kyoung [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    New azomethine metal complexes were synthesized systematically and characterized. Beryllium, magnesium, or zinc ions were used as a central metal cation and aromatic azomethines (L1-L4) were employed as a chelating anionic ligand. Emission peaks of the complexes in both solution and solid states were observed mostly at the region of 400-500 nm in the luminescence spectra, where blue light was emitted. Three of them (BeL1 (I), ZnL2 (II), and ZnL3(III)) were sublimable and thus were applied to the organic light-emitting devices (OLED) as an emitting layer, respectively. The device including the emitting layer of I exhibited white emission with the broad luminescence spectral range. The device with the emitting layer of II showed blue luminescence with the maximum emission peak at 460 nm. Their ionization potentials, electron affinities, and electrochemical band gaps were investigated with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical gaps of 2.98 for I, 2.70 for II, and 2.63 eV for III were found to be consistent with their respective optical band gaps of 3.01, 2.95 and 2.61 eV within an experimental error. The structure of OLED manufactured in this study reveals that these complexes can work as electron transporting materials as well.

  10. Numerical Analysis on Current Transport Characteristics in Single Layer Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new model to describe I-V characteristics of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is developed based on experimental results. The dependence of I-V characteristics on energy barrier, trap density and carrier mobility is analyzed. The result shows that this model combines the Fowler-Nordheim tunnel theory and the trap charge limited current theory with exponential trap distribution (TCL), and it describes the current transport characteristics of OLEDs more comprehensively. The I-V characteristics follow Fowler-Nordheim theory when the energy barrier is high, the trap density is small and the carrier mobility is large.In other cases they follow the TCL theory.

  11. Far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell under forward DC bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Wenbo; He Xingdao; Gao Yiqing; Zhang Zhimin; Liu Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    The far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell are investigated under forward DC bias at room temperature in dark conditions.An electroluminescence viewgraph shows the clear device structures,and the electroluminescence intensity is shown to increases exponentially with bias voltage and linearly with bias current.The results can be interpreted using an equivalent circuit of a single ideal diode model for triple-junction solar cells.The good fit between the measured and calculated data proves the above conclusions.This work is of guiding significance for current solar cell testing and research.

  12. Controlling charge carrier injection in organic electroluminescent devices via ITO substrate modification

    CERN Document Server

    Day, S

    2001-01-01

    and the ITO substrate was found to shift the work function of the electrode, and so modify the barrier to hole injection. Scanning Kelvin probe measurements show that the ITO work function is increased by 0.25 eV with a film of TNAP, while a C sub 6 sub 0 film is found to reduce the work function by a comparable amount. The former has been attributed to a charge-transfer effect resulting in Fermi level alignment between the ITO and the TNAP layer, however the latter is believed to result from both charge transfer and a covalent interaction between C sub 6 sub 0 and ITO. The performance of devices incorporating these modified ITO electrode are rationalised in terms of the work function modification, film thicknesses and the hole transport properties of the two films. Competition between the induced work function change and the increasingly significant tunnelling barrier with thickness means that device performance is not as good as that provided by the SAMs. Direct processing of the ITO substrate has also been...

  13. High voltage semiconductor devices and methods of making the devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran; Banerjee, Sujit

    2017-02-28

    A multi-cell MOSFET device including a MOSFET cell with an integrated Schottky diode is provided. The MOSFET includes n-type source regions formed in p-type well regions which are formed in an n-type drift layer. A p-type body contact region is formed on the periphery of the MOSFET. The source metallization of the device forms a Schottky contact with an n-type semiconductor region adjacent the p-type body contact region of the device. Vias can be formed through a dielectric material covering the source ohmic contacts and/or Schottky region of the device and the source metallization can be formed in the vias. The n-type semiconductor region forming the Schottky contact and/or the n-type source regions can be a single continuous region or a plurality of discontinuous regions alternating with discontinuous p-type body contact regions. The device can be a SiC device. Methods of making the device are also provided.

  14. High voltage MOSFET devices and methods of making the devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sujit; Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran

    2015-12-15

    A SiC MOSFET device having low specific on resistance is described. The device has N+, P-well and JFET regions extended in one direction (Y-direction) and P+ and source contacts extended in an orthogonal direction (X-direction). The polysilicon gate of the device covers the JFET region and is terminated over the P-well region to minimize electric field at the polysilicon gate edge. In use, current flows vertically from the drain contact at the bottom of the structure into the JFET region and then laterally in the X direction through the accumulation region and through the MOSFET channels into the adjacent N+ region. The current flowing out of the channel then flows along the N+ region in the Y-direction and is collected by the source contacts and the final metal. Methods of making the device are also described.

  15. Electron Injection Enhancement by Diamond-Like Carbon Film in Polymer Electroluminescence Devices%聚合物电致发光器件中用类金刚石碳膜增强电子注入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏建; 闫玲玲; 黄伯云; 易丹青; 胡锦; 何英旋; 彭景翠

    2006-01-01

    A diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is deposited as an electron injection layer between the polymer light-emitting layer (MEH-PPV) and aluminum (Al) cathode electrode in polymer electroluminescence devices (PLEDs) using a radio frequency plasma deposition system. The source material of the DLC is n-butylamine. The devices consist of indium tin oxide (ITO)/MEH-PPV/DLC/Al. Electron injection properties are investigated through I-V characteristics, and the mechanism of electron injection enhancement due to a thin DLC layer has been studied. It is found that: (1) a DLC layer thinner than 1. 0nm leads to a higher turn-on voltage and decreased electroluminescent (EL) efficiency; (2) a 5.0nm DLC layer significantly enhances the electron injection and re sults in the lowest turn-on voltage and the highest EL efficiency; (3) DLC layer that exceeds 5.0nm results in poor device performance; and(4) EL emission can hardly be detected when the layer exceeds 10.0nm. The properties ofITO/MEH-PPV/DLC/Al and ITO/MEH-PPV/LiF/Al are investigated comparatively.%用正丁胺作碳源,采用射频辉光等离子系统制备类金刚石碳膜(DLC),沉积在聚合物发光器件中的发光层(MEH-PPV)和铝(Al)阴极间作电子注入层.制备了结构为ITO/MEH-PPV/DLC/Al的不同DLC厚度的器件,测量了器件的I-V特性、亮度及效率,研究了DLC层对器件电子注入性能影响的机制.结果表明:当DLC厚度小于1.0nm时,其器件有较ITO/MEH-PPV/Al高的启动电压和低的发光效率;当DLC厚度在1.0~5.0nm之间时,器件的性能随着DLC厚度增加而变好;当DLC厚度为5.0nm时,器件具有最低的启动电压与最高的发光效率;当DLC厚度继续增加时,器件的性能随着DLC厚度增加而变差.并对ITO/MEH-PPV/DLC/Al和ITO/MEH-PPV/LiF/Al的器件性能进行了比较研究.

  16. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.

  17. Electroluminescence in BaFCl single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somaiah, K.; Paracchini, C.

    1987-06-01

    A study of electroluminescence in BaFCl single crystals as a function of temperature is reported. At an excitation voltage of 5 kV, electroluminescent intensity, which is feeble at room temperature, is shown to increase with decreasing temperature. The increase is rapid between 250 K and 175 K and levels off as 80 K is approached. A tentative explanation, in the light of x-ray induced luminescence, is offered. (U.K.).

  18. Electroluminescence of Copolyfluorenes in the Visible Range of the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, T. N.; Nikonova, E. N.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Gadirov, R. M.; Telminov, E. N.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Odod, A. V.; Yakimanskii, A. V.; Il'gach, D. M.

    2016-04-01

    Results of spectral-luminescent and electroluminescent investigations of organic semiconductor polyfluorenebased copolymers in diode devices emitting dark blue, green, red, and white light are presented.

  19. A novel high-voltage device structure with an N+ ring in substrate and the breakdown voltage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Zhu Jinluan; Wang Weidong; Yue Hongwei; Jin Liangnian

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-voltage device structure with a floating heavily doped N+ ring embedded in the substrate is reported,which is called FR LDMOS.When the N+ ring is introduced in the device substrate,the electric field peak of the main junction is reduced due to the transfer of the voltage from the main junction to the N+ ring junction,and the vertical breakdown characteristic is improved significantly.Based on the Poisson equation of cylindrical coordinates,a breakdown voltage model is developed.The numerical results indicate that the breakdown voltage of the proposed device is increased by 56% in comparison to conventional LDMOS.

  20. Electroluminescent, polycrystalline cadmium selenide nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazian, Talin; van der Veer, Wytze E; Xing, Wendong; Yan, Wenbo; Penner, Reginald M

    2013-10-22

    Electroluminescence (EL) from nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) nanowire arrays is reported. The n-type, nc-CdSe nanowires, 400-450 nm in width and 60 nm in thickness, were synthesized using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition, and metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) devices were prepared by the evaporation of two gold contacts spaced by either 0.6 or 5 μm. These M-S-M devices showed symmetrical current voltage curves characterized by currents that increased exponentially with applied voltage bias. As the applied biased was increased, an increasing number of nanowires within the array "turned on", culminating in EL emission from 30 to 50% of these nanowires at applied voltages of 25-30 V. The spectrum of the emitted light was broad and centered at 770 nm, close to the 1.74 eV (712 nm) band gap of CdSe. EL light emission occurred with an external quantum efficiency of 4 × 10(-6) for devices with a 0.60 μm gap between the gold contacts and 0.5 × 10(-6) for a 5 μm gap-values similar to those reported for M-S-M devices constructed from single-crystalline CdSe nanowires. Kelvin probe force microscopy of 5 μm nc-CdSe nanowire arrays showed pronounced electric fields at the gold electrical contacts, coinciding with the location of strongest EL light emission in these devices. This electric field is implicated in the Poole-Frenkel minority carrier emission and recombination mechanism proposed to account for EL light emission in most of the devices that were investigated.

  1. Voltage biased Varistor-Transistor Hybrid Devices: Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra K Pandey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the properties and potential applications of a novel hybrid varistor device originating from biased voltage induced modified nonlinear current-voltage (I-V characteristics. Single crystal of an oxide semiconductor in the family of iron-titanates with the chemical formula of Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite has been used as substrate for the varistor. The modifications of the varistor characteristics are achieved by superimposition of a bias voltage in the current path of the varistor. These altered I-V characteristics, when analyzed, reveal the existence of embedded transistors coexisting with the varistor. These transistors exhibit mutual conductance, signal amplification and electronic switching which are the defining signatures of a typical transistor. The tuned varistors also acquire the properties of signal amplification and mutual conductance which expand the range of applications for a varistor beyond its traditional use as circuit protector. Both tuned varistors and the embedded transistors have attributes which make them suitable for many applications in electronics including at high temperatures and for radiation dominated environments such as space.

  2. Quantitative description of electroluminescence images of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeland, Marco; Roesch, Roland; Hoppe, Harald [Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We present a quantitative description of electroluminescence images obtained on organic solar cells, which is based on a device modeling employing a network of interconnected microdiodes. The equivalent circuit network model takes interface and bulk resistances as well as the sheet resistance of the transparent electrode into account. The application of this model allows direct calculation of the lateral current and voltage distribution as well as determination of internal resistances and the sheet resistance of the higher resistive electrode. Furthermore, we have extended the microdiode-model to also describe and predict current voltage characteristics for devices under illumination. Finally the local nature of this description enables important conclusions concerning the geometry dependent performance of thin film solar cells.

  3. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  4. 30 CFR 77.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices. High-voltage...

  5. Artifical Excitation of Ferro-Resonance for Testing Electrotechnical Equipment in Distribution Devices with Increased Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dmitriev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed device for protection against of ferro-resonant and high-frequency cumulative over-voltages an algorithm for obtaining a voltage imitating ferro-resonant over-voltages is proposed in the paper. This algorithm presupposes to apply a voltage to the secondary transformer side from an extraneous source is proposed.

  6. Color-tunable electroluminescence from Eu-doped TiO(2)/p(+)-Si heterostructured devices: engineering of energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Lv, Chunyan; Wang, Canxing; Sha, Yiping; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-09

    We report on color-tunable electroluminescence (EL) from TiO(2):Eu/p(+)-Si heterostructured devices using different TiO(2):Eu films in terms of Eu content and annealing temperature. It is found that the Eu-related emissions are activated by the energy transferred from TiO(2) host via oxygen vacancies, at the price of weakened oxygen-vacancy-related emissions. Both the higher Eu content and the higher annealing temperature for TiO(2):Eu films facilitate the aforementioned energy transfer. In this context, the dominant EL from the TiO(2):Eu/p(+)-Si heterostructured devices can be transformed from oxygen-vacancy-related emissions into Eu-related emissions with increasing Eu-content and annealing temperature for TiO(2):Eu films, exhibiting different colors of emanated light. We believe that this work sheds light on developing silicon-based red emitters using the Eu-doped oxide semiconductor films.

  7. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field/ R and D on the technology to create new organic electroluminescence devices (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / shin`yuki electroluminescence device no sosei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper develops the R and D having as core creative technical seeds on the design principle of organic electroluminescence (EL) devices, aims at producing as products a polychrome display and a new energy saving type light source, develops new high efficient luminescent materials which support the production of products with high liability, and develops protective coats universally applicable to optical and electronic devices and sealing technology. In fiscal 1997, the following are commenced: 1) development of luminescent devices, 2) development of new luminescent agents, and 3) development of the mounting technology. In 1), the following are conducted: R and D for improvement of durability of EL devices, development of the process technology for polychroism, multi-coloring, and development of the large picture thin film formation technology. For the development of energy saving type high efficiency light source devices, a method is established for producing organic layers by a new wet coating method. In 3), the R and D are carried out of a method to form inorganic protective coats at low temperature and a method to highly evaluate structural defects in the protective coat. For the sealing of devices, low melting point glass and the forming technology are developed. 41 refs., 112 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Effect of Heat Treatment on Luminescent Properties of White Organic Light Emitting Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; HUA Yu-lin; WANG Chang-sheng; XIONG Shao-zhen

    2004-01-01

    The white organic light emitting device (OLED) with single-structure using a polymer blend as the light emitting layer is fabricated. Heat treatment is used to control the ratio between the intensities of main electroluminescent spectral peaks. The electroluminescent spectrum of our device is quite similar to that of white inorganic LED produced by Nichia Corporation after being annealed, and its turn-on voltage can be decreased by 1 V.

  9. Spatial and temporal instabilities in high voltage power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milady, Saeed

    2010-01-29

    Dynamic avalanche can occur during the turn-off process of high voltage bipolar devices, e.g. IGBTs and p{sup +}n{sup -}n{sup +} power diodes, that may result in spatial instabilities of the homogeneous current density distribution across the device and the formation of current filaments. Filaments may cause the destruction of the device, mainly because of the high local temperatures. The first part of this work is dedicated to the current filament behavior. The positive feedback mechanisms caused by the transient current flow through the gate capacitance of an IGBT operating under short circuit conditions may result in oscillations and temporal instabilities of the IGBT current. The oscillations may cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). Furthermore, the positive feedback mechanism may accelerate the over-heating of the device and result in a thermal run-away. This is the subject of the second part of this work. In the first part of this work using the device simulation results of power diodes the underlying physical mechanisms of the filament dynamic is investigated. Simulation results of diode structures with evenly distributed doping inhomogeneities show that, the filament motion gets smoother as the distance between the inhomogeneities decreases. Hopping to faraway inhomogeneities turns into the hopping to neighboring ones and finally a smooth motion. In homogeneous structures the slow inhibitory effect of the electron-hole plasma extraction and the fast activation, due to hole current flowing along the filament, result in a smooth filament motion. An analytical model for the filament velocity under isothermal conditions is presented that can reproduce the simulation data satisfactorily. The influence of the boundary conditions on the filament behavior is discussed. The positive beveled edge termination prohibits a long stay of the filament at the edge reducing the risk of filament pinning. Self-heating effects may turn the initially electrically triggered

  10. A breakdown voltage model for implanted resurf p-LDMOS device on n+ buried layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Van Calster, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical expression of the breakdown voltage of a high voltage implanted RESURF p-LDMOS device which uses the n+ buried layer as an effective device substrate. In this model, the doping profile of the buried layer is considered and discussed. The implant dose for the drift r

  11. Enhanced Brightness of Eu3+ Complex in Organic Electroluminescent Devices by Using Another Rare-Earth Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白峰; 邓振波; 高新; 李勇; 徐怡庄; 吴瑾光

    2002-01-01

    Rare-earth ions Tb3+ and La3+ were used as a bridge to improve the energy transfer from the polymer to an Eu complex. The material Tb(La)0.5Eu0.5 (BSA)3phen was synthesized and used as the emission layer in the device:ITO/PVK:Tb(La)0.5Eu0.5 (BSA)3phen/Alq/Al. The two device were compared in detail and it was found that the device using La0.5Eu0.5 (BSA)3phen as the emission material had better monochromatic characteristics with the maximal brightness of 102cd/m2 and the colour coordinates x = 0.55 and y = 0.36.

  12. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  13. Investigation of electroluminescence properties of CdTe@CdS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Molaei; S Pourjafari

    2014-02-01

    In this work, CdTe@CdS NCs were synthesized using a thermochemical approach and synthesized NCs were used as an emissive layer, a light emitting device, with ITO/MoO3/PVK/CdTe@CdS(core-shell)/Mg:Ag structure. Structural and optical properties of synthesized NCs were investigated by means of XRD, UV–Vis and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. Fabricated device was characterized by electroluminescence spectra. XRD analysis demonstrated cubic phase NCs. Photoluminescence spectra showed a narrow band emission with a peak centred at about 600 nm. Fabricated device showed an emission at 600 nm, which is related to CdTe@CdS NCs. Turn on voltage of fabricated device is about 8 V and brightness is 53.7 Cd/m2 at a working voltage of about 14.57 V.

  14. High-voltage thin-absorber photovoltaic device structures for efficient energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E.; Pethuraja, Gopal G.; Zeller, John W.; Sood, Ashok K.; Sablon, Kimberly A.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2014-06-01

    Efficient photovoltaic energy harvesting requires device structures capable of absorbing a wide spectrum of incident radiation and extracting the photogenerated carriers at high voltages. In this paper, we review the impact of active layer thickness on the voltage performance of GaAs-based photovoltaic device structures. We observe that thin absorber structures can be leveraged to increase the operating voltage of energy harvesting devices. Thin absorbers in combination with advanced light trapping structures provide an exciting pathway for enhancing the performance of flexible, lightweight photovoltaic modules suitable for mobile and portable power applications.

  15. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  16. Effects of Nonlinearities on Induced Voltages across Lumped Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Mazloom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies on induced currents and voltages along overhead conductors due to lightning flashes. In most of these studies lumped loads and components are connected only as line terminations [1]-[4]. In studies where series and shunt connected components are connected along the lines the effects of nonlinear components and effects are disregarded [5]-[8]. This is not always correct as nonlinear effects will introduce high frequencies in the system and affect the current and voltage wave distribution. In this paper the effects of series and shunt components and nonlinear phenomenon on a system representative of the Swedish electrified railway system will be investigated. It is seen how introduction of different linear and nonlinear components affect the propagating voltage wave forms.

  17. Electroluminescent Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes for Flat Panel Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Dai; Limin Dong; Mei Gao; Shaoming Huang; Oddvar Johansen; Albert W.H.Mau,Zoran Vasic; Berthold Winkler; Yongyuang Yang

    2000-01-01

    polymeric light-emitting diodes(LEDs) with sufficient brightness. efficiencies, low driving voltages, and various interesting features have been reported. The relatively short device lifetime, however, still remains as a major problem to be solved before any commercial applications will be realized. In this regard,carbon nanotubes have recently been proposed as more robust electron field emitters for flat panel displays. We have synthesised large arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, from which micropatterns of the aligned nanotubes suitable for flat panel displays were fabricated on various substrates. In this paper, we summarise our work on the synthesis and microfabrication of electroluminescent polymers and carbon nanotubes for flat panel displays with reference to other complementary work as appropriate.

  18. Classification of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermolenko Ia. O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that computer systems for measuring current-voltage characteristics are very important for semiconductor devices production. The main criteria of efficiency of such systems are defined. It is shown that efficiency of such systems significantly depends on the methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices. The aim of this work is to analyze existing methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and to create the classification of these methods in order to specify the most effective solutions in terms of defined criteria. To achieve this aim, the most common classifications of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and their main disadvantages are considered. Automated and manual, continuous, pulse, mixed, isothermal and isodynamic methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics are analyzed. As a result of the analysis and generalization of existing methods the next classification criteria are defined: the level of automation, the form of measurement signals, the condition of semiconductor device during the measurements, and the use of mathematical processing of the measurement results. With the use of these criteria the classification scheme of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices is composed and the most effective methods are specified.

  19. Electroluminescence of Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn through SiC whisker electric field enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, Brandon, E-mail: wagstabj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Kitai, Adrian, E-mail: kitaia@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); McMaster University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Alternating current (AC) electroluminescence of thin film oxide phosphors is well known. However in this work electroluminescence of bulk oxide powder phosphors is achieved. A new type of AC Electroluminescent (ACEL) device has been created and developed by integrating SiC whiskers into a phosphor matrix composed of manganese-activated zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn{sup 2+}). The conductive SiC whiskers enhance the average electric field in specific regions of the phosphor such that localized breakdown of the phosphor occurs, thus emitting green light. This field enhancement allows light emission to occur in thick film oxide powder phosphors and is notably the first time that bright and reasonably efficient electroluminescence of zinc germanate has been observed without using expensive thin film deposition techniques. Light emission has been achieved in thick pressed pellets using surface-deposited electrodes and the brightness-voltage characteristics of light emission are shown to be consistent with field emission of carriers from the embedded whiskers. - Highlights: • A new electroluminescent phosphor, Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}Mn{sup 2+}+SiC whiskers, is proposed. • A procedure is described to fabricate a solid sample of this composite material. • Under an AC voltage, green light is emitted only in samples containing the SiC whiskers. • A brightness of 25 Cd/m{sup 2} and efficiency of 0.25 Lm/W is observed 9.6×10{sup 6} V/m. • This is notably the first time that ACEL has been observed in bulk Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}Mn{sup 2+}.

  20. A Study on the Innovation Cost and Effectiveness Evaluation of Compensation Devices for Voltage Sags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xuhui; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yonaga, Shigeru

    Due to the advancement of information technology and widespread use of power electronic devices in recent years, many customers in various fields have suffered from the voltage sag problem. In order to compensate voltage sags, sensitive loads have been primarily equipped with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) by each consumer individually. Because consumers have many individual needs, this topic becomes an important problem to be considered by quality consultants in the electric utility industry. Based on this situation, we present the applications of UPS and dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) as compensation devices of voltage sags. By considering the need for power quality, we examine the cost-efficiency of both devices quantitatively. Simulations are carried out and the results are shown in this paper.

  1. Interface circuit with adjustable bias voltage enabling maximum power point tracking of capacitive energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Lefeuvre, E.; Mathias, H.; Costa, F.

    2016-12-01

    The operation analysis of a new interface circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting with adjustable bias voltage is carried out in this paper. Two configurations determined by the open or closed states of an electronic switch are examined. The increase of the voltage across a biasing capacitor, occurring when the switch is open, is proved theoretically and experimentally. With the decrease of this biasing voltage which occurs naturally when the switch is closed due to imperfections of the circuit, the bias voltage can be maintained close to a target value by appropriate ON and OFF control of the switch. As the energy converted by the variable capacitor on each cycle depends on the bias voltage, this energy can be therefore accurately controlled. This feature opens up promising perspectives for optimization the power harvested by electrostatic devices. Simulation results with and without electromechanical coupling effect are presented. In experimental tests, a simple switch control enabling to stabilize the bias voltage is described.

  2. Nanoscale dynamic inhomogeneities in electroluminescence of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Tatsuhiko; Nozue, Shuho; Habuchi, Satoshi; Vacha, Martin

    2011-09-01

    We report the observation and characterization of dynamic spatial heterogeneities in the electroluminescence (EL) of conjugated polymer organic light-emitting diodes via high-sensitivity fluorescence microscopy. The active layers of the single-layer devices are polymers of the poly(phenylene vinylene) family, i.e., poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] and a commercially available copolymer, Super Yellow. The devices are prepared directly on a microscope coverslip, making it possible to use high numerical aperture oil-immersion objective lenses with a diffraction-limited resolution of a few hundred nanometers for microscopic EL imaging. Detection via high-sensitivity CCD camera allows the measurement of EL dynamics with millisecond time resolution for a wide range of applied voltages. We found spatial heterogeneities in the form of high EL intensity sites in all devices studied. The EL from these sites is strongly fluctuating in time, and the dynamics is bias voltage dependent. At the same time, there is no difference in the local microscopic EL spectra between the high- and low-intensity sites. The results are interpreted in terms of a changing charge balance and local structural changes in the active film layer.

  3. An Electroluminescence Delay Time Model of Bilayer Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-Jian; ZHU Ru-Hui; LI Xue-Yong; YANG Bing-Chu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on the mechanism of injection, transport and recombination of the charge carriers, we develop a model to calculate the delay time of electroluminescence (EL) from bilayer organic light emitting diodes. The effect of injection, transport and recombination processes on the EL delay time is discussed, and the relationship between the internal interface barrier and the recombination time is revealed. The results show that the EL delay time is dominated by the recombination process at lower applied voltage and by the transport process at higher applied voltage. When the internal interface barrier varies from 0.15 eV to 0.3 eV, the recombination delay time increases rapidly, while the internal interface barrier exceeds about 0.3eV, the dependence of the recombination delay time on applied voltage is almost undiversified, which may serve as a guideline for designing of a high-speed EL response device.

  4. Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Jesús; Viñuales, Ana; Odriozola, Ibon; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans J; Ruiz, Virginia

    2014-08-27

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films have been electrodeposited on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET) substrates from graphene oxide (GO) solutions, and the resulting flexible transparent electrodes have been used in electrochromic devices of ethyl viologen (EtV(2+)). The electrochromic performance of devices with bare ITO-PET electrodes and ITO-PET coated with RGO has been compared. Under continuous cycling tests up to large voltages, the RGO film was oxidized and dispersed in the electrochromic mixture. The resulting devices, which contained GO and RGO in the electrochromic mixture, showed lower switching voltages between the colored and bleached states. This electrocatalytic activity of the solution-phase GO/RGO pair toward the electrochemical reaction of the electrochromic redox couple (the dication EtV(2+) and the radical cation EtV(+•)) allowed devices with an optical contrast higher than the contrast of those free of GO at the same applied voltage.

  5. Photo- and electroluminescence properties of lanthanide tungstate-doped porous anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staninski, Krzysztof; Piskuła, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    A new cathode material for the potential use in light-emitting devices, based on porous anodic alumina (PAA), aluminum and ITO layers has been synthesized. Porous alumina samples with ordered pore arrays were prepared electrochemically from high purity Al sheet in H2SO4 and H3PO4. To be able to apply the matrix obtained in the electroluminescence cell, the thickness of the barrier layer of aluminum oxide was decreased by slow reduction of the anodization voltage to zero. The luminescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties of the Al2O3 matrix admixtured with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions as well as europium and terbium tungstates, were determined. The particles of inorganic luminophore were synthesized on the walls of the matrix cylindrical nanopores in the two-step process of immersion in solutions of TbCl3 or EuCl3 and Na2WO4. The effect of the nanopores diameter and the thickness of the porous Al2O3 layer on the intensity and relative yield of electroluminescence was analyzed, the best results were obtained for 80-90 μm PAA layers with 140 nm nanopores.

  6. A High Voltage High Frequency Resonant Inverter for Supplying DBD Devices with Short Discharge Current Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnin, Xavier; Brandelero, Julio; Videau, Nicolas; Piquet, Hubert; Meynard, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, the merits of a high-frequency resonant converter for supplying dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) devices are established. It is shown that, thanks to its high-frequency operating condition, such a converter allows to supply DBD devices with short discharge current pulses, a high repetition rate, and to control the injected power. In addition, such a topology eliminates the matter of connecting a high-voltage transformer directly across the DBD device ...

  7. Method of controlling illumination device based on current-voltage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination device comprising a number of LEDs, means for receiving an input signal, means for generating an activation signal for at least one of the LEDs based on the input signal. The illumination device comprises further means for obtaining the voltage...... and the colorimetric properties of said light emitted by LED. The present invention relates also to a method of controlling and a meted of calibrating such illumination device....

  8. Over-voltage trigger device for Marx generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sack, M.; Staengle, R.; Mueller, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For treatment of plant tissue with pulsed electric fields in large scale, synchronized operation of several Marx generators is required in order to minimize the low-field regions inside the electroporation reactor and to overcome the current limitations of a single pulse circuit. Hence, the Marx generators must be triggered. If long-term operation without service is to be achieved, these generators are triggered by over-volting the first spark gap without the use of an additional electrode for ignition, which would cause increased wear. A trigger device for over-volting the first spark gap of a Marx generator has been designed. It has been tailored to replace the charging coils between the 1st and the 2nd stage of an already existing Marx generator. In order to overcome the requirements for insulation to ground potential, the trigger device is powered by the charging current of the Marx generator. This paper describes some design issues.

  9. Threshold Voltage of MOSFET Devices Extracted by Normalized Mutual Integral Difference Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJin; ZHENGTaolei; ZHANGXing; WANGYangyuan

    2003-01-01

    The threshold voltage of MOSFETs to be extracted by a novel experimental method named the nor-realized mutual integral difference operator has been inves-tigated in this paper. The basic principle of this method is to use the extreme spectral characteristics of the nor-realized mutual integral difference result of the MOSFET transfer characteristics to find the threshold voltage. Ap-plication of this method has also been demonstrated nu-merically in extracting the threshold voltage of MOS de-vices with the different effective channel length and par-asitic series resistance. The results show this method is sensitive to the channel length variation while insensitive to the parasitic resistance component. The extracted re-sults on the threshold voltage of MOSFET devices have been compared with those obtained by the second deriva-tive method and the agreements have been found, showing the advantage of the method presented here.

  10. The world's first high voltage GaN-on-Diamond power semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltynov, Turar; Unni, Vineet; Narayanan, E. M. Sankara

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the detailed fabrication method and extensive electrical characterisation results of the first-ever demonstrated high voltage GaN power semiconductor devices on CVD Diamond substrate. Fabricated circular GaN-on-Diamond HEMTs with gate-to-drain drift length of 17 μm and source field plate length of 3 μm show an off-state breakdown voltage of ∼1100 V. Temperature characterisation of capacitance-voltage characteristics and on-state characteristics provides insight on the temperature dependence of key parameters such as threshold voltage, 2DEG sheet carrier concentration, specific on-state resistance, and drain saturation current in the fabricated devices.

  11. Current-Voltage Characteristics of Molecular Devices at Low Bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yun-Xing; CHEN Hao; R.Note; H.Mizuseki; Y.Kawazoe

    2004-01-01

    We use density functional theory and the Green function formalism with charge energy effect included in the self-consistent calculation of the Ⅰ- Ⅴ characteristics of a single benzene ring with an appendage of cf3, and identify some interesting properties of the Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics at low bias. The molecule picks up a fractional charge at zero bias, then the additional fractional charge produces a barrier on the junction of the molecule and contacts to perturb current flow on the molecule. This phenomenon may be useful for the design of future molecular devices.

  12. A PMOS multipled LVTSCR device for ESD protection with a higher holding voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tong-quan; WANG Yang; HUANG Wei; LUO Qi-yuan; JIN Xiang-liang

    2014-01-01

    A novel LVTSCR structure for 5 V on-chip protection against Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) stress at input or output pads is presented. Silvaco 2D TCAD software is used to simulate the device including electrical and thermal characteristics. The new device exchanges the diffusion region of N+ and P+ in N-WELL and introduces a PMOS-like structure to discharge ESD current before Low Voltage Triggering SCR(LVTSCR) starting to work. And the device simulation results show that it obtains a higher holding voltage(10.51 V) and a faster turn on speed(1.05×10-10 s) compared with LVTSCR, with the triggering voltage only increasing slightly from 12.45 V to 15.35 V. Also, in order to make sure that the PMOS structure will trigger first and will not cause thermal breakdown problem, nearly the same channel length as NMOS should be chosen for PMOS structure.

  13. Modulation Voltage of High T c DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Device with Damping Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enpuku, Keiji; Doi, Hideki; Tokita, Go; Maruo, Taku

    1994-05-01

    The effect of damping resistance on the voltage versus flux (V -Φ) relation of the high T c dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is studied experimentally. Dc SQUID using YBaCuO step-edge junction and damping resistance in parallel with SQUID inductance is fabricated. Measured values of modulation voltage in the V -Φ relation are compared with those of the conventional SQUID without damping resistance. It is shown that modulation voltage is much improved by using damping resistance. The obtained experimental results agree reasonably with theoretical predictions reported previously.

  14. Low-voltage paper isotachophoresis device for DNA focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Long; Crooks, Richard M

    2015-10-21

    We present a new paper-based isotachophoresis (ITP) device design for focusing DNA samples having lengths ranging from 23 to at least 1517 bp. DNA is concentrated by more than two orders of magnitude within 4 min. The key component of this device is a 2 mm-long, 2 mm-wide circular paper channel formed by concertina folding a paper strip and aligning the circular paper zones on each layer. Due to the short channel length, a high electric field of ~16 kV m(-1) is easily generated in the paper channel using two 9 V batteries. The multilayer architecture also enables convenient reclamation and analysis of the sample after ITP focusing by simply opening the origami paper and cutting out the desired layers. We profiled the electric field in the origami paper channel during ITP experiments using a nonfocusing fluorescent tracer. The result showed that focusing relied on formation and subsequent movement of a sharp electric field boundary between the leading and trailing electrolyte.

  15. Development of A Maintenance Device for Bus-bar PT Voltage Air Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When PT breaks down, it takes long time of switching operation before maintenance, which seriously delays the restoration time. Based on the principle of multiple circuit, a live replacement maintenance device for PT voltage air switch is proposed. The following aspects are involved in the design of the device: the principle of device, component selection, device’s assembly and operation process. Through functional test in simulation substation and on-site installation, it is proved that the failed air switch can be lively replaced by the device without switching operation, which greatly reduces the risk on power grid caused by such faulted air switch.

  16. Spectroscopic investigation of the interfaces in new poly(9,9-dihexyl–9H-fluorene-2,7- diyl based electroluminescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Donitsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest occupied and lowest unoccupied states of the new electroluminescent material poly(9,9-dihexyl–9H- fluorene-2,7-diyl (PPV-D and polyvinylcarbazole (PVK are investigated using ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. Hole injection barriers are determined for interfaces between indium-tin oxide covered substrates with work function ranging from 4.4 to 4.7 eV and these two polymers. Vacuum level alignment with flat bands away from the interface is found when the interface hole barrier is 0.6 eV or larger. Band bending away from the Fermi level occurs when the hole barrier is smaller than 0.6 eV. This is due to the accumulation charges at the interface with the polymer when the injection barrier is small. The resulting field bends the polymer levels to limit charge incoming in the bulk of the film. The efficiency of the electroluminescent structures is strongly influenced by the different energy levels alignment at the layer interfaces.

  17. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  18. Degradation and capacitance: voltage hysteresis in CdTe devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, D. S.; Dhere, R. G.; Glynn, S. C.; del Cueto, J. A.; Metzger, W. K.

    2009-08-01

    CdS/CdTe photovoltaic solar cells were made on two different transparent conducting oxide (TCO) structures in order to identify differences in fabrication, performance, and reliability. In one set of cells, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to deposit a bi-layer TCO on Corning 7059 borosilicate glass consisting of a F-doped, conductive tin-oxide (cSnO2) layer capped by an insulating (undoped), buffer (iSnO2) layer. In the other set, a more advanced bi-layer structure consisting of sputtered cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4; CTO) as the conducting layer and zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4; ZTO) as the buffer layer was used. CTO/ZTO substrates yielded higher performance devices however performance uniformity was worse due to possible strain effects associated with TCO layer fabrication. Cells using the SnO2-based structure were only slightly lower in performance, but exhibited considerably greater performance uniformity. When subjected to accelerated lifetime testing (ALT) at 85 - 100 °C under 1-sun illumination and open-circuit bias, more degradation was observed in CdTe cells deposited on the CTO/ZTO substrates. Considerable C-V hysteresis, defined as the depletion width difference between reverse and forward direction scans, was observed in all Cu-doped CdTe cells. These same effects can also be observed in thin-film modules. Hysteresis was observed to increase with increasing stress and degradation. The mechanism for hysteresis is discussed in terms of both an ionic-drift model and one involving majority carrier emission in the space-charge region (SCR). The increased generation of hysteresis observed in CdTe cells deposited on CTO/ZTO substrates suggests potential decomposition of these latter oxides when subjected to stress testing.

  19. Modeling the current-voltage characteristics of bilayer polymer photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. A.; Ramsdale, C. M.; Greenham, N. C.

    2003-02-01

    We have developed a numerical model to predict the current-voltage curves of bilayer conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices. The model accounts for charge photogeneration, injection, drift, diffusion, and recombination, and includes the effect of space charge on the electric field within the device. Charge separation at the polymer-polymer interface leads to the formation of bound polaron pairs which may either recombine monomolecularly or be dissociated into free charges, and we develop expressions for the field dependence of the dissociation rate. We find that the short-circuit quantum efficiency is determined by the competition between polaron pair dissociation and recombination. The model shows a logarithmic dependence of the open-circuit voltage on the incident intensity, as seen experimentally. This additional intensity-dependent voltage arises from the field required to produce a drift current that balances the current due to diffusion of carriers away from the interface.

  20. Influence of Parasitic Capacitance on Output Voltage for Series-Connected Thin-Film Piezoelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Kanda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Series-connected thin film piezoelectric elements can generate large output voltages. The output voltage ideally is proportional to the number of connections. However, parasitic capacitances formed by the insulation layers and derived from peripheral circuitry degrade the output voltage. Conventional circuit models are not suitable for predicting the influence of the parasitic capacitance. Therefore we proposed the simplest model of piezoelectric elements to perform simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE circuit simulations. The effects of the parasitic capacitances on the thin-film Pb(Zr, TiO3, (PZT elements connected in series on a SiO2 insulator are demonstrated. The results reveal the negative effect on the output voltage caused by the parasitic capacitances of the insulation layers. The design guidelines for the devices using series-connected piezoelectric elements are explained.

  1. Self-affine roughness influence on the pull-in voltage in capacitive electromechanical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness parameters on the pull-in voltage in capacitive microelectromechanical devices. The capacitor plate roughness is considered as self-affine type, which is described by the roughness amplitude w, the lateral correlation length xi, and

  2. Self-affine roughness influence on the pull-in voltage in capacitive electromechanical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness parameters on the pull-in voltage in capacitive microelectromechanical devices. The capacitor plate roughness is considered as self-affine type, which is described by the roughness amplitude w, the lateral correlation length xi, and

  3. Net Voltage and Phenomenon of Resonance Induced by Chaotic Signal for a Superconducting Junctions Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a quenched chaotic signal on the over-damped motion of the electron pairs of a superconducting junctions device are studied. It is shown that the chaotic signal can induce the net voltage and the phenomenon of resonance.

  4. Organic Electroluminescent Sensor for Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Niimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygenmolecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II octaethylporphine (PtOEP doped into poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP, which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence.

  5. Optimal setting of FACTS devices for voltage stability improvement using PSO adaptive GSA hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Ram Inkollu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique for optimizing the FACTS devices, so as to maintain the voltage stability in the power transmission systems. Here, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO and the adaptive gravitational search algorithm (GSA technique are proposed for improving the voltage stability of the power transmission systems. In the proposed approach, the PSO algorithm is used for optimizing the gravitational constant and to improve the searching performance of the GSA. Using the proposed technique, the optimal settings of the FACTS devices are determined. The proposed algorithm is an effective method for finding out the optimal location and the sizing of the FACTS controllers. The optimal locations and the power ratings of the FACTS devices are determined based on the voltage collapse rating as well as the power loss of the system. Here, two FACTS devices are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, namely, the unified power flow controller (UPFC and the interline power flow controller (IPFC. The Newton–Raphson load flow study is used for analyzing the power flow in the transmission system. From the power flow analysis, bus voltages, active power, reactive power, and power loss of the transmission systems are determined. Then, the voltage stability is enhanced while satisfying a given set of operating and physical constraints. The proposed technique is implemented in the MATLAB platform and consequently, its performance is evaluated and compared with the existing GA based GSA hybrid technique. The performance of the proposed technique is tested with the benchmark system of IEEE 30 bus using two FACTS devices such as, the UPFC and the IPFC.

  6. On-chip artificial magnon-polariton device for voltage control of electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Yao, Bimu; Gui, Yong-Sheng; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip device utilizing the concept of an artificial cavity magnon-polariton (CMP) generated via coupling between a microwave cavity mode and the artificial magnetism dynamics of a split ring resonator. This on-chip device allows the easy tuning of the artificial CMP gap by using a DC voltage signal, which enables tuneable electrodynamically induced transparency. The high tunability of the artificial magnon-polariton system not only enables the study of phenomena associated with the classical analogues of different coupling regimes, but also may open up avenues for designing advanced microwave devices and ultra-sensitive sensors.

  7. Carbon nanotube-polybithiophene photovoltaic devices with high open-circuit voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patyk, Rodolfo L.; Huemmelgen, Ivo A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba PR (Brazil); Lomba, Bruno S.; Nogueira, Ana Flavia [Laboratorio de Nanotechnologia e Energia Solar, Instituto de Quimica, Unicamp, C.P. 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Furtado, Clascidia A.; Santos, Adelina Pinheiro [Laboratorio de Quimica de Nanoestruturas, CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Regina M.Q.; Micaroni, Liliana [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba PR (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    We report the preparation of photovoltaic devices using modified single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs. Devices are produced stacking on top of fluorine-doped tin-oxide, an electrochemically deposited polybithiophene layer, a layer of SWNT blended with poly(3-octylthiophene) and an evaporated top metal contact, Ca/Al or Al. Ca/Al-top-electrode devices achieve open-circuit voltages of 1.81 V and average power conversion efficiency of 1.48% at irradiance of 15.5 W m{sup -2}, spectrally distributed following AM1.5. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Charge Carrier Transport Mechanism Based on Stable Low Voltage Organic Bistable Memory Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, V V; Moodley, M K; Kumar, A B V Kiran; Kannan, V

    2015-05-01

    A solution processed two terminal organic bistable memory device was fabricated utilizing films of polymethyl methacrylate PMMA/ZnO/PMMA on top of ITO coated glass. Electrical characterization of the device structure showed that the two terminal device exhibited favorable switching characteristics with an ON/OFF ratio greater than 1 x 10(4) when the voltage was swept between - 2 V and +3 V. The device maintained its state after removal of the bias voltage. The device did not show degradation after a 1-h retention test at 120 degrees C. The memory functionality was consistent even after fifty cycles of operation. The charge transport switching mechanism is discussed on the basis of carrier transport mechanism and our analysis of the data shows that the charge carrier trans- port mechanism of the device during the writing process can be explained by thermionic emission (TE) and space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) mechanism models while erasing process could be explained by the FN tunneling mechanism. This demonstration provides a class of memory devices with the potential for low-cost, low-power consumption applications, such as a digital memory cell.

  9. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullain, Gilles; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-01

    TbxDy1-xFe2/Pt/Pb(Zrx, Ti1-x)O3 thin films were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient αΗΜΕ was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large αΗΜΕ of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance.

  10. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  11. Protection Distance of Surge Protective Devices in Low Voltage Distribution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong; FU Zheng-cai; ZHAO Gang; SUN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Protection distance of surge protective devices (SPDs) is an important problem in designing a good location scheme of SPDs in low voltage distribution systems for protecting electrical equipments against overvoltage caused by lightning stroke. The simplified lumped-parameter circuit model and the circuit method were used to study the protection distance problem of SPDs. The analytical solutions of the load voltage and generale quations of the protection distance of SPDs under different load conditions were given. Simulation results of examples proved the validity of the proposed analytical method.

  12. Eliminating leakage current in voltage-controlled exchange-bias devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ather; Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Michael; Binek, Christian; Magnetic Heterostructures Team

    Manipulation of magnetism by electric field has drawn much attention due to the technological importance for low-power devices, and for understanding fundamental magnetoelectric phenomena. A manifestation of electrically controlled magnetism is voltage control of exchange bias (EB). Robust isothermal voltage control of EB was demonstrated near room temperature using a heterostructure of Co/Pd thin film and an exchange coupled single crystal of the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 (Chromia). A major obstacle for EB in lithographically patterned Chromia based thin-film devices is to minimize the leakage currents at high electric fields (>10 kV/mm). By combining electrical measurements on patterned devices and conductive Atomic Force Microscopy of Chromia thin-films, we investigate the defects which form conducting paths impeding the application of sufficient voltage for demonstrating the isothermal EB switching in thin film heterostructures. Technological challenges in the device fabrication will be discussed. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC Abstract DMR-0820521.

  13. Effect of single walled carbon nanotubes on the threshold voltage of dye based photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Manik, N.B., E-mail: nb_manik@yahoo.co.in

    2016-01-15

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices as their usage has been reported to enhance the device efficiency along with other related parameters. In this work we have studied the energy (E{sub c}) effect of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) and also on the trap states of dye based photovoltaic devices. SWCNT is added in a series of dyes such as Rose Bengal (RB), Methyl Red (MR), Malachite Green (MG) and Crystal Violet (CV). By analysing the steady state dark current–voltage (I–V) characteristics V{sub th} and E{sub c} is estimated for the different devices with and without addition of SWCNT. It is observed that on an average for all the dyes V{sub th} is reduced by about 30% in presence of SWCNT. The trap energy E{sub c} also reduces in case of all the dyes. The relation between V{sub th}, E{sub c} and total trap density is discussed. From the photovoltaic measurements it is seen that the different photovoltaic parameters change with addition of SWCNT to the dye based devices. Both the short circuit current density and fill factor are found to increase for all the dye based devices in presence of SWCNT.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing rhenium(Ⅰ)complex Re(CO)3(Bphen)(PTOP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new 1,3,4-oxadiazole-contanining rhenium(Ⅰ) complex, with the formula [Re(CO)3(Bphen)(PTOP)], (Bphen = bathophenardine, PTOP = 4-(5-p-tolyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazd-2-yl) pyridine), is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR,UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy. The double-layer electroluminescence devices based on the Re(Ⅰ) complex have been fabricated by spin-coating technique. The turn-on voltage, maximum efficiency, and brightness for green emission obtained from the devices are 9 V, 2.1 cd/A and 165 cd/m2, respectively.

  15. A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI) thin film devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Sheng-Dong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2009-01-01

    A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI) thin film devices is proposed, and a formula of silicon critical electric field is derived as a function of silicon film thickness by solving a 2D Poisson equation from an effective ionization rate, with a threshold energy taken into account for electron multiplying. Unlike a conventional silicon critical electric field that is constant and independent of silicon film thickness, the proposed silicon critical electric field increases sharply with silicon film thickness decreasing especially in the case of thin films, and can come to 141 V/μm at a film thickness of 0.1 μm which is much larger than the normal value of about 30 V/μm. From the proposed formula of silicon critical electric field, the expressions of dielectric layer electric field and vertical breakdown voltage (VB,V) are obtained. Based on the model, an ultra thin film can be used to enhance dielectric layer electric field and so increase vertical breakdown voltage for SOI devices because of its high silicon critical electric field, and with a dielectric layer thickness of 2 μm the vertical breakdown voltages reach 852 and 300V for the silicon film thicknesses of 0.1 and 5μm, respectively. In addition, a relation between dielectric layer thickness and silicon film thickness is obtained, indicating a minimum vertical breakdown voltage that should be avoided when an SOI device is designed. 2D simulated results and some experimental results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  16. All-graphene oxide device with tunable supercapacitor and battery behaviour by the working voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Chikako; Kurogi, Ruriko; Hatakeyama, Kazuto; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Koinuma, Michio; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

    2016-03-11

    We propose a new type of all-graphene oxide device. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/graphene oxide (GO)/rGO functions as both a supercapacitor and a battery, depending on the working voltage. The rGO/GO/rGO operates as a supercapacitor until 1.2 V. At greater than 1.5 V, it behaves as a battery using redox reaction.

  17. Comparison of electroluminescence intensity and photocurrent of polymer based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Ulrich; Swonke, Thomas; Auer, Richard [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Erlangen (Germany); Pinna, Luigi; Brabec, Christoph J. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Erlangen (Germany); I-MEET, University Erlangen (Germany); Stubhan, Tobias; Li, Ning [I-MEET, University Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The reciprocity theorem for solar cell predicts a linear relation between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and an exponential dependence of the electroluminescence signal on the applied voltage. Both dependencies are experimentally verified for polymer based solar cells in this paper. Furthermore it is shown, that electroluminescence imaging of organic solar cells has the potential to visualize the photocurrent distribution significantly faster than standard laser beam induced current mapping (LBIC) techniques. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Process optimization of a deep trench isolation structure for high voltage SOI devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiying, Zhu; Qinsong, Qian; Jing, Zhu; Weifeng, Sun

    2010-12-01

    The process reasons for weak point formation of the deep trench on SOI wafers have been analyzed in detail. An optimized trench process is also proposed. It is found that there are two main reasons: one is over-etching laterally of the silicon on the surface of the buried oxide caused by a fringe effect; and the other is the slow growth rate of the isolation oxide in the concave silicon corner of the trench bottom. In order to improve the isolation performance of the deep trench, two feasible ways for optimizing the trench process are proposed. The improved process thickens the isolation oxide and rounds sharp silicon corners at their weak points, increasing the applied voltage by 15-20 V at the same leakage current. The proposed new trench isolation process has been verified in the foundry's 0.5-μm HV SOI technology.

  19. Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of [tantalum:(gadolinium/praseodymium)] and (praseodymium:cerium) organic compounds on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohzone, Takashi; Matsuda, Toshihiro; Fukuoka, Ryouhei; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an indium tin oxide (ITO)/[Gd/(Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce)-Si-O] insulator layer/n+-Si substrate surface is reported. The insulator layers were fabricated from organic liquid sources of Gd or (Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce) mixtures, which were spin-coated on the n+-Si substrate and annealed at 950 °C for 30 min in air. The EL emission could be observed by the naked eye in the dark in the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnel current regions. Peak wavelengths in the measured EL spectra were independent of the positive current. The EL intensity ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to the visible range varied with the composition ratio of the (Ta + Gd) liquids, and an optimum Ta to Gd ratio existed for the strongest blue emission, which could be attributed to the Ta-related oxide/silicate. The pink EL of the device fabricated with the (\\text{Ta}:\\text{Pr} = 6:4) mixture ratio can be explained by EL emission peaks related to the Pr3+ ions. The purple EL observed from the (\\text{Pr}:\\text{Ce} = 6:4) device corresponds to the strong and broad emission profile near the 357 nm peak, which cannot be assigned to Ce3+ ions. The results suggest that the EL can be attributed to the double-layer oxides with different compositions in the MOS devices. The upper layer consists of various Ta-, Gd-, Pr-, and Ce-related oxides and their silicates, while the lower SiO x -rich layer contributes to the FN current due to the high electric field, and thus the various EL colors.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES A compressed wide period-tunable grating working at low voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liu; Tie, Li; Anjie, Ming; Yuelin, Wang

    2010-10-01

    A MEMS compressed period-tunable grating device with a wide tuning range has been designed, fabricated and characterized. To increase the tuning range, avoid instability with tuning and improve the performance, we propose in this paper a period-tunable grating which is compressed by large-displacement comb actuators with tilted folded beams. The experimental results show that the designed grating device has a compression range of up to 144 μm within 37 V driving voltage. The period of the grating can be adjusted continuously from 16 to 14 μm with a tuning range of 12.5%. The maximum tuning range of the first-order diffraction angle is 0.34° at 632.8 nm and the reflectivity of the grating is more than 92.6% in the mid-infrared region. The grating device can be fabricated by simple processes and finds applications in mid-infrared spectrometers.

  1. Voltage-Tunable Multicolor, Sub-1.5 V, Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on Ion Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwan; Seo, Dong Gyu; Yun, Tae Yong; Kim, Chan Young; Moon, Hong Chul

    2017-03-01

    Voltage-tunable multicolor electrochromic devices (ECDs) are fabricated based on flexible ion gels consisting of copolymers and ionic liquids as an electrolyte layer. Dimethyl ferrocene (dmFc) is incorporated into the gel, which serves as an anodic species. In this study, two electrochromic (EC) materials, monoheptyl viologen (MHV(+)) and diheptyl viologen (DHV(2+)), are employed and show significantly different EC behavior despite the similar chemical structure. Both MHV(+)- and DHV(2+)-containing ECDs are slightly yellowish in the bleached state, whereas the colored states are magenta and blue, respectively. All devices have good coloration efficiency of 87.5 cm(2)/C (magenta) and 91.3 cm(2)/C (blue). In addition, the required power of ∼248 μW/cm(2) (magenta) and ∼72 μW/cm(2) (blue) to maintain the colored state put the ion gel-based ECDs in a class of ultralow power consumption displays. On the basis of the distinct difference in the coloration voltage range between MHV(+) and DHV(2+), and the rubbery character of the gel, flexible ECDs showing multiple colors are demonstrated. These results imply that voltage-tunable multicolor ECDs based on the gel are attractive to functional electrochemical displays.

  2. Low voltage lead titanate/Si one-transistor ferroelectric memory with good device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C. L.; Chen, S. Y.; Liao, C. C.; Chin, Albert

    2004-11-01

    We have developed one-transistor ferroelectric memory using lead titanate (PTO) as a gate dielectric directly formed on Si without any buffer layer. The PTO/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor memory has shown a large threshold voltage shift of 1.6 V at only ±4V program/erase voltages. The corresponding good interface was achieved by lowering the anneal temperature to 450 °C. Besides the sharp capacitance change of 0.17μF/Vcm2, it was also evidenced by the high mobility of 169cm2/Vs close to high-κ HfO2. In addition, long retention >1000s and endurance >1011 stress cycles in the device suggested good memory characteristics.

  3. Magneto-electroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Liu,Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magneto-electroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from th...

  4. Effects of the charge-transfer reorganization energy on the open-circuit voltage in small-molecular bilayer organic photovoltaic devices: comparison of the influence of deposition rates of the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Chien; Su, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2016-05-14

    The theoretical maximum of open-circuit voltage (VOC) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has yet to be determined, and its origin remains debated. Here, we demonstrate that VOC of small-molecule OPV devices can be improved by controlling the deposition rate of a donor without changing the interfacial energy gap at the donor/acceptor interface. The measurement of external quantum efficiency and electroluminescence spectra facilitates the observation of the existence of charge transfer (CT) states. A simplified approach by reusing the reciprocity relationship for obtaining the properties of the CT states is proposed without introducing complex techniques. We compare experimental and fitting results and propose that reorganization energy is the primary factor in determining VOC instead of either the CT energy or electronic coupling term in bilayer OPV devices. Atomic force microscopy images indicate a weak molecular aggregation when a higher deposition rate is used. The results of temperature-dependent measurements suggest the importance of molecular stacking for the CT properties.

  5. Surge protective device response to steep front transient in low voltage circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuz, J.; Binczak, S.; Bilbault, J.M. [Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)], Emails: jerome.marcuz@ laposte.net, stbinc@u-bourgogne.fr, bilbault@u-bourgogne.fr; Girard, F. [ADEE Electronic, Pont de Pany (France)

    2007-07-01

    Surge propagation on cables of electrical or data lines leads to a major protection problem as the number of equipment based on solid-state circuits or microprocessors increases. Sub-microsecond components of real surge waveform has to be taken into account for a proper protection even in the case of surges caused by indirect lightning effects. The response of a model of transient voltage suppressor diode based surge protection device (SPD) to fast front transient is analytically studied, then compared to simulations, including the lines connected to the SPD and to the protected equipment. (author)

  6. Anomalous Threshold Voltage Variability of Nitride Based Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chuan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology scaling is implemented to meet the insatiable demand of high memory density and low cost per bit of charge storage nonvolatile memory (NVM devices. In this study, effect of technology scaling to anomalous threshold voltage ( variability is investigated thoroughly on postcycled and baked nitride based charge storage NVM devices. After long annealing bake of high temperature, cell’s variability of each subsequent bake increases within stable distribution and found exacerbate by technology scaling. Apparent activation energy of this anomalous variability was derived through Arrhenius plots. Apparent activation energy (Eaa of this anomalous variability is 0.67 eV at sub-40 nm devices which is a reduction of approximately 2 times from 110 nm devices. Technology scaling clearly aggravates this anomalous variability, and this poses reliability challenges to applications that demand strict control, for example, reference cells that govern fundamental program, erase, and verify operations of NVM devices. Based on critical evidence, this anomalous variability is attributed to lateral displacement of trapped charges in nitride storage layer. Reliability implications of this study are elucidated. Moreover, potential mitigation methods are proposed to complement technology scaling to prolong the front-runner role of nitride based charge storage NVM in semiconductor flash memory market.

  7. Analysis and modeling of zero-threshold voltage native devices with industry standard BSIM6 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chetan; Agarwal, Harshit; Lin, Y. K.; Ito, Akira; Hu, Chenming; Singh Chauhan, Yogesh

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present the modeling of zero-threshold voltage (V TH) bulk MOSFET, also called native devices, using enhanced BSIM6 model. Devices under study show abnormally high leakage current in weak inversion, leading to degraded subthreshold slope. The reasons for such abnormal behavior are identified using technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. Since the zero-V TH transistors have quite low doping, the depletion layer from drain may extend upto the source (at some non-zero value of V DS) which leads to punch-through phenomenon. This source–drain leakage current adds with the main channel current, causing the unexpected current characteristics in these devices. TCAD simulations show that, as we increase the channel length (L eff) and channel doping (N SUB), the source–drain leakage due to punch-through decreases. We propose a model to capture the source–drain leakage in these devices. The model incorporates gate, drain, body biases and channel length as well as channel doping dependency too. The proposed model is validated with the measured data of production level device over various conditions of biases and channel lengths.

  8. Organic Light-Emitting Device Based on Terbium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ying; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Xiao Jing; Wang Ruifen

    2005-01-01

    A new rare earth complex Tb(p-MBA)3phen was synthesized, which is first used as an emitting material in organic electroluminescence. By doping it into the conjugated polymer PVK, single-layer and double-layer devices were fabricated with structures: device 1: ITO/PVK∶ Tb(p-MBA)3phen/Al; device 2∶ ITO/PVK: Tb(p-MBA)3phen/AlQ/LiF/Al. The characteristics of these devices have been investigated. The emission of PVK is completely restrained, and only the pure green emission from Tb3+ can be observed in electroluminescence. The optimized device 2 has better monochromatic characteristics with the maximal brightness of 152 cd · m-2 at the voltage of 20 V.

  9. Voltage Control of Distribution Network with a Large Penetration of Photovoltaic Generations using FACTS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Taro; Baba, Jumpei; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In recent years, there is a great deal of interest in distributed generations from viewpoints of environmental problem and energy saving measure. Thus, a lot of distributed generators will be connected to the distribution network in the future. However, increase of distributed generators, which convert natural energy into electric energy, is concerned on their adverse effects on distribution network. Therefore, control of distribution networks using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices is considered in order to adjust the voltage profile, and as a result more distributed generations can be installed into the networks. In this paper, four types of FACTS devices, Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and self-commutated Back-To-Back converter (BTB), are analyzed by comparison of required minimum capacity of the inverters in a residential distribution network with a large penetration of photovoltaic generations.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: EMP injection damage effects of a bipolar transistor and its relationship between the injecting voltage and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Bing, Zhang; Xiao, Hong

    2010-04-01

    The response of a bipolar transistor (BJT) under a square-wave electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with different injecting voltages is investigated. Adopting the curve fitting method, the relationship between the burnout time, the damage energy and the injecting voltage is obtained. Research shows that the damage energy is not a constant value, but changes with the injecting voltage level. By use of the device simulator Medici, the internal behavior of the burned device is analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the variation of the damage energy with injecting voltage is caused by the distribution change of hot spot position under different injection levels. Therefore, the traditional way to evaluate the trade-off between the burnout time and the injecting voltage is not comprehensive due to the variation of the damage energy.

  11. Electroluminescence and negative differential resistance studies of TPD:PBD:Alq3 blend organic-light-emitting diodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Mohd Sarjidan; S H Basri; N K Za’aba; M S Zaini; W H Abd Majid

    2015-02-01

    Ternary system of single-layer organic-light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated containing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) blended with N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole small molecules. Electroluminescence properties were investigated with respect to blend systems. Significant improvement in turn-on voltage and luminance intensity was observed by employing the blends technique. Negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics observed at a low voltage region in blended OLED is related to the generation of guest hopping site and phonon scattering phenomenon. However, luminescence of the devices is not altered by the NDR effect.

  12. Damping improvement and terminal voltage regulation for a synchronous machine using an energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Kyoon; Song, Hwachang; Yoon, Tae-Woong

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of the non-linear third-order generator model, this article proposes a dual control scheme for a single synchronous machine equipped with an energy storage device to regulate the terminal voltage while enhancing the damping. Based on the input-output feedback linearisation method, the exciter controller is designed such that the terminal voltage robustly converges to its predetermined reference in the presence of a model uncertainty. In addition, the control input of the energy storage device feedbacks only the relative speed. It is shown that this controller can effectively increase the damping of the synchronous machine and that there is a set of initial conditions such that all trajectories started from this set go to the equilibrium point, satisfying input constraints. Moreover, it is also verified that all generator variables are bounded except for the power angle. The simulation results show that the closed-loop performance is satisfactory despite a transmission line fault and a model uncertainty in which the non-linear fourth-order generator model (two-axis) is used.

  13. Improving breakdown voltage performance of SOI power device with folded drift region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 李海鸥; 黄平奖; 肖功利; 杨年炯

    2016-01-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) high breakdown voltage (BV) power device with interlaced dielectric trenches (IDT) and N/P pillars is proposed. In the studied structure, the drift region is folded by IDT embedded in the active layer, which results in an increase of length of ionization integral remarkably. The crowding phenomenon of electric field in the corner of IDT is relieved by the N/P pillars. Both traits improve two key factors of BV, the ionization integral length and electric field magnitude, and thus BV is significantly enhanced. The electric field in the dielectric layer is enhanced and a major portion of bias is borne by the oxide layer due to the accumulation of inverse charges (holes) at the corner of IDT. The average value of the lateral electric field of the proposed device reaches 60 V/µm with a 10 µm drift length, which increases by 200%in comparison to the conventional SOI LDMOS, resulting in a breakdown voltage of 607 V.

  14. Influence of polarity of set voltage on the properties of conductive filaments in NiO based nonvolatile memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui-Yu; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we realize the coexistence of bipolar and unipolar resistive switching (RS) in one Pt-Ir/NiO/TiB1+δ cell. The types of RS are controlled by polarity of set voltage and are free from the current compliance. Based on this coexistence, the set voltage and characters of filaments formed in RS are studied. The results show that the types of filaments also show polarity dependence on the set voltage. The positive set voltage can induce metallic filaments while the negative set voltage can result in semiconductor filaments. It reveals that the distribution of magnitude of set voltage shows abnormal polarity dependence in our devices. The combination the theory of interaction between oxygen vacancy defects and one-carrier impact ionization theory of breakdown account for these results. The influence of filament properties on RS types is also discussed.

  15. Near infrared electroluminescence of ZnMgO/InN core-shell nanorod heterostructures grown on Si substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoguang; Zheng, Weitao; Gao, Fubin; Yang, Hang; Zhao, Yang; Yin, Jingzhi; Zheng, Wei; Li, Wancheng; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-07-27

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of a ZnMgO/InN core-shell nanorods heterojunction device on a p-Si substrate. Here we demonstrated the heteroepitaxial growth of the well-aligned ZnMgO/InN core-shell nanorods structure, which enabled an increased heterojunction area to improve the carrier injection efficiency of nanodevices by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy combined with metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed on the ZnMgO nanorods, the interface of ZnMgO/InN and the InN core-shell nanorods to fully understand the structure and working mechanism of the heterojunction device. The current transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the characteristics of current-voltage and the energy band diagram of the n-InN/ZnMgO/p-Si heterojunction. At a low forward voltage, the current transport followed the dependence of I ∼ V(1.47), which was attributed to the deep-level assisted tunneling. When the forward voltage was larger than 10 V, the current followed the relation of I ∼ V(2) because of the radiative recombination process. In accordance with the above conclusion, the near-infrared electroluminescence of the diode could be observed after the forward bias voltage up to 11.6 V at room temperature. In addition, the size quantization effect and the intrinsic electron accumulation of the InN core-shell nanorods were investigated to explain the blueshift and broadened bandwidth. Furthermore, the light output power of about 0.6 microwatt at a fixed wavelength of 1500 nm indicated that our study will further provide a useful route for realizing the near-infrared electroluminescence of InN on Si substrate.

  16. Application of FACTS devices to the 330 kV Nigerian system for voltage and power control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komolafe, O.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Adepoju, G. [Ladoke Akintola Univ. of Technology, Ogbomoso (Nigeria). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Garcia-Valle, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). CET-Elektro

    2008-07-01

    Various flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices were investigated in this study. A static VAR compensator (SVC), static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a unified power flow controller (UPFC) were simulated in order to determine their voltage regulation and power flow control ability for a 330 kV transmission system in Nigeria. The FACTS models were tested on standard power networks and then modelled with a Newton-Raphson algorithm as part of a power flow analysis. The study identified potential locations for the devices in the Nigerian transmission network. Four case studies were considered in order to determine optimal configurations for the devices within the network. The study showed that the SVC and STATCOM devices regulate voltage buses without violating susceptance or voltage limits. The UPFC can control active power flow through transmission lines connecting the northern region of the country to areas with a high demand for power supply. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Characterization of Cadmium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and characterized a new electroluminescence material,Cadmium [(2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole(8-hydoxyquinoline] Cd(HPBq. The absorption spectra of this material show maxima at 378 nm. It may be attributed due to π° – π* transition. The photoluminescence showed peak at 520 nm. TGA data of the material shows stability up to 370 °C .Organic light emitting diode have been fabricated with this material and the fundamental structures of the device is ITO/α-NPD/ Cd(HPBq/BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al exhibited a luminescence peak at 550 nm. The maximum luminescence of the device was 295 cd/m2 with current density of 6687 A/m2 at 20 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 1.01 cd/A at 17 V and power efficiency was 1.01 lm/w at 17 V.

  18. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  19. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of benzothiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Huiying [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao Xindong [State Key Laboratory of Applied Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhong Gaoyu; Zhong Zhiyang [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiao Fei, E-mail: feixiao@fudan.edu.c [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shao Bingxian [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Benzothiazole-based blue fluorescent materials N-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-N-phenylbenzenamine (BPPA) and N-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-N-phenylnaphthalen-1-amine (BPNA) were synthesized for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Electroluminescent device with a configuration of ITO/NPB/BPPA/BCP/Alq{sub 3}/LiF/Al showed a maximum brightness of 3760 cd/m{sup 2} at 14.4 V with the CIE coordinates of (0.16, 0.16). A current efficiency of 3.01 cd/A and an external quantum efficiency of 2.37% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} were obtained from this device. Molecules derived from BPPA and BPNA with incorporated dicyanomethylidene, which is a functional group for most red fluorescent molecules, were designed, synthesized and characterized to study the red fluorescence properties of the benzothiazole derivatives.

  20. Dependence of Performance of Organic Light-emitting Devices on Sheet Resistance of Indium-tin-oxide Anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the performance of organic light-emitting devices(OLEDs) on the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide(ITO) anodes was investigated by measuring the steady state current density brightness voltage characteristics and the electroluminescent spectra. The device with a higher sheet resistance anode shows a lower current density, a lower brightness level, and a higher operation voltage. The electroluminescence(EL) efficiencies of the devices with the same structure but different ITO anodes show more complicated differences. Furthermore, the shift of the light-emitting zone toward the anode was found when an anode with a higher sheet resistance was used. These performance differences are discussed and attributed to the reduction of hole injection and the increase in voltage drop over ITO anode with the increase in sheet resistance.

  1. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  2. Yellow-green electroluminescence of samarium complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Sara Karimi; Najafi, Ezzatollah [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M., E-mail: m-pouramini@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin [Laser Research Institute Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ng, Seik Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Four novel samarium complexes were prepared by reacting samarium(III) nitrate with 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 1,10-phenanthroline and utilized as emitting materials in the electroluminescence device. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV–vis and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopes and the molecular structure of a representative complex, [Sm{sub 2}(Me-HQ){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}] (1), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Utilization of a π-conjugated (phenanthroline) ligand as a second ligand in the structure of the samarium complexes resulted in red shifts in both absorption and fluorescence spectra of complexes and moderately enhanced the photoluminescence intensity and the fluorescence quantum yield. The maximum emission peaks showed that a good correlation exists between the nature of the substituent group on the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the addition of the π-conjugated ligand in the structure of samarium complexes and emission wavelength. Devices with samarium(III) complexes with structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (90 nm)/PVK:PBD:Sm(III) complexes (75 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. In the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the devices, a strong ligand-centered emission and narrow bands arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) of the samarium ion were observed for the complexes. The electroluminescent spectra of the samarium complexes were red-shifted as compared with the PVK:PBD blend. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on samarium complexes relies on overlaps between the absorption of the samarium compounds and the emission of PVK:PBD. This revealed that it is possible to evaluate the electroluminescence performance of the samarium compounds-doped OLED devices based on the emission of PVK:PBD and the absorption of the dopants. - Highlights: • Four novel photoluminescence samarium complexes have been synthesized.

  3. Light Emission Properties of a Cross-Conjugated Fluorene Polymer: Demonstration of Its Use in Electro-Luminescence and Lasing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Romero-Servin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Light emission properties of a fluorene cross-conjugated polymer (PF–1 based on the monomer 4,7-bis[2-(9,9-dimethylfluorenyl] benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole are reported. This polymer exhibits solubility at high concentrations, good processability into thin solid films of good quality and a broad emission band with a fluorescence quantum yield of approximately 1. Based on these features, in this paper we implemented the use of PF–1 as an active layer in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs and as a laser gain medium in solution. To get insight on the conducting properties of PF–1, two different electron injectors, poly [(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamino propyl-2,7-fluorene-alt-2,7-(9,9–dioctylfluorene] (PFN and lithium fluoride (LiF, were used in a simple PLED architecture. PLEDs with the PFN film were found to exhibit better performance with a maximum luminous efficiency of 40 cd/A, a turn-on voltage (Von of approximately 4.5 V and a luminance maximum of 878 cd/m2 at 5.5 V, with a current density of 20 A/m2. For the lasing properties of PF–1, we found a lasing threshold of around 75 μJ and a tunability of 20 nm. These values are comparable with those of rhodamine 6G, a well-known laser dye.

  4. New lightning current resistant low voltage limiting device for DC railway systems; Neue blitzstromtragfaehige Niederspannungsbegrenzungseinrichtung zum Potenzialschutz von Gleichstrombahnsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocks, A.; Hinrichsen, V. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik; Richter, B. [ABB Schweiz AG, Wettingen (Switzerland); Zayer, H. [ESN Bahngeraete GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In dc railway systems, low voltage limiters are applied to limit potential rises in case of failures by forming a permanent short-circuit between return circuit and Earth. These devices can usually carry only moderate lightning currents without permanent failure. In this contribution, a new concept is introduced which provides personal as well as equipment protection by combining a surge arrester and a low voltage limiter in a suited way. (orig.)

  5. Improving breakdown voltage performance of SOI power device with folded drift region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Hai-Ou, Li; Ping-Jiang, Huang; Gong-Li, Xiao; Nian-Jiong, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) high breakdown voltage (BV) power device with interlaced dielectric trenches (IDT) and N/P pillars is proposed. In the studied structure, the drift region is folded by IDT embedded in the active layer, which results in an increase of length of ionization integral remarkably. The crowding phenomenon of electric field in the corner of IDT is relieved by the N/P pillars. Both traits improve two key factors of BV, the ionization integral length and electric field magnitude, and thus BV is significantly enhanced. The electric field in the dielectric layer is enhanced and a major portion of bias is borne by the oxide layer due to the accumulation of inverse charges (holes) at the corner of IDT. The average value of the lateral electric field of the proposed device reaches 60 V/μm with a 10 μm drift length, which increases by 200% in comparison to the conventional SOI LDMOS, resulting in a breakdown voltage of 607 V. Project supported by the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2013GXNSFAA019335 and 2015GXNSFAA139300), Guangxi Experiment Center of Information Science of China (Grant No. YB1406), Guangxi Key Laboratory of Wireless Wideband Communication and Signal Processing of China, Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing (Grant No. GXKL061505), Guangxi Key Laboratory of Automobile Components and Vehicle Technology of China (Grant No. 2014KFMS04), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61361011, 61274077, and 61464003).

  6. Direct observation of bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, E; Chepel, V; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    Bubble formation in liquid xenon underneath a Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon was observed with a CCD camera. With voltage across the THGEM, the appearance of bubbles was correlated with that of electroluminescence signals induced by ionization electrons from alpha-particle tracks. This confirms recent indirect evidence that the observed photons are due to electroluminescence within a xenon vapor layer trapped under the electrode. The bubbles seem to emerge spontaneously due to heat flow from 300K into the liquid, or in a controlled manner, by locally boiling the liquid with resistive wires. Controlled bubble formation resulted in energy resolution of {\\sigma}/E~7.5% for ~6,000 ionization electrons. The phenomenon could pave ways towards the conception of large-volume 'local dual-phase' noble-liquid TPCs.

  7. Breakdown voltage model and structure realization of a thin silicon layer with linear variable doping on a silicon on insulator high voltage device with multiple step field plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Ming; Zhuang Xiang; Wu Li-Juan; Zhang Wen-Tong; Wen Heng-Juan; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and experimental investigation of a thin silicon layer (TSL) with linear variable doping (LVD) and further research on the TSL LVD with a multiple step field plate (MSFP),a breakdown voltage (BV) model is proposed and experimentally verified in this paper.With the two-dimensional Poisson equation of the silicon on insulator (SOI) device,the lateral electric field in drift region of the thin silicon layer is assumed to be constant.For the SOI device with LVD in the thin silicon layer,the dependence of the BV on impurity concentration under the drain is investigated by an enhanced dielectric layer field (ENDIF),from which the reduced surface field (RESURF) condition is deduced.The drain in the centre of the device has a good self-isolation effect but the problem of the high voltage interconnection (HVI) line will become serious.The two step field plates including the source field plate and gate field plate can be adopted to shield the HVI adverse effect on the device.Based on this model,the TSL LVD SOI n-channel lateral double-diffused MOSFET (nLDMOS) with MSFP is realized.The experimental breakdown voltage (BV) and specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) of the TSL LVD SOI device are 694 V and 21.3 Ω.mm2 with a drift region length of 60 μm,buried oxide layer of 3 μm,and silicon layer of 0.15 μm,respectively.

  8. DC and AC electroluminescence in silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon-rich oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Sanchez, A; Aceves-Mijares, M [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla, 72000 (Mexico); Barreto, J; DomInguez, C [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Peralvarez, M; Garrido, B [EME, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Luna-Lopez, J A, E-mail: amorales@inaoep.mx [CIDS-BUAP, Apartado 1651, Puebla, Pue, 72000 (Mexico)

    2010-02-26

    Electroluminescent properties of silicon-rich oxide (SRO) films were studied using metal oxide semiconductor-(MOS)-like devices. Thin SRO films with 4 at.% of silicon excess were deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by a thermal annealing at 1100 deg. C. Intense continuous visible and infrared luminescence has been observed when devices are reversely and forwardly bias, respectively. After an electrical stress, the continuous electroluminescence (EL) is quenched but devices show strong field-effect EL with pulsed polarization. A model based on conductive paths-across the SRO film- has been proposed to explain the EL behaviour in these devices.

  9. Liquid crystalline networks for electroluminescent displays

    CERN Document Server

    Contoret, A E A

    2001-01-01

    This work presents the first low molar mass organic electroluminescent (EL) material to form a nematic glass and then emit plane-polarised light from the vitrified state on application of an electric field. Photocrosslinkable molecules are also discussed which form insoluble films on illumination with ultra-violet light. This approach combines the ease of deposition of small molecules with the robustness and stability of polymers, allowing simple fabrication of multi-layer EL devices and photo-patterning. A range of conjugated low molar-mass molecules are considered, containing the anthracene, perylene and fluorene cores, with the aims of producing a general recipe for efficient EL, based on ordered, stable nematics at room temperature. Many physical properties are compared and molecular mechanics modeling is used to represent molecular geometries. An acrylate and several diene photo-polymerisable derivatives of the fluorenes undergo photo-crosslinking. Infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to e...

  10. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manju; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Brahme, Nameeta; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2008-08-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - tdel), where tdel is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - tdec), where tdec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated.

  11. Electroluminescence emission patterns of organic light-emitting transistors based on crystallized fluorene-type polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajii, Hirotake; Ohtomo, Takahiro; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns of organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) based on crystallized poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8), poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-dithienyl-benzothiadiazole) (F8TBT) films are investigated. For the single-layer devices and the mixed-layer device without an F8/F8BT interface, only line-shaped EL emission patterns are observed between source/drain (S/D) electrodes. For an F8BT (F8TBT)/F8 heterostructure device, a localized electric field is generated by the positive (negative) charges of the accumulated holes (electrons) in the F8 upper layer, which allow the injection of electrons (holes) in the F8BT (F8TBT) lower layer at a lower (higher) gate voltage. The F8/F8BT device exhibits unique light emission properties with a surface like EL emission pattern between S/D electrodes at a lower gate voltage. The interfacial structure is important for forming field-effect transistor channels along different organic layers to obtain a surface like emission between S/D electrodes. For the F8TBT/F8 OLET, the hole carrier transport mainly occurs at the F8TBT lower layer, and line-shaped EL emission patterns are observed in the vicinity of the source electrode upon varying the gate voltages owing to the worse carrier balance between the F8TBT lower layer and the F8 upper layer.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hu; Xingbi, Chen

    2010-09-01

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions.

  13. A New Approach for Preventive/Corrective Control Strategy to Avoid Voltage Collapse Based on FACTS Devices Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Araby, E. E.; Yorino, Naoto; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new method of optimal FACTS devices allocation to be used in the preventive/corrective control (PCC) against voltage collapse. The new formulation takes into consideration the transition states that the power system may expose such as normal state and contingency states. For the severe contingencies that drive the system to voltage collapse, the corrective control is initiated by means of fast response of FACTS and load shedding to restore the system with small positive load margin, then the preventive control is carried out using all the fast and slow devices ensuring security margin and voltage feasibility. For this control strategy, FACTS allocation are determined based on the minimum cost for the installations and the operations.. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, which is solved using hybrid genetic algorithm/successive liner programming (GA/SLP) approach. The IEEE 57 bus system is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Enhanced electroluminescence from nanocrystallite Si based MOSLED by interfacial Si nanopyramids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Ru Lin

    2007-01-01

    The interfacial Si nano-pyramid-enhanced electroluminescence (EL) of an ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al metal-oxidesemiconductor (MOS) diode with turn-on voltage of 50 V, threshold current of 1.23 mA/cm2, output power of 16 nW, and lifetime of 10 h is reported.

  15. A charge coupled device camera with electron decelerator for intermediate voltage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H; Mooney, Paul E

    2008-04-01

    Electron microscopists are increasingly turning to intermediate voltage electron microscopes (IVEMs) operating at 300-400 kV for a wide range of studies. They are also increasingly taking advantage of slow-scan charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, which have become widely used on electron microscopes. Under some conditions, CCDs provide an improvement in data quality over photographic film, as well as the many advantages of direct digital readout. However, CCD performance is seriously degraded on IVEMs compared to the more conventional 100 kV microscopes. In order to increase the efficiency and quality of data recording on IVEMs, we have developed a CCD camera system in which the electrons are decelerated to below 100 kV before impacting the camera, resulting in greatly improved performance in both signal quality and resolution compared to other CCDs used in electron microscopy. These improvements will allow high-quality image and diffraction data to be collected directly with the CCD, enabling improvements in data collection for applications including high-resolution electron crystallography, single particle reconstruction of protein structures, tomographic studies of cell ultrastructure, and remote microscope operation. This approach will enable us to use even larger format CCD chips that are being developed with smaller pixels.

  16. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  17. Cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence from multi-layered organic structures induced by field electron emission from carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetzov, Alexander A.; Zakhidov, Alexander A.; Ovalle, Raquel; Nanjundaswami, Rashmi; Williams, Christopher; Zhang, Mei; Lee, Sergey B.; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2005-10-01

    We report the observation of cathodoluminescence (CL) of organic multilayers of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) and 2- (4biphenyl)-5-(4-t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) deposited on ITO-coated glass, with and without hole transport layer and compare it with electroluminescence (EL) from similar devices. Excitation of the CL of such multilayer organic anodes was accomplished by low energy electrons field emitted by single walled carbon nanotube cathodes. The dependence of CL spectrum and intensity on voltage (V), current (I), type of transport layer and the cathode-anode geometry has been studied. We propose carbon nanotubes as efficient cathodes for stable CL emission from multi-layer anodes at small cathode-anode separations. The role of hole-transport layer is also discussed.

  18. A New Distyrylarylene Derivative Used as Blue Light Emitter in Organic Electroluminescent Device%一种新型联苯乙烯衍生物--蓝色有机电致发光材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 朱文清; 吴有智; 张步新; 蒋雪茵; 张志林; 许少鸿

    2002-01-01

    A new blue electroluminescent material, distyrylarylene(DSA) derivative, 4,4'-bis[2,2-(1-naphthyl,phenyl)vinyl]-l,l'-biphenyl(NPVBi) is designed and synthesized. The DSA derivative shows better thermal stability because of its high glass transition temperature. A blue organic light emitting diode(OLED) with the structure ITO/TPD/NPVBi/Alq/LiF/A1 is studied. The electroluminescent(EL) spectrum of the OLED exhibits that light emission originates from NPVBi with a peak at 460 nm, its Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage(CIE) color coordinates are x = 0.16, y = 0.15, and showing independence of CIE color coordinates on current density. The new DSA derivative is expectable as a new candidate for blue light emitter in OLEDs.

  19. One-dimensional breakdown voltage model of SOI RESURF lateral power device based on lateral linearly graded approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珺; 郭宇锋; 徐跃; 林宏; 杨慧; 洪洋; 姚佳飞

    2015-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional (1D) analytical model is proposed for quantifying the breakdown voltage of reduced surface field (RESURF) lateral power device fabricated on silicon on an insulator (SOI) substrate. We assume that the charges in the depletion region contribute to the lateral PN junctions along the diagonal of the area shared by the lateral and vertical depletion regions. Based on the assumption, the lateral PN junction behaves as a linearly graded junction, thus resulting in a reduced surface electric field and high breakdown voltage. Using the proposed model, the breakdown voltage as a function of device parameters is investigated and compared with the numerical simulation by the TCAD tools. The analytical results are shown to be in fair agreement with the numerical results. Finally, a new RESURF criterion is derived which offers a useful scheme to optimize the structure parameters. This simple 1D model provides a clear physical insight into the RESURF effect and a new explanation on the improvement in breakdown voltage in an SOI RESURF device.

  20. Design of embedded SCR device to improve ESD robustness of stacked-device output driver in low-voltage CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Chiu, Yan-Lian

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes a novel design for an embedded silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) device to improve the electrostatic discharge (ESD) robustness of a stacked-device output driver. A 3 × VDD-tolerant stacked-device output driver with embedded SCR is demonstrated using a 0.18 μm CMOS process with VDD of 3.3 V. This design is verified in a silicon chip, and it is shown that the proposed output driver with embedded SCR can deliver an output voltage of 3 × VDD. The ESD robustness can be improved without the use of any additional ESD protection device or layout area. Furthermore, the proposed design can also be used for an n × VDD-tolerant stacked-device output driver to improve its ESD robustness.

  1. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  2. Efficient electroluminescence from a perylenediimide fluorophore obtained from a simple solution processed OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes-Guirao, F J; Fernandez-Lazaro, F; Sastre-Santos, A [Division de Quimica Organica, Instituto de Bioingenieria, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda. de la Universidad, s/n, Elche 03202 (Spain); Garcia-Santamaria, S; Bolink, H J [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, PO Box 22085, ES-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: henk.bolink@uv.es, E-mail: asastre@umh.es, E-mail: fdofdez@umh.es

    2009-05-21

    Simple solution processed organic light emitting diodes are used to screen the performance of two types of highly efficient, narrow band red emitting fluorescent perylenediimides (PDIs). PDIs substituted at the diimide positions seem to form aggregates in the thin film architecture as evidenced by the shifted electroluminescent spectrum. When substituted on the bay position and when used both as the emitting and the electron transporting specie, bright electroluminescence with a narrow width around 610 nm reaching 500 cd m{sup -2} at moderate voltages was observed, demonstrating the usefulness of these fluorophores for OLED applications.

  3. A voltage-controlled silver nanograting device for dynamic modulation of transmitted light based on the surface plasmon polariton effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Li, Haibo; Wang, Yi; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2016-02-01

    An active-controlled plasmonic device is designed and fabricated based on the index-sensitive properties of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). We utilize a one-dimensional silver nanograting with a period of 320 nm overlayered with a liquid crystal (LC) layer (50 μm in thickness), to transmit selectively the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. This device realizes the active, reversible and continuous control of the transmitted light wavelength by modulating the external voltage signal applied to the LC layer. This voltage-controlled plasmonic filter has a dynamic wavelength modulation range of 17 nm, a fast respond speed of 4.24 ms and a low driving voltage of 1.06 V μm-1. This study opens up a unique way for the design of tunable nanophotonic devices, such as a micro light sources and switches.An active-controlled plasmonic device is designed and fabricated based on the index-sensitive properties of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). We utilize a one-dimensional silver nanograting with a period of 320 nm overlayered with a liquid crystal (LC) layer (50 μm in thickness), to transmit selectively the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. This device realizes the active, reversible and continuous control of the transmitted light wavelength by modulating the external voltage signal applied to the LC layer. This voltage-controlled plasmonic filter has a dynamic wavelength modulation range of 17 nm, a fast respond speed of 4.24 ms and a low driving voltage of 1.06 V μm-1. This study opens up a unique way for the design of tunable nanophotonic devices, such as a micro light sources and switches. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (1) The general theory of the VCP filter; (2) RI sensitivity; (3) the thickness optimization of the Ag grating sandwiched by photoresist layers; (4) image system; (5) detection systems for transmission and reflection spectra; (6) detection system for the response time of the VCP filter. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr

  4. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  5. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4- t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris( N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  6. Understanding device-structure-induced variations in open-circuit voltage for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Uemura, Yu; Zhou, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Azumi, Reiko; Yoshida, Yuji; Chikamatsu, Masayuki

    2015-05-27

    We investigate the structural influences on the device performance, especially on open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) in squaraine (SQ)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cells. Simply changing the SQ thickness could lead to 40% variation in V(OC) from 0.62 to 0.86 V. The ionization potential (IP) of SQ films and recombination at the anode surface as well as donor/acceptor (D/A) interface sensitively vary with film thicknesses, which account for the shifts in V(OC). The anode recombination can be effectively suppressed by preventing direct contact between C60 and the anode with a buffer layer, delivering an elevated V(OC). Through polarized infrared-multiple-angle incidence resolution spectroscopy measurement, the molecular structure of SQ films is found to gradually evolve from lying-down on indium-tin oxide substrates with noncentrosymmetric orientation at low thicknesses to random structure at high thicknesses. The different molecular orientation may yield different strengths of electronic coupling, which affects the charge-carrier recombination and thus V(OC). Moreover, the oriented SQ films would spontaneously compose aligned dipole moments at the D/A interface because of the strong dipolar effects in SQ molecules identified by density functional theory calculations, whereas no aligned interfacial dipole moment exists in the random structure. The resulting interfacial dipole moments would form an electric field at the D/A interface, leading to variations in the IP and thus impacting V(OC). Our findings demonstrate that V(OC) in organic photovoltaic cells is critically associated with the molecular orientation that affects the charge-carrier recombination and interfacial dipole alignment, which should be seriously taken into consideration for the design of organic molecules and optimization of the cell efficiency.

  7. Tunneling electron induced molecular electroluminescence from individual porphyrin J-aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qiushi; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: zhyangnano@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zcdong@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Yao; Liao, Yuan; Dong, Zhenchao, E-mail: zhyangnano@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zcdong@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-07-27

    We investigate molecular electroluminescence from individual tubular porphyrin J-aggregates on Au(111) by tunneling electron excitations in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). High-resolution STM images suggest a spiral tubular structure for the porphyrin J-aggregate with highly ordered “brickwork”-like arrangements. Such aggregated nanotube is found to behave like a self-decoupled molecular architecture and shows red-shifted electroluminescence characteristics of J-aggregates originated from the delocalized excitons. The positions of the emission peaks are found to shift slightly depending on the excitation sites, which, together with the changes in the observed spectral profiles with vibronic progressions, suggest a limited exciton coherence number within several molecules. The J-aggregate electroluminescence is also found unipolar, occurring only at negative sample voltages, which is presumably related to the junction asymmetry in the context of molecular excitations via the carrier injection mechanism.

  8. Sputter deposition of rare earth doped zinc sulfide for near infrared electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, William Robert, III

    2003-10-01

    Near infrared emitting alternating current thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) phosphors were fabricated by simultaneous R.F. magnetron sputtering from both a target of doped ZnS and an undoped ZnS target. The intensities of both near infrared (NIR) and visible emission from ZnS doped with thulium (Tm), neodymium (Nd), or erbium (Er) fluorides were dependent on deposition parameters such as target duty cycle (varied from 25 to 100% independently for the two targets) and substrate temperature (140--180°C), with lower temperatures giving 400% better NIR brightness. By optimizing the rare earth concentration between 0.8 and 1.1 at%, the near infrared irradiance was improved by 400% for each dopant. The increase in brightness and optimal concentrations are attributed to decreased crystallinity and increased dopant interaction at higher rare earth concentrations. The brightness increase with decreasing deposition temperature was attributed to a reduction of thermal desorption of the ZnS during deposition, and consequently thicker films and optimized rare earth concentration. Luminescent decay lifetimes were short (20--40 musec) because of a high concentration of non-radiative pathways due to defects from the strain of the large rare earth ions on the ZnS lattice. The threshold voltage for visible and near infrared emission was identical despite emission of NIR and visible light resulting from electrons relaxing from low and high energy excited levels, respectively. The optical threshold voltages were identical to the electrical threshold voltages, and it was concluded that at the voltages necessary for electrical breakdown, the accelerated electrons had enough energy to excite either the visible or NIR emitting levels. Phosphors doped with Nd exhibited increased internal charge at higher dopant concentrations despite a reduction in phosphor field (i.e. reduced applied voltage) In contrast; the charge did not change appreciably for Er and decreased for Tm doped films

  9. Analytical model for the photocurrent-voltage characteristics of bilayer MEH-PPV/TiO2 photovoltaic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chong; Wu, Fan; Geng, Hongwei; Shen, Wei; Wang, Mingtai

    2011-01-01

    The photocurrent in bilayer polymer photovoltaic cells is dominated by the exciton dissociation efficiency at donor/acceptor interface. An analytical model is developed for the photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the bilayer polymer/TiO2 photovoltaic cells. The model gives an analytical expression for the exciton dissociation efficiency at the interface, and explains the dependence of the photocurrent of the devices on the internal electric field, the polymer and TiO2 layer thicknesses. B...

  10. Cascaded transformerless DC-DC voltage amplifier with optically isolated switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A very high voltage amplifier is provided in which plural cascaded banks of capacitors are switched by optically isolated control switches so as to be charged in parallel from the preceding stage or capacitor bank and to discharge in series to the succeeding stage or capacitor bank in alternating control cycles. The optically isolated control switches are controlled by a logic controller whose power supply is virtually immune to interference from the very high voltage output of the amplifier by the optical isolation provided by the switches, so that a very high voltage amplification ratio may be attained using many capacitor banks in cascade.

  11. Realization of Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from ZnO Homo junction Fabricated on Silicon Substrate with p-Type ZnO:N Layer Formed by Radical N2O Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing-Chang; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZHAO Jian-Ze; BIAN Ji-Ming; FENG Qiu-Ju; WANG Jing-Wei; ZHAO Zi-Wen; DU Guo-Tong

    2008-01-01

    @@ ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes are fabricated on Si(100) substrates by plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapour deposition, A p-type layer of nitrogen-doped ZnO film is formed using radical N2O as the acceptor precursor.The n-type ZnO layer is composed of un-doped ZnO film.The device exhibits desirable rectifying behaviour with a turn-on voltage of 3.3 V and a reverse breakdown voltage higher than 6 V.Distinct electroluminescence emissions centred at 395nm and 49Ohm are detected from this device at forvcard current higher than 20mA at room temperature.

  12. Materials for Powder-Based AC-Electroluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Schulze Dieckhoff

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, thick film (powder based alternating current electroluminescence (AC-EL is the only technology available for the fabrication of large area, laterally structured and coloured light sources by simple printing techniques. Substrates for printing may be based on flexible polymers or glass, so the final devices can take up a huge variety of shapes. After an introduction of the underlying physics and chemistry, the review highlights the technical progress behind this development, concentrating on luminescent and dielectric materials used. Limitations of the available materials as well as room for further improvement are also discussed.

  13. Electroluminescent properties of three ternary europium complexes with different phenanthroline derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN; Zuqiang; GAO; Deqing; GUAN; Min; XIN; Hao; LI; Fuyou

    2004-01-01

    [1]Sun, P. P., Duan, J. P., Shih, H. T. et al., Europium complex as a highly efficient red emitter in electroluminescent devices, Appl.Phys. Lett., 2002, 81: 792-793.[2]Heil, H., Steiger, J., Schmechel, R. et al., Tri(dibenzolymethane)(monophenanthroline) europium(Ⅲ) based red emitting organic light emitting diodes, J. Appl. Phys., 2001, 90: 5357-5362.[3]Liang, C. L., Zhao, D., Hong, Z. R. et al., Improved performance of electroluminescent devices based on an europium complex,Appl. Phys. Lett., 2000, 76: 67-69.[4]Kido, J., Hayase, H., Honggawa, K. et al., Bright red light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices having a europium complex as an emitter, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1994, 65: 2124-2126.[5]Mitsuharu, N., Kazutaka, I., Masanao, E., Efficient red electroluminescence from new europium complex, Chem. Lett., 2001:320-321.[6]Kido, J., Nagai, K., Okamoto, Y., Organic electroluminescem devices using lanthanide complexes, J. Alloys. Compd., 1993, 192:30-33.[7]Wang, J., Wang, R., Yang, J. et al., First oxadiazole-functionalized terbium(Ⅲ) β-diketonate for organic electroluminescence, J. Am.Chem. Soc., 2001, 123: 6179-6180.[8]Capecchi, S., Renault, O., Moon, D. G., High-efficiency organic electroluminescent devices using an organoterbium emitter, Adv.Mater., 2000, 12: 1591-1594.[9]Huang, L., Wang, K. Z., Huang, C. H. et al., Synthetic and electroluminescent properties of two novel europium complexes with benzimidazole derivatives as second ligands, Synth. Met., 2002,128: 241-245.[10]Huang, L., Wang, K. Z., Huang, C. H. et al., Bright red electroluminescent devices using novel second-ligand-contained europium complexes as emitting layers, J. Mater. Chem., 2001, 11: 790-793.[11]Hu, W. P., Matsumura, M., Wang, M. Z. et al., Efficient red electroluminescence from devices having multilayers of an europium complex, Appl. Phys. Lett., Appl. Phys. Lett., 2000, 77: 4271-4273.[12]Yu, G., Liu, Y. Q., Wu, X. et al., Soluble

  14. Characteristics of electroluminescence phenomenon in virgin and thermally aged LDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, N. A.; Abdul-Malek, Z.; Ahmad, H.; Muhammad-Sukki, F.; Mas'ud, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    High voltage cable requires a good insulating material such as low density polyethylene (LDPE) to be able to operate efficiently in high voltage stresses and high temperature environment. However, any polymeric material will experience degradation after prolonged application of high electrical stresses or other extreme conditions. The continuous degradation will shorten the life of a cable therefore further understanding on the behaviour of the aged high voltage cable needs to be undertaken. This may be observed through electroluminescence (EL) measurement. EL occurs when a solid-state material is subjected to a high electrical field stress and associated with the generation of charge carriers within the polymeric material and that these charges can be produced by injection, de-trapping and field-dissociation at the metal-polymer interface. The behaviour of EL emission can be affected by applied field, applied frequency, ageing time, ageing temperature and types of materials, among others. This paper focuses on the measurement of EL emission of additive-free LDPE thermally aged at different temperature subjected to varying electric stresses at 50Hz. It can be observed that EL emission increases as voltage applied is increased. However, EL emission decreases as ageing temperature is increased for varying applied voltage.

  15. Novel Mechano-Luminescent Sensors Based on Piezoelectric/Electroluminescent Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhang Fang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A high-sensitivity mechano-luminescent sensor was fabricated on the basis of piezoelectric/electroluminescent composites. The working principle of this mechano-luminescent sensor was elucidated by analyzing the relationship between the piezoelectric-induced charges and the electroluminescent effects. When a stress is applied on the piezoelectric layer, electrical charges will be induced at both the top and bottom sides of the piezoelectric layer. The induced electrical charges will lead to a light output from the electroluminescent layer, thus producing a mechano-luminescence effect. By increasing the vibration strength or frequency applied, the mechano-luminescence output can be obviously enhanced. Mechano-luminescence sensors have potential in smart stress-to-light devices, such as foot-stress-distribution-diagnosis systems and dynamic-load-monitors for bridge hanging cables.

  16. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2004-01-01

    . Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were......-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was demonstrated to be due to electroluminescence pumping of the zinc-porphyrin moieties that were covalently linked to homopolymer material. When only one zinc-porphyrin dye was incorporated into the backbone...

  17. Device characterization and optimization of small molecule organic solar cells assisted by modelling simulation of the current-voltage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yi; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui; Kan, Bin; Ni, Wang; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-07-15

    In order to understand the photovoltaic performance differences between the recently reported DR3TBTT-HD and DR3TBDT2T based solar cells, a modified two-diode model with Hecht equation was built to simulate the corresponding current-voltage characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the poor device performance of the DR3TBDTT-HD based device mainly originated from its insufficient charge transport ability, where an average current of 5.79 mA cm(-2) was lost through this pathway at the maximum power point for the DR3TBDTT-HD device, nearly three times as large as that of the DR3TBDT2T based device under the same device fabrication conditions. The morphology studies support these simulation results, in which both Raman and 2D-GIXD data reveal that DR3TBTT-HD based blend films exhibit lower crystallinity. Spin coating at low temperature was used to increase the crystallinity of DR3TBDTT-HD based blend films, and the average current loss through insufficient charge transport at maximum power point was suppressed to 2.08 mA cm(-2). As a result, the average experimental power conversion efficiency of DR3TBDTT-HD based solar cells increased by over 40%.

  18. Luminescent Efficiency in Single-layer Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yang-jun; LI Hong-jian; DAI Xiao-yu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the charge injection and recombination processes and the triplet-triplet annihilation process, a model to calculate the electroluminescent(EL) efficiency is presented. The influences of the applied electric field on the injection efficiency, recombination efficiency and electroluminescent efficiency are discussed. It is found that: (1) The injection efficiency is increasing while the recombination efficiency is decreasing with the applied electric field increasing. (2) The EL efficiency is enhanced at low electric field slowly but is decreasing at high electric field with the increase of applied voltage. (3) The EL efficiency is decreasing with the increase of the host-guest molecular distance (R). So, it is concluded that the EL efficiency in single-layer organic electrophosphorescent devices is dominated by injection efficiency at lower electric field and recombination efficiency at higher electric field.

  19. High Input Voltage Discharge Supply for High Power Hall Thrusters Using Silicon Carbide Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulsio, Michael V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    A power processing unit for a 15 kW Hall thruster is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. The unit produces up to 400 VDC with two parallel 7.5 kW discharge modules that operate from a 300 VDC nominal input voltage. Silicon carbide MOSFETs and diodes were used in this design because they were the best choice to handle the high voltage stress while delivering high efficiency and low specific mass. Efficiencies in excess of 97 percent were demonstrated during integration testing with the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster. Electromagnet, cathode keeper, and heater supplies were also developed and will be integrated with the discharge supply into a vacuum-rated brassboard power processing unit with full flight functionality. This design could be evolved into a flight unit for future missions that requires high power electric propulsion.

  20. Power grid current harmonics mitigation drawn on low voltage rated switching devices with effortless control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Hugo S.; Anunciada, Victor; Borges, Beatriz V. [Power Electronics Group, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico - Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The great majority of the existing hybrid active power filter solutions is normally focused in 3{phi} systems and, in general, concentrates its domain of application in specific loads with deterministic behavior. Because common use grids do not exhibit these characteristics, it is mandatory to develop solutions for more generic scenarios, encouraging the use of less classical hybrid solutions. In fact, due to the widely use of switch mode converters in a great variety of consumer electronics, the problematic of mains current harmonic mitigation is no longer an exclusive matter of 3{phi} systems. The contribution of this paper is to present a shunt hybrid active power filter topology, initially conceived to work in 1{phi} domestic grids, able to operate the inverter at a voltage rate that can be lower than 10% of the mains voltage magnitude, even under nonspecific working conditions. In addition, the results shown in this paper demonstrate that this topology can, without lack of generality, be suitable to medium voltage (1{phi} or 3{phi}) systems. A new control approach for the proposed topology is discussed in this paper. The control method exhibits an extremely simple architecture requiring single point current sensing only, with no need for any kind of reference. Its practical implementation can be fulfilled by using very few, common use, operational amplifiers. The principle of operation, design criteria, simulation predictions and experimental results are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Theoretical aspects and methods of parameters identification of the electric traction system devices. method of cyclic current-voltage characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.Mishchenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To define the characteristics of numerical calculations of mathematical model with one or more cyclic current voltage characteristics (CVC. This is an urgent problem, since any electric traction system device and electrified track in general, like non-linear passive or active two-terminal network in the present operating mode is described by current-voltage characteristic (CVC, which is based on the given input voltage and input current. Me-thodology. The electromagnetic process calculation in the power circuits of traction electric energy supply is the probabilistic task with solving nonlinear stochastic differential equations requiring for the development of special methods. Given the calculation difficulty, it is reasonable to perform them either by real CVC graph bypass or initially by applying its equivalent replacement with, for example, an ellipse. Findings. Numerical calculations of the mathematical model with one or more cyclic CVC can be performed by “real” CVC bypass or by "idealization" i. e. approximate replacement of real cyclic CVC. Originality. This paper presents the dynamic CVC of the DS3 and 2ES5K electric locomotives at different currents of electric locomotives. Practical value. Cyclic CVC normally and definitely can be applied in the system of electromagnetic state equations while transient state calculating in the traction system. Therefore while calculating the experimentally obtained CVC for the most “difficult and complex” (or/and the “easiest” mode is applied.

  2. Electroluminescence of SrS, BaS and SrSe Phosphors Activated by Cu and Er

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, V. W.; Patwardhan, S. S.; Ghanbahadur, R. Y.

    1982-03-01

    Results of the investigations of the spectral characteristics of electroluminescence of SrS:Cu, Er, BaS:Cu, Er and SrSe:Cu, Er phosphors are presented. Some new features of the voltage and frequency dependence of EL-emission are reported.

  3. Investigation of low-voltage pulse parameters on electroporation and electrical lysis using a microfluidic device with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir I; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2014-03-01

    Electroporation (EP) of biological cells leads to the exchange of materials through the permeabilized cell membrane, while electrical lysis (EL) irreversibly disrupts the cell membrane. We report a microfluidic device to study these two phenomena with low-voltage excitation for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. For systematic study of EP, we have employed a quantification metric: flow Index (FI) of EP. Simulation and experimental results with the microfluidic device containing interdigitated, coplanar, integrated electrodes to electroporate, and rapidly lyse biological cells are presented. H&E stained human buccal cells were subjected to various pulse magnitudes, pulsewidths, and number of pulses. Simulations show that an electric field of 25 kV/cm with a 20 V applied potential produced 1.3 (°)C temperature rise for a 5 s of excitation. For a 20 V pulse-excitation with pulse-widths between 0.5 to 5 s, EL was observed, whereas for lower excitations, only EP was observed. FI of EP is found to be a direct function of pulse magnitudes, pulsewidths, and numbers of pulses. To release DNA from nucleus, excitation-pulses of 5 s were required. Quantification of EP would be useful for systematic study of EP toward optimization with various excitation pulses, while low-voltage requirement and high yield of EP and EL are critical to develop LOC for drug delivery and cell-sample preparation, respectively.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Multi-bias capacitance voltage characteristic of AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pu; Liang, Wang; Tingting, Yuan; Sihua, Ouyang; Lei, Pang; Guoguo, Liu; Weijun, Luo; Xinyu, Liu

    2010-10-01

    The method of multi-bias capacitance voltage measurement is presented. The physical meaning of gate—source and gate—drain capacitances in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and the variations in them with different bias conditions are discussed. A capacitance model is proposed to reflect the behaviors of the gate—source and gate—drain capacitances, which shows a good agreement with the measured capacitances, and the power performance obtains good results compared with the measured data from the capacitance model.

  5. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Manju; Brahme, Nameeta [School of Studies in Physics, Pt. Ravishanker Shukla University, Raipur (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the) 492010 (India); Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh [Center for Organic Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Kher, R S [Department of Physics, Government Science PG College, Bilaspur (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the) 495006 (India); Khokhar, M S K [Department of Rural Technology, GuruGhasidas University Bilaspur (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the) 495009 (India)], E-mail: manjushukla2003@gmail.com

    2008-08-21

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - t{sub del}), where t{sub del} is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - t{sub dec}), where t{sub dec} is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated.

  6. An active core-shell nanoscale design for high voltage cathode of lithium storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongpei; Liu, Yang; Lu, Xiaojun; Wang, Hao; Yang, Gang; Chao, Yimin; Li, Weili; Yin, Fan

    2017-08-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) is a potential high-voltage cathode for commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Maintaining an appropriate amount of Mn3+ in LNM is necessary to improve the rate performance. However, Mn3+ dissolution in the interface of LNM and electrolyte leads to the fast capacity degradation. Therefore, designing a cathode to prevent Mn3+ loss during charge/discharge is important for high performance LIBs. Here we present an active core-shell design with coating another high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 (LCP) on the surface of LNM nanoparticles. The LCP layer can simultaneously induce Mn3+ ions at the interface between LCP and LNM, and act as a stable shell to prevent the loss of Mn3+. The optimized sample LNM@5%LCP possesses 128 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and 115 mAh g-1 at 20 C rate, and maintains 96% of the initial capacity operated at 55 °C over 100 cycles.

  7. Large voltage modulation in superconducting quantum interference devices with submicron-scale step-edge junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Simon K. H.

    2017-09-01

    A promising direction to improve the sensitivity of a SQUID is to increase its junction's normal resistance value, Rn, as the SQUID modulation voltage scales linearly with Rn. As a first step to develop highly sensitive single layer SQUID, submicron scale YBCO grain boundary step edge junctions and SQUIDs with large Rn were fabricated and studied. The step-edge junctions were reduced to submicron scale to increase their Rn values using focus ion beam, FIB and the measurement of transport properties were performed from 4.3 to 77 K. The FIB induced deposition layer proves to be effective to minimize the Ga ion contamination during the FIB milling process. The critical current-normal resistance value of submicron junction at 4.3 K was found to be 1-3 mV, comparable to the value of the same type of junction in micron scale. The submicron junction Rn value is in the range of 35-100 Ω, resulting a large SQUID modulation voltage in a wide temperature range. This performance promotes further investigation of cryogen-free, high field sensitivity SQUID applications at medium low temperature, e.g. at 40-60 K.

  8. Electroluminescent properties of three ternary europium complexes with different phenanthroline derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Zuqiang; GAO Deqing; GUAN Min; XIN Hao; LI Fuyou; HUANG Chunhui; WANG Kezhi; JIN Linpei

    2004-01-01

    Three ternary Eu(Ⅲ) complexes with general formula of Eu(DBM)3LN (DBM =dibenzoylmethanate, and LN (N= 1-3 ) stand for three different 1,1 0-phenanthroline derivatives)have been synthesized for vacuum deposition films-based electroluminescent devices. The complex Eu(DBM)3L3 (L3 = 2-phenyl-3-[3-(carbazol-9-yl)propyl]imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline) was designed with an effort to combine the electron-transporting phenanthroline platform and the hole-transporting carbazole group into one molecule expecting to improve both electron and hole transporting properties simultaneously. The results show that the variation of the neutral ligands in Eu(Ⅲ) mixed ligand complexes is a simple and effective approach to the improvement in the thermal stability, PL and EL properties of materials. A double-layer device with the configuration of ITO/TPD (50 nm)/Eu(DBM)3L3 (50 nm)/Mgo.9Ago.1 (200 nm)/Ag (100 nm)exhibited Eu(Ⅲ)-based pure red emission with a maximum brightness of 561 cd/m2 at 16 V, and an onset driving voltage of 8 V. A device with the configuration of ITO/TPD (50 nm)/[Eu(DBM)3L3(5 nm):BCP (5 nm)]4/BCP (20 nm)/AIQ (10 nm) Mgo.gAgo.1 (110 nm)/Ag (100 nm) gave high efficient and pure red light emission with a luminance of 1419 cd/m2.

  9. Electroluminescence Gray Scale Display Driving Method and Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Hao; LI Rong-yu; YANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of color terminals for personal computers has raised a demand for video graphic adapter(VGA)-format panel displays. Since only monochrome(ZnS∶Mn) electroluminescence(EL) displays of suitable size and speed are available, lack of colors has to be replaced by grayscale in the first place. There are two basic driving methods to achieve grayscale in thin-film EL displays: pulse amplitude modulation(PAM) method and pulse width modulation(PWM) method. But there are serious disadvantages of the two traditional methods. For the former method, the high voltage PAM ICs are too expensive to produce the grayscale EL display in bulks and the driver integrated circuit(IC) is complex. Though the PWM method has good grayscale display quality, the hardware implementation is too complex. A new driving method with which the width and the amplitude of the pulse can be modulated and simultaneously the challenge can be solved efficaciously is presented.

  10. Alternative Solder Bond Packaging Approach for High-Voltage (HV) Pulsed Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    speed and high - temperature operation capabilities. However, the advanced capabilities of these switches are a challenge to demonstrate due to the...with a high - temperature anneal. The ohmic contacts to the anode, gate, and the substrate of the devices were formed using annealed nickel (Ni...with isopropyl alcohol. The copper strips and copper terminals underwent an additional cleaning with hydrochloric acid to ensure all oxidation was

  11. Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials and Devices Symposium Held in San Francisco, California on 6-9 April 1999. Volume 561

    Science.gov (United States)

    electroluminescent materials and devices for displays. The symposium highlighted developments in materials chemistry and physics relevant to such devices and struck a balance between basic science and technology.

  12. Upper drift region double step partial SOI LDMOSFET: A novel device for enhancing breakdown voltage and output characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    A new LDMOSFET structure called upper drift region double step partial silicon on insulator (UDDS-PSOI) is proposed to enhance the breakdown voltage (BV) and output characteristics. The proposed structure contains two vertical steps in the top surface of the drift region. It is demonstrated that in the proposed structure, the lateral electric field distribution is modified by producing two additional electric field peaks, which decrease the common peaks near the drain and gate junctions. The electric field distribution in the drift region is modulated and that of the buried layer is enhanced by the two steps in the top surface of the drift region, thereby resulting in the enhancement of the BV. The effect of device parameters, such as the step height and length in the top surface of the drift region, the doping concentration in the drift region, and the buried oxide length and thickness, on the electric field distribution and the BV of the proposed structure is studied. Simulation results from two-dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the BV of the UDDS-PSOI structure is 120% and 220% higher than that of conventional partial SOI (C-PSOI) and conventional SOI (C-SOI) structures, respectively. Furthermore, the drain current of the UDDS-PSOI is 11% larger than the C-PSOI structure with a drain-source voltage VDS = 100 V and gate-source voltage VGS = 5 V. Simulation results show that Ron in the proposed structure is 74% and 48% of that in C-PSOI and C-SOI structures, respectively.

  13. Electroluminescence Spectrum Shift with Switching Behaviour of Diamond Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 王丽军; 张启仁; 姚宁; 张兵临

    2003-01-01

    We report a special phenomenon on switching behaviour and the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum shift of doped diamond thin films. Nitrogen and cerium doped diamond thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition system and other special techniques. An EL device with a three-layer structure of nitrogen doped diamond/cerium doped diamond/SiO2 thin films was made. The EL device was driven by a direct-current power supply. Its EL character has been investigated, and a switching behaviour was observed. The EL light emission colour of diamond films changes from yellow (590nm) to blue (454 nm) while the switching behaviour appears.

  14. A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Burgt, Yoeri; Lubberman, Ewout; Fuller, Elliot J.; Keene, Scott T.; Faria, Grégorio C.; Agarwal, Sapan; Marinella, Matthew J.; Alec Talin, A.; Salleo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ~1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach. Here we describe an electrochemical neuromorphic organic device (ENODe) operating with a fundamentally different mechanism from existing memristors. ENODe switches at low voltage and energy (500 distinct, non-volatile conductance states within a ~1 V range, and achieves high classification accuracy when implemented in neural network simulations. Plastic ENODes are also fabricated on flexible substrates enabling the integration of neuromorphic functionality in stretchable electronic systems. Mechanical flexibility makes ENODes compatible with three-dimensional architectures, opening a path towards extreme interconnectivity comparable to the human brain.

  15. Characteristics of Overvoltage Protection with Cascade Application of Surge Protective Devices in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULOVIC, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surge Protective Devices (SPDs are widely used for protection of the equipment in low-voltage AC power circuits against wide variety of surges. Cascade application of SPDs starting at the service entrance of a building and downstream toward near sensitive equipment is intended to ensure optimal energy distribution among installed SPDs, as well as proper equipment protection against surges. Characteristics of overvoltage protection with two-stage application of SPDs have been analyzed in the paper through performed measurements, followed by simulations and numerical modeling using the ATP/EMTP and MATLAB Simulink. Parametric analysis of the protection's characteristics in wide range of influencing factors has been performed in order to define a set of applicable solutions for proper selection and performance of SPDs.

  16. Theoretical investigation of the open circuit voltage: P3HT/9,9'-bisfluorenylidene derivative devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Silvia

    2014-07-03

    The calculation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) value for a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell is complex due to the wide number of parameters involved in the processes. This study focuses the attention on the molecular parameters involved into the open circuit voltage and the PCE definitions and in particular on the electronic coupling and on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the acceptor. A simplified model system composed by a polymer as donor and a novel class of molecules (9,9'-bisfluorenylidene derivatives) as acceptor has been proposed as prototype to simulate the BHJ organic solar cell interface. Several substituents on different positions are tested and the chemical nature/position of substituents have a relevant influence on the electronic coupling and energy level values. Geometrical and electronic properties are obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations, respectively. A new hypothesis suggests that the minimization of the electronic coupling between the LUMO of the acceptor and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the donor can enhance the PCE reducing the recombination interface processes and calculations showing the possibility to minimize this parameter and fine-tune acceptor energy level through the acceptor functionalization. An accurate balance between electronic coupling and on the LUMO of the acceptor allows to propose the more performing candidate as electron acceptor in a P3HT/99'BF derivative BHJ solar cell.

  17. Impact of parasitic resistance on the ESD robustness of high-voltage devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lijuan; Jiang Lingli; Fan Hang; Zhang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The impacts ofsubstrate parasitic resistance and drain ballast resistance on electrostatic discharge (ESD)robustness of LDMOS are analyzed.By increasing the two parasitic resistances,the ESD robustness of LDMOS are significantly improved.The proposed structures have been successfully verified in a 0.35 μm BCD process without using additional process steps.Experimental results show that the second breakdown current of the optimal structure increases to 3.5 A,which is about 367% of the original device.

  18. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  19. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence studies of red emitting phosphorescent Ir(III) heteroleptic complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FARMAN ALI; PABITRA K NAYAK; N PERIASAMY; NEERAJ AGARWAL

    2017-09-01

    Five heteroleptic, cyclometalated (C∧N) Iridium(III) complexes of acetylacetone (acac) and 1-phenyl-isoquinoline (piq) derivatives, Ir(acac)(piq) ₂, Ir(acac)(2,4-difluoro-piq) ₂, Ir(acac)(4-trifluoromethylpiq) ₂, Ir(acac)(4-N,N-dimethyl-piq) ₂, Ir(acac)(4-acetyl-piq) ₂, were synthesized and characterized. The ((C∧N) ₂ Ir(acac) complexes in toluene showed phosphorescence (λmax = 598 nm to 658 nm) with quantum yields (0.1 to 0.32) and microsecond lifetimes (0.43 to 1.9 μs). The complexes were non-luminescent in thin films due to self-quenching but luminescent when lightly doped (5%) in a host organic material, 4,4' -Bis(Ncarbazolyl)- 1,1' -biphenyl (CBP). The HOMO levels determined using cyclic voltammetric oxidation potentials were in the range−5.48 to−5.80 eV. Electroluminescence properties and performance of the Ir complexes dopedin CBP (active layer) were studied in a multilayer (ITO/F4TCNQ/TPD/doped CBP/BCP/LiF/Al) organic light emitting device (OLED). The electroluminescense (EL) spectra of the device matched with the phosphorescent spectra of the Ir complexes. The turn-on voltage at ∼4.5 V, maximum brightness of 7600 cd/m² and current efficiency of ∼7.0 cd/A at a brightness of ∼100 cd/m² indicate that these are promising OLED materials.

  20. 外部电压源法测试大电压LED器件/模块热阻%Measuring thermal resistance for high voltage LED device and module by applying ex ternal voltage source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国龙; 朱丽虹; 郭自泉; 张纪红; 吕毅军; 高玉琳; 陈忠

    2013-01-01

    热阻是衡量LED器件/模块散热性能的重要参数。针对大电压LED器件/模块,实验采用 T3Ster/T eraled热光参数测试仪,利用外部电压源供电方法,实现了对超过仪器量程的大电压L ED器件的热阻测试。该方法拓展了热阻测试仪的常规测量范围,使正向电压大于15 V的L ED器件/模块的热阻测试成为可能。%Thermal resistance is a key parameter for evaluating thermal performance of LED device/module . Reliable measurement of thermal resistance becomes extremely important .Aiming at that the high voltage LED device/module has been applied popularly in lighting ,an improved thermal resistance measurement method for LED device/module with forward voltage larger than 15V is achieved by applying external voltage source to the T3Ster/Teraled .The result shows that the external voltage source method can effectively expand the testing range of thermal resistance tester .

  1. Optimization Design of an Inductive Energy Harvesting Device for Wireless Power Supply System Overhead High-Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overhead high voltage power line (HVPL online monitoring equipment is playing an increasingly important role in smart grids, but the power supply is an obstacle to such systems’ stable and safe operation, so in this work a hybrid wireless power supply system, integrated with inductive energy harvesting and wireless power transmitting, is proposed. The energy harvesting device extracts energy from the HVPL and transfers that from the power line to monitoring equipment on transmission towers by transmitting and receiving coils, which are in a magnetically coupled resonant configuration. In this paper, the optimization design of online energy harvesting devices is analyzed emphatically by taking both HVPL insulation distance and wireless power supply efficiency into account. It is found that essential parameters contributing to more extracted energy include large core inner radius, core radial thickness, core height and small core gap within the threshold constraints. In addition, there is an optimal secondary coil turn that can maximize extracted energy when other parameters remain fixed. A simple and flexible control strategy is then introduced to limit power fluctuations caused by current variations. The optimization methods are finally verified experimentally.

  2. Analytical model for the photocurrent-voltage characteristics of bilayer MEH-PPV/TiO2 photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Wu, Fan; Geng, Hongwei; Shen, Wei; Wang, Mingtai

    2011-04-19

    The photocurrent in bilayer polymer photovoltaic cells is dominated by the exciton dissociation efficiency at donor/acceptor interface. An analytical model is developed for the photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the bilayer polymer/TiO2 photovoltaic cells. The model gives an analytical expression for the exciton dissociation efficiency at the interface, and explains the dependence of the photocurrent of the devices on the internal electric field, the polymer and TiO2 layer thicknesses. Bilayer polymer/TiO2 cells consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and TiO2, with different thicknesses of the polymer and TiO2 films, were prepared for experimental purposes. The experimental results for the prepared bilayer MEH-PPV/TiO2 cells under different conditions are satisfactorily fitted to the model. Results show that increasing TiO2 or the polymer layer in thickness will reduce the exciton dissociation efficiency in the device and further the photocurrent. It is found that the photocurrent is determined by the competition between the exciton dissociation and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, and the increase in photocurrent under a higher incident light intensity is due to the increased exciton density rather than the increase in the exciton dissociation efficiency.

  3. Prosress in long wavelength emission in fluorene-based electroluminescent blue materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG HongJi; WAN JunHua; HUANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    On account of the advantages of organic electroluminescent materials compared with their inorganic counterparts, the development of organic electroluminescent materials is one of the hot areas of the optoelectronic materials. Fluorene and its derivatives, which have an aromatic biphenyl structure with a wide energy gap in the backbones and high luminescent efficiency, have drawn much attention of material chemists and device physicists. However, one drawback of fluorene-based electroluminescent blue materials is that there is an occurrence of long wavelength emission after annealing the films in air or after operating organic light-emitting diodes for a long time. To clarify the origin of this long wavelength emission, the scientists at home and abroad have put forward all kinds of correlative explanations. Among the scientists, some thought it was caused by excimer-related species, while some others claimed that it was caused by the fluorenone of photooxdized fluorene. The corresponding solutions to this problem have also been proposed and the problem has been partially resolved in some degree. The present review summarizes and analyzes the progress made on the origin of long wavelength emission in fluorene-based electroluminescent blue materials at home and abroad in the past few years. Some issues to be addressed and hotspots to be further investigated are also presented and discussed.

  4. Progress in long wavelength emission in fluorene-based electroluminescent blue materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On account of the advantages of organic electroluminescent materials compared with their inorganic counterparts,the development of organic electroluminescent materials is one of the hot areas of the optoelectronic materials.Fluorene and its derivatives,which have an aromatic biphenyl structure with a wide energy gap in the backbones and high luminescent efficiency,have drawn much attention of ma-terial chemists and device physicists.However,one drawback of fluorene-based electroluminescent blue materials is that there is an occurrence of long wavelength emission after annealing the films in air or after operating organic light-emitting diodes for a long time.To clarify the origin of this long wave-length emission,the scientists at home and abroad have put forward all kinds of correlative explana-tions.Among the scientists,some thought it was caused by excimer-related species,while some others claimed that it was caused by the fluorenone of photooxdized fluorene.The corresponding solutions to this problem have also been proposed and the problem has been partially resolved in some degree.The present review summarizes and analyzes the progress made on the origin of long wavelength emission in fluorene-based electroluminescent blue materials at home and abroad in the past few years.Some issues to be addressed and hotspots to be further investigated are also presented and discussed.

  5. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  6. AC Electroluminescent Processes in Pr3+-Activated (Ba0.4Ca0.6TiO3 Diphase Polycrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the properties of alternating current (AC-driven electroluminescence from (Ba0.4Ca0.6TiO3:Pr3+ diphase polycrystal-based device. The results of crystal phases and micrographs, and the symmetrical dual emissions in one AC cycle, indicate the spontaneous formation of a dielectric/phosphor/dielectric sandwich microstructure in (Ba0.4Ca0.6TiO3:Pr3+. The electroluminescent device emits a red light of 617 nm, which is attributed to the 1D2-3H4 transition of Pr3+ in the phosphor phase. At a fixed AC frequency, the intensity of electroluminescence exhibits a steep enhancement when applying an increased driving electric field that is beyond a threshold. In a fixed driving electric field, the intensity of electroluminescence shows a rapid rise at low frequencies, but reaches saturation at high frequencies. Based on a double-injection model, we discussed systematically the electroluminescent processes in a whole cycle of AC electric field, which matched well with the experimental data. Our investigation is expected to expand our understanding of such a diphase electroluminescent device, thereby promoting their applications in lighting and displays.

  7. Role of the inversion layer on the charge injection in silicon nanocrystal multilayered light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondini, S. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Pucker, G. [Advanced Photonics and Photovoltaics Group, Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pavesi, L. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-07

    The role of the inversion layer on injection and recombination phenomena in light emitting diodes (LEDs) is here studied on a multilayer (ML) structure of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. Two Si-NC LEDs, which are similar for the active material but different in the fabrication process, elucidate the role of the non-radiative recombination rates at the ML/substrate interface. By studying current- and capacitance-voltage characteristics as well as electroluminescence spectra and time-resolved electroluminescence under pulsed and alternating bias pumping scheme in both the devices, we are able to ascribe the different experimental results to an efficient or inefficient minority carrier (electron) supply by the p-type substrate in the metal oxide semiconductor LEDs.

  8. Charicteristic of a novel optoelectronic polymer and related device fabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-yuan; HE Zhi-qun; HAN Xiao; WANG Bin; WANG Yong-sheng; LlU Ying-liang; CAO Shao-kui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary investigation of a novel optoelectronic polymer, poly (p-phenylene N-4-n-butylphenyl-N,N-bis-4-vinylenephenylamine) (PNB), is reported. A single layer structure of ITO/PNB/Al was prepared via spin-coating of PNB solution as a thin film on the top of an ITO substrate, while aluminum top electrode was vacuum evaporated. Dark currentvoltage characteristics of this device showed a typical rectifying behaviour. Photovoltaic response under a monochromatic illumination at 420 nm was observed, with an open circuit voltage of 0.3 V and fill factor of 0.21. Spectral response and optical absorption were found to be matched well. It was also discovered that the device showed a green electroluminescent emission at a forward bias. Turn-on voltage of the device was about 6 V and light output about 22.6 nW at a forward bias of 10 V. The work demonstrated that the PNB material might possess dual exciton sites resulting in a competition for excitons to be either separated or recombined. Both effects were associated with each other, which limited the photovoltaic or electroluminescence to some degrees.

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  10. Mechanism of hot electron electroluminescence in GaN-based transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzini, Tommaso; Sun, Huarui; Sarti, Francesco; Pomeroy, James W.; Hodges, Chris; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The nature of hot electron electroluminescence (EL) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors is studied and attributed to Bremsstrahlung. The spectral distribution has been corrected, for the first time, for interference effects due to the multilayered device structure, and this was shown to be crucial for the correct interpretation of the data, avoiding artefacts in the spectrum and misinterpretation of the results. An analytical expression for the spectral distribution of emitted light is derived assuming Bremsstrahlung as the only origin and compared to the simplified exponential model for the high energy tail commonly used for electron temperature extraction: the electron temperature obtained results about 20% lower compared to the approximated exponential model. Comparison of EL intensity for devices from different wafers illustrated the dependence of EL intensity on the material quality. The polarization of electroluminescence also confirms Bremsstrahlung as the dominant origin of the light emitted, ruling out other possible main mechanisms.

  11. Quantum Dots for Wide Color Gamut Displays from Photoluminescence to Electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongyin; Song, Zhicheng; Jiang, Xiaofang; Yin, Xia; Fang, Long; Gao, Jing; Su, Yehua; Zhao, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by low-temperature process. The remarkable narrow emission peak of the QDs helps the liquid crystal displays (LCD) and electroluminescence displays (QD light-emitting diode, QLED) to generate wide color gamut performance. The range of the color gamut for QD light-converting device (QLCD) is controlled by both the QDs and color filters (CFs) in LCD, and for QLED, the optimized color gamut is dominated by QD materials.

  12. Development and Investigation of Tungsten Copper Sintered Parts for Using in Medium and High Voltage Switching Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, M. V.; Lucaci, M.; Tsakiris, V.; Brătulescu, A.; Cîrstea, C. D.; Marin, M.; Pătroi, D.; Mitrea, S.; Marinescu, V.; Grigore, F.; Tălpeanu, D.; Stancu, N.; Godeanu, P.; Melnic, C.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Tungsten-copper (W-Cu) sintered parts with 75 wt.% W, 24 wt.% Cu and 1 wt.% Ni for using as arcing contacts in medium and high voltage switching devices were developed successfully by powder metallurgy (PM) techniques. Sintered parts with diameter of 50±0.5 mm and height of 6±0.5 mm were manufactured by pressing-sintering-infiltration (P-S-I) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at sintering temperature of 1150°C, and 1050°C, respectively. Physical, chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the samples were investigated. Microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Material properties were influenced by the consolidation processes. The best results were achieved by SPS process. The relative density was more than 95 %, Vickers hardness HV1/15 was over 227, elastic modulus was over 143 GPa, and homogeneous microstructure was revealed. These good properties can contribute to higher lifetime of arcing contacts under severe working conditions.

  13. Investigation of disorder and its effect on electrical transport in electrochemically doped polymer devices by current–voltage and impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Khan, Motiur; Anjaneyulu, P.; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.; Menon, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the analysis of temperature-dependent current–voltage characteristics and impedance measurements of electrochemically doped poly(3-methylthiophene) devices at different doping levels. The extent of doping is carefully tailored such that only the bulk-limited transport mechanism prevails. A transition from exponentially distributed trap-limited transport to trap-free space-charge-limited current is observed in current–voltage conduction upon increasing the doping. The obtained trap densities (3.2  ×  1016 cm‑3 and 8.6  ×  1015 cm‑3) and trap energies (31.7 meV and 16.6 meV) for different devices signify the variation in disorder with doping, which is later supported by impedance measurements. Impedance–frequency data for various devices can not be explained using the parallel resistance–capacitance (RC) model in the equivalent circuit. However, this was established by incorporating a constant phase element Q (CPE) instead of the capacitance parameter. It should be emphasized that low doping devices in particular are best simulated with two CPE elements, while the data related to other devices are fitted well with a single CPE element. It is also observed from evaluated circuit parameters that the spatial inhomogeneity and disorder are the cause of variability in different samples, which has an excellent correlation with the temperature-dependent current–voltage characteristics.

  14. Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Terbium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 邓振波; 张志锋; 徐登辉; 徐颖; 王瑞芬

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth complex TbY(m-MOBA)6(phen)2·2H2O was synthesized,which was first used as an emitting material in electroluminescence.The properties of monolayer device with the rate of 1000 r·min-1 (70 nm) and the impure concentration of 1∶5 were the best.And the highest brightness of this device reached 21.8 cd·cm-2 at a fixed bias of 20 V.Bright green emission can be obtained from the optimized double-layer device,and the highest EL brightness of the device reached 289 cd·m-2 at the voltage of 21 V.

  15. Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Terbium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jing; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Xu Ying; Wang Ruifen

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth complex Tb(BA)3phen was synthesized, which is first used as an emitting material in electroluminescence. The properties of monolayer device with the swing film rate of 1000 r·min-1(70 nm) and the weight ratio of 1:5(PVK:Tb(BA)3phen) are the best. And the highest brightness of this device reached 26.8 cd·cm-2 at a fixed bias of 21 V. Bright green emission could be obtained from the optimized double-layer device and the highest EL brightness of the device reached 322 cd·m-2 at the voltage of 22 V.

  16. A NEW STRUCTURE AND ITS ANALYTICAL BREAKDOWN MODEL OF HIGH VOLTAGE SOI DEVICE WITH STEP UNMOVABLE SURFACE CHARGES OF BURIED OXIDE LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new SOI (Silicon On Insulator) high voltage device with Step Unmovable Surface Charges(SUSC) of buried oxide layer and its analytical breakdown model are proposed in the paper. The unmovable charges are implemented into the upper surface of buried oxide layer to increase the vertical electric field and uniform the lateral one. The 2-D Poisson's equation is solved to demonstrate the modulation effect of the immobile interface charges and analyze the electric field and breakdown voltage with the various geometric parameters and step numbers. A new RESURF (REduce SURface Field) condition of the SOI device considering the interface charges and buried oxide is derived to maximize breakdown voltage. The analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical analysis obtained by the 2-D semiconductor devices simulator MEDICI. As a result, an 1200V breakdown voltage is firstly obtained in 3μm-thick top Si layer, 2μm-thick buried oxide layer and 70μm-length drift region using a linear doping profile of unmovable buried oxide charges.

  17. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar; Cecati, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbala...

  18. On device design for steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistor operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage with ferroelectric HfO2 thin film

    OpenAIRE

    Masaharu Kobayashi; Toshiro Hiramoto

    2016-01-01

    Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies require a new energy-efficient transistor which operates at ultralow voltage and ultralow power for sensor node devices employing energy-harvesting techniques as power supply. In this paper, a practical device design guideline for low voltage operation of steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistors (NCFETs) operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage is investigated regarding operation speed, material requirement and energy efficiency in the case o...

  19. Optical and electroluminescent properties of a number of new derivatives of divinyl dibenzothiophene sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhto, A. V.; Kopylova, T. N.; Gadirov, R. M.; Degtyarenko, K. N.; Nikonova, E. N.; Solodova, T. A.; Kukhto, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of four new bipolar linear derivatives of divinyl dibenzothiophene sulfone are studied. It is found that amorphous films of solutions, as well as films of the compounds under study in the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) matrix, have a rather high quantum yield of photoluminescence in the blue and blue-green spectrum regions. Bright blue electroluminescence is obtained in the samples with a structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/OC/LiF/Al using vacuum deposition of the compounds under study and in the single-layer ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:OC/LiF/Al structure when applied from the solution with a threshold voltage of 2.5-3.5 V. The influence of a molecule structure on the spectra and quantum yield of fluorescence as well as on the electroluminescent properties of the compounds is shown. Results of quantum-chemical calculations in the context of the density functional theory of the structure and characteristics of main molecular orbitals are presented.

  20. Frequency Response of Modulated Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lie-Feng; LI Yang; LI Ding; WANG Cun-Da; ZHANG Guo-Yi; YAO Dong-Sheng; LIU Wei-Fang; XING Peng-Fei

    2011-01-01

    Frequency responses of modulated electroluminescence (EL) of light-emitting diodes were measured using a testing setup.With increasing frequency of the ac signal,the relative light intensity (RLI) clearly decreases.Furthermore,a peculiar asynchrony between the RLI and ac small-signal is observed.At frequencies higher than 10kHz,the RLI clearly lags behind the ac signal and the absolute value of the lagging angle is nearly proportional to the signal frequency.Using the classical recombination model of light-emitting diodes under ac small-signal modulation,these abnormal characteristics of modulated EL can be clearly explained.High-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have received great attention recently owing to their applications in energy-saving lights,display items and many other fields;therefore,the optical and electrical characteristics of LEDs at forward bias hold significant potential for research.[1-4] However,for a new kind of light emission device,the general research on its performance focuses on the light emission and dc currentvoltage (I-V) characteristics.%Frequency responses of modulated electroluminescence (EL) of light-emitting diodes were measured using a testing setup. With increasing frequency of the ac signal, the relative light intensity (RLI) clearly decreases. Furthermore, a peculiar asynchrony between the RLI and ac small-signal is observed. At frequencies higher than 10kHz, the RLI clearly lags behind the ac signal and the absolute value of the lagging angle is nearly proportional to the signal frequency. Using the classical recombination model of light-emitting diodes under ac small-signal modulation, these abnormal characteristics of modulated EL can be clearly explained.

  1. Transport and electroluminescence mechanism in Au/(Si/SiO2)/P-Si film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-biao; MA Shu-yi; MA Zi-jun; CHEN Hai-xia

    2006-01-01

    The samples of Au/(Si/SiO2)/p-Si structure were fabricated by using the R.F magnetron sputtering technique.Its carrier transport and electroluminescence mechanism were studied from the I-V curves and EL spectra by using the Configuration Coordinate as a theoretical model.The result indicates that there are two defect centers in SiO2 films.The electron in Au and the hole in p-Si went into SiO2 film by the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling model at a high bias voltage and recombined through these defect centers in SiO2 film.

  2. Analysis of Schottky barrier heights of metal/SiC contacts and its possible application to high-voltage rectifying devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, A. [Tokyo Inst. of Technol. (Japan). Dept. of Phys. Electron.; Matsunami, H. [Dept. of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-07-16

    Schottky contacts of metal/3C-, 6H-, and 4H-SiC systems are investigated in this review. Most Schottky contacts having large barrier heights show good characteristics with low ideality factors. The barrier height depends on the metal work function without strong Fermi-level pinning for all polytypes, and linear relationships with slopes of about 0.2 to 0.7 are observed between the barrier height and the metal work function. Based on the analysis of metal/SiC systems, the fabrication of high-voltage rectifiers has been reported, and high voltages from 400 to 1100 V have been achieved using Pt/, Ti/, and Au/6H-SiC structures. In addition, high-temperature operation at 400 C is performed for an Au/6H-SiC structure while supporting a high reverse bias (460 V). Using Ti/4H-SiC structures, high-voltage ({approx}1000 V) and low-power loss characteristics are realized, which is superior to Ti/6H-SiC Schottky rectifiers. To improve the reverse bias characteristics, an edge termination technique is employed for Ti/4H-SiC Schottky rectifiers, and the devices show excellent characteristics with a higher blocking voltage up to 1750 V compared with unterminated devices. (orig.) 78 refs.

  3. 具有浮空埋层的高压器件新结构和击穿电压模型%A New High Voltage Device with Floating Buried Layer and the Model of Breakdown Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 张扬; 段吉海

    2011-01-01

    提出具有浮空埋层的变掺杂高压器件新结构(BVLD:Variation in lateral doping with floating buriedlayer),建立其击穿电压模型.线性变掺杂漂移区的电场耦合作用使表面电场达到近似理想的均匀分布,n+浮空等电位层与衬底形成新平行平面结,使得纵向电压由常规结构的一个pn结承受转变为两个串联pn结分担,改善了器件的击穿特性;建立二维的击穿电压模型,获得器件结构参数间的优化关系.结果表明:与常规LDMOS相比,BVLD结构的击穿电压提高94%.%A novel high voltage device with variation in lateral doping and floating buried layer (BVLD) is proposed, and a model of breakdown voltage is developed. The surface electric field reaches nearly ideal uniform distribution due to electric field modulation of variation in lateral doping. A new parallel-plane junction is formed between n+ floating buried layer and substrate,which can support more biases by series of two pn junctions. Based on the 2-D model of breakdown voltage, the quantified optimal relation between the structure parameters is also obtained.The results indicate that the breakdown voltage of BVLD device is increased by 94% in comparison to conventional LDMOS.

  4. Formation of combined partially recessed and multiple fluorinated-dielectric layers gate structures for high threshold voltage GaN-based HEMT power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huolin; Liang, Yung Chii

    2015-12-01

    The formation of partial AlGaN trench recess filled with multiple fluorinated gate dielectric layers as metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate structure for GaN-based HEMT power devices is designed, fabricated and experimentally verified. The approach realizes the device normally-off operational mode and at the same time is able to preserve the good mobility in the 2DEG channel for a maximum on-state current. Experimental measurements on the fabricated MIS-HEMT devices indicate a high gate threshold voltage (Vth) at around 5 V and a very low gate leakage current at pA/mm level. This proposed gate structure provides very promising properties for GaN-based power semiconductor devices in future power electronics switching applications.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Low voltage copper phthalocyanine organic thin film transistors with a polymer layer as the gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueqiang, Liu; Weihong, Bi; Tong, Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Low voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were created using polymethyl-methacrylate-co g-lyciclyl-methacrylate (PMMA-GMA) as the gate dielectric. The OTFTs performed acceptably at supply voltages of about 10 V. From a densely packed copolymer brush, a leakage current as low as 2 × 10-8 A/cm2 was obtained. From the measured capacitance—insulator frequency characteristics, a dielectric constant in the range 3.9-5.0 was obtained. By controlling the thickness of the gate dielectric, the threshold voltage was reduced from -3.5 to -2.0 V. The copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic thin film transistor could be operated at low voltage and 1.2 × 10-3 cm2/(V·s) mobility.

  6. Voltage stability analysis considering the load dynamic characteristics and the voltage control devices; Analisis de estabilidad de voltaje considerando las caracteristicas dinamicas de la carga y dispositivos de control de voltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Alvarez, Enrique

    2001-09-15

    The research work presented in this thesis, is centered in the voltage stability analysis of medium term considering the effect of the load characteristics and its interaction with the voltage control device models in the transmission network. More concretely, a type of load model is defined and studied with desirable characteristics for the study of the voltage stability, the generic load models derived from field tests and from the application of identification techniques and it is analyzed the influence of the application of control systems to improve the system stability margins. Also, alternatives to the power system modeling for the voltage stability study in complex systems are reviewed. In the first place a fundamental analysis of the voltage characteristics and stability in a simplified power system is presented and the method of adopted analysis is introduced. It is shown that the instability phenomenon is manifested as a singular type bifurcation induced from the critical way of voltage when the system is operated under stress conditions. Next, the contribution of the action of the control devices to the stability margin is analyzed and criteria of the stability analyses are deducted based on the study of such mode. Following a linear model of the power system with desirable characteristics for the study of the voltage stability of medium term is proposed and the characteristics of stability in the context of the study of complex systems are interpreted. The proposed analysis tool is based on the physical notion that the behavior of the voltage control systems in the generators is very rapid with regard to the behavior of the load and has its main application in the preliminary study of the voltage stability of medium and long term. From this model, an analytical tool based on the application of techniques of linear analysis is proposed to approach the problem of determination of critical voltage areas and the contribution of control devices to the

  7. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material%一种稳定的蓝色有机电致发光材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 朱文清; 张步新; 蒋雪茵; 张志林; 许少鸿

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials, we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structrue ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM: perylene/Alq/Mg: Ag [ device (J) ] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi: perylene/Alq/Mg: Ag [device(D) ]. The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices. However, there was remarkable difference for their lifetime. The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035 h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2, and that of device(D) was only 255 h. According to their energy level diagrams , the difference of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices. It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecules than that of DPVBi. It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  8. 高压带电体温度检测装置%Temperature Detection Device of High-voltage Electrified Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭光韧; 宋峰; 吴建华

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve problems of electrical insulation and low precision existed in traditional temperature detection methods of high-voltage electrified body, the paper introduced a design scheme of a novel temperature detection device of high-voltage electrified body. The device collects temperature signals by use of temperature sensor of traditional contacting temperature detection methods, and uses a method of controlled current source and induced power source to supply power. Each induced power source connects controlled current source through high-voltage wire, induced power sources has no connection with each other at different measuring point, and fiber is as transmission medium of temperature signals, so as to realize electrical insulation. The experimental result showed that the device has stable voltage of induced power source, high precision and strong anti-interference ability.%针对传统高压带电体测温方法存在的难以实现电气绝缘、精度低等问题,介绍了一种新型高压带电体温度检测装置的设计方案.该装置采用传统接触式测温方式下的温度传感器采集温度信号,采用可调电流源+感生电源方式实现供电,各感生电源与可调电流源通过高压线连接,不同测温点的感生电源之间没有电气连接,且采用光纤传输温度信号,从而很好地实现了电气绝缘.实验结果表明,该装置的感生电源电压稳定,测温精度高,抗干扰能力强.

  9. Symmetry-Breaking Charge Transfer in a Zinc Chlorodipyrrin Acceptor for High Open Circuit Voltage Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Bartynski, Andrew N.

    2015-04-29

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Low open-circuit voltages significantly limit the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Typical strategies to enhance the open-circuit voltage involve tuning the HOMO and LUMO positions of the donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively, to increase the interfacial energy gap or to tailor the donor or acceptor structure at the D/A interface. Here, we present an alternative approach to improve the open-circuit voltage through the use of a zinc chlorodipyrrin, ZCl [bis(dodecachloro-5-mesityldipyrrinato)zinc], as an acceptor, which undergoes symmetry-breaking charge transfer (CT) at the donor/acceptor interface. DBP/ZCl cells exhibit open-circuit voltages of 1.33 V compared to 0.88 V for analogous tetraphenyldibenzoperyflanthrene (DBP)/C60-based devices. Charge transfer state energies measured by Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence show that C60 forms a CT state of 1.45 ± 0.05 eV in a DBP/C60-based organic photovoltaic device, while ZCl as acceptor gives a CT state energy of 1.70 ± 0.05 eV in the corresponding device structure. In the ZCl device this results in an energetic loss between ECT and qVOC of 0.37 eV, substantially less than the 0.6 eV typically observed for organic systems and equal to the recombination losses seen in high-efficiency Si and GaAs devices. The substantial increase in open-circuit voltage and reduction in recombination losses for devices utilizing ZCl demonstrate the great promise of symmetry-breaking charge transfer in organic photovoltaic devices.

  10. 负偏压法测试大电压LED器件热阻%Measuring thermal resistance for high voltage LED device and module by applying negative bias voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国龙; 雷瑞瑞; 陈焕庭; 陈莹亮; 吕毅军; 高玉琳; 朱丽虹; 陈忠

    2012-01-01

    热阻是衡量LED器件散热性能的重要热学参数.采用外接负偏压恒压源方法,分别使用T3Ster/Teraled热光参数测试仪和NC2991热阻仪对正向电压超过仪器量程的同一型号功率型LED的热阻进行测试,并对两种测试结果的误差进行比较分析讨论.该方法拓展了热阻仪测量范围,使正向电压大于5V的LED器件/模块的热阻测试成为可能.%Thermal resistance is a key parameter on rating the heat dissipating capability of LEDs, so its measurement becomes particularly essential. A thermal resistance measurement method for high voltage LED device and module is provided here, which can measure LED sample with forward voltage larger than 5V by applying negative bias voltage to the T3Ster/Teraled and the NC2991 thermal resistance testers respectively. The results are further compared and discussed and prove to effectively expand the testing range of thermal resistance tester.

  11. Dual trench AlGaN/GaN HEMT on SiC substrate: A novel device to improve the breakdown voltage and high power performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Majid; Orouji, Ali A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an excellent performance AlGaN/AlN/GaN/SiC High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) with a dual trench technique (DT-HEMT) is proposed. In the proposed technique, the dual trench between the buffer layer and the nucleation layer is created. Both the trenches are made of Gallium Nitride. A trench is created under the source region to increase the breakdown voltage. In addition, the drain current will improve due to a created trench in below the gate region. The DC and RF characteristics of the DT-HEMT are investigated. Also, the characteristics of the proposed structure compared with the characteristics of a conventional structure (C-HEMT). Our results indicate that the dual trench technique has excellent impacts on the device characteristics, especially on the drain current, breakdown voltage, and maximum output power density. The breakdown voltage, drain current, and maximum power density of DT-HEMT structure improve 56 %, 52 %, and 310 % in comparison with the C-HEMT, respectively. Also, using the dual trench technique, the maximum oscillation frequency, maximum available gain, short channel effect, maximum DC transconductance, and output resistance of the DT-HEMT structure will increase. Therefore, the proposed HEMT structure shows outstanding electrical properties compared to similar devices are based on conventional structures.

  12. Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susnata; Singh, Shashi B.; Ray, S. K.

    2012-05-01

    Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage (˜2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current.

  13. Investigation of excitons fission and annihilation pro cesses in Rubrene based devices by utilizing magneto-electroluminescence curves%利用磁致发光曲线研究Rubrene器件中激子分裂和湮没过程∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    That the energy of triplet exciton in Rubrene is about half of its singlet leads to energy resonance. This resonance not only allows two triplets to annihilate into a singlet, but also makes a singlet probably fission into two triplets in different molecules. On the other hand, the π-π conjugation of two Rubrene molecules could be formed during molecules stacking, and this spatial relationship will affect the charge transport property enormously. In this article, we use organic magnetic-field effect as a convenient approach to explore the influence of the energy resonant excited states in the Rubrene molecules and the π-π conjugation between the different molecules on the luminescence property of Rubrene. Firstly, we fabricate organic light emitting diodes based on pure Rubrene and modulate the thickness of Rubrene. Experimental measurements of these devices at room temperature exhibit that the thickness can affect the devices’ magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) curves substantially. Values of high-field MEL increase with the thickness of Rubrene and gradually saturate after reaching 30 nm. This can be attributed to the fact that the ratio of π-πconjugation in Rubrene molecules to the stacking will grow with increasing thickness, and then saturate at a proper thickness. Subsequently, we modulate the concentration of Rubrene by doping Buthocuproine (BCP) in the active layer. Experimental results at room temperature show that the values of high-field MEL decrease as the concentration of Rubrene decreases. These results verify that the influence ofπ-πconjugation is not only on the MEL curves, but also on the singlet fission. Furthermore, all the MEL curves exhibit a high-field decay at low temperatures since the endothermic fission process in the Rubrene molecules becomes weaker as the temperature decreases, and the longer triplet lifetime at lower temperatures also enhances the process of triplet annihilation. Besides, the extensively existent intersystem

  14. On device design for steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistor operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage with ferroelectric HfO2 thin film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies require a new energy-efficient transistor which operates at ultralow voltage and ultralow power for sensor node devices employing energy-harvesting techniques as power supply...

  15. Optically-powered Voltage-supply-device for Effective Utilization of Optical Energy in the Fiber-To-The-Home Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hideki; Shinagawa, Takeshi; Tsuruta, Kenji

    An optically powered device with using InGaAs-Photodiode has been developed. This study aims to harvest light energy (2.8∼500μW) from the FTTH (Fiber To The Home) network and to utilize it for operating remote sensors without external energy sources. First, we designed and evaluated the characteristics of the booster circuit and confirmed that it could boost an input voltage of 0.3 V to 3.0 V. Next, we also evaluated the characteristics of InGaAs photodiode and confirmed that it can output a voltage over 0.3 V at 10-μW input light. We demonstrate that a ready-made sensor can be operated with an input optical power as low as 10 μW.

  16. Transient Voltage Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A voltage transient recorder can detect lightning induced transient voltages. The recorder detects a lightning induced transient voltage and adjusts input amplifiers to accurately record transient voltage magnitudes. The recorder stores voltage data from numerous monitored channels, or devices. The data is time stamped and can be output in real time, or stored for later retrieval. The transient recorder, in one embodiment, includes an analog-to-digital converter and a voltage threshold detector. When an input voltage exceeds a pre-determined voltage threshold, the recorder stores the incoming voltage magnitude and time of arrival. The recorder also determines if its input amplifier circuits clip the incoming signal or if the incoming signal is too low. If the input data is clipped or too low, the recorder adjusts the gain of the amplifier circuits to accurately acquire subsequent components of the lightning induced transients.

  17. Large magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in exciplex-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yongzhou; Lei, Yanlian; Zhang, Qiaoming; Chen, Lixiang; Song, Qunliang; Xiong, Zuhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we report on large magneto-conductance (MC) over 60% and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) as high as 112% at room temperature in an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with efficient reverse intersystem crossing (ISC). The large MC and MEL are individually confirmed by the current density-voltage characteristics and the electroluminescence spectra under various magnetic fields. We proposed that this type of magnetic field effect (MFE) is governed by the field-modulated reverse ISC between the singlet and triplet exciplex. The temperature-dependent MFEs reveal that the small activation energy of reverse ISC accounts for the large MFEs in the present exciplex-based OLEDs.

  18. Drift mobility measurements in a-C:H films by time-resolved electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulani, A

    2002-12-30

    Carrier transport mechanism has been studied in thin insulating hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films. The layers were prepared by plasma polymerization of methane (CH{sub 4}) at a frequency of 20 kHz. Electron mobility was derived from time-resolved luminescence experiments. Between the application of a rectangular voltage pulse and the first appearance of electroluminescence (EL) a time lag exists, which depends on the pulse height. Transit times are in the order of 10{sup -3} to {approx}10{sup -6} s in a voltage rabetween 10 and 25 V. And the estimated electron mobility varies accordingly from 8x10{sup -8} to {approx}10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/(V s). The field dependence of the carriers mobility is characteristic of Poole-Frenkel-detrapping conduction model, and thus confirms the results obtained by dc experimental data.

  19. Use of vacuum tubes in test instrumentation for measuring characteristics of fast high-voltage semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, D.

    1981-01-01

    Circuits are described that permit measurement of fast events occurring in power semiconductors. These circuits were developed for the dynamic characterization of transistors used in inductive-load switching applications. Fast voltage clamping using vacuum diodes is discussed, and reference is made to a unique circuit that was built for performing nondestructive, reverse-bias, second-breakdown tests on transistors.

  20. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-01-27

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5 V and 21 960 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  1. Single-Layer Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Voltage and High Brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Shan, Xin; Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Geske, Thomas; Jiang, Qinglong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-10-03

    Charge-carrier injection into an emissive semiconductor thin film can result in electroluminescence and is generally achieved by using a multilayer device structure, which requires an electron-injection layer (EIL) between the cathode and the emissive layer and a hole-injection layer (HIL) between the anode and the emissive layer. The recent advancement of halide perovskite semiconductors opens up a new path to electroluminescent devices with a greatly simplified device structure. We report cesium lead tribromide light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without the aid of an EIL or HIL. These so-called single-layer LEDs have exhibited a sub-band gap turn-on voltage. The devices obtained a brightness of 591 197 cd m(-2) at 4.8 V, with an external quantum efficiency of 5.7% and a power efficiency of 14.1 lm W(-1). Such an advancement demonstrates that very high efficiency of electron and hole injection can be obtained in perovskite LEDs even without using an EIL or HIL.

  2. Tentative anatomy of ZnS-type electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringuier, E.

    1994-05-01

    The paper reviews the electrical and optical mechanisms at work in sulfide-based thin-film electroluminescence display devices within the framework of general semiconductor physics. The electrical problem is twofold: (i) charge carriers are sourced at high electric field in a nominally insulating material, the carrier density increasing by almost eight orders of magnitude; (ii) the carriers are transported at high field, with an average energy largely exceeding the thermal one. (i) Carrier sourcing is best understood from direct-current-driven ZnS films, and is ascribed to partly filled deep donors transferring electrons to the conduction band by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The deep donors also act as carrier sinkers, and evidence for space charge is afforded by small-signal impedance analysis disclosing a markedly inductive behavior. The conduction picture obtained from dc-driven films is then used to clarify the operation of alternating-current electroluminescence structures where the sulfide is sandwiched between two blocking oxide layers. The electrostatics of the ac structure is investigated in detail including space charge and field nonuniformity, and external observables are related to internal quantities. The simple model of interfacial carrier sourcing and sinking is examined. (ii) High-field electronic transport is controlled by the electron-phonon interaction, and the modeling resorts to numerical simulations or the lucky-drift concept. At low electron energies the interaction with phonons is predominantly polar, while at optical energies it proceeds via deformation potential scattering. In spite of the uncertainties in transport models in that range, it is likely that ˜50% of the electrons overtake 2 eV at the usual operating fields in ZnS. Light emission is associated with impurity luminescence centers embedded in the sulfide host. They are excited while current is flowing, and the ensuing relaxation is partly radiative. We describe the two ways in

  3. Experimental observation of electroluminescence enhancement on green LEDs mediated by surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Geol; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Jin-Ha; Song, Seok Ho

    2014-08-25

    We experimentally demonstrate the 1.5-fold enhancement of the electroluminescence (EL) of surface-plasmon (SP)-mediated green LEDs. On the p-clad surface of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well LEDs, a 2-dimensional, second-order grating structure is textured and coated with an Ag electrode. With this setup, a larger EL enhancement factor is obtained at a higher injected current, which suggests that SP-LEDs can be a possible solution to efficiency droop, which is one of the main problems in developing high-power LEDs. Details regarding the implementation of our device are discussed.

  4. Non-Uniformities in Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Using Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbrecher, K.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Sites, J.

    2011-07-01

    It is the purpose of this research to develop specific imaging techniques that have the potential to be fast, in-line tools for quality control in thin-film CdTe solar cells. Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) are two techniques that are currently under investigation on CdTe small area devices made at Colorado State University. It is our hope to significantly advance the understanding of EL and PL measurements as applied to CdTe. Qualitative analysis of defects and non-uniformities is underway on CdTe using EL, PL, and other imaging techniques.

  5. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, C. J.; Goldman, J. A.; Brennan, K.

    1988-01-01

    During this report period work was performed on the modeling of High Field Electronic Transport in Bulk ZnS and ZnSe, and also on the surface cleaning of Si for MBE growth. Some MBE growth runs have also been performed in the Varian GEN II System. A brief outline of the experimental work is given. A complete summary will be done at the end of the next reporting period at the completion of the investigation. The theoretical studies are included.

  6. Modeling SiO2 Ion Impurities Aging in Insulated Gate Power Devices Under Temperature and Voltage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    and Widom , 2000). For power devices that are fabricated with vertical technology, oxide contamination and field distortion are the predominant...down ultra-thin SiO2 layers in MOS devices”, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 44, pp. 1-23. 2004. Feinberg, A.A., Ersland, P., Kaper, V., and Widom ...A., “On aging of key transistor device parameters,” in Proc. Inst. Environmental Sciences &Technology, 2000, pp. 231–236. Feinberg, A.A., Widom

  7. All solution processed low turn-on voltage near infrared LEDs based on core-shell PbS-CdS quantum dots with inverted device structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rafael S; Binetti, Enrico; Torre, Jose A; Garcia-Belmonte, G; Striccoli, Marinella; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2014-08-07

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extraordinarily appealing for the development of light emitting devices (LEDs) due to tunable and pure color emission, brightness and solution processability. This last advantage of the QD-LEDs is even more evident in the field of infrared emission where the devices currently used are prepared by high cost epitaxial techniques. Here we show the fabrication of low cost NIR QD-LEDs based on high quantum yield core-shell PbS-CdS QDs and a novel inverted device structure. Devices are produced using SnO2:F (FTO) as the conductive transparent contact, nanostructured TiO2 as the electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT as the hole transport layer (HTL). Despite the roughness of this ETL, the obtained external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) are similar to previously reported values, obtained with regular configuration and more expensive ITO substrates. A turn-on voltage as low as the QD band gap (1.47 eV) is achieved for a large area (1.54 cm(2)) and relatively stable QD-LEDs.

  8. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  9. Analysis of interfacial energy states in Au/pentacene/polyimide/indium-zinc-oxide diodes by electroluminescence spectroscopy and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-03-01

    By using electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we analyzed interfacial energy states in Au/pentacene/polyimide/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) diodes, to characterize the pentacene/polyimide interface. Under positive voltage application to the Au electrode with reference to the IZO electrode, the EFISHG showed that holes are injected from Au electrode, and accumulate at the pentacene/polyimide interface with the surface charge density of Qs = 3.8 × 10-7 C/cm2. The EL spectra suggested that the accumulated holes are not merely located in the pentacene but they are transferred to the interface states of polyimide. These accumulated holes distribute with the interface state density greater than 1012 cm-2 eV-1 in the range E = 1.5-1.8 and 1.7-2.4 eV in pentacene and in polyimide, respectively, under assumption that accumulated holes govern recombination radiation. The EL-EFISHG measurement is helpful to characterize organic-organic layer interfaces in organic devices and provides a way to analyze interface energy states.

  10. Electroluminescence enhancement of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS/Al OLED by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewidy, Dina; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS/Al organic light emitting diode (OLED) by depositing PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS using spin coating has been reported. The roles of PEDOT:PSS in the structure have been reported. It allows transportation of holes from ITO to the highest occupied molecular orbit (HOMO) of MEH-PPV. In additions, it allows transportation of electrons from Al to lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) of MEH:PPV. Further, it confines electrons in the LUMO of MEH:PPV due to the higher barrier of PEDOT:PSS of LUMO. The effect of thermal annealing on the current-voltage curve as well as on the electroluminescence intensity has been reported. The results show that the current increased from 25 mA to 52 mA at 7 V, when the sample was thermally annealed at 150 °C. Such enhancement in electrical injection leads to enhancement of the electroluminescence to a factor of 4.7 at the peak luminescence wavelength (∼592 nm). Reasons for electroluminescence improvement caused by thermal annealing have been proposed.

  11. Optical voltage sensors: principle, problem and research proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Sensing principles and main problems to be solved for optical voltage sensors are briefly reviewed. Optical effects used for voltage sensing usually include electro-optic Pockels and Kerr effects, electro-gyration effect, elasto-optical effect, and electroluminescent effects, etc. In principle, typical optical voltage sensor is based on electro-optic Pockels crystals and closed-loop signal detection scheme. Main problems to be solved for optical voltage sensors include: how to remove influence of unwanted multiple optical effects on voltage sensing performance; how to select or develop a proper voltage sensing material and element; how to keep optical phase bias to be stable under temperature fluctuation and vibration; how to achieve dc voltage sensing, etc. In order to suppress the influence of unwanted optical effects and light beam coupling-related loss on voltage sensing signals, we may pay more attention to all-fiber and waveguide voltage sensors. Voltage sensors based on electroluminescent effects are also promising in some application fields due to their compact configuration, low cost and potential long-term reliability.

  12. Wavelength-Tunable Electroluminescent Light Sources from Individual Ga-Doped ZnO Microwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingming; He, Gaohang; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Zheng, Lingxia; Shan, Chongxin; Shen, Dezhen; Fang, Xiaosheng

    2017-03-07

    Electrically driven wavelength-tunable light emission from biased individual Ga-doped ZnO microwires (ZnO:Ga MWs) is demonstrated. Single crystalline ZnO:Ga MWs with different Ga-doping concentrations have been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition method. Strong electrically driven light emission from individual ZnO:Ga MW based devices is realized with tunable colors, and the emission region is localized toward the center of the wires. Increasing Ga-doping concentration in the MWs can lead to the redshift of electroluminescent emissions in the visible range. Interestingly, owing to the lack of rectification characteristics, relevant electrical measurement results show that the alternating current-driven light emission functions excellently on the ZnO:Ga MWs. Consequently, individual ZnO:Ga MWs, which can be analogous to incandescent sources, offer unique possibilities for future electroluminescence light sources. This typical multicolor emitter can be used to rival and complement other conventional semiconductor devices in displays and lighting.

  13. Temperature- and voltage-dependent trap generation model in high-k metal gate MOS device with percolation simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Yang, Hong; Wang, Yan-Rong; Wang, Wen-Wu; Luo, Wei-Chun; Qi, Lu-Wei; Li, Jun-Feng; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Da-Peng; Ye, Tian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    High-k metal gate stacks are being used to suppress the gate leakage due to tunneling for sub-45 nm technology nodes. The reliability of thin dielectric films becomes a limitation to device manufacturing, especially to the breakdown characteristic. In this work, a breakdown simulator based on a percolation model and the kinetic Monte Carlo method is set up, and the intrinsic relation between time to breakdown and trap generation rate R is studied by TDDB simulation. It is found that all degradation factors, such as trap generation rate time exponent m, Weibull slope β and percolation factor s, each could be expressed as a function of trap density time exponent α. Based on the percolation relation and power law lifetime projection, a temperature related trap generation model is proposed. The validity of this model is confirmed by comparing with experiment results. For other device and material conditions, the percolation relation provides a new way to study the relationship between trap generation and lifetime projection. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. SS2015AA010601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176091 and 61306129), and the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of MicroElectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, D.

    2016-11-09

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  15. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, D; Kirchartz, T; Wheeler, S; Dimitrov, S; Abdelsamie, M; Gorman, J; Ashraf, R S; Holliday, S; Wadsworth, A; Gasparini, N; Kaienburg, P; Yan, H; Amassian, A; Brabec, C J; Durrant, J R; McCulloch, I

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized.

  16. Impact of roll-over-shaped current–voltage characteristics and device properties of Ag(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Takeshi; Nakada, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The roll-over shape often observed in the current–voltage curve of Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) solar cells degrades the open circuit voltage (V OC) and particularly the fill factor (FF). The origin of the roll-over shape was investigated by experimental measurements and device simulation. By combining AC Hall measurement and the peel-off process, we estimated the AIGS hole concentration to be 2.2 × 1012 cm‑3. Theoretical simulation revealed that the roll-over shape is attributed to this low hole concentration. Under an applied forward bias, the band bending near the back contact of the AIGS layer forms an intrinsic semiconductor owing to the injected electrons, leading to the formation of an inverted diode. To solve this issue, the addition of NaF by the postdeposition treatment of the AIGS layer was performed. As a result, the hole concentration of the AIGS layer increased, significantly improving its V OC, FF, and conversion efficiency.

  17. A low-phase-noise Ka-band push-push voltage-controlled oscillator using CMOS/glass-integrated passive device technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a Ka-band CMOS push-push voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated into a glass-integrated passive device (GIPD) process is presented. The transformer, λ/4 transmission line, and inductors of the VCO are realized in the GIPD process, achieving superior performances, and therefore improve the phase noise of the VCO. Moreover, the transformer-based VCO is a differential Hartley topology to further reduce the phase noise and chip area. Operating at 1.8 V supply voltage, the VCO core consumes merely 3.8 mW of dc power. The measured phase noise is -109.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the 30.84 GHz oscillation frequency. The push-push VCO also demonstrates a 24.5 dB fundamental rejection, and exhibits an 8.4% tuning range. Compared with recently published CMOS-based VCOs, it is observed that the proposed VCO exhibits excellent performance under low power consumption.

  18. Visible electroluminescence from p-n junction porous Si diode with a polyaniline film contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjian Li (李宏建); Baiyun Huang (黄伯云); Danqing Yi (易丹青); Haoyang Gui (崔昊杨); Jingcui Peng (彭景翠)

    2003-01-01

    We have fabricated a light emitting diode using a p-type conducting polyaniline layer deposited on a n-type porous silicon (PS) layer. The contact formed between a p-type conducting polyaniline layer and a n-type PS wafer has rectified behaviour demonstrated clearly by the I-V curves. The series resistance Rs in the p-type conducting polyaniline/n-PS diode is reduced greatly and has a lower onset voltage compared with ITO/n-PS diode. The PS has an orange photoluminescence (PL) band after coating with polyaniline.Visible electroluminescence (EL) has been obtained from this junction when a forward bias is applied. The emission band is very broad extending from 600 - 803 nm with a peak at 690 nm.

  19. Colour electroluminescence with end light-emitting from ZnO nanowire/polymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Ying; Wang Junan [Institute of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang Wenfei; Chen Xiaoban; Huang Zonghao; Gu Qiuwen [Department of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China)], E-mail: yinghe@staff.shu.edu.cn

    2009-03-01

    The ZnO nanowires with polymer film were self-assembly grown on n-type (111) plane of the silicon substrate using polymer assisted complexing soft-template process through a simple polymer complexation and low-temperature oxidizing-sintering, which have smooth top and fine hexagonal columnar structure with average length of about 6 {mu}m and the diameter of about 40 nm. These columnar structured ZnO nanowires had strong near-band ultraviolet emission at {approx}383 nm and blue electrically driven emission at {approx} 400 nm with a relatively low turn-on voltage, as well as a typical diode characteristic property at room temperature. In particular, these structures, being of high aspect ratio and small tip radius of curvature, may possess a good amplified stimulated emission and lasing property. These results suggested a potential application of ZnO nanowire/polymer film as electroluminescence flat panel displays or illuminations in the future.

  20. Photo and electroluminescence of ZnSe: Sn and ZnSe:(Sn, Pr) phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Lakshmi Mishra, Kshama

    2016-09-01

    We have prepared ZnSe (luminescent grade) phosphor doped with Sn and (Sn,Pr) with varying concentration in an inert atmosphere in a silica tubular furnace at temperature of (780 ± 20) °C for 1 hr to obtain ZnSe:Sn and ZnSe: (Sn,Pr) phosphors. The photo luminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra of these phosphors have been studied at room temperature and results were discussed in the light of existing models. Dependence of EL emission on the voltage frequency has also been carried out. It is found that the plot between the integrated light intensity versus 1/√Vrms is a straight line suggesting the existence of Mott-Schottky type barrier on the metal semiconductor interface.

  1. Kinetics of electroluminescence of thin-film emitters based on zinc sulfide at ultralow frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurin, N T; Sabitov, O Y

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigation into kinetics of luminescence instantaneous luminance of thin-film electroluminescent structures excited by 0.1-2 Hz frequency triangular sing-variable voltage. One detected two regions with time rise of instantaneous luminance and of current (slow and quick ones) to which corresponded various regions at field and charge dependences of instantaneous luminance and at other electrophysical characteristics. On the basis of solution of kinetic equation one derived time dependences of instantaneous luminance and of inner quantum yield. The results are explained by generation of space charges within luminophore layer followed by reduction of the efficient thickness of the layer and by variation of mechanism of excitation of luminescence centers

  2. Structure–property relationships of electroluminescent polythiophenes: role of nitrogen-based heterocycles as side chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Radhakrishnan; S J Ananthakrishnan; N Somanathan

    2011-07-01

    A series of conjugated polythiophenes containing nitrogen-containing heterocycles as side chain, with differing substituent nature and linkage have been studied using quantum-chemical calculations. The optical properties of synthesized polymers were compared with that of model compounds with intricate structural variations. The theoretically predicted optical characteristics are correlated with the experimentally determined parameters. Experimentally determined band gap and absorption maxima found to follow the predicted trends. Single emissive layer polymeric light emitting diodes are fabricated and the structural influence on photo- and electro-emission was studied in detail. The study shows that the nature of side chain substituent such as number/position of nitrogen atoms and mode of linking of side chain plays a crucial role in deciding the geometry which in turn controls the voltage response of the electroluminescence.

  3. Syntheses and electroluminescent properties of two europium ternary complexes Eu(DBM){sub 3}(PBO) and Eu(DBM){sub 3}(PBT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Min [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gao Lihua [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang Shanshan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Chunhui [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: chhuang@pku.edu.cn; Wang Kezhi [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Two europium complexes, Eu(DBM){sub 3}(PBO) and Eu(DBM){sub 3}(PBT) (DBM=dibenzoylmethanato, PBO=2-(2-pyridyl)benzoxazole, PBT=2-(2-pyridyl)benzothiazole), were prepared and used as emitting materials in organic electroluminescent (EL) devices. The devices with the structures ITO/TPD/Eu(DBM){sub 3}(PBO) (or Eu(DBM){sub 3}(PBT)/BCP/Alq{sub 3}/Mg:Ag/Ag emit red light originating from the europium complexes.

  4. Enhanced DC-operated electroluminescence of forwardly aligned p/MQW/n InGaN nanorod LEDs via DC offset-AC dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Yun Jae; Yoo, Gang Yeol; Kang, Hyelim; Lee, Youngki; Kim, Chan Sik; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Kim, Woong; Do, Young Rag

    2017-10-11

    We introduce orientation-controlled alignment process of p-GaN/InGaN multi quantum-well/n-GaN (p/MQW/n InGaN) nanorod light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by applying direct-current (DC) offset alternating-current (AC) or pulsed DC electric fields across interdigitated metal electrodes. The as-forwardly aligned p/MQW/n InGaN nanorod LEDs by a pulsed DC dielectrophoresis (DEP) assembly process improve the electroluminescence (EL) intensities by 1.8 times compared to the conventional AC DEP assembly process under DC electric field operation and exhibit an enhanced applied current and EL brightness in the current-voltage and EL intensity-voltage curves that can be directly used as fundamental data to construct DC-operated nanorod LED devices, such as LED areal surface lightings, scalable lightings (micrometers to inches) and formable surface lightings. The enhancement of the applied current, the improved EL intensity, and the increased number of forwardly aligned p/MQW/n InGaN nanorods in panchromatic cathodoluminescence (CL) images confirm the considerable enhancement of forwardly aligned 1D nanorod LEDs between two opposite electrodes using DC offset-AC or a pulsed DC electric field DEP assembly process. These DC offset-AC or pulsed DC electric field DEP assembly process suggests that designing for these types of interactions could yield new ways to control the orientation of asymmetric p/MQW/n InGaN diode-type LED nanorods with a relatively low aspect ratio.

  5. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence of conjugated polymer films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of naphthalene

    CERN Document Server

    Rajabi, Mojtaaba; Firouzjah, Marzieh Abbasi; Hosseini, Seyed Iman; Shokri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Polymer light-emitting devices were fabricated utilizing plasma polymerized thin films as emissive layers. These conjugated polymer films were prepared by RF Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) using naphthalene as monomer. The effect of different applied powers on the chemical structure and optical properties of the conjugated polymers was investigated. The fabricated devices with structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ plasma polymerized Naphthalene/Alq3/Al showed broadband Electroluminescence (EL) emission peaks with center at 535-550 nm. Using different structural and optical tests, connection between polymers chemical structure and optical properties under different plasma powers has been studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies confirmed that a conjugated polymer film with a 3-D cross-linked network was developed. By increasing the power, products tended to form as highly cross-linked polymer films. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of plasma polymers showed different excimerc ...

  6. On the spectral difference between electroluminescence and photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals: a mechanism study of electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong-Chen; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zhu, Jiang; Lu, Chen-Tian; Lu, Ming, E-mail: minglu@fudan.ac.cn [Fudan University, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, and Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center (China)

    2013-11-15

    Spectral shift, especially blueshift, in peak position of electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of Si nanocrystal (Si-nc) with respect to its photoluminescence (PL) counterpart has been often observed. Explanations for the spectral difference are different for different EL mechanisms adopted. To gain a relevant picture of the EL process, in this work, we analyze three EL mechanisms that are mainly applied nowadays, i.e., the model of defect light emission, that of band-filling, and that of Si-nc size selection by the carrier energy. Different Si-nc samples and working conditions are designed and their EL and PL emissions monitored according to the predictions of the three models. It is concluded that the observed EL is mainly of Si-nc-related origin. The experimental results are more consistent with the model of Si-nc size selection.

  7. The current-voltage characteristics of polymer/C60 diodes in the dark: A direct way to assess photovoltaic devices efficiency parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, M.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Macedo, A. G.; Grodniski, D. Z.; Roman, L. S.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A general description of dark transport properties in bi-layer organic photovoltaic devices formed by a heterojunction of a semiconducting co-polymer and fullerene (C60) is presented. The copolymers are composed of thiophene, phenylene, and fluorene units, where the thiophene content is kept constant while the fluorene/phenylene ratio is varied. Measurements show that the j × V characteristics display typical diode behavior (exponential increasing) at low and are space-charge limited at high voltages. Extending a theoretical analysis by Koehler et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5575 (2002)], a model which assumes a space-charge dependent inner series resistance—attributed to molecular and morphological aspects of the materials—is proposed. It turns out to be general and able to nicely fit the experimental curves for all the studied samples. Furthermore, the model quantifies relevant parameters (the effective mobility and the diode reverse saturation current j0) which will determine the systems efficiency. The framework hence allows to foremost the devices functioning under illumination from direct experiments of the active material in the dark.

  8. A green emitting phosphorescent copper(I) complex with tetrazole derived ligand for electroluminescence application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Senmiao; Yuan, Donglin; Yi, Lita

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a tetrazole derived diamine ligand of 2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (TP) owing electron-donors and short conjugation chain was synthesized to increase the band gap of its corresponding phosphorescent Cu(I) complex. This Cu(I) complex was characterized in detail, including its single crystal structure, singlet electronic transitions, photophysical parameters, thermal stability and electrochemical property. Upon on photoexcitation, this Cu(I) complex emitted green emission peaking at 497 nm with biexponential decay pattern of τ1=5.5414 μs (A1=0.137) and τ2=1.0679 μs (A2=0.11503). Cyclic voltammerty experiment suggested that this Cu(I) complex owned HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.79 eV and -2.39 eV. The thermal decomposition temperature was 170°C as indicated by thermogravimetric analysis. The optimal electroluminescence device constructed by solution processed coating procedure showed green electroluminescence peaking at 525 nm, with maximum luminance of 2860 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiency of 5.9 cd/A.

  9. Enhancement of open-circuit voltage on organic photovoltaic devices by Al-doped TiO{sub 2} modifying layer produced by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valaski, R.; Arantes, C.; Senna, C.A.; Carôzo, Victor; Achete, C.A. [Materials Metrology Division, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Xerém, Duque de Caxias 25250-020, RJ (Brazil); Cremona, M., E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br [Materials Metrology Division, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Xerém, Duque de Caxias 25250-020, RJ (Brazil); Physics Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22453-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    Sol–gel method has shown several advantages for oxide synthesis, such as lower cost production, coating large areas, lower processing temperatures and ease insertion of doping materials. Therefore, it is attractive for production of intermediate and electrode modifying layers in organic optoelectronic devices. Herein, spin-coated aluminum-doped titanium dioxide (AlTiO{sub 2}) thin films were produced by sol–gel method onto glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates, using different Al-dopant concentrations and post-done annealing temperatures. Electrical measurements were performed in order to investigate the improvement of the TiO{sub 2} resistivity. Additionally, structural, compositional, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the optimal AlTiO{sub 2} modifying layers onto FTO substrates were probed by different techniques, and compared with those obtained from the undoped thin films produced under similar conditions. Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with the structure FTO/AlTiO{sub 2}(30 nm)/C{sub 60}(50 nm)/CuPc(50 nm)/Al with an Al concentration of 0.03 M in AlTiO{sub 2} layer were produced. The insertion of AlTiO{sub 2} thin films improved the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) as well as the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) in comparison with non-modified electrode FTO based devices. This behavior is discussed in terms of induced interface phenomena as dipole formation induced by Al. - Highlights: • Easy and cheap solution-process for AlTiO{sub 2} modification of FTO electrode for OPVs • Electrical, structural and optical characterization of TiO{sub 2} layers with Al-dopant • Improvement of Voc and Jsc of inverted OPVs with AlTiO{sub 2} modified electrode.

  10. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size...

  11. A new series of short axially symmetrically and asymmetrically 1,3,6,8-tetrasubstituted pyrenes with two types of substituents: Syntheses, structures, photophysical properties and electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Tengfei; Xu, Lu; Han, Fangfang; Zhao, Yun; Ni, Zhonghai

    2017-01-01

    A new series of short axially symmetrically (4a and 4b) and asymmetrically (4c and 4d) 1,3,6,8-tetrasubstituted pyrene-based compounds with two phenyl moieties and two diphenylamine units on the pyrene core were designed and synthesized based on stepwise synthetic strategy. These compounds were structurally characterized and their photoelectric properties were investigated by spectroscopy, electrochemical and theoretical studies. The structures of 4a and 4b were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, indicating that the compounds are twisted by the peripheral substituents and the intermolecular π-π interactions have been efficiently interrupted. The four compounds exhibit high absolute fluorescence quantum yields (VF) in dichloromethane (83.31-88.45%) and moderate VFs in film states (20.78-38.68%). In addition, compounds 4a and 4b display relatively higher absolute VFs than those of 4c and 4d in film states. All the compounds exhibit high thermal stability with decomposition temperatures above 358 °C and the values of 4c and 4d are higher than 4a and 4b. Compounds 4a and 4b can form morphologically stable amorphous thin films with Tg values of 146 °C and 149 °C, respectively. However, there are no obvious Tg observed in compounds 4c and 4d. Electroluminescent devices using 4a and 4b as doped emission layer show promising device performance with low turn-on voltage (3.0 V), maximum brightness around 15100 cd/m2 and 16100 cd/m2, maximum luminance efficiency of 12.4 cd/A and 13.6 cd/A and maximum external quantum efficiency of 5.34% and 5.63%, respectively.

  12. Electrical and electroluminescent characterization of nanometric multilayers of SiOX/SiOY obtained by LPCVD including non-normal emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Salazar, J.; Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; Aceves-Mijares, M.

    2016-06-01

    This work describes the analysis and fabrication by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of two light-emitting capacitors (LECs) constituted by nanometric multilayers of silicon-rich oxide. For both structures, seven layers were used: three light emitting layers with 6% silicon excess and four conductive layers with 12% silicon excess for one LEC and the other with 14% silicon excess. Both LECs were annealed at 1100 °C. Both multilayers demonstrate a substantially improved photoluminescent response compared to single emitting layers. A dielectric constant of 4.1 and a trap density of 1016 cm-3 were obtained from capacitance-voltage curves. Analysis of current-voltage and electroluminescence-voltage (EL-V) characteristics indicates that EL initiates under the space-charge-limited current mechanism, and the required voltage to turn on the emission is 38 V which is the trap-free limit voltage. However, EL increases exponentially under the impact ionization and trap-assisted tunneling conduction mechanisms. The electroluminescence spectra for both multilayers show two emission peaks centered in 450 and 700 nm attributed to oxygen defects. Also, the LEC non-normal emission was measured and it behaves like a Lambertian optical source. Both multilayers obtain the values of efficiency in the order of 10-6 which is in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

  13. Electroluminescence property of organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özdemir, Orhan; Kavak, Pelin; Saatci, A. Evrim; Gökdemir, F. Pınar; Menda, U. Deneb; Can, Nursel; Kutlu, Kubilay [Yıldız Technical University, Department of Physics, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Tekin, Emine; Pravadalı, Selin [National Metrology Instıtute of Turkey (TUBİTAK-UME), Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    Transport properties of electrons and holes were investigated not only in a anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)- alt - poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes (OLED) but also in an ITO/Ag/polymer/Ag electron and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/Au hole only devices. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer.

  14. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  15. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  16. Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Jay Prakash; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Adam, Thomas [Nanofab, University of Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Infrared electroluminescence was observed from GeSn/Ge p-n heterojunction diodes with 8% Sn, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The GeSn layers were boron doped, compressively strained, and pseudomorphic on Ge substrates. Spectral measurements indicated an emission peak at 0.57 eV, about 50 meV wide, increasing in intensity with applied pulsed current, and with reducing device temperatures. The total integrated emitted power from a single edge facet was 54 {mu}W at an applied peak current of 100 mA at 100 K. These results suggest that GeSn-based materials maybe useful for practical light emitting diodes operating in the infrared wavelength range near 2 {mu}m.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of photo- and electroluminescence of divinyldiphenyl and divinylphenanthrene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonova, L. G.; Valiev, R. R.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Sunchugashev, D. A.; Kukhta, I. N.; Kukhta, A. V.; Kopylova, T. N.

    2017-02-01

    Electronic absorption and luminescence spectra of four new compounds of divinyldiphenyl and divinylphenanthrene derivatives are investigated experimentally in tetrahydrofuran solutions and thin films obtained by thermal vacuum deposition and by spin coating of these substances embedded into polyvinylcarbazole matrix. Molecular geometry optimizations and electronic spectra have been calculated in the framework of XMC-QDPT2/6-31G (d, p) and TDDFT/B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) levels of theory. We have fabricated and studied OLED devices with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/NPD/L/Ca/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK + L/Ca, where L is the luminophore. It is demonstrated that the photo-and electroluminescence spectra of divinyldiphenyl are not identical and undergo strong changes depending on the method of sample preparation.

  18. Analyzing of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Series Compensation Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Parhizgar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a series-connected compensator to generate a controllable voltage to against the short-term voltage disturbances. The technique of DVR is an effective and cost competitive approach to improve voltage quality at the load side. This study presents a single-phase and threephase DVR system with reduced switch-count topology to protect the sensitive load against abnormal voltage conditions. Most basic function, the DVR configuration consist of a two level Voltage Source Converter (VSC, a dc energy storage device, a coupling transformer Connected in shunt with the ac system This study presents the application of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR on power distribution systems for mitigation of voltage sag at critical loads. DVR is one of the compensating types of custom power devices. The DVR, which is based on forced-commutated Voltage Source Converter (VSC has been proved suitable for the task of compensating voltage sags/swells. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and understand the performances of DVR in supporting load voltages under voltage sags/swells conditions.

  19. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Arazi, L; Coimbra, A E C; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Chepel, V; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  20. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  1. Synthesis, structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Hua [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu, Huixia, E-mail: xuhuixiatyut@163.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Li, Jie; Wu, Yuling; Du, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu, Bingshe, E-mail: xubs@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-07-15

    A kind of blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex, (CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) [CzPhBI = 9-(6-(2-phenyl-1-benzimidazolyl)hexyl)-9-carbazole; tfmptz = 2-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine], was designed and synthesized. The synthesized iridium(III) complex was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 19}F NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction, respectively. Its thermal properties, optical properties and electrochemical properties were also investigated. The host-free organic electroluminescent devices with the configuration of ITO/MoO{sub 3} (3 nm)/NPB (30 nm)/TAPC (15 nm)/(CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) (30 nm)/TBPI (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) had been fabricated. The devices exhibited excellent performance indicating that (CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) was a promising phosphorescent material. - Highlights: • A blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was synthesized. • The molecular structure, and photophysical properties were investigated. • Electroluminescent performance in host-free devices were discussed. • The maximum current efficiency 8.2 cd A{sup −1} and the maximum brightness 5420 cd m{sup −2} were achieved.

  2. Passive Matrix Organic Electroluminescent Display for 3G Cellular Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major features of the display technologies for 3G cellular phone are reviewed. The comparison between their potential candidates for 3G cellular phone is given, and a detailed discussion is made on passive matrix organic electroluminescent display technology. A novel method to improve display contrast ratio is presented. Finally several 3G phone set prototypes with OLED display panels are given as well as the market forecast

  3. Study on electroluminescence from porous silicon light-emitting diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajun Yang; Qingshan Li; Xianyun Liu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Porous silicon (PS) light-emitting diode (LED) with an ITO/PS/p-Si/Al structure was fabricated by anodic oxidation method. Photoluminescence (PL) of the PS LED was measured with a peak at 593 nm, and electroluminescence (EL) was measured with a peak at 556 nm under the conditions of 7.5-V forward bias and 210-mA current intensity. The spectral width of EL was measured to be about 160 nm.

  4. Probing the Energy Level Alignment and the Correlation with Open-Circuit Voltage in Solution-Processed Polymeric Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Dan; Li, Ho-Wa; Cheng, Yuanhang; Guan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Taili; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2016-03-23

    Energy level alignment at the organic donor and acceptor interface is a key to determine the photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells, but direct probing of such energy alignment is still challenging especially for solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films. Here we report a systematic investigation on probing the energy level alignment with different approaches in five commonly used polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ systems. We find that by tuning the weight ratio of polymer to PCBM the electronic features from both polymer and PCBM can be obtained by photoemission spectroscopy. Using this approach, we find that some of the BHJ blends simply follow vacuum level alignment, but others show strong energy level shifting as a result of Fermi level pinning. Independently, by measuring the temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage (VOC), we find that the effective energy gap (Eeff), the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer donor (EHOMO-D) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the PCBM acceptor (ELUMO-A), obtained by photoemission spectroscopy in all polymer:PCBM blends has an excellent agreement with the extrapolated VOC at 0 K. Consequently, the photovoltage loss of various organic BHJ photovoltaic devices at room temperature is in a range of 0.3-0.6 V. It is believed that the demonstrated direct measurement approach of the energy level alignment in solution-processed organic BHJ will bring deeper insight into the origin of the VOC and the corresponding photovoltage loss mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells.

  5. Development of a Remote Insulation Test Device for High-Voltage Electrical Motors%一种远程高压电机绝缘测试装置的开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锁侠; 佟洪明; 肖骥; 李开寒

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种远程高压电机绝缘测试装置。根据系统需求,独自研发了一种加入了RS-485通信模块和控制模块的新一代电子式电阻表。基于西门子S7-200型PLC对高压电机绝缘监测设备、高压继电器、机械抓进行控制。建立了触摸屏、PLC、绝缘检测仪之间的通讯,实现了高压电机绝缘的远程测量功能。通过运用本装置,提高了高压电机绝缘检测的自动化水平,降低了设备维修频率,并保障了工人的人身安全。%A remote insulation test device for high -voltage electrical motors is introduced. To meet system requirement, a new -generation electronic insulation tester incorporating RS -485 communication module and control module was independently developed. Based on Siemens S7-200 PLC the system can control high-voltage motor insulation monitoring devices, high voltage relays and mechanical grips. Communication between the touch screen, PLC and insulation tester was established, realizing remote insulation measurement for high voltage motors. The device improves the automation level of high-voltage motor insulation test, reduces the frequency of equipment maintenance and ensures personal safety.

  6. Quantitative structure-property relationships of electroluminescent materials: Artificial neural networks and support vector machines to predict electroluminescence of organic molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alana Fernandes Golin; Ricardo Stefani

    2013-12-01

    Electroluminescent compounds are extensively used as materials for application in OLED. In order to understand the chemical features related to electroluminescence of such compounds, QSPR study based on neural network model and support vector machine was developed on a series of organic compounds commonly used in OLED development. Radial-basis function-SVM model was able to predict the electroluminescence with good accuracy ( = 0.90). Moreover, RMSE of support vector machine model is approximately half of RMSE observed for artificial neural networks model, which is significant from the point of view of model precision, as the dataset is very small. Thus, support vector machine is a good method to build QSPR models to predict the electroluminescence of materials when applied to small datasets. It was observed that descriptors related to chemical bonding and electronic structure are highly correlated with electroluminescence properties. The obtained results can help in understating the structural features related to the electroluminescence, and supporting the development of new electroluminescent materials.

  7. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  8. Electroluminescence of a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells after high energy irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Manuela

    2009-11-24

    The crystalline silicon as absorber material will certainly continue to dominate the market for space applications of solar cells. In the contribution under consideration the applicability of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells in space has been tested by the investigation of the cell modification by high energy protons and comparing the results to the degradation of homojunction crystalline silicon reference cells. The investigated solar cells have been irradiated with protons of different energies and doses. For all investigated solar cells the maximum damage happens for an energy of about 1.7 MeV and is mainly due to the decrease of the effective minority carrier diffusion length in the crystalline silicon absorber. Simulations carried out by AFORS-HET, a heterojunction simulation program, also confirmed this result. The main degradation mechanism for all types of devices is the monotonically decreasing charge carrier diffusion length in the p-type monocrystalline silicon absorber layer. For the heterojunction solar cell an enhancement of the photocurrent in the blue wavelength region has been observed but only in the case of heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic a-Si:H buffer layer. Additionally to the traditional characterization techniques the electroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heteroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heterointerface between amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon in solar cells after proton irradiation. A direct relation between minority carrier diffusion length and electroluminescence quantum efficiency has been observed but also details of the interface modification could be monitored by this technique.

  9. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  10. Hole-exciton interaction induced high field decay of magneto-electroluminescence in Alq{sub 3}-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tingting; Holford, D. F.; Gu, Hang; Kreouzis, T. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zhang, Sijie, E-mail: Sijie.zhang@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gillin, W. P., E-mail: Sijie.zhang@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-01-11

    The magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyqinoline) (Alq{sub 3}) based organic light emitting diodes have been investigated by varying the electron/hole ratio in the emissive layer. Experimental results reveal that a negative high field effect in the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) can be found in devices with very low triplet exciton concentration at room temperature. This suggests triplet-triplet annihilation cannot be used to explain the negative high field MEL in the Alq{sub 3} system. Our results suggest that hole-exciton interaction may be the origin of the negative high field MEL and also, in parallel with this interaction, there is also the more common positive high field process occurring which has been tentatively attributed to electron-exciton interactions. The competition between these different processes decides the final shape of the MEL at high fields.

  11. Reverse-bias-driven dichromatic electroluminescence of n-ZnO wire arrays/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Junseok; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Hwang, Sunyong; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Jong Kyu; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Young Joon

    2016-09-01

    Position-controlled n-ZnO microwire (MW) and nanowire-bundle (NW-B) arrays were fabricated using hydrothermal growth of ZnO on a patterned p-GaN film. Both the wire/film p-n heterojunctions showed electrical rectification features at reverse-bias (rb) voltages, analogous to backward diodes. Dichromatic electroluminescence (EL) emissions with 445- and 560-nm-wavelength peaks displayed whitish-blue and greenish-yellow light from MW- and NW-B-based heterojunctions at rb voltages, respectively. The different dichromatic EL emission colors were studied based on photoluminescence spectra and the dichromatic EL peak intensity ratios as a function of the rb voltage. The different EL colors are discussed with respect to depletion thickness and electron tunneling probability determined by wire/film junction geometry and size.

  12. Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, J. D.; Menéndez, J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Senaratne, C. L.; Sims, P.; Kouvetakis, J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States); Aoki, T. [LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287- 1704 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration y{sub c} where the Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

  13. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aurelien; Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D.

    2016-08-01

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  14. Electroluminescence of a Multi-Layered Organic Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Trans-4-[p-[Nmethyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-Methylphridinium Tetraphenylborate as the Active Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xue-Yuan; ZHANG Jia-Yu; XU Chun-Xiang; QIAO Yi; GUI Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Employing an organic dye salt oftrans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT) as the active layer, 8-hydrocyquinoline aluminium (Alqa) as the electron transporting layer and N,Nt-diphenyl-N,Nl-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[l,l'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as the hole transporting layer, respectively, we fabricate a multi-layered organic light-emitting diode and observe the colour tunable electroluminescence (EL). The dependence of the EL spectra on the applied voltage is investigated in detail, and the recombination mechanism is discussed by considering the variation of the hole-electron recombination region.

  15. Over-voltage protection system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Song; Dong, Dong; Lai, Rixin

    2017-05-02

    An over-voltage protection system includes an electronic valve connected across two terminals of a circuit and an over-voltage detection circuit connected across one of the plurality of semiconductor devices for detecting an over-voltage across the circuit. The electronic valve includes a plurality of semiconductor devices connected in series. The over-voltage detection circuit includes a voltage divider circuit connected to a break-over diode in a way to provide a representative low voltage to the break-over diode and an optocoupler configured to receive a current from the break-over diode when the representative low voltage exceeds a threshold voltage of the break-over diode indicating an over-voltage condition. The representative low voltage provided to the break-over diode represents a voltage across the one semiconductor device. A plurality of self-powered gate drive circuits are connected to the plurality of semiconductor devices, wherein the plurality of self-powered gate drive circuits receive over-voltage triggering pulses from the optocoupler during the over-voltage condition and switch on the plurality of semiconductor devices to bypass the circuit.

  16. 稳压装置在引信保险机构中的应用%Application of Stabilized Voltage Device in Fuze Insurance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 曲家惠; 岳明凯

    2011-01-01

    对于火箭弹来说,引信解除保险可利用的环境力极其有限,其中,利用燃气动力作为引信第二环境力解除保险是目前众多科研工作者研究的一项重要内容。然而,对于不同的火箭弹,其火箭发动机燃烧室可提供的燃气压力是不同的,因此,燃气动力解除保险执行机构的设计也必须针对不同弹种进行,其通用化程度很低。本文设计了一种稳压装置并制作出该装置实验模型样机,通过MAF风洞实验证明了该方案的可行性,为众多科研工作者提供了一个可行的思路。%For rocket projectile, it is extremely limited to remove the fuze insurance by means of environmental force. In which, to use gas power as second environmental force of fuze to remove the insurance is an important research content that the numerous researchers are studied in it. However, for different rocket projectile, the fuel gas pressure provided by its rocket engine combustion chamber is different, accordingly the design of insurance actuator by gas dynamic remove must also be designed to aim at different species, and the degree of its generalization is very low. This paper proposed that it designed a voltage stabilizer, and made the device of experimental MAF prototype. Through the test of experimental model wind tunnel, it validated the feasibility of this scheme. It provides a feasible thinking for scientific research.

  17. Analysis of System Wide Distortion in an Integrated Power System Utilizing a High Voltage DC Bus and Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    concentrated on the power supplied to a propulsion motor driven by an inverter with simulated silicon carbide switches. Theoretically, silicon ... carbide switches have the advantage of being able to withstand a very large blocking voltage and carry very large forward currents. Silicon carbide switches...are also very efficient due to their quick rise and fall times. Since silicon carbide switches can withstand high voltage differentials and switch

  18. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...... to guide these grid-connected distributed power generation systems. In order to verify the response of such systems for voltage disturbance, mainly for evaluation of voltage sags/dips, a Voltage Sag Generator (VSG) is needed. This paper evaluates such sag test devices according to IEC 61000 in order...... to provide cheaper solutions to test against voltage sags. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the shunt impedance based VSG solution is the easiest and cheapest one for laboratory test applications. The back-to-back fully controlled converter based VSG is the most flexible solution...

  19. 一种光纤隔离式直流信号传输装置的设计%A design of high voltage DC signal fiber isolation-transmission device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑舜; 刘红江; 蔡志远

    2015-01-01

    In high-voltage fields, high-voltage side inspection equipment (such as CT, PT) or the output signal of the sensor needs to be transmitted to the low-voltage side, the fiber isolation-transmission device not only can complete the transmission of the signal and achieve electrical isolation, but also has a strong ability to re-sist electromagnetic interference. A set of fiber isolation- transmission device for high-voltage DC measure-ment signal is designed by using the voltage frequency conversion (VFC) chip LM331 and photoelectric con-verter HFBR14XX. The circuit also is given. The V-F converter circuit is simulated, and the analysis shows that its error is 0.01 V.%在高电压领域中,高压侧检测设备(如PT,CT)或传感器的输出信号需要传输到低压侧,光纤隔离式信号传输装置不仅能完成信号的传输,还能实现高低压的电气隔离,同时也具有很强的抗电磁干扰能力。利用电压-频率(V-F)转换芯片LM331和HFBR14XX系列光电器件设计出一套适合高电压直流测量信号的光纤隔离传输装置,并给出了具体的电路原理图。对其中的V-F转换电路进行了仿真,分析表明,其误差为0.01 V。

  20. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  1. Dispositivos poliméricos eletroluminescentes Polymeric light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueder P. M. de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an overview of electroluminescent devices that use conjugated polymers as the active media. The principal components of the devices are described and we show some examples of conjugated polymers and copolymers usually employed in polymeric light emitting devices (PLED. Some aspects of the photo and electroluminescence properties as well as of the energy transfer processes are discussed. As an example, we present some of the photophysical properties of poly(fluorenes, a class of conjugated polymers with blue emission.

  2. Synthesis and Electroluminescent Properties of Julolidine-π-Juloidine Type Materials with the Bulky Adamantane Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A main problem of red emitting material, which contributes to their low EL performances, is the concentration quenching due to the effective self aggregation and the consequent formation of excimers. To avoid this drawback and thus improve the EL properties of red fluorescent OLED devices, many synthetic efforts have been conducted to develop new emitting materials with the structural motifs to suppress self-aggregation by the weakening intermolecular attractive interactions. Particularly, the introduction of bulky moieties in the emitters would provide the steric hindrance between emitting materials in solid state devices and thus reduce the self-aggregation. Nevertheless, EL performances of red materials still need to be improved for the practical applications. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized three julolidine-π-juloidine type emitting materials (1-3) with the bulky adamantane groups. To study their electroluminescent properties, the multilayered OLED devices with the structure of ITO/NPB (40 nm)/ADN : 1-3 (x%) (20 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al were fabricated. All devices using emitters 1-3 showed the efficient emissions, in which their EL performances depend on the structure of emitters sensitively. Particularly, a device using emitter 3 exhibited the efficient orange-red emission with the luminous and power efficiencies of 4.79 cd/A and 1.76 lm/W at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device was (0.57, 0.42) at 7.0 V.

  3. Developments in polymer materials for electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heinrich; Buesing, Arne; Falcou, Aurelie; Heun, Susanne; Kluge, Edgar; Parham, Amir; Stoessel, Philipp; Spreitzer, Hubert; Treacher, Kevin; Vestweber, Horst

    2002-02-01

    In the last few years industrial research into materials fulfilling the needs of the fledgling OLED display industry have intensified considerably. At Covion we have developed a range of polymers based on phenyl-PPV derivatives which are now being commercially exploited in the first polymer LED applications. These materials have been developed systematically with the demanding requirements of the devices (e.g., high efficiency and lifetime) and the industrial applicability (e.g. processibility, reproducibility and reliability of supply) in mind. However due to market forces, such as the introduction of 3rd generation mobile communication technology, there will be an immediate demand for materials for full color OLED displays. In this paper we will report on progress in the development of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) materials at Covion. The requirements for the different colors vary depending on band gap (amongst others) and therefore the challenges for each color are different. The experience gained in understanding the important structure-property relationships in the phenyl-PPVs has been used to develop these new RGB materials.

  4. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, B. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-14

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  5. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  6. The Developing of an Intelligent Condi tion Monitoring Device for High Voltage Swichboard%高压开关柜智能化状态监测装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑜珑; 关永刚; 徐国政; 钱家骊

    2000-01-01

    介绍了一种高压开关柜智能化状态监测装置,由传感器、80C196单片机、实时时钟、LCD显示器、键盘、掉电保存RAM等构成。主要功能有自校验,数据采集、处理、显示,波形显示,数据通信等功能。本文列举了装置的主要监测项目,说明了高压断路器的行程和速度、合闸弹簧状态监测的原理。%This paper presents an intelligent condition monitoring device for high voltage switchboard The device consists of sensors, 80 C 196 micrcontrollers, real time clock, LCD displayer, keyboard, nonvolatile RAM and etc The device has the features of self supervision, data sampling, data processing, data display, graphic display, data communication and etc This paperenumerates the main monitoring functions of the intelligent device, and describes the condition monitoring principle of the stoke, operating speed, close spring of high voltage switchboard

  7. Study on Transient Voltage Stability of Wind Farm Incorporated System with Reactive Power Compensation Devices%含无功补偿装置的风电并网系统暂态电压稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娜; 邵龙; 刘观起; 陶善宏

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:To deal with the problem of transient voltage stability in the power system integrated with large-scale wind farms,this paper discusses the mechanism of transient voltage instability and the analysis method of transient voltage stability. Meanwhile,it introduces two important reactive power compen-sation devices that are SVC and STATCOM. The BPA software is used for the simulation analysis of an actual national power grid. The results show that wind speed variation and system short-circuit fault can affect transient voltage stability of power system,resulting in a reduction of the system voltage level. Both SVC and STATCOM can give support to the system voltage, and the support effect of STATCOM is more obvious.%针对大规模风电并网后系统的暂态电压稳定性问题,阐述了暂态电压失稳的机理以及暂态电压稳定性的分析计算方法,介绍了2种重要的无功补偿装置SVC和STATCOM。采用BPA软件对国内某一实际电网进行了仿真分析,结果表明,风速变化和系统发生短路故障均会对系统的暂态电压稳定性造成影响,导致系统的电压水平降低。装设SVC或STATCOM对系统电压均有支撑作用,且STATCOM对电压的支撑作用更加明显。

  8. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  9. Electroluminescence of Si Nanocrystal-Doped SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dan; XIE Zhi-Qiang; WU Qian; ZHAO You-Yuan; LU Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ We perform a comparative study on the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) of Si nanocrystaldoped SiO2 (nc-Si:SiO2) and SiO2, and clarify whether the contribution from Si nanocrystals in the EL of nc-Si:SiO2 truly exists. The results unambiguously indicate the presence of EL of Si nanocrystals. The difference of peak positions between the EL and PL spectra are discussed. It is found that the normal method of passivation to enhance the PL of Si nanocrystals is not equally effective for the EL, hence new methods need to be explored to promote the EL of Si nanocrystals.

  10. VOLTAGE REGULATORS ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A promising is currently the use of asynchronous generators with capacitive excitation as a source of electricity in stand-alone power systems. Drive asynchronous generators may exercise as a thermal engine and wind wheel wind power plant or turbines of small hydropower plants. The article discusses the structural and schematics of voltage stabilizers and frequency of asynchronous generators with improved operational and technical specifications. Technical novelty of design solutions of the magnetic system and stabilizers asynchronous generator of electricity parameters confirmed by the patents for the invention of the Russian Federation. The proposed technical solution voltage stabilizer asynchronous generators, can reduce the weight of the block capacitors excitation and reactive power compensation, as well as to simplify the control system power circuit which has less power electronic devices. For wind power plants it is an important issue not only to stabilize the voltage of the generator, but also the frequency of the current. Recommend functionality stabilizer schemes parameters of electric power made for direct frequency converters with artificial and natural switching power electronic devices. It is also proposed as part of stabilization systems use single-phase voltage, three-phase transformers with rotating magnetic field, reduce the level of electromagnetic interference generated by power electronic devices for switching, enhance the efficiency and reliability of the stabilizer.

  11. Efficient Visible Electroluminescence from Porous Silicon Diodes Passivated by Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏建; 彭景翠; 瞿述; 颜永红; 许雪梅; 赵楚军

    2002-01-01

    By using n-butylamine as a carbon resource, carbon film is deposited on the p-n porous silicon (PS) surface with aradio-frequency glow discharge plasma system. Raman spectra and infrared reflection (IR) spectra of the carbonfilms indicate that there are amine-group and hydrogen atoms therein. The IR spectra of the passivated PSsamples exhibit that the PS surfaces are mainly covered with Si-C, Si-N and Si-O bonds. Electroluminescence(EL) spectra show that the EL intensity of the passivated PS diodes increases greatly and the blueshift of theEL peak occurs compared with the diodes without treatment. Both of these are stable while the passivateddiodes are exposed to the air indoors. The I-V characteristics reveal that the passivated diodes have a smallerseries resistance and a lower onset voltage. The influence of the carbon film passivation on EL properties of PShas also been discussed. The results have proven that carbon film passivation is a good way to enhance the PSluminescent intensity and stability.

  12. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-03-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  13. On device design for steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistor operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage with ferroelectric HfO2 thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kobayashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet-of-Things (IoT technologies require a new energy-efficient transistor which operates at ultralow voltage and ultralow power for sensor node devices employing energy-harvesting techniques as power supply. In this paper, a practical device design guideline for low voltage operation of steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistors (NCFETs operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage is investigated regarding operation speed, material requirement and energy efficiency in the case of ferroelectric HfO2 gate insulator, which is the material fully compatible to Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS process technologies. A physics-based numerical simulator was built to design NCFETs with the use of experimental HfO2 material parameters by modeling the ferroelectric gate insulator and FET channel simultaneously. The simulator revealed that NCFETs with ferroelectric HfO2 gate insulator enable hysteresis-free operation by setting appropriate operation point with a few nm thick gate insulator. It also revealed that, if the finite response time of spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric gate insulator is 10-100psec, 1-10MHz operation speed can be achieved with negligible hysteresis. Finally, by optimizing material parameters and tuning negative capacitance, 2.5 times higher energy efficiency can be achieved by NCFET than by conventional MOSFETs. Thus, NCFET is expected to be a new CMOS technology platform for ultralow power IoT.

  14. On device design for steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistor operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage with ferroelectric HfO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2016-02-01

    Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies require a new energy-efficient transistor which operates at ultralow voltage and ultralow power for sensor node devices employing energy-harvesting techniques as power supply. In this paper, a practical device design guideline for low voltage operation of steep-slope negative-capacitance field-effect-transistors (NCFETs) operating at sub-0.2V supply voltage is investigated regarding operation speed, material requirement and energy efficiency in the case of ferroelectric HfO2 gate insulator, which is the material fully compatible to Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) process technologies. A physics-based numerical simulator was built to design NCFETs with the use of experimental HfO2 material parameters by modeling the ferroelectric gate insulator and FET channel simultaneously. The simulator revealed that NCFETs with ferroelectric HfO2 gate insulator enable hysteresis-free operation by setting appropriate operation point with a few nm thick gate insulator. It also revealed that, if the finite response time of spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric gate insulator is 10-100psec, 1-10MHz operation speed can be achieved with negligible hysteresis. Finally, by optimizing material parameters and tuning negative capacitance, 2.5 times higher energy efficiency can be achieved by NCFET than by conventional MOSFETs. Thus, NCFET is expected to be a new CMOS technology platform for ultralow power IoT.

  15. High Voltage Test Power’s Fast Cutting-off Device Based on Infrared%基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双双; 周刚; 胡海平; 邱东晓; 金海; 潘克菲

    2015-01-01

    High voltage power system during the test will generate tens of kilovolts or more high-pressure. Therefore,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment is a basic requirement.However,approaches of the traditional use of ropes or fence to seclude the high voltage test area can not protect the safety of personnel and equipment at the root when testing personnel or foreign body mistakenly go in the charged region.This paper presented a program of fast high voltage test power cut-off device based on infrared.It can make audible voice alarm,at the same time quickly cut off high voltage power supply,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment from the source,when testing personnel or foreign objects mistakenly go in the charged region.%提出了一种基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断的方案,并设计了装置的硬件电路和系统软件。经现场试验,当有人员或异物误入带电区域时,发出声光语音报警的同时快速切断高压电源,从源头上保证人身和设备安全。

  16. The development and outlook of the medium-voltage dynamic reactive power compensation device in China%我国中压动态无功补偿装置的发展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方欢欢; 舒欣梅; 陈彬

    2012-01-01

    Talking about the necessary of reactive power compensation for a start to this paper, introduce the principle of reactive power compensation device and analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the common reactive power compensation devices, then, the present research status of reactive power compensation devices in China and abroad are introduced. Moreover discuss the new technologies applied in the SVC device and analysis of reactive power compensation device in power capacitors, control programs and switching components, finally, intelligent SVC as the development direction of the medium-voltage reactive power compensation device to look into the distance.%从无功补偿装置应用的必要性出发,介绍了无功补偿装置的原理及组成,分析了常见无功补偿装置的优缺点,论述了国内外无功补偿装置的应用现状.着重介绍了新技术在SVC装置中应用,对比分析了无功补偿装置中的电力电容器、控制方案和投切元件,最后展望了智能型SVC的广泛应用是中压无功补偿装置的发展方向.

  17. Defect-assisted tuning of electroluminescence from p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorod heterojunction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence S Vikas; C K Sruthi; Madambi K Jayaraj

    2015-08-01

    Growth of nanostructured ZnO by solution process always lead to the formation of various kinds of defects. Defect states also can aid in improving different properties of the material. In the case of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), major research is focused on tuning the emission colour so as to achieve white emission without the use of any phosphors. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown over Mg:GaN substrate by hydrothermal process. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis confirms the epitaxial growth of nanorods over the substrate. The photoluminescence (PL) studies revealed a narrow near band edge emission and a broad defect-induced deep level emission. The intensity of deep level emissions related to Zni, Vo, Oi defects decreases on annealing. The - characteristics of the heterojunction showed excellent rectifying nature with electroluminescence emission on forward bias. Device fabricated by as-grown ZnO nanorods emits in the UV–blue region and broad emission in the visible region. While the annealed device emitted only in UV–blue region. The emission wavelengths closely matched with that of defect state emissions obtained in the PL studies. By annealing, various defect states density can be controlled, thereby emission colour tuned from white to blue.

  18. Pure circular polarization electroluminescence at room temperature with spin-polarized light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, N; Munekata, H

    2016-01-01

    We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: firstly, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensifying the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and secondly, the crystalline AlOx spin tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation. The purity of CP is depressively low in the low current density (J) region, whereas it increases steeply and reaches close to the pure CP when J = 100 A/cm2. There, either right- or left-handed CP component is significantly suppressed depending on the direction of magnetization of the spin injector. Spin-polarized-current induced birefringence and optical spin-axis conversion are suggested to account for the observed experimental results.

  19. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of anthracene derivatives containing electron-withdrawing oxide moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jhin-yeong; Na, Eun Jae; Park, Soo Na [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Blue fluorescent material is important for application in full-color displays. • We have synthesized emitters based on anthracene connected with oxide moieties. • 1C shows a highly efficient blue EL emission due to electron-injection property. - Abstract: A series of new blue-emitting materials: (4-(10-(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)methanone (1); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-((diphenyl)phosphine oxide)phenyl)anthracene (2); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl)anthracene (3) were designed and synthesized via Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO (180 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/blue materials 1–3 (30 nm)/TPBi (15 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). All devices showed the efficient blue EL emissions. In particular, the device using 1 as an emitter exhibited efficient blue electroluminescent properties with a maximum luminous, power, external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of 0.36 cd/A, 0.90 lm/W, 0.55% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and (x = 0.16, y = 0.20) at 10.0 V, respectively.

  20. Piezo-phototronic effect on electroluminescence properties of p-type GaN thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Long; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-07-11

    We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Mg-doped p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by the piezo-phototronic effect via adjusting the minority carrier injection efficiency at the metal-semiconductor (M-S) interface by strain induced polarization charges. The device is a metal-semiconductor-metal structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-GaN-ITO. Under different straining conditions, the changing trend of the transport properties of GaN films can be divided into two types, corresponding to the different c-axis orientations of the films. An extreme value was observed for the integral EL intensity under certain applied strain due to the adjusted minority carrier injection efficiency by piezoelectric charges introduced at the M-S interface. The external quantum efficiency of the blue EL at 430 nm was changed by 5.84% under different straining conditions, which is 1 order of magnitude larger than the change of the green peak at 540 nm. The results indicate that the piezo-phototronic effect has a larger impact on the shallow acceptor states related EL process than on the one related to the deep acceptor states in p-type GaN films. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices under a working environment where mechanical deformation is unavoidable such as for flexible/printable light emitting diodes.

  1. High-sensitivity strain visualization using electroluminescence technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    Visualizing mechanical strain/stress changes is an emerging area in structural health monitoring. Several ways are available for strain change visualization through the color/brightness change of the materials subjected to the mechanical stresses, for example, using mechanoluminescence (ML) materials and mechanoresponsive polymers (MRP). However, these approaches were not effectively applicable for civil engineering system yet, due to insufficient sensitivity to low-level strain of typical civil structures and limitation in measuring both static and dynamic strain. In this study, design and validation for high-sensitivity strain visualization using electroluminescence technologies are presented. A high-sensitivity Wheatstone bridge, of which bridge balance is precisely controllable circuits, is used with a gain-adjustable amplifier. The monochrome electroluminescence (EL) technology is employed to convert both static and dynamic strain change into brightness/color change of the EL materials, through either brightness change mode (BCM) or color alternation mode (CAM). A prototype has been made and calibrated in lab, the linearity between strain and brightness change has been investigated.

  2. Voltage Swells Improvement in Low Voltage Network Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Voltage disturbances are the most common power quality problem due to the increased use of a large numbers of sophisticated electronic equipment in industrial distribution system. The voltage disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, harmonics, unbalance and flickers. High quality in the power supply is needed, since failures due to such disturbances usually have a high impact on production cost. There are many different solutions to compensate voltage disturbances but the use of a DVR is considered to be the most cost effective method. The objective of this study is to propose a new topology of a DVR in order to mitigate voltage swells using a powerful power custom device namely the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR. Approach: New configuration of a DVR with an improvement of a controller based on direct-quadrature-zero method has been introduced to compensate voltage swells in the network. Results: The effectiveness of the DVR with its controller were verify using Matlab/Simulinks SimPower Toolbox and then implemented using 5KVA DVR experimental setup. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effective dynamic performance of the proposed configuration. Conclusion: The implimentation of the proposed DVR validate the capabilities in mitigating of voltage swells effectiveness.During voltage swells, the DVR injects an appropriate voltage to maintain the load voltage at its nominal value.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Holding Voltage in BJT-based ESD Protection Device%基于BJT的ESD保护器件中维持电压的建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海莲; 杨兵; 顾晓峰; 柯逸辰; 高国平

    2012-01-01

    The electro-static discharge (ESD) protection device based on the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure has been widely used due to its good bi-directional conduction ability and excellent protection performance. Since there is a little in-depth research on the production mechanism and modeling of the holding voltage under the negative resistor effect in such ESD protection device, we propose a modeling method for the holding voltage. By analyzing the impact of various modulation effects on the holding voltage, the modeling parameters are optimized first. Then, the structure and the electrical properties of NPN BJT are studied by simulation under the 0. 6 μm BiCMOS process, and a holding voltage estimation model is established by data fitting. Finally, two different BJT-based ESD protection devices are prepared and tested. The relative error range between the estimated and the measured data is about 12%~15%, indicating that the established holding voltage model is quite reliable.%基于双极晶体管(BJT)结构的静电放电(ESD)保护器件具有双向导通特性和良好的保护性能,在ESD保护中应用广泛.鉴于该类器件在负阻效应下维持电压的产生机理和建模方面的研究较少,提出了一种维持电压的数学建模方法.首先分析了多种调制效应对维持电压的影响,优化了模型参数;其次,基于0.6 μm BiCMOS工艺对NPN型BJT的结构及电学性能进行了仿真分析,通过数据拟合得到了维持电压的估算模型;最后,制备了两种不同结构的样品并进行了测试,实测数据与估算值的相对误差范围约12%~15%,表明建立的维持电压模型具有较高的可靠性.

  4. Recombination in polymer:Fullerene solar cells with open-circuit voltages approaching and exceeding 1.0 V

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-09-14

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells are demonstrated with power conversion efficiencies over 7% with blends of PBDTTPD and PC 61 BM. These devices achieve open-circuit voltages ( V oc ) of 0.945 V and internal quantum efficiencies of 88%, making them an ideal candidate for the large bandgap junction in tandem solar cells. V oc \\'s above 1.0 V are obtained when the polymer is blended with multiadduct fullerenes; however, the photocurrent and fill factor are greatly reduced. In PBDTTPD blends with multiadduct fullerene ICBA, fullerene emission is observed in the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra, indicating that excitons are recombining on ICBA. Voltage-dependent, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicate that energy transfer occurs from PBDTTPD to ICBA and that back hole transfer from ICBA to PBDTTPD is inefficient. By analyzing the absorption and emission spectra from fullerene and charge transfer excitons, we estimate a driving free energy of -0.14 ± 0.06 eV is required for efficient hole transfer. These results suggest that the driving force for hole transfer may be too small for efficient current generation in polymer:fullerene solar cells with V oc values above 1.0 V and that non-fullerene acceptor materials with large optical gaps ( > 1.7 eV) may be required to achieve both near unity internal quantum efficiencies and values of V oc exceeding 1.0 V. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co.

  5. The effect of the variable frequency drive of the CNC roll grinding machine on the operation of other devices in low-voltage electrical installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ninoslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the observations that have been collected during the years of testing of electrical installations. A typical case from industrial plant in which are installed loads with variable frequency regulation is analyzed. We propose a simple way by measuring the frequency of the voltage in the objects, to establish the existence of possible irregularities in the operation of the individual units and analyze the influence of the current and voltage signal shape of one load to the work of other loads in the plant. The need for verification of electrical installations immediately upon receipt and installation of electrical equipment is emphasized and the use of the latest standards in the design and selection of equipment, in order to avoid unplanned expenses is recommended.

  6. Low-Programmable-Voltage Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Omega-shaped Gate Organic Ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) Field Effect Transistors Using p-type Silicon Nanowire Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngoc Huynh Van; Jae-Hyun Lee; Dongmok Whang; Dae Joon Kang

    2015-01-01

    A facile approach was demonstrated for fabricating high-performance nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors using a p-type Si nanowire coated with omega-shaped gate organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). We overcame the interfacial layer problem by incorporating P(VDF-TrFE) as a ferroelectric gate using a low-temperature fabrication process. Our memory devices exhibited excellent memory characteristics with a low programming voltage of ±5 V, a large modulation in channel conductance between ON and OFF states exceeding 105, a long retention time greater than 3 9 104 s, and a high endurance of over 105 programming cycles while maintaining an ION/IOFF ratio higher than 102.

  7. Highly stretchable electroluminescent skin for optical signaling and tactile sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, C; Peele, B; Li, S; Robinson, S; Totaro, M; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Shepherd, R

    2016-03-04

    Cephalopods such as octopuses have a combination of a stretchable skin and color-tuning organs to control both posture and color for visual communication and disguise. We present an electroluminescent material that is capable of large uniaxial stretching and surface area changes while actively emitting light. Layers of transparent hydrogel electrodes sandwich a ZnS phosphor-doped dielectric elastomer layer, creating thin rubber sheets that change illuminance and capacitance under deformation. Arrays of individually controllable pixels in thin rubber sheets were fabricated using replica molding and were subjected to stretching, folding, and rolling to demonstrate their use as stretchable displays. These sheets were then integrated into the skin of a soft robot, providing it with dynamic coloration and sensory feedback from external and internal stimuli.

  8. Design of efficient electroluminescent lanthanide(III) complexes

    CERN Document Server

    You, B R; Park, N G; Kim, Y S

    2001-01-01

    The lanthanide complexes have been anticipated to exhibit high efficiency along with a narrow emission spectrum. Photoluminescence for the lanthanide complex is characterized by a high efficiency since both single and triplet excitons are involved in the luminescence process. However, the maximum external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies have exhibited values around 1% due to triplet-triplet annihilation at high current. Here, we proposed a new energy transfer mechanism to overcome triplet-triplet annihilation by the Eu complex doped into phosphorescent materials with triplet levels that were higher than single levels of the Eu complex. In order to show the feasibility of the proposed energy transfer mechanism and to obtain the optimal ligands and host material, we have calculated the effect depending on ligands as a factor that controls emission intensity in lanthanide complexes. The calculation shows that triplet state as well as singlet state of anion ligand affects on absorption efficiency indirec...

  9. Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on Silicon Substrate with High Luminance and Low Turn-on Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhi-Jun; CHEN Shu-Fen; YANG Hui-Shan; ZHAO Yi; LI Chuan-Nan; HOU Jing-Ying; LIU Shi-Yong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We have fabricated a top- emitting organic light-emitting device on silicon substrate with high yellow luminance based on 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene sub-monolayer. It consists of a thin layer of highly conductive silver as the semitransparent cathode and surfaced-modified Ag as the anode. The device turns on at 3 V with the luminance of 8.4 cd/m2. The maximum current efficiency is 1.3 cd/A at 6 V and the luminance reaches 14790 cd/m2at 14 V. The performance of the device is excellent in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices according to our knowledge.

  10. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  11. Three-Colour Single-Mode Electroluminescence from Alq3 Tuned by Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家民; 马凤英; 刘星元; 刘云; 初国强; 宁永强; 王立军

    2002-01-01

    Organic metal microcavities were fabricated by using full-reflectivity aluminium film and semi-transparent silverfilm as cavity mirrors. Unlike conventional organic microcavities, such as the typical structure of glass/DBR/ITO/-organic layers/metal mirror, a microcavity with a shorter cavity length was obtained by using two metal mirrors,where DBR is the distributed Bragg reflector consisting of alternate quarter-wave layers of high and low refractiveindex materials. It is realized that red, green and blue single-mode electroluminescence (EL) from the micro-cavities with the structure, glass/Ag/TPD/Alqa/A1, are electrically-driven when the thickness of the Alqa layerchanges. Compared to a non-cavity reference sample whose EL spectrum peak is located at 520nm with a fullwidth at half maximum (FWHM) of 93 nm, the microcavity devices show apparent cavity effects. The EL spectraof red, green and blue microcavities are peaked at 604nm, 540nm and 491 nm, with FWHM of 43 nm, 38nm and47nm, respectively.

  12. The Study of Electroluminescence and Reliability of Polyimide Films in High DC Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence (EL intensity of the polyimide (PI films was tested under dc high electric field by home-made experimental device. The results showed that the EL intensity of PI films increased along with the electric field. EL intensity is approximately to background intensity when the electric-field intensity was less than 2.00 MV/cm. EL intensity increases along with increasing the electric field when electric-field intensity greater than 2.00 MV/cm. When electric-field at 2.80 MV/cm, EL intensity increasing strongly suggests that the excitation process related to hot electrons accelerated by the field approaching a critical threshold. Meanwhile, this work elaborates a method to deal with identical samples get different experimental data by using Weibull distribution method, and the concept of the reliability was presented. The nine groups of EL experimental data were analyzed, and the result showed that the lifetime of mid-value (t = 164.9 min. Mid-value of the breakdown field is E = 2.76 MV/cm.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9694

  13. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

  14. Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D; Kent, Thomas F; Phillips, Patrick J; Mills, Michael J; Rajan, Siddharth; Myers, Roberto C

    2012-02-08

    Almost all electronic devices utilize a pn junction formed by random doping of donor and acceptor impurity atoms. We developed a fundamentally new type of pn junction not formed by impurity-doping, but rather by grading the composition of a semiconductor nanowire resulting in alternating p and n conducting regions due to polarization charge. By linearly grading AlGaN nanowires from 0% to 100% and back to 0% Al, we show the formation of a polarization-induced pn junction even in the absence of any impurity doping. Since electrons and holes are injected from AlN barriers into quantum disk active regions, graded nanowires allow deep ultraviolet LEDs across the AlGaN band-gap range with electroluminescence observed from 3.4 to 5 eV. Polarization-induced p-type conductivity in nanowires is shown to be possible even without supplemental acceptor doping, demonstrating the advantage of polarization engineering in nanowires compared with planar films and providing a strategy for improving conductivity in wide-band-gap semiconductors. As polarization charge is uniform within each unit cell, polarization-induced conductivity without impurity doping provides a solution to the problem of conductivity uniformity in nanowires and nanoelectronics and opens a new field of polarization engineering in nanostructures that may be applied to other polar semiconductors.

  15. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy. PMID:27677240

  16. Ultrabroad Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence at New Wavelengths from Doped Organometal Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Yong, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Bo-Mei; Wang, Zhao-Wei; Hou, Jing-Shan; Fang, Yong-Zheng; Zhou, Yi; Sun, Hong-Tao; Song, Bo

    2016-07-21

    Doping of semiconductors by introducing foreign atoms enables their widespread applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. We show that this strategy can be applied to direct bandgap lead-halide perovskites, leading to the realization of ultrawide photoluminescence (PL) at new wavelengths enabled by doping bismuth (Bi) into lead-halide perovskites. Structural and photophysical characterization reveals that the PL stems from one class of Bi doping-induced optically active center, which is attributed to distorted [PbI6] units coupled with spatially localized bipolarons. Additionally, we find that compositional engineering of these semiconductors can be employed as an additional way to rationally tune the PL properties of doped perovskites. Finally, we accomplished the electroluminescence at cryogenic temperatures by using this system as an emissive layer, marking the first electrically driven devices using Bi-doped photonic materials. Our results suggest that low-cost, earth-abundant, solution-processable Bi-doped perovskite semiconductors could be promising candidate materials for developing optical sources operating at new wavelengths.

  17. Poly(meta-phenylene) Derivative with Rigid Twisted Biphenyl Units in Backbone: Synthesis, Structural Characterization,Photophysical Properties and Electroluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan; YANG Bing; ZHANG Hai-quan; LU Ping; SHEN Fang-zhong; LIU Lin-lin; XU Hai; YANG Guang-di; MA Yu-guang

    2007-01-01

    A soluble poly(meta-phenylene) derivative with rigid twisted biphenyl unit was synthesized by the Yamamoto coupling reaction. The polymer is soluble in common organic solvents, and the number-average molecular weight is about 6500. The UV-Vis and quantum chemical calculation indicate that the different conformation segments named "conformers" exist in the polymer backbones; it was also further confirmed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction study of the dimeric model compound. The π-π* transition of biphenyl segments of twisted and planar conformations made the polymer exhibit a strong absorption around 256 nm and a weak absorption at about 300 nm. Furthermore,the polymer exhibits a strong UV photoluminescence at 372 nm when the excitation wavelengths are longer than 300 nm. The ultraviolet-emitting electroluminescence(EL) device with the single layer structure shows EL λmax of the derivative at 370 nm.

  18. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  19. Inkjet printed polymer light-emitting devices fabricated by thermal embedding of semiconducting polymer nanospheres in an inert matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisslthaler, Evelin; Sax, Stefan; Scherf, Ullrich; Mauthner, Gernot; Moderegger, Erik; Landfester, Katharina; List, Emil J. W.

    2008-05-01

    An aqueous dispersion of semiconducting polymer nanospheres was used to fabricate polymer light-emitting devices by inkjet printing in an easy-to-apply process with a minimum feature size of 20μm. To form the devices, the electroluminescent material was printed on a nonemitting polystyrene matrix layer and embedded by thermal annealing. The process allows the printing of light-emitting thin-film devices without extensive optimization of film homogeneity and thickness of the active layer. Optical micrographs of printed device arrays, electroluminescence emission spectra, and I /V characteristics of printed ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PS/SPN/Al devices are presented.

  20. Analysis of the electroluminescence features of silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor structures as a tool for diagnostics of the injection properties of a dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, Yu. Yu.; Vexler, M. I.; Isakov, D.; Fedorov, V. V.; Sing, Yew Kwang

    2013-10-01

    A technique for diagnostics of the injection properties of thin dielectric layers based on analysis of the data on silicon electroluminescence in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure is proposed. The possibility of applying this technique to control the electron injection energy (in particular, when the barrier parameters are poorly known) is demonstrated by the example of samples with CaF2 and HfO2/SiO2. The results obtained are important for application of the insulators under study in microelectronic devices.

  1. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  2. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  3. Advances in high voltage power switching with GTOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlesak, T.F. (US Army Electronic Technology and Devices Lab., Fort Monmouth, NJ (US)); McMurray, J.A. (Vitronics, Eatontown, NJ (US)); Carter, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    The control of high voltage at high power, particularly opening switches, has been difficult in the past. Using gate turnoff thyristors (GTOs) arranged in series enables large currents to be switched at high voltage. A high voltage opening switch has been successfully demonstrated in our laboratory. This switch uses GTOs in series and successfully operates at voltages higher than the rated voltage of the individual devices. It is believed that this is the first time this has been successfully demonstrated, in that GTOs have been operated in series before, but always in a manner as to not exceed the voltage capability of the individual devices. In short, the devices have not worked together, sharing the voltage, but one device has been operated using several backup devices. Of particular interest is how well the individual devices share the voltage applied to them. Equal voltage sharing between devices is absolutely essential, in order to not exceed the voltage rating of any of the devices in the series chain. This is accomplished at high (microsecond) switching speeds. Thus, the system is useful for high frequency applications as well as high power, making for a flexible circuit system element. This paper reports on this demonstration system that is rated at 5 KV and uses 1 KV devices. A larger 24 KV system is under design and will use 4.5 KV devices. In order to design the 24 KV switch, the safe operating area of the large devices must be known thoroughly.

  4. Revamping of stator variable voltage device for hoist control system in bridge crane%桥式起重机卷扬控制系统定子调压装置改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 康韩华

    2015-01-01

    Principle and existing problems of the main hoist electrical control system of No.5 and No.6 magnetic rake bridge crane in No.1 Steelmaking Plant were analyzed. 10BCC stator variable voltage device of the control system was revamped.Control principle,power circuit and control circuit of the ravamped device,and the correspond-ing parameters setting of control units were introduced.After the device revamping,e-quipments ran smoothly and production cost reduced a lot.%对武钢一炼钢二出坯跨间的5号、6号磁耙桥式起重机主卷扬电气控制系统的工作原理及其存在的问题进行了分析。对该系统的10BCC 定子调压装置进行了改造,介绍了改造装置的控制原理、动力回路、控制回路及相应的控制单元参数设定。改造后,设备运行平稳,生产成本大大降低。

  5. Analysing the effect of crystal size and structure in highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells by spatially resolved photo- and electroluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, S; Heinz, F D; Im, J-H; Veurman, W; Padilla, M; Schubert, M C; Würfel, U; Grätzel, M; Park, N-G; Hinsch, A

    2015-12-14

    CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with a mesoporous TiO2 layer and spiro-MeOTAD as a hole transport layer (HTL) with three different CH3NH3I concentrations (0.032 M, 0.044 M and 0.063 M) were investigated. Strong variations in crystal size and morphology resulting in diversified cell efficiencies (9.2%, 16.9% and 12.3%, respectively) were observed. The physical origin of this behaviour was analysed by detailed characterization combining current-voltage curves with photo- and electroluminescence (PL and EL) imaging as well as light beam induced current measurements (LBIC). It was found that the most efficient cell shows the highest luminescence and the least efficient cell is most strongly limited by non-radiative recombination. Crystal size, morphology and distribution in the capping layer and in the porous scaffold strongly affect the non-radiative recombination. Moreover, the very non-uniform crystal structure with multiple facets, as evidenced by SEM images of the 0.032 M device, suggests the creation of a large number of grain boundaries and crystal dislocations. These defects give rise to increased trap-assisted non-radiative recombination as is confirmed by high-resolution μ-PL images. The different imaging techniques used in this study prove to be well-suited to spatially investigate and thus correlate the crystal morphology of the perovskite layer with the electrical and radiative properties of the solar cells and thus with their performance.

  6. Síntesis de Filtros en Modo Voltaje y Modo Corriente Usando un Dispositivo Activo Universal Synthesis of Voltage Mode and Current Mode Filters by Using a Universal Active Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un método enfocado a la síntesis de filtros activos en modo voltaje y modo corriente, modelados con amplificadores operacionales de transconductancia (OTAs, y capacitores. El OTA se sintetiza usando el dispositivo activo universal conocido como convector de corriente negativo de segunda generación (CCII-. Se aprovecha el valor de la impedancia parásita del CCII- para implementar la transconductancia del amplificador operacional. Se describe el procedimiento de transformación de una topología de modo voltaje a modo corriente y viceversa, así como la síntesis de filtros usando el CCII-. Se presentan resultados de simulación usando SPICE, para demostrar la confiabilidad del procedimiento de síntesis de filtros en modo voltaje y modo corriente usando el convector de corriente negativo de segunda generaciónA method focused on the synthesis of active filters both voltage mode type and current mode type, modeled by operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs, and capacitors, is presented. The OTA is synthesized by using the universal active device known as negative second generation current conveyor (CCII-. The value of the parasitic impedance of the CCII- is used to implement the transconductance of the OTA. the procedure of transformation of a topology from voltage mode to current mode and viceversa, as well as the synthesis of filters by using the CCII-. Simulation results are presented by using SPICE, to demonstrate the suitability of the procedure for the synthesis of filters in voltage mode type and current mode type by using the CCII-.

  7. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs. By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  8. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  9. Steady state tests of high voltage ceramic feedthroughs and co-axial transmission line of ICRF heating system for the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutoh, Takashi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Seki, Tetsuo; Simpo, Fujio; Nomura, Goro; Ido, Tsuyoshi; Watari, Tetsuo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Norterdaeme, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Steady state ICRF heating technologies have been developed to heat plasma for more than 30 minutes in the LHD. Steady state operation tests of high voltage up to 40 kV{sub OP} for more than 30 minutes were carried out on the RF vacuum feedthroughs and the co-axial transmission line in the test set. Four types of ceramic feedthroughs each having a diameter of 240 mm were tested. The cone-type alumina ceramic and the cylinder-type silicon nitride composite-ceramic feedthroughs produced good performances of 40 kV/30 minutes and 50 kV/10 seconds. The others had vacuum leaks when subjected to a long pulse duration. The temperature of the cone-type alumina ceramic feedthrough was measured during the ICRF operations. By using gas-cooling techniques, the temperature increase of the ceramic was substantially reduced and saturated within 20 minutes. Without gas-cooling, the temperature increased linearly and did not saturated. So, this approach could not be used for steady state. The RF dissipation on the ceramic was calculated using the finite element computer code (ANSYS). It was found that damaged feedthroughs had local high heat spots, which could result in vacuum leaks. A water-cooled co-axial transmission line of 240 mm diameter was designed and tested. The specially designed connector components and Teflon insulator disks were tested. During the test, the insulation gases of nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride and carbon dioxide were used to compare the capability of insulation for steady state. For the duration of a 10-second pulse, these gases performed well up to 60 kV{sub OP}. However, for steady state operation, carbon dioxide gas could not withstand voltages above 40 kV{sub OP}. The connector components of the transmission line performed without problems below 50 kV{sub OP} and 1 kA{sub OP} for a 30-minute operation. The performance of the feedthroughs and transmission line exceeded the specifications for steady state heating in the LHD. (J.P.N.)

  10. Increasing the open-circuit voltage in high-performance organic photovoltaic devices through conformational twisting of an indacenodithiophene-based conjugated polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Hsiang-Lin

    2013-10-01

    A fused ladder indacenodithiophene (IDT)-based donor-acceptor (D-A)-type alternating conjugated polymer, PIDTHT-BT, presenting n-hexylthiophene conjugated side chains is prepared. By extending the degree of intramolecular repulsion through the conjugated side chain moieties, an energy level for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of -5.46 eV--a value approximately 0.27 eV lower than that of its counterpart PIDTDT-BT--is obtained, subsequently providing a fabricated solar cell with a high open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.947 V. The hole mobility (determined using the space charge-limited current model) in a blend film containing 20 wt% PIDTHT-BT) and 80 wt% [6,6]-phenyl-C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) is 2.2 × 10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is within the range of reasonable values for applications in organic photovoltaics. The power conversion efficiency is 4.5% under simulated solar illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)).

  11. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  12. Low voltage electrically stimulated lab-on-a-chip device followed by red-green-blue analysis: a simple and efficient design for complicated matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Zamani, Niki; Esmaili, Sara

    2014-11-07

    In the present work, a simple and portable analysis device was designed for the first time for the determination of lead ions as the model analyte. The basis of the lead analysis is its extraction and pre-concentration in an acceptor droplet via the application of an electrical field. The acceptor droplet is a KI solution and therefore, the formation of a yellow precipitation of PbI2 was a sign of the presence of lead ion in the solution. Following this, digital picture of the final acceptor droplet was analyzed by investigating its Red-Green-Blue (RGB) components. The results show that the RGB intensities of the acceptor phase are proportionate to the lead concentration in the sample solution. Also, a 9.0 V battery was used to apply the electrical field, and other effective parameters, such as the type of organic liquid membrane, pH of the sample solution, and the extraction time, were considered to obtain the optimal conditions. The model analyte was determined by extracting it from a 100 μL sample solution across a thin layer of 1-octanol, immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene membrane sheet, and into the acceptor droplet via applying a 9.0 V electrical potential for 20 min. The device is capable of determining lead ions down to 20.0 ng mL(-1), with admissible repeatability and reproducibility (the intra- and inter-assay precision ranged between 3.8-7.0% and 9.8-11.9%, respectively). Also, we calculated error% for the model analyte in the range of -8.5 to +4.5, which suggests that the chip offers acceptable accuracy for the analysis of lead ions. The linearity was studied in the range of 50.0-1500 ng mL(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994. Finally, the designed device was used for the analysis of lead in real samples.

  13. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanayng.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: • Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. • The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. • The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. • Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current density–voltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplet–triplet exciton annihilation.

  14. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  15. 21 CFR 892.1700 - Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. 892.1700... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1700 Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator is a device that is intended...

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach for measurements of photoluminescence and electroluminescence in mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Gu, Y.; Wang, K.; Fang, X.; Li, A. Z.; Liu, K. H.

    2012-05-01

    An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach for measurements of photoluminescence and electroluminescence in mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y G; Gu, Y; Wang, K; Fang, X; Li, A Z; Liu, K H

    2012-05-01

    An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.

  18. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A‑1 and 40.6 cd A‑1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A‑1 and 25.4 cd A‑1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays.

  19. Electroluminescence of a Multi-Layered Organic Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Trans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-Methylphridinium Tetraphenylborate as the Active Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue-Yuan; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Xu, Chun-Xiang; Qiao, Yi; Cui, Yi-Ping

    2006-06-01

    Employing an organic dye salt of trans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT) as the active layer, 8-hydrocyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) as the electron transporting layer and N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as the hole transporting layer, respectively, we fabricate a multi-layered organic light-emitting diode and observe the colour tunable electroluminescence (EL). The dependence of the EL spectra on the applied voltage is investigated in detail, and the recombination mechanism is discussed by considering the variation of the hole-electron recombination region.

  20. Synthesis and blue electroluminescent properties of zinc (II) [2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Sam [Department of Chemistry and BPRC, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); You, Jung Min [Department of Chemistry and BPRC, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Burm-Jong [Department of Chemistry and BPRC, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: chemlbj@inje.ac.kr; Jang, Yoon-Ki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Eun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-23

    This study reports on the properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with zinc (II) [2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole] as a hole-blocking layer. OLEDs devices are prepared in a conventional OLEDs structure (i.e., anode/HTL/EL/HBL/cathode and anode/HTL/HBL/EL/cathode). The luminescence efficiencies and the turn-on voltage are significantly affected by the existence of the hole-blocking layer. This is attributed to an excellent hole-blocking property, which is in turn due to the high HOMO energy level (6.5 eV). The device showed luminous efficiency 2.46 lm/W at 5 V. The maximum luminance of about 10,000 cd/m{sup 2} is obtained, and the turn-on voltage (2.5 V) is affected by the existence of the hole-blocking layer.

  1. New Copolymers Containing Charge Carriers for Organic Devices with ITO Films Treated by UV-Ozone Using High Intensity Discharge Lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto SANTOS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For electroluminescent devices new copolymers were synthesized using a Suzuki cross-coupling reaction based on monomers (fluorine-alt-phenylene in conjugation with quinoline-alt-phenylene units. They were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FTIR. TGA measurements indicated that the copolymers have good thermal properties and no weight loss was observed up to 250 °C. The UV-Vis spectra were characterized by absorptions from the fluorene-alt-phenylene and quinoline-alt-phenylene segments in the backbone, while their photoluminescence (PL spectra dominated by emissions from the fluorene excimer. For devices assembly ITO films were treated using a High Intensity Discharge Lamp (HPMVL without outer bulb presenting high ozone concentration than that conventional germicidal lamp. The device with ITO treated revealed significant decrease of threshold voltage (or turn-on voltage compared by untreated with I-V curves. This decrease can be related by water and carbon dioxide extracted on surface after UV-Ozone treatment revealed by DRIFT measurements.

  2. Effect of different processing methods for the hole transporting layer on the performance of double layer organic light-emitting devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hole transporting layer (HTL) of organic light-emitting device (OLED) was processed by vacuum deposition and spin coating method, respectively, where N,N'-biphenyl-N, N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1, 1'-biphenyl-4,4' -diamine (TPD) and poly (vinylcarbazole) (PVK) acted as the hole-transport materials. Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)- aluminum (Alq3) was utilized as both the light-emitting layer and the electron transporting layer. The basic structure of the device cell was: indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/PVK: TPD/Alq3/Mg:Ag. The electroluminescent (EL) characteristics of devices were characterized. The results showed that the peak of EL spectra was located at 530 nm, which conformed to the characterizing spectrum of Alq3.Compared with using vacuum deposition method, the green emission with a maximum luminance up to 26135 cd/m2 could be achieved at a drive voltage of 15 V by selecting proper solvent using spin-coating technique, and its maximum luminance efficiency was 2.56 lm/W at a drive voltage of 5.5 V.

  3. Co-deposition methods for the fabrication of organic optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Chao

    2016-09-06

    A method for fabricating an OLED by preparing phosphorescent metal complexes in situ is provided. In particular, the method simultaneously synthesizes and deposits copper (I) complexes in an organic light emitting device. Devices comprising such complexes may provide improved photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties.

  4. A Novel Ternary Complex of Europium(Ⅲ) for Eletroluminescent Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since Tang[1]and Adachi et al.[2]reported their double and triplelayered devices, organic electroluminescent(EL) devices have attracted a great interest due to their efficient emission in the visible region and their possible application to flat panel full color display.

  5. Methods and apparatus of spatially resolved electroluminescence of operating organic light-emitting diodes using conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersam, Mark C. (Inventor); Pingree, Liam S. C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique which can concurrently monitor topography, charge transport, and electroluminescence with nanometer spatial resolution. This cAFM approach is particularly well suited for probing the electroluminescent response characteristics of operating organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) over short length scales.

  6. Discrimination between spin-dependent charge transport and spin-dependent recombination in π-conjugated polymers by correlated current and electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavand, Marzieh; Baird, Douglas; van Schooten, Kipp; Malissa, Hans; Lupton, John M.; Boehme, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Spin-dependent processes play a crucial role in organic electronic devices. Spin coherence can give rise to spin mixing due to a number of processes such as hyperfine coupling, and leads to a range of magnetic field effects. However, it is not straightforward to differentiate between pure single-carrier spin-dependent transport processes which control the current and therefore the electroluminescence, and spin-dependent electron-hole recombination which determines the electroluminescence yield and in turn modulates the current. We therefore investigate the correlation between the dynamics of spin-dependent electric current and spin-dependent electroluminescence in two derivatives of the conjugated polymer poly(phenylene-vinylene) using simultaneously measured pulsed electrically detected (pEDMR) and optically detected (pODMR) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This experimental approach requires careful analysis of the transient response functions under optical and electrical detection. At room temperature and under bipolar charge-carrier injection conditions, a correlation of the pEDMR and the pODMR signals is observed, consistent with the hypothesis that the recombination currents involve spin-dependent electronic transitions. This observation is inconsistent with the hypothesis that these signals are caused by spin-dependent charge-carrier transport. These results therefore provide no evidence that supports earlier claims that spin-dependent transport plays a role for room-temperature magnetoresistance effects. At low temperatures, however, the correlation between pEDMR and pODMR is weakened, demonstrating that more than one spin-dependent process influences the optoelectronic materials' properties. This conclusion is consistent with prior studies of half-field resonances that were attributed to spin-dependent triplet exciton recombination, which becomes significant at low temperatures when the triplet lifetime increases.

  7. Structural factors impacting carrier transport and electroluminescence from Si nanocluster-sensitized Er ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueff, Sébastien; Labbé, Christophe; Jambois, Olivier; Berencén, Yonder; Kenyon, Anthony J; Garrido, Blas; Rizk, Richard

    2012-09-24

    We present an analysis of factors influencing carrier transport and electroluminescence (EL) at 1.5 µm from erbium-doped silicon-rich silica (SiOx) layers. The effects of both the active layer thickness and the Si-excess content on the electrical excitation of erbium are studied. We demonstrate that when the thickness is decreased from a few hundred to tens of nanometers the conductivity is greatly enhanced. Carrier transport is well described in all cases by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism, while the thickness-dependent current density suggests an evolution of both density and distribution of trapping states induced by Si nanoinclusions. We ascribe this observation to stress-induced effects prevailing in thin films, which inhibit the agglomeration of Si atoms, resulting in a high density of sub-nm Si inclusions that induce traps much shallower than those generated by Si nanoclusters (Si-ncs) formed in thicker films. There is no direct correlation between high conductivity and optimized EL intensity at 1.5 µm. Our results suggest that the main excitation mechanism governing the EL signal is impact excitation, which gradually becomes more efficient as film thickness increases, thanks to the increased segregation of Si-ncs, which in turn allows more efficient injection of hot electrons into the oxide matrix. Optimization of the EL signal is thus found to be a compromise between conductivity and both number and degree of segregation of Si-ncs, all of which are governed by a combination of excess Si content and sample thickness. This material study has strong implications for many electrically-driven devices using Si-ncs or Si-excess mediated EL.

  8. Low voltage switchgear breaker loss of pressure from the research and application of switch device%低压开关柜断路器失压自投装置的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柳

    2013-01-01

    in view of the distribution network area of low voltage circuit breaker can vote, after pressure loss due to delay in sending, de-veloped a low- voltage circuit breaker based on time relay since loss of pressure switch device, the device delay through closing loop, avoid trans-former excitation inrush current, protection of power grid company and the user's device. Clever use of time relay sliding contact, after a set time delay sliding contact short after connect disconnected, analog manual switch button. Safe, reliable, economic, and greatly shortens the courts to re-cover their jurisdiction for sending time, reduces the customer outage time, reduce the work intensity of the operators, improve the customer satis-faction with the degree of power supply reliability.%针对配网台区低压断路器失压后不能自投,造成延误送电的情况,研发了一种基于时间继电器的低压断路器失压自投装置,该装置延时接通合闸回路,躲过变压器励磁涌流,保护电网公司与用户的设备。巧妙利用时间继电器的滑动触点,经过设定时间后,延时滑动触点短时接通后断开,模拟人工合闸按钮按下。该装置安全、可靠、经济,大大缩短了所辖台区恢复送电所用时间,减少了客户停电时间,减轻了运行人员的工作强度,提高了客户对于供电可靠性的满意程度。

  9. Open-circuit voltage deficit, radiative sub-bandgap states, and prospects in quantum dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hao Marcus; Maurano, Andrea; Brandt, Riley E; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Jean, Joel; Buonassisi, Tonio; Bulović, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dot photovoltaics (QDPV) offer the potential for low-cost solar cells. To develop strategies for continued improvement in QDPVs, a better understanding of the factors that limit their performance is essential. Here, we study carrier recombination processes that limit the power conversion efficiency of PbS QDPVs. We demonstrate the presence of radiative sub-bandgap states and sub-bandgap state filling in operating devices by using photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy. These sub-bandgap states are most likely the origin of the high open-circuit-voltage (VOC) deficit and relatively limited carrier collection that have thus far been observed in QDPVs. Combining these results with our perspectives on recent progress in QDPV, we conclude that eliminating sub-bandgap states in PbS QD films has the potential to show a greater gain than may be attainable by optimization of interfaces between QDs and other materials. We suggest possible future directions that could guide the design of high-performance QDPVs.

  10. Thermal resistanse and nonuniform distribution of electroluminescence and temperature in high-power AlGaInN light-emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Aladov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies current spreading, light emission, and heat transfer in high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes (LEDs and their effect on the chip thermal resistance by experimental and theoretical approaches. The thermal resistance was measured using two methods: by monitoring the transient response of the LED operation voltage to the temperature variation with the Transient Tester T3Ster and by temperature mapping with the use of an infrared thermal-imaging microscope. The near field of the electroluminescence intensity was recorded with an optical microscope and a CCD camera. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the current spreading and heat transfer in the LED chip was carried out using the SimuLED package in order to interpret the obtained experimental results.

  11. Performance evaluation of multi-junction solar cells by spatially resolved electroluminescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lijing; Wu, Zhiming; Chen, Shanshan; Cao, Yiyan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Heng; Kang, Junyong

    2015-01-01

    An electroluminescence microscopy combined with a spectroscopy was developed to visually analyze multi-junction solar cells. Triple-junction solar cells with different conversion efficiencies were characterized by using this system. The results showed that the mechanical damages and material defects in solar cells can be clearly distinguished, indicating a high-resolution imaging. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements demonstrated that different types of defects or damages impacted cell performance in various degrees and the electric leakage mostly degraded the EQE. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between electroluminescence intensity and short-circuit current density J SC. The results indicated that the gray value of the electroluminescence image corresponding to the intensity was almost proportional to J SC. This technology provides a potential way to evaluate the current matching status of multi-junction solar cells.

  12. Mechanical design and realization of integrated automatic detection device for low voltage current transformer%低压电流互感器综合自动检测装置机械设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆小星; 曾国华

    2016-01-01

    为解决低压电流互感器型式检验中电气试验人工操作过程频繁、劳动强度大、易发生误操作、电气接触不可靠及存在不安全、效率低、影响检测质量等问题,设计开发出了一种适用于实验室的多功能自动检测装置。装置设计为1个“控制单元”加2个“检测单元”的“1+2”一体化组合式结构,可同时检测两种规格互感器,实现了多品种互感器异步/并行多作业模式检测。结果表明,新型检测装置设计方案可行,运行可靠,达到了预期目标。%In order to solve the problems of frequently manual operation process, large labor intensity, easily occurred error operation and unreliable electric contact in low - voltage current transformer type test which may be unsafe, low-efficient and affects quality inspection, a kind of multi-function inspection device suitable for laboratory automation or auxiliary automation is designed. The device is designed as a "1 + 2" integrated modular structure with a "control unit" and two "inspection units" which can detect two kinds of specifications transformers simultaneously, realizing the asynchronous/ parallel operating modes of various transformers and efficient inspection. The research results show that the novel inspection device is feasible and reliable, and it reaches the expected target.

  13. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  14. Electroluminescence from InGaN quantum dots in a monolithically grown GaN/AlInN cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartsch, Heiko; Tessarek, Christian; Figge, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef [University of Bremen, Institute of Solid State Physics - Semiconductor Epitaxy (Germany); Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas [University of Bremen, Institute of Solid State Physics - Electron Microscopy (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    InGaN quantum dots (QDs) and their implementation into the micro cavity of a vertical distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) resonator are the key elements to achieve single photon emission required for quantum cryptography. However, the epitaxial overgrowth of InGaN QDs is challenging because they are easily destroyed by elevated temperatures. For this reason a common approach is the fabrication of a hybrid cavity structure by non epitaxial deposition of a dielectric top DBR. We present the first successful implementation of electrically driven InGaN QDs into a monolithic GaN/AlInN cavity structure fully epitaxial grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A single layer of InGaN QDs has been embedded in a n- and p-type doped 5{lambda} GaN cavity surrounded by a 40 fold bottom- and a 10 fold GaN/AlInN top-DBR. The bottom DBR shows a reflectivity of 97%. Structural properties were investigated by scanning transmission microscopy (STEM) and will be discussed. Electroluminescence of the InGaN QDs was achieved by the application of intra cavity contacts. This demonstrates for the first time the possibility of using InGaN QD in fully epitaxial made devices like vertical cavity surface emitting lasers or single photon sources. We present the first successful implementation of electrically driven InGaN QDs into a monolithic GaN/AlInN cavity structure fully epitaxial grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Therefore a single layer of InGaN QDs has been embedded in a n- and p-type doped 5{lambda} GaN cavity surrounded by a 40 fold bottom- and a 10 fold GaN/AlInN top-DBR. The bottom DBR shows a reflectivity of 97%. Electroluminescence of the InGaN QDs was achieved by the application of intra cavity contacts. Optical and structural properties of the device are discussed. This demonstrates for the first time the possibility of using InGaN QD in fully epitaxial made devices like vertical cavity surface emitting lasers or single photon sources.

  15. Visible electroluminescence on FTO/thin SRO/n-Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva, K.M., E-mail: kmonfil@inaoep.mx [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Apdo., 51, Puebla, 72000 Pue. (Mexico); Aceves-Mijares, M.; Yu, Z. [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Apdo., 51, Puebla, 72000 Pue. (Mexico); Flores, F. [CDIS-ICUAP-BUAP, Apdo. 1651, Puebla, 72000 Pue. (Mexico); Morales-Sanchez, A. [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Apdo., 51, Puebla, 72000 Pue. (Mexico); Alcantara, S. [CDIS-ICUAP-BUAP, Apdo. 1651, Puebla, 72000 Pue. (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) of silicon rich oxide (SRO) films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) have been researched. SRO films emit an intense PL band between 550 and 850 nm. EL was studied using fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/thin SRO/n-Si structures. Intense and stable electroluminescence was observed under reverse bias. EL is observed between 400 and 900 nm with two main peaks around 450 and 600 nm. EL was related to charge injection through conductive paths and radiative recombination between traps or defect levels.

  16. Room temperature electroluminescence from mechanically formed van der Waals III–VI homojunctions and heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Nilanthy; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Fay, Mike W.; Mudd, Garry W.; Svatek, Simon A; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Eaves, Laurence; Peter H. Beton; Patanè, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature electroluminescence from semiconductor junctions is demonstrated. The junctions are fabricated by the exfoliation and direct mechanical adhesion of InSe and GaSe van der Waals layered crystals. Homojunction diodes formed from layers of p- and n-type InSe exhibit electroluminescence at energies close to the bandgap energy of InSe (Eg= 1.26 eV). In contrast, heterojunction diodes formed by combining layers of p-type GaSe and n-type InSe emit photons at lower energies, which is ...

  17. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  18. Magnetic field enhanced electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniya, Sangita; Basel, Tek; Sun, Dali; McLaughlin, Ryan; Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    2016-03-01

    A useful process for light harvesting from injected electron-hole pairs in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) is the transfer from triplet excitons (T) to singlet excitons (S) via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC). This process adds a delayed electro-luminescence (EL) emission component that is known as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). We have studied electron donor (D)/acceptor(A) blends that form an exciplex manifold in which the energy difference, ΔEST between the lowest singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) levels is relatively small (field of 50 mT at ambient. Moreover the MEL response is activated with activation energy similar that of the EL emission. This suggests that the large magneto-EL originates from an additional spin-mixing channel between singlet and triplet states of the generated exciplexes, which is due to TADF. We will report on the MEL dependencies on the temperature, bias voltage, and D-A materials for optimum OLED performance. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  19. Towards Monodisperse Star-Shaped Ladder-Type Conjugated Systems: Design, Synthesis, Stabilized Blue Electroluminescence and Amplified Spontaneous Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Yong; Jiang, Yi; Fang, Mei; Chang, Si-Ju; Huang, Jin-Jin; Chu, Shuang-Quan; Hu, Shan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-14

    A novel series of monodisperse star-shaped ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene)s, named as TrL-n (n = 1-3), have been explored. Their thermal and electrochemical properties, fluorescence transients, photoluminescence quantum yields, density functional theory calculations, electroluminescence (EL) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties have been systematically investigated to unravel the molecular design on optoelectronic properties. The resulting materials showed excellent structural perfection free of chemical defects, exhibiting great thermal stability (Td: 404-418°C and Tg:147-184°C) and amorphous glassy morphologies. Compared with their corresponding linear counterparts FL-m (m = 1-3), TrL-n showed only little bathochromic shifts (5-12 nm) for the absorption maxima λmax in both solution and films. The star-shaped ladder-type compounds exhibited enhanced optical stability and suppressed low-energy emission. Their EL spectra exhibited excellent stability with increasing the driving voltage from 6 to 12 V. Moreover, superior low ASE thresholds were recorded for TrL-n compared with FL-m. Rather low ASE threshold (29 nJ/pulse or 1.60 μJ/cm2) was recorded for TrL-3, demonstrating their promising potential as excellent gain media. This study provides a novel design concept to develop monodisperse star-shaped ladder-type materials with excellent structural perfection, which are vital for shedding light on exploring robust organic emitters for optoelectronic applications.

  20. Electrical Properties and Electroluminescence of 4H-SiC p-n Junction Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guosheng; Zhang Yongxing; Gao Xin; Wang Lei; Zhao Wanshun; Zeng Yiping; Li Jinmin

    2004-01-01

    Homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC on off-oriented Si-face(0001 ) substrates was performed by using the step-controlled epitaxy technique in a newly developed low-pressure hot-wall CVD (LP-HWCVD) system with a horizontal aircooled quartz tube at around 1500 ℃and 1.33 × 104 Pa by employing SiH4 + C2H4 + H2. In-situ doping during growth was carried out by adding NH3 gas into the precursor gases. It was shown that the maximum Hall mobility of the undoped 4H-SiC epilayers at room temperature is about 430 cm2 ·V -1 ·s -1 with a carrier concentration of ~ 1016 cm-3 and the highest carrier concentration of the N-doped 4H-SiC epilayer obtained at NH3 flow rate of 3 sccm is about 2.7 × 1021 cm-3 with a mobility of 0.75 cm2 ·V -1 ·S -1. SiC p-n junctions were obtained by epitaxially growing N-doped 4H-SiC epilayers on Aldoped 4H-SiC substrates. The C-V characteristics of the diodes were linear in the 1/C3-V coordinates indicating that the obtained p-n junctions were graded with a built-in voltage of 2.7 eV. The room temperature electroluminescence spectra of 4H-SiC p-n junctions are studied as a function of forward current. The D-A pair recombination due to nitrogen donors and the unintentional, deep boron center is dominant at low forward bias, while the D-A pair recombination due to nitrogen donors and aluminum acceptors are dominant at higher forward biases. The p-n junctions could operate at temperature of up to 400 ℃, which provides a potential for high-temperature applications.

  1. Sharp green electroluminescence from 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y. T.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Danel, A.; Jarosz, B.; Tomasik, P.

    2000-09-01

    A multilayer organic light-emitting diode was fabricated using a fluorescent compound {6-N,N-diethylamino-1-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline} (PAQ-NEt2) doped into the hole-transporting layer of NPB {4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]-biphenyl}, with the TPBI {2,2',2″-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris[1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole]} as an electrontransporting material. At 16% PAQ-NEt2 doping concentration, the device gave a sharp, bright, and efficient green electroluminescence (EL) peaked at around 530 nm. The full width at half maximum of the EL is 60 nm, which is 60% of the green emission from typical NPB/AlQ [where AlQ=tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] device. For the same concentration, a maximum luminance of 37 000 cd/m2 was obtained at 10.0 V and the maximum power, luminescence, and external quantum efficiencies were obtained 4.2 lm/W, 6.0 cd/A, and 1.6%, respectively, at 5.0 V.

  2. Photo- and electroluminescent properties of bithiophene disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and their application as active components in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grykien, Remigiusz; Luszczynska, Beata; Glowacki, Ireneusz; Kurach, Ewa; Rybakiewicz, Renata; Kotwica, Kamil; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam; Tassini, Paolo; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Mauro, Anna De Girolamo Del; Fasolino, Tommaso; Rega, Romina; Pandolfi, Giuseppe; Minarini, Carla; Aprano, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Photo- and electroluminescence of five bithiophene disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, constituting a new class of solution processable materials for organic opto-electronics, were studied. It was found that the introduction of alkyl solubilizing substituents bathochromically shifted the photo- and electroluminescence bands. The most pronounced effect was observed for the substitution at the Cα position which changed the emitting light color from bluish to green. All five derivatives were tested in host/guest type organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) or poly(N-vinylcarbazole) + 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PVK + PBD) matrices. The latter matrix turned out especially well suited for these guest molecules yielding devices of varying color coordinates. The best luminance (750 cd/m2) was measured for 2,5-bis(5‧-octyl-2,2‧-bithiophene-5-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole with the luminous efficiency exceeding 0.4 cd/A.

  3. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  4. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  5. Automatic Detection and Evaluation of Solar Cell Micro-Cracks in Electroluminescence Images Using Matched Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    A method for detecting micro cracks in solar cell using two dimensional matched filters was developed, derived from the electroluminescence intensity profile of typical microcracks. We describe the image processing steps to obtain a binary map with the location of the micro-cracks. Finally, we sh...

  6. Relationship between structure and electroluminescence of oligo(y-phenylenevinylene)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalmach, U; Detert, H; Meier, H; Gebhardt, [No Value; Haarer, D; Bacher, A

    1998-01-01

    The preparation of LEDs with poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) as emitting material is well established, However, due to the presence of a distribution of conjugated chain lengths in the polymer, systematic investigations of the electroluminescence with polymeric materials are difficult, as far as the

  7. Bright hybrid white light-emitting quantum dot device with direct charge injection into quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wei, Xiang; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Chao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Xing; Jhun, Chulgyu

    2016-12-01

    A bright white quantum dot light-emitting device (white-QLED) with 4-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-2- [3-(tri-phenylen-2-yl)phen-3-yl]quinazoline deposited on a thin film of mixed green/red-QDs as a bilayer emitter is fabricated. The optimized white-QLED exhibits a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V and a maximum brightness of 3660 cd/m2@8 V with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity in the region of white light. The ultra-thin layer of QDs is proved to be critical for the white light generation in the devices. Excitation mechanism in the white-QLEDs is investigated by the detailed analyses of electroluminescence (EL) spectral and the fluorescence lifetime of QDs. The results show that charge injection is a dominant mechanism of excitation in the white-QLED. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21302122) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13ZR1416600).

  8. Efficient Deep-Blue Electroluminescence Based on Phenanthroimidazole-Dibenzothiophene Derivatives with Different Oxidation States of the Sulfur Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Shan, Tong; Bai, Qing; Ma, Hongwei; He, Xin; Lu, Ping

    2017-03-02

    Developing efficient deep-blue materials is a long-term research focus in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, we report two deep-blue molecules, PITO and PISF, which share similar chemical structures but exhibit different photophysical and device properties. These two molecules consist of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene analogs. The distinction of their chemical structures lies in the different oxidation states of the S atom. For PITO, the S atom is oxidized and the resulting structure dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide becomes electron deficient. Therefore, PITO displays remarkable solvatochromism, implying a charge-transfer (CT) excited state formed between the donor (D) phenanthroimidazole and acceptor (A) dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide. For PISF, it is constituted of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene in which the S atom is not oxidized. PISF displays locally excited (LE) emission with little solvatochromism. Compared with PISF, the D-A molecule PITO with an electron-deficient group shows a much lower LUMO energy level, which is in favor of electron injection in device. In addition, PITO exhibits more balanced carrier transport. However, PISF is capable of emitting in the shorter wavelength region, which is beneficial to obtain better color purity. The doped electroluminescence (EL) device of the D-A molecule PITO manifests deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08) and maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.67 %. The doped EL device of the LE molecule PISF, however, reveals an even bluer emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) and a maximum EQE of 4.08 %.

  9. A low voltage CMOS low drop-out voltage regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Salma Ali; Abbasi, Tanvir Ahmad; Abbasi, Mohammas Suhaib; Aldessouky, Mohamed Samir; Abbasi, Mohammad Usaid

    2009-05-01

    A low voltage implementation of a CMOS Low Drop-Out voltage regulator (LDO) is presented. The requirement of low voltage devices is crucial for portable devices that require extensive computations in a low power environment. The LDO is implemented in 90nm generic CMOS technology. It generates a fixed 0.8V from a 2.5V supply which on discharging goes to 1V. The buffer stage used is unity gain configured unbuffered OpAmp with rail-to-rail swing input stage. The simulation result shows that the implemented circuit provides load regulation of 0.004%/mA and line regulation of -11.09mV/V. The LDO provides full load transient response with a settling time of 5.2μs. Further, the dropout voltage is 200mV and the quiescent current through the pass transistor (Iload=0) is 20μA. The total power consumption of this LDO (excluding bandgap reference) is only 80μW.

  10. Implementation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vinod Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is one of major concerns in the present. It has become important, especially with the introduction of sophisticated devices, whose performance is very sensitive to the quality of power supply. The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR is one of the modern devices used in distribution systems to improve the power quality. In this paper, emergency control in distribution systems is discussed by using the proposed multifunctional DVR control strategy.Also, themultiloop controller using the Posicast and P+Resonant controllers is proposed in order to improve the transient response and eliminate the steady state error in DVR response,respectively.The proposed process is applied to some riots in load voltage effected by induction motors starting, and a three-phase short circuit fault. The three-phase short circuits, and the large induction motors are suddenly started then voltage sags areoccurred.The innovation here is that by using the Multifunctional Dynamic Voltage Restorer, improve the power quality in distribution side. Simulation results show the capability of the DVR to control the emergency conditions of the distribution systems by using MATLAB/Simulink software.

  11. Voltage control in active, intelligent low-voltage distribution networks; Spannungshaltung in aktiven, intelligenten Niederspannungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelo, Thorsten; Mende, Denis [SMA Solar Technology AG, Niestetal (Germany); Geibel, Dominik [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes approaches for the voltage control in low-voltage distribution networks with a high share of distributed energy resources (DER). Taken into account are devices such as distribution transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC), photovoltaic-inverters with reactive power capability and electronic voltage controllers (EVC). After a short description regarding voltage control, the devices and selected system concepts as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the different devices are described. Finally, the system-concepts are compared using the example of a real low voltage network, taking into account the possible increase of hosting capacity of the network, curtailing losses and the amount of reactive energy to be provided. (orig.)

  12. Portable High Voltage Impulse Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gómez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a portable high voltage impulse generator which was designed and built with insulation up to 20 kV. This design was based on previous work in which simulation software for standard waves was developed. Commercial components and low-cost components were used in this work; however, these particular elements are not generally used for high voltage applications. The impulse generators used in industry and laboratories are usually expensive; they are built to withstand extra high voltage and they are big, making them impossible to transport. The proposed generator is portable, thereby allowing tests to be made on devices that cannot be moved from their location. The results obtained with the proposed impulse generator were satisfactory in terms of time and waveforms compared to other commercial impulse generators and the standard impulse wave simulator.

  13. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) deposited by spin coating

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Vera; Juan Carlos Salcedo-Reyes; Juan Pablo Cuéllar-Alvarado; Diana Rocío Pardo-Pardo; Henry Alberto Méndez-Pinzón; Beynor Antonio Páez-Sierra

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i) the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm), ii) the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii) the material us...

  14. Protection of Low Voltage CIGRE distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    the inverters used for Photovoltaic (PV) and battery applications. The disconnection of the PV solar panels when in island mode is made by proposing switch dis-connecting devices. ABB is currently using these kinds of disconnection devices for the purpose of protecting solar panels against over voltages...

  15. Nanostructured Sublayers for Improved Light Extraction of Top-Emitting and Transparent Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    fluoride and magnesium- silver alloy were thermally evaporated with an evaporation rate ratio of 10:1 to form a translucent cathode (10 nm). The schemes for...onto the transfer film and transferred to the substrate. A small molecular HTL, N,N’-diphenyl-N,N’-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1’-biphenyl)- 4,4’- diamine (α...Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 [14] Fan, S H, Villeneuve P R, Joannopoulos J D, and Schubert E F 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294 [15] Schnitzer I

  16. Osmium Complexes Useful in the Preparation of Metal Thin Film and Highly Efficient Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chi

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of β-diketone ligand, such as hfacH (hexafluoroacetylacetone), with Os3(CO)12 in a stainless steel autoclave at elevated temperature afforded the corresponding mononuclear osmium complex [Os(CO)3(hfac)(tfa)] (1) in good yield. This complex is highly volatile and displays moderate stability at the higher temperatures; thus, it can be utilized for depositing metal thin-film material with overall quality comparable or better than those deposited using the commercially available chemical reagents. Moreover, combination of Os3(CO)12 with another class of chelate ligand such as 3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl) pyrazole (ppz)H gave formation of the Os(H) dicarbonyl complex [Os(CO)2(ppz)2] (2). This osmium complex shows blue phosphorescence at room temperature, which is characteristic for the 3ππ* emission with vibronic progressions at 430,457 and 480 nm. The remarkable photophysical properties were rationalized by a combination of π electron accepting CO ligand, relative ppz orientation and heavy-atom enhanced spin-orbit coupling effects. Related chemical transformations that afforded other useful luminescent Os complexes are presented.

  17. Design of Reactive Power Compensation Device in Medium - Low Voltage Unbalanced Distribution Networks%中低压配电网不平衡无功补偿系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勇军; 肖慧荣; 张君; 吴文凤

    2011-01-01

    研究中低压配电网优化问题,针对感性负载和负载的不平衡造成电网损耗大、功率因数低等缺欠,传统的补偿装置往往只适用于三相三线制配电网或不能兼顾无功补偿和三相不平衡的校正.提出设计一种既适合三相三线制配电网又适用于三相四线制的中低压配电网不平衡无功补偿系统.运用新型无功补偿算法计算无功补偿量,再利用模糊控制器控制复合开关来实现电容投切.并通过MATLAB仿真证实设计的补偿系统既可以有效的校正三相不平衡又可以对系统无功功率进行补偿,为优化提供了参考.%In the medium-low voltage distribution networks, the inductive load and the load imbalance cause great loss of power and low power factor problem. Traditional compensation devices are only applicable to three -phase three -wire distribution system, or can not take into account reactive power compensation and three-phase unbalance correction. This paper designed a medium-low voltage distribution network in the unbalanced of reactivepower compensation systems, that suited both the three-phase three-wire and the three-phase four-wire system. The system used the new algorithm to calculate the amount of reactive power compensation, and combined the fuzzy controller to achieve the capacitor switching switch. And the MATLAB simulation and experiment show that the basic principle and method is totally feasible and effectual.

  18. Photo- and Electro-luminescence of the New Ternary Europium(Ⅲ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xia DU; Zhi Qiang WANG; Qi XIN; Yang Jie WU; Wen Lian LI

    2005-01-01

    A new luminescent europium complex [Eu(DBM)3dpq] (DBM = 1, 3-diphenyl-1, 3-propanedionate and dpq=dipyrido[2,3-f][2',3'-h]quinoxaline) has been synthesized and shows intense red emission under UV excitation. With the device structure ITO/TPD/Eu(DBM)3dpq:TPD (1:2)/Gd(DBM)3bath/Mg:Ag, sharp-band red emissions with low turn-on voltage of 3V and high brightness of 304cd m-2 were achieved.

  19. Materials for optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Smigelski, Jr., Paul Michael

    2015-01-27

    Energy efficient optoelectronic devices include an electroluminescent layer containing a polymer made up of structural units of formula I and II; ##STR00001## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently C.sub.22-44 hydrocarbyl, C.sub.22-44 hydrocarbyl containing one or more S, N, O, P, or Si atoms, oxaalkylaryl, or a combination thereof; R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 are independently H, C.sub.1-44 hydrocarbyl or C.sub.1-44 hydrocarbyl containing one or more S, N, O, P, or Si atoms, or R.sup.3 and R.sup.4, taken together, form a C.sub.2-10 monocyclic or bicyclic ring containing up to three S, N, O, P, or Si heteroatoms; and X is S, Se, or a combination thereof.

  20. Electroluminescence from perovskite LEDs with the structure of Ag/Spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/FTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minhuan; Shi, Yantao; Bian, Jiming; Dong, Qingshun; Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Hongzhu; Luo, Yingmin; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2016-10-01

    The perovskite light-emitting diodes (Pe-LEDs) with the structure of Ag/Spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/FTO were synthesized, where the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layer was deposited by a two-step spin-coating process. A dominant near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) at 773 nm was detected from the Pe-LEDs under forward bias at room temperature. The origin and mechanism of the EL were discussed in comparison with the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and it was attributed to the radiative recombination of electrons and holes confined in the CH3NH3PbI3 emissive layer. Moreover, the corresponding energy band diagrams was proposed to illustrate the carrier transport mechanism in the Pe-LED device.

  1. 低压电力线载波信道测试装置设计%Design of a testing device for low voltage power line carrier communication channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立城; 胡科军; 霍超; 李建岐

    2015-01-01

    Power line carrier communication is widely used in automatic meter reading and street lamp control etc. However, the power line is not a dedicated communication channel, and influenced by the electrical equipment,power load,grid structure and other factors largely.The channel transmission characteristics vary in time domain and fre-quency domain, which directly influence the business carrying capacity and application effect of power communication products.This paper introduces a portable low voltage power line carrier communication channel testing device, which can realize the online measurement of noise, impedance and attenuation of the power line carrier channel, and can get the variation characteristics of carrier channel through the real-time analysis software.The device is of great signifi-cance to the technology realization and engineering application of power line communication products.%电力线载波通信在居民抄表、路灯控制等领域广泛应用,然而由于电力线不是专用信道,且受用电设备、电力负荷、线路结构等影响较大,其传输特性在时域、频域上具有多变性,直接影响到电力载波通信产品的业务承载能力和应用效果。文中研制了一种便携化低压电力线载波通信信道测试装置,实现了电力线载波信道的阻抗、衰减和噪声三个重要信道参量的在线测量,并可通过即时分析软件实时掌握载波信道的变化特征,对电力线通信产品的技术实现和工程化应用具有重要意义。

  2. Synthesis, crystal structures and photo- and electro-luminescence of copper(I) complexes containing electron-transporting diaryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianzhi; Liu, Peng; Chai, Haifang; Kang, Jundan; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Duowang

    2014-05-01

    Two mononuclear Cu(I) complexes based on 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazolyl derivative ligand containing electron-transporting 1,3,4-oxadiazole group (L), [Cu(L)(PPh(3))2](BF(4)) and [Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF(4)), where L = 1-(4-(5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)benzimidazole and DPEphos = bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether, have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure analyses of the ligand L and the complex [Cu(L)(PPh(3))2](BF(4)) were described. The photophysical properties of the complexes were examined by using UV-vis, photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The doped light-emitting devices using the Cu(I) complexes as dopants were fabricated. With no electron transporting layers employed in the devices, yellow electroluminescence from Cu(I) complexes were observed. The devices based on the complex [Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF4) possess better performance as compared with the devices fabricated by the complex [Cu(L)(PPh(3))2](BF(4)). The devices with the structure of ITO/MoO(3) (2 nm)/NPB (40 nm)/CBP:[Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF(4)) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (150 nm) exhibit a maximum efficiency of 3.04 cd/A and a maximum brightness of 4,758 cd/m(2).

  3. Spectra of surface plasmon polariton enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmott, T. W. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Narrow band-pass filters have been used to measure the spectral distribution of electroluminescent photons with energies between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 18 nm. Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown that results in a conducting channel in the insulator and changes the initial high resistance of the MIM diode to a low resistance state. It is a critical step in the development of resistive-switching memories that utilize MIM diodes as the active element. Electroforming of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes in vacuum results in voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) develop simultaneously with the current increase that results in VCNR in the I-V characteristics. EL is due to recombination of electrons injected at the Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface with radiative defect centers in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Measurements of EL photons between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV using a wide band-pass filter showed that EL intensity is exponentially dependent on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness for Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes between 12 nm and 20 nm thick. Enhanced El intensity in the thinnest diodes is attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate of recombination centers due to high electromagnetic fields generated in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} when EL photons interact with electrons in Ag or Al to form surface plasmon polaritons at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al interface. El intensity is a maximum at 2.0–2.2 eV for Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 18 nm. EL in diodes with 12 nm or 14 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is enhanced by factors of 8–10 over EL from a diode with 18 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The extent of EL enhancement in

  4. Mitigation of Voltage Dip and Voltage Flickering by Multilevel D-STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ballal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic power quality problems in the distribution network are voltage sag (dip, voltage flickering, and the service interruptions. STATCOM is a Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS technology device which can independently control the flow of reactive power. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of a STATCOM for voltage dip and voltage flickering mitigation. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink to validate the performance of the STATCOM. A comparison between the six-pulse inverter and the five-level diode-clamped inverter is carried out for the performance of 66/11 KV distribution system.

  5. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  6. Analysis of defect-related inhomogeneous electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN QW LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C. X.; Rouet-Leduc, B.; Griffiths, J. T.; Bohacek, E.; Wallace, M. J.; Edwards, P. R.; Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Kappers, M. J.; Martin, R. W.; Oliver, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The inhomogeneous electroluminescence (EL) of InGaN/GaN quantum well light emitting diode structures was investigated in this study. Electroluminescence hyperspectral images showed that inhomogeneities in the form of bright spots exhibited spectrally blue-shifted and broadened emission. Scanning electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) was used to identify hexagonal pits at the centre of approximately 20% of these features. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) indicated there may be p-doped AlGaN within the active region caused by the presence of the pit. Weak beam dark-field TEM (WBDF-TEM) revealed the presence of bundles of dislocations associated with the pit, suggesting the surface features which cause the inhomogeneous EL may occur at coalescence boundaries, supported by trends in the number of features observed across the wafer.

  7. Influence of Exciplex formation on the electroluminescent properties of dimeric Zn (II) bis-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole complex and monomeric Zn (II) 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sattey; Anand, R. S.; Manoharan, S. Sundar

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present the factors affecting electroluminescent properties of Zinc complexes of oxazole & thiazole derivatives. Electroluminescent spectra of the Zinc (II) complex of bis-[2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole], [Zn (HPBO)2]2 and 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole [Zn (HNBT)2] show unusual broadening and shows structural and photophysical similarity with [Zn (HPBT)2]2, a dimeric complex. The [Zn (HPBO)2]2 complex as an emissive layer in the device structure ITO /PEDOT:PSS /TPD (30nm) /[Zn (HPBO)2]2 (60nm) /BCP (6nm) /Ca (3nm) /Al (200nm) shows a broad bluish green emission, with a full width at half maxima (FWHM1˜70nm). The EL spectra is much broader compared to the PL spectra because of exciplex formation at the interfacial region between the emissive layer (EML) & hole transport layer (HTL). We also show the device performance of Zinc 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole [Zn (HNBT)2] complex as emissive layer. Distinctly this device shows a broad greenish yellow emission with a peak maxima at 535nm and 690nm, owing to the exciplex formation between electron transport layer (ETL) and emissive layer (EML), which is in sharp contrast to the exciplex formation across the HTL-EML interface observed for the [Zn (HPBO)2]2 complex.

  8. Localized and guided electroluminescence from roll printed organic nanofibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report localized, polarized, and waveguidedelectroluminescence (EL) from well aligned organic nanofibres integrated via roll printing on transistor platforms. The localized emission is due to the application of an AC voltage to the transistor gate electrodes, which causes sequential...... injection of holes and electrons into the organic material with subsequent charge carrier recombination and light emission from a small area near the metal-nanofibre interface. The polarization results from the mutually parallel ordering of the molecular constituents, in which the emitting dipole...... that this scheme can facilitate EL from a nanofibre made from a different type of molecule with altered spectral characteristics. The realization of an electrically biased organic nanoscale light-emitter demonstrates the ability to fabricate on-chip light sources with tunable emission spectrum via synthesis...

  9. Radiatively heated high voltage pyroelectric crystal pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolak, A.J., E-mail: antolak@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chen, A.X. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leung, K.-N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Thin lithium tantalate pyroelectric crystals in a multi-stage pulser were heated by quartz lamps during their charging phase to generate high voltage pulses. The charging voltage was determined empirically based on the measured breakdown voltage in air and verified by the induced breakdown voltage of an external high voltage power supply. A four-stage pyroelectric crystal device generated pulse discharges of up to 86 kV using both quartz lamps (radiative) and thermoelectric (conductive) heating. Approximately 50 mJ of electrical energy was harvested from the crystals when radiatively heated in air, and up to 720 mJ was produced when the crystals were submerged in a dielectric fluid. It is anticipated that joule-level pulse discharges could be obtained by employing additional stages and optimizing the heating configuration.

  10. Quantification of Solar Cell Failure Signatures Based on Statistical Analysis of Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to quantify the extent of solar cell cracks, shunting, or damaged cell interconnects, present in crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules by statistical analysis of the electroluminescence (EL) intensity distributions of individual cells within the module. From the EL...... operation. The method can be easily automated for quality control by module manufacturers or installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers....

  11. Green-Light Electroluminescence of Conjugated Copolymer Containing p-Phenylene-ethynylene and Oxadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The title copolymer(PDEBO) was synthesized. The thermal characteristics of the polymer were determined by means of DSC and TGA, revealing that the polymer has a good thermal stability. The X-ray diffraction measurements of the thin films showed that the polymer is disorder. Electroluminescence(EL) in the green region of the spectrum with a maximum at 500 nm was observed from the polymer films sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide and an Al electrode.

  12. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K. L.; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 1015 cm−3, defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence. PMID:28239146

  13. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K L; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-27

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 10(15) cm(-3), defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence.

  14. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  15. Influence of the material parameters on quantum cascade devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, E.; Vasanelli, A.; Delteil, A.; Devenson, J.; Teissier, R.; Baranov, A.; Andrews, A. M.; Strasser, G.; Sagnes, I.; Sirtori, C.

    2008-09-01

    An experimental investigation on the influence of the material systems on the optical properties of quantum cascade structures is presented. Three electroluminescent quantum cascade devices have been grown using GaAs /AlGaAs, GaInAs /AlInAs, and InAs /AlSb heterostructures. The devices emit at 10μm and are based on a similar bandstructure design. Our results verify that the optical quantum efficiency has the predicted dependence on the electron effective mass. We also demonstrate that the shape of the electroluminescence spectra is independent from the particular material parameters and mainly depends on the tunnel coupling between the injector state and the upper state of the radiative transition.

  16. New Control Technique Applied in Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Sag Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR was a power electronics device that was able to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery. By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. There were so many types of the control techniques being used in DVR for mitigating voltage sags. The efficiency of the DVR depends on the efficiency of the control technique involved in switching the inverter. Problem statement: Simulation and experimental investigation toward new algorithms development based on SVPWM. Understanding the nature of DVR and performance comparisons between the various controller technologies available. The proposed controller using space vector modulation techniques obtain higher amplitude modulation indexes if compared with conventional SPWM techniques. Moreover, space vector modulation techniques can be easily implemented using digital processors. Space vector PWM can produce about 15% higher output voltage than standard Sinusoidal PWM. Approach: The purpose of this research was to study the implementation of SVPWM in DVR. The proposed control algorithm was investigated through computer simulation by using PSCAD/EMTDC software. Results: From simulation and experimental results showed the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller based on SVPWM in mitigating voltage sags in low voltage distribution systems. It was concluded that its controller also works well both in balance and unbalance conditions of voltages. Conclusion/Recommendations: The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using PSCAD/EMTDC software based on SVPWM technique showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags. The DVR operates without any difficulties to inject the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the

  17. Degradation mechanism beyond device self-heating in high power light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, K. C.; Liem, H.; Choy, H. S.; Lun, W. K.

    2011-05-01

    A unique degradation property of high power InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was identified. The LEDs were stressed under different forward-currents. The various ageing characteristics were analyzed for both the electrical response and electro-luminescence (EL) spectra. The Raman spectroscopy allowed noninvasive probing of LED junction temperature profiles which correlated well with the EL characteristics, showing a junction temperature drop during degradation at certain current levels. In addition to the common observations: (1) a broadening of the light intensity-current (L-I) characteristic in the nonlinear regime, and (2) a shift of the current-voltage (I-V) dependence to higher current levels, the EL spectra showed different temperature responses of the two blue emission peaks, 440 and 463 nm. The former was temperature sensitive and thus related to shallow defect levels, while the latter was thermally stable and deeper defect states were involved in the degradation process. This unique selection rule resulted in the enhancement of the blue emission peak at 463 nm after degrading the LEDs. This study suggests that LED device heating is not directly linked to the degradation process.

  18. Device characterization of cadmium telluride photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisthardt, Russell M.

    measurement systems. Characterization of plasma-cleaned cells show an improvement in performance, even at thinner CdS layer thickness. Measurements of thinning CdTe samples reveal additional optical losses, likely caused by the increasing importance of the back diode. Characterization of Cd(S,O) devices show improved performance, both from improved optical properties and theorized improvement in band alignment properties. Uniformity can have an effect on whole-cell performance, but can also be an important parameter to characterize on its own. Light-beam-induced current is a powerful tool for characterizing uniformity. The LBIC tool was upgraded to improve its accuracy, functionality, and speed. The improved LBIC system aids in the collection of uniformity data. A number of parameters can be varied to provide in-depth uniformity information and help identify causes of nonuniformity. The wavelength can be varied to provide information on different layers. This can help identify variations in CdS thickness and local CdTe band gap. An applied voltage bias can be used to identify locations with weak diode properties. The resolution can also be varied to provide information on nonuniformities at different scales, from variations across the whole cell to variations on the size of several grains. LBIC can also be paired with electroluminescence to create a powerful nonuniformity characterization suite. The two can be paired with EL used as a screening tool to identify cells or areas which need further characterization from LBIC.

  19. Stability analysis and dynamic response of a DC-link module with a series voltage compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Liu, Wenchao; Chung, Henry

    2013-01-01

    A DC-link module composed of a reduced value of DC-link capacitor and a series voltage compensator has been proposed. The voltage compensator processes the ripple voltage on the DC link and reactive power only, which can be implemented by low-voltage devices. The overall energy storage of the DC...

  20. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  1. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  2. Organic optoelectronics:materials,devices and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; CUI Tian-hong

    2005-01-01

    The interest in organic materials for optoelectronic devices has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has been propelled by the exciting advances in organic thin films for displays, low-cost electronic circuits, etc. An increasing number of products employing organic electronic devices have become commercialized, which has stimulated the age of organic optoelectronics. This paper reviews the recent progress in organic optoelectronic technology. First, organic light emitting electroluminescent materials are introduced. Next, the three kinds of most important organic optoelectronic devices are summarized, including light emitting diode, organic photovoltaic cell, and photodetectors. The various applications of these devices are also reviewed and discussed in detail. Finally, the market and future development of optoelectronic devices are also demonstrated.

  3. L{sub p} norm approaches for estimating voltage flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inan, Aslan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical-Electronics, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bakroun, Maher [Antrim Crescent, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heydt, Gerald T. [Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2010-12-15

    It is important to accurately estimate instantaneous voltage flicker magnitudes and frequencies in order to correctly evaluate voltage fluctuations. Voltage flicker is a problem in electric power quality. Different approaches used to determine the magnitude of the voltage flicker have been presented: measurement methods generally use a flickermeter device. Simulation methods require a computer model of the disturbing load and the flickermeter. Calculation methods necessitate a simplified empirical formula. Estimation algorithms are based on the estimation of the voltage flicker components. In this paper, two models of voltage flicker are discussed: L{sub p} estimation algorithms utilizing L{sub 1}, L{sub 2} and L{sub {infinity}} norms are used to estimate the voltage magnitudes of the flicker signals as well as the fundamental voltage magnitude. The main result is that it is possible to design an L{sub p} estimator to identify flicker frequency and amplitude from time series measurements. (author)

  4. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELSHAD, M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage stress on the power devices. Considering high efficiency and voltage gain of this converter, it is suitable for green generated systems such as fuel cells or photovoltaic systems. The presented experimental results verify the integrity of the proposed converter.

  5. Electrostatic MEMS devices with high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles L; Auciello, Orlando H; Sumant, Anirudha V; Mancini, Derrick C; Gudeman, Chris; Sampath, Suresh; Carlilse, John A; Carpick, Robert W; Hwang, James

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides for an electrostatic microelectromechanical (MEMS) device comprising a dielectric layer separating a first conductor and a second conductor. The first conductor is moveable towards the second conductor, when a voltage is applied to the MEMS device. The dielectric layer recovers from dielectric charging failure almost immediately upon removal of the voltage from the MEMS device.

  6. Efficient light emitting devices based on phosphorescent partially doped emissive layers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-05-29

    We report efficient organic light emitting devices employing an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer. The electroluminescent spectra of these devices can be tuned by introducing a low-energy emitting phosphor layer into the emission zone. Devices with the emissive layer consisting of multiple platinum-complex/spacer layer cells show a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.1%, which is among the best EQE values for platinum-complex based light emitting devices. Devices with an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer show stronger luminance decay with the operating time compared to the counterpart devices having a host-guest emissive layer.

  7. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calciati, Marco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Goano, Michele, E-mail: michele.goano@polito.it; Bertazzi, Francesco [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); IEIIT-CNR, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bellotti, Enrico [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, 02215 Boston, MA (United States); Verzellesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10{sup −30} cm{sup 6}/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary

  8. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciati, Marco; Goano, Michele; Bertazzi, Francesco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico; Bellotti, Enrico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin

    2014-06-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10-30 cm6/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary attempt at

  9. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calciati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence (EL characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs, coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs. First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10−30 cm6/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary

  10. Voltage-controlled photonic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, A A; Ilchenko, V S; Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2010-05-15

    We report the development and demonstration of an X-band voltage-controlled photonic oscillator based on a whispering gallery mode resonator made of an electro-optic crystalline material. The oscillator has good spectral purity and wide, agile, linear tunability. We have modified the existing theoretical model of the opto-electronic oscillator to describe the performance of our tunable oscillator and have found a good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measurement results. We show that the device is promising for higher-frequency applications where high-performance tunable oscillators with wide tunability do not exist.

  11. Preparation and characterization of electroluminescent devices based on complexes of {beta}-diketonates of Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} ions with macrocyclic ligands and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} films; Preparacao e caracterizacao de dispositivos eletroluminescentes de complexos de {beta}-dicetonados de ions Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} com ligantes macrociclicos e filmes de UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibelli, Edison Bessa

    2010-07-01

    Complexes containing Rare Earth ions are of great interest in the manufacture of electro luminescent devices as organic light emitting devices (OLED). These devices, using rare earth trivalent ions (TR{sup 3+}) as emitting centers, show high luminescence with extremely fine spectral bands due to the structure of their energy levels, long life time and high quantum efficiency. This work reports the preparation of Rare Earth {beta}-diketonate complexes (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}) and (tta - thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and acac - acetylacetonate) containing a ligand macrocyclic crown ether (DB18C6 - dibenzo18coroa6) and polymer films of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The materials were characterized by complexometric titration with EDTA, CH elemental analysis, near infrared absorption spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (powder method) and luminescence spectroscopy. For manufacturing the OLED it was used the technique of deposition of thin films by physical vapor (PVD, Physical Vapor Deposition). (author)

  12. Impact ionisation electroluminescence in planar GaAs-based heterostructure Gunn diodes: Spatial distribution and impact of doping non-uniformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Bajo, M.; Dunn, G.; Stephen, A.; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, D. R. S.; Oxley, C. H.; Glover, J.; Kuball, M.

    2013-03-01

    When biased in the negative differential resistance regime, electroluminescence (EL) is emitted from planar GaAs heterostructure Gunn diodes. This EL is due to the recombination of electrons in the device channel with holes that are generated by impact ionisation when the Gunn domains reach the anode edge. The EL forms non-uniform patterns whose intensity shows short-range intensity variations in the direction parallel to the contacts and decreases along the device channel towards the cathode. This paper employs Monte Carlo models, in conjunction with the experimental data, to analyse these non-uniform EL patterns and to study the carrier dynamics responsible for them. It is found that the short-range lateral (i.e., parallel to the device contacts) EL patterns are probably due to non-uniformities in the doping of the anode contact, illustrating the usefulness of EL analysis on the detection of such inhomogeneities. The overall decreasing EL intensity towards the anode is also discussed in terms of the interaction of holes with the time-dependent electric field due to the transit of the Gunn domains. Due to their lower relative mobility and the low electric field outside of the Gunn domain, freshly generated holes remain close to the anode until the arrival of a new domain accelerates them towards the cathode. When the average over the transit of several Gunn domains is considered, this results in a higher hole density, and hence a higher EL intensity, next to the anode.

  13. Electroluminescence from charge transfer states in Donor/Acceptor solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Madsen, Morten

    charge transfer (CT) excitons, which is Coulombically bound interfacial electron- hole pairs residing at the donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The CT state represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. Since the recombination of photo...... at the donor/acceptor interface is detected. As a less studied system, we examine here the interfacial charge transfer state recombination in DBP:C70 thin-films. The weak EL from the small molecule solar cell biased in the forward direction gives valuable information about the CT state recombination, from...... which the maximum open-circuit voltage can be estimated, and further can be used in the modeling and optimization of the OPV devices. [1] C. Deibe, T. Strobe, and V. Dyakonov, “Role of the charge transfer state in organic donor-acceptor solar cells,” Adv. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 4097–4111, 2010. [2] K...

  14. Method and device for ion mobility separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-07-11

    Methods and devices for ion separations or manipulations in gas phase are disclosed. The device includes a single non-planar surface. Arrays of electrodes are coupled to the surface. A combination of RF and DC voltages are applied to the arrays of electrodes to create confining and driving fields that move ions through the device. The DC voltages are static DC voltages or time-dependent DC potentials or waveforms.

  15. Graphene device and method of using graphene device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Vincent; Girit, Caglar; Kessler, Brian; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2015-08-11

    An embodiment of a graphene device includes a layered structure, first and second electrodes, and a dopant island. The layered structure includes a conductive layer, an insulating layer, and a graphene layer. The electrodes are coupled to the graphene layer. The dopant island is coupled to an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. An embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. Another embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device without the dopant island. A dopant island is placed on an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. A response of the dopant island to the voltage is observed.

  16. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  17. Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N S P Venkatesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Power Quality problems encompass a wide range of disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, flicker,harmonics distortion and interruptions. The strategic deployment of custom power devices has been proposed asone of the means to protect sensitive loads from power quality problems such as voltage sags and swells. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a power electronic device that is used to inject 3-phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the distribution feeder voltages in order to compensate voltage sag and similarly itreacts quickly to inject the appropriate voltage component (negative voltage magnitude in order to compensate voltage swell. The principal component of the DVR is a voltage source inverter that generates three phase voltages and provides the voltage support to a sensitive load during voltage sags and swells. Pulse Width Modulation Technique is very critical for proper control of DVR. Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM control techniques are used for controlling the DVR. Inthis work, the operation of DVR is presented and the control technique used for voltage source inverter is Space Vector PWM technique. Space vector PWM can utilize the better dc voltage and generates the fewer harmonic in inverter output voltage than Sinusoidal PWM technique. This work describes the DVR based on Space Vector PWM which provides voltage support to sensitive loads and is simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results show that the control approach is able to compensate for any type of voltage sags and swells.

  18. Current-voltage characteristics and transition voltage spectroscopy of individual redox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artés, Juan M; López-Martínez, Montserrat; Giraudet, Arnaud; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Sanz, Fausto; Gorostiza, Pau

    2012-12-19

    Understanding how molecular conductance depends on voltage is essential for characterizing molecular electronics devices. We reproducibly measured current-voltage characteristics of individual redox-active proteins by scanning tunneling microscopy under potentiostatic control in both tunneling and wired configurations. From these results, transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) data for individual redox molecules can be calculated and analyzed statistically, adding a new dimension to conductance measurements. The transition voltage (TV) is discussed in terms of the two-step electron transfer (ET) mechanism. Azurin displays the lowest TV measured to date (0.4 V), consistent with the previously reported distance decay factor. This low TV may be advantageous for fabricating and operating molecular electronic devices for different applications. Our measurements show that TVS is a helpful tool for single-molecule ET measurements and suggest a mechanism for gating of ET between partner redox proteins.

  19. White Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Exciplex Electroluminescence from Polymer Blends and a Single Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junfei; Zhao, Sen; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Ting; Yip, Hin-Lap; Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Yang, Wei; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    In this Article, we designed and synthesized a series of polyfluorene derivatives, which consist of the electron-rich 4,4'-(9-alkyl-carbazole-3,6-diyl)bis(N,N-diphenylaniline) (TPA-Cz) in the side chain and the electron-deficient dibenzothiophene-5,5-dioxide (SO) unit in the main chain. The resulting copolymer PF-T25 that did not comprise the SO unit exhibited blue light-emission with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.10). However, by physically blending PF-T25 with a blue light-emitting SO-based oligomer, a novel low-energy emission correlated to exciplex emerged due to the appropriate energy level alignment of TPA-Cz and the SO-based oligomers, which showed extended exciton lifetime as confirmed by time-resolved photoluminescent spectroscopy. The low-energy emission was also identified in copolymers consisting of SO unit in the main chain, which can effectively compensate for the high-energy emission to produce binary white light-emission. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on the exciplex-type single greenish-white polymer exhibit the peak luminous efficiency of 2.34 cd A(-1) and the maximum brightness of 12 410 cd m(-2), with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage color coordinates (0.27, 0.39). The device based on such polymer showed much better electroluminescent stability than those based on blending films. These observations indicated that developing a single polymer with the generated exciplex emission can be a novel and effective molecular design strategy toward highly stable and efficient white polymer light-emitting diodes.

  20. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  1. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  2. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  3. Planar multijunction high voltage solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C.

    1980-01-01

    Technical considerations, preliminary results, and fabrication details are discussed for a family of high-voltage planar multi-junction (PMJ) solar cells which combine the attractive features of planar cells with conventional or interdigitated back contacts and the vertical multijunction (VMJ) solar cell. The PMJ solar cell is internally divided into many voltage-generating regions, called unit cells, which are internally connected in series. The key to obtaining reasonable performance from this device was the separation of top surface field regions over each active unit cell. Using existing solar cell fabricating methods, output voltages in excess of 20 volts per linear centimeter are possible. Analysis of the new device is complex, and numerous geometries are being studied which should provide substantial benefits in both normal sunlight usage as well as with concentrators.

  4. PECASE: Nanostructure Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials for Active Opto-Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    intergration and active device development: (1) the directed structuring of materials at the nanoscale through pattening and material growth methods, (2) the...electroluminescence (EL) that can be of use in fields as diverse as optical communications , spectroscopy, and environmental and industrial sensing. The RC structure...TFEL) devices already occupy a segment of the large-area, high-resolution, flat-panel-display market . The AC-TFEL displays, which consist of a

  5. Electroluminescence from nonpolar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diode on r-sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Jiangnan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Cheng; Long, Hanling; Liang, Renli; Zhao, Chong; Chen, Changqing; Tang, Zhiwu; Cheng, Hailing; He, Yunbin; Li, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Nonpolar a-plane n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been prepared on r-sapphire substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition and a pulsed laser deposition method. The dominant electroluminescence emission at 390 nm from the interband transition in n-ZnO layer under a forward bias was observed. Interestingly, electroluminescence with emission at 385 nm based on an avalanche mechanism was also achieved under reverse bias. The mechanisms of both the electroluminescence and I–V characteristics are discussed in detail by considering the avalanche effect. It is demonstrated that the crystalline quality of n-ZnO, not the p-AlGaN, is what affects the performance of the nonpolar ZnO based avalanche LED.

  6. The physical reason of intense electroluminescence in ITO-Si heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Oleksandr [Electronics Department, National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics (INAOE), P.O. 51 and 216, Puebla, 72000 (Mexico)], E-mail: amalik@inaoep.mx; Martinez, Arturo I.; Hidalga W, F.J. de la [Electronics Department, National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics (INAOE), P.O. 51 and 216, Puebla, 72000 (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Intense electroluminescence from a spray deposited heavily tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)-n type silicon (Si) heterojunctions, presenting the properties of an induced p-n junction, has been observed. The role of the degenerated n-type ITO film as a good supplier of holes to maintain an inversion layer formed at the silicon interface is discussed. However, the physical mechanism responsible for a significantly higher quantum efficiency of the radiation emission from such structures is not clear. The explanation of this phenomenon, based on the confinement of carriers at the interface due to multi-point contacts between the ITO film and the silicon, is discussed.

  7. Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer OLED using a new aluminium complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pabitra K Nayak; Neeraj Agarwal; Farman Ali; Meghan P Patankar; K L Narasimhan; N Periasamy

    2010-11-01

    Synthesis, structure, optical absorption, emission and electroluminescence properties of a new blue emitting Al complex, namely, bis-(2-amino-8-hydroxyquinolinato), acetylacetonato Al(III) are reported. Multilayer OLED using the Al complex showed blue emission at 465 nm, maximum brightness of ∼ 425 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiency of 0.16 cd/A. Another multilayer OLED using the Al complex doped with phosphorescent Ir complex showed `white’ light emission, CIE coordinate (0.41, 0.35), maximum brightness of ∼ 970 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiency of 0.53 cd/A.

  8. Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction light-emitting diode on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiao; Li, Hui; Huang, Ssu-Hsuan; Lin, Li-Chien; Cheng, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-04-01

    The electroluminescence from a Ge/GeSn/Ge p-i-n light-emitting diode on Si was investigated under different temperatures ranging from 25 to 150 K. The diode was operated at a low injection current density of 13 A/cm2. We obtained no-phonon- and phonon-assisted replicas in emission spectra. Also, the relationship between indirect bandgap energy and temperature was investigated. The temperature-dependent bandgap energy followed Varshni’s empirical expression with α = 4.884 × 10-4 eV/K and β = 130 K.

  9. Enhanced Electroluminescent Efficiency Based on Functionalized Europium Complexes in Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; WANG Lei; LI Chun; ZENG Wen-Jin; SHI Hua-Hong; CAO Yong

    2007-01-01

    Efficient red polymer light-emitting diodes are fabricated with the single active layer from the blends of poly (Nvinylcarbazole) (PVK) in the presence of 30wt.% electron-transporting compound 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(p-tertbutylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) and europium complexes. The polyphenylene functionalized europium complex shows an enhanced electroluminescent efficiency due to the large site-isolation effect. For the polyphenylene functionalized europium complex, the maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.90% and luminous efficiency of 2.01 cd A-1 are achieved with emission peak at 612nm. The maximum brightness is more than 300cd m-2.

  10. About the Nature of Electroluminescence Centers in Plastically Deformed Crystals of p-type Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Pavlyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research of dislocation electroluminescence of single crystal p-type silicon with a high concentration of dislocations on the surface (111. It is shown the reaction of the luminescence spectra and capacitive-modulation spectra of samples after high-temperature annealing in an atmosphere of flowing oxygen. The analysis of the results lets us to establish the nature of recombination centers and their reorganization under high-temperature annealing. It is shown that deposition of Al film on the substrate p-Si leads to the formation of strain capacity and the localization of defects in the surface layer that corresponds to luminescence centers.

  11. Electroluminescence in organic single-layer light-emitting diodes at high fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盛谊; 徐征; 王振家; 侯延冰; 徐叙; 张希清

    2001-01-01

    By considering the interaction between Fowler-Nordheim tunneling injection theory and charge carriers transporting through the bulk, an electroluminescence model for organic single-layer diodes is presented. The expressions of the recombination current density, recombination efficiency and conductivity of the diodes are provided, which elucidate the controlling role of the electric field on mobility and recombination zone. The equilibrium of two opposite charge carriers injection and the central position of recombination zone are two important preconditions for reducing the leakage current. Space-charge-limited current occurs only over a certain high bias, meanwhile, the quantity of injection carriers increases over the transport capacity of the bulk.

  12. Electroluminescence from Si/SiO2 films deposited on p-Si substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马书懿; 萧勇; 陈辉

    2002-01-01

    The structure of Au/Si/SiO2/p-Si has been fabricated using the magnetron sputtering technique. It has a verygood rectifying behaviour. Visible electroluminescence (EL) has been observed from the Au/Si/SiO2/p-Si structureat a forward bias of 5V or larger. A broad band with one peak around 650-660 nm appears in all the EL spectra ofthe structure. The effects of the thickness of the Si layer in the Si/SiO2 films and of the input electrical power on ELspectra are studied systematically.

  13. A Quantification of the Energy Savings by Conservation Voltage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Berry, A.; West, S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of `Smart grid' technologies in the electricity supply industry has attracted new attention to Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR). CVR is a method that aims to save energy by reducing the voltage level of the electrical distribution network. However, not all devices consume less e

  14. COTS Li-Ion Cells in High Voltage Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis; Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Cowles, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Testing at NASA JSC and COMDEV shows that Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Li Ion cells can not be used in high voltage batteries safely without considering the voltage stresses that may be put on the protective devices in them during failure modes.

  15. White-Light Electroluminescence with Tetraphenylethylene as Emitting Layer of Aggregation-Induced Emissions Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建芳; 王晓宏; 王筱梅; 苏文明; 陶绪堂; 陈志刚

    2012-01-01

    Tetraphenylethylene (TPE) based molecules with easy synthesis, good thermal stability, and especially their aggregation-induced emissions enhancement (AIEE) effect recently become attractive organic emitting materials due to their potentially practical application in OLEDs. Herein, the AIEE behaviors of tetraphenylethylene dyes (TMTPE and TBTPE) were investigated. Fabricated luminesent device using TMTPE dye as emitting layer displays two strong emitting bands: the blue emission coming from the first-step aggregation and the yellow emission attrib- uted to the second-step aggregation. Thus, it can be utilized to fabricate the white-light OLEDs (WOLEDs) of the single-emitting-component. A three-layer device with the brightness of 1200 cd·m^-2 and current efficiency of 0.78 cd·A^-1 emits the close to white light with the CIE coordinates of x=0.333 and y=0.358, when applied voltage from 8-13 V, verifying that the TPE-based dyes of AIEE effect can be effectively applied in single-emitting- component WOLEDs fabrication.

  16. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  17. Relationships between Harmonic Characteristics and Different Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusniati Yusniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about harmonic characteristics due to different types of voltage sources. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that receive voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to the load is not pure sinusoidal, for example voltage source at  (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. This research has been done with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and PM300 Power Quality Analyzer, was focused to all harmonic characteristics as power, voltage, current, power factor (p.f., Harmonic Distortion, and harmonic energy losses cost. The load is Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD because the Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD is one of electronic device causes harmonics. The voltage sources in this research are sine wave, square wave and harmonic order combinations of 3rd, 5th and 7th which can create from Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer.

  18. Relationships between Harmonic Characteristics and Different Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafruddin H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about harmonic characteristics due to different types of voltage sources. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that receive voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to the load is not pure sinusoidal, for example voltage source at  (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. This research has been done with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and PM300 Power Quality Analyzer, was focused to all harmonic characteristics as power, voltage, current, power factor (p.f., Harmonic Distortion, and harmonic energy losses cost. The load is Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD because the Induction Motor with Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD is one of electronic device causes harmonics. The voltage sources in this research are sine wave, square wave and harmonic order combinations of 3rd, 5th and 7th which can create from Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer.

  19. Wearable Triboelectric Generator for Powering the Portable Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nuanyang; Liu, Jinmei; Gu, Long; Bai, Suo; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-08-26

    A cloth-base wearable triboelectric nanogenerator made of nylon and Dacron fabric was fabricated for harvesting body motion energy. Through the friction between forearm and human body, the generator can turn the mechanical energy of an arm swing into electric energy and power an electroluminescent tubelike lamp easily. The maximum output current and voltage of the generator reach up to 0.2 mA and 2 kV. Furthermore, this generator can be easily folded, kneaded, and cleaned like a common garment.

  20. The dependence of the polycrystalline structure and electroluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn deposited on Y 2O 3 films on thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Hatanaka, Y.; Shimaoka, G.

    1991-06-01

    The dependence of polycrystalline structure and electroluminescent (EL) properties of ZnS:Mn on the thickness of ZnS:Mn thin films deposited on Y 2O 3 films at 200°C by electron-beam evaporation has been investigated. RHEED experiments showed that the Y 2O 3 film deposited on a transparent electrode at 200°C had a fiber structure with [100] orientation. It was found from RHEED observation that ZnS:Mn films with thickness below about 500Ådeposited over the Y 2O 3 film had a zincblende structure which changed to a fiber structure with [111] orientation as the film thickness increased. The brightness and the efficiency of ZnS:Mn thin film EL devices with a thickness below about 1000Åwere lower than those of EL devices with a thickness above 1000Å. These effects are attributed to a very poor crystallinity in the transition region from [100] to [111] orientation during the early stages of growth.

  1. Crystal micromorphologies and forming voltage effect on resistance switching behaviors in Ti/Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Pt devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuchen; Song, Liwei; Hua, Lifang; Cai, Wenhui; Chen, Wei [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhao, Xu, E-mail: xzhao@hebtu.edu.cn [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Two Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (PSCMO)-based devices (Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt and Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt) have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and the micromorphology of the films can be controlled through the different deposition condition. PSCMO-1 film with a smaller grain size grows with a near-random arrangement, whereas columnar grains with a larger grain size appear in the Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt device. The I–V curves in Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt device show the higher resistance ratio and larger hysteresis than that in the Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt device without forming process. The electron transport property in the PSCMO-2 film shows the higher resistance and metal behavior in room temperature. By fitting the I–V curves, we found that the conduction process in Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt device is dominated by Schottky barrier mechanism, but the conduction behavior in Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt device are dominated by trap-charged space-charge-limited current (SCLC) mechanism. Interesting, after a forming process, the Ti/PSCMO-1/Pt device also displays the higher resistance ratio and larger hysteresis, which can be explained by SCLC mechanism. Our results suggest that the crystal micromorphology and grain size may play a critical role in oxygen vacancy movement, and result in the transformation of resistance switching along with a higher resistance ratio and larger hysteresis in the Ti/PSCMO-2/Pt device. - Highlights: • Two different Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}-based devices have been prepared. • The device with larger grain and columnar arrangement shows higher resistance ratio. • Crystal morphologies and grain size play critical role in oxygen vacancy movement.

  2. High-voltage breakdown studies on Si microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Albergo, S; Azzi, P; Babucci, E; Bacchetta, N; Bader, A J; Bagliesi, G; Basti, A; Biggeri, U; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Boemi, D; Bosi, F; Borrello, L; Bozzi, C; Braibant, S; Breuker, Horst; Bruzzi, Mara; Buffini, A; Busoni, S; Calefato, G; Candelori, A; Caner, A; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Catacchini, E; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Da Rold, M; Demaria, N; De Palma, M; Dell'Orso, R; Marina, R D; Dutta, S; Eklund, C; Peisert, Anna; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; French, M; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fürtjes, A; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Giraldo, A; Glessing, B; Gu, W H; Hall, G; Hammarström, R; Hebbeker, T; Hrubec, Josef; Muhtinen, M; Kaminski, A; Karimäki, V; Saint-Koenig, M; Krammer, Manfred; Lariccia, P; Lenzi, M; Loreti, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Mättig, P; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Mantovani, G C; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Martignon, G; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; Messineo, A; My, S; Paccagnella, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Pandoulas, D; Papi, A; Parrini, G; Passeri, D; Pieri, M; Piperov, S; Potenza, R; Radicci, V; Raffaelli, F; Raymond, M; Santocchia, A; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Servoli, L; Sguazzoni, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Starodumov, Andrei; Stavitski, I; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tonelli, G; Tricomi, A; Tuuva, T; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Viertel, Gert M; Zie, Z; Li Ya Hong; Watts, S; Wittmer, B

    1999-01-01

    The breakdown performance of CMS barrel module prototype detectors and test devices with single and multi-guard structures were studied before and after neutron irradiation up to 2-10/sup 14/ 1 MeV equivalent neutrons. Before irradiation avalanche breakdown occurred at the guard ring implant edges. We measured 100-300 V higher breakdown voltage values for the devices with multi-guard than for devices with single-guard ring, After irradiation and type inversion the breakdown was smoother than before irradiation and the breakdown voltage value increased to 500-600 V for most of the devices. (9 refs).

  3. Proportional electroluminescence in two-phase argon and its relevance to rare-event experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Nosov, V; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

    2015-01-01

    Proportional electroluminescence (EL) in gaseous Ar has for the first time been systematically studied in the two-phase mode, at 87 K and 1.00 atm. Liquid Ar had a minor (56 ppm) admixture of N2, which allowed to understand, inter alia, the effect of N2 doping on the EL mechanism in rare-event experiments using two-phase Ar detectors. The measurements were performed in a two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) with EL gap located directly above the liquid-gas interface. The EL gap was optically read out in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV), near 128 nm (Ar excimer emission), and in the near Ultraviolet (UV), at 300-450 nm (N2 Second Positive System emission), via cryogenic PMTs and a Geiger-mode APD (GAPD). Proportional electroluminescence was measured to have an amplification parameter of 109+-10 photons per drifting electron per kV overall in the VUV and UV, of which 51+-6% were emitted in the UV. The measured EL threshold, at an electric field of 3.7+-0.2 kV/cm, was in accordance with that predicted by th...

  4. Enhanced electroluminescence of organic light-emitting diodes by using halloysite nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragón, Margarita, E-mail: mmondragon@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIME Azcapotzalco, Av. de las Granjas 682, 02250 México D.F. (Mexico); Moggio, Ivana; León, Arxel de; Arias, Eduardo [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, CIQA, Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    The effect of halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) on the optical and electronic properties of poly(2-methoxy-5-[2′-ethylhexyloxy]-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) have been investigated. The UV–vis absorption band of the conjugated polymer remains unchanged upon the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal a decreased quantum yield in the MEH-PPV/HNTs nanocomposites, compared with bulk MEH-PPV. Improvement of the electroluminescence of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was achieved by incorporating high contents of HNTs. The nanotubes act to enhanced polymer aggregates, as revealed by AFM analysis, thus increasing charge transport and therefore electroluminescence but also decreasing PL quantum yield. -- Highlights: • Thin films of nanocomposites of MEH-PPV/HNTs were prepared by spin coating. • Quantum yield in the nanocomposites was decreased compared with bulk MEH-PPV. • Improvement of the EL of OLEDs was achieved by incorporating high contents of HNTs. • The HNTs act to enhanced polymer aggregates, as revealed by AFM.

  5. Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Yakunin, Sergii; Rice, Peter; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingchao; Nedelcu, Georgian; Kim, Yeongin; Lin, Shangchao; Santos, Elton J G; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Shih, Chih-Jen

    2016-10-03

    Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, due to a small exciton binding energy, it is not yet possible to achieve an efficient electroluminescence within the blue wavelength region at room temperature, as is necessary for full-spectrum light sources. Here, we demonstrate efficient blue LEDs based on the colloidal, quantum-confined 2D perovskites, with precisely controlled stacking down to one-unit-cell thickness (n = 1). A variety of low-k organic host compounds are used to disperse the 2D perovskites, effectively creating a matrix of the dielectric quantum wells, which significantly boosts the exciton binding energy by the dielectric confinement effect. Through the Förster resonance energy transfer, the excitons down-convert and recombine radiatively in the 2D perovskites. We report room-temperature pure green (n = 7-10), sky blue (n = 5), pure blue (n = 3), and deep blue (n = 1) electroluminescence, with record-high external quantum efficiencies in the green-to-blue wavelength region.

  6. A Successive Scans Method of Adjusting Scan-Time for Injection Electroluminescent Display Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Peng; YANG Gang; JIANG Quan; WANG Jun; HU Jian-Hua; WU Qi-Peng; LUO Kai-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for injection electroluminescent display panels, we present a new scan method for display panels according to successive scans theory.First, on the basis of the number of pixels requiring light emitting in one frame period, we adjust the scan time for each row.Secondly, for ensuring image transmission synchronization, the frame period must to be a constant.We adopt a 64 × 32 LED display panel as an example to expound the new scan method and we obtain the good result that the reduce amplitude of luminance non-uniformity is 31.34% and the increase amplitude of the average luminance value is 7.8258%.%Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for injection electroluminescent display panels,we present a new scan method for display panets according to successive scans theory.First,on the basis of the number of pixels requiring light emitting in one frame period,we adjust the scan time for each row.Secondly,for ensuring image transmission synchronization,the frame period must to be a constant.We adopt a 64×32 LED display panel as an example to expound the new scan method and we odtain the good result that the reduce amplitude of luminance non-uniformity is 31.34% and the increase amplitude of the average luminance value is 7.8258%.

  7. A coke preparedness monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazanov, V.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Chepurnykh, S.F.; Dobromobov, Yu.I.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Pinchuk, S.I.; Shifrin, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A coke preparedness monitoring device for a door extractor contains sounding electrodes, a stabilized voltage source and a meter to record the electrical resistance of the coke. In order to provide monitoring capacity of the preparedness of the coke in the flow and to increase measuring accuracy the device contains sounding electrodes in the coke-treating door extractor; these are connected together with the recorder via an additional stabilized power supply to a stabilized voltage source.

  8. System for instrumenting and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    A system for energizing, operating and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage systems. The system uses a dielectric gas such as SF.sub.6 as a driving power supply for a pneumatic motor which ultimately charges a battery or other energy storage device. The stored energy can then be used for instrumentation equipment, or to power any electrical equipment, in the high voltage deck. The accompanying method provides for the use of the SF6 system for operating an electrical device in a high-voltage environment.

  9. High Voltage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar

    2010-11-01

    For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.

  10. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  11. Design Analysis of a Novel Low Triggering Voltage Dual Direction SCR ESD Device in 0. 18μm Mixed Mode RFCMOS Technology%0.18μm混合信号RFCMOS工艺中新型低触发电压双向SCR静电防护器件的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱科翰; 于宗光; 董树荣; 韩雁

    2008-01-01

    A novel SCR on-chip ESD device is proposed to protect IC chips against ESD stressing in two opposite directions. The triggering voltages of four types of dual direction SCRs (DDSCR) are compared and analyzed, pMOS or nMOS are embedded into the structures to adjust their triggering voltages. Both MOSFETs embedded DDSCRs have tunable triggering voltage,low DC leakage (~pA), and fast turn on speed snapback Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics without latch-up problem. It achieves high ESD performance of ~94V/μm. The new ESD protection devices are area efficient and can reduce the para sitic effects significantly.%提出了一类新型片上SCR静电放电防护器件,此类器件用于保护芯片双向抗击静电应力.比较和分析了四种双向SCR器件的触发电压.其中采用嵌入pMOS管或nMOS管的双向SCR器件结构具有可调触发电压,低漏电流(~pA)和开启速度快的骤回Ⅰ-Ⅴ特性,并且没有闭锁问题.该器件的抗ESD能力可达~94V/μm.此类新型ESD防护器件具有面积小、寄生效应小的特点.

  12. Studies on the microstructure, optical and electrical properties of organic microcavity devices based on a porous silicon reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zuhong; FAN Yongliang; ZHAN Yiqiang; ZHANG Songtao; DING Xunmin; HOU Xiaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    A novel type of microcavity organic light-emitting diode based on a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector (PS-DBR) has first been achieved and its microstructure, optical, and electrical properties have also been investigated in detail. The microcavity is made up of the central active organic multilayer sandwiched between a top silver film and a bottom PS-DBR, formed by electrochemical etching of p++-Si substrate. The field- emission scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show the nanometer-scale layered structure and flat interfaces inside the microcavity. The reflectivity (relative to an Al mirror) of the PS-DBR is up to 99%, and the stopband is about 160 nm wide. Resonant cavity mode appears as a tip in the reflectivity spectrum of the Si-based organic multilayer films, which is a symbol that the Si-based organic multilayer structure is indeed a microcavity. The peak widths of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra from the cavities emitting green and red light are greatly reduced from 85 nm and 70 nm to 8 nm and 12 nm, respectively, as compared with those measured from non-cavity structures. Note that the EL emission from the cavity devices is single-mode, and the off-resonant optical modes are highly suppressed. Moreover, increases of a factor of about 6 and 4 of the resonant peak intensity from the cavities emitting green and red light are also observed, respectively. In addition, the current-brightness-voltage characteristics and effect parameters on the lifetime of the cavity devices are also discussed. The present technique for obtaining enhanced EL emission from Si-based organic microcavity may also be another novel effective method for realizing Si-based optoelectronics device integration.

  13. Analysis and Mathematical Model for Restitution of Voltage Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sag and swell have a major concern in the distribution systems. In order to mitigate the voltage sag and swell, a custom power device called dynamic voltage restorer (DVR is used. The proposed system is a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell based DVR. The energy from the fuel cell is stored in the super capacitor to restitute the voltage. In this proposed DVR, Z-source inverter is used instead of traditional inverter because of buck-boost and shoot through capability. The simulation is performed using three controller topologies: PI controller, synchronous reference frame controller and fuzzy controller and the results are verified using Matlab-Simulink environment.

  14. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  15. Challenges for High Voltage Testing of UHV Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernst Gockenbach

    2011-01-01

    The increase of voltage level for AC and DC transmission systems requires some changes in the high voltage testing for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) equipment. After a short description of the coordination work in the standard- ization bodies the requirements for UHV equipment are mentioned. The main points concerning high voltage testing of UHV equipment are the impulse shape of standard lightning impulse voltage, the evaluation of the test voltage for impulses with oscillations or overshoot near the peak and the time parameter of switching impulses. The linearity check of the measuring devices, the proximity effect, the wet tests and the atmospheric correction factors are further points to be discussed concerning testing of UHV equipment.

  16. Floating substrate luminescence from silicon rich oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Sánchez, A., E-mail: alfredo.morales@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Unidad Monterrey-PIIT, 66600 Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Domínguez, C. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC). 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Barreto, J. [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Aceves-Mijares, M. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Licea-Jiménez, L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Unidad Monterrey-PIIT, 66600 Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Luna-López, J.A.; Carrillo, J. [CIDS-ICUAP. Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    The electro-optical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with embedded Si nanoparticles in silicon-rich (4 at.%) oxide films have been studied. Devices show intense visible continuous luminescence not only in the regular metal-oxide-semiconductor configuration, but when biased via surface electrodes (floating substrate) separated 10 μm. Electroluminescence manifests as extremely bright randomly scattered discrete spots on the gate area or the periphery of the devices depending on the bias direction. The mechanism responsible for the surface-electroluminescence has been related to the recombination of electron–hole pairs injected through enhanced current paths within the silicon-rich oxide film. - Highlights: ► Silicon rich oxide (SRO) based metal-oxide-semiconductor like luminescent devices. ► Electroluminescence (EL) in floating-substrate, horizontal electrodes configuration. ► EL is observed as multiple shining spots with surface electrodes. ► Preferential current paths established in the SRO between several electrodes.

  17. Observation of Photovoltaic Effects in Bright Red Organic Electroluminescent Diodes Doped with Red Dopant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Han-Zhi; Li Wen-Lian; WANG Dong-Yue; CHU Bei; Li Ming-Tao; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; HU Zhi-Zhi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Photovoltaic (PV) effects for red bright organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which the red light emitted from the dopant 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6- (1,1,7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) have been observed. The OLEDs show organic photovoltaic properties. At the optimum doping concentration, the main eletroluminescence parameters including the maximum brightness and the maximum luminous efficiency under current density of 20mA/cm2 are 3280cd/m2 and 1.54cd/A, respectively. When irradiated by a 365-nm UVlight (4 mW/cm2), the device exhibits the PV parameters of the open-circuit voltage 1.4 V, short-circuit current 2.9 μA/cm2, fill factor 0.22, and power conversion efficiency 0.022%. Effects of every organic layer, especially the doped DCJTB on the PV performance, are also discussed. It is expected that the research for the PV property of the small molecular doping OLEDs will be of benefit for flat panel display technology in the future.

  18. Room temperature direct-bandgap electroluminescence from a horizontal Ge ridge waveguide on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Liu, Zhi; Cheng, Bu-Wen

    2016-12-01

    We report a lateral Ge-on-Si ridge waveguide light emitting diode (LED) grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD). Direct-bandgap electroluminescence (EL) of Ge waveguide under continuous current is observed at room temperature. The heat-enhancing luminescence and thermal radiation-induced superlinear increase of edge output optical power are found. The spontaneous emission and thermal radiation based on the generalized Planck radiation law are calculated and fit very well to the experimental results. The Ge waveguides with different lengths are studied and the shorter one shows stronger EL intensity. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176013 and 61036003), and the Science Fund from Beijing Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. Z151100003315019).

  19. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J;

    2013-01-01

    we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile......In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers--injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons--should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here...... are shown to agree well with experiment. The experimental emission profile was obtained with nanometre resolution from the measured angle- and polarization-dependent emission spectra. The simulations elucidate the crucial role of exciton transfer from green to red and the efficiency loss due to excitons...

  20. A Noble Gas Detector with Electroluminescence Readout based on an Array of APDs

    CERN Document Server

    Bourguille, B; Gil-Botella, I; Lux, T; Palomares, C; Sanchez, F; Santorelli, R

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the operation of an array of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for the readout of an electroluminescence detector. The detector contains 24 APDs with a pitch of 15 mm between them allowing energy and position measurements simultaneously. Measurements were performed in xenon (3.8 bar) and argon (4.8 bar) showing a good energy resolution of 5.3% FWHM at 60 keV in xenon and 9.4% in argon respectively. In X-ray energies of 13 could be clearly separated from the pedestals indicating that this kind of technology might be also interesting for dark matter detectors. Following Monte Carlo studies the performance could be improved significantly by reducing the pitch between the sensors.