WorldWideScience

Sample records for voltage clamp formulation

  1. Voltage Balancing Control of Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞCHIOP Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is developed a control scheme for mono-phase diode clamped inverter to achieve balancing voltages on inverter capacitors. First, it develops a control scheme without taking into account the need to balance voltage on two capacitors. It examines the effects on the output voltage inverter, and then it realizes two control schemes that will balance the voltages. The simulations of control schemes were performed in OrCAD Pspice.

  2. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.

    1981-01-01

    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  3. Investigating ion channel conformational changes using voltage clamp fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Sahil; Lynch, Joseph W

    2015-11-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins whose functions are governed by conformational changes. The widespread distribution of ion channels, coupled with their involvement in most physiological and pathological processes and their importance as therapeutic targets, renders the elucidation of these conformational mechanisms highly compelling from a drug discovery perspective. Thanks to recent advances in structural biology techniques, we now have high-resolution static molecular structures for members of the major ion channel families. However, major questions remain to be resolved about the conformational states that ion channels adopt during activation, drug modulation and desensitization. Patch-clamp electrophysiology has long been used to define ion channel conformational states based on functional criteria. It achieves this by monitoring conformational changes at the channel gate and cannot detect conformational changes occurring in regions distant from the gate. Voltage clamp fluorometry involves labelling cysteines introduced into domains of interest with environmentally sensitive fluorophores and inferring structural rearrangements from voltage or ligand-induced fluorescence changes. Ion channel currents are monitored simultaneously to verify the conformational status. By defining real time conformational changes in domains distant from the gate, this technique provides unexpected new insights into ion channel structure and function. This review aims to summarise the methodology and highlight recent innovative applications of this powerful technique. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of active electrode compensation to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with sharp microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, J F; Destexhe, A; Bal, T

    2014-10-01

    Electrophysiological recordings of single neurons in brain tissues are very common in neuroscience. Glass microelectrodes filled with an electrolyte are used to impale the cell membrane in order to record the membrane potential or to inject current. Their high resistance induces a high voltage drop when passing current and it is essential to correct the voltage measurements. In particular, for voltage clamping, the traditional alternatives are two-electrode voltage-clamp technique or discontinuous single electrode voltage-clamp (dSEVC). Nevertheless, it is generally difficult to impale two electrodes in a same neuron and the switching frequency is limited to low frequencies in the case of dSEVC. We present a novel fully computer-implemented alternative to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with a single sharp-electrode. To reach such voltage-clamp recordings, we combine an active electrode compensation algorithm (AEC) with a digital controller (AECVC). We applied two types of control-systems: a linear controller (proportional plus integrative controller) and a model-based controller (optimal control). We compared the performance of the two methods to dSEVC using a dynamic model cell and experiments in brain slices. The AECVC method provides an entirely digital method to perform continuous recording and smooth switching between voltage-clamp, current clamp or dynamic-clamp configurations without introducing artifacts.

  5. Common voltage eliminating of SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of common voltage eliminating is put forward for SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid by calculation of common voltage of its various switching states. PLECS is used to model this three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First...... analysis of common mode voltage for switching states of diode clamping 3-level inverter is given in detail. Second the common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter. Third, PLECS is briefly introduced. Fourth, the modeling of diode clamping...... three-level inverter is presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS is a very powerful tool to real power circuits modeling. They have also verified that proposed common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is feasible...

  6. Suppression of Spiral Waves by Voltage Clamp Techniques in a Conductance-Based Cardiac Tissue Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian-Chun, Yu; Guo-Yong, Zhang; Yong, Chen; Jun, Ma

    2008-01-01

    A new control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media, which is described by the Morris–Lecar cells model. It is confirmed that successful suppression of spiral waves can be obtained by spatially clamping the membrane voltage of the excitable cells. The low voltage clamping induces breakup of spiral waves and the fragments are soon absorbed by low voltage obstacles, whereas the high voltage clamping generates travel waves that annihilate spiral waves through collision with them. However, each method has its shortcomings. Furthermore, a two-step method that combines both low and high voltage clamp techniques is then presented as a possible way of out this predicament. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Philip T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  8. Artifactual voltage response recorded from hair cells with patch-clamp amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, S; Weng, T; Valli, P; Correia, M J

    1999-06-23

    Patch-clamp amplifiers (PCAs) are commonly used to characterize voltage- and current-clamp responses in the same cell. However, the cell membrane voltage response can be severely distorted by PCAs working in the current-clamp mode. Here we compare the voltage response of pigeon semicircular canal hair cells in situ, recorded with two different PCAs, and with a classic microelectrode bridge amplifier (BA). We found that the voltage response of hair cells recorded with PCAs differed significantly from that recorded with the BA. The true hair cell membrane voltage response to positive current steps was characterized by a strongly damped oscillation, whose frequency and duration depended on hair cell location in the sensory crista ampullaris.

  9. Limitations of the dual voltage clamp method in assaying conductance and kinetics of gap junction channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilders, R.; Jongsma, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical properties of gap junctions in cell pairs are usually studied by means of the dual voltage clamp method. The voltage across the junctional channels, however, cannot be controlled adequately due to an artificial resistance and a natural resistance, both connected in series with the gap

  10. Clamped end conditions and cross section deformation in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Bassam A.; Weed, David; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    In the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF), the elimination of the relative translations and rotations at a point does not necessarily define a fully clamped joint, particularly in the case of fully parameterized ANCF finite elements that allow for the deformation of the cross section. In this investigation, the formulations and results of two different sets of clamped end conditions that define two different joints are compared. The first joint, called the partially clamped joint, eliminates only the translations and rotations at a point on the cross section. The second joint, called the fully clamped joint, eliminates all the translation, rotation and deformation degrees of freedom at a point on the cross section. The kinematic equations that define the partially and fully clamped joints are developed, and the dynamic equations used in the comparative numerical study presented in this paper are shown. As discussed in this investigation, the fully clamped joint does not allow for the deformation of the cross section at the joint node since the gradient vectors remain orthogonal unit vectors. The partially clamped joint, on the other hand, allows for the deformation of the cross section. Nanson's formula is used as a measure of the deformation of the cross section in the case of the partially clamped joint. A very flexible pendulum that has a rigid body attached to its free end is used to compare the results of the partially and fully clamped joints. The numerical results obtained using this very flexible pendulum example show that, while the type of joint (partially or fully clamped) does not significantly affect the gross reference motion of the system, there are fundamental differences between the two joints since the partially clamped joint allows for the cross section deformations at the joint node

  11. Limitations of the dual voltage clamp method in assaying conductance and kinetics of gap junction channels

    OpenAIRE

    Wilders, R.; Jongsma, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical properties of gap junctions in cell pairs are usually studied by means of the dual voltage clamp method. The voltage across the junctional channels, however, cannot be controlled adequately due to an artificial resistance and a natural resistance, both connected in series with the gap junction. The access resistances to the cell interior of the recording pipettes make up the artificial resistance. The natural resistance consists of the cytoplasmic access resistances to the tigh...

  12. Quantitative analysis of dual whole-cell voltage-clamp determination of gap junctional conductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijen, H. V.; Wilders, R.; van Ginneken, A. C.; Jongsma, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    The dual whole-cell voltage-clamp technique is used widely for determination of kinetics and conductance of gap junctions. The use of this technique may, however, occasion to considerable errors. We have analysed the errors in steady state junctional conductance measurements under different

  13. Simple hardware implementation of voltage balancing in capacitor-clamped inverter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokeš, Petr; Semerád, Radko

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2009), s. 325-341 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : capacitor -clamped multilevel inverter * flying capacitor voltage balancing * pulse width modulation (PWM) Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. The Anion Paradox in Sodium Taste Reception: Resolution by Voltage-Clamp Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Heck, Gerard L.; Desimone, John A.

    1991-11-01

    Sodium salts are potent taste stimuli, but their effectiveness is markedly dependent on the anion, with chloride yielding the greatest response. The cellular mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are not known. This "anion paradox" has been resolved by considering the field potential that is generated by restricted electrodiffusion of the anion through paracellular shunts between taste-bud cells. Neural responses to sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium gluconate were studied while the field potential was voltage-clamped. Clamping at electronegative values eliminated the anion effect, whereas clamping at electropositive potentials exaggerated it. Thus, field potentials across the lingual epithelium modulate taste reception, indicating that the functional unit of taste reception includes the taste cell and its paracellular microenvironment.

  15. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify the design, increase...... efficiency, reduce the product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented....

  16. A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiarong

    2017-04-01

    A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).

  17. Five-Level Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped DC/DC Converter for Medium-Voltage DC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a five-level active-neutralpoint- clamped (5L-ANPC) dc/dc converter for applications in medium voltage dc (MVDC) grids. A modulation strategy is proposed for the 5L-ANPC dc/dc converter to generate multilevel voltage waveforms, which can effectively reduce voltage change rate dv...... effectively eliminate high voltage leaps caused by the dead time effect. In addition, a capacitor voltage control strategy is proposed for the 5L-ANPC dc/dc converter to ensure the balanced flying capacitor voltage and desired five-level voltage waveforms. Finally, simulation and experimental studies...

  18. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify design, increase efficiency and integration level, reduce product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented. (au)

  19. Excitation contraction uncoupling by high intracellular [Ca2+] in frog skeletal muscle: a voltage clamp study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, J Fernando; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2016-10-01

    Raising the intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ) was previously found to produce uncoupling between the electrical depolarization of the transverse tubules and contraction in skinned muscle fibers. Here we study the effect of elevated [Ca 2+ ] i in voltage clamped cut fibers of frog skeletal muscle to establish how the charge movement, a measure of the activation of the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR)-voltage sensors, and Ca 2+ release, a consequence of the opening of the ryanodine receptor (RyR)-release channels, were affected. [Ca 2+ ] i was raised by various procedures (pharmacological release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, application of high [Ca 2+ ] i intracellular solution, permeabilization of the plasma membrane by a Ca 2+ ionophore) all of which produced impairment of excitation-contraction coupling. The charge movement was reduced from 20.2 ± 1.24 to 9.9 ± 0.94 nC/μF meanwhile the Ca 2+ release flux was reduced from 13.5 + 0.7 to 2.2 ± 0.3 μM/ms (n = 33). This suggests that a significant fraction of the DHPRs that remained functional, could not activate RyRs, and were therefore presumably disconnected. These results are broadly consistent with the original reports in skinned fibers. Uncoupling was prevented by the addition to the intracellular solution of the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In approximately 40 % of the uncoupled cells we observed that the [Ca 2+ ] i transient continued to rise after the voltage clamp pulse was turned off. This loss of control by membrane voltage suggests that the uncoupled release channels might have another mechanism of activation, likely by Ca 2+ .

  20. Equivalent circuit of frog atrial tissue as determined by voltage clamp-unclamp experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, M; Trank, J

    1971-11-01

    The equivalent circuit that has been used in the analysis of nerve voltage-clamp data is that of the membrane capacity in parallel with the membrane resistance. Voltage-clamp experiments on frog atrial tissue indicate that this circuit will not suffice for this cardiac tissue. The change in membrane current associated with a step change in membrane potential does not show a rapid spike of capacitive current as would be expected for the simple parallel resistance-capacitance network. Rather, there is a step change in current followed by an exponential decay in current with a time constant of about 1 msec. This relatively slow capacitive charging current suggests that there is a resistance in series with the membrane capacity. A possible equivalent circuit is that of a series resistance external to the parallel resistance-capacitance network of the cell membranes. Another possible circuit assumes that the series resistance is an integral part of the cell membrane. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the equivalent circuit of a bundle of frog atrial muscle is that of an external resistance in series with the cell membranes.

  1. Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schneider, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C)1 coupling is a process composed of multiple sequential stages, by which an action potential triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)2 Ca2+ release and subsequent contractile activation. The various steps in the E-C coupling process in skeletal muscle can be studied using different techniques. The simultaneous recordings of sarcolemmal electrical signals and the accompanying elevation in myoplasmic Ca2+, due to depolarization-initiated SR Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibres, have been useful to obtain a better understanding of muscle function. In studying the origin and mechanism of voltage dependency of E-C coupling a variety of different techniques have been used to control the voltage in adult skeletal fibres. Pioneering work in muscles isolated from amphibians or crustaceans used microelectrodes or ‘high resistance gap’ techniques to manipulate the voltage in the muscle fibres. The development of the patch clamp technique and its variant, the whole-cell clamp configuration that facilitates the manipulation of the intracellular environment, allowed the use of the voltage clamp techniques in different cell types, including skeletal muscle fibres. The aim of this article is to present an historical perspective of the voltage clamp methods used to study skeletal muscle E-C coupling as well as to describe the current status of using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in studies in which the electrical and Ca2+ signalling properties of mouse skeletal muscle membranes are being investigated. PMID:22306655

  2. Contamination of current-clamp measurement of neuron capacitance by voltage-dependent phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring neuron capacitance is important for morphological description, conductance characterization, and neuron modeling. One method to estimate capacitance is to inject current pulses into a neuron and fit the resulting changes in membrane potential with multiple exponentials; if the neuron is purely passive, the amplitude and time constant of the slowest exponential give neuron capacitance (Major G, Evans JD, Jack JJ. Biophys J 65: 423–449, 1993). Golowasch et al. (Golowasch J, Thomas G, Taylor AL, Patel A, Pineda A, Khalil C, Nadim F. J Neurophysiol 102: 2161–2175, 2009) have shown that this is the best method for measuring the capacitance of nonisopotential (i.e., most) neurons. However, prior work has not tested for, or examined how much error would be introduced by, slow voltage-dependent phenomena possibly present at the membrane potentials typically used in such work. We investigated this issue in lobster (Panulirus interruptus) stomatogastric neurons by performing current clamp-based capacitance measurements at multiple membrane potentials. A slow, voltage-dependent phenomenon consistent with residual voltage-dependent conductances was present at all tested membrane potentials (−95 to −35 mV). This phenomenon was the slowest component of the neuron's voltage response, and failure to recognize and exclude it would lead to capacitance overestimates of several hundredfold. Most methods of estimating capacitance depend on the absence of voltage-dependent phenomena. Our demonstration that such phenomena make nonnegligible contributions to neuron responses even at well-hyperpolarized membrane potentials highlights the critical importance of checking for such phenomena in all work measuring neuron capacitance. We show here how to identify such phenomena and minimize their contaminating influence. PMID:23576698

  3. Dual patch voltage clamp study of low membrane resistance astrocytes in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baofeng; Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Enyeart, John J; Zhou, Min

    2014-03-17

    Whole-cell patch clamp recording has been successfully used in identifying the voltage-dependent gating and conductance properties of ion channels in a variety of cells. However, this powerful technique is of limited value in studying low membrane resistance cells, such as astrocytes in situ, because of the inability to control or accurately measure the real amplitude of command voltages. To facilitate the study of ionic conductances of astrocytes, we have developed a dual patch recording method which permits membrane current and membrane potential to be simultaneously recorded from astrocytes in spite of their extraordinarily low membrane resistance. The utility of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the voltage-dependent activation of the inwardly rectifying K+ current abundantly expressed in astrocytes and multiple ionic events associated with astrocytic GABAA receptor activation. This protocol can be performed routinely in the study of astrocytes. This method will be valuable for identifying and characterizing the individual ion channels that orchestrate the electrical activity of low membrane resistance cells.

  4. Molecular motions that shape the cardiac action potential: Insights from voltage clamp fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wandi; Varga, Zoltan; Silva, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF) protocols have been developed to observe the membrane proteins responsible for carrying the ventricular ionic currents that form the action potential (AP), including those carried by the cardiac Na(+) channel, NaV1.5, the L-type Ca(2+) channel, CaV1.2, the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and the rapid and slow components of the delayed rectifier, KV11.1 and KV7.1. This development is significant, because VCF enables simultaneous observation of ionic current kinetics with conformational changes occurring within specific channel domains. The ability gained from VCF, to connect nanoscale molecular movement to ion channel function has revealed how the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) control ion flux through channel pores, mechanisms of post-translational regulation and the molecular pathology of inherited mutations. In the future, we expect that this data will be of great use for the creation of multi-scale computational AP models that explicitly represent ion channel conformations, connecting molecular, cell and tissue electrophysiology. Here, we review the VCF protocol, recent results, and discuss potential future developments, including potential use of these experimental findings to create novel computational models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  6. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class

  7. New Modulation Strategy to Balance the Neutral-Point Voltage for Three-Level Neutral-Clamped Inverter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new modulation strategy that balances the neutral-point voltage for three-level neutral-clamped inverter systems. The proposed modulation replaces the P-type or N-type small switching states with other switching states that do not affect the neutral-point voltage. The zero...... and medium switching states are employed to help the neutral-point voltage balancing. This method little bit increases the switching events and output total harmonic distortion. However, this method has a strong balancing ability at all regions. Further, it is very simple to implement in both space vector...

  8. Isolated PWM DC-AC SICAM with an active capacitive voltage clamp[Pulse Density Modulated; Pulse Width Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2004-03-15

    In this report an isolated PWM DC-AC SICAM with an active capacitive voltage clamp is presented. AC-DC power supply is implemented in its simplest form: diode rectifier followed by a medium-size charge-storage capacitors and possibly with an EMC filter on the mains entrance. Isolation from the AC mains is achieved using a high frequency (HF) transformer, whose voltages are not audio-modulated. The latter simplifies the design and is expected to have many advantages over the approach where the transformer voltages are modulated in regards to the audio signal reference. Input stage is built as a DC-AC inverter (push-pull, half-bridge or a full-bridge) and operated with 50% duty cycle, with all the challenges to avoid transformer saturation and obtain symmetrical operation. On the secondary side the output section is implemented as rectifier+inverter AC-AC stage, i.e. a true bidirectional bridge, which operation is aimed towards amplification of the audio signal. In order to solve the problem with the commutation of the load current, a dead time between the incoming and outgoing bidirectional switch is implemented, while a capacitive voltage clamp is used to keep the induced overvoltage to reasonable levels. The energy stored in the clamping capacitor is not wasted as in the dissipative clamps, but is rather transferred back to the primary side for further processing using an auxiliary isolated single-switch converter, i.e. an active clamping technique is used. (au)

  9. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Ali, Rashid Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  10. Characterization of heterologously expressed transporter genes by patch- and voltage-clamp methods: Application to cyclic nucleotide-dependent responses

    KAUST Repository

    Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad

    2013-09-03

    The application of patch- and voltage-clamp methods to study ion transport can be limited by many hurdles: the size of the cells to be patched and/or stabbed, the subcellular localization of the molecule of interest, and its density of expression that could be too low even in their own native environment. Functional expression of genes using recombinant DNA technology not only overcomes those hurdles but also affords additional and elegant investigations such as single-point mutation studies and subunit associations/regulations. In this chapter, we give a step-by-step description of two electrophysiological methods, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC), that are routinely used in combination with heterologous gene expression to assist researchers interested in the identification and characterization of ion transporters. We describe how to (1) obtain and maintain the cells suitable for the use with each of the above-mentioned methods (i.e., HEK-293 cells and yeast spheroplasts to use with the patch-clamp methodology and Xenopus laevis oocytes with TEVC), (2) transfect/inject them with the gene of interest, and (3) record ion transport activities. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  11. A DC-Link Voltage Self-Balance Method for a Diode-Clamped Modular Multilevel Converter With Minimum Number of Voltage Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Congzhe; Jiang, Xinjian; Li, Yongdong

    2013-01-01

    Voltage balance issue of dc-link capacitors is very important for applications of a cascade multilevel converter or a modular multilevel converter. In this paper, a novel diode-clamped modular multilevel converter (DCM2C) topology is proposed and a power feedback control method is developed...... used traditional method; therefore, the system performance improvement and cost reduction are expected. Based on the proposed DCM2C, a novel N +1-level cascade multilevel topology is proposed for a cascade active power filter (CS-APF). The simulation and experimental results from the CS-APF have...

  12. A novel voltage clamp circuit for the measurement of transistor dynamic on-resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelagaev, R.; Jacqmaer, P.; Everts, J.; Driesen, Johan

    2012-01-01

    For determining the dynamic on-resistance Rdyn,on of a power transistor, the voltage and current waveforms have to be measured during the switching operation. In measurements of voltage waveforms, using an oscilloscope, the characteristics of an amplifier inside the oscilloscope are distorted when

  13. Enhanced Buck–Boost Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters With Simple Capacitive-Voltage Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kuan Khoon; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2010-01-01

    introduced for extending the inverters’ variation range to include voltageboost operation, but they generally require the inclusion of large passive components or have not yet been optimized in terms of waveform quality. The balancing of their capacitive voltages using a simple technique has also not yet...... simultaneously, two new buck–boost NPC inverters with simple capacitive-voltage-balancing capability are proposed. Both inverters are demonstrated to exhibit a doubling of voltage gain, with one of them also shown to produce a better output waveform quality. Simulation and experimental results are provided...

  14. Voltage-Sharing Converter to Supply Single-Phase Asymmetrical Four-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter With High Power Factor Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boora, Arash A.; Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz

    2010-01-01

    The output voltage quality of some of the single-phase multilevel inverters can be improved when their dc-link voltages are regulated asymmetrically. Symmetrical and asymmetrical multilevel diode-clamped inverters have the problem of dc-link capacitor voltage balancing, especially when power factor...... that the proposed combination of introduced multioutput dc–dc converter and single-phase ADCI is a good candidate for power conversion in residential photovoltaic (PV) utilization....

  15. Active gate driver for dv/dt control and active voltage clamping in an IGBT stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2005-01-01

    For high voltages converters stacks of IGBTs can be used if the static and dynamic voltage sharing among the IGBTs can be applied. dVCE/dt should also be controlled in order not to damage insulation material. This paper describes theory and measurements of an active gate driver for stacking IGBTs....... For the measurements two series connected standard IGBTs made for hard switching applications are used. Problems are shown and proposals for improvements are given....

  16. Overmodulation of n-level three-leg DC-AC diode-clamped converters with comprehensive capacitor voltage balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busquets-Monge, S.; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel PWM strategy for nlevel three-leg semiconductor-clamped dc-ac converters in the overmodulation region, with dc-link capacitor voltage balance in every switching cycle. The strategy is based on the virtual-vector concept. Suitable reference vector trajectories are selec......This paper presents a novel PWM strategy for nlevel three-leg semiconductor-clamped dc-ac converters in the overmodulation region, with dc-link capacitor voltage balance in every switching cycle. The strategy is based on the virtual-vector concept. Suitable reference vector trajectories...

  17. Highly selective water channel activity measured by voltage clamp: analysis of planar lipid bilayers reconstituted with purified AqpZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Borgnia, M J; Agre, P

    2001-08-14

    Aquaporins are membrane channels selectively permeated by water or water plus glycerol. Conflicting reports have described ion conductance associated with some water channels, raising the question of whether ion conductance is a general property of the aquaporin family. To clarify this question, a defined system was developed to simultaneously measure water permeability and ion conductance. The Escherichia coli water channel aquaporin-Z (AqpZ) was studied, because it is a highly stable tetramer. Planar lipid bilayers were formed from unilamellar vesicles containing purified AqpZ. The hydraulic conductivity of bilayers made from the total extract of E. coli lipids increased 3-fold if reconstituted with AqpZ, but electric conductance was unchanged. No channel activity was detected under voltage-clamp conditions, indicating that less than one in 10(9) transport events is electrogenic. Microelectrode measurements were simultaneously undertaken adjacent to the membrane. Changes in sodium concentration profiles accompanying transmembrane water flow permitted calculation of the activation energies: 14 kcal/mol for protein-free lipid bilayers and 4 kcal/mol for lipid bilayers containing AqpZ. Neither the water permeability nor the electric conductivity exhibited voltage dependence. This sensitive system demonstrated that AqpZ is permeated by water but not charged ions and should permit direct analyses of putative electrogenic properties of other aquaporins.

  18. Transformer-based asymmetrical embedded Z-source neutral point clamped inverters with continuous input current and enhanced voltage boost capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverters were introduced to integrate both the advantages of Z-source inverters and NPC inverters. However, traditional Z-source inverters suffer from high voltage stress and chopping input current. This paper proposes six types transformer-based impedance-so......-source NPC inverters which have enhanced voltage boost capability and continuous input current by utilizing of transformer and embedded dc source configuration. Experimental results are presented to verify the theory validation....

  19. Dynamic Pull-In Investigation of a Clamped-Clamped Nanoelectromechanical Beam under Ramp-Input Voltage and the Casimir Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Askari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Casimir excitation on dynamic pull-in instability of a nanoelectromechanical beam under ramp-input voltage is studied. The ramp-input actuation has applications in frequency sweeping of RF-N/MEMS. The presented model is nonlinear due to the inherent nonlinearity of electrostatics and the Casimir excitations as well as the geometric nonlinearity of midplane stretching. A Galerkin based reduced order modeling is utilized. It is found that the calculated dynamic pull-in ramp input voltage leads to dynamic pull-in step input voltage by increasing the slope of voltage-time diagram. This fact is utilized to verify the results of present study.

  20. Closed-form solution for static pull-in voltage of electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped micro/nano beams under the effect of fringing field and van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojawala, V. M.; Vakharia, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation provides an accurate prediction of static pull-in voltage for clamped-clamped micro/nano beams based on distributed model. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used adapting geometric non-linearity of beam, internal (residual) stress, van der Waals force, distributed electrostatic force and fringing field effects for deriving governing differential equation. The Galerkin discretisation method is used to make reduced-order model of the governing differential equation. A regime plot is presented in the current work for determining the number of modes required in reduced-order model to obtain completely converged pull-in voltage for micro/nano beams. A closed-form relation is developed based on the relationship obtained from curve fitting of pull-in instability plots and subsequent non-linear regression for the proposed relation. The output of regression analysis provides Chi-square (χ 2) tolerance value equals to 1  ×  10-9, adjusted R-square value equals to 0.999 29 and P-value equals to zero, these statistical parameters indicate the convergence of non-linear fit, accuracy of fitted data and significance of the proposed model respectively. The closed-form equation is validated using available data of experimental and numerical results. The relative maximum error of 4.08% in comparison to several available experimental and numerical data proves the reliability of the proposed closed-form equation.

  1. Formulation and Analysis of an Approximate Expression for Voltage Sensitivity in Radial DC Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Yong Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Voltage is an important variable that reflects system conditions in DC distribution systems and affects many characteristics of a system. In a DC distribution system, there is a close relationship between the real power and the voltage magnitude, and this is one of major differences from the characteristics of AC distribution systems. One such relationship is expressed as the voltage sensitivity, and an understanding of voltage sensitivity is very useful to describe DC distribution systems. In this paper, a formulation for a novel approximate expression for the voltage sensitivity in a radial DC distribution system is presented. The approximate expression is derived from the power flow equation with some additional assumptions. The results of approximate expression is compared with an exact calculation, and relations between the voltage sensitivity and electrical quantities are analyzed analytically using both the exact form and the approximate voltage sensitivity equation.

  2. Accurate measurement of junctional conductance between electrically coupled cells with dual whole-cell voltage-clamp under conditions of high series resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartveit, Espen; Veruki, Margaret Lin

    2010-03-15

    Accurate measurement of the junctional conductance (G(j)) between electrically coupled cells can provide important information about the functional properties of coupling. With the development of tight-seal, whole-cell recording, it became possible to use dual, single-electrode voltage-clamp recording from pairs of small cells to measure G(j). Experiments that require reduced perturbation of the intracellular environment can be performed with high-resistance pipettes or the perforated-patch technique, but an accompanying increase in series resistance (R(s)) compromises voltage-clamp control and reduces the accuracy of G(j) measurements. Here, we present a detailed analysis of methodologies available for accurate determination of steady-state G(j) and related parameters under conditions of high R(s), using continuous or discontinuous single-electrode voltage-clamp (CSEVC or DSEVC) amplifiers to quantify the parameters of different equivalent electrical circuit model cells. Both types of amplifiers can provide accurate measurements of G(j), with errors less than 5% for a wide range of R(s) and G(j) values. However, CSEVC amplifiers need to be combined with R(s)-compensation or mathematical correction for the effects of nonzero R(s) and finite membrane resistance (R(m)). R(s)-compensation is difficult for higher values of R(s) and leads to instability that can damage the recorded cells. Mathematical correction for R(s) and R(m) yields highly accurate results, but depends on accurate estimates of R(s) throughout an experiment. DSEVC amplifiers display very accurate measurements over a larger range of R(s) values than CSEVC amplifiers and have the advantage that knowledge of R(s) is unnecessary, suggesting that they are preferable for long-duration experiments and/or recordings with high R(s). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Control Strategy of Two Capacitor Voltages for Separate MPPTs in Photovoltaic Systems Using Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    The centralized topology with three-level inverters are widely used in photovoltaic (PV) systems due to their less installation costs and complexity. However, the common maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a disadvantage of the centralized topology particularly under the partial shading...... and panel mismatch conditions. In this system, if PV modules are separately connected to the split capacitor voltage, the MPPT efficiency can be improved by the proposed control strategy. By the proposed method, the two capacitor voltages can be controlled asymmetrically to perform the separate MPPTs...... of each PV module connected to separate capacitors. The outputs can be generated without distortion even if two capacitors are asymmetrically regulated. Simulation and experimental results verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed methods....

  4. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and detomidine on the function of equine Kv 11.1 channels in a two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) oocyte model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, D S; Tejada, M A; Groesfjeld Christensen, V; Pedersen, P J; Kanters, J K; Buhl, R; Calloe, K; Klaerke, D A

    2018-03-22

    The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a channelopathy that can lead to severe arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Pharmacologically induced LQTS is caused by interaction between drugs and potassium channels, especially the K v 11.1 channel. Due to such interactions, numerous drugs have been withdrawn from the market or are administered with precautions in human medicine. However, some compounds, such as trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations are still widely used in veterinarian medicine. Therefore, we investigate the effect of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), trimethoprim, sulfadiazine, and detomidine on equine-specific K v 11.1 channels. K v 11.1 channels cloned from equine hearts were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and whole cell currents were measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp before and after drug application. TMS blocked equine K v 11.1 current with an IC 50 of 3.74 mm (95% CI: 2.95-4.73 mm) and affected the kinetics of activation and inactivation. Similar was found for trimethoprim but not for sulfadiazine, suggesting the effect is due to trimethoprim. Detomidine did not affect equine K v 11.1 current. Thus, equine K v 11.1 channels are also susceptible to pharmacological block, indicating that some drugs may have the potential to affect repolarization in horse. However, in vivo studies are needed to assess the potential risk of these drugs to induce equine LQTS. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Balance control strategy of two-amplitude actively clamped resonant DC-Link inverter clamping voltage%双幅有源箝位谐振直流环节逆变器箝位电压平衡控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沁野; 张德华; 侯尧杰

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the big loss of the traditional clamping voltage balance control strategies, in two-amplitude actively clamped resonant DC-LINK inverter, the work process of DC link was analyzed. In order to keep the clamp capacitor voltage balance the value set in DC-link work, no short-circuit control was proposed.The DC-link of inverter was calculated by Mathcad. The loss of two modes of short-circuit control and no short-circuit control were compared.Under the no short-circuit control and voltage ripple is not be greater than twenty percent, the parameters of the clamp capacitor were calculated. The results indicate that, the micro-power ACRDCLI clamping voltage balance use no short-circuit control,that can reduce the loss of the DC link and can use thin-film capacitor as a clamp capacitor to achieve the micro-power ACRDCLI low loss and iong life requirements.%针对微型功率双幅有源箝位谐振直流环节逆变器在正常工作过程中,传统箝位电压平衡母线短路控制策略带来损耗大的问题,开展了直流环节工作过程的分析,针对直流环节正常工作的情况下,箝位电容电压必须能平衡在设定值,提出了箝位电压平衡母线无短路控制策略,根据给出的损耗估算方法,通过Mathcad计算,对比了母线短路控制和无短路控制两种方式下的损耗,同时计算出了母线无短路控制箝位电容电压纹波不大于20%下的箝位电容参数.研究结果表明:微型功率ACRDCLI箝位电压平衡采用母线无短线控制,不但可以减少双幅有源箝位谐振直流环节逆变器的损耗,并且可以使用薄膜电容作为箝位电容,以达到微型功率ACRDCLI损耗低、寿命长的要求.

  6. Method to Minimize the Low-Frequency Neutral-Point Voltage Oscillations With Time-Offset Injection for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    time of small- and medium-voltage vectors. However, if the power factor is lower, there is a limitation to eliminate neutral-point oscillations. In this case, the proposed method can be improved by changing the switching sequence properly. Additionally, a method for neutral-point voltage balancing......This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time offset to the three-phase turn-on times. The proper time offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  7. Method to minimize the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations with time-offset injection for neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time-offset to the three phase turn-on times. The proper time-offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  8. Modulation Methods for Neutral-Point-Clamped Wind Power Converter Achieving Loss and Thermal Redistribution Under Low-Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The three-level neutral-point (NP)-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of megawatt wind power generation systems. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology......, with the proposed modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also, the control ability of the dc-bus NP potential, which is one of the crucial considerations...

  9. Loss and thermal redistributed modulation methods for three-level neutral-point-clamped wind power inverter undergoing Low Voltage Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of mega-watts wind power generation system. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology. This paper...... modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also the control ability of DC-bus neutral point potential, which is one of the crucial considerations for the 3L...

  10. Independent control strategy of two DC-link voltages for separate MPPTs in transformerless photovoltaic systems using neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) system, the centralized topology using three-level inverters are widely used. In this system, PV modules are separately connected to the split DC-links. This causes a decrease of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) efficiency under the partial...... shading condition. This paper proposes an independent control of two DC-link voltages for separate MPPT of each PV module in three-level inverters. The proposed method is simply implemented by adding or subtracting the time-offset to the three-phase turn-on times and modifying the reference voltages...

  11. Formulation of Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte To Expand the Voltage Window of Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, Katherine L.; Beidaghi, Majid; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-18

    An effective method to expand the operating potential window (OPW) of electrochemical capacitors based on formulating the ionic-liquid (IL) electrolytes is reported. Using model electrochemical cells based on two identical onion-like carbon (OLC) electrodes and two different IL electrolytes and their mixtures, it was shown that the asymmetric behavior of the electrolyte cation and anion toward the two electrodes limits the OPW of the cell and therefore its energy density. Also, a general solution to this problem is proposed by formulating the IL electrolyte mixtures to balance the capacitance of electrodes in a symmetric supercapacitor.

  12. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  13. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Brown, Malcolm P [San Francisco, CA; Stancel, Robert [Loss Altos Hills, CA

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  14. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  15. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  16. Radial wedge flange clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  17. The Effect of an Added Mass on the Frequency Shifts of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam for Bio-Mass Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes.

  18. The Effect of an Added Mass on the Frequency Shifts of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam for Bio-Mass Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-12-05

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes.

  19. A Component-Reduced Zero-Voltage Switching Three-Level DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Pang, Ying; Wang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    The basic Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS) three-level DC-DC converter has one clamping capacitor to realize the ZVS of the switches, and two clamping diodes to clamp the voltage of the clamping capacitor. In order to reduce the reverse recovery loss of the diode as well as its cost, this paper...... proposes to remove one of the clamping diodes in basic ZVS three-level DC-DC converter. With less components, the proposed converter can still have a stable clamping capacitor voltage, which is clamped at half of the dc link voltage. Moreover, the ZVS performance will be influenced by removing the clamping...

  20. Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

  1. Clamping characteristics study on different types of clamping unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haichao; Xie, Pengcheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing China 100029 (China); Yang, Weimin [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing China 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing China 100029 (China)

    2015-05-22

    Plastic products are becoming more and more widely used in aerospace, IT, digital electronics and many other fields. With the development of technology, the requirement of product precision is getting higher and higher. However, type and working performance of clamping unit play a decisive role in product precision. Clamping characteristics of different types of clamping unit are discussed in this article, which use finite element numerical analysis method through the software ABAQUS to study the clamping uniformity, and detect the clamping force repeatability precision. The result shows that compared with toggled three-platen clamping unit, clamping characteristics of internal circulation two-platen clamping unit are better, for instance, its mold cavity deformation and force that bars and mold parting surface suffered are more uniform, and its clamping uniformity and repeatability precision is also better.

  2. Force-controlled patch clamp of beating cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Dario; Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Behr, Pascal; Vörös, János; Abriel, Hugues; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2015-03-11

    From its invention in the 1970s, the patch clamp technique is the gold standard in electrophysiology research and drug screening because it is the only tool enabling accurate investigation of voltage-gated ion channels, which are responsible for action potentials. Because of its key role in drug screening, innovation efforts are being made to reduce its complexity toward more automated systems. While some of these new approaches are being adopted in pharmaceutical companies, conventional patch-clamp remains unmatched in fundamental research due to its versatility. Here, we merged the patch clamp and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques, thus equipping the patch-clamp with the sensitive AFM force control. This was possible using the FluidFM, a force-controlled nanopipette based on microchanneled AFM cantilevers. First, the compatibility of the system with patch-clamp electronics and its ability to record the activity of voltage-gated ion channels in whole-cell configuration was demonstrated with sodium (NaV1.5) channels. Second, we showed the feasibility of simultaneous recording of membrane current and force development during contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes. Force feedback allowed for a gentle and stable contact between AFM tip and cell membrane enabling serial patch clamping and injection without apparent cell damage.

  3. Bingham Sealing and Application in Vacuum Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. M.; Teo, Wee Kin; Geng, Zunmin; Turner, Sam; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Vacuum clamping is extensively used in shell machining. In this paper a Bingham Sealing (BS) is presented and formulized based on Bingham plastic performance. The sealing capability of BS is evaluated in various cases. A new Bingham plastic is developed and the yield stress is measured. The performances of "O"ring sealing and BS with the developed Bingham plastic are compared to the static experiment. In this experiment the same vacuum is achieved and the distortion of the blade with BS is better than that with "O" ring sealing.

  4. Bingham Sealing and Application in Vacuum Clamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S M; Teo, Wee Kin; Geng Zunmin; Turner, Sam; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum clamping is extensively used in shell machining. In this paper a Bingham Sealing (BS) is presented and formulized based on Bingham plastic performance. The sealing capability of BS is evaluated in various cases. A new Bingham plastic is developed and the yield stress is measured. The performances of Or ing sealing and BS with the developed Bingham plastic are compared to the static experiment. In this experiment the same vacuum is achieved and the distortion of the blade with BS is better than that with 'O' ring sealing.

  5. Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter Fed Induction Motor with Dtc-Svm

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ranjith Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This project presents a three-level diode-clamped inverter feeding an asynchronous motor drive with direct torque control (DTC). The control method is based on DTC operating principles. The stator voltage vector reference is computed from the stator flux and torque errors imposed by the flux and torque controllers. This voltage reference is then generated using a diode-clamped inverter, where each phase of the inverter can be implemented using a dc source, which would be available from fuel c...

  6. Modeling of SVM Diode Clamping Three-Level Inverter Connected to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    PLECS is used to model the diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First the output voltage SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter with loads connected to Y. Then the output voltage SVM of diode clamping three-level inverter is simply...... analyzed with loads connected to △. But it will be further researched in the future. Third, PLECS is briefly introduced. Fourth, the modeling of diode clamping three-level inverter is briefly presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS...... is very powerful tool to real power circuits and it is very easy to simulate them. They have also verified that SVM control strategy is feasible to control the diode clamping three-level inverter....

  7. A Hybrid Cascade Converter Topology With Series-Connected Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Diode-Clamped H-Bridge Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Ghosh, Arindam

    2011-01-01

    to approach a very low total harmonic distortion of voltage and current, which leads to the possible elimination of the output filter. Regarding the proposed configuration, a new cascade inverter is verified by cascading an asymmetrical diode-clamped inverter, in which 19 levels can be synthesized in output......A novel H-bridge multilevel pulsewidth modulation converter topology based on a series connection of a high-voltage diode-clamped inverter and a low-voltage conventional inverter is proposed in this paper. A dc link voltage arrangement for the new hybrid and asymmetric solution is presented to have...... voltage with the same number of components. To balance the dc link capacitor voltages for the maximum output voltage resolution as well as synthesize asymmetrical dc link combination, a new multi-output boost converter is utilized at the dc link voltage of a seven-level H-bridge diode-clamped inverter...

  8. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Atia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  9. A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high step-down interleaved buck coupled-inductor converter (IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion has been studied. In high step-down voltage applications, an IBCC can extend duty ratio and reduce voltage stresses on active switches. In order to reduce switching losses of active switches to improve conversion efficiency, a IBCC with soft-switching techniques is usually required. Compared with passive-clamp circuits, the IBCC with active-clamp circuits have lower switching losses and minimum ringing voltage of the active switches. Thus, the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion can significantly increase conversion efficiency. Finally, a 240 W prototype of the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits was built and implemented. Experimental results have shown that efficiency can reach as high as 91%. The proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits is presented in high step-down voltage applications to verify the performance and the feasibility for energy conversion of wind turbines.

  10. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  11. Five-level Z-source diode-clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, F.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a five-level Z-source diode-clamped inverter designed with two intermediate Z-source networks connected between the dc input sources and rear-end inverter circuitry. By partially shorting the Z-source networks, new operating states not previously reported for two-level Z......-source inverter are introduced here for operating the proposed inverter with voltage buck–boost energy conversion ability and five-level phase voltage switching. These characteristic features are in fact always ensured at the inverter terminal output by simply adopting a properly designed carrier modulation...

  12. Pulsewidth-modulated 2-source neutral-point-clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chang; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the careful integration of a newly proposed Z-source topological concept to the basic neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter topology for designing a three-level inverter with both voltage-buck and voltage-boost capabilities. The designed Z-source NPC inverter uses two unique X......-shaped inductance-capacitance (LC) impedance networks that are connected between two isolated dc input power sources and its inverter circuitry for boosting its AC output voltage. Through the design of an appropriate pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) algorithm, the two impedance networks can be short......-circuited sequentially (without shooting through the inverter full DC link) for implementing the ldquonearest-three-vectorrdquo modulation principle with minimized harmonic distortion and device commutations per half carrier cycle while performing voltage boosting. With only a slight modification to the inverter PWM...

  13. Multifrequency Excitation of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar R.

    2016-01-20

    We present analytical and experimental investigation of an electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam under a twosource harmonic excitation. The first frequency is swept around the first mode of vibration where the second one is fixed. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel form top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. We demonstrate the excitation of additive and subtractive type resonance. We show that by properly tuning the frequency and the amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is increased. Theoretically, we solved the eigenvalue problem for different axial forces to find the natural frequencies ratio that match the experimental values. Using Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device where using three symmetric mode shapes provided a good agreement with experimental data. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.

  14. Finite element analysis on factors influencing the clamping force in an electrostatic chuck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingkuo; Yang Yiyong; Cheng Jia; Wang Kesheng; Sun Yuchun; Cao Minglu; Ji Linhong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the core components of IC manufacturing equipment, the electrostatic chuck (ESC) has been widely applied in semiconductor processing such as etching, PVD and CVD. The clamping force of the ESC is one of the most important technical indicators. A multi-physics simulation software COMSOL is used to analyze the factors influencing the clamping force. The curves between the clamping force and the main parameters such as DC voltage, electrode thickness, electrode radius, dielectric thickness and helium gap are obtained. Moreover, the effects of these factors on the clamping force are investigated by means of orthogonal experiments. The results show that the factors can be ranked in order of voltage, electrode radius, helium gap and dielectric thickness according to their importance, which may offer certain reference for the design of ESCs. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Analytical study of the frequency shifts of micro and nano clamped–clamped beam resonators due to an added mass

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-18

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped–clamped micro and nano (Carbon nanotube) beams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  16. Loading dynamics of a sliding DNA clamp.

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Won-Ki

    2014-05-22

    Sliding DNA clamps are loaded at a ss/dsDNA junction by a clamp loader that depends on ATP binding for clamp opening. Sequential ATP hydrolysis results in closure of the clamp so that it completely encircles and diffuses on dsDNA. We followed events during loading of an E. coli β clamp in real time by using single-molecule FRET (smFRET). Three successive FRET states were retained for 0.3 s, 0.7 s, and 9 min: Hydrolysis of the first ATP molecule by the γ clamp loader resulted in closure of the clamp in 0.3 s, and after 0.7 s in the closed conformation, the clamp was released to diffuse on the dsDNA for at least 9 min. An additional single-molecule polarization study revealed that the interfacial domain of the clamp rotated in plane by approximately 8° during clamp closure. The single-molecule polarization and FRET studies thus revealed the real-time dynamics of the ATP-hydrolysis-dependent 3D conformational change of the β clamp during loading at a ss/dsDNA junction.

  17. Is early cord clamping, delayed cord clamping or cord milking best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Binay; Demirel, Gamze; Ciler Eren, Elif; Erel, Ozcan; Neselioglu, Salim; Karavar, Hande Nur; Gundogdu, Semra; Ulfer, Gozde; Bahadir, Selcen; Tastekin, Ayhan

    2018-04-01

    To compare the antioxidant status of three cord clamping procedures (early clamping, delayed clamping and milking) by analyzing the thiol-disulfide balance. This randomized controlled study enrolled 189 term infants who were divided into three groups according to the cord clamping procedure: early clamping, delayed clamping and milking. Blood samples were collected from the umbilical arteries immediately after clamping, and the thiol/disulfide homeostasis was analyzed. The native and total thiol levels were significantly (p total thiol ratio was significantly (p = .026) lower in the delayed cord clamping and milking groups compared with the early clamping groups. Early cord clamping causes the production of more disulfide bonds and lower thiol levels, indicating that oxidation reactions are increased in the early cord clamping procedure compared with the delayed cord clamping and milking procedures. The oxidant capacity is greater with early cord clamping than with delayed clamping or cord milking. Delayed cord clamping or milking are beneficial in neonatal care, and we suggest that they be performed routinely in all deliveries.

  18. Comparison between symmetrical and asymmetrical single phase multilevel inverter with diode-clamped topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Nami, A.; Zare, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a different configuration based on different DC bus voltage for a diode-clamped multilevel inverter has been presented. Two different symmetrical and asymmetrical arrangements of a four-level diode clamped inverters have been compared, in order to find an optimum arrangement...... compared with the conventional four-level inverter and this will lead to the reduction of harmonic content of output voltage. A predictive current control technique has been carried out to verify the viability of new configuration. The advantages of this control method are simplicity and applicability...

  19. Analysis list: Clamp [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clamp Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Clamp.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Clam...p.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Clam...p.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Clamp.Cell_line.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml ...

  20. A new configuration for multilevel converters with diode clamped topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, A.; Zare, F.; Ledwich, G.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increased use of renewable energy and power elctronic applications, more multilevel converters (MLC) are developed. A Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter is one of the most used multilevel topologies for wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) applications. One of the most crucial...... of load changes which can avoid neutral point balancing problem in such converters. In addition, the presented topology is suitable for renewable energy systems to boost the low rectified output-voltage. In order to verify the proposed topology, steady state analysis, modelling and simulations are carried...

  1. Theoretical and experimental nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped beam MEMS resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Fey, R.H.B.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Microelectromechanical resonators feature nonlineardynamic responses. A first-principles based modeling approach is proposed for a clamped-clamped beam resonator. Starting from the partial differential equation for the beam including geometric and electrostatic nonlinear effects, a reduced-order

  2. Trans-Z-source and Γ-Z-source neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Z-source neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters are earlier proposed for obtaining voltage buck-boost and three-level switching simultaneously. Their performances are, however, constrained by a trade-off between their input-to-output gain and modulation ratio. This trade-off can lead to high...

  3. Loading dynamics of a sliding DNA clamp.

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jergic, Slobodan; Kim, Daehyung; Dixon, Nicholas E; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2014-01-01

    8° during clamp closure. The single-molecule polarization and FRET studies thus revealed the real-time dynamics of the ATP-hydrolysis-dependent 3D conformational change of the β clamp during loading at a ss/dsDNA junction.

  4. Implementation of a fast 16-Bit dynamic clamp using LabVIEW-RT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Paul H M; Wheeler, Diek W; Beacom, Joshua; Horn, John P

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic-clamp method provides a powerful electrophysiological tool for creating virtual ionic conductances in living cells and studying their influence on membrane potential. Here we describe G-clamp, a new way to implement a dynamic clamp using the real-time version of the Lab-VIEW programming environment together with a Windows host, an embedded microprocessor that runs a real-time operating system and a multifunction data-acquisition board. The software includes descriptions of a fast voltage-dependent sodium conductance, delayed rectifier, M-type and A-type potassium conductances, and a leak conductance. The system can also read synaptic conductance waveforms from preassembled data files. These virtual conductances can be reliably implemented at speeds < or =43 kHz while simultaneously saving two channels of data with 16-bit precision. G-clamp also includes utilities for measuring current-voltage relations, synaptic strength, and synaptic gain. Taking an approach built on a commercially available software/hardware platform has resulted in a system that is easy to assemble and upgrade. In addition, the graphical programming structure of LabVIEW should make it relatively easy for others to adapt G-clamp for new experimental applications.

  5. The cardiovascular effects of aortic clamping and unclamping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aortic clamping is that afterload and blood pressure increase, and ... individually, albeit they interact with each other. The degree of ... position of the aortic clamp, the greater the increase ... the increase in preload in response to aortic clamping.

  6. Mechanics of wafer bonding: Effect of clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. T.; Thouless, M. D.; Spearing, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    A mechanics-based model is developed to examine the effects of clamping during wafer bonding processes. The model provides closed-form expressions that relate the initial geometry and elastic properties of the wafers to the final shape of the bonded pair and the strain energy release rate at the interface for two different clamping configurations. The results demonstrate that the curvature of bonded pairs may be controlled through the use of specific clamping arrangements during the bonding process. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the strain energy release rate depends on the clamping configuration and that using applied loads usually leads to an undesirable increase in the strain energy release rate. The results are discussed in detail and implications for process development and bonding tool design are highlighted.

  7. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  8. Core clamping device for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    The core clamping device for a fast neutron reactor includes clamps to support the fuel zone against the pressure vessel. The clamps are arranged around the circumference of the core. They consist of torsion bars arranged parallel at some distance around the core with lever arms attached to the ends whose force is directed in the opposite direction, pressing against the wall of the pressure vessel. The lever arms and pressure plates also actuated by the ends of the torsion bars transfer the stress, the pressure plates acting upon the fuel elements or fuel assemblies. Coupling between the ends of the torsion bars and the pressure plates is achieved by end carrier plates directly attached to the torsion bars and radially movable. This clamping device follows the thermal expansions of the core, allows specific elements to be disengaged in sections and saves space between the core and the neutron reflectors. (DG) [de

  9. Selective Arterial Clamping Versus Hilar Clamping for Minimally Invasive Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezdani, Mona; Yu, Sue-Jean; Lee, David I

    2016-05-01

    Partial nephrectomy has become an accepted treatment of cT1 renal masses as it provides improved long-term renal function compared to radical nephrectomy (Campbell et al. J Urol. 182:1271-9, 2009). Hilar clamping is utilized to help reduce bleeding and improve visibility during tumor resection. However, concern over risk of kidney injury with hilar clamping has led to new techniques to reduce length of warm ischemia time (WIT) during partial nephrectomy. These techniques have progressed over the years starting with early hilar unclamping, controlled hypotension during tumor resection, selective arterial clamping, minimal margin techniques, and off-clamp procedures. Selective arterial clamping has progressed significantly over the years. The main question is what are the exact short- and long-term renal effects from increasing clamp time. Moreover, does it make sense to perform these more time-consuming or more complex procedures if there is no long-term preservation of kidney function? More recent studies have shown no difference in renal function 6 months from surgery when selective arterial clamping or even hilar clamping is employed, although there is short-term improved decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with selective clamping and off-clamp techniques (Komninos et al. BJU Int. 115:921-8, 2015; Shah et al. 117:293-9, 2015; Kallingal et al. BJU Int. doi: 10.1111/bju.13192, 2015). This paper reviews the progression of total hilar clamping to selective arterial clamping (SAC) and the possible difference its use makes on long-term renal function. SAC may be attempted based on surgeon's decision-making, but may be best used for more complex, larger, more central or hilar tumors and in patients who have renal insufficiency at baseline or a solitary kidney.

  10. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures. (b...

  11. Trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P. C.; Li, D.

    2012-01-01

    Transformer based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters are recently proposed by extending the traditional Z-source inverter with higher buck-boost capability as well as reducing the passive components at the same time. Multi-Level Z-source inverters are single-stage topological solutions used...... for buck-boost energy conversion with all the favourable advantages of multi-level switching retained. This paper presents three-level trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter topology, which achieves both the advantages of trans-Z-source and three-level NPC inverter configuration. With proper...... modulation scheme, the three-level trans-Z-source inverter can function with minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (same as the traditional buck NPC inverter), while maintaining to produce the designed volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at ac output terminals. The designed...

  12. Inertial piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with automatic clamping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangguo; Chu, Yuheng; Hao, Sai; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Dong, Yuge; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    A novel, single-phase, harmonic-driven, inertial piezoelectric linear motor using an automatic clamping mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to reduce the sliding friction and simplify the drive mechanism and power supply control of the inertial motor. A piezoelectric bimorph and a flexible hinge were connected in series to form the automatic clamping mechanism. The automatic clamping mechanism was used as the driving and clamping elements. A dynamic simulation by Simulink was performed to prove the feasibility of the motor. The finite element method software COMSOL was used to design the structure of the motor. An experimental setup was built to validate the working principle and evaluate the performance of the motor. The prototype motor outputted a no-load velocity of 3.178 mm/s at a voltage of 220 Vp-p and a maximum traction force of 4.25 N under a preload force of 8 N. The minimum resolution of 1.14 μm was achieved at a driving frequency of 74 Hz, a driving voltage of 50 Vp-p, and a preload force of 0 N.

  13. Direct Effect of Remifentanil and Glycine Contained in Ultiva® on Nociceptive Transmission in the Spinal Cord: In Vivo and Slice Patch Clamp Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sumie

    Full Text Available Ultiva® is commonly administered intravenously for analgesia during general anaesthesia and its main constituent remifentanil is an ultra-short-acting μ-opioid receptor agonist. Ultiva® is not approved for epidural or intrathecal use in clinical practice. Previous studies have reported that Ultiva® provokes opioid-induced hyperalgesia by interacting with spinal dorsal horn neurons. Ultiva® contains glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter but also an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-activator. The presence of glycine in the formulation of Ultiva® potentially complicates its effects. We examined how Ultiva® directly affects nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord.We made patch-clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons in the adult rat spinal dorsal horn in vivo and in spinal cord slices. We perfused Ultiva® onto the SG neurons and analysed its effects on the membrane potentials and synaptic responses activated by noxious mechanical stimuli.Bath application of Ultiva® hyperpolarized membrane potentials under current-clamp conditions and produced an outward current under voltage-clamp conditions. A barrage of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs evoked by the stimuli was suppressed by Ultiva®. Miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs were depressed in frequency but not amplitude. Ultiva®-induced outward currents and suppression of mEPSCs were not inhibited by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, but were inhibited by the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine. The Ultiva®-induced currents demonstrated a specific equilibrium potential similar to glycine.We found that intrathecal administration of Ultiva® to SG neurons hyperpolarized membrane potentials and depressed presynaptic glutamate release predominantly through the activation of glycine receptors. No Ultiva®-induced excitatory effects were observed in SG neurons. Our results suggest different analgesic mechanisms of Ultiva® between intrathecal and intravenous

  14. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  15. A complete dc characterization of a constant-frequency, clamped-mode, series-resonant converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C.

    1988-01-01

    The dc behavior of a clamped-mode series-resonant converter is characterized systematically. Given a circuit operating condition, the converter's mode of operation is determined and various circuit parameters are calculated, such as average inductor current (load current), rms inductor current, peak capacitor voltage, rms switch currents, average diode currents, switch turn-on currents, and switch turn-off currents. Regions of operation are defined, and various circuit characteristics are derived to facilitate the converter design.

  16. Clamp and Gas Nozzle for TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, G. B.; Goller, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Tool that combines clamp with gas nozzle is aid to tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding in hard-to-reach spots. Tool holds work to be welded while directing a stream of argon gas at weld joint, providing an oxygen-free environment for tungsten-arc welding.

  17. Planar patch clamp: advances in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Andrea; Farre, Cecilia; Haarmann, Claudia; Haythornthwaite, Ali; Kreir, Mohamed; Stoelzle, Sonja; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels have gained increased interest as therapeutic targets over recent years, since a growing number of human and animal diseases have been attributed to defects in ion channel function. Potassium channels are the largest and most diverse family of ion channels. Pharmaceutical agents such as Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channel activity which promotes insulin release, have been successfully sold on the market for many years. So far, only a small group of the known ion channels have been addressed as potential drug targets. The functional testing of drugs on these ion channels has always been the bottleneck in the development of these types of pharmaceutical compounds.New generations of automated patch clamp screening platforms allow a higher throughput for drug testing and widen this bottleneck. Due to their planar chip design not only is a higher throughput achieved, but new applications have also become possible. One of the advantages of planar patch clamp is the possibility of perfusing the intracellular side of the membrane during a patch clamp experiment in the whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, the extracellular membrane remains accessible for compound application during the experiment.Internal perfusion can be used not only for patch clamp experiments with cell membranes, but also for those with artificial lipid bilayers. In this chapter we describe how internal perfusion can be applied to potassium channels expressed in Jurkat cells, and to Gramicidin channels reconstituted in a lipid bilayer.

  18. A Novel Neutral Point Clamped Full-Bridge Topology for Transformerless Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pakdel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel neutral point clamped full-bridge topology for transformerless photovoltaic grid-tied inverters. Transformerless grid-connected inverters have been used widely in recent years since they offer higher efficiency and lower costs. Ground leakage current suppression is the main issue which should be considered carefully in transformerless photovoltaic grid-connected inverters. Among different methods used to decline ground leakage current, neutral point clamped (NPC topologies are considered more useful and effective. In NPC topologies, the short-circuited output voltage at the freewheeling period is clamped to the middle of the DC bus voltage. Therefore, the common-mode voltage (CM will be constant at the whole switching period. Various NPC topologies such as H6 [1], HB-ZVR [2], oH5 [3], and PN-NPC [4] have been proposed. In this paper, a novel NPC topology is proposed which has lower power losses and higher efficiency over previous topologies. Furthermore, the proposed NPC topology exhibits a similar ground leakage current with the PN-NPC topology. The proposed NPC topology is analyzed theoretically using simulation studies and an experimental prototype is provided to verify theoretical analysis and simulation studies.

  19. Modulation Methods for Three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Achieving Stress Redistribution under Moderate Modulation Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the loss and thermal behaviors of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) inverter undergoing moderate modulation index, which is typically presented during minor voltage sags of the power grid or speed changes of the electric machines. A series of new space vector m...

  20. High performance control strategy for single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped traction four-quadrant converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejian, Song; Konstantinou, Georgios; Jing, Li

    2017-01-01

    Operational data from Chinese railways indicate a number of challenges for traction four-quadrant converter (4QC) control including low-order voltage and current harmonics and reference tracking. A control strategy for a single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped 4QC employed in the electric...

  1. Enhanced Buck-Boost Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K. K.; Gao, F.; Chiang Loh, Poh

    2009-01-01

    In traditional three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters, a major issue is capacitor voltage imbalance, which results in low order harmonics. The compensation of the capacitor voltages often require additional control complexity, which cannot be conveniently implemented. The "alternative...... phase opposition disposition" (APOD) modulation method used in traditional NPC topologies also has lower harmonics performance as compared to the "phase disposition" (PD) modulation method.In this paper, we introduce a new three-level NPC topology that utilises the harmonically superior PD modulation...... method, with the ability to easily adjust for capacitor voltage imbalances. To further improve the boost capability of the three-level NPC inverters, another new topology introduces 2 additional diodes,achieving higher boost performance while totally eliminating thepossibility of capacitor voltage...

  2. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  3. Use of the Satinsky clamp for hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy: indications, technique, and multi-center outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Newaj; Rahbar, Haider; Barod, Ravi; Dalela, Deepansh; Larson, Jeff; Johnson, Michael; Mass, Alon; Zargar, Homayoun; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Rogers, Craig

    2017-03-01

    A Satinsky clamp may be a backup option for hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) if there are challenges with application of bulldog clamps, but there are potential safety concerns. We evaluate outcomes of RPN using Satinsky vs. bulldog clamps, and provide tips for safe use of the Satinsky as a backup option. Using a multi-center database, we identified 1073 patients who underwent RPN between 2006 and 2013, and had information available about method of hilar clamping (bulldog clamp vs. Satinsky clamp). Patient baseline characteristics, tumor features, and perioperative outcomes were compared between the Satinsky and bulldog clamp groups. A Satinsky clamp was used for hilar clamping in 94 (8.8 %) RPN cases, and bulldog clamps were used in 979 (91.2 %) cases. The use of a Satinsky clamp was associated with greater operative time (198 vs. 175 min, p hilar clamping during challenging RPN cases, but requires careful technique, and was rarely necessary.

  4. Contributions of counter-charge in a potassium channel voltage-sensor domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-sensor domains couple membrane potential to conformational changes in voltage-gated ion channels and phosphatases. Highly coevolved acidic and aromatic side chains assist the transfer of cationic side chains across the transmembrane electric field during voltage sensing. We investigated...... the functional contribution of negative electrostatic potentials from these residues to channel gating and voltage sensing with unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, electrophysiology, voltage-clamp fluorometry and ab initio calculations. The data show that neutralization of two conserved acidic side chains...

  5. Γ-source Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    Transformer based Z-source inverters are recently proposed to achieve promising buck-boost capability. They have improved higher buck-boost capability, smaller size and less components count over Z-source inverters. On the other hand, neutral point clamped inverters have less switching stress...... and better output performance comparing with traditional two-level inverters. Integrating these two types of configurations can help neutral point inverters achieve enhanced votlage buck-boost capability....

  6. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and defines the conditions to ensure the trouble-free clamping lock. The circular and rhombic clamping of pallet is simultaneous. Further, a clamping load is calculated from the pallet mass (together with the work-piece and the geometric parameters of the pallet clamping.The paper reveals three movement stages of the clamping lock in a vertical plane when setting the pallet in work positioning:- a clamping lock free play till it encounters with the location bushing;- a clamping lock play length when the lead-in chamfer contacts the bushing chamfer;- a clamping lock play length over the circular surface of bushing.The study of this process has allowed us to calculate the time of pallet clamping and dynamic loads acting on the clamping lock. These calculations made it possible to calculate the required diameter of the clamping lock. The presented calculations allow a reasonable assigning the main design parameters of work positioning for the pallet automatic lines.

  7. π-Clamp-mediated cysteine conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Welborn, Matthew; Zhu, Tianyu; Yang, Nicole J.; Santos, Michael S.; van Voorhis, Troy; Pentelute, Bradley L.

    2016-02-01

    Site-selective functionalization of complex molecules is one of the most significant challenges in chemistry. Typically, protecting groups or catalysts must be used to enable the selective modification of one site among many that are similarly reactive, and general strategies that selectively tune the local chemical environment around a target site are rare. Here, we show a four-amino-acid sequence (Phe-Cys-Pro-Phe), which we call the ‘π-clamp’, that tunes the reactivity of its cysteine thiol for site-selective conjugation with perfluoroaromatic reagents. We use the π-clamp to selectively modify one cysteine site in proteins containing multiple endogenous cysteine residues. These examples include antibodies and cysteine-based enzymes that would be difficult to modify selectively using standard cysteine-based methods. Antibodies modified using the π-clamp retained binding affinity to their targets, enabling the synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates for selective killing of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The π-clamp is an unexpected approach to mediate site-selective chemistry and provides new avenues to modify biomolecules for research and therapeutics.

  8. PWM Regulation of Grid-Tied PV System on the Base of Photovoltaic-Fed Diode-Clamped Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleschuk V.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of grid-tied photovoltaic system on the base of two diode-clamped inverters, controlled by specific algorithms of pulse-width modulation (PWM, has been done. This system includes two strings of photovoltaic panels feeding two diode-clamped inverters. The outputs of inverters are connected with the corresponding windings on the primary side of three-phase transformer, connected with a grid. In order to reduce phase voltage distortion and to increase efficiency of operation of the system, special scheme of control and modulation of inverters has been used, providing minimization of common-mode voltages and voltage waveforms symmetries under different operating conditions. Detailed simulation of processes in this photovoltaic-fed power conversion system has been executed. The results of simulations verify good performance of photovoltaic system regulated in accordance with specific strategy of control and modulation.

  9. Duo-Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped Multilevel Converter: An Exploration of the Fundamental Topology and Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dargahi, Vahid; Corzine, Keith A.; Enslin, Johan H.

    2018-01-01

    For medium-voltage (MV) industrial applications such as the HVDC and adjustable-speed ac-motor drives, the multilevel voltage-source converters are deemed the predominant topologies. One of the promising derived-topologies from the neutral-point-clamped (NPC) configuration is the active NPC (ANPC......) structure with an improved balanced lossdistribution performance. This paper introduces duo-ANPC (D-ANPC) converter topology, which is controlled with a new modulation technique. The suggested control method regulates the flying capacitor (FC) voltages naturally at their reference values and preserves...

  10. The plastic instability of clamped-clamped conical thin-walled pipe reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Ibrahim; Saleh, Ch.A.R.; Ragab, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical study for plastic deformation of clamped–clamped conical reducer pipe under internal pressure does not deduce a closed form expression for the pressure at plastic instability. The presented study employs finite element analysis (FEA) to estimate the internal pressure at instability for conical reducers made of different materials and having different dimensional configurations. Forty dimensional configurations, classified as medium type, and five types of materials have been included in the analysis using ABAQUS package. A correlation expression is derived by nonlinear regression to predict the instability pressure. The proposed expression is verified for other dimensional configurations out of the above used forty models and for other materials. Experiments have been conducted by pressurizing conical clamped-clamped reducers until bursting in order to verify the finite element models. Comparison of instability pressures, strains and deflections at specific points along the conical surface shows satisfactory agreement between analysis and experiments. - Highlights: • This study offers a parametric study of the plastic instability pressure of clamped-clamped conical reducers. • A closed form analytical expression for the instability pressure is derived by using nonlinear regression. • The finite element analysis is validated by conducting bursting tests.

  11. Robotic multi-well planar patch-clamp for native and primary mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Li, Jing; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Majeed, Yasser; Dallas, Mark L; English, Anne; Emery, Paul; Porter, Karen E; Smith, Andrew M; McFadzean, Ian; Beccano-Kelly, Dayne; Bahnasi, Yahya; Cheong, Alex; Naylor, Jacqueline; Zeng, Fanning; Liu, Xing; Gamper, Nikita; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Pearson, Hugh A; Peers, Chris; Robertson, Brian; Beech, David J

    2009-01-01

    Multi-well robotic planar patch-clamp has become common in drug development and safety programmes because it enables efficient and systematic testing of compounds against ion channels during voltage-clamp. It has not, however, been adopted significantly in other important areas of ion channel research, where conventional patch-clamp remains the favoured method. Here we show the wider potential of the multi-well approach with the capability for efficient intracellular solution exchange, describing protocols and success rates for recording from a range of native and primary mammalian cells derived from blood vessels, arthritic joints, and the immune and central nervous systems. The protocol involves preparing a suspension of single cells to be dispensed robotically into 4-8 microfluidic chambers each containing a glass chip with a small aperture. Under automated control, giga-seals and whole-cell access are achieved followed by pre-programmed routines of voltage paradigms and fast extracellular or intracellular solution exchange. Recording from 48 chambers usually takes 1-6 hr depending on the experimental design and yields 16-33 cell recordings. PMID:19197268

  12. Multilevel-clamped multilevel converters (MLC2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Bellar, Maria Dias; Muñoz-Aguliar, Raúl Santiago

    2012-01-01

    clamping scheme is the ML clamping cell, which is composed of a pair of dc sources associated with one single-pole/triple-throw type of switch arrangement. The number of series-connected ML-clamping cells will set the number of levels of the synthesized waveform. By depending on the MCU arrangements......, different converter configurations can be derived, namely, the common clamping and the modular types. Both approaches can be accomplished by employing classical three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) technology. Thus, the overall structure of the resultant converter is kept simple, wherein the number...

  13. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  14. Applicability of fiber model in seismic response analysis for center-clamp type bushings on transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A bushing is a device for insulation and support of a conductor. Especially it is called center-clamp type when it is connected with a metal holder through clamping force. As a consequence of damage of center-clamp type bushings in Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, refinement of the response analysis method and review of the seismic design procedure became necessary. In the present report, the fiber model, which can evaluate non-linear behavior in the section subjected to axial force and bending moment, was implemented to the CRIEPI's finite element analysis program 'Mastrd' considering following characteristics of center-clamp type bushings. a) The gasket section between a porcelain tube and a metal holder has a torus shape. b) Springs around the top of the bushing give clamping force, but they lock in excessive base rotation. c) The gasket does not resist against tension. d) Local resistance against compression due to bending increases in use of very thin gaskets. The developed program was verified through comparison with the shaking table test result for real bushings whose voltage classes were 154 kV and 275 kV. Deformation indices as rotation angle and base opening due to bending were influenced by damping conditions. Though there was not the condition which brought about remarkable underestimation, reduction of damping for a fiber model element was preferable for safety. On the other hand, bending moment was consistent with experimental results because it tended not to fluctuate in the non-linear region. (author)

  15. Negligible substrate clamping effect on piezoelectric response in (111)-epitaxial tetragonal Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomoaki, E-mail: t-yamada@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yasumoto, Jun; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Sakata, Osami [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8 and Synchrotron X-ray Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Innovative and Engineered Material, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Imai, Yasuhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takanori [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahisa; Shimizu, Takao; Funakubo, Hiroshi [Department of Innovative and Engineered Material, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    The converse piezoelectric responses of (111)- and (001)-epitaxial tetragonal Pb(Zr{sub 0.35}Ti{sub 0.65})O{sub 3} [PZT] films were compared to investigate the orientation dependence of the substrate clamping effect. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that the as-grown (111)-PZT film has a polydomain structure with normal twin boundaries that are changed by the poling process to inclined boundaries, as predicted by Romanov et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 172, 225 (1999)]. Time-resolved synchrotron XRD under bias voltage showed the negligible impact of substrate clamping on the piezoelectric response in the (111)-PZT film, unlike the case for (001)-PZT film. The origin of the negligible clamping effect in the (111)-PZT film is discussed from the viewpoint of the elastic properties and the compensation of lattice distortion between neighboring domains.

  16. Negligible substrate clamping effect on piezoelectric response in (111)-epitaxial tetragonal Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Yasumoto, Jun; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori; Sakata, Osami; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kiguchi, Takanori; Shiraishi, Takahisa; Shimizu, Takao; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The converse piezoelectric responses of (111)- and (001)-epitaxial tetragonal Pb(Zr 0.35 Ti 0.65 )O 3 [PZT] films were compared to investigate the orientation dependence of the substrate clamping effect. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that the as-grown (111)-PZT film has a polydomain structure with normal twin boundaries that are changed by the poling process to inclined boundaries, as predicted by Romanov et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 172, 225 (1999)]. Time-resolved synchrotron XRD under bias voltage showed the negligible impact of substrate clamping on the piezoelectric response in the (111)-PZT film, unlike the case for (001)-PZT film. The origin of the negligible clamping effect in the (111)-PZT film is discussed from the viewpoint of the elastic properties and the compensation of lattice distortion between neighboring domains

  17. High Performance ZVT with Bus Clamping Modulation Technique for Single Phase Full Bridge Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yinglai; Ayyanar, Raja

    2016-03-20

    This paper proposes a topology based on bus clamping modulation and zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) technique to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) for all the main switches of the full bridge inverters, and inherent ZVS and/or ZCS for the auxiliary switches. The advantages of the strategy include significant reduction in the turn-on loss of the ZVT auxiliary switches which typically account for a major part of the total loss in other ZVT circuits, and reduction in the voltage ratings of auxiliary switches. The modulation scheme and the commutation stages are analyzed in detail. Finally, a 1kW, 500 kHz switching frequency inverter of the proposed topology using SiC MOSFETs has been built to validate the theoretical analysis. The ZVT with bus clamping modulation technique of fixed timing and adaptive timing schemes are implemented in DSP TMS320F28335 resulting in full ZVS for the main switches in the full bridge inverter. The proposed scheme can save up to 33 % of the switching loss compared with no ZVT case.

  18. Applications of Dynamic Clamp to Cardiac Arrhythmia Research: Role in Drug Target Discovery and Safety Pharmacology Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A. Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic clamp, a hybrid-computational-experimental technique that has been used to elucidate ionic mechanisms underlying cardiac electrophysiology, is emerging as a promising tool in the discovery of potential anti-arrhythmic targets and in pharmacological safety testing. Through the injection of computationally simulated conductances into isolated cardiomyocytes in a real-time continuous loop, dynamic clamp has greatly expanded the capabilities of patch clamp outside traditional static voltage and current protocols. Recent applications include fine manipulation of injected artificial conductances to identify promising drug targets in the prevention of arrhythmia and the direct testing of model-based hypotheses. Furthermore, dynamic clamp has been used to enhance existing experimental models by addressing their intrinsic limitations, which increased predictive power in identifying pro-arrhythmic pharmacological compounds. Here, we review the recent advances of the dynamic clamp technique in cardiac electrophysiology with a focus on its future role in the development of safety testing and discovery of anti-arrhythmic drugs.

  19. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  20. Size-dependent dynamic stability analysis of microbeams actuated by piezoelectric voltage based on strain gradient elasticity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmani, Saeid; Bahrami, Mohsen [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    In the current paper, dynamic stability analysis of microbeams subjected to piezoelectric voltage is presented in which the microbeam is integrated with piezoelectric layers on the lower and upper surfaces. Both of the flutter and divergence instabilities of microbeams with clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are predicted corresponding to various values of applied voltage. To take size effect into account, the classical Timoshenko beam theory in conjunction with strain gradient elasticity theory is utilized to develop nonclassical beam model containing three additional internal length scale parameters. By using Hamilton's principle, the higher-order governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions are derived. Afterward, generalized differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the size-dependent governing differential equations along with clamped-clamped and clamped-free end supports. The critical piezoelectric voltages corresponding to various values dimensionless length scale parameter are evaluated and compared with those predicted by the classical beam theory. It is revealed that in the case of clamped-free boundary conditions, the both of flutter and divergence instabilities occur. However, for the clamped-clamped microbeams, only divergence instability takes place.

  1. Battery charger with a capacitor-diode clamped LLC resonant converter

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, C.; Bingham, C.; Foster, M. P.; Stone, D.; Leech, J.

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel battery charger through use of\\ud two serially-connected LLC resonant converters. The first\\ud stage utilises a capacitor-diode clamped LLC resonant\\ud converter which allows operation in both constant voltage\\ud (CV) and constant current (CC) modes, as found in most\\ud battery chargers, to be realised, whilst the second stage\\ud provides the necessary gain and line and load regulation. A\\ud design example is included that demonstrates the resulting\\ud converter top...

  2. Harmonic elimination in diode-clamped multilevel inverter using evolutionary algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkati, Said [Laboratoire d' analyse des Signaux et Systemes (LASS), Universite de M' sila, BP. 166, rue Ichbilia 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Baghli, Lotfi [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), CNRS UMR 7030, Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, BP. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Berkouk, El Madjid; Boucherit, Mohamed-Seghir [Laboratoire de Commande des Processus (LCP), Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, BP. 182, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, 16200 El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2008-10-15

    This paper describes two evolutionary algorithms for the optimized harmonic stepped-waveform technique. Genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization are applied to compute the switching angles in a three-phase seven-level inverter to produce the required fundamental voltage while, at the same time, specified harmonics are eliminated. Furthermore, these algorithms are also used to solve the starting point problem of the Newton-Raphson conventional method. This combination provides a very effective method for the harmonic elimination technique. This strategy is useful for different structures of seven-level inverters. The diode-clamped topology is considered in this study. (author)

  3. Reducing blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy by temporary uterine artery clamping using bulldog clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jo Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine myoma is the most common benign gynecologic tumor worldwide. Mini-invasive surgery has become popular for myomectomy, with advantages over laparotomy. However, reducing blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy is a major concern for the surgeon because of the limitation in making a quick control bleeding during the operation. Several methods have proved to decrease blood flow, but are not always effective or available. We present a case of uterine myoma with the uterine arteries clamped by bulldog clamps during laparoscopic myomectomy. The myoma was removed successfully with minimal blood loss (<50 ml during the operation. This is an effective, safe, and reliable method for reducing bleeding during laparoscopic myomectomy that does not require ligation of the uterine artery.

  4. Ion channel electrophysiology via integrated planar patch-clamp chip with on-demand drug exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Yu; Tu, Ting-Yuan; Jong, De-Shien; Wo, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    Planar patch clamp has revolutionized characterization of ion channel behavior in drug discovery primarily via advancement in high throughput. Lab use of planar technology, however, addresses different requirements and suffers from inflexibility to enable wide range of interrogation via a single cell. This work presents integration of planar patch clamp with microfluidics, achieving multiple solution exchanges for tailor-specific measurement and allowing rapid replacement of the cell-contacting aperture. Studies via endogenously expressed ion channels in HEK 293T cells were commenced to characterize the device. Results reveal the microfluidic concentration generator produces distinct solution/drug combination/concentrations on-demand. Volume-regulated chloride channel and voltage-gated potassium channels in HEK 293T cells immersed in generated solutions under various osmolarities or drug concentrations show unique channel signature under specific condition. Excitation and blockage of ion channels in a single cell was demonstrated via serial solution exchange. Robustness of the reversible bonding and ease of glass substrate replacement were proven via repeated usage of the integrated device. The present approach reveals the capability and flexibility of integrated microfluidic planar patch-clamp system for ion channel assays. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...... strategy is proposed. It has a very simple structure, and the common-mode voltages can be kept constant with no need of complex space-vector modulation or multicarrier pulsewidth modulation. Experimental results verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the presented method....

  6. Evaluation of clamp effects on LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Loop-type liquid metal breeder reactor plants utilize thin-wall piping to mitigate through-wall thermal gradients due to rapid thermal transients. These piping loops require a support system to carry the combined weight of the pipe, coolant and insulation and to provide attachments for seismic restraints. The support system examined here utilizes an insulated pipe clamp designed to minimize the stresses induced in the piping. To determine the effect of these clamps on the pipe wall a non-linear, two-dimensional, finite element model of the clamp, insulation and pipe wall was used to determine the clamp/pipe interface load distributions which were then applied to a three-dimensional, finite element model of the pipe. The two-dimensional interaction model was also utilized to estimate the combined clamp/pipe stiffness

  7. Multi-mode excitation of a clamped–clamped microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2015-02-18

    We present modeling and simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of a microresonator subjected to two-source electrostatic excitation. The resonator is composed of a clamped–clamped beam excited by a DC voltage load superimposed to two AC voltage loads of different frequencies. One frequency is tuned close to the first natural frequency of the beam and the other is close to the third (second symmetric) natural frequency. A multi-mode Galerkin procedure is applied to extract a reduced-order model, which forms the basis of the numerical simulations. Time history response, Poincare’ sections, Fast Fourier Transforms FFT, and bifurcation diagrams are used to reveal the dynamics of the system. The results indicate complex nonlinear phenomena, which include quasiperiodic motion, torus bifurcations, and modulated chaotic attractors.

  8. Single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Andrew, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter topology which integrates the cascaded configurations of recently introduced inductor-capacitor-capacitor-transformer impedance source network (by Adamowicz) and classic NPC configuration. As a consequence......, it has enhanced buck-boost functionality and low output voltage distortions compared to the traditional Z-source inverter; it has continuous input current which reduces the source stress and inverter noise; it also contains two built-in capacitors which can block the DC current in the transformer...... windings thus preventing the core from saturation; lowers the voltage stresses and power losses of inverter switches and reduces the sizes of filtering devices and as well as obtains better output performance compared to the original two-level Z-source inverters. A phase disposition pulse width modulation...

  9. Neutral-point voltage dynamic model of three-level NPC inverter for reactive load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A three-level neutral-point-clamped inverter needs a controller for the neutral-point voltage. Typically, the controller design is based on a dynamic model. The dynamic model of the neutral-point voltage depends on the pulse width modulation technique used for the inverter. A pulse width modulati...

  10. Model Predictive Control of Z-source Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Model Predictive Control (MPC) of Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter. For illustration, current control of Z-source NPC grid-connected inverter is analyzed and simulated. With MPC’s advantage of easily including system constraints, load current, impedance network...... response are obtained at the same time with a formulated Z-source NPC inverter network model. Operation steady state and transient state simulation results of MPC are going to be presented, which shows good reference tracking ability of this method. It provides new control method for Z-source NPC inverter...

  11. Correlation of open cell-attached and excised patch clamp techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, D; Hayslett, J P

    1995-11-01

    The excised patch clamp configuration provides a unique technique for some types of single channel analyses, but maintenance of stable, long-lasting preparations may be confounded by rundown and/or rapid loss of seal. Studies were performed on the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel, located on the apical surface of A6 cells, to determine whether the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch could serve as an alternative configuration. Compared to excised inside-out patches, stable preparations were achieved more readily with the open cell-attached patch (9% vs. 56% of attempts). In both preparations, the current voltage (I-V) relation was linear, current amplitudes were equal at opposite equivalent clamped voltages, and Erev was zero in symmetrical Na+ solutions, indicating similar Na+ activities on the cytosolic and external surfaces of the patch. Moreover, there was no evidence that nystatin altered channel activity in the patch because slope conductance (3-4pS) and Erev (75 mV), when the bath was perfused with a high K:low Na solution (ENa = 80 mV), were nearly equal in both patch configurations. Our results therefore indicate that the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch can serve as an alternative approach to the excised inside-out patch when experiments require modulation of univalent ions in the cytosol.

  12. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  13. Sinusoidal voltage protocols for rapid characterisation of ion channel kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kylie A; Hill, Adam P; Bardenet, Rémi; Cui, Yi; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Gavaghan, David J; de Boer, Teun P; Mirams, Gary R

    2018-03-24

    Ion current kinetics are commonly represented by current-voltage relationships, time constant-voltage relationships and subsequently mathematical models fitted to these. These experiments take substantial time, which means they are rarely performed in the same cell. Rather than traditional square-wave voltage clamps, we fitted a model to the current evoked by a novel sum-of-sinusoids voltage clamp that was only 8 s long. Short protocols that can be performed multiple times within a single cell will offer many new opportunities to measure how ion current kinetics are affected by changing conditions. The new model predicts the current under traditional square-wave protocols well, with better predictions of underlying currents than literature models. The current under a novel physiologically relevant series of action potential clamps is predicted extremely well. The short sinusoidal protocols allow a model to be fully fitted to individual cells, allowing us to examine cell-cell variability in current kinetics for the first time. Understanding the roles of ion currents is crucial to predict the action of pharmaceuticals and mutations in different scenarios, and thereby to guide clinical interventions in the heart, brain and other electrophysiological systems. Our ability to predict how ion currents contribute to cellular electrophysiology is in turn critically dependent on our characterisation of ion channel kinetics - the voltage-dependent rates of transition between open, closed and inactivated channel states. We present a new method for rapidly exploring and characterising ion channel kinetics, applying it to the hERG potassium channel as an example, with the aim of generating a quantitatively predictive representation of the ion current. We fitted a mathematical model to currents evoked by a novel 8 second sinusoidal voltage clamp in CHO cells overexpressing hERG1a. The model was then used to predict over 5 minutes of recordings in the same cell in response to

  14. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  15. Load-deflection characteristics of small bore insulated pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    High temperature LMFBR piping is subject to rapid temperature changes during transient events. Typically, this pipe is supported by specially designed insulated pipe clamps to prevent excessive thermal stress from developing during these transients. The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  16. Is "Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping" Beneficial for Premature Newborns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The appropriate moment for clamping the umbilical cord is controversial. Immediate cord clamping (ICC is an item of active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL. Unclamped umbilical cord may cause inconvenience in preterm neonates because they commonly need some levels of emergent services. Some studies revealed delayed cord clamping (DCC of preterm neonates results in better health conditions like lower rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, less morbidities in labor room and lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on premature neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this single‑center randomized control trial study, sixty premature neonates (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks were randomly assigned to ICC (cord clamped at 5–10 seconds or DCC (30–45 seconds groups and followed up in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Primary outcomes were 1st and 5th minute Apgar score, average of level of hematocrit after birth, intra ventricle hemorrhage and need some levels of resuscitation. Results: Differences in demographic characteristics were not statistically significant. After birth, neonates who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean hematocrit after at 4-hour of birth (49.58+5.15gr/dl vs. 46.58+5.40gr/dlin DCC vs. ICC groups, respectively (P=0.031. Delayed cord clamping reduced the duration of need to nasal continues positive airway pressure (NCPAP (86.7% and 60.0% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P= 0.039. Attractively, the results showed lower incidence of clinical sepsis in delayed cord clamping neonates (53.3% vs. 23.3% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P=0.033. Conclusion: Prematurity complications might decrease by delay umbilical cord clamping which improve the hematocrit, duration of need to NCPAP and incidence of clinical sepsis. Furthermore, DCC may have no negative impact on neonatal resuscitation.

  17. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  18. Lotus birth, a holistic approach on physiological cord clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Laura A

    2018-04-01

    The positive effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been extensively researched. DCC means: waiting at least one minute after birth before clamping and cutting the cord or till the pulsation has stopped. With physiological clamping and cutting (PCC) the clamping and cutting can happen at the earliest after the pulsation has stopped. With a Lotus birth, no clamping and cutting of the cord is done. A woman called Clair Lotus Day imitated the holistic approach of PCC from an anthropoid ape in 1974. The chimpanzee did not separate the placenta from the newborn. The aim of this case report is to discuss and learn a different approach in the third stage of labour. Three cases of Lotus birth by human beings were observed. All three women gave birth in an out-of-hospital setting and had ambulant postnatal care. The placenta was washed, salted and herbs were put on 2-3h post partum. The placenta was wrapped in something that absorbs the moisture. The salting was repeated with a degreasing frequency depending on moistness of the placenta. On life day six all three Lotus babies experiences a natural separation of the cord. All three Lotus birth cases were unproblematic, no special incidence occurred. One should differentiate between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and physiological cord clamping (PCC). Lotus birth might lead to an optimisation of the bonding and attachment. Research is needed in the areas of both PCC and Lotus birth. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known.We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2 were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation. Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1 prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2 after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping.Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping.The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  20. A new clamp method for firing bricks | Obeng | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new clamp method for firing bricks. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... To overcome this operational deficiencies, a new method of firing bricks that uses brick clamp technique that incorporates a clamp wall of 60 cm thickness, a six tier approach of sealing the top of the clamp (by combination of green bricks) ...

  1. Influence of squeeze film damping on the higher-order modes of clamped–clamped microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha

    2016-05-06

    This paper presents an experimental study and a finite-element analysis of the effect of squeeze film damping on the resonance frequency and quality factor of the higher-order flexure vibrations modes of clamped-clamped microbeams. Viscoelastic and silicon nitride microbeams are fabricated and are electrostatically actuated by various electrode configurations to trigger the first, second, and third modes. The damping characteristic and the resonance frequency of these modes are examined for a wide range of gas pressure and electrostatic voltage loads. The results of the silicon nitride beams and viscoelastic beams are compared. It is found that the intrinsic material loss is the major dissipation mechanism at low pressure for the viscoelastic microbeams, significantly limiting their quality factor. It is also found that while the silicon nitride beams show higher quality factors at the intrinsic and molecular regimes of pressure, due to their low intrinsic loss, their quality factors near atmospheric pressure are lower than those of the viscoelastic microbeams. Further, the higher-order modes of all the beams show much higher quality factors at atmospheric pressure compared to the first mode, which could be promising for operating such resonators in air. Experimental results and finite element model simulations show good agreement for resonance frequency and quality factor for the three studied modes. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  3. Grid Filter Design for a Multi-Megawatt Medium-Voltage Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockhill, A.A.; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure and performance of an LCL grid filter for a medium-voltage neutral point clamped (NPC) converter to be adopted for a multimegawatt wind turbine. The unique filter design challenges in this application are driven by a combination of the medium voltage...... converter, a limited allowable switching frequency, component physical size and weight concerns, and the stringent limits for allowable injected current harmonics. Traditional design procedures of grid filters for lower power and higher switching frequency converters are not valid for a multi......-megawatt filter connecting a medium-voltage converter switching at low frequency to the electric grid. This paper demonstrates a frequency domain model based approach to determine the optimum filter parameters that provide the necessary performance under all operating conditions given the necessary design...

  4. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  5. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  6. Enhanced DC-Link Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control of DC–AC Multilevel Multileg Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busquets-Monge, Sergio; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Nicolas-Apruzzese, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a capacitor voltage balancing control applicable to any multilevel dc–ac converter formed by a single set of series-connected capacitors implementing the dc link and semiconductor devices, such as the diode-clamped topology. The control is defined for any number of dc-link vol......This paper presents a capacitor voltage balancing control applicable to any multilevel dc–ac converter formed by a single set of series-connected capacitors implementing the dc link and semiconductor devices, such as the diode-clamped topology. The control is defined for any number of dc...

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Pulsewidth Modulation Strategies for Z-Source Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wong, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    modulation (PWM) strategies for controlling the Z-source NPC inverter. While developing the PWM techniques, attention has been devoted to carefully derive them from a common generic basis for improved portability, easier implementation, and most importantly, assisting readers in understanding all concepts......Z-source neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter has recently been proposed as an alternative three-level buck-boost power conversion solution with an improved output waveform quality. In principle, the designed Z-source inverter functions by selectively "shooting through" its power sources, coupled...... to the inverter using two unique Z-source impedance networks, to boost the inverter three-level output waveform. Proper modulation of the new inverter would therefore require careful integration of the selective shoot-through process to the basic switching concepts to achieve maximal voltage-boost, minimal...

  8. Improving the transient response of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer using a parallel resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo Tsi

    2003-08-01

    This paper suggests a parallel resistor to reduce DC time constant and DC response time of the transient response, induced immediately after an AC voltage connected to a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) is switched off. An equivalent circuit is first expressed. Then, an open-circuit transient response at the terminals induced by initial states is derived and measured, and thus parameters for losses of the BLT device are estimated by DC and AC time constants of the transient response. Moreover, a driving and measuring system is designed to determine transient response and steady-state responses of the BLT device, and a parallel resistor is connected to the BLT device to reduce the DC time constant. Experimental results indicate that the DC time constant greatly exceeds the AC time constant without the parallel resistor, and greatly decreases from 42 to 1 ms by a 100-kOmega parallel resistor.

  9. Mechanical nonlinearity elimination with a micromechanical clamped-free semicircular beams resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Xuying; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xinxin; Guan, Yangyang; Xie, Jin

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a micro-machined clamped-free semicircular beam resonator aiming to eliminate the nonlinearity that widely exists in traditional mechanical resonators. Cubic coefficients over vibration displacement due to axial extension of the beams are analyzed through theoretical modelling, and the corresponding frequency effect is demonstrated. With the device working in the elastic vibration mode, the cubic coefficients are eliminated by using a free end to release the nonlinear extension of beams and thus the inside axial stress. The amplitude-frequency (A-f) effect is overcome in a large region of source power, and the coefficient of frequency softening is linearized in a large region of polarization voltage. As a result, the resonator can be driven at larger vibration amplitude to achieve a high signal to noise ratio and power handling performance.

  10. Patch clamp study of mouse glomus cells using a whole carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Lande, Boris; Kitajima, Toshimitsu; Hori, Yuichi; Shirahata, Machiko

    2004-03-04

    Some electrophysiological characteristics of mouse glomus cells (DBA/2J strain) were investigated using an undissociated carotid body. The carotid body with major carotid arteries was placed in a recording chamber, and glomus cells were visualized with a water immersion lens combined with an infrared differential interference video camera. Patch clamp experiments revealed that voltage-gated outward current, but not inward current, was easily observed in glomus cells. Pharmacological experiments and the kinetics of the current suggest that outward current is via delayed rectifier, A type, and large conductance calcium-activated K channels. Furthermore, K current was reversibly attenuated by mild hypoxia. The results suggest electrophysiological similarities of glomus cells among the cat, the rat, and the DBA/2J mouse. The method appears useful for physiological experiments.

  11. Voltage stability in low voltage microgrids in aspects of active and reactive power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parol Mirosław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage microgrids are autonomous subsystems, in which generation, storage and power and electrical energy consumption appear. In the paper the main attention has been paid to the voltage stability issue in low voltage microgrid for different variants of its operation. In the introduction a notion of microgrid has been presented, and also the issue of influence of active and reactive power balance on node voltage level has been described. Then description of voltage stability issue has been presented. The conditions of voltage stability and indicators used to determine voltage stability margin in the microgrid have been described. Description of the low voltage test microgrid, as well as research methodology along with definition of considered variants of its operation have been presented further. The results of exemplary calculations carried out for the daily changes in node load of the active and reactive power, i.e. the voltage and the voltage stability margin indexes in nodes have been presented. Furthermore, the changes of voltage stability margin indexes depending on the variant of the microgrid operation have been presented. Summary and formulation of conclusions related to the issue of voltage stability in microgrids have been included at the end of the paper.

  12. Improved non-dimensional dynamic influence function method for vibration analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates with clamped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new formulation for the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method, which was developed by the authors, is proposed to efficiently extract eigenvalues and mode shapes of clamped plates with arbitrary shapes. Compared with the finite element and boundary element methods, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method yields highly accurate solutions in eigenvalue analysis problems of plates and membranes including acoustic cavities. However, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method requires the uneconomic procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues because it produces a non-algebraic eigenvalue problem. This article describes a new approach that reduces the problem of free vibrations of clamped plates to an algebraic eigenvalue problem, the solution of which is straightforward. The validity and efficiency of the proposed method are illustrated through several numerical examples.

  13. A self-strain feedback tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite clamping actuator with soft matter elasticity-detecting capability for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Huang, Wei-Lun

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smart tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) clamping actuator for biomedical applications. The two fingers of the actuator, which perform the clamping motion, can be electrically controlled through a unique electrode design on the IPMC material. The generated displacement or strain of the fingers can be sensed using an integrated soft strain-gage sensor. The IPMC actuator and associated soft strain gage were fabricated using a micromachining technique. A 13.5×4×2 mm(3) actuator was shaped from Nafion solution and a selectively grown metal electrode formed the active region. The strain gage consisted of patterned copper foil and polyethylene as a substrate. The relationship between the strain gage voltage output and the displacement at the front end of the actuator's fingers was characterized. The equivalent Young's modulus, 13.65 MPa, of the soft-strain-gage-integrated IPMC finger was analyzed. The produced clamping force exhibited a linear increasing rate of 1.07 mN/s, based on a dc driving voltage of 7 V. Using the developed actuator to clamp soft matter and simultaneously acquire its Young's modulus was achieved. This demonstrated the feasibility of the palpation function and the potential use of the actuator in minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ß-adrenergic regulation of ion transport in pancreatic ducts: Patch-clamp study of isolated rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In the intact pancreas, bicarbonate secretion is thought to be controlled by a number of regulators, including adrenergic agonists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adrenergic agonists on pancreatic ducts, which are the site of bicarbonate secretion....... METHODS: Small intralobular ducts were isolated from rat pancreas and studied in vitro by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell membrane voltages and currents were indicators of cellular ion transport. In some ducts, intracellular Ca2+ activity was measured by fluorescence optical methods. RESULTS...

  15. Improved Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped (I-ANPC) Multilevel Converter: Fundamental Circuit Topology, Innovative Modulatioin Technique, and Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dargahi, Vahid; Corzine, Keith A.; Enslin, Johan H.

    2018-01-01

    For medium-voltage (MV) high-power industrial applications including HVDC and variable-speed motor drives, multilevel converters are deemed predominant topology. One of the promising derived-topologies from neutral-point-clamped (NPC) configuration is active NPC (ANPC) inverter that offers improved......-capacitor (FC) and four switches such as the insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). The I-ANPC converter has considerable advantages over the classic multilevel inverters that makes it a preferable topology for MV applications. The substantial reduction in the number of cells in comparison with classic...

  16. Operation and thermal loading of three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped wind power converter under various grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In order to fulfill the continuous growing grid-side demands, the full-scale power converters are becoming more and more popular in the wind power application. Nevertheless, the more severe loading of the power semiconductor devices in the full-scale power converters, especially during Low Voltage...... Ride Through (LVRT) operation under grid faults, may compromise the reliability of the system and consequently further increase its cost. In this paper, the impact of various grid faults on a three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped (3L-NPC) grid-converter in terms of thermal loading of power semiconductor...

  17. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming; Lu, Wei Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape

  18. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong UniversityXi' an (China); Lu, Wei Zhen [Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-09-15

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape.

  19. Natural Vibration Analysis of Clamped Rectangular Orthotropic Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    dalaei, m.; kerr, a. d.

    The natural vibrations of clamped rectangular orthotropic plates are analyzed using the extended Kantorovich method. The developed iterative scheme converges very rapidly to the final result. The obtained natural frequencies are evaluated for a square plate made of Kevlar 49 Epoxy and the obtained results are compared with those published by Kanazawa and Kawai, and by Leissa. The agreement was found to be very close. As there are no exact analytical solutions for clamped rectangular plates, the generated closed form expression for the natural modes, and the corresponding natural frequencies, are very suitable for use in engineering analyses.

  20. Improved DNA clamps by stacking to adjacent nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatthalla, M.I.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Three or four aromatic rings interconnected by acetylene bridges form a stiff conjugated system with sufficient conformational freedom to make it useful to link together the two strands of a DNA clamp. Upon targeting a ssDNA, the conformational flexibility allows better stacking of the linker...... to the underlying non-planar base triplet in the formed triplex. This type of triplexes has a substantially higher thermal melting temperature which can be further improved by inserting locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the Hoogsteen part of the clamp. An extremely high sensitivity to mismatches is observed...

  1. Neutral-point current modeling and control for Neutral-Point Clamped three-level converter drive with small DC-link capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small DC-link capacitors is presented in this paper. This inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point potential. A simple carrier based modulation strategy is proposed for achieving zero average neutral...... drive with only 14 μF DC-link capacitors. A fast and stable performance of the neutral-point voltage controller is achieved and verified by experiments....

  2. Boundary discontinuous Fourier analysis of thick beams with clamped and simply supported edges via CUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. CANALES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical solution for static analysis of thick rectangular beams with different boundary conditions. Carrera’s Unified Formulation (CUF is used in order to consider shear deformation theories of arbitrary order. The novelty of the present work is that a boundary discontinuous Fourier approach is used to consider clamped boundary conditions in the analytical solution, unlike Navier-type solutions which are restricted to simply supported beams. Governing equations are obtained by employing the principle of virtual work. The numerical accuracy of results is ascertained by studying the convergence of the solution and comparing the results to those of a 3D finite element solution. Beams subjected to bending due to a uniform pressure load and subjected to torsion due to opposite linear forces are considered. Overall, accurate results close to those of 3D finite element solutions are obtained, which can be used to validate finite element results or other approximate methods.

  3. 21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (the principal artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and has a removable adjusting mechanism that protrudes through the skin of the patient's neck. The clamp is used to occlude the patient's... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  4. Estimates for lower order eigenvalues of a clamped plate problem

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qing-Ming; Huang, Guangyue; Wei, Guoxin

    2009-01-01

    For a bounded domain $\\Omega$ in a complete Riemannian manifold $M^n$, we study estimates for lower order eigenvalues of a clamped plate problem. We obtain universal inequalities for lower order eigenvalues. We would like to remark that our results are sharp.

  5. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resistant material; and (2) Not cut or abrade the fuel line. (b) If tested in accordance with the fire test under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or “USCG... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.532 Clips...

  6. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study, we measured insulin sensitivity (M/I) using the euglycemic clamp technique in 1073 healthy European adults (587 women, 486 men) aged 30 to 60 years followed up 3 years later. Systolic BP (SBP) at baseline was higher in insulin-resistant women (ie, those in the low sex...

  7. Voltage-dependent motion of the catalytic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase monitored by a fluorescent amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Jinno, Yuka; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-07-05

    The cytoplasmic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) derives the voltage dependence of its catalytic activity from coupling to a voltage sensor homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels. To assess the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic region upon activation of the voltage sensor, we genetically incorporated a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, 3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (Anap), into the catalytic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). Measurements of Anap fluorescence under voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the catalytic region assumes distinct conformations dependent on the degree of voltage-sensor activation. FRET analysis showed that the catalytic region remains situated beneath the plasma membrane, irrespective of the voltage level. Moreover, Anap fluorescence from a membrane-facing loop in the C2 domain showed a pattern reflecting substrate turnover. These results indicate that the voltage sensor regulates Ci-VSP catalytic activity by causing conformational changes in the entire catalytic region, without changing their distance from the plasma membrane.

  8. Voltage-dependent motion of the catalytic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase monitored by a fluorescent amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Jinno, Yuka; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) derives the voltage dependence of its catalytic activity from coupling to a voltage sensor homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels. To assess the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic region upon activation of the voltage sensor, we genetically incorporated a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, 3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (Anap), into the catalytic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). Measurements of Anap fluorescence under voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the catalytic region assumes distinct conformations dependent on the degree of voltage-sensor activation. FRET analysis showed that the catalytic region remains situated beneath the plasma membrane, irrespective of the voltage level. Moreover, Anap fluorescence from a membrane-facing loop in the C2 domain showed a pattern reflecting substrate turnover. These results indicate that the voltage sensor regulates Ci-VSP catalytic activity by causing conformational changes in the entire catalytic region, without changing their distance from the plasma membrane. PMID:27330112

  9. A patch-clamp ASIC for nanopore-based DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsuk; Maitra, Raj; Pedrotti, Kenneth D; Dunbar, William B

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a fully integrated high-sensitivity patch-clamp system is proposed for single-molecule deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis using a nanopore sensor. This system is composed of two main blocks for amplification and compensation. The amplification block is composed of three stages: 1) a headstage, 2) a voltage-gain difference amplifier, and 3) a track-and-hold circuit, that amplify a minute ionic current variation sensed by the nanopore while the compensation block avoids the headstage saturation caused by the input parasitic capacitances during sensing. By employing design techniques novel for this application, such as an instrumentation--amplifier topology and a compensation switch, we minimize the deleterious effects of the input-offset voltage and the input parasitic capacitances while attaining hardware simplicity. This system is fabricated in a 0.35 μm 4M2P CMOS process and is demonstrated using an α-hemolysin protein nanopore for detection of individual molecules of single-stranded DNA that pass through the 1.5 nm-diameter pore. In future work, the refined system will functionalize single and multiple solid-state nanopores formed in integrated microfluidic devices for advanced DNA analysis, in scientific and diagnostic applications.

  10. The Dynamics of a Doubly Clamped Microbeam Near the Primary Resonance: Experimental and Analytical Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Karim M.

    2016-01-20

    We present experimental and analytical investigation of the dynamics of a doubly clamped microbeam near its primary resonance. The microbeam is excited electrostatically by an electrode on the first half of the beam. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. A noise signal is applied to experimentally detect the natural frequencies. Then, frequency sweep tests are generated for various values of DC bias revealing hardening, transition, and softening behavior of the microbeam. We report for the first time the transition from lower stable state, to unstable state, and then to large stable state experimentally. A multi-mode Galerkin method is used to develop a reduced order model (ROM) of the beam. Shooting method is used to find the periodic motion and is utilized to generate frequency response curves. The curves show good agreement with the experimental results with hardening behavior at lower DC voltage then softening at higher voltage loads and dynamic pull-in. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.

  11. Patch-Clamp Recording from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Improving Action Potential Characteristics through Dynamic Clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Christiaan C.; Zegers, Jan G.; Mengarelli, Isabella; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2017-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) hold great promise for studying inherited cardiac arrhythmias and developing drug therapies to treat such arrhythmias. Unfortunately, until now, action potential (AP) measurements in hiPSC-CMs have been hampered by the virtual absence of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) in hiPSC-CMs, resulting in spontaneous activity and altered function of various depolarising and repolarising membrane currents. We assessed whether AP measurements in “ventricular-like” and “atrial-like” hiPSC-CMs could be improved through a simple, highly reproducible dynamic clamp approach to provide these cells with a substantial IK1 (computed in real time according to the actual membrane potential and injected through the patch-clamp pipette). APs were measured at 1 Hz using perforated patch-clamp methodology, both in control cells and in cells treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) during the differentiation process to increase the number of cells with atrial-like APs. RA-treated hiPSC-CMs displayed shorter APs than control hiPSC-CMs and this phenotype became more prominent upon addition of synthetic IK1 through dynamic clamp. Furthermore, the variability of several AP parameters decreased upon IK1 injection. Computer simulations with models of ventricular-like and atrial-like hiPSC-CMs demonstrated the importance of selecting an appropriate synthetic IK1. In conclusion, the dynamic clamp-based approach of IK1 injection has broad applicability for detailed AP measurements in hiPSC-CMs. PMID:28867785

  12. Four- year thyroidectomy procedures: Ligasure Vs. clamp & tie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki AR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system is an adjunct to the hemostatic technique, which has been successfully used in many abdominal operation, recently made available to thyroid surgery. The purpose of this was compare the outcomes of new hemostatic technique with traditional method of clamp and tie."n"nMethods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study has been done in surgery's wards of Milad & Rasul- Akram hospitals in Tehran, Iran. During three- year period between 2005-2008 all patients with different kind of pathology that need operation were assessed. Time duration of surgery and hospital stay and post surgery complication in two group, ligasure (n=45 and clamp & tie (n=145 were compared with each others."n"nResults: No difference was seen between two groups in time duration of surgery. Significant difference was seen in hospital stay and complications of surgery. Time of operation in Ligasure group was 132/22 minute and in clamp and tie group was 130/10 minute. There was found significant difference in duration of hospital stay and postoperative complication. Hypocalcemia were seen in two and 24 cases in Ligasure and Clamp & Tie group, respectively (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 2

  13. Higher order modes excitation of electrostatically actuated clamped–clamped microbeams: experimental and analytical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. In this study, we demonstrate analytically and experimentally the excitations of the higher order modes of vibrations in electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam resonators. The concept is based on using

  14. Dimerization of the voltage-sensing phosphatase controls its voltage-sensing and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; Royal, Perrine; Stengel, Karen; Sandoz, Guillaume; Kohout, Susy C

    2018-05-07

    Multimerization is a key characteristic of most voltage-sensing proteins. The main exception was thought to be the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP). In this study, we show that multimerization is also critical for Ci-VSP function. Using coimmunoprecipitation and single-molecule pull-down, we find that Ci-VSP stoichiometry is flexible. It exists as both monomers and dimers, with dimers favored at higher concentrations. We show strong dimerization via the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and weak dimerization via the phosphatase domain. Using voltage-clamp fluorometry, we also find that VSDs cooperate to lower the voltage dependence of activation, thus favoring the activation of Ci-VSP. Finally, using activity assays, we find that dimerization alters Ci-VSP substrate specificity such that only dimeric Ci-VSP is able to dephosphorylate the 3-phosphate from PI(3,4,5)P 3 or PI(3,4)P 2 Our results indicate that dimerization plays a significant role in Ci-VSP function. © 2018 Rayaprolu et al.

  15. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  16. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  17. An equivalent network representation of a clamped bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer with circular and annular electrodes using matrix manipulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammoura, Firas; Smyth, Katherine; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2013-09-01

    An electric circuit model for a clamped circular bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) was developed for the first time. The pMUT consisted of two piezoelectric layers sandwiched between three thin electrodes. The top and bottom electrodes were separated into central and annular electrodes by a small gap. While the middle electrode was grounded, the central and annular electrodes were biased with two independent voltage sources. The strain mismatch between the piezoelectric layers caused the plate to vibrate and transmit a pressure wave, whereas the received echo generated electric charges resulting from plate deformation. The clamped pMUT plate was separated into a circular and an annular plate, and the respective electromechanical transformation matrices were derived. The force and velocity vectors were properly selected using Hamilton's principle and the necessary boundary conditions were invoked. The electromechanical transformation matrix for the clamped circular pMUT was deduced using simple matrix manipulation techniques. The pMUT performance under three biasing schemes was elaborated: 1) central electrode only, 2) central and annular electrodes with voltages of the same magnitude and polarity, and 3) central and annular electrodes with voltages of the same magnitude and opposite polarity. The circuit parameters of the pMUT were extracted for each biasing scheme, including the transformer ratio, the clamped electric impedance, and the open-circuit mechanical impedance. Each pMUT scheme was characterized under different acoustic loadings using the theoretically developed model, which was verified with finite element modeling (FEM) simulation. The electrode size was optimized to maximize the electromechanical transformer ratio. As such, the developed model could provide more insight into the design, optimization, and characterization of pMUTs and allow for performance comparison with their cMUT counterparts.

  18. Active energy recovery clamping circuit to improve the performance of power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Bret; Barkley, Adam

    2017-05-09

    A regenerative clamping circuit for a power converter using clamping diodes to transfer charge to a clamping capacitor and a regenerative converter to transfer charge out of the clamping capacitor back to the power supply input connection. The regenerative converter uses a switch connected to the midpoint of a series connected inductor and capacitor. The ends of the inductor and capacitor series are connected across the terminals of the power supply to be in parallel with the power supply.

  19. Gigaseal formation in patch clamping with applications of nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Malboubi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an investigation of gigaseal formation using micro/nanotechnology. The aims of the book are twofold. First, it explains the mechanisms of gigaseal formation using the latest discoveries. Second, it provides practical techniques for frequent formation of high resistance seals. The formation of a high-resistance electrical seal, also known as a gigaseal, between a cell membrane and a glass micropipette tip is essential in patch-clamp experiments. Even though four decades have passed since the introduction of the patch-clamping technique by Neher and Sakmann, gigaseal formation remains an obstacle in developing the high-throughput ion channel screening systems required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here the authors share their latest methods for achieving gigaseal formation and describe techniques that are highly desirable at both research and industrial levels. Nanotechnology has been found to be a powerful tool for studying and modifying glass micropipettes and in tackling the problem of g...

  20. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and ...

  1. Constant-frequency, clamped-mode resonant converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Materu, Peter; Lee, Fred C.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel clamped-mode resonant converters are proposed which operate at a constant frequency while retaining many desired features of conventional series- and parallel-resonant converters. State-plane analysis techniques are used to identify all possible operating modes and define their mode boundaries. Control-to-output characteristics are derived that specify the regions for natural and forced commutation. The predicted operating modes are verified using a prototype circuit.

  2. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp All cell types SRX159172,SRX15917...0,SRX159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Clamp.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.CeL.50.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.50.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp Cell line SRX159172,SRX159170,SRX...159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.CeL.50.Clamp.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.CeL.05.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.05.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp Cell line SRX159172,SRX159170,SRX...159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.CeL.05.Clamp.AllCell.bed ...

  5. Role of the Checkpoint Clamp in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage occurs during DNA replication, spontaneous chemical reactions, and assaults by external or metabolism-derived agents. Therefore, all living cells must constantly contend with DNA damage. Cells protect themselves from these genotoxic stresses by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. Coordination of these pathways requires tight regulation in order to prevent genomic instability. The checkpoint clamp complex consists of Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 proteins, and is often called the 9-1-1 complex. This PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen-like donut-shaped protein complex is a checkpoint sensor protein that is recruited to DNA damage sites during the early stage of the response, and is required for checkpoint activation. As PCNA is required for multiple pathways of DNA metabolism, the checkpoint clamp has also been implicated in direct roles in DNA repair, as well as in coordination of the pathways. Here we discuss roles of the checkpoint clamp in DNA damage response (DDR.

  6. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  7. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  8. Investigation of the Dynamics of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam Near the Third Mode Using a Partial Electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Karim M.

    2014-08-17

    We present an investigation of the dynamics of a clamped-clamped microbeam excited electrostatically near its third mode. To maximize the response at the third mode, a partial electrode configuration is utilized. A multi-mode Galerkin method is used to develop a reduced order model (ROM) of the beam. A shooting method to find the periodic motion is utilized to generate frequency response curves. The curves show hardenining behavior and dynamic pull-in. We show that the dynamic amplitude of the partial configuration is higher than that of a full electrode configuration. These results are promising for the use of higher-order modes for mass detection and for ultra sensitive resonant sensors.

  9. Investigation of the Dynamics of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam Near the Third Mode Using a Partial Electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Karim M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    We present an investigation of the dynamics of a clamped-clamped microbeam excited electrostatically near its third mode. To maximize the response at the third mode, a partial electrode configuration is utilized. A multi-mode Galerkin method is used to develop a reduced order model (ROM) of the beam. A shooting method to find the periodic motion is utilized to generate frequency response curves. The curves show hardenining behavior and dynamic pull-in. We show that the dynamic amplitude of the partial configuration is higher than that of a full electrode configuration. These results are promising for the use of higher-order modes for mass detection and for ultra sensitive resonant sensors.

  10. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  11. Relaxation of Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes by a Voltage-Dependent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John H. B.; Spitzer, Kenneth W.; Ershler, Philip R.

    1988-08-01

    Cell contraction and relaxation were measured in single voltage-clamped guinea pig cardiomyocytes to investigate the contribution of sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchange to mechanical relaxation. Cells clamped from -80 to 0 millivolts displayed initial phasic and subsequent tonic contractions; caffeine reduced or abolished the phasic and enlarged the tonic contraction. The rate of relaxation from tonic contractions was steeply voltage-dependent and was significantly slowed in the absence of a sarcolemmal Na+ gradient. Tonic contractions elicited in the absence of a Na+ gradient promptly relaxed when external Na+ was applied, reflecting activation of Na+-Ca2+ exchange. It appears that a voltage-dependent Na+-Ca2+ exchange can rapidly mechanically relax mammalian heart muscle.

  12. Clamped seismic metamaterials: ultra-low frequency stop bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achaoui, Y; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S; Antonakakis, T; Brûlé, S; Craster, R V

    2017-01-01

    The regularity of earthquakes, their destructive power, and the nuisance of ground vibration in urban environments, all motivate designs of defence structures to lessen the impact of seismic and ground vibration waves on buildings. Low frequency waves, in the range 1–10 Hz for earthquakes and up to a few tens of Hz for vibrations generated by human activities, cause a large amount of damage, or inconvenience; depending on the geological conditions they can travel considerable distances and may match the resonant fundamental frequency of buildings. The ultimate aim of any seismic metamaterial, or any other seismic shield, is to protect over this entire range of frequencies; the long wavelengths involved, and low frequency, have meant this has been unachievable to date. Notably this is scalable and the effects also hold for smaller devices in ultrasonics. There are three approaches to obtaining shielding effects: bragg scattering, locally resonant sub-wavelength inclusions and zero-frequency stop-band media. The former two have been explored, but the latter has not and is examined here. Elastic flexural waves, applicable in the mechanical vibrations of thin elastic plates, can be designed to have a broad zero-frequency stop-band using a periodic array of very small clamped circles. Inspired by this experimental and theoretical observation, all be it in a situation far removed from seismic waves, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve elastic surface (Rayleigh) wave reflectors at very large wavelengths in structured soils modelled as a fully elastic layer periodically clamped to bedrock. We identify zero frequency stop-bands that only exist in the limit of columns of concrete clamped at their base to the bedrock. In a realistic configuration of a sedimentary basin 15 m deep we observe a zero frequency stop-band covering a broad frequency range of 0–30 Hz. (paper)

  13. [Time of cord clamping and neonatal complications, a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, D; Foguet, A; Rojas, M; Segarra, E; Sacristán, E; Teixidor, R; Ortega, A

    2014-09-01

    To assess the effects of early or late clamping of the umbilical cord in term newborns, assessing the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ferritin, and their correlation with some of the complications. A prospective study of healthy newborns at term or born by dystotic or eutocic delivery in our hospital between May 2009 until May 2010. Patients were assigned according to the time of clamping, group 1 (<60 seconds), group 2 (1 to<2 minutes), and group 3 (2 to 3 minutes). Laboratory tests were performed at birth and at 48 hours of life, assessing the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin, and bilirubin. The risk of polycythemia, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal phototherapy or admission to the Intensive Care Unit and the hospital stay, were evaluated. A total of 242 patients were included: group 1 (g1=80), group 2 (g2=31) y group 3 (g3=131). The background maternal and neonatal characteristics were similar in all sets. The first test showed significant differences in ferritin levels in those infants with delayed clamping (g1: 111 mg/dl, g2: 125 mg/dl, g3: 173 mg/dl; p<0.01). In the second analysis the values of hemoglobin (g1: 17.3 g/dl, g2: 18.9 g/dl, g3: 19.2 g/dl; p<0.01), hematocrit (g1: 53.4%, g2: 58%, g3: 59%; p<0.01) and ferritin (g1: 254 mg/dl, g2: 254.7 mg/dl, g3: 313 mg/dl; p = 0.008) were statistically higher in this group. As regards complications, a significant increase was observed in the number of cases of polycythemia symptoms in group 3. The late cord clamping is associated with an increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin and ferritin at 48 hours of life, as well as an increased risk of polycythemia present with symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  15. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  16. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  17. Control of local intracellular calcium concentration with dynamic-clamp controlled 2-photon uncaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Idoux

    Full Text Available The variations of the intracellular concentration of calcium ion ([Ca(2+](i are at the heart of intracellular signaling, and their imaging is therefore of enormous interest. However, passive [Ca(2+](i imaging provides no control over these variations, meaning that a full exploration of the functional consequences of [Ca(2+](i changes is difficult to attain. The tools designed so far to modify [Ca(2+](i, even qualitatively, suffer drawbacks that undermine their widespread use. Here, we describe an electro-optical technique to quantitatively set [Ca(2+](i, in real time and with sub-cellular resolution, using two-photon Ca(2+ uncaging and dynamic-clamp. We experimentally demonstrate, on neurons from acute olfactory bulb slices of Long Evans rats, various capabilities of this technique previously difficult to achieve, such as the independent control of the membrane potential and [Ca(2+](i variations, the functional knocking-in of user-defined virtual voltage-dependent Ca(2+ channels, and the standardization of [Ca(2+](i patterns across different cells. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for this technique and establish it as a new and versatile tool for the study of cell signaling.

  18. Dynamics of a clamped–clamped microbeam resonator considering fabrication imperfections

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.

    2014-10-18

    We present an investigation into the static and dynamic behavior of an electrostatically actuated clamped–clamped polysilicon microbeam resonator accounting for its fabrication imperfections, which are commonly encountered in similar microstructures. These are mainly because of the initial deformation of the beam due to stress gradient and its flexible anchors. First, we show experimental data of the microbeam when driven electrically by varying the amplitude and frequency of the voltage loads. The results reveal several interesting nonlinear phenomena of jumps, hysteresis, and softening behaviors. Theoretical investigation is then conducted to model the microbeam, and hence, interpret the experimental data. We solve the Eigen value problem governing the natural frequencies analytically. We then utilize a Galerkin-based procedure to derive a reduced order model, which is then used to simulate both the static and dynamic responses. To achieve good matching between theory and experiment, we show that the exact profile of the deformed beam needs to be utilized in the reduced order model, as measured from the optical profiler, combined with a shooting technique simulation, which is capable of tracing the resonant frequency branches under very-low damping conditions.

  19. Application of Simplified Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Converter in a Small Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlodzikowski Pawel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In low power distributed generation systems low cost together with the energy quality requirements are a key element. It is known that quality of voltage waveforms generated from multilevel converters is better in comparison with those from two-level. Due to advancements in power electronics and microcontrollers, multilevel converters are being built with the use of integrated power modules thus this type of converters are getting more compact in size. This paper investigates performance of a derivation from the most popular multilevel topology - a neutral point clamped converter (NPC. Applying the idea for simplifying the topology by reducing the number of switches (what came from drives this NPC converter is capable of bidirectional AC/DC/AC operation. For the AC/DC part two schemes are tested: Direct Torque Control Space Vector Modulated and Field Oriented Control but for the DC/AC part a control scheme utilizing the proportional-resonant controller was chosen. Laboratory setup was based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator with control and acquisition completed with the help of dSpace 1005 control box. Experimental verification shows that system operates properly.

  20. On the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Doubly Clamped Microbeam near Primary Resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Masri, Karim M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally various nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a doubly clamped microbeam near its primary resonance. Mainly, we investigate the transition behavior from hardening, mixed, and then softening behavior. We show in a single frequency-response curve, under a constant voltage load, the transition from hardening to softening behavior demonstrating the dominance of the quadratic electrostatic nonlinearity over the cubic geometric nonlinearity of the beam as the motion amplitudes becomes large, which may lead eventually to dynamic pull-in. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Frequency sweep tests are conducted for different values of DC bias revealing hardening, mixed, and softening behavior of the microbeam. A multi-mode Galerkin model combined with a shooting technique are implemented to generate the frequency response curves and to analyze the stability of the periodic motions using the Floquet theory. The simulated curves show good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Adjustable static and dynamic actuation of clamped-guided beams using electrothermal axial loads

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha

    2018-02-14

    The paper presents adjustable static and dynamic actuations of in-plane clamped-guided beams. The structures, of variable stiffness, can be used as highly tunable resonators and actuators. Axial loads are applied through electrothermal U-shaped and flexure beams actuators stacked near the edges of curved (arch) beams. The electrothermal actuators can be configurred in various ways to adjust as desired the mechanical stiffness of the structures; thereby controlling their deformation stroke as actuators and their operating resonance frequency as resonators. The experimental and finite element results demonstrate the flexibility of the designs in terms of static displacements and resonance frequencies of the first and second symmetric modes of the arches. The results show considerable increase in the resonance frequency and deflection of the microbeam upon changing end actuation conditions, which can be promising for low voltage actuation and tunable resonators applications, such as filters and memory devices. As case studies of potential device configurations of the proposed design, we demonstrate eight possibilities of achieving new static and dynamic behaviors, which produce various resonance frequencies and static displacement curves. The ability to actively shift the entire frequency response curve of a device is desirable for several applications to compensate for in-use anchor degradations and deformations. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate using the device as a resonant logic gate, with active resonance tuning, showing fundamental 2-bit logic functions, such as AND,XOR, and NOR.

  2. Adjustable static and dynamic actuation of clamped-guided beams using electrothermal axial loads

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha; Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents adjustable static and dynamic actuations of in-plane clamped-guided beams. The structures, of variable stiffness, can be used as highly tunable resonators and actuators. Axial loads are applied through electrothermal U-shaped and flexure beams actuators stacked near the edges of curved (arch) beams. The electrothermal actuators can be configurred in various ways to adjust as desired the mechanical stiffness of the structures; thereby controlling their deformation stroke as actuators and their operating resonance frequency as resonators. The experimental and finite element results demonstrate the flexibility of the designs in terms of static displacements and resonance frequencies of the first and second symmetric modes of the arches. The results show considerable increase in the resonance frequency and deflection of the microbeam upon changing end actuation conditions, which can be promising for low voltage actuation and tunable resonators applications, such as filters and memory devices. As case studies of potential device configurations of the proposed design, we demonstrate eight possibilities of achieving new static and dynamic behaviors, which produce various resonance frequencies and static displacement curves. The ability to actively shift the entire frequency response curve of a device is desirable for several applications to compensate for in-use anchor degradations and deformations. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate using the device as a resonant logic gate, with active resonance tuning, showing fundamental 2-bit logic functions, such as AND,XOR, and NOR.

  3. On the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Doubly Clamped Microbeam near Primary Resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-04-07

    This work aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally various nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a doubly clamped microbeam near its primary resonance. Mainly, we investigate the transition behavior from hardening, mixed, and then softening behavior. We show in a single frequency-response curve, under a constant voltage load, the transition from hardening to softening behavior demonstrating the dominance of the quadratic electrostatic nonlinearity over the cubic geometric nonlinearity of the beam as the motion amplitudes becomes large, which may lead eventually to dynamic pull-in. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Frequency sweep tests are conducted for different values of DC bias revealing hardening, mixed, and softening behavior of the microbeam. A multi-mode Galerkin model combined with a shooting technique are implemented to generate the frequency response curves and to analyze the stability of the periodic motions using the Floquet theory. The simulated curves show good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Small Molecules for Early Endosome-Specific Patch Clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth S; Chao, Yu-Kai; Grishchuk, Yulia; Becker, Lars; Heller, Stefan; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2017-07-20

    To resolve the subcellular distribution of endolysosomal ion channels, we have established a novel experimental approach to selectively patch clamp Rab5 positive early endosomes (EE) versus Rab7/LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY). To functionally characterize ion channels in endolysosomal membranes with the patch-clamp technique, it is important to develop techniques to selectively enlarge the respective organelles. We found here that two small molecules, wortmannin and latrunculin B, enlarge Rab5-positive EE when combined but not Rab7-, LAMP1-, or Rab11 (RE)-positive vesicles. The two compounds act rapidly, specifically, and are readily applicable in contrast to genetic approaches or previously used compounds such as vacuolin, which enlarges EE, RE, and LE/LY. We apply this approach here to measure currents mediated by TRPML channels, in particular TRPML3, which we found to be functionally active in both EE and LE/LY in overexpressing cells as well as in endogenously expressing CD11b+ lung-tissue macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-02

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.

  6. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  7. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  8. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  9. Development of a prototype solid state fault current limiting and interrupting device for low voltage distribution networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Putrus, G. A.; Ran, L.; Penlington, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a solid-state Fault Current Limiting and Interrupting Device (FCLID) suitable for low voltage distribution networks. The main components of the FCLID are a bidirectional semiconductor switch that can disrupt the short-circuit current, and a voltage clamping element that helps in controlling the current and absorbing the inductive energy stored in the network during current interruption. Using a hysteresis type control algorithm, the short-circuit curren...

  10. In-situ experimental characterization of the clamping pressure effects on low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Cui, Xiaoti; Frensch, Steffen Henrik

    2017-01-01

    as a gas with the circulating water. The effects of clamping pressure (Pc) on the LT-PEME cell performance, polarization resistances, and hydrogen and water crossover through the membrane, and hydrogen and oxygen production rate are studied. A 50 cm2 active area LT-PEME cell designed and manufactured......-PEME splits water into hydrogen and oxygen when the voltage is applied between anode and cathode. Electrical current forces the positively charged ions to migrate to negatively charged cathode through PEM, where hydrogen is produced. Meanwhile, oxygen is produced at the anode side electrode and escapes...... in house is utilized in this work. Higher Pc has shown higher cell performance this refers to lower ohmic and activation resistances. Water crossover from anode to cathode is slightly decreased at higher Pc resulting in a slight decrease in hydrogen crossover from cathode to anode. Also, the percentage...

  11. Load-deflection characteristics of small-bore insulated-pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1981-12-01

    The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  12. High-Efficiency Isolated Boost DCDC Converter for High-Power Low-Voltage Fuel-Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    high winding losses. The analysis of transformer leakage inductance reveals that extremely low leakage inductance can be achieved, allowing stored energy to be dissipated. Power MOSFETs fully rated for repetitive avalanches allow primary-side voltage clamp circuits to be eliminated. The oversizing...

  13. COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED UMBILICAL CORD CLAMPING IN THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical cord clamping in the third stage of labour is still controversial. Early cord clamping is defined as clamping at 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds after delivery and delayed as clamping after 60 seconds or at 2-5 minutes after delivery, when the cord stops pulsating or when the placenta is visible within the birth canal. Early clamping is one of the three components of active management of the third stage of labour, which has been used widely in modern obstetrics during the last century. However, in some northern European countries, various parts of the USA and Canada and in developing countries physiological management is preferred.Conclusions: After publication of several trials describing advantages of delayed clamping, this has recently been progressively replacing early clamping. The most important advantages of delayed cord clamping are higher haemoglobin and ferritin levels, higher iron stores, lower incidence of iron deficiency anaemia, better cardiopulmonary adaptation, lower rate of respiratory distress syndrome, and longer duration of early breastfeeding in term neonates, while there is no increase in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. Delayed clamping seems to bring some advantages for preterm neonates as well. However, caution is still advised because of the potential adverse effects, especially polycythaemia with hyperviscosity, hyperbilirubinaemia and respiratory distress.

  14. Three-dimensional renal CT angiography for guiding segmental renal artery clamping during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yi; Shao, Pengfei; Zhu, Xiaomei; Lv, Qiang; Liu, Wangyan; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Yinsu; Yang, Guangyu; Tang, Lijun; Yin, Changjun

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) renal computed tomography angiography (CTA) in guiding segmental renal artery clamping during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Materials and methods: Forty-three patients with renal tumours undergoing renal CTA before LPN were retrospectively enrolled in this study. 3D arteriogram reconstructed images were created to identify the renal tumour-supplying arteries. The number and location of these targeted vessels were annotated on 3D images preoperatively and compared with the clamped vessels during LPN. The consistency between target vessels annotated at CTA and clamped arteries at LPN was compared both using a patient-based analysis and vessel-based analysis. The χ 2 test was applied to analyse the influence of tumour size, location, and growth pattern on the number of clamped segmental renal branches. Results: On patient-based analysis, the number of targeted vessels was consistent with the clamped vessels during LPN in 33 of 43 patients. On vessel-based analysis, 56 of 65 target vessels annotated at CTA were clamped during LPN. More segmental renal branches (p = 0.04) were clamped in patients with tumours of larger size. Tumour location and growth pattern had no association with the number of clamped segmental branches during LPN. Conclusion: High-quality CTA images and 3D reconstruction images can detect detailed information of tumour-supplying arteries to renal tumours. 3D renal CTA is an effective way to guide segmental renal artery clamping during LPN

  15. Electrothermally actuated tunable clamped-guided resonant microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha

    2017-06-11

    We present simulation and experimental investigation demonstrating active alteration of the resonant and frequency response behavior of resonators by controlling the electrothermal actuation method on their anchors. In-plane clamped-guided arch and straight microbeams resonators are designed and fabricated with V-shaped electrothermal actuators on their anchors. These anchors not only offer various electrothermal actuation options, but also serve as various mechanical stiffness elements that affect the operating resonance frequency of the structures. We have shown that for an arch, the first mode resonance frequency can be increased up to 50% of its initial value. For a straight beam, we have shown that before buckling, the resonance frequency decreases to very low values and after buckling, it increases up to twice of its initial value. These results can be promising for the realization of different wide–range tunable microresonator. The experimental results have been compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  16. Electrothermally actuated tunable clamped-guided resonant microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcheikh, N.; Hajjaj, A. Z.; Jaber, N.; Younis, M. I.

    2018-01-01

    We present simulation and experimental investigation demonstrating active alteration of the resonant and frequency response behavior of resonators by controlling the electrothermal actuation method on their anchors. In-plane clamped-guided arch and straight microbeams resonators are designed and fabricated with V-shaped electrothermal actuators on their anchors. These anchors not only offer various electrothermal actuation options, but also serve as various mechanical stiffness elements that affect the operating resonance frequency of the structures. We have shown that for an arch, the first mode resonance frequency can be increased up to 50% of its initial value. For a straight beam, we have shown that before buckling, the resonance frequency decreases to very low values and after buckling, it increases up to twice of its initial value. These results can be promising for the realization of different wide-range tunable microresonator. The experimental results have been compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  17. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage-sensing lipid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sasha S; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-04-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We found that the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), has not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Using fast fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage-clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we found that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage-sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This two-step allosteric control over a dual-specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility, endocytosis and exocytosis.

  18. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage sensing lipid phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sasha S.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2016-01-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We find the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), to have not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage sensing domain (VSD). Using fast FRET reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we find that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This novel 2-step allosteric control over a dual specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility and endo/exocytosis. PMID:26878552

  19. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    An indirect matrix converter is an alternative "all-semiconductor" energy processor proposed recently for converting an ac source with fixed magnitude and frequency to a variable voltage and frequency supply that can meet the requirements of a particular industry application. In principle...

  20. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  1. Crystal structure of DNA polymerase III β sliding clamp from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Lin, Shi-Qiang; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Li-Jun; Jiang, Tao

    2011-02-11

    The sliding clamp is a key component of DNA polymerase III (Pol III) required for genome replication. It is known to function with diverse DNA repair proteins and cell cycle-control proteins, making it a potential drug target. To extend our understanding of the structure/function relationship of the sliding clamp, we solved the crystal structure of the sliding clamp from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), a human pathogen that causes most cases of tuberculosis (TB). The sliding clamp from M. tuberculosis forms a ring-shaped head-to-tail dimer with three domains per subunit. Each domain contains two α helices in the inner ring that lie against two β sheets in the outer ring. Previous studies have indicated that many Escherichia coli clamp-binding proteins have a conserved LF sequence, which is critical for binding to the hydrophobic region of the sliding clamp. Here, we analyzed the binding affinities of the M. tuberculosis sliding clamp and peptides derived from the α and δ subunits of Pol III, which indicated that the LF motif also plays an important role in the binding of the α and δ subunits to the sliding clamp of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  3. A 3D-Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Three Phase Four Wire Neutral Point Clamped Inverter Systems as Power Quality Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC is designed using a Neutral Point Clamped (NPC multilevel inverter to improve the power quality. When designed for high/medium voltage and power applications, the voltage stress across the switches and harmonic content in the output voltage are increased. A 3-phase 4-wire NPC inverter system is developed as Power Quality Conditioner using an effectual three dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3D-SVM technique. The proposed system behaves like a UPQC with shunt and series active filter under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. In addition to the improvement of the power quality issues, it also balances the neutral point voltage and voltage balancing across the capacitors under unbalanced condition. The hardware and simulation results of proposed system are compared with 2D-SVM and 3D-SVM. The proposed system is stimulated using MATLAB and the hardware is designed using FPGA. From the results it is evident that effectual 3D-SVM technique gives better performance compared to other control methods.

  4. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  5. Neuroprotective effect of interleukin-6 regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels of cortical neurons is time- and dose-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 has been shown to be involved in nerve injury and nerve regeneration, but the effects of long-term administration of high concentrations of interleukin-6 on neurons in the central nervous system is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of 24 hour exposure of interleukin-6 on cortical neurons at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 5 and 10 ng/mL and the effects of 10 ng/mL interleukin-6 exposure to cortical neurons for various durations (2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours by studying voltage-gated Na + channels using a patch-clamp technique. Voltage-clamp recording results demonstrated that interleukin-6 suppressed Na + currents through its receptor in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but did not alter voltage-dependent activation and inactivation. Current-clamp recording results were consistent with voltage-clamp recording results. Interleukin-6 reduced the action potential amplitude of cortical neurons, but did not change the action potential threshold. The regulation of voltage-gated Na + channels in rat cortical neurons by interleukin-6 is time- and dose-dependent.

  6. Substrate and Inhibitor-Specific Conformational Changes in the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Voltage-Clamp Fluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderhielm, Pella C; Andersen, Jacob; Munro, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    of TM6, Ala419 in the interface between TM8 and extracellular loop (EL) 4, and Leu481 in EL5. The reporter positions were used for time-resolved measurement of conformational changes during 5-HT transport and binding of cocaine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and escitalopram...... changes overall, which included movements within or around TM1b, EL4, and EL5. Taken together, our data lead us to suggest that competitive inhibitors stabilize hSERT in a state that is different from the apo outward-open conformation as well as inward-facing conformations....

  7. Multi-stage LLC resonant converters designed for wide output voltage ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, C.-W.; Bingham, C. M.; Foster, M. P.; Stone, D. A.; Leech, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel multi-stage LLC resonant converter topology for facilitating wide output voltage ranges. This is achieved by combining the gain range of a capacitor-diode clamped LLC resonant converter with that of a traditional LLC resonant converter. A prototype converter is designed and commissioned to illustrate the design procedure and demonstrate resulting operational characteristics. Experimental results are used to show operational characteristics of the proposed conver...

  8. Supervision and control of grid connected PV-Storage systems with the five level diode clamped inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himour, Kamal; Ghedamsi, Kaci; Berkouk, El Madjid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of battery bank in grid connection photovoltaic system to ensure the energetic autonomy of the system. • Improve the quality of energy by the use of five-level inverter in a grid connection PV generation system. • Control of inverter by fast and simplified space vector pulse width modulation. • Control and supervision of active and reactive power in the grid. - Abstract: This paper aimed to evaluate the use of photovoltaic-battery storage systems to supply electric power in the distribution grid through a multilevel inverter. The proposed system is composed by four PV generators with MPPT (P and O) control, four battery storage systems connected to each capacitor of the DC link and a five level diode clamped inverter connected to the grid by a traditional three phase transformer. The proposed control has a hierarchical structure with both a grid side control level to regulate the power and the current injected to the grid and four input side regulation units. The system operator controls the power production of the four PV generators by sending out reference power signals to each input side regulation unit, the input side regulation units regulate the voltage of each capacitor of the DC link, regulate the voltage and the state of charge of each battery storage system

  9. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  10. Design of Neutral-Point Voltage Controller of a Three-level NPC Inverter with Small DC-Link Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2013-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small dc-link capacitors is presented in this paper. The inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point voltage. The small dc-link capacitors may not maintain capacitor voltage balance, even with zero neutral......-point voltage control on the basis of the continuous model. The design method for optimum performance is discussed. The implementation of the proposed modulation strategy and the controller is very simple. The controller is implemented in a 7.5 kW induction machine based drive with only 14 ìF dc-link capacitors...

  11. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  12. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360 degree/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs

  13. DC dynamic pull-in predictions for a generalized clamped–clamped micro-beam based on a continuous model and bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Paul C-P; Chiu, C W; Liu, Tsu-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to providing precise predictions of the dc dynamic pull-in voltages of a clamped–clamped micro-beam based on a continuous model. A pull-in phenomenon occurs when the electrostatic force on the micro-beam exceeds the elastic restoring force exerted by beam deformation, leading to contact between the actuated beam and bottom electrode. DC dynamic pull-in means that an instantaneous application of the voltage (a step function such as voltage) is applied. To derive the pull-in voltage, a dynamic model in partial differential equations is established based on the equilibrium among beam flexibility, inertia, residual stress, squeeze film, distributed electrostatic forces and its electrical field fringing effects. The method of Galerkin decomposition is then employed to convert the established system equations into reduced discrete modal equations. Considering lower-order modes and approximating the beam deflection by a different order series, bifurcation based on phase portraits is conducted to derive static and dynamic pull-in voltages. It is found that the static pull-in phenomenon follows dynamic instabilities, and the dc dynamic pull-in voltage is around 91–92% of the static counterpart. However, the derived dynamic pull-in voltage is found to be dependent on the varied beam parameters, different from a fixed predicted value derived in past works, where only lumped models are assumed. Furthermore, accurate closed-form predictions are provided for non-narrow beams. The predictions are finally validated by finite element analysis and available experimental data

  14. Different methods of hilar clamping during partial nephrectomy: Impact on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Kim, Hwanik; Choo, Minsoo; Park, Yong Hyun; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kwak, Cheol

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of different hilar clamping methods on changes in renal function after partial nephrectomy. We analyzed the clinical data of 369 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for a single renal tumor of size ≤4.0 cm and a normal contralateral kidney. Patients were separated into three groups depending on hilar clamping method: non-clamping, cold ischemia and warm ischemia. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was examined at preoperative, nadir and 1 year postoperatively. Percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate was used as the parameter to assess the renal functional outcome. Percent change in nadir estimated glomerular filtration rate in the non-clamping group was significantly less compared with the cold ischemia and warm ischemia groups (P hilar clamping (both warm ischemia and cold ischemia) were significantly associated with percent change in nadir estimated glomerular filtration rate, but not in 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate. Non-clamping partial nephrectomy results in a lower percent change in nadir estimated glomerular filtration rate, whereas it carries an estimated glomerular filtration rate change at 1 year that is similar to partial nephrectomy with cold ischemia and warm ischemia. Cold ischemia and warm ischemia provide a similar effect on renal function. Therefore, when hilar clamping is required, minimization of ischemia time is necessary. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Dynamic assembly of Hda and the sliding clamp in the regulation of replication licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin S; Nanfara, Michael T; Chodavarapu, Sundari; Jin, Kyeong S; Babu, Vignesh M P; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Chung, Scisung; Kaguni, Jon M; Sutton, Mark D; Cho, Yunje

    2017-04-20

    Regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) is one of the major regulatory mechanisms of prokaryotic replication licensing. In RIDA, the Hda-sliding clamp complex loaded onto DNA directly interacts with adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound DnaA and stimulates the hydrolysis of ATP to inactivate DnaA. A prediction is that the activity of Hda is tightly controlled to ensure that replication initiation occurs only once per cell cycle. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the Hda-β clamp complex. This complex contains two pairs of Hda dimers sandwiched between two β clamp rings to form an octamer that is stabilized by three discrete interfaces. Two separate surfaces of Hda make contact with the β clamp, which is essential for Hda function in RIDA. The third interface between Hda monomers occludes the active site arginine finger, blocking its access to DnaA. Taken together, our structural and mutational analyses of the Hda-β clamp complex indicate that the interaction of the β clamp with Hda controls the ability of Hda to interact with DnaA. In the octameric Hda-β clamp complex, the inability of Hda to interact with DnaA is a novel mechanism that may regulate Hda function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Analysis and Experiments on Sea Load and Fastened Mechanics on Pipe Clamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhuo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When an offshore oil field completed and put into production, new subsea pipelines and the new cable need to be established. Cable protection pipe clamp is used to fix cable protection pipe on the jacket. In order to avoid the problem of traditional steel structure clamp splice, counterpoint, fastening difficulty when installed cable protection pipe under water, reduce the risk and workload of under water, This paper develop a new type of portable connecting riser clamp -“backpack clamp” which solve the riser cable protection pipe difficult underwater installation problem. The main structure of backpack clamp used three valves type structure. The load characteristic of a clamping device was determined by the Morison equation which was a classical theory. Clamp device underwater mechanics analysis model was established. The minimum tension pre-tightening force was determined. The results show that the strength of the base meets the requirements after strength analysis with finite element analysis method, stability and strength experiments, which means the clamp based on resin matrix composite is feasible.

  17. A missing factor in chip-based patch clamp assay: gigaseal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, W-L; Yobas, L; Ong, W-Y

    2006-01-01

    The 'gold' standard in the study of ionic currents across biological membranes is the Patch Clamp method. However, this is a slow, labor and skill intensive process. High throughput patch clamp devices are mainly chip-based. A major challenge in these miniaturized devices is the low rate of 'Gigaseal' formation which is critical in the study of Single Channel effect. In a conventional patch clamp, a pipette moves and patches a fixed cell (cell-adhered patch) which is grown on the bottom of a Petri dish. In the chip-based case, the cells are in suspension and move towards the fixed patch clamp sites (cell-suspended patch). In this study, using the proven conventional patch clamp setup, we investigated the effect of the differences in the cell configurations between the convention patch clamp and cell-based patch clamp. It is shown that adhered cells (as used in the conventional setup) have a much higher rate of gigaseal formation as compared to the cells in suspension (as used in chip-based devices). We postulate that the arrangement of the cytoskeleton within the cell plays a major part in the formation of the gigaseal

  18. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  19. The NH2 terminus regulates voltage-dependent gating of CALHM ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Jessica E; Ma, Zhongming; Foskett, J Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Calcium homeostasis modulator protein-1 (CALHM1) and its Caenorhabditis elegans (ce) homolog, CLHM-1, belong to a new family of physiologically important ion channels that are regulated by voltage and extracellular Ca 2+ (Ca 2+ o ) but lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Consequently, the intrinsic voltage-dependent gating mechanisms for CALHM channels are unknown. Here, we performed voltage-clamp experiments on ceCLHM-1 chimeric, deletion, insertion, and point mutants to assess the role of the NH 2 terminus (NT) in CALHM channel gating. Analyses of chimeric channels in which the ceCLHM-1 and human (h)CALHM1 NH 2 termini were interchanged showed that the hCALHM1 NT destabilized channel-closed states, whereas the ceCLHM-1 NT had a stabilizing effect. In the absence of Ca 2+ o , deletion of up to eight amino acids from the ceCLHM-1 NT caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the conductance-voltage relationship with little effect on voltage-dependent slope. However, deletion of nine or more amino acids decreased voltage dependence and induced a residual conductance at hyperpolarized voltages. Insertion of amino acids into the NH 2 -terminal helix also decreased voltage dependence but did not prevent channel closure. Mutation of ceCLHM-1 valine 9 and glutamine 13 altered half-maximal activation and voltage dependence, respectively, in 0 Ca 2+ In 2 mM Ca 2+ o , ceCLHM-1 NH 2 -terminal deletion and point mutant channels closed completely at hyperpolarized voltages with apparent affinity for Ca 2+ o indistinguishable from wild-type ceCLHM-1, although the ceCLHM-1 valine 9 mutant exhibited an altered conductance-voltage relationship and kinetics. We conclude that the NT plays critical roles modulating voltage dependence and stabilizing the closed states of CALHM channels. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Analysis of the role of PCNA-DNA contacts during clamp loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedken Eric R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sliding clamps, such as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA in eukaryotes, are ring-shaped protein complexes that encircle DNA and enable highly processive DNA replication by serving as docking sites for DNA polymerases. In an ATP-dependent reaction, clamp loader complexes, such as the Replication Factor-C (RFC complex in eukaryotes, open the clamp and load it around primer-template DNA. Results We built a model of RFC bound to PCNA and DNA based on existing crystal structures of clamp loaders. This model suggests that DNA would enter the clamp at an angle during clamp loading, thereby interacting with positively charged residues in the center of PCNA. We show that simultaneous mutation of Lys 20, Lys 77, Arg 80, and Arg 149, which interact with DNA in the RFC-PCNA-DNA model, compromises the ability of yeast PCNA to stimulate the DNA-dependent ATPase activity of RFC when the DNA is long enough to extend through the clamp. Fluorescence anisotropy binding experiments show that the inability of the mutant clamp proteins to stimulate RFC ATPase activity is likely caused by reduction in the affinity of the RFC-PCNA complex for DNA. We obtained several crystal forms of yeast PCNA-DNA complexes, measuring X-ray diffraction data to 3.0 Å resolution for one such complex. The resulting electron density maps show that DNA is bound in a tilted orientation relative to PCNA, but makes different contacts than those implicated in clamp loading. Because of apparent partial disorder in the DNA, we restricted refinement of the DNA to a rigid body model. This result contrasts with previous analysis of a bacterial clamp bound to DNA, where the DNA was well resolved. Conclusion Mutational analysis of PCNA suggests that positively charged residues in the center of the clamp create a binding surface that makes contact with DNA. Disruption of this positive surface, which had not previously been implicated in clamp loading function, reduces RFC

  1. Investigation on the Behavior of the Jointing Clamps to the Simulated Environmental - LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, P.; Segarceanu, D.; Geambasu, C.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the main aspect concerning the electric parameter variation of jointing clamps operating under specific environmental conditions determinate by pressure, temperature and humidity. The testing of jointing clamps capability to meet and exceed the required performances all along its operating life implies the performing of LOCA simulation conditions while the jointing clamps is bright in a relatively short time under conditions equivalent to those at the end of its service life. The paper describes ageing and measurement techniques and the analyses of electric parameter behaviour in these environmental simulated conditions. (author)

  2. Use of the Universal Clamp in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales de Gauzy, Jérôme; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Ilharreborde, Brice; Blondel, Benjamin; Accadbled, Franck; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-07-01

    The Universal Clamp (UC) equipped with a soft sublaminar band is a relatively new thoracic anchor that can be used in hybrid constructs. A dedicated reduction tool that applies traction to the sublaminar band permits gentle translation of the thoracic curve to the pre-contoured fusion rods, which have been previously anchored distally by pedicle screws and proximally by hooks in a claw configuration. A literature review concerning the use of UC in adolescent idiopathic Scoliosis was performed. The results confirm the efficacy with the UC hybrid constructs, the good correction (71-66%) of the main thoracic curve and low loss of correction at 2-year follow-up (3-4%). The thoracic curve correction achieved and maintained in the AIS patients appears to be substantially higher than that reported for all hook and hook hybrid techniques. Regardless of the deformity correcting method employed with all-screw constructs, the Cobb angle correction achieved is equivalent to that achieved with UC hybrid devices. Among the present AIS patients who had normal values of thoracic kyphosis pre-operatively, there was almost no change in average thoracic kyphosis at the latest follow-up. However, among the patients with low pre-operative values of T5-T12 kyphosis, the average T5-T12 kyphosis improved. Hybrid construct with UC is safe, with reduced operative time and blood loss. While achieving deformity correction in the coronal and axial planes equivalent to the best-reported results of all screw or previous hybrid constructs, the UC hybrid technique appears to provide superior correction in the sagittal plane. The excellent outcome is maintained at the 2-year follow-up.

  3. RESULTS OF TESTS OF LIGHTNING-RODS WITH UNIVERSAL CLAMPS BY THE APERIODIC IMPULSES OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING WITH THE PEAK-TEMPORAL PARAMETERS RATIONED ON FOREIGN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Test in obedience to the requirements of row of operating foreign standards of round metallic lightning-rods with the flat metallic universal clamps of the special type on firmness to direct action of аperiodic impulses of current of temporal form 10/350 μs by amplitude of 50 кА (N− class and 100 кА (H− class. Methodology. The order of leadthrough of these tests is certain the followings normative documents: International IEC 62305-1: 2010, Russian national GOST R IEC 62305-1-2010 and German national DIN EN 50164-1:2008 Standards. Results. Conducted on a powerful high-voltage pulsed current of artificial linear lightning with the peak-temporal parameters and admittances of test rationed on the indicated foreign standards rationed that all of the lightning-rods tested in collection with universal clamps, isolating holders and ceramic elements of roof of technical building were survive electrodynamics and electrothermal action of in-use single short blow of an artificial storm digit. Originality. First in domestic practice the similar model tests of lightning-rods are conducted with universal clamps, executed from different explorer materials, on firmness to flowing to on by it the indicated large impulsive currents of artificial lightning. Practical value. Real firmness to lightning of round copper and zincked steel lightning-rods is certain with the flat copper, zincked steel and non-rusting steel universal clamps of the special execution.

  4. Design and Comparison of Cascaded H-Bridge, Modular Multilevel Converter, and 5-L Active Neutral Point Clamped Topologies for Motor Drive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzoughi, Alinaghi [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Power Electronics Systems; Burgos, Rolando [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xue, Yaosuo [Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ (United States). Power Electronics Dept.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design procedure and comparison of converters currently used in medium-voltage high-power motor drive applications. For this purpose, the cascaded H-bridge (CHB), modular multilevel converter (MMC), and five-level active neutral point clamped (5-L ANPC) topologies are targeted. The design is performed using 1.7-kV insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) for CHB and MMC converters, and utilizing 3.3- and 4.5-kV IGBTs for 5-L ANPC topology as normally done in industry. The comparison is done between the designed converter topologies at three different voltage levels (4.16, 6.9, and 13.8 kV, with only the first two voltage levels in case of the 5-L ANPC) and two different power levels (3 and 5 MVA), in order to elucidate the dependence of different parameters on voltage and power rating. Finally, the comparison is done from several points of view such as efficiency, capacitive energy storage, semiconductor utilization, parts count (for measure of reliability), and power density.

  5. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  6. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  7. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  8. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  9. Kinetics of Ca2+- and ATP-dependent, voltage-controlled anion conductance in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells of Pisum sativum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; van Volkenburgh, E.

    Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to measure anion currents through the plasma membrane of protoplasts of mesophyll cells of expanding pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Voltage-induced changes of the currents could be modelled with single exponential activation and deactivation kinetics. The

  10. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...

  11. Prediction of clamp-derived insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, Andrea; Chemello, Gaetano; Szendroedi, Julia

    2018-01-01

    that underwent both a clamp and an OGTT or meal test, thereby allowing calculation of both the M value and OGIS. The population was divided into a training and a validation cohort (n = 359 and n = 154, respectively). After a stepwise selection approach, the best model for M value prediction was applied......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp is the gold-standard method for measuring insulin sensitivity, but is less suitable for large clinical trials. Thus, several indices have been developed for evaluating insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However......, most of them yield values different from those obtained by the clamp method. The aim of this study was to develop a new index to predict clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (M value) from the OGTT-derived oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS). METHODS: We analysed datasets of people...

  12. Gasket-holder to put in place gaskets for connection of pipes with clamp fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, R.

    1989-01-01

    Gasket-holder comprising 2 arms with tongues holding the gasket and fixing devices on a pipe clamp fitting and centering means. Application is made to fit circular gaskets on pipe with conic end in adverse environment [fr

  13. space vector pulse width modulation of a multi-level diode clamped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    step by step development of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector ..... Pulse Width Mod. of Multi-Level Diode Clamped Converter 119 powergui. Discrete, .... Load. Figure 22: Block diagram of the three level DCC design. 3 LEVEL ...

  14. Substrate clamping effects on irreversible domain wall dynamics in lead zirconate titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggio, F; Jesse, S; Kumar, A; Ovchinnikov, O; Kim, H; Jackson, T N; Damjanovic, D; Kalinin, S V; Trolier-McKinstry, S

    2012-04-13

    The role of long-range strain interactions on domain wall dynamics is explored through macroscopic and local measurements of nonlinear behavior in mechanically clamped and released polycrystalline lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. Released films show a dramatic change in the global dielectric nonlinearity and its frequency dependence as a function of mechanical clamping. Furthermore, we observe a transition from strong clustering of the nonlinear response for the clamped case to almost uniform nonlinearity for the released film. This behavior is ascribed to increased mobility of domain walls. These results suggest the dominant role of collective strain interactions mediated by the local and global mechanical boundary conditions on the domain wall dynamics. The work presented in this Letter demonstrates that measurements on clamped films may considerably underestimate the piezoelectric coefficients and coupling constants of released structures used in microelectromechanical systems, energy harvesting systems, and microrobots.

  15. Structural consideration for hot and cold pipe clamps in LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Huang, S.N.; Kappauf, H.; Wagner, S.E.; Wirtz, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    A series of analytical studies are described which evaluate stress levels induced in a 600 mm high temperature, thin-wall sodium pipeline by two alternate clamp designs. The first design consists of a band mounted directly on the pipe and is called the hot clamp. The second design consists of a band mounted using insulation standoffs and is called the cold clamp. Pipe stress levels induced by transient thermal dead weight and seismic loads are discussed. Pipe stress levels and system dynamic spring rates are presented. Procedures utilized to combine clamp induced pipe stress with other short and long term pipe system stresses are detailed. Recommendations for practical application in LMFBR pipe systems are made

  16. Structural considerations for hot and cold pipe clamps in LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Huang, S.N.; Wagner, S.E.; Kappauf, H.; Wirtz, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    A series of analytical studies are described which evaluate stress levels induced in a 600 mm high temperature, thin-wall sodium pipeline by two alternate clamp designs. The first design consists of a band mounted directly on the pipe and is called the hot clamp. The second design consists of a band mounted using insulation standoffs and is called the cold clamp. Pipe stress levels induced by transient thermal dead weight and seismic loads are discussed. Pipe stress levels and system dynamic spring rates are presented. Procedures utilized to combine clamp induced pipe stress with other short and long term pipe system stresses are detailed. Recommendations for practical application in LMFBR pipe systems are made

  17. Patch Clamp: A Powerful Technique for Studying the Mechanism of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular and molecular events can be investigated using electrophysiological techniques. In particular, the patch-clamp method provides detailed information. In addition, the patch-clamp technique has become a powerful method for investigating the mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture. In this paper, recent researches on how acupuncture might modulate electrophysiological responses in the central nervous system (CNS and affect peripheral structures are reviewed.

  18. Computer Simulation Model to Train Medical Personnel on Glucose Clamp Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghoul, Pooya; Boulet, Benoit; Tardif, Annie; Haidar, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    A glucose clamp procedure is the most reliable way to quantify insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but skilled and trained research personnel are required to frequently adjust the glucose infusion rate. A computer environment that simulates glucose clamp experiments can be used for efficient personnel training and development and testing of algorithms for automated glucose clamps. We built 17 virtual healthy subjects (mean age, 25±6 years; mean body mass index, 22.2±3 kg/m 2 ), each comprising a mathematical model of glucose regulation and a unique set of parameters. Each virtual subject simulates plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in response to intravenous insulin and glucose infusions. Each virtual subject provides a unique response, and its parameters were estimated from combined intravenous glucose tolerance test-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp data using the Bayesian approach. The virtual subjects were validated by comparing their simulated predictions against data from 12 healthy individuals who underwent a hyperglycemic glucose clamp procedure. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were predicted by the virtual subjects in response to glucose infusions determined by a trained research staff performing a simulated hyperglycemic clamp experiment. The total amount of glucose infusion was indifferent between the simulated and the real subjects (85±18 g vs. 83±23 g; p=NS) as well as plasma insulin levels (63±20 mU/L vs. 58±16 mU/L; p=NS). The virtual subjects can reliably predict glucose needs and plasma insulin profiles during hyperglycemic glucose clamp conditions. These virtual subjects can be used to train personnel to make glucose infusion adjustments during clamp experiments. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Locoregional Anesthesia for Carotid Endarterectomy: Identification of Patients with Intolerance to Cross-Clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaretti, Marcos; de Vasconcelos, Laura T; Dourado, Jules; de Souza, Renata F; Fontoura, Renato R; de Sousa, Atos A

    2016-03-01

    During carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid cross-clamping is performed to allow for artery incision and plaque removal. A small subgroup of patients can tolerate carotid occlusion for only a few seconds, if at all, without presenting neurologic deficit. These patients are described as having ''cross-clamp intolerance.'' The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety of locoregional anesthesia in identifying patients with cross-clamp intolerance and factors associated with this condition. From August 2008 to May 2010, 115 consecutive patients were submitted to CEA under locoregional anesthesia at the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte; the procedure was performed by the main author. Patients who showed intolerance to internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion for intolerance. Among the 115 participating patients, 9.6% (11 patients) showed intolerance to ICA occlusion and developed deficits in intolerance). The factor that was associated with cross-clamp intolerance was the mean degree of contralateral carotid stenosis, which was 57.5% for those who presented intolerance and 27.8% for those who tolerated ICA occlusion. Locoregional anesthesia is a safe method for identifying patients with cross-clamp intolerance. Patients with cross-clamp intolerance present contralateral stenosis that is greater on average than patients who readily tolerate carotid artery occlusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Investigation of the Corrosion Resistance of the Tension Clamps Skl14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pětioký

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the level crossings it is possible to find the problems with the corrosion of the parts of the fastening system. These problems are especially at the rubber level crossings and in the tunnels. As a part of the thesis the problem of the corrosion of the tension clamp Skl14 of the producer Vossloh at the rubber level crossings is examined. For the purposes of the comparison the tension clamps without the corrosion protection and the tension clamps with the corrosion protection KTL were examined. As a first step the corrosion features of the tension clamps Skl14 were solved. The examination was divided into two parts. First part it was the examination according to ČSN EN ISO 9227. The samples of the tension clamps were putted into the corrosion chamber. After 1728 h the results of the corrosion impacts were not satisfied. It was decided for the second step of the examination. It was the immersion in an electrolyte solution. As a result of the paper the corrosion features of the tension clamps without the corrosion protection and with the corrosion protection are compared.

  1. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm eDanker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by hERG can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms.

  2. Effect of non-ideal clamping shape on the resonance frequencies of silicon nanocantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Nicu, Liviu [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Perisanu, Sorin; Vincent, Pascal [LPMCN, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lazarus, Arnaud; Thomas, Olivier, E-mail: sguillon@laas.fr [Structural Mechanics and Coupled Systems Laboratory, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue Conte, 75003 Paris (France)

    2011-06-17

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of non-ideal clamping shapes on the dynamic behavior of silicon nanocantilevers. We fabricated silicon nanocantilevers using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers by employing stepper ultraviolet (UV) lithography, which permits a resolution of under 100 nm. The nanocantilevers were driven by electrostatic force inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both lateral and out-of-plane resonance frequencies were visually detected with the SEM. Next, we discuss overhanging of the cantilever support and curvature at the clamping point in the silicon nanocantilevers, which generally arises in the fabrication process. We found that the fundamental out-of-plane frequency of a realistically clamped cantilever is always lower than that for a perfectly clamped cantilever, and depends on the cantilever width and the geometry of the clamping point structure. Using simulation with the finite-elements method, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is attributed to the particular geometry of the clamping point (non-zero joining curvatures and a flexible overhanging) that is obtained in the fabrication process. The influence of the material orthotropy is also investigated and is shown to be negligible.

  3. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, D M; Van Dijk, J; Soemers, H M J R; De Jong, B R; De Boer, M J; Jansen, H V; Krijnen, G J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. submitted) once the sample has been positioned in all DOFs. The clamping force is generated by a rotational electrostatic comb-drive actuator and can be latched passively by a parallel plate type electrostatically driven locking device. The clamp design is based on the principles of exact constraint design, resulting in a high actuation compliance (flexibility) combined with a high suspension stiffness. Therefore, a relatively large blocking force of 1.4 mN in relation to the used area of 1.8 mm 2 is obtained. The fabrication is based on silicon bulk micromachining technology and combines a high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), conformal deposition of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride and an anisotropic potassium hydroxide (KOH) backside etching technology. Special attention is given to void reduction of Si x N y trench isolation and reduction of heating phenomena during front-side release etching. Guidelines are given for the applied process. Measurements showed that the clamp was able to fix, hold and release a test actuator. The dynamic behavior was in good agreement with the modal analysis

  4. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team

  5. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  6. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  7. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  8. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  9. Reactive decontamination formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletto, Anthony [College Station, TX; White, William [College Station, TX; Cisar, Alan J [Cypress, TX; Hitchens, G Duncan [Bryan, TX; Fyffe, James [Bryan, TX

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  10. Monitoring voltage-sensitive membrane impedance change using radio frequency interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharia, Sameera; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a new technique to monitor dynamic conformational changes in voltage-sensitive membrane-bound proteins using radio frequency (RF) impedance measurements. Xenopus oocytes were transfected to express ShakerB-IR K(+) ion channels, and step changes in membrane potential were applied using two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC). Simultaneously, bipolar extracellular electrodes were used to measure the RF electrical impedance across the cell (300 kHz - 1 MHz). RF current will either pass through the media, around the cell, or displace charge across the cell membrane. The change in displacement current in the cell membrane during voltage clamp resulted in measurable RF impedance change. RF impedance change during DC membrane depolarization was significantly greater in ShakerB-IR expressing oocytes than in endogenous controls at 300 kHz, 500 kHz and, to a lesser extent, 1 MHz. Since the RF were too high to modulate ShakerB-IR protein conformational state (e.g. open channel probability), impedance changes are interpreted as reflections of voltage-dependent protein conformation and associated biophysics such as ion-channel dipole interactions, fluctuations in bound water, or charged lipid head-group rotations.

  11. Membrane voltage changes in passive dendritic trees: a tapering equivalent cylinder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznański, R R

    1988-01-01

    An exponentially tapering equivalent cylinder model is employed in order to approximate the loss of the dendritic trunk parameter observed from anatomical data on apical and basilar dendrites of CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. This model allows dendritic trees with a relative paucity of branching to be treated. In particular, terminal branches are not required to end at the same electrotonic distance. The Laplace transform method is used to obtain analytic expressions for the Green's function corresponding to an instantaneous pulse of current injected at a single point along a tapering equivalent cylinder with sealed ends. The time course of the voltage in response to an arbitrary input is computed using the Green's function in a convolution integral. Examples of current input considered are (1) an infinitesimally brief (Dirac delta function) pulse and (2) a step pulse. It is demonstrated that inputs located on a tapering equivalent cylinder are more effective at the soma than identically placed inputs on a nontapering equivalent cylinder. Asymptotic solutions are derived to enable the voltage response behaviour over both relatively short and long time periods to be analysed. Semilogarithmic plots of these solutions provide a basis for estimating the membrane time constant tau m from experimental transients. Transient voltage decrement from a clamped soma reveals that tapering tends to reduce the error associated with inadequate voltage clamping of the dendritic membrane. A formula is derived which shows that tapering tends to increase the estimate of the electrotonic length parameter L.

  12. Induced voltage due to time-dependent magnetisation textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudtarkar, Santosh Kumar; Dhadwal, Renu

    2010-01-01

    We determine the induced voltage generated by spatial and temporal magnetisation textures (inhomogeneities) in metallic ferromagnets due to the spin diffusion of non-equilibrium electrons. Using time dependent semi-classical theory as formulated in Zhang and Li and the drift-diffusion model of transport it is shown that the voltage generated depends critically on the difference in the diffusion constants of up and down spins. Including spin relaxation results in a crucial contribution to the induced voltage. We also show that the presence of magnetisation textures results in the modification of the conductivity of the system. As an illustration, we calculate the voltage generated due to a time dependent field driven helimagnet by solving the Landau-Lifshitz equation with Gilbert damping and explicitly calculate the dependence on the relaxation and damping parameters.

  13. [Analysis of brain hemometabolism behavior during carotid endarterectomy with temporary clamping.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval Neto, Gastão Fernandes; Niencheski, Augusto H

    2004-04-01

    Carotid endarterectomy with temporary clamping changes cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic oxygen demand ratio with consequent oligemic hypoxia or hemometabolic uncoupling. This study aimed at identifying changes in brain hemometabolism, evaluated through changes in oxyhemoglobin saturation in internal jugular vein bulb (SvjO2) during carotid endarterectomy with clamping, and at correlating these changes with potentially interfering factors, mainly end tidal CO2 pressure (P ET CO2) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Sixteen patients with unilateral carotid stenotic disease scheduled to carotid endarterectomy with carotid arterial clamping were enrolled in this study. Parameters including internal jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation, stump pressure and end tidal CO2 pressure were measured at the following moments: M1 - pre-clamping; M2 - 3 minutes after clamping; M3 - pre-unclamping; M4 - post-unclamping). The comparison among SvjO2 (%, mean +/- SD) in all studied periods has shown differences between those recorded in moments M1 (52.25 +/- 7.87) and M2 (47.43 +/- 9.19). This initial decrease stabilized during temporary clamping, showing decrease in the comparison between M2 and M3 (46.56 +/- 9.25), without statistical significance (p = ns). At post-unclamping, M4 (47.68 +/- 9.12), SvjO2 was increased as compared to M2 and M3 clamping stages, however it was still lower than that of pre-clamping stage M1.(M4 x M1 - p brain hemometabolic uncoupling trend were correlated to P ET CO2. The comparison between CPP and SvjO2 showed weak correlation devoid of statistical significance. In the conditions of our study, SvjO2 measurement is a fast and effective way of clinically monitoring changes in CBF/CMRO2 ratio. Temporary carotid clamping implies in a trend towards brain hemometabolic uncoupling and, as a consequence, to oligemic ischemia; cerebral perfusion pressure does not assesses brain hemometabolic status (CBF and CMRO2 ratio); hypocapnia, may lead to

  14. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  15. Preparation of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Garlich, J.R.; Frank, R.K.; McMillan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical formulations for complexes comprising at least one radionuclide complexed with a ligand, or its physiologically-acceptable salts thereof, especially 153 samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid, which optionally contains a divalent metal ion, e.g. calcium, and is frozen, thawed, and then administered by injection. Alternatively, the radiopharmaceutical formulations must contain the divalent metal and are frozen only if the time before administration is sufficiently long to cause concern for radiolysis of the ligand. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Tariff formulation and equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svartsund, Trond

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the transmission tariff is to provide for socioeconomic use of the transmission grid. The present tariff structure is basically right. The responsibility for the formulation of the tariff resides with the local grid owner. This must take place in agreement with the current regulations which are passed by the authorities. The formulation must be adaptable to the local requirements. EBL (Norwegian Electricity Industry Association) is content with the current regulations

  17. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  18. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  19. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  20. Analysis of whole-cell currents by patch clamp of guinea-pig myenteric neurones in intact ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiero, François; Gola, Maurice; Kunze, Wolf A A; Reynaud, Jean-Claude; Furness, John B; Clerc, Nadine

    2002-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings taken from guinea-pig duodenal myenteric neurones within intact ganglia were used to determine the properties of S and AH neurones. Major currents that determine the states of AH neurones were identified and quantified. S neurones had resting potentials of −47 ± 6 mV and input resistances (Rin) of 713 ± 49 MΩ at voltages ranging from −90 to −40 mV. At more negative levels, activation of a time-independent, caesium-sensitive, inward-rectifier current (IKir) decreased Rin to 103 ± 10 MΩ. AH neurones had resting potentials of −57 ± 4 mV and Rin was 502 ± 27 MΩ. Rin fell to 194 ± 16 MΩ upon hyperpolarization. This decrease was attributable mainly to the activation of a cationic h current, Ih, and to IKir. Resting potential and Rin exhibited a low sensitivity to changes in [K+]o in both AH and S neurones. This indicates that both cells have a low background K+ permeability. The cationic current, Ih, contributed about 20 % to the resting conductance of AH neurones. It had a half-activation voltage of −72 ± 2 mV, and a voltage sensitivity of 8.2 ± 0.7 mV per e-fold change. Ih has relatively fast, voltage-dependent kinetics, with on and off time constants in the range of 50–350 ms. AH neurones had a previously undescribed, low threshold, slowly inactivating, sodium-dependent current that was poorly sensitive to TTX. In AH neurones, the post-action-potential slow hyperpolarizing current, IAHP, displayed large variation from cell to cell. IAHP appeared to be highly Ca2+ sensitive, since its activation with either membrane depolarization or caffeine (1 mm) was not prevented by perfusing the cell with 10 mm BAPTA. We determined the identity of the Ca2+ channels linked to IAHP. Action potentials of AH neurones that were elongated by TEA (10 mm) were similarly shortened and IAHP was suppressed with each of the three Ω-conotoxins GVIA, MVIIA and MVIIC (0.3–0.5 μm), but not with Ω-agatoxin IVA (0.2 μm). There was no

  1. Coordinated Voltage Control of Distributed PV Inverters for Voltage Regulation in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the existing voltage control methods of distributed solar PV inverters to improve the voltage regulation and thereby the hosting capacity of a low-voltage distribution network. A novel coordinated voltage control method is proposed based on voltage sensitivity...... optimization. The proposed method is used to calculate the voltage bands and droop settings of PV inverters at each node by the supervisory controller. The local controller of each PV inverter implements the volt/var control and if necessary, the active power curtailment as per the received settings and based...... on measured local voltages. The advantage of the proposed method is that the calculated reactive power and active power droop settings enable fair contribution of the PV inverters at each node to the voltage regulation. Simulation studies are conducted using DigSilent Power factory software on a simplified...

  2. Design and Implementation of a High Efficiency, Low Component Voltage Stress, Single-Switch High Step-Up Voltage Converter for Vehicular Green Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-En Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel, non-isolated, cascade-type, single-switch, high step-up DC/DC converter was developed for green energy systems. An integrated coupled inductor and voltage lift circuit were applied to simplify the converter structure and satisfy the requirements of high efficiency and high voltage gain ratios. In addition, the proposed structure is controllable with a single switch, which effectively reduces the circuit cost and simplifies the control circuit. With the leakage inductor energy recovery function and active voltage clamp characteristics being present, the circuit yields optimizable conversion efficiency and low component voltage stress. After the operating principles of the proposed structure and characteristics of a steady-state circuit were analyzed, a converter prototype with 450 W, 40 V of input voltage, 400 V of output voltage, and 95% operating efficiency was fabricated. The Renesas MCU RX62T was employed to control the circuits. Experimental results were analyzed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  3. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  4. A voltage regulator system with dynamic bandwidth boosting for passive UHF RFID transponders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinpeng; Wang Xin'an; Liu Shan; Li Shoucheng; Ruan Zhengkun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage regulator system for passive UHF RFID transponders, which contains a rectifier, a limiter, and a regulator. The rectifier achieves power by rectifying the incoming RF energy. Due to the huge variation of the rectified voltage, a limiter at the rectifier output is used to clamp the rectified voltage. In this paper, the design of a limiter circuit is discussed in detail, which can provide a stable limiting voltage with low sensitivity to temperature variation and process dispersion. The key aspect of the voltage regulator system is the dynamic bandwidth boosting in the regulator. By sensing the excess current that is bypassed in the limiter during periods of excess energy, the bias current as well as the bandwidth of the regulator are increased, the output supply voltage can recover quickly from line transients during the periods of no RF energy to a full blast of RF energy. This voltage regulator system is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Clampe de Ganz no tratamento de urgência em lesões do anel pélvico Ganz clamps to treat emergencies in pelvic ring lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Cação Pereira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência do clampe de Ganz na estabilização e redução dos deslocamentos da pelve, quando utilizado no tratamento de urgência, além de aquilatar eventuais dificuldades e facilidades do método. MÉTODOS: O clampe de Ganz foi utilizado no tratamento de urgência em 31 pacientes com graves lesões do anel pélvico (Tile C associadas a importante instabilidade hemodinâmica. RESULTADO: Entre os pacientes, 27 (87,1% apresentaram evolução favorável, com estabilização, redução dos deslocamentos e compressão da região posterior do anel, além de estabilização hemodinâmica, e quatro (12,9% evoluíram para óbito. CONCLUSÃO: O clampe de Ganz mostrou-se eficiente ferramenta no tratamento de urgência das lesões do anel pélvico, por ser de concepção simples, de rápida colocação, não impedir ou dificultar procedimentos no abdome e, principalmente, por permitir a estabilização da pelve, redução dos deslocamentos e compressão na região posterior do anel, local onde ocorrem os maiores sangramentos, reduzindo-os ou eliminando-os.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Ganz clamp to stabilize and reduce pelvic dislocations in emergency situations, and to assess possible difficult and easy aspects of the method. METHOD: Ganz clamp was used in the emergency treatment of 31 patients with severe lesions of the pelvic ring (Tile C associated to major hemodynamic instability. RESULTS: Among the patients, 27 (87.1% presented a favorable evolution, with stabilization, reduction of dislocations, and compression of the posterior portion of the ring, and also hemodynamic stabilization, and 4 (12.9% died. CONCLUSION: The Ganz clamp was found to be an effective tool in the emergency treatment of pelvic ring lesions because it has an uncomplicated conception, allowing for a fast placement, because it does not prevent nor make it difficult for abdominal procedures, and most of all because it allows for the

  6. Cation gating and selectivity in a purified, reconstituted, voltage-dependent sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchi, R.L.; Tanaka, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    In excitable membranes, the voltage-dependent sodium channel controls the primary membrane conductance change necessary for the generation of an action potential. Over the past four decades, the time- and voltage-dependent sodium currents gated by this channel have been thoroughly documented with increasingly sophisticated voltage-clamp techniques. Recent advances in the biochemistry of membrane proteins have led to the solubilization and purification of this channel protein from nerve (6) and from muscle (4) or muscle-derived (1) membranes, and have provided an approach to the correlation of the channel's molecular structure with its functional properties. Each of these sodium channel preparations appears to contain a large glycoprotein either as its sole component (2) or in association with several small subunits (6, 3). Evidence that these purified proteins represent the excitable membrane sodium channel is presented. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  8. In-situ experimental characterization of the clamping pressure effects on low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Cui, Xiaoti; Frensch, Steffen Henrik

    2017-01-01

    as a gas with the circulating water. The effects of clamping pressure (Pc) on the LT-PEME cell performance, polarization resistances, and hydrogen and water crossover through the membrane, and hydrogen and oxygen production rate are studied. A 50 cm2 active area LT-PEME cell designed and manufactured......-PEME splits water into hydrogen and oxygen when the voltage is applied between anode and cathode. Electrical current forces the positively charged ions to migrate to negatively charged cathode through PEM, where hydrogen is produced. Meanwhile, oxygen is produced at the anode side electrode and escapes...... in house is utilized in this work. Higher Pc has shown higher cell performance this refers to lower ohmic and activation resistances. Water crossover from anode to cathode is slightly decreased at higher Pc resulting in a slight decrease in hydrogen crossover from cathode to anode. Also, the percentage...

  9. Modelling the clamping force distribution among chips in press-pack IGBTs using the finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasmasan, Adrian Augustin; Busca, Christian; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a FEM (finite element method) based mechanical model for PP (press-pack) IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors) is presented, which can be used to calculate the clamping force distribution among chips under various clamping conditions. The clamping force is an important parameter...... for the chip, because it influences contact electrical resistance, contact thermal resistance and power cycling capability. Ideally, the clamping force should be equally distributed among chips, in order to maximize the reliability of the PP IGBT. The model is built around a hypothetical PP IGBT with 9 chips......, and it has numerous simplifications in order to reduce the simulation time as much as possible. The developed model is used to analyze the clamping force distribution among chips, in various study cases, where uniform and non-uniform clamping pressures are applied on the studied PP IGBT....

  10. Granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  11. A SVPWM based on fluctuate capacitor voltage in 3L-NPC back-to-back converter applied to wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Qunjing; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Three-level Neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) converters are becoming a realistic alternative to the conventional converters in high-power wind-energy applications. But the unbalance in the supported capacitors' voltage of back-to-back 3L-NPC converters, including the dynamics of the capacitors...... between the fluctuate voltage of upper and lower capacitors is extracted. Based on this error factor the duty-time of every active voltage vector is calculated. In order to validate the model and the control strategy proposed in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has been simulated....

  12. Monitoring Voltage-Dependent Charge Displacement of Shaker B-IR K+ Ion Channels Using Radio Frequency Interrogation

    OpenAIRE

    Dharia, Sameera; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Here we introduce a new technique that probes voltage-dependent charge displacements of excitable membrane-bound proteins using extracellularly applied radio frequency (RF, 500 kHz) electric fields. Xenopus oocytes were used as a model cell for these experiments, and were injected with cRNA encoding Shaker B-IR (ShB-IR) K(+) ion channels to express large densities of this protein in the oocyte membranes. Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) was applied to command whole-cell membrane potential a...

  13. New strategy for eliminating zero-sequence circulating current between parallel operating three-level NPC voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Dong, Zhenhua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    A novel strategy based on a zero common mode voltage pulse-width modulation (ZCMV-PWM) technique and zero-sequence circulating current (ZSCC) feedback control is proposed in this study to eliminate ZSCCs between three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) voltage source inverters, with common AC and DC......, the ZCMV-PWM method is presented to reduce CMVs, and a simple electric circuit is adopted to control ZSCCs and neutral point potential. Finally, simulation and experiment are conducted to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Results show that ZSCCs between paralleled inverters can...

  14. Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newbornvia delayed umbilical cord clamping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Lawton; Sandra Acosta; Nate Watson; Chiara Gonzales-Portillo; hTeo Diamandis; Naoki Tajiri; Yuji Kaneko; Paul R. Sanberg; Cesar V. Borlongan

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal beneifts including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deifciency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood con-tains signiifcant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it en-hances blood lfow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant’s susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

  15. The evaluation on clamping force of high strength bolts by length parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang-Seok; Nah, Hwan-Seon; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Kang-Min

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that the length parameter of high strength bolts results in the variance in tension loads. The required turn for each length is specified in AISC RCSC specification. This study was focused on evaluating any influence on the clamping torque subjected to length parameter of high strength bolts. The two kinds of high strength bolts of specimen are as follows; High Strength Hexagon bolt defined on ASTM A490 and Torque Shear Bolt on KS B 2819. The length parameter ranged from 60mm(3d) to 140mm(7d). The torque, turn of nut and the clamping force were analyzed to review whether length parameter can be affected on the required tension load. To test whether the length parameter has an impact on the torque and turn of nut for the required strength and clamping force, statistical analysis is carried out. (author)

  16. Flange joint system for SRF cavities utilizing high force spring clamps for low particle generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2017-09-05

    A flange joint system for SRF cavities. The flange joint system includes a set of high force spring clamps that produce high force on the simple flanges of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities to squeeze conventional metallic seals. The system establishes the required vacuum and RF-tight seal with minimum particle contamination to the inside of the cavity assembly. The spring clamps are designed to stay within their elastic range while being forced open enough to mount over the flange pair. Upon release, the clamps have enough force to plastically deform metallic seal surfaces and continue to a new equilibrium sprung dimension where the flanges remain held against one another with enough preload such that normal handling will not break the seal.

  17. Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newborn via delayed umbilical cord clamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lawton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal benefits including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deficiency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood contains significant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it enhances blood flow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant′s susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

  18. A simple technique to measure regional cerebral blood flow during intravascular ballon clamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhata, Shigeru; Kubo, Atsushi; Kawase, Takeshi; Ibata, Yukio; Toya, Shigeo

    1988-01-01

    A case of giant internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm was presented. In order to clarify whether the patient could tolerate carotid occlusion, a ballon clamping test was performed before surgery. The cerebral blood flow was measured using early imaging by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-(iodine-123)-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). When the ballon clamping test was performed the tracer was injected, and scanning was performed 35 minutes after removing the catheter. This tracer enabled a 'memory of blood flow' during temporary ischemia to determine the character of quick diffusion and slow wash out, that could not be performed by other methods of cerebral blood flow measurement. SPECT with 123 I-IMP can simplify the measurement of cerebral blood flow during the balloon clamping test. (author)

  19. Investigating the effect of clamping force on the fatigue life of bolted plates using volumetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, F.; Chakherlou, T. N.; Zehsaz, M.; Hasanifard, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of bolt clamping force on the fatigue life for bolted plates made from Al7075-T6 have been studied on the values of notch strength reduction factor obtained by volumetric approach. To attain stress distribution around the notch (hole) which is required for volumetric approach, nonlinear finite element simulations were carried out. To estimate the fatigue life, the available smooth S-N curve of Al7075-T6 and the notch strength reduction factor obtained from volumetric method were used. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the available experimental test results. The investigation shows that there is a good agreement between the life predicted by the volumetric approach and the experimental results for various specimens with different amount of clamping forces. Volumetric approach and experimental results showed that the fatigue life of bolted plates improves because of the compressive stresses created around the plate hole due to clamping force.

  20. Analysis and testing of the DIII-D ohmic heating coil lead repair clamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.E.; Anderson, P.M.; Chin, E.; Robinson, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    DIII-D has been operating for the last year with limited volt-second capabilities due to structural failure of a conductor lead to one of the ohmic heating (OH) solenoids. The conductor failure was due to poor epoxy impregnation of the overwrap of the lead pack, resulting in copper fatigue and a water leak. A number of structural analyses were performed to assist in determining the failure scenario and to evaluate various repair options. A fatigue stress analysis of the leads with a failed epoxy overwrap indicated crack initiation after 1,000 cycles at the maximum operating conditions. The failure occurred in a very inaccessible area which restricted design repair options to concepts which could be implemented remotely. Several design options were considered for repairing the lead so that it can sustain the loads for 7.5 Vs conditions at full toroidal field. A clamp, along with preloaded banding straps and shim bags, provides a system that guarantees that the stress at the crack location is always compressive and prevents further crack growth in the conductor. Due to the limited space available for the repair, it was necessary to design the clamp system to operate at the material yield stress. The primary components of the clamp system were verified by load tests prior to installation. The main body of the clamp contains a load cell and potentiometer for monitoring the load-deflection characteristics of the clamp and conductors during plasma operation. Strain gages provides redundant instrumentation. If required, the preload on the conductors can be increased remotely by a special wrench attached to the clamp assembly

  1. Combined acute hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic clamp induced profibrotic and proinflammatory responses in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; DeSilva, Kristin; Sorice, Gian Pio; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Jimenez, Fabio; Ahuja, Seema; Barnes, Jefferey L; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2014-02-01

    Increase in matrix protein content in the kidney is a cardinal feature of diabetic kidney disease. While renal matrix protein content is increased by chronic hyperglycemia, whether it is regulated by acute elevation of glucose and insulin has not been addressed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether short duration of combined hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, mimicking the metabolic environment of prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes, induces kidney injury. Normal rats were subjected to either saline infusion (control, n = 4) or 7 h of combined hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (HG+HI clamp; n = 6). During the clamp, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were maintained at about 350 mg/dl and 16 ng/ml, respectively. HG+HI clamp increased the expression of renal cortical transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and renal matrix proteins, laminin and fibronectin. This was associated with the activation of SMAD3, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes, and ERK signaling pathways and their downstream target events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation, an important step in protein synthesis. Additionally, HG+HI clamp provoked renal inflammation as shown by the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and infiltration of CD68-positive monocytes. Urinary F2t isoprostane excretion, an index of renal oxidant stress, was increased in the HG+HI clamp rats. We conclude that even a short duration of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia contributes to activation of pathways that regulate matrix protein synthesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the kidney. This finding could have implications for the control of short-term rises in blood glucose in diabetic individuals at risk of developing kidney disease.

  2. Modeling error and apparent isotope discrimination confound estimation of endogenous glucose production during euglycemic glucose clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finegood, D.T.; Bergman, R.N.; Vranic, M.

    1988-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that conventional tracer methods applied to euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps result in substantially negative estimates for the rate of endogenous glucose production, particularly during the first half of 180-min clamps. We also showed that addition of tracer to the exogenous glucose infusate resulted in nonnegative endogenous glucose production (Ra) estimates. In this study, we investigated the underlying cause of negative estimates of Ra from conventional clamp/tracer methods and the reason for the difference in estimates when tracer is added to the exogenous glucose infusate. We performed euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (300-microU/ml) clamps in normal dogs without (cold GINF protocol, n = 6) or with (hot GINF protocol, n = 6) tracer (D-[3-3H]glucose) added to the exogenous glucose infusate. In the hot GINF protocol, sufficient tracer was added to the exogenous glucose infusate such that arterial plasma specific activity (SAa) did not change from basal through the clamp period (P greater than .05). In the cold GINF studies, plasma SAa fell 81 +/- 2% from the basal level by the 3rd h of clamping. We observed a significant, transient, positive venous-arterial difference in specific activity (SAv-SAa difference) during the cold GINF studies. The SAv-SAa difference reached a peak of 27 +/- 6% at 30 min and diminished to a plateau of 7 +/- 1% between 70 and 180 min. We also observed a positive but constant SAv-SAa difference (4.6 +/- 0.2% between 10 and 180 min) during the hot GINF studies

  3. Protein associations in DnaA-ATP hydrolysis mediated by the Hda-replicase clamp complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Shimuta, Toh-Ru; Ishida, Takuma; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2005-02-25

    In Escherichia coli, the activity of ATP-bound DnaA protein in initiating chromosomal replication is negatively controlled in a replication-coordinated manner. The RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA) system promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce the inactivated form DnaA-ADP in a manner depending on the Hda protein and the DNA-loaded form of the beta-sliding clamp, a subunit of the replicase holoenzyme. A highly functional form of Hda was purified and shown to form a homodimer in solution, and two Hda dimers were found to associate with a single clamp molecule. Purified mutant Hda proteins were used in a staged in vitro RIDA system followed by a pull-down assay to show that Hda-clamp binding is a prerequisite for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis and that binding is mediated by an Hda N-terminal motif. Arg(168) in the AAA(+) Box VII motif of Hda plays a role in stable homodimer formation and in DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, but not in clamp binding. Furthermore, the DnaA N-terminal domain is required for the functional interaction of DnaA with the Hda-clamp complex. Single cells contain approximately 50 Hda dimers, consistent with the results of in vitro experiments. These findings and the features of AAA(+) proteins, including DnaA, suggest the following model. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed at a binding interface between the AAA(+) domains of DnaA and Hda; the DnaA N-terminal domain supports this interaction; and the interaction of DnaA-ATP with the Hda-clamp complex occurs in a catalytic mode.

  4. Timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia: the role of maternal anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Penny, Mary E; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Joseph, Serene A; Gagnon, Anita; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-05-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown that delayed cord-clamping is beneficial to infant iron status. The role of maternal anaemia in this relationship, however, has not been established. To determine the effect of maternal anaemia at delivery on the association between timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia at 4 and 8 months of age. A cohort of pregnant women admitted to the labour room of Hospital Iquitos (Iquitos, Peru) and their newborns were recruited into the study during two time periods (18 May to 3 June and 6-20 July 2009). Between the two recruitment periods, the hospital's policy changed from early to delayed umbilical cord-clamping. Maternal haemoglobin levels were measured before delivery, and the time between delivery and cord-clamping was recorded at delivery for the entire cohort. Mother-infant pairs were followed-up at 4 (n = 207) and 8 months (n = 184) post partum. Infant haemoglobin levels were measured at follow-up visits. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (Hb anaemia was modified by the mother's anaemia status. Significant benefits of delayed cord-clamping in preventing anaemia were found in infants born to anaemic mothers at both 4 months (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and 8 months (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.76) of age. The study contributes additional evidence in support of delayed cord-clamping. This intervention is likely to have most public health impact in areas with a high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy.

  5. An isolated Hda-clamp complex is functional in the regulatory inactivation of DnaA and DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hironori; Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2006-10-01

    In Escherichia coli, a complex consisting of Hda and the DNA-loaded clamp-subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme promotes hydrolysis of DnaA-ATP. The resultant ADP-DnaA is inactive for initiation of chromosomal DNA replication, thereby repressing excessive initiations. As the cellular content of the clamp is 10-100 times higher than that of Hda, most Hda molecules might be complexed with the clamp in vivo. Although Hda predominantly forms irregular aggregates when overexpressed, in the present study we found that co-overexpression of the clamp with Hda enhances Hda solubility dramatically and we efficiently isolated the Hda-clamp complex. A single molecule of the complex appears to consist of two Hda molecules and a single clamp. The complex is competent in DnaA-ATP hydrolysis and DNA replication in the presence of DNA and the clamp deficient subassembly of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (pol III*). These findings indicate that the clamp contained in the complex is loaded onto DNA through an interaction with the pol III* and that the Hda activity is preserved in these processes. The complex consisting of Hda and the DNA-unloaded clamp may play a specific role in a process proceeding to the DnaA-ATP hydrolysis in vivo.

  6. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  7. Influence of non-steady state during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in hypertension. A LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K

    1999-01-01

    We wanted to investigate whether time to steady state was reached within 2 h of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, comparing the glucose uptake index (M/IG) with Bergman's insulin sensitivity index (Sip). We performed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h isoglycemic....... Because the 2-h M/IG correlated strongly with the 3-h Sip with relatively narrow limits of agreement, it is a good measure of insulin sensitivity. However, a 2-h clamp results in lower insulin sensitivity values in elderly, hypertensive patients due to the fact that steady state is not reached...

  8. Outside-out "sniffer-patch" clamp technique for in situ measures of neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Chrétien, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying neurotransmitter release is a critical research domain for the understanding of neuronal network function; however, few techniques are available for the direct detection and measurement of neurotransmitter release. To date, the sniffer-patch clamp technique is mainly used to investigate these mechanisms from individual cultured cells. In this study, we propose to adapt the sniffer-patch clamp technique to in situ detection of neurosecretion. Using outside-out patches from donor cells as specific biosensors plunged in acute cerebral slices, this technique allows for proper detection and quantification of neurotransmitter release at the level of the neuronal network.

  9. Equilibrium fluctuation relations for voltage coupling in membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilsoo; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-11-01

    energy barrier that follow the trend of the equilibrium fluctuation relation and the Marcus theory of electron transfer. These energetics also allow for a direct estimation of the voltage dependence of channel activation (Q-V curve), offering a quantitative rationale for a correlation between the voltage dependence parabolas and the Q-V curve, upon site-directed mutagenesis or drug binding. Taken together, by introducing the voltage coupling as the energy gap reaction coordinate, our framework brings new perspectives to the thermodynamic models of voltage activation in voltage-sensitive membrane proteins, offering an a framework for a better understating of the structure-function correlations of voltage gating in ion channels as well as electrogenic phenomena in ion pumps and transporters. Significantly, this formulation also provides a powerful bridge between the CG model of voltage coupling and the conventional macroscopic treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A New Approach to High Efficincy in Isolated Boost Converters for High-Power Low-Voltage Fuel Cell Apllications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2008-01-01

    A new low-leakage-inductance low-resistance design approach to low-voltage high-power isolated boost converters is presented. Very low levels of parasitic circuit inductances are achieved by optimizing transformer design and circuit lay-out. Primary side voltage clamp circuits can be eliminated...... by the use of power MOSFETs fully rated for repetitive avalanche. Voltage rating of primary switches can now be reduced, significantly reducing switch on-state losses. Finally, silicon carbide rectifying diodes allow fast diode turn-off, further reducing losses. Test results from a 1.5 kW full-bridge boost...... converter verify theoretical analysis and demonstrate very high efficiency. Worst case efficiency, at minimum input voltage maximum power, is 96.8 percent and maximum efficiency reaches 98 percent....

  11. Simulation of rectifier voltage malfunction on OWECS, four-level converter, HVDC light link: Smart grid context tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, M.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Floating offshore wind turbine in deep water. • DC link and voltage malfunction. • Converter topology considered is four-level. • Controllers are based on fractional-order. • Smart grid context. - Abstract: This paper presents a model for the simulation of an offshore wind system having a rectifier input voltage malfunction at one phase. The offshore wind system model comprises a variable-speed wind turbine supported on a floating platform, equipped with a permanent magnet synchronous generator using full-power four-level neutral point clamped converter. The link from the offshore floating platform to the onshore electrical grid is done through a light high voltage direct current submarine cable. The drive train is modeled by a three-mass model. Considerations about the smart grid context are offered for the use of the model in such a context. The rectifier voltage malfunction domino effect is presented as a case study to show capabilities of the model

  12. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  13. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  14. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, Varsha

    Common Mode Voltage (CMV) in any power converter has been the major contributor to premature motor failures, bearing deterioration, shaft voltage build up and electromagnetic interference. Intelligent control methods like Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) techniques provide immense potential and flexibility to reduce CMV, thereby targeting all the afore mentioned problems. Other solutions like passive filters, shielded cables and EMI filters add to the volume and cost metrics of the entire system. Smart SVPWM techniques therefore, come with a very important advantage of being an economical solution. This thesis discusses a modified space vector technique applied to an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC) which results in the reduction of common mode voltages and other advanced features. The conventional indirect space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) method of controlling matrix converters involves the usage of two adjacent active vectors and one zero vector for both rectifying and inverting stages of the converter. By suitable selection of space vectors, the rectifying stage of the matrix converter can generate different levels of virtual DC-link voltage. This capability can be exploited for operation of the converter in different ranges of modulation indices for varying machine speeds. This results in lower common mode voltage and improves the harmonic spectrum of the output voltage, without increasing the number of switching transitions as compared to conventional modulation. To summarize it can be said that the responsibility of formulating output voltages with a particular magnitude and frequency has been transferred solely to the rectifying stage of the IMC. Estimation of degree of distortion in the three phase output voltage is another facet discussed in this thesis. An understanding of the SVPWM technique and the switching sequence of the space vectors in detail gives the potential to estimate the RMS value of the switched output voltage of any

  15. Integrated Three-Voltage-Booster DC-DC Converter to Achieve High Voltage Gain with Leakage-Energy Recycling for PV or Fuel-Cell Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated three-voltage-booster DC-DC (direct current to direct current converter is proposed to achieve high voltage gain for renewable-energy generation systems. The proposed converter integrates three voltage-boosters into one power stage, which is composed of an active switch, a coupled-inductor, five diodes, and five capacitors. As compared with conventional high step-up converters, it has a lower component count. In addition, the features of leakage-energy recycling and switching loss reduction can be accomplished for conversion efficiency improvement. While the active switch is turned off, the converter can inherently clamp the voltage across power switch and suppress voltage spikes. Moreover, the reverse-recovery currents of all diodes can be alleviated by leakage inductance. A 200 W prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency with 36 V input and 400 V output is implemented to verify the theoretical analysis and to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter.

  16. Voltage-sensing phosphatase modulation by a C2 domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Castle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP is the first example of an enzyme controlled by changes in membrane potential. VSP has four distinct regions: the transmembrane voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the inter-domain linker, the cytosolic catalytic domain and the C2 domain. The VSD transmits the changes in membrane potential through the inter-domain linker activating the catalytic domain which then dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol phosphate lipids. The role of the C2, however, has not been established. In this study, we explore two possible roles for the C2: catalysis and membrane-binding. The Ci-VSP crystal structures show that the C2 residue Y522 lines the active site suggesting a contribution to catalysis. When we mutated Y522 to phenylalanine, we found a shift in the voltage dependence of activity. This suggests hydrogen bonding as a mechanism of action. Going one step further, when we deleted the entire C2 domain, we found voltage-dependent enzyme activity was no longer detectable. This result clearly indicates the entire C2 is necessary for catalysis as well as for modulating activity. As C2s are known membrane-binding domains, we tested whether the VSP C2 interacts with the membrane. We probed a cluster of four positively charged residues lining the top of the C2 and suggested by previous studies to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2 (Kalli et al., 2014. Neutralizing those positive charges significantly shifted the voltage dependence of activity to higher voltages. We tested membrane binding by depleting PI(4,5P2 from the membrane using the 5HT2C receptor and found that the VSD motions as measured by voltage clamp fluorometry were not changed. These results suggest that if the C2 domain interacts with the membrane to influence VSP function it may not occur exclusively through PI(4,5P2. Together, this data advances our understanding of the VSP C2 by demonstrating a necessary and critical role for the C2 domain in

  17. Voltage-sensing phosphatase modulation by a C2 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Paul M; Zolman, Kevin D; Kohout, Susy C

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) is the first example of an enzyme controlled by changes in membrane potential. VSP has four distinct regions: the transmembrane voltage-sensing domain (VSD), the inter-domain linker, the cytosolic catalytic domain, and the C2 domain. The VSD transmits the changes in membrane potential through the inter-domain linker activating the catalytic domain which then dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids. The role of the C2, however, has not been established. In this study, we explore two possible roles for the C2: catalysis and membrane-binding. The Ci-VSP crystal structures show that the C2 residue Y522 lines the active site suggesting a contribution to catalysis. When we mutated Y522 to phenylalanine, we found a shift in the voltage dependence of activity. This suggests hydrogen bonding as a mechanism of action. Going one step further, when we deleted the entire C2 domain, we found voltage-dependent enzyme activity was no longer detectable. This result clearly indicates the entire C2 is necessary for catalysis as well as for modulating activity. As C2s are known membrane-binding domains, we tested whether the VSP C2 interacts with the membrane. We probed a cluster of four positively charged residues lining the top of the C2 and suggested by previous studies to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] (Kalli et al., 2014). Neutralizing those positive charges significantly shifted the voltage dependence of activity to higher voltages. We tested membrane binding by depleting PI(4,5)P2 from the membrane using the 5HT2C receptor and found that the VSD motions as measured by voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) were not changed. These results suggest that if the C2 domain interacts with the membrane to influence VSP function it may not occur exclusively through PI(4,5)P2. Together, this data advances our understanding of the VSP C2 by demonstrating a necessary and critical role for the C2 domain in

  18. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  19. Local anesthetics disrupt energetic coupling between the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Yukiko; Chanda, Baron

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics block sodium channels in a state-dependent fashion, binding with higher affinity to open and/or inactivated states. Gating current measurements show that local anesthetics immobilize a fraction of the gating charge, suggesting that the movement of voltage sensors is modified when a local anesthetic binds to the pore of the sodium channel. Here, using voltage clamp fluorescence measurements, we provide a quantitative description of the effect of local anesthetics on the steady-state behavior of the voltage-sensing segments of a sodium channel. Lidocaine and QX-314 shifted the midpoints of the fluorescence-voltage (F-V) curves of S4 domain III in the hyperpolarizing direction by 57 and 65 mV, respectively. A single mutation in the S6 of domain IV (F1579A), a site critical for local anesthetic block, abolished the effect of QX-314 on the voltage sensor of domain III. Both local anesthetics modestly shifted the F-V relationships of S4 domain IV toward hyperpolarized potentials. In contrast, the F-V curve of the S4 domain I was shifted by 11 mV in the depolarizing direction upon QX-314 binding. These antagonistic effects of the local anesthetic indicate that the drug modifies the coupling between the voltage-sensing domains of the sodium channel. Our findings suggest a novel role of local anesthetics in modulating the gating apparatus of the sodium channel.

  20. Effects of Voltage-Gated K+ Channel on Cell Proliferation in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the effects and underlying mechanisms of voltage-gated K+ channels on the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells. Methods. RPMI-8226 MM cell line was used for the experiments. Voltage-gated K+ currents and the resting potential were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RT-PCR detected Kv channel mRNA expression. Cell viability was analyzed with MTT assay. Cell counting system was employed to monitor cell proliferation. DNA contents and cell volume were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. Currents recorded in RPMI-8226 cells were confirmed to be voltage-gated K+ channels. A high level of Kv1.3 mRNA was detected but no Kv3.1 mRNA was detected in RPMI-8226 cells. Voltage-gated K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP (2 mM depolarized the resting potential from −42 ± 1.7 mV to −31.8 ± 2.8 mV (P0.05. Conclusions. In RPMI-8226, voltage-gated K+ channels are involved in proliferation and cell cycle progression its influence on the resting potential and cell volume may be responsible for this process; the inhibitory effect of the voltage-gated K+ channel blocker on RPMI-8226 cell proliferation is a phase-specific event.

  1. Significance of Shrinkage Induced Clamping Pressure in Fiber-Matrix Bonding in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    used in high performance cementitious composite materials.Assuming a Coulomb type of friction on the fiber/matrix interface andusing typical values for the frictional coefficient it is shownthat the shrinkage induced clamping pressure could be one of the mostimportant factors determining the frictional...

  2. Glucose consumption by various tissues in pregnant rats : effects of a 6-day euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Bonen, A; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Koiter, TR

    In the course of pregnancy maternal tissues become increasingly more insensitive to insulin. As 6 days of euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamping, from day 8 until 14 of gestation, ameliorates total glucose consumption, we analysed the contribution of individual tissues in this phenomenon. We

  3. Diuretic response to acute hypertension is blunted during angiotensin II clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Zhang, Yibin; Yang, Li E

    2002-01-01

    and endogenous lithium clearance increased two- and threefold, respectively. We conclude that HOE-140, an inhibitor of the B(2) receptor, potentiates the sensitivity of arterial pressure to ANG II and that clamping systemic ANG II levels during acute hypertension blunts the magnitude of the pressure diuretic...

  4. Characterization of a patch-clamp microchannel array towards neuronal networks analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Massimo; Snakenborg, Detlef; Lopacinska, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    for simultaneous patch clamping of cultured cells or neurons in the same network. A disposable silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) chip with a microhole array was integrated in a microfluidic system for cell handling, perfusion and electrical recording. Fluidic characterization showed that our PC mu CA can work...

  5. Design and control of a novel gastroscope intervention mechanism with circumferentially pneumatic-driven clamping function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmin; Liu, Hao; Hao, Siwen; Li, Hongyi; Han, Jianda; Yang, Yunsheng

    2017-03-01

    Robot-assisted manipulation is promising for solving problems such as understaffing and the risk of infection in gastro-intestinal endoscopy. However, the commonly used friction rollers in few existing systems have a potential risk of deforming flexible endoscopes for non-uniform clamping. This paper presents a robotic system for a standard flexible endoscope and focuses on a novel gastroscope intervention mechanism (GIM), which provides circumferentially uniform clamping with an airbag. The GIM works with a relay-on mechanism in a way similar to manual operation. The shear stiffness of airbag and the critical slipping force (CSF) were analysed to determine the parameters of the airbag. A fuzzy PID controller was employed to realize a fast response and high accuracy of pneumatic actuation. Experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy, stiffness and CSF. In vitro and in vivo animal experiments were also carried out. The GIM realized an accuracy of 0.025 ± 0.2 mm and -0.03 ± 0.25° for push-pull and rotation without delivery resistance. Under polynomial could be used to describe the relationship between the CSF and pneumatic pressure. The novel GIM could effectively deliver gastroscopes. The pneumatic-driven clamping method proposed could protect the gastroscope by circumferentially uniform clamping force and the CSF could be properly controlled to guarantee operating safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two designs of long-wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band. EDFA) for gain clamping in double-pass systems are demonstrated and compared. The first design is based on ring laser technique where a backward amplified spontaneous emis- sion (ASE) from the second stage is routed into the feedback loop ...

  7. Experimental background of pain treatment by heat application - rapid heating and cooling in patch clamp experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittert, Ivan; Slovák, P.; Jíra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 8, Suppl.2 (2005), s. 32-32 ISSN 1212-0634. [Česko-Slovenské dialógy o bolesti /7./. 13.10.2005 - 15.10.2005, Bojnice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : patch clamp * channels Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. CLAMP - a toolkit for efficiently building customized clinical natural language processing pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Ergin; Wang, Jingqi; Jiang, Min; Wu, Yonghui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Liu, Hongfang; Xu, Hua

    2017-11-24

    Existing general clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems such as MetaMap and Clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System have been successfully applied to information extraction from clinical text. However, end users often have to customize existing systems for their individual tasks, which can require substantial NLP skills. Here we present CLAMP (Clinical Language Annotation, Modeling, and Processing), a newly developed clinical NLP toolkit that provides not only state-of-the-art NLP components, but also a user-friendly graphic user interface that can help users quickly build customized NLP pipelines for their individual applications. Our evaluation shows that the CLAMP default pipeline achieved good performance on named entity recognition and concept encoding. We also demonstrate the efficiency of the CLAMP graphic user interface in building customized, high-performance NLP pipelines with 2 use cases, extracting smoking status and lab test values. CLAMP is publicly available for research use, and we believe it is a unique asset for the clinical NLP community. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  10. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  11. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. Studies using long-chain and structured triglyceride emulsions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Thörne, Anders; Aberg, Wiveca; Carneheim, Claes; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    In a randomized crossover study, plasma kinetics of 2 different types of fat emulsions were studied in 8 healthy volunteers by using a hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. The method involves the stabilization of serum triglyceride (TG) concentration during 180 minutes at a predetermined level (4 mmol/L) by adjustment of TG infusion rate by repeated online measurements of serum TG concentration. The fat emulsions under study were a long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (LCT) emulsion (Intralipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi, Sweden) and a structured triglyceride (STG) emulsion (Structolipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi) where medium- and long-chain fatty acids have been interesterified within a TG molecule. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp was found to have acceptable reproducibility when tested in 3 healthy individuals on 2 different occasions, as similar steady-state TG levels were obtained by infusing similar amounts of fat. The average (+/-SEM) TG concentration during the 180-minute clamp was similar for STGs and LCTs (4.0 +/- 0.1 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; not significant), but the amount of fat that had to be infused was significantly higher during STG than during LCT clamping (0.31 +/- 0.04 vs 0.21 +/- 0.02 g TG per minute; P < .05). Higher serum levels of free fatty acids (1.80 +/- 0.13 vs 0.96 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; P < .05), free glycerol (1.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.76 +/- 0.08 mmol/L; P < .001), and beta-OH butyrate (1.61 +/- 0.44 vs 1.17 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; not significant) were obtained at the end of the clamp during infusion of STGs compared with LCTs. During infusion of STGs the medium-chain fatty acids octanoic (C:8) and decanoic acid (C:10) constituted approximately half of circulating fatty acids that correspond to the compositional ratio of the emulsion. Plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) concentration was higher during STG than during LCT clamping (6.06 +/- 0.62 vs 3.15 +/- 0.40 mU/mL; P < .05), and there was a positive correlation between the mean LPL concentration and the amount of

  12. Analytical drift-current threshold voltage model of long-channel double-gate MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Chun-Hsing; Wang, Jhong-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new, physical threshold voltage model to solve the ambiguity in determining the threshold voltage of double-gate (DG) MOSFETs. To avoid the difficulties of the conventional 2ψ B model in nearly undoped DG MOSFETs, this study proposes to define the on–off switching based on the actual roles of the drift and diffusion components in the total drain current. The drift current strongly enhances beyond the threshold voltage, while the diffusion current plays a major role in the subthreshold. The threshold voltage is defined as the drift component that exceeds the diffusion counterpart. From the solutions of Poisson's equation, the drift and diffusion currents of DG MOSFETs are separately formulated to derive the analytical expressions of the threshold voltage and associated threshold current. This model provides a comprehensive description of the switching behavior of DG MOSFET devices, and offers a physical onset threshold current to determine the threshold voltage in practical extraction

  13. Short-Term State Forecasting-Based Optimal Voltage Regulation in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-05-17

    A novel short-term state forecasting-based optimal power flow (OPF) approach for distribution system voltage regulation is proposed in this paper. An extreme learning machine (ELM) based state forecaster is developed to accurately predict system states (voltage magnitudes and angles) in the near future. Based on the forecast system states, a dynamically weighted three-phase AC OPF problem is formulated to minimize the voltage violations with higher penalization on buses which are forecast to have higher voltage violations in the near future. By solving the proposed OPF problem, the controllable resources in the system are optimally coordinated to alleviate the potential severe voltage violations and improve the overall voltage profile. The proposed approach has been tested in a 12-bus distribution system and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  14. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  15. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  16. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  17. Research on micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing based on static wirerope tension of a surgical robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromanipulator’s force feedback is one of the key research contents of minimally invasive surgical robotic system. Because the micromanipulator is a kind of compact construction which is suitable for valve installation with small space in surgery, especially for the influence of disinfection method, there are major difficulties and limitations to integrate compact sensors in the end of micromanipulator. This article focuses on the 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing, and these three joints are actuated by wirerope driving. A clamping force sensing method is proposed based on static tension of wirerope driving, and a static model between the clamping force and wirerope’s static tension is established considering the influence of real friction resistance in the mechanical system. Finally, an equivalent experimental test platform for 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing is set up, and then a series of experiments of the clamping force are studied. The frictional resistances of wirerope between the guide plate and guide pulley mechanism are tested, and a calibration and correction method of the experimental clamping force is proposed. The final experiment results show that the total average accuracy of experimental clamping force is about 78.3%, and it can be the basic measurement force to realize micromanipulator’s clamping force feedback of a minimally invasive surgical robot.

  18. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different

  19. Optimum distributed generation placement with voltage sag effect minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Soma; Goswami, Swapan Kumar; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new optimal distributed generation placement algorithm is proposed. ► Optimal number, sizes and locations of the DGs are determined. ► Technical factors like loss, voltage sag problem are minimized. ► The percentage savings are optimized. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a new formulation for the optimum distributed generator (DG) placement problem which considers a hybrid combination of technical factors, like minimization of the line loss, reduction in the voltage sag problem, etc., and economical factors, like installation and maintenance cost of the DGs. The new formulation proposed is inspired by the idea that the optimum placement of the DGs can help in reducing and mitigating voltage dips in low voltage distribution networks. The problem is configured as a multi-objective, constrained optimization problem, where the optimal number of DGs, along with their sizes and bus locations, are simultaneously obtained. This problem has been solved using genetic algorithm, a traditionally popular stochastic optimization algorithm. A few benchmark systems radial and networked (like 34-bus radial distribution system, 30 bus loop distribution system and IEEE 14 bus system) are considered as the case study where the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is aptly demonstrated.

  20. Thermodynamic basis for engineering high-affinity, high-specificity binding-induced DNA clamp nanoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idili, Andrea; Plaxco, Kevin W; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2013-12-23

    Naturally occurring chemoreceptors almost invariably employ structure-switching mechanisms, an observation that has inspired the use of biomolecular switches in a wide range of artificial technologies in the areas of diagnostics, imaging, and synthetic biology. In one mechanism for generating such behavior, clamp-based switching, binding occurs via the clamplike embrace of two recognition elements onto a single target molecule. In addition to coupling recognition with a large conformational change, this mechanism offers a second advantage: it improves both affinity and specificity simultaneously. To explore the physics of such switches we have dissected here the thermodynamics of a clamp-switch that recognizes a target DNA sequence through both Watson-Crick base pairing and triplex-forming Hoogsteen interactions. When compared to the equivalent linear DNA probe (which relies solely on Watson-Crick interactions), the extra Hoogsteen interactions in the DNA clamp-switch increase the probe's affinity for its target by ∼0.29 ± 0.02 kcal/mol/base. The Hoogsteen interactions of the clamp-switch likewise provide an additional specificity check that increases the discrimination efficiency toward a single-base mismatch by 1.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. This, in turn, leads to a 10-fold improvement in the width of the "specificity window" of this probe relative to that of the equivalent linear probe. Given these attributes, clamp-switches should be of utility not only for sensing applications but also, in the specific field of DNA nanotechnology, for applications calling for a better control over the building of nanostructures and nanomachines.

  1. Ventilation before Umbilical Cord Clamping improves the physiological transition at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmira eBhatt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a fetus to a neonate at birth represents a critical phase in our life. Most infants make this transition without complications, but preterm infants usually require some form of assistance due to immature cardiopulmonary systems that predispose them to lifelong sequelae. As the incidence of preterm birth is increasing, there is now an urgent need for the development of management strategies that facilitate this transition, which will likely include improved strategies for the management of the maternal third stage of labour. For instance, recent studies on the physiological transition at birth have led to the discovery that establishing ventilation in the infant before the umbilical cord is clamped greatly stabilizes the cardiovascular transition at birth. While most benefits of delayed clamping have previously been attributed to an increase in placenta to infant blood transfusion, clearly there are other significant benefits for the infant, which are not well understood. Nevertheless, if ventilation can be established before cord clamping in a preterm infant, the large adverse changes in cardiac function that normally accompanies umbilical cord clamping can be avoided. As preterm infants have an immature cerebral vascular bed, large swings in cardiovascular function places them at high risk of cerebral vascular rupture and the associated increased risk of mortality and morbidity. In view of the impact that cord clamping has on the cardiovascular transition at birth, it is also time to re-examine some of the strategies used in the management of the third stage of labour. These include the appropriate timing of uterotonic administration in relation to delivery of the infant and placenta. As there is a lack of evidence on the effects these individual practices have on the infant, there is a necessity to improve our understanding of their impact in order to develop strategies that facilitate the transition to newborn life.

  2. Long-Time Choledochal Clamping in Wistar Rats Causes Biliary Obstruction Progressing to Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, G D L; Tártaro, R R; Escanhoela, C A F; Boin, I D F S F

    2016-09-01

    Biliary complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hepatic surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate late liver alterations after a long period of choledochal clamping in Wistar rats. Ten male Wistar rats, weighing 304 grams, anesthetized with sodium thiopental (25 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) intravenously, were distributed into 2 groups: the choledochal clamping group (CCG) and the operation sham group (OSG), with 5 animals each submitted to an abdominal incision. In the CCG, the choledochal was isolated, dissected, and clamped with a microvascular clamp for 40 minutes. After this occlusion time, the clamp was removed and the incision was closed. In the OSG the animals, under normal conditions, were submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy for choledochal manipulation. In all animals, after the 31st day, a hepatic biopsy was carried out for histology and blood biochemical tests: total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA, Unicamp, No. 2511-1). In the CCG, 100% of the animals showed bile duct dilatation, ductular proliferation, and portal inflammatory infiltrate; 60% showed regenerative nodule formation; and 80% had porta-porta septa and foci of necrosis, all of which were not found in the OSG. All CCG group biochemical tests had significant increases (P Wistar rats caused hepatic dysfunction and biochemical and histological injuries with degrees of distortion to the hepatic architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  4. Interactions Between SNAP-25 and Synaptotagmin-1 Are Involved in Vesicle Priming, Clamping Spontaneous and Stimulating Evoked Neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupp, Melanie; Malsam, Jörg; Ruiter, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    between region I (vesicle priming) and region II (evoked release). Spontaneous release was disinhibited by region I mutations and found to correlate with defective complexin (Cpx) clamping in an in vitro fusion assay, pointing to an interdependent role of synaptotagmin and Cpx in release clamping...... triggering, depend on direct SNARE complex interaction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The function of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1):soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) interactions during neurotransmission remains unclear. We mutated SNAP-25 within the recently identified region I and region II...... was disinhibited by region I mutation and found to correlate with defective complexin (Cpx) clamping in vitro, pointing to an interdependent role of synaptotagmin and Cpx in release clamping. Therefore, vesicle priming, clamping spontaneous release, and eliciting evoked release are three different functions of syt...

  5. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  6. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  7. Stable operation of a high-power piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers and a stepped horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kohei; Shibamata, Yuki

    2018-06-01

    We previously developed a 100 W piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers (BLTs) and a stepped horn whose cross-sectional area ratio determines the specified step-up voltage transformation ratio. Unlike conventional piezoelectric transformers, this transformer is driven at a frequency quite near its mechanical resonance, and thus can be mechanically held firmly at its clearly identified vibratory node without mechanical energy loss. However, it has been revealed that the high-power operation of the transformer often becomes very unstable owing to the “jumping and dropping” phenomena first found by Takahashi and Hirose [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3055 (1992)]. To avoid this instability, we have investigated the peculiar phenomena, and found that they can be attributed to a heavily distorted electric field inside the piezoelectric ceramic disks of the BLT on the primary side of the transformer being driven by a low-impedance voltage source near the mechanical resonance. The resultant concentration of the electric field leads to the local reversal of piezoelectric polarization in every half period of the vibration, viz., the instability. Consequently, we have developed a scheme for the steady high-power operation of this type of piezoelectric transformer and examined its validity experimentally. The method has eventually improved the linearity and power transfer efficiency of the transformer significantly.

  8. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  9. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  10. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  11. Two distinct voltage-sensing domains control voltage sensitivity and kinetics of current activation in CaV1.1 calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Benedetti, Bruno; Coste de Bagneaux, Pierre; Grabner, Manfred; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    Alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle CaV1.1 voltage-gated calcium channel gives rise to two channel variants with very different gating properties. The currents of both channels activate slowly; however, insertion of exon 29 in the adult splice variant CaV1.1a causes an ∼30-mV right shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Existing evidence suggests that the S3-S4 linker in repeat IV (containing exon 29) regulates voltage sensitivity in this voltage-sensing domain (VSD) by modulating interactions between the adjacent transmembrane segments IVS3 and IVS4. However, activation kinetics are thought to be determined by corresponding structures in repeat I. Here, we use patch-clamp analysis of dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes reconstituted with CaV1.1 mutants and chimeras to identify the specific roles of these regions in regulating channel gating properties. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the structure and/or hydrophobicity of the IVS3-S4 linker is critical for regulating voltage sensitivity in the IV VSD, but by itself cannot modulate voltage sensitivity in the I VSD. Swapping sequence domains between the I and the IV VSDs reveals that IVS4 plus the IVS3-S4 linker is sufficient to confer CaV1.1a-like voltage dependence to the I VSD and that the IS3-S4 linker plus IS4 is sufficient to transfer CaV1.1e-like voltage dependence to the IV VSD. Any mismatch of transmembrane helices S3 and S4 from the I and IV VSDs causes a right shift of voltage sensitivity, indicating that regulation of voltage sensitivity by the IVS3-S4 linker requires specific interaction of IVS4 with its corresponding IVS3 segment. In contrast, slow current kinetics are perturbed by any heterologous sequences inserted into the I VSD and cannot be transferred by moving VSD I sequences to VSD IV. Thus, CaV1.1 calcium channels are organized in a modular manner, and control of voltage sensitivity and activation kinetics is accomplished by specific molecular mechanisms

  12. Molecular mechanism of DNA replication-coupled inactivation of the initiator protein in Escherichia coli: interaction of DnaA with the sliding clamp-loaded DNA and the sliding clamp-Hda complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Takata, Makoto; Kubota, Toshio; Matsuda, Yusaku; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2004-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication. After the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is loaded on to DNA, DnaA-bound ATP is hydrolysed in a manner depending on Hda protein and the DNA-loaded form of the DNA polymerase III sliding clamp subunit, which yields ADP-DnaA, an inactivated form for initiation. This regulatory DnaA-inactivation represses extra initiation events. In this study, in vitro replication intermediates and structured DNA mimicking replicational intermediates were first used to identify structural prerequisites in the process of DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. Unlike duplex DNA loaded with sliding clamps, primer RNA-DNA heteroduplexes loaded with clamps were not associated with DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, and duplex DNA provided in trans did not rescue this defect. At least 40-bp duplex DNA is competent for the DnaA-ATP hydrolysis when a single clamp was loaded. The DnaA-ATP hydrolysis was inhibited when ATP-DnaA was tightly bound to a DnaA box-bearing oligonucleotide. These results imply that the DnaA-ATP hydrolysis involves the direct interaction of ATP-DnaA with duplex DNA flanking the sliding clamp. Furthermore, Hda protein formed a stable complex with the sliding clamp. Based on these, we suggest a mechanical basis in the DnaA-inactivation that ATP-DnaA interacts with the Hda-clamp complex with the aid of DNA binding. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Limited

  13. A Hybrid Model for Safety Pharmacology on an Automated Patch Clamp Platform: Using Dynamic Clamp to Join iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Simulations of Ik1 Ion Channels in Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Goversen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA proposal is the use of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and the confirmation of their predictive power in drug safety assays. The benefits of this cell source are clear; drugs can be tested in vitro on human cardiomyocytes, with patient-specific genotypes if needed, and differentiation efficiencies are generally excellent, resulting in a virtually limitless supply of cardiomyocytes. There are, however, several challenges that will have to be surmounted before successful establishment of hSC-CMs as an all-round predictive model for drug safety assays. An important factor is the relative electrophysiological immaturity of hSC-CMs, which limits arrhythmic responses to unsafe drugs that are pro-arrhythmic in humans. Potentially, immaturity may be improved functionally by creation of hybrid models, in which the dynamic clamp technique joins simulations of lacking cardiac ion channels (e.g., IK1 with hSC-CMs in real-time during patch clamp experiments. This approach has been used successfully in manual patch clamp experiments, but throughput is low. In this study, we combined dynamic clamp with automated patch clamp of iPSC-CMs in current clamp mode, and demonstrate that IK1 conductance can be added to iPSC-CMs on an automated patch clamp platform, resulting in an improved electrophysiological maturity.

  14. Evaluation of Introduction of a Delayed Cord Clamping Protocol for Premature Neonates in a High-Volume Maternity Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lilly Y; Feinglass, Joe M; Khan, Janine Y; Gerber, Susan E; Grobman, William A; Yee, Lynn M

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate adherence to a delayed cord clamping protocol for preterm births in the first 2 years after its introduction, perform a quality improvement assessment, and determine neonatal outcomes associated with protocol implementation and adherence. This is a retrospective cohort study of women delivering singleton neonates at 23-32 weeks of gestation in the 2 years before (preprotocol) and 2 years after (postprotocol) introduction of a 30-second delayed cord clamping protocol at a large-volume academic center. This policy was communicated to obstetric and pediatric health care providers and nurses and reinforced with intermittent educational reviews. Barriers to receiving delayed cord clamping were assessed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. Neonatal outcomes then were compared between all neonates in the preprotocol period and all neonates in the postprotocol period and between all neonates in the preprotocol period and neonates receiving delayed cord clamping in the postprotocol period using multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Of the 427 eligible neonates, 187 were born postprotocol. Of these, 53.5% (n=100) neonates received delayed cord clamping according to the protocol. The rate of delayed cord clamping preprotocol was 0%. Protocol uptake and frequency of delayed cord clamping increased over the 2 years after its introduction. In the postprotocol period, cesarean delivery was the only factor independently associated with failing to receive delayed cord clamping (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.96). In comparison with the preprotocol period, those who received delayed cord clamping in the postprotocol period had significantly higher birth hematocrit (β=2.46, P=.007) and fewer blood transfusions in the first week of life (adjusted OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.96). After introduction of an institutional delayed cord clamping protocol followed by continued health care provider education and

  15. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  16. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  17. Multi-Port High Voltage Gain Modular Power Converter for Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Song

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In high voltage direct current (HVDC power transmission of offshore wind power systems, DC/DC converters are applied to transfer power from wind generators to HVDC terminals, and they play a crucial role in providing a high voltage gain, high efficiency, and high fault tolerance. This paper introduces an innovative multi-port DC/DC converter with multiple modules connected in a scalable matrix configuration, presenting an ultra-high voltage step-up ratio and low voltage/current rating of components simultaneously. Additionally, thanks to the adoption of active clamping current-fed push–pull (CFPP converters as sub-modules (SMs, soft-switching is obtained for all power switches, and the currents of series-connected CFPP converters are auto-balanced, which significantly reduce switching losses and control complexity. Furthermore, owing to the expandable matrix structure, the output voltage and power of a modular converter can be controlled by those of a single SM, or by adjusting the column and row numbers of the matrix. High control flexibility improves fault tolerance. Moreover, due to the flexible control, the proposed converter can transfer power directly from multiple ports to HVDC terminals without bus cable. In this paper, the design of the proposed converter is introduced, and its functions are illustrated by simulation results.

  18. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  19. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W; Silverstein, Brian L [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  20. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  1. Design and experimental research of a novel inchworm type piezo-driven rotary actuator with the changeable clamping radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Lu; Ren, Luquan; Huang, Hu; Fan, Zunqiang; Li, Jianping; Qu, Han

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel piezo-driven rotary actuator with the changeable clamping radius is developed based on the inchworm principle. This actuator mainly utilizes three piezoelectric actuators, a flexible gripper, a clamping block, and a rotor to achieve large stroke rotation with high resolution. The design process of the flexible gripper consisting of the driving unit and the clamping unit is described. Lever-type mechanisms were used to amplify the micro clamping displacements. The amplifying factor and parasitic displacement of the lever-type mechanism in the clamping unit was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. In order to investigate the rotation characteristics of the actuator, a series of experiments was carried out. Experimental results indicate that the actuator can rotate at a speed of 77,488 μrad/s with a driving frequency of 167 Hz. The rotation resolution and maximum load torque of the actuator are 0.25 μrad and 37 N mm, respectively. The gripper is movable along the z direction based on an elevating platform, and the clamping radius can change from 10.6 mm to 25 mm. Experimental results confirm that the actuator can achieve different rotation speeds by changing the clamping radius.

  2. Actuator Location and Voltages Optimization for Shape Control of Smart Beams Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios E. Stavroulakis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on optimal voltages and optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators for shape control of beam structures. A finite element model, based on Timoshenko beam theory, is developed to characterize the behavior of the structure and the actuators. This model accounted for the electromechanical coupling in the entire beam structure, due to the fact that the piezoelectric layers are treated as constituent parts of the entire structural system. A hybrid scheme is presented based on great deluge and genetic algorithm. The hybrid algorithm is implemented to calculate the optimal locations and optimal values of voltages, applied to the piezoelectric actuators glued in the structure, which minimize the error between the achieved and the desired shape. Results from numerical simulations demonstrate the capabilities and efficiency of the developed optimization algorithm in both clamped−free and clamped−clamped beam problems are presented.

  3. Macroeconomic Assessment of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Küfeoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.

  4. A matter of quantum voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M., E-mail: Shawn.Kathmann@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  5. Integral transform solution of bending problem of clamped orthotropic rectangular plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.; Gu, J.-J.; Su, J.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed to obtain an exact solution for the bending problem of fully clamped orthotropic rectangular plates. The use of the GITT approach in the analysis of the transverse deflection equation leads to a coupled system of fourth order differential equations in the dimensionless longitudinal spatial variable. The resulting transformed ODE system is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DBVPFD from IMSL Library. Numerical results with automatic global accuracy control are produced for different values of aspect ratio. Critical comparisons with previously reported numerical results are performed with excellent agreement. Several sets of reference results for clamped orthotropic rectangular plates are also provided for future covalidation purposes. (author)

  6. Axially Modulated Clamped-Guided Arch Resonator for Memory and Logic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Alcheikh, Nouha; Fariborzi, Hossein; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate memory and logic devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device are electrostatically actuated and capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency modulation is achieved through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the clamped-guided arch microbeam. We present two case studies: first, a dynamic memory based on the nonlinear frequency response of the resonator, and second, a reprogrammable two-input logic gate based on the linear frequency modulation of the resonator. These devices show energy cost per memory/logic operation in pJ, are fully compatible with CMOS fabrication processes, have the potential for on-chip system integration, and operate at room temperature.

  7. Axially Modulated Clamped-Guided Arch Resonator for Memory and Logic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate memory and logic devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device are electrostatically actuated and capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency modulation is achieved through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the clamped-guided arch microbeam. We present two case studies: first, a dynamic memory based on the nonlinear frequency response of the resonator, and second, a reprogrammable two-input logic gate based on the linear frequency modulation of the resonator. These devices show energy cost per memory/logic operation in pJ, are fully compatible with CMOS fabrication processes, have the potential for on-chip system integration, and operate at room temperature.

  8. [The Impact of Late Umbilical Cord Clamping on Neonatal Jaundice and Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Randomized Controlled Trail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Pei-Chun; Yang, Cherng-Chia; Gau, Meei-Ling; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Tzu-Ying

    2015-08-01

    The current evidence supports the clinical benefits of late umbilical cord clamping. These benefits include increased blood volume and total body iron. Furthermore, delayed cord clamping facilitates the transplantation of stem cells, which helps the development of infant bodily systems. However, due to concerns related to postpartum hemorrhaging and neonate jaundice, most maternity units still clamp the cord immediately after a child is born. This study investigates the impact of delaying cord clamping on neonatal jaundice and postpartum hemorrhage. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. One hundred and five healthy nulliparous women at 36 weeks of pregnancy were included and allocated randomly to the experiment group (n=44) and the control group (n=61). Participants in the experiment group received delayed cord clamping (DCC) at 3 minutes after delivery. Participants in the control group received early cord clamping (ECC) at around 1 minute after delivery. Clinical measures of the outcomes were measured by the infant transcutaneous bilirubin levels (TcB) and postpartum hemorrhage at birth. A structured questionnaire and biophysical measures were used to collect data on participant demographics, obstetrical information, maternal blood loss at birth, neonate weight and TcB level at hospitalization, and whether or not the infant received phototherapy at 4-7 days postpartum. Overall, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of neonatal jaundice, maternal hemorrhage at birth, and phototherapy rates at time of hospitalization and at 4-7 days postpartum. The findings of the present study support that late umbilical cord clamping does not increase the risk of maternal postpartum hemorrhaging or neonate jaundice. Thus, we suggest that clinicians inform clients during prenatal classes of the benefits of delayed cord clamping and also use current, evidence-based knowledge to dispel client

  9. Vozy formule 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zbožínek, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce uvádí základní pravidla a předpoklady pro konstrukci a použití vozů formule 1. Hlavní zaměření je na aerodynamiku, která je nejdůležitější disciplínou v tomto motoristickém sportu, dále je tato práce zaměřena na základní faktory týkající se motoru vozu, kol, nové technologie KERS a provedení volantu. This work shows basic rules and conditions for construction and use of cars formula 1. The main part of this work focus on the aerodynamics which is the most important discipline of...

  10. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...... approaches to strategy assessment, namely the goal-centred, comparative and improvement approaches, as found in the literature. Furthermore, it encompasses three phases of strategy formulation processes: strategic thinking, strategic planning and embedding of strategy. The tool reflects that the different......, but cases and managerial perceptions indicate that the need for accurate and detailed plans might be overrated in the literature, as implementation relies heavily on continuous improvement and empowerment. Concerning embedding, key aspects relate both to the goal-centred and improvement approaches, while...

  11. Role of clamping tube thoracostomy prior to removal in non-cardiac thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, M.A.; Majeed, F.A.; Naz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The frequently encountered thoracic trauma in surgical emergencies is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Eighty percent of thoracic trauma can be managed by simple insertion of tube thoracostomy. Though guidelines for insertion are comprehensively explained in literature, an ideal algorithm for discontinuation is not available. A standard and safe defined protocol would eliminate hesitancy in confident removal among general surgeons. The objective of this study was to determine role of clamping trial prior to removal in terms of frequency of recurrent pneumothorax. Methods: This study was conducted in department of Surgery Combined military hospital/Military Hospital Rawalpindi from April 2013 to March 2014. Total 180 patients with blunt or penetrating thoracic trauma were included in the study. Chest tube (28-36 Fr) was inserted in Trauma centre under strict asepsis. Tubes were then connected to under water seal for minimum six hours. Patients were randomly divided in two equal groups (90 in each). In Group A, Clamping trial was given before attempting removal while in Group B, tube was removed immediately without clamping trial. Patients of both groups were observed two hourly for development of recurrent pneumothorax. Data was analysed using SPSS-18. Results: The comparison of frequency of recurrent pneumothorax in Group A (9 patients, 10%) and in Group B (4 patients, 4.5%) was not found to be statistically significant. (p-value 2.073). Conclusion: Clamping trial is unnecessary prior to removal of tube thoracostomy in blunt and penetrating non-cardiac thoracic trauma in terms of recurrent pneumothorax. (author)

  12. Safety of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery without aortic cross-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Petracek, Michael R; Kumar, Sathappan; Solenkova, Nataliya V; Kaiser, Clayton A; Greelish, James P; Balaguer, Jorge M; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ball, Stephen K; Hoff, Steven J; Absi, Tarek S; Kim, Betty S; Byrne, John G

    2008-05-01

    We developed a technique for open heart surgery through a small (5 cm) right-anterolateral thoracotomy without aortic cross-clamp. One hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients (103 male and 92 female), age 69 +/- 8 years, underwent surgery between January 2006 and July 2007. Mean preoperative New York Heart Association function class was 2.2 +/- 0.7. Thirty-five patients (18%) had an ejection fraction 0.35 or less. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted through femoral (176 of 195, 90%), axillary (18 of 195, 9%), or direct aortic (1 of 195, 0.5%) cannulation. Under cold fibrillatory arrest (mean temperature 28.2 degrees C) without aortic cross-clamp, mitral valve repair (72 of 195, 37%), mitral valve replacement (117 of 195, 60%), or other (6 of 195, 3%) procedures were performed. Concomitant procedures included maze (45 of 195, 23%), patent foramen ovale closure (42 of 195, 22%) and tricuspid valve repair (16 of 195, 8%), or replacement (4 of 195, 2%). Thirty-day mortality was 3% (6 of 195). Duration of fibrillatory arrest, cardiopulmonary bypass, and "skin to skin" surgery were 88 +/- 32, 118 +/- 52, and 280 +/- 78 minutes, respectively. Ten patients (5%) underwent reexploration for bleeding and 44% did not receive any blood transfusions. Six patients (3%) sustained a postoperative stroke, eight (4%) developed low cardiac output syndrome, and two (1%) developed renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Mean length of hospital stay was 7 +/- 4.8 days. This simplified technique of minimally invasive open heart surgery is safe and easily reproducible. Fibrillatory arrest without aortic cross-clamping, with coronary perfusion against an intact aortic valve, does not increase the risk of stroke or low cardiac output. It may be particularly useful in higher risk patients in whom sternotomy with aortic clamping is less desirable.

  13. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit

    2003-01-01

    Planar silicon chips with 1-2-microm etched holes (average resistance: 2.04 +/- 0.02 MOmega in physiological buffer, n = 274) have been developed for patch-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from cells in suspension. An automated 16-channel parallel screening system, QPatch 16, has been deve......-response relationship characterizations of verapamil and rBeKm-1 blockage of hERG currents provided IC(50) values similar to values reported in the literature....

  14. Reversible fastener clamp load monitor with continuous visual or remote readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Malcolm H.; Kausel, Theodore C., Jr.; Begley, Matthew R.

    1998-03-01

    SIMS has developed a simple means for detecting and monitoring both absolute and relative clamp load, or bolt tension, in fastener systems. More than twenty-five percent of automotive failures are known to be due to undetected loss of fastener clamp load. While the equivalent aerospace maintenance statistics are not known, the average automobile has 3,500 fasteners while a Boeing 747 has closer to one million. It is therefore anticipated that the new SensaBolt clamp load tracking system could find wide applications in the aerospace arena. We describe a visually-evident and retrofitted clamp load monitoring design which is based on the differential joint substrate compression at, and immediately adjacent to, the fastener location. This intrinsically-accurate indicator does not necessarily require alteration in either the bolt or nut geometries, thereby facilitating product introduction and retrofit in aging aircraft applications. In addition, SensaBolt's sole reliance on substrate compression renders it more accurate then torque wrench or turn-of-nut techniques. Readout may be accomplished by any of three principal methods: for those applications with ease of access to the sensor, loss of tension can be determined by direct visual inspection. Application of a standard wrench can then be made to restore the fastener's proper tightness, per the SensaBolt indicators. In those instances where line-of-sight is unimpeded and more formal inspection is desired, the SensaBolt may be interrogated by a laser scanner bar code reader. Finally, SensaBolt may be addressed by the SIMS fiber optic harness for those instances where full-time remote interrogation is desired.

  15. Designing a Signal Conditioning System with Software Calibration for Resistor-feedback Patch Clamp Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Zhu, Quanhui; Qu, Anlian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a programmable signal conditioning system based on software calibration for resistor-feedback patch clamp amplifier (PCA) has been described, this system is mainly composed of frequency correction, programmable gain and filter whose parameters are configured by software automatically to minimize the errors, A lab-designed data acquisition system (DAQ) is used to implement data collections and communications with PC. The laboratory test results show good agreement with design specifications.

  16. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  17. The Effect of PRGF on Healing of Clamp-Induced Tendinopathy in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Diliçıkık

    2018-04-01

    Material and Methods: A preliminary study was designed to obtain more apparent tendinopathy changes in the subculture. Histopathologically, second level compression with a clamp for 1 minute followed by releasing for 3 minutes applying the same mechanical stimulus procedure for four times, was defined as the optimal compression mode for the most optimal damage in terms of tendinopathy. Thirty-four female Sprague Downey type rats were divided into five separate groups and clamped tendon damage was formed on unilateral (left Acchilles tendons. The first group was a control group (Kontrol: CN; in the second group tissue specimens were taken from the rats immediately after being clamped (K-0; from the group 3, tissue samples were taken 1 week after clamping (K-7. Immediately after the tendinopathy model was applied to the animals in the fourth group (PRGF, the PRGF injection was performed to the subjects from the blood that was obtained from the control group, while an isotonic saline solution was injected into the subjects in the fifth group (SF, and tissue samples from both groups were obtained 1 week after. Results: The samples were examined by means of a transmission electron microscope. In the K-0 group among the collagenous fibers, vacuoles are observed in the cytoplasm of the edematous areas and fibrocytes, and in comparison, with K-7 and SF group there was a significant increase in fibroblast and collagen fiber synthesis in the PRGF-treated group. Furthermore, fibroblast and new collagen synthesis were observed to be increased in K-7 and SF groups. An intense increase in organelle levels was observed in PRGF group fibroblasts. Conclusion: This data suggests that PRGF may provide a better healing response in tendons with limited healing and circulation, which enhances the activation in the cells at the beginning of the healing process.

  18. A New Approach of Modified Submerged Patch Clamp Recording Reveals Interneuronal Dynamics during Epileptiform Oscillations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morris, G.; Jiruška, Přemysl; Jefferys, J. G. R.; Powell, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, Nov 9 (2016), č. článku 519. ISSN 1662-453X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02634S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : in vitro * membrane chamber * LFP * patch clamp * epilepsy * high frequency activity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.566, year: 2016

  19. Feasibility, safety and image quality of cardiac FDG studies during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, Jeroen J.; Visser, Frans C.; Lingen, Arthur van; Visser, Cees A.; Poldermans, Don; Elhendy, Abdou; Boersma, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability has become an integral part of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. To ensure good image quality, in particular in patients with diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamping has been proposed. In this study we evaluated the safety and the image quality of cardiac FDG imaging during clamping in a large group of patients, including a subgroup with diabetes mellitus. The incidence of viability (on both a segment and a patient basis) was also determined for patients with and without diabetes mellitus. The safety and image quality of cardiac FDG studies during clamping were evaluated in 131 patients, including 19 with diabetes mellitus. Image quality was assessed visually and quantitatively using heart-to-lung (H/L), heart-to-liver (H/Li) and myocardium-to-background (M/B) ratios. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the time of FDG injection to determine levels of glucose, free fatty acids and insulin. The metabolic circumstances were optimal for FDG imaging: high insulin levels, low free fatty acid levels and glucose levels in the normal range (levels of substrates were comparable between patients with and patients without diabetes mellitus). No serious side-effects occurred in any patient. Image quality (assessed visually) was good in all patients. The quantitative parameters of image quality (H/L, H/Li and M/B) were comparable between patients with and patients without diabetes mellitus. The incidence of viability was high: 38% of patients without and 58% of patients with diabetes mellitus had substantial viability despite contractile dysfunction. It is concluded that cardiac FDG imaging during clamping is safe and provides excellent image quality, including in patients with diabetes mellitus. The incidence of viability is high, in particular in patients with diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  20. Clamping effect on the piezoelectric responses of screen-printed low temperature PZT/Polymer films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Zhu, D.; Torah, R. N.; Komolafe, A.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a new flexible lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer composite material that can be screen-printed onto fabrics and flexible substrates, and investigates the clamping effect of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material. Experimental results showed that the optimum blend of PZT/polymer binder with a weight ratio of 12:1 provides a dielectric constant of 146. The measured value of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was found to depend on the substrate used. Measured d33clp values of 70, 40, 36 pC N-1 were obtained from the optimum formulation printed on Polyester-cotton with an interface layer, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. The variation in the measured d33clp values occurs because of the effect of the mechanical boundary conditions of the substrate. The piezoelectric film is mechanically bonded to the surface of the substrate and this constrains the film in the plane of the substrate (the 1-direction). This constraint means that the perpendicular forces (applied in the 3-direction) used to measure d33 introduce a strain in the 1-direction that produces a charge of the opposite polarity to that induced by the d33 effect. This is due to the negative sign of the d31 coefficient and has the effect of reducing the measured d33 value. Theoretical and experimental investigations confirm a reduction of 13%, 50% and 55% in the estimated freestanding d33fs values (80 pC N-1) on Polyester-cotton, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. These results demonstrate the effect of the boundary conditions of the substrate/PZT interface on the piezoelectric response of the PZT/polymer film and in particular the reduced effect of fabric substrates due to their lowered stiffness.

  1. Analytical and experimental investigation on transmission loss of clamped double panels: implication of boundary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2009-03-01

    The air-borne sound insulation performance of a rectangular double-panel partition clamp mounted on an infinite acoustic rigid baffle is investigated both analytically and experimentally and compared with that of a simply supported one. With the clamped (or simply supported) boundary accounted for by using the method of modal function, a double series solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) of the structure is obtained by employing the weighted residual (Galerkin) method. Experimental measurements with Al double-panel partitions having air cavity are subsequently carried out to validate the theoretical model for both types of the boundary condition, and good overall agreement is achieved. A consistency check of the two different models (based separately on clamped modal function and simply supported modal function) is performed by extending the panel dimensions to infinite where no boundaries exist. The significant discrepancies between the two different boundary conditions are demonstrated in terms of the STL versus frequency plots as well as the panel deflection mode shapes.

  2. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  3. Automated patch clamp on mESC-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiotoxicity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzle, Sonja; Haythornthwaite, Alison; Kettenhofen, Ralf; Kolossov, Eugen; Bohlen, Heribert; George, Michael; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fertig, Niels

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular side effects are critical in drug development and have frequently led to late-stage project terminations or even drug withdrawal from the market. Physiologically relevant and predictive assays for cardiotoxicity are hence strongly demanded by the pharmaceutical industry. To identify a potential impact of test compounds on ventricular repolarization, typically a variety of ion channels in diverse heterologously expressing cells have to be investigated. Similar to primary cells, in vitro-generated stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes simultaneously express cardiac ion channels. Thus, they more accurately represent the native situation compared with cell lines overexpressing only a single type of ion channel. The aim of this study was to determine if stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are suited for use in an automated patch clamp system. The authors show recordings of cardiac ion currents as well as action potential recordings in readily available stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Besides monitoring inhibitory effects of reference compounds on typical cardiac ion currents, the authors revealed for the first time drug-induced modulation of cardiac action potentials in an automated patch clamp system. The combination of an in vitro cardiac cell model with higher throughput patch clamp screening technology allows for a cost-effective cardiotoxicity prediction in a physiologically relevant cell system.

  4. A new mechanism of voltage-dependent gating exposed by KV10.1 channels interrupted between voltage sensor and pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Adam P; Fernández-Trillo, Jorge; Bharill, Shashank; Papp, Ferenc; Panyi, Gyorgy; Stühmer, Walter; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Pardo, Luis A

    2017-05-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels couple transmembrane potential changes to ion flow. Conformational changes in the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of the channel are thought to be transmitted to the pore domain (PD) through an α-helical linker between them (S4-S5 linker). However, our recent work on channels disrupted in the S4-S5 linker has challenged this interpretation for the KCNH family. Furthermore, a recent single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structure of K V 10.1 revealed that the S4-S5 linker is a short loop in this KCNH family member, confirming the need for an alternative gating model. Here we use "split" channels made by expression of VSD and PD as separate fragments to investigate the mechanism of gating in K V 10.1. We find that disruption of the covalent connection within the S4 helix compromises the ability of channels to close at negative voltage, whereas disconnecting the S4-S5 linker from S5 slows down activation and deactivation kinetics. Surprisingly, voltage-clamp fluorometry and MTS accessibility assays show that the motion of the S4 voltage sensor is virtually unaffected when VSD and PD are not covalently bound. Finally, experiments using constitutively open PD mutants suggest that the presence of the VSD is structurally important for the conducting conformation of the pore. Collectively, our observations offer partial support to the gating model that assumes that an inward motion of the C-terminal S4 helix, rather than the S4-S5 linker, closes the channel gate, while also suggesting that control of the pore by the voltage sensor involves more than one mechanism. © 2017 Tomczak et al.

  5. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  6. Experimental determination of optimal clamping torque for AB-PEM Fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ul Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte Membrane (PEM fuel cell is an electrochemical device producing electricity by the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen without combustion. PEM fuel cell stack is provided with an appropriate clamping torque to prevent leakage of reactant gases and to minimize the contact resistance between gas diffusion media (GDL and bipolar plates. GDL porous structure and gas permeability is directly affected by the compaction pressure which, consequently, drastically change the fuel cell performance. Various efforts were made to determine the optimal compaction pressure and pressure distributions through simulations and experimentation. Lower compaction pressure results in increase of contact resistance and also chances of leakage. On the other hand, higher compaction pressure decreases the contact resistance but also narrows down the diffusion path for mass transfer from gas channels to the catalyst layers, consequently, lowering cell performance. The optimal cell performance is related to the gasket thickness and compression pressure on GDL. Every stack has a unique assembly pressure due to differences in fuel cell components material and stack design. Therefore, there is still need to determine the optimal torque value for getting the optimal cell performance. This study has been carried out in continuation of deve­lopment of Air breathing PEM fuel cell for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV application. Compaction pressure at minimum contact resistance was determined and clamping torque value was calcu­la­ted accordingly. Single cell performance tests were performed at five different clamping torque values i.e 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 N m, for achieving optimal cell per­formance. Clamping pressure distribution tests were also performed at these torque values to verify uniform pressure distribution at optimal torque value. Experimental and theoretical results were compared for making inferences about optimal cell perfor­man­ce. A

  7. A novel NaV1.5 voltage sensor mutation associated with severe atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Gang; Zhu, Wandi; Kanter, Ronald J; Silva, Jonathan R; Honeywell, Christina; Gow, Robert M; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2016-03-01

    Inherited autosomal dominant mutations in cardiac sodium channels (NaV1.5) cause various arrhythmias, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Although dozens of mutations throughout the protein have been reported, there are few reported mutations within a voltage sensor S4 transmembrane segment and few that are homozygous. Here we report analysis of a novel lidocaine-sensitive recessive mutation, p.R1309H, in the NaV1.5 DIII/S4 voltage sensor in a patient with a complex arrhythmia syndrome. We expressed the wild type or mutant NaV1.5 heterologously for analysis with the patch-clamp and voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) techniques. p.R1309H depolarized the voltage-dependence of activation, hyperpolarized the voltage-dependence of inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation, thereby reducing the channel availability at physiologic membrane potentials. Additionally, p.R1309H increased the "late" Na(+) current. The location of the mutation in DIIIS4 prompted testing for a gating pore current. We observed an inward current at hyperpolarizing voltages that likely exacerbates the loss-of-function defects at resting membrane potentials. Lidocaine reduced the gating pore current. The p.R1309H homozygous NaV1.5 mutation conferred both gain-of-function and loss-of-function effects on NaV1.5 channel activity. Reduction of a mutation-induced gating pore current by lidocaine suggested a therapeutic mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transmission congestion and voltage profile management coordination in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin, H.Y.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a generalized active/reactive iterative coordination process between GENCOs and the Independent System Operator (ISO) for active (transmission congestion) and reactive (voltage profile) management in the day-ahead market. GENCOs apply priced-based unit commitment without transmission and voltage security constraints, schedule their units and submit their initial bids to the ISO. The ISO executes congestion and voltage profile management for eliminating transmission and voltage profile violations. If violations are not eliminated, the ISO minimizes the transmission and voltage profile violations and sends a signal via the Internet to GENCOs. GENCOs reschedule their units taking into account the ISO signals and submit modified bids to the ISO. The voltage problem is addressed and a linear model is formulated and used in the proposed method. The voltage problem is formulated as a linear programming with a block-angular structure and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition is applied to generate several smaller problems for a faster and easier solution of large-scale power systems. Two 36 unit GENCOs are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed generalized active/reactive coordination algorithm. (author)

  9. Development of large high-voltage pressure insulators for the Princeton TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] flexible transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, D.T.; Fong, E.; Haughian, J.; Prechter, R.

    1986-10-01

    Specially formulated insulator materials with improved strength and high-voltage properties were developed and used for critical components of the flexible transmission lines to the TFTR neutral beam ion sources. These critical components are plates which support central conductors as they exit the high-voltage power supply and enter the ion source enclosure. Each plate acts both as a high-voltage insulator and as a pressure barrier to the SF 6 insulating gas. The original plate was made of commercial glass-epoxy laminate which limited the plate voltage capacity. The newly developed insulator is made of specially-formulated cycloalphatic Di-epoxide whose isotropic properties exhibit increased arc resistance. It is cast in one piece with skirts which greatly increase the breakdown voltage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of the new insulator

  10. 4-Aminopyridine: a pan voltage-gated potassium channel inhibitor that enhances K7.4 currents and inhibits noradrenaline-mediated contraction of rat mesenteric small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khammy, Makhala M; Kim, Sukhan; Bentzen, Bo H

    2018-01-01

    has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of 4-AP on Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels and characterize the effect of 4-AP on rat resistance arteries. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Voltage clamp experiments were performed on Xenopus laevis oocytes......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels are regulators of vascular tone. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is considered a broad inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, with little inhibitory effect on Kv7 family members at mmol concentrations. However, the effect of 4-AP on Kv7 channels...

  11. Low-Energy Real-Time OS Using Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Variable Voltage Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Takanori; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time OS based on $ mu $ITRON using proposed voltage scheduling algorithm for variable voltage processors which can vary supply voltage dynamically. The proposed voltage scheduling algorithms assign voltage level for each task dynamically in order to minimize energy consumption under timing constraints. Using the presented real-time OS, running tasks with low supply voltage leads to drastic energy reduction. In addition, the presented voltage scheduling algorithm is ...

  12. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Toudeshki, Arash; Mariun, Norman; Hizam, Hashim; Abdul Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  13. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  14. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  15. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling...

  17. The high voltage homopolar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. H.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1986-11-01

    System and component design features of proposed high voltage homopolar generator (HVHPG) are described. The system is to have an open circuit voltage of 500 V, a peak output current of 500 kA, 3.25 MJ of stored inertial energy and possess an average magnetic-flux density of 5 T. Stator assembly components are discussed, including the stator, mount structure, hydrostatic bearings, main and motoring brushgears and rotor. Planned operational procedures such as monitoring the rotor to full speed and operation with a superconducting field coil are delineated.

  18. Resilient architecture design for voltage variation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa

    2013-01-01

    Shrinking feature size and diminishing supply voltage are making circuits sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations within the microprocessor, caused by normal workload activity changes. If left unattended, voltage fluctuations can lead to timing violations or even transistor lifetime issues that degrade processor robustness. Mechanisms that learn to tolerate, avoid, and eliminate voltage fluctuations based on program and microarchitectural events can help steer the processor clear of danger, thus enabling tighter voltage margins that improve performance or lower power consumption. We describe

  19. Identification of an HV 1 voltage-gated proton channel in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Gustavo; Derst, Christian; Franzen, Arne; Mashimo, Yuta; Machida, Ryuichiro; Musset, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The voltage-gated proton channel 1 (HV 1) is an important component of the cellular proton extrusion machinery and is essential for charge compensation during the respiratory burst of phagocytes. HV 1 has been identified in a wide range of eukaryotes throughout the animal kingdom, with the exception of insects. Therefore, it has been proposed that insects do not possess an HV 1 channel. In the present study, we report the existence of an HV 1-type proton channel in insects. We searched insect transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequence databases and found putative HV 1 orthologues in various polyneopteran insects. To confirm that these putative HV 1 orthologues were functional channels, we studied the HV 1 channel of Nicoletia phytophila (NpHV 1), an insect of the Zygentoma order, in more detail. NpHV 1 comprises 239 amino acids and is 33% identical to the human voltage-gated proton channel 1. Patch clamp measurements in a heterologous expression system showed proton selectivity, as well as pH- and voltage-dependent gating. Interestingly, NpHV 1 shows slightly enhanced pH-dependent gating compared to the human channel. Mutations in the first transmembrane segment at position 66 (Asp66), the presumed selectivity filter, lead to a loss of proton-selective conduction, confirming the importance of this aspartate residue in voltage-gated proton channels. Nucleotide sequence data have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KT780722. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  1. Regulation of Na+ channel inactivation by the DIII and DIV voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Eric J; Zhu, Wandi; Schubert, Angela R; Voelker, Taylor; Varga, Zoltan; Silva, Jonathan R

    2017-03-06

    Functional eukaryotic voltage-gated Na + (Na V ) channels comprise four domains (DI-DIV), each containing six membrane-spanning segments (S1-S6). Voltage sensing is accomplished by the first four membrane-spanning segments (S1-S4), which together form a voltage-sensing domain (VSD). A critical Na V channel gating process, inactivation, has previously been linked to activation of the VSDs in DIII and DIV. Here, we probe this interaction by using voltage-clamp fluorometry to observe VSD kinetics in the presence of mutations at locations that have been shown to impair Na V channel inactivation. These locations include the DIII-DIV linker, the DIII S4-S5 linker, and the DIV S4-S5 linker. Our results show that, within the 10-ms timeframe of fast inactivation, the DIV-VSD is the primary regulator of inactivation. However, after longer 100-ms pulses, the DIII-DIV linker slows DIII-VSD deactivation, and the rate of DIII deactivation correlates strongly with the rate of recovery from inactivation. Our results imply that, over the course of an action potential, DIV-VSDs regulate the onset of fast inactivation while DIII-VSDs determine its recovery. © 2017 Hsu et al.

  2. Particle swarm optimization for determining shortest distance to voltage collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, L.D.; Choube, S.C. [Electrical Engineering Department, S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore, MP 452 003 (India); Shrivastava, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Ujjain, MP 456 010 (India); Kothari, D.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    This paper describes an algorithm for computing shortest distance to voltage collapse or determination of CSNBP using PSO technique. A direction along CSNBP gives conservative results from voltage security view point. This information is useful to the operator to steer the system away from this point by taking corrective actions. The distance to a closest bifurcation is a minimum of the loadability given a slack bus or participation factors for increasing generation as the load increases. CSNBP determination has been formulated as an optimization problem to be used in PSO technique. PSO is a new evolutionary algorithm (EA) which is population based inspired by the social behavior of animals such as fish schooling and birds flocking. It can handle optimization problems with any complexity since mechanization is simple with few parameters to be tuned. The developed algorithm has been implemented on two standard test systems. (author)

  3. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  4. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  5. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  6. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin–electromagnetic (EM coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin–EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  7. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  8. The optimal protocol to reduce blood loss and blood transfusion after unilateral total knee replacement: Low-dose IA-TXA plus 30-min drain clamping versus drainage clamping for the first 3 h without IA-TXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Choi, Sung Wook; Shin, Eun Ho; Park, Myung Hoon; Kim, Myung Ku

    2017-01-01

    Although intraarticular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) administration or drainage clamping are popular methods used to reduce blood loss after total knee replacement (TKR), the protocol remains controversial. We aimed (1) to establish new protocols through investigating whether two methods, that is, low-dose (500 mg) IA-TXA plus 30-min drain clamping and drainage clamping for the first 3 h without IA-TXA, can reduce blood loss and blood transfusion after unilateral TKR and (2) to make recommendations related to clinical application. This study, conducted from September 2014 to June 2016 related to enrolled 95 patients with primary osteoarthritis who were to have a unilateral cemented TKR, was nonrandomized and retrospective. In group A, the drain was released following tourniquet deflation. In group B, 500-mg TXA was injected into the knee joint via a drain tube after fascia closure and the drain was clamped for the first 30 min to prevent leakage. In group C, the drain was clamped for the first 3-h postoperation. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were collected, including the levels of hematocrit (Hct), the total blood loss (TBL), drained blood volume (BV), the amount of blood transfused, and any complications that developed. We found a significantly lower postoperative TBL, drained BV, decreasing Hct level, and less transfused BV in the IA-TXA injection group (group B) and the 3-h drainage clamping group (group C) compared to the conventional negative drainage group (group A; p optimal than drainage clamping in patients with high bleeding tendency or lateral retinacular release during TKR, who would be concerned about postoperative wound complication.

  9. Timing of umbilical cord clamping among infants born at 22 through 27 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, C H; Huang, H; Iams, J D; Bauer, J A; Giannone, P J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of delayed cord clamping (DCC) compared with immediate cord clamping (ICC) at delivery among infants born at 22 to 27 weeks' gestation. This was a pilot, randomized, controlled trial in which women in labor with singleton pregnancies at 22 to 27 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to ICC (cord clamped at 5 to 10 s) or DCC (30 to 45 s). Forty mother-infant pairs were randomized. Infants in the ICC and DCC groups had mean gestational ages (GA) of 24.6 and 24.4 weeks, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups across all available safety measures, although infants in the DCC group had higher admission temperatures than infants in the ICC group (97.4 vs. 96.2 °F, P=0.04). During the first 24 h of life, blood pressures were lower in the ICC group than in the DCC group (P<0.05), despite a threefold greater incidence of treatment for hypotension (45% vs. 12%, P<0.01). Infants in the ICC group had increased numbers of red blood transfusions (in first 28 days of life) than infants in DCC group (4.1±3.9 vs. 2.8±2.2, P=0.04). Among infants born at an average GA of 24 weeks', DCC appears safe, logistically feasible, and offers hematological and circulatory advantages compared with ICC. A more comprehensive appraisal of this practice is needed.

  10. Hda monomerization by ADP binding promotes replicase clamp-mediated DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenta; Keyamura, Kenji; Kudo, Yuka; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-12-26

    ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only approximately 100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain.

  11. Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birinyi-Strachan, Liesl C.; Gunning, Simon J.; Lewis, Richard J.; Nicholson, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the actions of the polyether marine toxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on neuronal excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of 2-20 nM P-CTX-1 caused a rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential in neurons expressing tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels. This action was completely suppressed by the addition of 200 nM TTX to the external solution, indicating that this effect was mediated through TTX-sensitive Na v channels. In addition, P-CTX-1 also prolonged action potential and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration. In a subpopulation of neurons, P-CTX-1 also produced tonic action potential firing, an effect that was not accompanied by significant oscillation of the resting membrane potential. Conversely, in neurons expressing TTX-resistant Na v currents, P-CTX-1 failed to alter any parameter of neuronal excitability examined in this study. Under voltage-clamp conditions in rat DRG neurons, P-CTX-1 inhibited both delayed-rectifier and 'A-type' potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, actions that occurred in the absence of alterations to the voltage dependence of activation. These actions appear to underlie the prolongation of the action potential and AHP, and contribute to repetitive firing. These data indicate that a block of potassium channels contributes to the increase in neuronal excitability, associated with a modulation of Na v channel gating, observed clinically in response to ciguatera poisoning

  12. Ultrasensitive mass sensing with nonlinear optics in a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Ka-Di [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 DongChuan Road, Shanghai 2 00240 (China)

    2013-12-07

    Nanomechanical resonator makes itself as an ideal system for ultrasensitive mass sensing due to its ultralow mass and high vibrational frequency. The mass sensing principle is due to the linear relationship of the frequency-shift and mass-variation. In this work, we will propose a nonlinear optical mass sensor based on a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator in all-optical domain. The masses of external particles (such as nitric oxide molecules) landing onto the surface of carbon nanotube can be determined directly and accurately via using the nonlinear optical spectroscopy. This mass sensing proposed here may provide a nonlinear optical measurement technique in quantum measurements and environmental science.

  13. Surface analysis of anodized aluminum clamps from NASA-LDEF satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, H. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Young, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface analysis results of selected anodized aluminum clamps containing black (Z306) and white (A276) paints which received nearly six years of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility are reported. Surface analytical techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), showed significant differences in the surface composition of these materials depending upon the position on the LDEF. Differences in the surface composition are attributed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV). Silicon containing compounds were the primary contaminant detected on the materials.

  14. Study of the mechanism of clamping and detachment of a core sample by core lever lifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Mizyakin, V M; Nikitin, S V

    1981-01-01

    Geometric dimensions of the basic elements of a core lifter should be determined depending on the clamping conditions. The changes should be determined depending on the conditions of the core sample diameter, critical angle between the lever and the core samples in the necessary depth of submersion of the contact edge of the lever into its surface. The core lifter KTsRZ-80 with eccentric core reception makes it possible to arrange more efficiently the core removing elements on the edge of the band. The use of the core lifters with eccentric plan of arrangement of the levers and their optimal length increases the removal of the core sample.

  15. Five-Level Z-Source Neutral Point-Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, F.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a five-level Z-source neutralpoint- clamped (NPC) inverter with two Z-source networks functioning as intermediate energy storages coupled between dc sources and NPC inverter circuitry. Analyzing the operational principles of Z-source network with partial dclink shoot......-through scheme reveals the hidden theories in the five-level Z-source NPC inverter unlike the operational principle appeared in the general two-level Z-source inverter, so that the five-level Z-source NPC inverter can be designed with the modulation of carrier-based phase disposition (PD) or alternative phase...

  16. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W

    2004-01-01

    . This study aimed to determine the effects of acute hypotension, induced by aortic clamp or by high-dose PTH (100 microg PTH/kg), on renal hemodynamics and proximal tubule Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and type IIa Na-P(i) cotransporter protein (NaPi2) distribution. Subcellular distribution was analyzed...... clearance. There was, however, no significant change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or subcellular distribution of NHE3 and NaPi2. In contrast, high-dose PTH rapidly (

  17. Dynamic assembly of Hda and the sliding clamp in the regulation of replication licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin S.; Nanfara, Michael T.; Chodavarapu, Sundari; Jin, Kyeong S.; Babu, Vignesh?M.?P.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Chung, Scisung; Kaguni, Jon M.; Sutton, Mark D.; Cho, Yunje

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) is one of the major regulatory mechanisms of prokaryotic replication licensing. In RIDA, the Hda?sliding clamp complex loaded onto DNA directly interacts with adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound DnaA and stimulates the hydrolysis of ATP to inactivate DnaA. A prediction is that the activity of Hda is tightly controlled to ensure that replication initiation occurs only once per cell cycle. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the Hda?? clam...

  18. Interaction of the Sliding Clamp β-Subunit and Hda, a DnaA-Related Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Mareike; Dalrymple, Brian; Wijffels, Gene; Kongsuwan, Kritaya

    2004-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, interactions between the replication initiation protein DnaA, the β subunit of DNA polymerase III (the sliding clamp protein), and Hda, the recently identified DnaA-related protein, are required to convert the active ATP-bound form of DnaA to an inactive ADP-bound form through the accelerated hydrolysis of ATP. This rapid hydrolysis of ATP is proposed to be the main mechanism that blocks multiple initiations during cell cycle and acts as a molecular switch from initiation...

  19. Characterization of the insulin sensitivity of ghrelin receptor KO mice using glycemic clamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have demonstrated previously that ghrelin receptor (GhrR knock out (KO mice fed a high fat diet (HFD have increased insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility relative to WT littermates. A striking feature of the HFD-fed GhrR KO mouse is the dramatic decrease in hepatic steatosis. To characterize further the underlying mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in GhrR KO mice, we conducted both hyperglycemic (HG and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI-E clamps. Additionally, we investigated tissue glucose uptake and specifically examined liver insulin sensitivity. Results Consistent with glucose tolerance-test data, in HG clamp experiments, GhrR KO mice showed a reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin release relative to WT littermates. Nevertheless, a robust 1st phase insulin secretion was still achieved, indicating that a healthy β-cell response is maintained. Additionally, GhrR KO mice demonstrated both a significantly increased glucose infusion rate and significantly reduced insulin requirement for maintenance of the HG clamp, consistent with their relative insulin sensitivity. In HI-E clamps, both LFD-fed and HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed higher peripheral insulin sensitivity relative to WT littermates as indicated by a significant increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd, and decreased hepatic glucose production (HGP. HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed a marked increase in peripheral tissue glucose uptake in a variety of tissues, including skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. GhrR KO mice fed a HFD also showed a modest, but significant decrease in conversion of pyruvate to glucose, as would be anticipated if these mice displayed increased liver insulin sensitivity. Additionally, the levels of UCP2 and UCP1 were reduced in the liver and BAT, respectively, in GhrR KO mice relative to WT mice. Conclusions These results indicate that improved glucose homeostasis of GhrR KO mice is

  20. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  1. Gabapentin Modulates HCN4 Channel Voltage-Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Tae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GBP is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV+ or calretinin positive (CR+ inhibitory neurons. The effect of GBP on Ih was measured in each inhibitory neuron population. HCN4 expression was assessed in the spinal cord using immunohistochemistry. When applied to HCN4 channels, GBP (100 μM caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage of half activation (V1/2 thereby reducing the currents. Gabapentin had no impact on the V1/2 of HCN1 or HCN2 channels. There was a robust increase in the time to half activation for HCN4 channels with only a small increase noted for HCN1 channels. Gabapentin also caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the V1/2 of Ih measured from HCN4-expressing PV+ inhibitory neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Gabapentin had minimal effect on Ih recorded from CR+ neurons. Consistent with this, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the majority of CR+ inhibitory neurons do not express somatic HCN4 channels. In conclusion, GBP reduces HCN4 channel-mediated currents through a hyperpolarized shift in the V1/2. The HCN channel subtype selectivity of GBP provides a unique tool for investigating HCN4 channel function in the central nervous system. The HCN4 channel is a candidate molecular target for the acute analgesic and anticonvulsant actions of GBP.

  2. Depression of voltage-activated Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle by activation of a voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Christine; Kutchukian, Candice; Bouvard, Clément; Okamura, Yasushi; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Phosphoinositides act as signaling molecules in numerous cellular transduction processes, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) regulates the function of several types of plasma membrane ion channels. We investigated the potential role of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in Ca(2+) homeostasis and excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of mouse muscle fibers using in vivo expression of the voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP) or Danio rerio VSP (Dr-VSP). Confocal images of enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged Dr-VSP revealed a banded pattern consistent with VSP localization within the transverse tubule membrane. Rhod-2 Ca(2+) transients generated by 0.5-s-long voltage-clamp depolarizing pulses sufficient to elicit Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) but below the range at which VSPs are activated were unaffected by the presence of the VSPs. However, in Ci-VSP-expressing fibers challenged by 5-s-long depolarizing pulses, the Ca(2+) level late in the pulse (3 s after initiation) was significantly lower at 120 mV than at 20 mV. Furthermore, Ci-VSP-expressing fibers showed a reversible depression of Ca(2+) release during trains, with the peak Ca(2+) transient being reduced by ∼30% after the application of 10 200-ms-long pulses to 100 mV. A similar depression was observed in Dr-VSP-expressing fibers. Cav1.1 Ca(2+) channel-mediated current was unaffected by Ci-VSP activation. In fibers expressing Ci-VSP and a pleckstrin homology domain fused with monomeric red fluorescent protein (PLCδ1PH-mRFP), depolarizing pulses elicited transient changes in mRFP fluorescence consistent with release of transverse tubule-bound PLCδ1PH domain into the cytosol; the voltage sensitivity of these changes was consistent with that of Ci-VSP activation, and recovery occurred with a time constant in the 10-s range. Our results indicate that the PtdIns(4,5)P2 level is tightly maintained in the transverse tubule membrane of the muscle fibers

  3. Molecular determinants of voltage-gated sodium channel regulation by the Nedd4/Nedd4-like proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; van Bemmelen, Miguel X; Bruce, M Christine

    2004-01-01

    -ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family. We recently reported that cardiac Na(v)1.5 is regulated by Nedd4-2. In this study, we further investigated the molecular determinants of regulation of Na(v) proteins. When expressed in HEK-293 cells and studied using whole cell voltage clamping, the neuronal Na(v)1.2 and Na...... that Nedd4-dependent ubiquitination of Na(v) channels may represent a general mechanism regulating the excitability of neurons and myocytes via modulation of channel density at the plasma membrane....

  4. Lack of direct evidence for a functional role of voltage-operated calcium channels in juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, A; Skott, O; Chegini, S

    1990-01-01

    in patch-clamped nor in intact Furaester-loaded cells. Moreover, basal renin secretion from a preparation enriched in mouse juxtaglomerular cells and from rat glomeruli with attached juxtaglomerular cells was not inhibited when extracellular potassium was isoosmotically increased to 56 mmol/l. In mouse...... kidney slices, however, depolarizing potassium concentrations caused a delayed inhibition at 56 mmol/l and a delayed stimulation of renin secretion at 110 mmol/l. Taken together, our study does not provide direct evidence for a role of voltage-activated calcium channels in the regulation of calcium...

  5. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Clare, Jeffrey J. [Eaton Pharma Consulting, Eaton Socon, Cambridgeshire PE19 8EF (United Kingdom); Debanne, Dominique [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Alcaraz, Gisele, E-mail: gisele.alcaraz@univmed.fr [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  6. SGK3 Sensitivity of Voltage Gated K+ Channel Kv1.5 (KCNA5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaab Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase isoform SGK3 is a powerful regulator of several transporters, ion channels and the Na+/K+ ATPase. Targets of SGK3 include the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2, which is in turn a known regulator of the voltage gated K+ channel Kv1.5 (KCNA5. The present study thus explored whether SGK3 modifies the activity of the voltage gated K+ channel KCNA5, which participates in the regulation of diverse functions including atrial cardiac action potential, activity of vascular smooth muscle cells, insulin release and tumour cell proliferation. Methods: cRNA encoding KCNA5 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with and without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SGK3, constitutively active S419DSGK3, inactive K191NSGK3 and/or wild type Nedd4-2. Voltage gated K+ channel activity was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Results: Voltage gated current in KCNA5 expressing Xenopus oocytes was significantly enhanced by wild-type SGK3 and S419DSGK3, but not by K191NSGK3. SGK3 was effective in the presence of ouabain (1 mM and thus did not require Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Coexpression of Nedd4-2 decreased the voltage gated current in KCNA5 expressing Xenopus oocytes, an effect largely reversed by additional coexpression of SGK3. Conclusion: SGK3 is a positive regulator of KCNA5, which is at least partially effective by abrogating the effect of Nedd4-2.

  7. Accurate electrostatic and van der Waals pull-in prediction for fully clamped nano/micro-beams using linear universal graphs of pull-in instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahani, Masoud; Askari, Amir R.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the fact that pull-in instability of electrically actuated nano/micro-beams has been investigated by many researchers to date, no explicit formula has been presented yet which can predict pull-in voltage based on a geometrically non-linear and distributed parameter model. The objective of present paper is to introduce a simple and accurate formula to predict this value for a fully clamped electrostatically actuated nano/micro-beam. To this end, a non-linear Euler-Bernoulli beam model is employed, which accounts for the axial residual stress, geometric non-linearity of mid-plane stretching, distributed electrostatic force and the van der Waals (vdW) attraction. The non-linear boundary value governing equation of equilibrium is non-dimensionalized and solved iteratively through single-term Galerkin based reduced order model (ROM). The solutions are validated thorough direct comparison with experimental and other existing results reported in previous studies. Pull-in instability under electrical and vdW loads are also investigated using universal graphs. Based on the results of these graphs, non-dimensional pull-in and vdW parameters, which are defined in the text, vary linearly versus the other dimensionless parameters of the problem. Using this fact, some linear equations are presented to predict pull-in voltage, the maximum allowable length, the so-called detachment length, and the minimum allowable gap for a nano/micro-system. These linear equations are also reduced to a couple of universal pull-in formulas for systems with small initial gap. The accuracy of the universal pull-in formulas are also validated by comparing its results with available experimental and some previous geometric linear and closed-form findings published in the literature.

  8. Effect of complete hilar versus only renal artery clamping on renal histomorphology following ischemia/reperfusion injury in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umul, M; Cal, A C; Turna, B; Oktem, G; Aydın, H H

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of temporary complete hilar versus only renal artery clamping with different duration of warm ischemia on renal functions, and possibly identify a "safe" clamping type and duration of renal ischemia. Fifty male rabbits have been incorporated to study. Rabbits were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury by temporary vascular clamping. Reagents were randomized to 3 experimental groups (only renal artery clamping, complete hilar clamping, sham surgery) and sub-groups were determined according to different clamping times (30 and 60 minutes). Median laparotomy and left renal hilus dissection were performed to sham group. Only artery or complete hilar clamping was performed for 30 or 60 minutes by microvascular bulldog clamps to other reagents. Rabbits were sacrificed 10 days after primary surgery and left nephrectomy performed. Nephrectomy materials were evaluated for the level of nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an electron microscopic examination was performed. NOS immunoreactivity was correlated with the temporary clamping time. We also observed that complete hilar vascular clamping entails an increase on NOS immunoreactivity. MDA levels were similar for all experimental surgery groups (p = 0.42). The SOD activity was decreased among all subgroups compared with sham surgery. But the significant decrease occurred in 30 minutes only artery and 30 minutes complete hilar clamping groups in proportion to sham surgery (p = 0.026 and p = 0.019, respectively). This current study suggested that only renal artery clamping under 30 minutes is more appropriate during renal surgical procedures requiring temporary vascular clamping.

  9. Evaluation of the clamping force in high tension bolt by using the ultrasonic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kyung Young; Cheon, Hae Wha; Ha, Hob; Park, Man Sick; Kim, No You

    2005-01-01

    High tension bolts have been used widely for the clamping of many kinds of large structure. Therefore, its estimation has been regarded as main issue in the maintenance of high tension bolts. This paper proposes a novel method using the ultrasonic nonlinearity, which is based on the dependency of sound speed on the stress. For this we introduce nonlinear elastic constants in the stress-strain relationship, and derive the sound speed as a linear function of stress. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method, two kinds of experiments are carried out: The first one is to measure the sound speed when the bolt is stressed by the tension tester. The result showed good agreement with the expected linear relationship between the sound speed and the axial stress. The second one is to measure the sound speed when the bolt is stressed by the torque wrench. The results showed that the sound speed was decreased when the torque was increased. From these results we can say that the proposed method is enough useful to evaluate the clamping force in the high tension bolt.

  10. A direct proofreader-clamp interaction stabilizes the Pol III replicase in the polymerization mode

    KAUST Repository

    Jergic, Slobodan; Horan, Nicholas P.; Elshenawy, Mohamed; Mason, Claire E.; Urathamakul, Thitima; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Robinson, Andrew J.; Goudsmits, Joris M H; Wang, Yao; Pan, Xuefeng; Beck, Jennifer L.; Van Oijen, Antoine M.; Huber, Thomas L.; Hamdan, Samir; Dixon, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    Processive DNA synthesis by the αÉ"θ core of the Escherichia coli Pol III replicase requires it to be bound to the β 2 clamp via a site in the α polymerase subunit. How the É" proofreading exonuclease subunit influences DNA synthesis by α was not previously understood. In this work, bulk assays of DNA replication were used to uncover a non-proofreading activity of É". Combination of mutagenesis with biophysical studies and single-molecule leading-strand replication assays traced this activity to a novel β-binding site in É" that, in conjunction with the site in α, maintains a closed state of the αÉ"θ-β 2 replicase in the polymerization mode of DNA synthesis. The É"-β interaction, selected during evolution to be weak and thus suited for transient disruption to enable access of alternate polymerases and other clamp binding proteins, therefore makes an important contribution to the network of protein-protein interactions that finely tune stability of the replicase on the DNA template in its various conformational states. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization.

  11. Shape of a clamped stiff harpsichord wire driven at a resonant frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, Hilliard Kent; Boucher, Mathew A.

    2002-05-01

    A wire transversely driven by a sinusoidal force at the resonant frequency of a vibrational mode vibrates at the driving frequency and at harmonics generated by nonlinear processes in the wire. If the amplitude of a harmonic is measured as a function of position along the wire, its shape is revealed. It differs significantly from a sinusoid in the vicinity of either end of the wire because the ends are clamped and the wire has significant stiffness. The shapes of various harmonics have been determined for a brass harpsichord wire, 70 cm long, from optical detector measurements made at different distances from a clamped end. Knowledge of shape facilitates the determination of antinode amplitudes of harmonics when the gross motion of the wire is so large that the detectors must be positioned near an end of the wire because of their very limited dynamic range. Some observations of harmonics and related phenomena were reported previously [Hanson et al., J. Acoust Soc. Am. 108, 2592 (2000); 106, 2141 (1999)]. The shape information is also needed to help separate nonlinear effects possibly occurring in the detectors from those of interest, occurring in the wire itself.

  12. Higher order modes excitation of electrostatically actuated clamped–clamped microbeams: experimental and analytical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2016-01-06

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. In this study, we demonstrate analytically and experimentally the excitations of the higher order modes of vibrations in electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam resonators. The concept is based on using partial electrodes with shapes that induce strong excitation of the mode of interest. The devices are fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from the top and chrome and gold layers from the bottom. Experimentally, frequency sweeps with different electro-dynamical loading conditions are shown to demonstrate the excitation of the higher order modes of vibration. Using a half electrode, the second mode is excited with high amplitude of vibration compared with almost zero response using the full electrode. Also, using a two-third electrode configuration is shown to amplify the third mode resonance amplitude compared with the full electrode under the same electrical loading conditions. An analytical model is developed based on the Euler-Bernollui beam model and the Galerkin method to simulate the device response. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data is reported.

  13. A direct proofreader-clamp interaction stabilizes the Pol III replicase in the polymerization mode

    KAUST Repository

    Jergic, Slobodan

    2013-02-22

    Processive DNA synthesis by the αÉ"θ core of the Escherichia coli Pol III replicase requires it to be bound to the β 2 clamp via a site in the α polymerase subunit. How the É" proofreading exonuclease subunit influences DNA synthesis by α was not previously understood. In this work, bulk assays of DNA replication were used to uncover a non-proofreading activity of É". Combination of mutagenesis with biophysical studies and single-molecule leading-strand replication assays traced this activity to a novel β-binding site in É" that, in conjunction with the site in α, maintains a closed state of the αÉ"θ-β 2 replicase in the polymerization mode of DNA synthesis. The É"-β interaction, selected during evolution to be weak and thus suited for transient disruption to enable access of alternate polymerases and other clamp binding proteins, therefore makes an important contribution to the network of protein-protein interactions that finely tune stability of the replicase on the DNA template in its various conformational states. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization.

  14. Effect of shear strain on the deflection of a clamped magnetostrictive film-substrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhenghui; Ming Li; Bo Zou; Xia Luo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of in-plane shear strain of a clamped bimorph on the deflection produced by magnetization of the film is investigated. The deflection is found by minimizing the Gibbs free energy with respect to four parameters, strains and curvatures along x and y directions at the interface, by assuming that the curvature in the y direction varies as a function of aspect ratio w/l along x. A set of standard linear equations of four parameters are obtained and the deflection is expressed in terms of the four parameters by solving the equations using Cramer rules. The inconsistencies pointed out by previous authors are also reviewed. For actuators made of thick and short clamped film-substrate system, the in-plane shear deformation should not be omitted. The present calculation model can give a relatively simple and accurate prediction of deflection for thick and short specimens of aspect ratio w/l<10, which supports the results obtained by finite element modeling. - Highlights: → We model the deflection of a thick magnetostrictive film-substrate cantilever plate. → Total stress along z from magnetic field is not zero without external force. → Effect of in-plane shear strain in calculating deflection examined. → Analytical solution of deflection obtained by assuming a curvature function. → Shear strain for short cantilever film-substrate plate considered.

  15. Single aortic clamping in coronary artery bypass surgery reduces cerebral embolism and improves neurocognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparovic, Hrvoje; Borojevic, Marko; Malojcic, Branko; Gasparovic, Kristina; Biocina, Bojan

    2013-10-01

    Aortic manipulation releases embolic material, thereby enhancing the probability of adverse neurologic outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We prospectively evaluated 59 patients undergoing CABG. Patients in the single (SC, n = 37) and multiple clamp (MC, n = 22) groups were comparable in relation to age and operative risk (p > 0.05). Neurocognitive evaluation consisted of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Color Trails Test A, the Grooved Pegboard test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data acquisition was performed preoperatively, early postoperatively and at the 4-month follow-up. Intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was used to quantify the embolic load in relation to different aortic clamping strategies. Preoperative neurocognitive results were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of postoperative delirium was greater in the MC group but this failed to reach statistical significance (23% vs 8%, p = 0.14). SC patients had fewer embolization signals (270 ± 181 vs 465 ± 160, p cognitive depression was greater in the MC group (p cognition deficits and superior late restoration of function.

  16. Ventilatory effects of hypercapnic end-tidal PCO2 clamps during aerobic exercise of varying intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essfeld, D; Hoffmann, U; Stegemann, J

    1990-01-01

    Nine subjects performed a sequence of sustained and randomised changes between 40 W and 100 W on a cycle ergometer while the end-tidal PO2 was kept close to 17.3 kPa (130 mm Hg) by means of a dynamic forcing technique (reference experiment). In a second series inspiratory CO2 was additionally manipulated so as to hold end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) near 6.5 kPa (49 mm Hg; 'CO2-clamp' experiment). By this forcing PETCO2 oscillations were attenuated and more evenly distributed over the frequency range. Ventilation (VT) responded to this manoeuvre with an upward trend that could not be ascribed to a slow CO2-response component, changes in metabolic rate or a dissociation of end-tidal and arterial PCO2. VT differences between reference and CO2-clamp experiments were abolished within a 3-min period following the termination of the external CO2 control. The present results suggest that the CO2-H+ stimulus plays a major role in adjusting ventilation when exercise intensity is decreased. The underlying CO2 effect appears to be neither additive nor bi-directionally symmetrical.

  17. Laser microsurgery of higher plant cell walls permits patch-clamp access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, G.H.; Taylor, A.R.; Brownlee, C.; Assmann, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma membranes of guard cells in epidermal peels of Vicia faba and Commelina communis can be made accessible to a patch-clamp pipet by removing a small portion (1-3 micrometer in diameter) of the guard cell wall using a microbeam of ultraviolet light generated by a nitrogen laser. Using this laser microsurgical technique, we have measured channel activity across plasma membranes of V. faba guard cells in both cell-attached and isolated patch configurations. Measurements made in the inside-out patch configuration revealed two distinct K+-selective channels. Major advantages of the laser microsurgical technique include the avoidance of enzymatic protoplast isolation, the ability to study cell types that have been difficult to isolate as protoplasts or for which enzymatic isolation protocols result in protoplasts not amenable to patch-clamp studies, the maintenance of positional information in single-channel measurements, reduced disruption of cell-wall-mediated signaling pathways, and the ability to investigate intercellular signaling through studies of cells remaining situated within tissue

  18. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  19. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  20. Screening of E. coli β-clamp Inhibitors Revealed that Few Inhibit Helicobacter pylori More Effectively: Structural and Functional Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of interaction with various enzymes and processivity-promoting nature during DNA replication makes β-clamp an important drug target. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori have several unique features in DNA replication machinery that makes it different from other microorganisms. To find out whether difference in DNA replication proteins behavior accounts for any difference in drug response when compared to E. coli, in the present study, we have tested E. coli β-clamp inhibitor molecules against H. pylori β-clamp. Various approaches were used to test the binding of inhibitors to H. pylori β-clamp including docking, surface competition assay, complex structure determination, as well as antimicrobial assay. Out of five shortlisted inhibitor molecules on the basis of docking score, three molecules, 5-chloroisatin, carprofen, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide were co-crystallized with H. pylori β-clamp and the structures show that they bind at the protein-protein interaction site as expected. In vivo studies showed only two molecules, 5-chloroisatin, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide inhibited the growth of the pylori with MIC values in micro molar range, which is better than the inhibitory effect of the same drugs on E. coli. Therefore, the evaluation of such drugs against H. pylori may explore the possibility to use to generate species-specific pharmacophore for development of new drugs against H. pylori.

  1. Screening of E. coli β-clamp Inhibitors Revealed that Few Inhibit Helicobacter pylori More Effectively: Structural and Functional Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Verma, Vijay; Dhar, Suman Kumar; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2018-01-11

    The characteristic of interaction with various enzymes and processivity-promoting nature during DNA replication makes β-clamp an important drug target. Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) have several unique features in DNA replication machinery that makes it different from other microorganisms. To find out whether difference in DNA replication proteins behavior accounts for any difference in drug response when compared to E. coli , in the present study, we have tested E. coli β-clamp inhibitor molecules against H. pylori β-clamp. Various approaches were used to test the binding of inhibitors to H. pylori β-clamp including docking, surface competition assay, complex structure determination, as well as antimicrobial assay. Out of five shortlisted inhibitor molecules on the basis of docking score, three molecules, 5-chloroisatin, carprofen, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide were co-crystallized with H. pylori β-clamp and the structures show that they bind at the protein-protein interaction site as expected. In vivo studies showed only two molecules, 5-chloroisatin, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide inhibited the growth of the pylori with MIC values in micro molar range, which is better than the inhibitory effect of the same drugs on E. coli . Therefore, the evaluation of such drugs against H. pylori may explore the possibility to use to generate species-specific pharmacophore for development of new drugs against H. pylori .

  2. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  3. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  4. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-01-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  5. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrler, F., E-mail: felix.ehrler@student.kit.edu; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-11

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  7. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  9. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  10. Mechanism of Occurring Over-Voltage Phenomena in Distributed Power System on Energization of Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Ueda, Fukashi; Kajikawa, Takuya; Amau, Tooru; Kameyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Hisanori

    This paper verifies the mechanism of occurring over voltage phenomena in the distributed power system on energizing the transformer. This over-voltage, which is observed at the actual distributed power system, with heavy inrush current is found to occur at about 0.1-0.2sec after the energizing and continue for a duration of more than 0.1[sec]. There is a concern that this over-voltage may operate the protection relay and deteriorate the insulation of apparatus. It is basically caused by the resonance between the shunt capacitors and saturated/unsaturated magnetizing inductance of transformer, system inductance. By using analytical formulation of a simple equivalent circuit, its mechanism has been verified through simulations carried out by using EMTP. Moreover, the sympathetic interaction between transformers is prolonged the duration of the over-voltage by the field test data is discussed in this paper.

  11. Voltage Control of Distribution Grids with Multi-Microgrids Using Reactive Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WLODARCZYK, P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage Microgrids can be valuable sources of ancillary services for the Distribution System Operators (DSOs. The aim of this paper was to study if and how multi-microgrids can contribute to Voltage Control (VC in medium-voltage distribution grids by means of reactive power generation and/or absorption. The hierarchical control strategy was proposed with the main focus on the tertiary control which was defined as optimal power flow problem. The interior-point algorithm was applied to optimise experimental benchmark grid with the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs. Moreover, two primary objectives were formulated: active power losses and amount of reactive power used to reach the voltage profile. As a result the active power losses were minimised to the high extent achieving the savings around 22% during entire day.

  12. Methods of computing steady-state voltage stability margins of power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joe Hong; Ghiocel, Scott Gordon

    2018-03-20

    In steady-state voltage stability analysis, as load increases toward a maximum, conventional Newton-Raphson power flow Jacobian matrix becomes increasingly ill-conditioned so power flow fails to converge before reaching maximum loading. A method to directly eliminate this singularity reformulates the power flow problem by introducing an AQ bus with specified bus angle and reactive power consumption of a load bus. For steady-state voltage stability analysis, the angle separation between the swing bus and AQ bus can be varied to control power transfer to the load, rather than specifying the load power itself. For an AQ bus, the power flow formulation is only made up of a reactive power equation, thus reducing the size of the Jacobian matrix by one. This reduced Jacobian matrix is nonsingular at the critical voltage point, eliminating a major difficulty in voltage stability analysis for power system operations.

  13. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  14. Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.

  15. Ultra Low-Voltage Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    if in a solar battery charger the level of illumination were to drop due to cloud cover, the diode would prevent discharging of the battery when...the source voltage becomes lower than battery voltage. The drawback of a simple circuit like this is that once the source voltage is lower than the...longer charged when the battery voltage is above the OV setting. Figure 13. Block diagram of BQ25504 circuit . (From [10]) 18 THIS PAGE

  16. Microcanonical formulation of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazaki, A.

    1984-03-01

    A microcanonical formulation of Euclidean quantum field theories is presented. In the formulation, correlation functions are given by a microcanonical ensemble average of fields. Furthermore, the perturbative equivalence of the formulation and the standard functional formulation is proved and the equipartition low is derived in our formulation. (author)

  17. Gambierol, a toxin produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is a potent blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Kopljar, Ivan; Rainier, Jon D.; Raes, Adam L.; Snyders, Dirk J.; Tytgat, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we pharmacologically characterized gambierol, a marine polycyclic ether toxin which is produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. Besides several other polycyclic ether toxins like ciguatoxins, this scarcely studied toxin is one of the compounds that may be responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Unfortunately, the biological target(s) that underlies CFP is still partly unknown. Today, ciguatoxins are described to specifically activate voltage-gated sodium channels by interacting with their receptor site 5. But some dispute about the role of gambierol in the CFP story shows up: some describe voltage-gated sodium channels as the target, while others pinpoint voltage-gated potassium channels as targets. Since gambierol was never tested on isolated ion channels before, it was subjected in this work to extensive screening on a panel of 17 ion channels: nine cloned voltage-gated ion channels (mammalian Nav1.1–Nav1.8 and insect Para) and eight cloned voltage-gated potassium channels (mammalian Kv1.1–Kv1.6, hERG and insect ShakerIR) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. All tested sodium channel subtypes are insensitive to gambierol concentrations up to 10 μM. In contrast, Kv1.2 is the most sensitive voltage-gated potassium channel subtype with almost full block (>97%) and an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where the selectivity of gambierol is tested on isolated voltage-gated ion channels. Therefore, these results lead to a better understanding of gambierol and its possible role in CFP and they may also be useful in the development of more effective treatments. PMID:18313714

  18. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  19. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  20. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall be...

  1. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  2. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  3. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  4. Impedance spectra of patch clamp scenarios for single cells immobilized on a lab-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Massimo; Snakenborg, Detlef; Lopacinska, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    and simulated impedance spectra proved that the presented method could distinguish between a cell-attached mode and a whole-cell mode even with low-quality seals. In physiological conditions, the capacitance of HeLa cells was measured to *38 pF. The first gigaseal was recorded and maintained for 40 min. Once...... membrane. After incubating the chip for 24 h, HeLa cells adhered and grew on the chip surface but did not survive when trapped on the microapertures. The microfluidic system proved to work as a micro electrophysiological analysis system, and the IS-based method can be used for further studies on the post......A simple method based on impedance spectroscopy (IS) was developed to distinguish between different patch clamp modes for single cells trapped on microapertures in a patch clamp microchannel array designed for patch clamping on cultured cells. The method allows detecting via impedance analysis...

  5. LRRK2 regulates voltage-gated calcium channel function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade eBedford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how

  6. Impact of delayed umbilical cord clamping on public cord blood donations: can we help future patients and benefit infant donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotariu, Rodica; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Ciubotariu, Ilinca; Tarnawski, Michal; Lloyd, Sara; Albano, Maria; Dobrila, Ludy; Rubinstein, Pablo; Grunebaum, Amos

    2018-03-25

    Cord blood (CB) is a widely accepted stem cell source and its clinical utilization depends, to a great extent, on its cell content. Birth-to-clamping (BTC) time of umbilical cord determines placental transfusion to the newborn, and the remaining blood that can be collected and banked. The 2017 Committee Opinion of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends a delay of "at least 30-60 seconds" before clamping the cord for all newborns to ensure adequate iron stores. The impact of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on public CB banking can be substantial. Cord blood units (CBUs) collected from 1210 mothers at one hospital were evaluated for total nucleated cells (TNCs) and weight/volume based on time to clamping. Bank staff recorded BTC time in seconds as reported by obstetricians; collections were performed ex utero. Immediate clamping was defined as BTC of less than 30 seconds, whereas DCC was defined as BTC of 30 seconds or more. Cord clamping was immediate in 903 (75%) and delayed in 307 (25%) deliveries. Successful recovery (% clinical CBUs) decreased 10-fold with DCC of more than 60 seconds (22% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001). CBUs collected after DCC of more than 60 seconds had significantly lower TNC counts than those after DCC of less than 60 seconds (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 38% to 46% of CBUs after DCC of more than 60 seconds had volume of less than 40 mL. Our study indicates that DCC of 30 to 60 seconds has a small negative impact on collection of high-TNC-count CBUs. However, increasing BTC to more than 60 seconds decreases significantly both TNC content and volume, reducing drastically the chances of obtaining clinically useful CBUs. © 2018 AABB.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis class II apurinic/apyrimidinic-endonuclease/3'-5' exonuclease III exhibits DNA regulated modes of interaction with the sliding DNA β-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Taran; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-10-01

    The class-II AP-endonuclease (XthA) acts on abasic sites of damaged DNA in bacterial base excision repair. We identified that the sliding DNA β-clamp forms in vivo and in vitro complexes with XthA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel 239 QLRFPKK245 motif in the DNA-binding domain of XthA was found to be important for the interactions. Likewise, the peptide binding-groove (PBG) and the C-terminal of β-clamp located on different domains interact with XthA. The β-clamp-XthA complex can be disrupted by clamp binding peptides and also by a specific bacterial clamp inhibitor that binds at the PBG. We also identified that β-clamp stimulates the activities of XthA primarily by increasing its affinity for the substrate and its processivity. Additionally, loading of the β-clamp onto DNA is required for activity stimulation. A reduction in XthA activity stimulation was observed in the presence of β-clamp binding peptides supporting that direct interactions between the proteins are necessary to cause stimulation. Finally, we found that in the absence of DNA, the PBG located on the second domain of the β-clamp is important for interactions with XthA, while the C-terminal domain predominantly mediates functional interactions in the substrate's presence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A comparison between the minimal model and the glucose clamp in the assessment of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M F; Anderson, R L; Laws, A; Watanabe, R M; Kades, W W; Chen, Y D; Sands, R E; Pei, D; Savage, P J; Bergman, R N

    1994-09-01

    An insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with minimal model analysis was compared with the glucose clamp in 11 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 20 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 24 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from FSIGTT using 22- and 12-sample protocols (SI(22) and SI(12), respectively). Insulin sensitivity from the clamp was expressed as SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp). Minimal model parameters were similar when calculated with SI(22) and SI(12). SI could not be distinguished from 0 in approximately 50% of diabetic patients with either protocol. SI(22) correlated significantly with SI(clamp) in the whole group (r = 0.62), and in the NGT (r = 0.53), IGT (r = 0.48), and NIDDM (r = 0.41) groups (P SIP(clamp) were expressed in the same units, SI(22) was 66 +/- 5% (mean +/- SE) and 50 +/- 8% lower than SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp), respectively. Thus, minimal model analysis of the insulin-modified FSIGTT provides estimates of insulin sensitivity that correlate significantly with those from the glucose clamp. The correlation was weaker, however, in NIDDM. The insulin-modified FSIGTT can be used as a simple test for assessment of insulin sensitivity in population studies involving nondiabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed before using this test routinely in patients with NIDDM.

  9. Effects of clamping force on the water transport and performance of a PEM (proton electrolyte membrane) fuel cell with relative humidity and current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Dowon; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    The clamping force should be applied to a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell due to its structural characteristics. The clamping force affects the ohmic and mass transport resistances in the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the effects of the clamping force on the water transport and performance characteristics of a PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated with variations in the relative humidity and current density. The water transport characteristics were analyzed by calculating the net drag coefficient. The ohmic resistance decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to the reduced contact resistance and more even membrane hydration. However, the mass transport resistance increased with the increase in the clamping force due to the gas diffusion layer compression. The net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to high water back-diffusion. Additionally, the relationship between the total resistance and the net drag coefficient was investigated. - Highlights: • Effects of clamping force on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are investigated. • Water transport characteristics are analyzed using net drag coefficient. • Ohmic resistance decreased with clamping force, but mass transport resistance increased. • Net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in clamping force. • Total resistance was significantly degraded for a net drag coefficient below 0.2.

  10. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Medium voltage three-level converters for the grid connection of a multi-MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Three-level (3L) neutral point clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC), and H-bridge (HB) voltage source converters (VSCs) as a grid-side full-scale medium voltage (MV) converter are modeled, controlled, and simulated for the grid connection of a hypothetical 6MW wind turbine. Via the converter...... topological features and the simulation results demonstrating the converter performance, these three 3L-VSCs are discussed and compared in terms of power density and reliability, which can be considered as two of the most important criteria for the converters placed in wind turbine nacelles. Given the grid...... connection circuit (without capacitive switching ripple filters), the 3L-HB-VSC is expected to be superior with respect to power density and reliability over the 3L-NPC- and -FC-VSCs....

  12. Medium Voltage Three-level Converters for the Grid Connection of aMulti-MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Three-level (3L) neutral point clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC), and H-bridge (HB) voltage source converters (VSCs) as a grid-side full-scale medium voltage (MV) converter are modeled, controlled, and simulated for the grid connection of a hypothetical 6MW wind turbine. Via the converter...... topological features and the simulation results demonstrating the converter performance, these three 3L-VSCs are discussed and compared in terms of power density and reliability, which can be considered as two of the most important criteria for the converters placed in wind turbine nacelles. Given the grid...... connection circuit (without capacitive switching ripple filters), the 3L-HB-VSC is expected to be superior with respect to power density and reliability over the 3L-NPC- and -FC-VSCs....

  13. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis...

  14. 76 FR 70721 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Workshop on Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids on Thursday, December 1, 2011...

  15. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages of the p......Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...

  16. Niflumic acid alters gating of HCN2 pacemaker channels by interaction with the outer region of S4 voltage sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2009-05-01

    Niflumic acid, 2-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (NFA), is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that also blocks or modifies the gating of many ion channels. Here, we investigated the effects of NFA on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) pacemaker channels expressed in X. laevis oocytes using site-directed mutagenesis and the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Extracellular NFA acted rapidly and caused a slowing of activation and deactivation and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of HCN2 channel activation (-24.5 +/- 1.2 mV at 1 mM). Slowed channel gating and reduction of current magnitude was marked in oocytes treated with NFA, while clamped at 0 mV but minimal in oocytes clamped at -100 mV, indicating the drug preferentially interacts with channels in the closed state. NFA at 0.1 to 3 mM shifted the half-point for channel activation in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC(50) of 0.54 +/- 0.068 mM and a predicted maximum shift of -38 mV. NFA at 1 mM also reduced maximum HCN2 conductance by approximately 20%, presumably by direct block of the pore. The rapid onset and state-dependence of NFA-induced changes in channel gating suggests an interaction with the extracellular region of the S4 transmembrane helix, the primary voltage-sensing domain of HCN2. Neutralization (by mutation to Gln) of any three of the outer four basic charged residues in S4, but not single mutations, abrogated the NFA-induced shift in channel activation. We conclude that NFA alters HCN2 gating by interacting with the extracellular end of the S4 voltage sensor domains.

  17. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Modulation of voltage-gated channel currents by harmaline and harmane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, Frank; Bonnet, Udo; Wiemann, Martin; Bingmann, Dieter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Harmala alkaloids are endogenous substances, which are involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as M. Parkinson, but some of them also have neuroprotective effects in the nervous system. While several sites of action at the cellular level (e.g. benzodiazepine receptors, 5-HT and GABA(A) receptors) have been identified, there is no report on how harmala alkaloids interact with voltage-gated membrane channels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of harmaline and harmane on voltage-activated calcium- (I(Ca(V))), sodium- (I(Na(V))) and potassium (I(K(V)))-channel currents, using the whole-cell patch-clamp method with cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones of 3-week-old rats. Currents were elicited by voltage steps from the holding potential to different command potentials. Harmaline and harmane reduced I(Ca(V)), I(Na(V)) and I(K(V)) concentration-dependent (10-500 microM) over the voltage range tested. I(Ca(V)) was reduced with an IC(50) of 100.6 microM for harmaline and by a significantly lower concentration of 75.8 microM (P<0.001, t-test) for harmane. The Hill coefficient was close to 1. Threshold concentration was around 10 microM for both substances. The steady state of inhibition of I(Ca(V)) by harmaline or harmane was reached within several minutes. The action was not use-dependent and at least partly reversible. It was mainly due to a reduction in the sustained calcium channel current (I(Ca(L+N))), while the transient voltage-gated calcium channel current (I(Ca(T))) was only partially affected. We conclude that harmaline and harmane are modulators of I(Ca(V)) in vitro. This might be related to their neuroprotective effects.

  19. Note: Decoupling design for high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers with their clamping connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. J., E-mail: wangfujun@tju.edu.cn; Liang, C. M.; Tian, Y. L.; Zhao, X. Y.; Zhang, D. W. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Equipment Design and Manufacturing Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, H. J. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Mechatronics Equipment Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This work presents the flexure-mechanism based decoupling design between high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and their clamping connections to improve ultrasonic energy transmission efficiency. The ring, prismatic beam, and circular notched hinge based flanges were presented, and the crucial geometric dimensions of the transducers with the flexure decoupling flanges were determined. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the transducers. Finally, experiments were conducted to examine and verify the effects of the proposed decoupling flanges. FEA and experimental results show that smaller frequency deviations and larger tip displacement amplitudes have been achieved by using the transducers with the flexure flanges compared with the transducer with a rigid ring-type flange, and thus the ultrasonic transmission efficiency can be improved through the flexure flanges.

  20. Fabrication of Si-based planar type patch clamp biosensor using silicon on insulator substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.L.; Asano, T.; Uno, H.; Tero, R.; Suzui, M.; Nakao, S.; Kaito, T.; Shibasaki, K.; Tominaga, M.; Utsumi, Y.; Gao, Y.L.; Urisu, T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to fabricate the planar type patch clamp ion-channel biosensor, which is suitable for the high throughput screening, using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The micropore with 1.2 μm diameter is formed through the top Si layer and the SiO 2 box layer of the SOI substrate by focused ion beam (FIB). Then the substrate is assembled into the microfluidic circuit. The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cell transfected with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is positioned on the micropore and the whole-cell configuration is formed by the suction. Capsaicin is added to the extracellular solution as a ligand molecule, and the channel current showing the desensitization unique to TRPV1 is measured successfully

  1. Multifrequency excitation of a clamped–clamped microbeam: Analytical and experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2016-03-14

    Using partial electrodes and a multifrequency electrical source, we present a large-bandwidth, large-amplitude clamped–clamped microbeam resonator excited near the higher order modes of vibration. We analytically and experimentally investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the microbeam under a two-source harmonic excitation. The first-frequency source is swept around the first three modes of vibration, whereas the second source frequency remains fixed. New additive and subtractive resonances are demonstrated. We illustrated that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from the top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Using the Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data are reported.

  2. Multifrequency excitation of a clamped–clamped microbeam: Analytical and experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Using partial electrodes and a multifrequency electrical source, we present a large-bandwidth, large-amplitude clamped–clamped microbeam resonator excited near the higher order modes of vibration. We analytically and experimentally investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the microbeam under a two-source harmonic excitation. The first-frequency source is swept around the first three modes of vibration, whereas the second source frequency remains fixed. New additive and subtractive resonances are demonstrated. We illustrated that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from the top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Using the Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data are reported.

  3. Hypocortisolemic clamp unmasks jointly feedforward- and feedback-dependent control of overnight ACTH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Ali; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2008-11-01

    ACTH secretion is under hypothalamic stimulatory (feedforward) and adrenal inhibitory (feedback) control. Assessment of overnight ACTH secretion during a hypocortisolemic clamp will permit the estimation of changing feedforward and feedback. Seven healthy men. An oral dose of placebo (PLAC), metyrapone (METY, 3 g), or ketoconazole (KTCZ, 1.2 g) was given at midnight (MN) to block glucocorticoid synthesis. Plasma ACTH was sampled every 10 min (MN to 0800 h). Variable-waveform deconvolution analysis of ACTH secretion and approximate entropy (ApEn) analysis of pattern regularity. Compared with PLAC, administration of METY and KTCZ reduced morning cortisol concentrations by >or=77 and 54% respectively (Pfeedforward coordination. The combined data predict overnight amplification and coordination of hypothalamic feedforward drive onto ACTH release. Therefore, disruption of either mechanism might contribute to clinical pathophysiology, such as late-day elevations of cortisol output in fasting, alcoholism, depression, or aging.

  4. Endotoxemia-induced lymphocyte apoptosis is augmented by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; A, Larsson; Brix-Christensen, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis and endotoxemia are associated with lymphocyte apoptosis. This has been regarded as harmful, contributing to further immune suppression in already immune-compromised patients. Because normalization of blood glucose improves outcome in critically ill patients, the authors...... hypothesized that one of the effects of insulin and normoglycemia would be inhibition of lymphocyte apoptosis. Therefore, in this experimental study in pigs, the authors examined the separate and combined effects of acute endotoxemia and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) on lymphocyte apoptosis...... sections of each sample, the apoptosis of B and T lymphocytes were analyzed using stereologic methods: The number of apoptotic B and T cells was estimated by fluorescence immunohistochemistry with anti-active caspase-3 and either anti-CD21 (B lymphocytes) or anti-CD3epsilon (T lymphocytes). The number...

  5. Free Vibration Study of Anti-Symmetric Angle-Ply Laminated Plates under Clamped Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, K. K.; Karthik, K.; Sanyasiraju, Y. V. S. S.; Aziz, Z. A.

    2016-11-01

    Two type of numerical approach namely, Radial Basis Function and Spline approximation, used to analyse the free vibration of anti-symmetric angle-ply laminated plates under clamped boundary conditions. The equations of motion are derived using YNS theory under first order shear deformation. By assuming the solution in separable form, coupled differential equations obtained in term of mid-plane displacement and rotational functions. The coupled differential is then approximated using Spline function and radial basis function to obtain the generalize eigenvalue problem and parametric studies are made to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, length-to-thickness ratio, number of layers, fibre orientation and material properties with respect to the frequency parameter. Some results are compared with the existing literature and other new results are given in tables and graphs.

  6. The fluorescent detection of Paradiplozoon sp. (Monogenea: Diplozoidae attachment clamps' sclerites and integumental proteins : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Milne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Paradiplozoon, few hard structures are present therefore most of the taxonomic studies have focused on the unique ultrastructure of the sclerites. Alcohol-fixed specimens were transferred to BSA-saline for 5 min. before staining indefinitely with 5 µl WGA-TRX, 5 µl SYTO 9 and 5 µl of Cal co fluor White M2R. Rhodamine, Fluorescein and DAPI bandpass filters on the microscope enabled selective light wavelength illumination of the three flourochromes by a mercury light source. This method provided an easy and rapid methodology to show the internal sclerites of attachment clamps. It is suitable for alcohol preserved specimens and may have additional applications in other helminth organisms.

  7. Design of the Driving and Clamp Rotation Hydraulic Control System for the Heavy Load Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Geqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The manipulator was equipped with full hydraulic drive. We designed the hydraulic systems for the driving and clamping rotation. We used a fuzzy PID control strategy to design the electro-hydraulic proportional control system. We built a united simulation model based on the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and AMEsim. A mathematical model of the system was also established. We did separate simulations of the system’s dynamic characteristics for fast forging and normal forging working conditions. The parameters were optimized. The field test shows that the steady-state error of the hydraulic system is small and the system response is fast. The system’s rapid response speed, high precision, and stability under heavy load were realized.

  8. The free vibration of free-clamped fluid-coupled coaxial cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Junji; Haiji, Hirohisa

    1986-01-01

    The linear free vibration of free-clamped coaxial cylinders partially filled with incompressible, inviscid liquid in the annular gap is investigated theoretically on the basis of the Donnell-type equations for cylinders and the velocity potential theory for liquid motion. The problem is solved by the modified Galerkin method. The initial axisymmetric deformation of the shell due to the static liquid pressure as well as the boundary condition on the free liquid surface are fully taken into consideration. It is found that the static liquid pressure and the liquid surface condition have a significant effect on the natural frequency, and that the interactive effect of the coaxial cylinders becomes small and the mode shape changes with an increase in the wave number and the annular gap. (author)

  9. Fabrication of Si-based planar type patch clamp biosensor using silicon on insulator substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.L.; Asano, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Uno, H. [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Tero, R. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Suzui, M.; Nakao, S. [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Kaito, T. [SII NanoTechnology Inc., 36-1, Takenoshita, Oyama-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, 410-1393 (Japan); Shibasaki, K.; Tominaga, M. [Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, 5-1, Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8787 (Japan); Utsumi, Y. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2, Koto, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Hyogo, 678-1205 (Japan); Gao, Y.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester University, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Urisu, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: urisu@ims.ac.jp

    2008-03-03

    The aim of this paper is to fabricate the planar type patch clamp ion-channel biosensor, which is suitable for the high throughput screening, using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The micropore with 1.2 {mu}m diameter is formed through the top Si layer and the SiO{sub 2} box layer of the SOI substrate by focused ion beam (FIB). Then the substrate is assembled into the microfluidic circuit. The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cell transfected with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is positioned on the micropore and the whole-cell configuration is formed by the suction. Capsaicin is added to the extracellular solution as a ligand molecule, and the channel current showing the desensitization unique to TRPV1 is measured successfully.

  10. Depolarization of the conductance-voltage relationship in the NaV1.5 mutant, E1784K, is due to altered fast inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alec; Zhu, Wandi; Silva, Jonathan R.; Ruben, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    E1784K is the most common mixed long QT syndrome/Brugada syndrome mutant in the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5. E1784K shifts the midpoint of the channel conductance-voltage relationship to more depolarized membrane potentials and accelerates the rate of channel fast inactivation. The depolarizing shift in the midpoint of the conductance curve in E1784K is exacerbated by low extracellular pH. We tested whether the E1784K mutant shifts the channel conductance curve to more depolarized membrane potentials by affecting the channel voltage-sensors. We measured ionic currents and gating currents at pH 7.4 and pH 6.0 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Contrary to our expectation, the movement of gating charges is shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials by E1784K. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry experiments show that this gating charge shift is due to the movement of the DIVS4 voltage-sensor being shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Using a model and experiments on fast inactivation-deficient channels, we show that changes to the rate and voltage-dependence of fast inactivation are sufficient to shift the conductance curve in E1784K. Our results localize the effects of E1784K to DIVS4, and provide novel insight into the role of the DIV-VSD in regulating the voltage-dependencies of activation and fast inactivation. PMID:28898267

  11. Depolarization of the conductance-voltage relationship in the NaV1.5 mutant, E1784K, is due to altered fast inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Peters

    Full Text Available E1784K is the most common mixed long QT syndrome/Brugada syndrome mutant in the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5. E1784K shifts the midpoint of the channel conductance-voltage relationship to more depolarized membrane potentials and accelerates the rate of channel fast inactivation. The depolarizing shift in the midpoint of the conductance curve in E1784K is exacerbated by low extracellular pH. We tested whether the E1784K mutant shifts the channel conductance curve to more depolarized membrane potentials by affecting the channel voltage-sensors. We measured ionic currents and gating currents at pH 7.4 and pH 6.0 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Contrary to our expectation, the movement of gating charges is shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials by E1784K. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry experiments show that this gating charge shift is due to the movement of the DIVS4 voltage-sensor being shifted to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Using a model and experiments on fast inactivation-deficient channels, we show that changes to the rate and voltage-dependence of fast inactivation are sufficient to shift the conductance curve in E1784K. Our results localize the effects of E1784K to DIVS4, and provide novel insight into the role of the DIV-VSD in regulating the voltage-dependencies of activation and fast inactivation.

  12. Capacitor Voltages Measurement and Balancing in Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters Utilizing a Single Voltage Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farivar, Glen; Ghias, Amer M. Y. M.; Hredzak, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring capacitor voltages in multilevel flying capacitor (FC) converters that requires only one voltage sensor per phase leg. Multiple dc voltage sensors traditionally used to measure the capacitor voltages are replaced with a single voltage sensor at the ac...... side of the phase leg. The proposed method is subsequently used to balance the capacitor voltages using only the measured ac voltage. The operation of the proposed measurement and balancing method is independent of the number of the converter levels. Experimental results presented for a five-level FC...

  13. Push-pull with recovery stage high-voltage DC converter for PV solar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Vinh; Aillerie, Michel; Petit, Pierre; Pham, Hong Thang; Vo, Thành Vinh

    2017-02-01

    A lot of systems are basically developed on DC-DC or DC-AC converters including electronic switches such as MOS or bipolar transistors. The limits of efficiency are quickly reached when high output voltages and high input currents are needed. This work presents a new high-efficiency-high-step-up based on push-pull DC-DC converter integrating recovery stages dedicated to smart HVDC distributed architecture in PV solar energy production systems. Appropriate duty cycle ratio assumes that the recovery stage work with parallel charge and discharge to achieve high step-up voltage gain. Besides, the voltage stress on the main switch is reduced with a passive clamp circuit and thus, low on-state resistance Rdson of the main switch can be adopted to reduce conduction losses. Thus, the efficiency of a basic DC-HVDC converter dedicated to renewable energy production can be further improved with such topology. A prototype converter is developed, and experimentally tested for validation.

  14. KCNQ1 channel modulation by KCNE proteins via the voltage-sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Koichi; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2015-06-15

    The gating of the KCNQ1 potassium channel is drastically regulated by auxiliary subunit KCNE proteins. KCNE1, for example, slows the activation kinetics of KCNQ1 by two orders of magnitude. Like other voltage-gated ion channels, the opening of KCNQ1 is regulated by the voltage-sensing domain (VSD; S1-S4 segments). Although it has been known that KCNE proteins interact with KCNQ1 via the pore domain, some recent reports suggest that the VSD movement may be altered by KCNE. The altered VSD movement of KCNQ1 by KCNE proteins has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis, the scanning cysteine accessibility method (SCAM), voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) and gating charge measurements. These accumulated data support the idea that KCNE proteins interact with the VSDs of KCNQ1 and modulate the gating of the KCNQ1 channel. In this review, we will summarize recent findings and current views of the KCNQ1 modulation by KCNE via the VSD. In this context, we discuss our recent findings that KCNE1 may alter physical interactions between the S4 segment (VSD) and the S5 segment (pore domain) of KCNQ1. Based on these findings from ourselves and others, we propose a hypothetical mechanism for how KCNE1 binding alters the VSD movement and the gating of the channel. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. Cellular elements for seeing in the dark: voltage-dependent conductances in cockroach photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmela Iikka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of voltage-dependent conductances in sensory information processing is well-established in insect photoreceptors. Here we present the characterization of electrical properties in photoreceptors of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana, a nocturnal insect with a visual system adapted for dim light. Results Whole-cell patch-clamped photoreceptors had high capacitances and input resistances, indicating large photosensitive rhabdomeres suitable for efficient photon capture and amplification of small photocurrents at low light levels. Two voltage-dependent potassium conductances were found in the photoreceptors: a delayed rectifier type (KDR and a fast transient inactivating type (KA. Activation of KDR occurred during physiological voltage responses induced by light stimulation, whereas KA was nearly fully inactivated already at the dark resting potential. In addition, hyperpolarization of photoreceptors activated a small-amplitude inward-rectifying (IR current mediated at least partially by chloride. Computer simulations showed that KDR shapes light responses by opposing the light-induced depolarization and speeding up the membrane time constant, whereas KA and IR have a negligible role in the majority of cells. However, larger KA conductances were found in smaller and rapidly adapting photoreceptors, where KA could have a functional role. Conclusions The relative expression of KA and KDR in cockroach photoreceptors was opposite to the previously hypothesized framework for dark-active insects, necessitating further comparative work on the conductances. In general, the varying deployment of stereotypical K+ conductances in insect photoreceptors highlights their functional flexibility in neural coding.

  16. Li-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety and Tolerance to High-Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

    2013-01-01

    Given that lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted to developing nonflammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of promising electrolytes have been developed incorporating flame-retardant additives, and have been shown to have good performance in a number of systems. However, these electrolyte formulations did not perform well when utilizing carbonaceous anodes with the high-voltage materials. Thus, further development was required to improve the compatibility. A number of Li-ion battery electrolyte formulations containing a flame-retardant additive [i.e., triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] were developed and demonstrated in high-voltage systems. These electrolytes include: (1) formulations that incorporate varying concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (from 5 to 15%), (2) the use of mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent, and (3) the use of LiBOB as an electrolyte additive intended to improve the compatibility with high-voltage systems. Thus, improved safety has been provided without loss of performance in the high-voltage, high-energy system.

  17. New force replica exchange method and protein folding pathways probed by force-clamp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouza, Maksim; Hu, Chin-Kun; Li, Mai Suan

    2008-01-28

    We have developed a new extended replica exchange method to study thermodynamics of a system in the presence of external force. Our idea is based on the exchange between different force replicas to accelerate the equilibrium process. This new approach was applied to obtain the force-temperature phase diagram and other thermodynamical quantities of the three-domain ubiquitin. Using the C(alpha)-Go model and the Langevin dynamics, we have shown that the refolding pathways of single ubiquitin depend on which terminus is fixed. If the N end is fixed then the folding pathways are different compared to the case when both termini are free, but fixing the C terminal does not change them. Surprisingly, we have found that the anchoring terminal does not affect the pathways of individual secondary structures of three-domain ubiquitin, indicating the important role of the multidomain construction. Therefore, force-clamp experiments, in which one end of a protein is kept fixed, can probe the refolding pathways of a single free-end ubiquitin if one uses either the polyubiquitin or a single domain with the C terminus anchored. However, it is shown that anchoring one end does not affect refolding pathways of the titin domain I27, and the force-clamp spectroscopy is always capable to predict folding sequencing of this protein. We have obtained the reasonable estimate for unfolding barrier of ubiquitin, using the microscopic theory for the dependence of unfolding time on the external force. The linkage between residue Lys48 and the C terminal of ubiquitin is found to have the dramatic effect on the location of the transition state along the end-to-end distance reaction coordinate, but the multidomain construction leaves the transition state almost unchanged. We have found that the maximum force in the force-extension profile from constant velocity force pulling simulations depends on temperature nonlinearly. However, for some narrow temperature interval this dependence becomes

  18. Dynamic response of a clamped/free hollow circular cylinder under travelling torsional impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Impact-induced vibrations in the casing of a gas centriguge due to a sudden failure of the spinning rotor (crash) can cause structural disintegrity of the casing. In order to study the influence of the rotor failure bahaviour and the impact load histories on the dynamic response of the casing, a simple crash model is proposed in this paper to analyse the transient torsional response due to tangential components of the impact loads. The casing is modeled as a linear-elastic hollow circular cylinder, clamped at the lower end and free at the upper end. The rotor is thought to breakup in identical sections in a sequence determined by its fracture behaviour. Each section is assumed to cause an axi-symmetric load distribution at the inner surface of the casing. Therefore the problem is essentially reduced to the analysis of a clamped/free cylinder under travelling torsional impact loads. The problem is solved by representing the impact loads as local pulses acting over the length of the sections. A perturbation method is used to show that the general two-dimensional theory of axi-symmetric torsional wave propagation in circular cylinders, for the problem under consideration, may be approximated by the elementary one-dimensional theory. Solutions are obtained according to the usual modal expansion approach. Measurements of transient torsional responses are shown to be in good agreement with the calculated responses by choosing a suitable shape of the pulses. The effects of travelling velocity and pulse shape are investigated. Finally the transfer of kinetic energy in the rotor to vibrational energy of torsion in the casing is studied. (orig.)

  19. Evaluating LMA and CLAMP: Using information criteria to choose a model for estimating elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I.; Green, W.; Zaitchik, B.; Brandon, M.; Hickey, L.

    2005-12-01

    The morphology of leaves and composition of the flora respond strongly to the moisture and temperature of their environment. Elevation and latitude correlate, at first order, to these atmospheric parameters. An obvious modern example of this relationship between leaf morphology and environment is the tree line, where boreal forests give way to artic (high latitude) or alpine (high elevation) tundra. Several quantitative methods, all of which rely on uniformitarianism, have been developed to estimate paleoelevation using fossil leaf morphology. These include 1) the univariate leaf-margin analysis (LMA), which estimates mean annual temperature (MAT) by the positive linear correlation between MAT and P, the proportion of entire or smooth to non-entire or toothed margined woody dicot angiosperm leaves within a flora and 2) the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) which uses Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to estimate MAT, moist enthalpy, and other atmospheric parameters using 31 explanatory leaf characters from woody dicot angiosperms. Given a difference in leaf-estimated MAT or moist enthalpy between contemporaneous, synlatitudinal fossil floras-one at sea-level, the other at an unknown paleoelevation-paleoelevation may be estimated. These methods have been widely applied to orogenic settings and concentrate particularly in the Western US. We introduce the use of information criteria to compare different models for estimating elevation and show how the additional complexity of the CLAMP analytical methodology does not necessarily improve on the elevation estimates produced by simpler regression models. In addition, we discuss the signal-to-noise ratio in the data, give confidence intervals for detecting elevations, and address the problem of spatial autocorrelation and irregular sampling in the data.

  20. Automatic tracking of cells for video microscopy in patch clamp experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Helton M; Munguba, Hermany; Cruz, Rossana M S; Guerreiro, Ana M G; Leao, Richardson N

    2014-06-20

    Visualisation of neurons labeled with fluorescent proteins or compounds generally require exposure to intense light for a relatively long period of time, often leading to bleaching of the fluorescent probe and photodamage of the tissue. Here we created a technique to drastically shorten light exposure and improve the targeting of fluorescent labeled cells that is specially useful for patch-clamp recordings. We applied image tracking and mask overlay to reduce the time of fluorescence exposure and minimise mistakes when identifying neurons. Neurons are first identified according to visual criteria (e.g. fluorescence protein expression, shape, viability etc.) and a transmission microscopy image Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) or Dodt contrast containing the cell used as a reference for the tracking algorithm. A fluorescence image can also be acquired later to be used as a mask (that can be overlaid on the target during live transmission video). As patch-clamp experiments require translating the microscope stage, we used pattern matching to track reference neurons in order to move the fluorescence mask to match the new position of the objective in relation to the sample. For the image processing we used the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) library, including the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) for tracking cells. The dataset of images (n = 720) was analyzed under normal conditions of acquisition and with influence of noise (defocusing and brightness). We validated the method in dissociated neuronal cultures and fresh brain slices expressing Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (eYFP) or Tandem Dimer Tomato (tdTomato) proteins, which considerably decreased the exposure to fluorescence excitation, thereby minimising photodamage. We also show that the neuron tracking can be used in differential interference contrast or Dodt contrast microscopy. The techniques of digital image processing used in this work are an important addition to the set of microscopy